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Sample records for high co2 treatment

  1. High energy pulse CO2 laser treatment clinical observation on 12 cases of tuberous sclerosis%高能脉冲CO2激光治疗结节性硬化症12例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玲; 周同葵; 赵莉娜; 孟琪

    2014-01-01

    Objective:to explore the high-energy pulse CO2 laser to treat the clinical curative effect of tuberous sclerosis. Methods:12 cases of patients with high-energy pulse CO2 laser treatments. Results:12 patients of 8 cases cured,2 cases were markedly effective,effective in 2 cases,0 no effect,the total effective rate was 100%. No adverse reaction. Conclusion:high-energy pulse CO2 laser treatment of tuberous sclerosis reliable curative effect,less complications.%目的:探讨高能脉冲CO2激光治疗结节性硬化症的临床疗效。方法对12例患者采用高能脉冲CO2激光分次治疗。结果:12例患者中痊愈8例,显效2例,有效2例,无效0例,总有效率100%。无不良反应。结论:高能脉冲CO2激光治疗结节性硬化症疗效可靠,并发症少。

  2. Effects of high CO2 treatment on green-ripening and peel senescence in banana and plantain fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Mu-bo; TANG Lu-ping; ZHANG Xue-lian; BAI Mei; PANG Xue-qun; ZHANG Zhao-qi

    2015-01-01

    Banana fruit (Musa, AAA group, cv. Brazil) peel fails to ful y degreen but the pulp ripens normal y at temperatures above 24°C. This abnormal ripening, known as green-ripening, does not occur in plantains (Musa, ABB group, cv. Dajiao). Based on the fact that un-completely yel owing was also observed for bananas in poorly ventilated atmospheres, in the present study, the effect of high CO2 with regular O2 (21%) on banana ripening was investigated along with that on plantains at 20°C. The results showed that high CO2 conferred different effects on the color changing of bananas and plantains. After 6 d ripening in 20%CO2, plantains ful y yel owed, while bananas retained high chlorophyl content and stayed green. In contrast to the differentiated color changing patterns, the patterns of the softening, starch degradation and soluble sugar accumulation in the pulp of 20%CO2 treated bananas and plantains displayed similarly as the patterns in the fruits ripening in regular air, indicating that the pulp ripening was not inhibited by 20%CO2, and the abnormal ripening of bananas in 20%CO2 can be considered as green ripening. Similar expression levels of chlorophyl degradation related genes, SGR, NYC and PaO, were detected in the peel of the control and treated fruits, indicating that the repressed degreening in 20%CO2 treated bananas was not due to the down-regulation of the chlorophyl degradation related genes. Compared to the effect on plantains, 20%CO2 WUHDWmHQW GHOD\\HG WKH GHFOLQH LQ WKH FKORURSK\\O ÀRUHVFHQFH Fv/Fm) values and in the mRNA levels of a gene coding smal subunit of Rubisco (SSU), and postponed the disruption of the ultrastructure of chloroplast in the peel tissue of bananas, indicating that the senescence of the green cel s in the exocarp layer was delayed by 20%CO2, to more extent in bananas than in plantains. High CO2 reduced the ethylene production and the expression of the related biosynthesis gene, ACS, but elevated the respiration rates in both

  3. Compact, High Accuracy CO2 Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovative Research Phase II proposal seeks to develop a low cost, robust, highly precise and accurate CO2 monitoring system. This system will...

  4. Compact, High Accuracy CO2 Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a low cost, robust, highly precise and accurate CO2 monitoring system. This system will...

  5. CO2压缩机高压缸振值高原因分析及处理%Analysis and treatment of CO2 compressor high pressure cylinder vibration value high

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮亿蛟; 李辉; 粟升

    2014-01-01

    The paper briefly describes high pressure cylinder appears problem of high vibration value in production process of Tarim large chemical fertilizer urea plant of CO2 compressor K101. It also analyses these problems, after taking measures to overhaul, solved problem of high vibration value of high pressure cylinder, which could provide reference to operation and problem handling of similar equipment.%简述了塔里木大化肥尿素装置CO2压缩机K101在生产过程中出现的高压缸振值高问题,针对问题进行了分析,经采取措施检修后解决了高压缸振值高的问题,可为同类设备的生产运行、问题的处理提供参考。

  6. Clinical Evaluation of High and Low-Level Laser Treatment (CO2vsInGaAlP Diode Laser) for Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeini Jahromi, Nasim; Ghapanchi, Janan; Pourshahidi, Sara; Zahed, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Hooman

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common lesions in the oral cavity. Due to its multifactorial nature, there is no definitive treatment for RAS. Laser therapy is one of the suggested treatments to reduce patient’s discomfort. Purpose: The purpose of the present clinical trial is to assess the effect of low and high level laser therapy on pain control and wound healing of RAS. Materials and Method: Thirty six patients with minor RAS were divided into three groups. Group 1 (n=14) received CO2 laser, group 2 (n=12) were treated with InGaAlP Diode laser and group 3 (n=10) received sham laser as placebo. All patients were evaluated daily up to 15 days after receiving one session of laser therapy. Pain severity before and after treatment, wound healing, patient’s satisfaction, and functional disturbance before and after treatment were recorded for each patient. Results: According to statistical analysis, pain reduction after treatment in group 1 was 7.00±2.41, in group 2 was 2.08±2.31, and in group 3 was 1.40±1.77. In addition, a significant difference was observed in the reduction of functional complications in CO2 laser treated patients compared to the other two groups. Conclusion: High-level laser treatment showed analgesic effects on RAS, but no healing was observed. Low-level laser therapy demonstrated no positive effect on recurrent aphthous ulcers.

  7. Evaluation of High Rate Algae Ponds for treatment of anaerobically digested wastewater: Effect of CO2 addition and modification of dilution rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godos, I; Arbib, Z; Lara, E; Rogalla, F

    2016-11-01

    High Rate Algae Ponds (HRAP) are the simplest way to grow microalgae biomass and an interesting alternative for wastewater treatment. In this work the performance of these systems was evaluated using anaerobically digested wastewater as culture medium. Two variables were studied in long-term mode: the carbon dioxide supply and the modification of the dilution rates. The results showed that CO2 supply increases the productivity but less than expected considering the potential biomass generation calculated based on the ratios of carbon to nitrogen of microalgae and wastewater. The assimilation into biomass only accounted for 57% of the inlet nitrogen under the best conditions because nitrification and volatilization reduced the availability of this element. The operation under short hydraulic retention times presented a more interesting performance with higher biomass productivities. The biomass produced was efficiently harvested with in a Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) unit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. CO2-helium and CO2-neon mixtures at high pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, B; Ninet, S; Le Marchand, G; Munsch, P; Datchi, F

    2013-01-28

    The properties of mixtures of carbon dioxide with helium or neon have been investigated as a function of CO(2) concentration and pressure up to 30 GPa at room temperature. The binary phase diagrams of these mixtures are determined over the full range of CO(2) concentrations using visual observations and Raman scattering measurements. Both diagrams are of eutectic type, with a fluid-fluid miscibility gap for CO(2) concentrations in the range [5, 75] mol. % for He and [8, 55] mol. % for Ne, and a complete separation between the two components in the solid phase. The absence of alloys or stoichiometric compounds for these two binary systems is consistent with the Hume-Rothery rules of hard sphere mixtures. The Raman spectra and x-ray diffraction patterns of solid CO(2) embedded in He or Ne for various initial concentrations have been measured up to 30 GPa and 12 GPa, respectively. The frequencies of the Raman modes and the volume of solid phase I are identical, within error bars, to those reported for 100% CO(2) samples, thus confirming the total immiscibility of CO(2) with He and Ne in the solid phase. These results demonstrate the possibility to perform high-pressure experiments on solid CO(2) under (quasi-)hydrostatic conditions using He or Ne as pressure transmitting medium.

  9. CO2 reduction using adsorption followed by nonthermal plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuya; Tanaka, Masanari; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Okubo, Masaaki

    2015-10-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the main substances linked to global warming, and its emission should be reduced. In this study, a CO2 reduction treatment using an adsorbent and a nonthermal plasma flow is investigated. This treatment comprises a physical adsorption process and nitrogen (N2) plasma reduction process. In the physical adsorption process, CO2 is adsorbed by the adsorbent. In the N2 plasma reduction process, the adsorbed CO2 is reduced to CO by a nonthermal plasma flow that is generated by a plasma reactor with a circulating N2 plasma flow. The generated CO can be reused as a fuel. We estimate this experimental results by calculating conversion efficiency of CO2 to CO. In the N2 plasma reduction process, the CO concentration reaches approximately 1%, regardless of the number of experiments, and conversion efficiency reaches at most 5.3%.

  10. Investigational study of the CO2 balance in high temperature CO2 separation technology; Nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted to clarify the adaptable environment and effectivity of technologies of high temperature separation/recovery/reutilization of CO2. In the study, data collection, arrangement and comparison were made of various separation technologies such as the membrane method, absorption method, adsorption method, and cryogenic separation method. With the LNG-fired power generation as an example, the adaptable environment and effectivity were made clear by making models by a process simulator, ASPEN PLUS. Moreover, using this simulator, effects of replacing the conventional steam reforming of hydrocarbon with the CO2 reforming were made clear with the methanol synthesis as an example. As to the rock fixation treatment of high temperature CO2, collection/arrangement were made of the data on the fixation treatment of the CO2 separated at high temperature into basic rocks such as peridotite and serpentinite in order to clarify the adaptable environment and effectivity of the treatment. Besides, a potentiality of the fixation to concrete waste was made clear. 57 refs., 57 figs., 93 tabs.

  11. Different CO2 absorbents-modified SBA-15 sorbent for highly selective CO2 capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuwu; Zhai, Xinru; Liu, Dongyang; Sun, Yan

    2017-05-01

    Different CO2 absorbents-modified SBA-15 materials are used as CO2 sorbent to improve the selectivity of CH4/CO2 separation. The SBA-15 sorbents modified by physical CO2 absorbents are very limited to increasing CO2 adsorption and present poor selectivity. However, the SBA-15 sorbents modified by chemical CO2 absorbents increase CO2 adsorption capacity obviously. The separation coefficients of CO2/CH4 increase in this case. The adsorption and regeneration properties of the SBA-15 sorbents modified by TEA, MDEA and DIPA have been compared. The SBA-15 modified by triethanolamine (TEA) presents better CO2/CH4 separation performance than the materials modified by other CO2 absorbents.

  12. CO2-Philic polymer membrane with extremely high separation performance

    KAUST Repository

    Yave, Wilfredo

    2010-01-12

    Polymeric membranes are attractive for CO2 separation and concentration from different gas streams because of their versatility and energy efficiency; they can compete with, and they may even replace, traditional absorption processes. Here we describe a simple and powerful method for developing nanostructured and CO2-philic polymer membranes for CO2 separation. A poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene terephthalate) multiblock copolymer is used as membrane material. Smart additives such as polyethylene glycol dibutyl ether are incorporated as spacers or fillers for producing nanostructured materials. The addition of these specific additives produces CO2-philic membranes and increases the CO2 permeability (750 barrer) up to five-fold without the loss of selectivity. The membranes present outstanding performance for CO2 separation, and the measured CO2 flux is extremely high ( > 2 m3 m -2 h-1 bar-1) with selectivity over H2 and N2 of 10 and 40, respectively, making them attractive for CO 2 capture. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  13. Unconventional, highly selective CO2 adsorption in zeolite SSZ-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Matthew R; Queen, Wendy L; Mason, Jarad A; Fickel, Dustin W; Lobo, Raul F; Brown, Craig M

    2012-02-01

    Low-pressure adsorption of carbon dioxide and nitrogen was studied in both acidic and copper-exchanged forms of SSZ-13, a zeolite containing an 8-ring window. Under ideal conditions for industrial separations of CO(2) from N(2), the ideal adsorbed solution theory selectivity is >70 in each compound. For low gas coverage, the isosteric heat of adsorption for CO(2) was found to be 33.1 and 34.0 kJ/mol for Cu- and H-SSZ-13, respectively. From in situ neutron powder diffraction measurements, we ascribe the CO(2) over N(2) selectivity to differences in binding sites for the two gases, where the primary CO(2) binding site is located in the center of the 8-membered-ring pore window. This CO(2) binding mode, which has important implications for use of zeolites in separations, has not been observed before and is rationalized and discussed relative to the high selectivity for CO(2) over N(2) in SSZ-13 and other zeolites containing 8-ring windows.

  14. Sorbents for CO2 capture from high carbon fly ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes; Lu, Zhe; Zhang, Yinzhi; Tang, Zhong

    2008-11-01

    Fly ashes with high-unburned-carbon content, referred to as fly ash carbons, are an increasing problem for the utility industry, since they cannot be marketed as a cement extender and, therefore, have to be disposed. Previous work has explored the potential development of amine-enriched fly ash carbons for CO2 capture. However, their performance was lower than that of commercially available sorbents, probably because the samples investigated were not activated prior to impregnation and, therefore, had a very low surface area. Accordingly, the work described here focuses on the development of activated fly ash derived sorbents for CO2 capture. The samples were steam activated at 850 degrees C, resulting in a significant increase of the surface area (1075 m2/g). The activated samples were impregnated with different amine compounds, and the resultant samples were tested for CO2 capture at different temperatures. The CO2 adsorption of the parent and activated samples is typical of a physical adsorption process. The impregnation process results in a decrease of the surface areas, indicating a blocking of the porosity. The highest adsorption capacity at 30 and 70 degrees C for the amine impregnated activated carbons was probably due to a combination of physical adsorption inherent from the parent sample and chemical adsorption of the loaded amine groups. The CO2 adsorption capacities for the activated amine impregnated samples are higher than those previously published for fly ash carbons without activation (68.6 vs. 45 mg CO2/g sorbent).

  15. Enhanced biological carbon consumption in a high CO2 ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebesell, U; Schulz, K G; Bellerby, R G J; Botros, M; Fritsche, P; Meyerhöfer, M; Neill, C; Nondal, G; Oschlies, A; Wohlers, J; Zöllner, E

    2007-11-22

    The oceans have absorbed nearly half of the fossil-fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted into the atmosphere since pre-industrial times, causing a measurable reduction in seawater pH and carbonate saturation. If CO2 emissions continue to rise at current rates, upper-ocean pH will decrease to levels lower than have existed for tens of millions of years and, critically, at a rate of change 100 times greater than at any time over this period. Recent studies have shown effects of ocean acidification on a variety of marine life forms, in particular calcifying organisms. Consequences at the community to ecosystem level, in contrast, are largely unknown. Here we show that dissolved inorganic carbon consumption of a natural plankton community maintained in mesocosm enclosures at initial CO2 partial pressures of 350, 700 and 1,050 microatm increases with rising CO2. The community consumed up to 39% more dissolved inorganic carbon at increased CO2 partial pressures compared to present levels, whereas nutrient uptake remained the same. The stoichiometry of carbon to nitrogen drawdown increased from 6.0 at low CO2 to 8.0 at high CO2, thus exceeding the Redfield carbon:nitrogen ratio of 6.6 in today's ocean. This excess carbon consumption was associated with higher loss of organic carbon from the upper layer of the stratified mesocosms. If applicable to the natural environment, the observed responses have implications for a variety of marine biological and biogeochemical processes, and underscore the importance of biologically driven feedbacks in the ocean to global change.

  16. CO2 as an Oxidant for High Temperature Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibudjing eKawi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review on the developments in catalyst technology for the reactions utilizing CO2 for high temperature applications. These include dehydrogenation of alkanes to olefins, the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene and finally CO2 reforming of hydrocarbon feedstock (i.e. methane and alcohols. Aspects on the various reaction pathways are also highlighted. The literature on the role of promoters and catalyst development is critically evaluated. Most of the reactions discussed in this review are exploited in industries and related to on-going processes, thus providing extensive data from literature. However some reactions, such as CO2 reforming of ethanol and glycerol which have not reached industrial scale are also reviewed owing to their great potential in terms of sustainability which are essential as energy for the future. This review further illustrates the building-up of knowledge which shows the role of support and catalysts for each reaction and the underlying linkage between certain catalysts which can be adapted for the multiple CO2-related reactions.

  17. High efficiency of CO2-activated graphite felt as electrode for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Chung; Chen, Jian-Yu; Kabtamu, Daniel Manaye; Lin, Guan-Yi; Hsu, Ning-Yih; Chou, Yi-Sin; Wei, Hwa-Jou; Wang, Chen-Hao

    2017-10-01

    A simple method for preparing CO2-activated graphite felt as an electrode in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) was employed by the direct treatment in a CO2 atmosphere at a high temperature for a short period. The CO2-activated graphite felt demonstrates excellent electrochemical activity and reversibility. The VRFB using the CO2-activated graphite felts in the electrodes has coulombic, voltage, and energy efficiencies of 94.52%, 88.97%, and 84.15%, respectively, which is much higher than VRFBs using the electrodes of untreated graphite felt and N2-activated graphite felt. The efficiency enhancement was attributed to the higher number of oxygen-containing functional groups on the graphite felt that are formed during the CO2-activation, leading to improving the electrochemical behaviour of the resultant VRFB.

  18. Maintenance of CO2 level in a BLSS by controlling solid waste treatment unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yingying; Li, Leyuan; Liu, Hong; Fu, Yuming; Xie, Beizhen; Hu, Dawei; Liu, Dianlei; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    A bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) is an artificial closed ecosystem for providing basic human life support for long-duration, far-distance space explorations such as lunar bases. In such a system, the circulation of gases is one of the main factor for realizing a higher closure degree. O2 produced by higher plants goes to humans, as well as microorganisms for the treatment of inedible plant biomass and human wastes; CO2 produced by the crew and microorganisms is provided for plant growth. During this process, an excessively high CO2 level will depress plant growth and may be harmful to human health; and if the CO2 level is too low, plant growth will also be affected. Thus, keeping the balance between CO2 and O2 levels is a crucial problem. In this study, a high-efficiency, controllable solid waste treatment unit is constructed, which adopts microbial fermentation of the mixture of inedible biomass and human wastes. CO2 production during the fermentation process is controlled by adjusting fermentation temperature, aeration rate, moisture, etc., so as to meet the CO2 requirement of plants

  19. Embedding NiCo2O4 nanoparticles into a 3DHPC assisted by CO2-expanded ethanol: a potential lithium-ion battery anode with high performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingyan; Zhuo, Linhai; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Fengyu

    2014-07-09

    A high-performance anode material, NiCo2O4/3DHPC composite, for lithium-ion batteries was developed through direct nanoparticles nucleation on a three-dimensional hierarchical porous carbon (3DHPC) matrix and cation substitution of spinel Co3O4 nanoparticles. It was synthesized via a supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) expanded ethanol solution-assisted deposition method combined with a subsequent heat-treatment process. The NiCo2O4 nanoparticles were uniformly embedded into the porous carbon matrix and efficiently avoided free-growth in solution or aggregation in the pores even at a high content of 55.0 wt %. In particular, the 3DHPC was directly used without pretreatment or surfactant assistance. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the NiCo2O4/3DHPC composite showed high reversible capacity and improved rate capability that outperformed those composites formed with single metal oxides (NiO/3DHPC, Co3O4/3DHPC), their physical mixture, and the composite prepared in pure ethanol (NiCo2O4/3DHPC-E). The superior performance is mainly contributed to the unique advantages of the scCO2-expanded ethanol medium, and the combination of high utilization efficiency and improved electrical conductivity of NiCo2O4 as well as the electronic and ionic transport advantages of 3DHPC.

  20. Highly flexible NiCo2O4/CNTs doped carbon nanofibers for CO2 adsorption and supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Nousheen; Wang, Xianfeng; Ahmed Babar, Aijaz; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2016-08-15

    Controllable synthesis of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with hierarchical porosity and high flexibility are extremely desirable for CO2 adsorption and energy storage applications. Herein, we report a nickel cobaltite/carbon nanotubes doped CNFs (NiCo2O4/CNTs CNFs) mesoporous membrane that shows well-developed flexibility, tailored pore structure, hydrophobic character, and high stability. Ascribed to these unique features, NiCo2O4/CNTs CNFs membrane shows high CO2 capture of 1.54mmol/g at 25°C and 1.0bar, and electrochemical measurements for supercapacitors exhibit good performance with specific capacitances of 220F/g (in 1M KOH) at a current density of 1A/g. The successful synthesis of such hybrid membrane provides new insight into development of various multifunctional applications.

  1. Highly stable CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 selectivity in hyper-cross-linked heterocyclic porous polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Muhammad; Lee, Han Myoung; Kemp, K Christian; Kim, Kwang S

    2014-05-28

    The largest obstacles for landfill/flue gas separation using microporous materials are small adsorption values and low selectivity ratios. This study demonstrates that these adsorption and selectivity challenges can be overcome by utilizing a series of hyper-cross-linked heterocyclic polymer networks. These microporous organic polymers (MOPs) were synthesized in a single step by inexpensive Friedel-Crafts-catalyzed reactions using dimethoxymethane as an external linker. The amorphous networks show moderate Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas up to 1022 m(2) g(-1), a narrow pore size distribution in the range from 6 to 8 Å, and high physicochemical stability. Owing to the presence of the heteroatomic pore surfaces in the networks, they exhibit maximum storage capacities for CO2 of 11.4 wt % at 273 K and 1 atm. Additionally, remarkable selectivity ratios for CO2 adsorption over N2 (100) and CH4 (15) at 273 K were obtained. More importantly, as compared with any other porous materials, much higher selectivity for CO2/N2 (80) and CO2/CH4 (15) was observed at 298 K, showing that these selectivity ratios remain high at elevated temperature. The very high CO2/N2 selectivity values are ascribed to the binding affinity of abundantly available electron-rich basic heteroatoms, high CO2 isoteric heats of adsorption (49-38 kJ mol(-1)), and the predominantly microporous nature of the MOPs. Binding energies calculated using the high level of ab initio theory showed that the selectivity is indeed attributed to the heteroatom-CO2 interactions. By employing an easy and economical synthesis procedure these MOPs with high thermochemical stability are believed to be a promising candidate for selective CO2 capture.

  2. Sustainable treatment of different high-strength cheese whey wastewaters: an innovative approach for atmospheric CO2 mitigation and fertilizer production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Ana R; Rivas, Javier; Paulo, Úrsula; Ruas, Filipa; Carvalho, Fátima

    2016-07-01

    Raw cheese whey wastewater (CWW) has been treated by means of FeCl3 coagulation-flocculation, NaOH precipitation, and Ca(OH)2 precipitation. Three different types of CWW were considered: without cheese whey recovery (CWW0), 60 % cheese whey recovery (CWW60), and 80 % cheese whey recovery (CWW80). Cheese whey recovery significantly influenced the characteristics of the wastewater to be treated: organic matter, solids, turbidity, conductivity, sodium, chloride, calcium, nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus. Initial organic load was reduced to values in the interval of 60-70 %. Application of FeCl3, NaOH, or Ca(OH)2 involved additional chemical oxygen demand (COD) depletions regardless of the CWW used. Under optimum conditions, the combination of 80 % cheese whey recovery and lime application led to 90 % reduction in COD. Turbidity (99.8%), total suspended solids (TSS) (98-99 %), oils and fats (82-96 %), phosphorus (98-99 %), potassium (96-97 %), and total coliforms (100 %) were also reduced. Sludge generated in the latter process showed excellent settling properties. This solid after filtration and natural evaporation can be used as fertilizer with limitations due to its saline nature. In an innovative, low-cost, and environmentally friendly technology, supernatant coming from the Ca(OH)2 addition was naturally neutralized in 4-6 days by atmospheric CO2 absorption without reagent addition. Consequently, a final aerobic biodegradation step can be applied for effluent polishing. This technology also allows for some atmospheric CO2 mitigation. Time requirement for the natural carbonation depends on the effluent characteristics. A precipitate rich in organic matter and nutrients and depletions of solids, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, Kjeldahl, and ammoniacal nitrogen were also achieved during the natural carbonation.

  3. Fractional CO2 lasers contribute to the treatment of stable non-segmental vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinping; Chen, Hongqiang; Yan, Ru; Cui, Shaoshan; Li, Yuan-Hong; Wu, Yan; Gao, Xing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Duo

    2016-12-01

    Stable non-segmental vitiligo is often resistant to conventional therapies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of three types of fractional lasers in the treatment of stable non-segmental vitiligo. Twenty patients were enrolled in the study. The vitiligo lesions of each patient were divided into four treatment parts, and all parts were treated with narrowband ultraviolet-B (NB-UVB). Three of the four parts were respectively treated with three types of fractional lasers (two ablative 10,600-nm CO2 lasers and one non-ablative 1,565-nm laser), followed by topical betamethasone solution application. The treatment period lasted six months. Efficacy and satisfaction were respectively assessed by dermatologists and patients. The ablative CO2 lasers, in combination with topical betamethasone solution and NB-UVB, achieved marked to excellent improvement on white patches assessed by dermatologists. Patients showed high satisfaction scores for the treatments. The non-ablative 1,565-nm fractional laser did not provide any further benefit in the treatment of vitiligo. No severe adverse events developed for any of the treatments. The treatment protocol with ablative CO2 lasers, in combination with topical betamethasone solution and NB-UVB, was suitable for stable non-segmental vitiligo. For vitiligo, the ablative fractional CO2 laser is more effective than the non-ablative fractional laser.

  4. High indoor CO2 concentrations in an office environment increases the transcutaneous CO2 level and sleepiness during cognitive work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehviläinen, Tommi; Lindholm, Harri; Rintamäki, Hannu; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Hirvonen, Ari; Niemi, Olli; Vinha, Juha

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform a multiparametric analysis on the environmental factors, the physiological stress reactions in the body, the measured alertness, and the subjective symptoms during simulated office work. Volunteer male subjects were monitored during three 4-hr work meetings in an office room, both in a ventilated and a non-ventilated environment. The environmental parameters measured included CO(2), temperature, and relative humidity. The physiological test battery consisted of measuring autonomic nervous system functions, salivary stress hormones, blood's CO(2)- content and oxygen saturation, skin temperatures, thermal sensations, vigilance, and sleepiness. The study shows that we can see physiological changes caused by high CO(2) concentration. The findings support the view that low or moderate level increases in concentration of CO(2) in indoor air might cause elevation in the blood's transcutaneously assessed CO(2). The observed findings are higher CO(2) concentrations in tissues, changes in heart rate variation, and an increase of peripheral blood circulation during exposure to elevated CO(2) concentration. The subjective parameters and symptoms support the physiological findings. This study shows that a high concentration of CO(2) in indoor air seem to be one parameter causing physiological effects, which can decrease the facility user's functional ability. The correct amount of ventilation with relation to the number of people using the facility, functional air distribution, and regular breaks can counteract the decrease in functional ability. The findings of the study suggest that merely increasing ventilation is not necessarily a rational solution from a technical-economical viewpoint. Instead or in addition, more comprehensive, anthropocentric planning of space is needed as well as instructions and new kinds of reference values for the design and realization of office environments.

  5. Microwave-assisted nitric acid treatment of sepiolite and functionalization with polyethylenimine applied to CO2 capture and CO2/N2 separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarrasa-García, E.; Cecilia, J. A.; Bastos-Neto, M.; Cavalcante, C. L.; Azevedo, D. C. S.; Rodríguez-Castellón, E.

    2017-07-01

    Sepiolite was treated in HNO3 solutions with the assistance of microwave radiation. This treatment caused the progressive depletion of Mg2+, the gradual degradation of the sepiolite structure and the formation of an amorphous silica phase, which contributes to a noticeable increase of the surface area. The use of microwaves during acid treatment, after few minutes, led to materials with similar SBET to those obtained after 48 h with conventional heating methods. The influence of mineralogical impurities, crystallinity and chemical composition in the reactivity of sepiolite to this treatment was also studied. The obtained materials were impregnated with polyethylenimine and assessed for CO2 capture and CO2/N2 selectivity at different temperatures. Experimental equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir and Sips models. The adsorption data revealed that sepiolite can be an interesting adsorbent for CO2 capture, achieving a capacity of 1.70 mmol g-1 at 338 K and 1 bar, providing a high CO2/N2 selectivity (440 mol CO2/mol N2).

  6. TREATMENT OF NATURAL GAS BY ADSORPTION OF CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Hádková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apart from burning, one of the possible uses of natural gas is as a fuel for motor vehicles. There are two types of fuel from natural gas — CNG (Compressed Natural Gas or LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas. Liquefaction of natural gas is carried out for transport by tankers, which are an alternative to long-distance gas pipelines, as well as for transport over short distance, using LNG as a fuel for motor vehicles. A gas adjustment is necessary to get LNG. As an important part of the necessary adjustment of natural gas to get LNG, a reduction of CO2 is needed. There is a danger of the carbon dioxide freezing during the gas cooling. This work deals with the testing of adsorption removal of CO2 from natural gas. The aim of these measurements was to find a suitable adsorbent for CO2 removal from natural gas. Two different types of adsorbents were tested: activated carbon and molecular sieve. The adsorption properties of the selected adsorbents were tested and compared. The breakthrough curves for CO2 for both adsorbents were measured. The conditions of the testing were estimated according to conditions at a gas regulation station — 4.0MPa pressure and 8 °C temperature. Natural gas was simulated by model gas mixture during the tests. The breakthrough volume was set as the gas volume passing through the adsorber up to the CO2 concentration of 300 ml/m3 in the exhaust gas. The thermal and pressure desorption of CO2 from saturated adsorbents were also tested after the adsorption.

  7. High CO2-capture ability of a porous organic polymer bifunctionalized with carboxy and triazole groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lin-Hua; Suh, Myunghyun Paik

    2013-08-26

    A new porous organic polymer, SNU-C1, incorporating two different CO2 -attracting groups, namely, carboxy and triazole groups, has been synthesized. By activating SNU-C1 with two different methods, vacuum drying and supercritical-CO2 treatment, the guest-free phases, SNU-C1-va and SNU-C1-sca, respectively, were obtained. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas of SNU-C1-va and SNU-C1-sca are 595 and 830 m(2) g(-1), respectively, as estimated by the N2-adsorption isotherms at 77 K. At 298 K and 1 atm, SNU-C1-va and SNU-C1-sca show high CO2 uptakes, 2.31 mmol  g(-1) and 3.14 mmol  g(-1), respectively, the high level being due to the presence of abundant polar groups (carboxy and triazole) exposed on the pore surfaces. Five separation parameters for flue gas and landfill gas in vacuum-swing adsorption were calculated from single-component gas-sorption isotherms by using the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST). The data reveal excellent CO2-separation abilities of SNU-C1-va and SNU-C1-sca, namely high CO2-uptake capacity, high selectivity, and high regenerability. The gas-cycling experiments for the materials and the water-treated samples, experiments that involved treating the samples with a CO2-N2 gas mixture (15:85, v/v) followed by a pure N2 purge, further verified the high regenerability and water stability. The results suggest that these materials have great potential applications in CO2 separation.

  8. High-Temperature CO2 Sorption on Hydrotalcite Having a High Mg/Al Molar Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suji; Jeon, Sang Goo; Lee, Ki Bong

    2016-03-09

    Hydrotalcites having a Mg/Al molar ratio between 3 and 30 have been synthesized as promising high-temperature CO2 sorbents. The existence of NaNO3 in the hydrotalcite structure, which originates from excess magnesium nitrate in the precursor, markedly increases CO2 sorption uptake by hydrotalcite up to the record high value of 9.27 mol kg(-1) at 240 °C and 1 atm CO2.

  9. CO2 Rebinding by Oil Shale CFBC Ashes: Effect of Pre-Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trikkel, Andres; Keelmann, Merli; Aranson, Aljona; Kuusik, Rein

    Power production in Estonia is predominantly based on combustion of a local low-grade fossil fuel Estonian oil shale. Due to the high content of carbonaceous mineral matter in oil shale, its combustion is related to formation of lime-containing ashes (content of free CaO 10-30%) which could be utilized as sorbents for CO2. In the present research CO2 uptake by circulating fluidized bed and pulverized firing ashes from different technological devices (furnace, cyclones etc) of an operating power plant was studied and the effect of pre-treatment (grinding, calcination at different temperatures) of these ashes on their capture capacity was estimated using thermogravimetric, SEM, X-Ray and EDX analysis methods. It was found that capture capacities were determined mainly by free CaO content in the ashes, thereby, fluidized bed ashes showed higher CaO conversion levels (19.2-74.2%) as compared to pulverized firing ones (8.7-51.8%). Pre-treatment conditions influenced noticeably CO2 uptake. Grinding decreased CO2 capture capacity of fluidized bed ashes, calcination at higher temperatures decreased capture capacity of both types of ashes. Clarification of this phenomenon was given. Kinetic analysis of the process has been carried out, mechanism of the reactions and respective kinetic constants have been estimated.

  10. Phenotypic plasticity of coralline algae in a High CO2 world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzola, Federica; Foster, Laura C; Form, Armin U; Büscher, Janina; Hansteen, Thor H; Fietzke, Jan

    2013-09-01

    It is important to understand how marine calcifying organisms may acclimatize to ocean acidification to assess their survival over the coming century. We cultured the cold water coralline algae, Lithothamnion glaciale, under elevated pCO2 (408, 566, 770, and 1024 μatm) for 10 months. The results show that the cell (inter and intra) wall thickness is maintained, but there is a reduction in growth rate (linear extension) at all elevated pCO2. Furthermore a decrease in Mg content at the two highest CO2 treatments was observed. Comparison between our data and that at 3 months from the same long-term experiment shows that the acclimation differs over time since at 3 months, the samples cultured under high pCO2 showed a reduction in the cell (inter and intra) wall thickness but a maintained growth rate. This suggests a reallocation of the energy budget between 3 and 10 months and highlights the high degree plasticity that is present. This might provide a selective advantage in future high CO2 world.

  11. A Cationic MOF with High Uptake and Selectivity for CO2 due to Multiple CO2 -Philic Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Hua; Shi, Wen-Juan; Hou, Lei; Li, Gao-Peng; Zhu, Zhonghua; Wang, Yao-Yu

    2015-11-09

    The reaction of N-rich pyrazinyl triazolyl carboxyl ligand 3-(4-carboxylbenzene)-5-(2-pyrazinyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole (H2 cbptz) with MnCl2 afforded 3D cationic metal-organic framework (MOF) [Mn2 (Hcbptz)2 (Cl)(H2 O)]Cl⋅DMF⋅0.5 CH3 CN (1), which has an unusual (3,4)-connected 3,4T1 topology and 1D channels composed of cavities. MOF 1 has a very polar framework that contains exposed metal sites, uncoordinated N atoms, narrow channels, and Cl(-) basic sites, which lead to not only high CO2 uptake, but also remarkably selective adsorption of CO2 over N2 and CH4 at 298-333 K. The multiple CO2 -philic sites were identified by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, 1 shows excellent stability in natural air environment. These advantages make 1 a very promising candidate in post-combustion CO2 capture, natural-gas upgrading, and landfill gas-purification processes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Intertidal oysters reach their physiological limit in a future high-CO2 world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanes, Elliot; Parker, Laura M; O'Connor, Wayne A; Stapp, Laura S; Ross, Pauline M

    2017-03-01

    Sessile marine molluscs living in the intertidal zone experience periods of internal acidosis when exposed to air (emersion) during low tide. Relative to other marine organisms, molluscs have been identified as vulnerable to future ocean acidification; however, paradoxically it has also been shown that molluscs exposed to high CO2 environments are more resilient compared with those molluscs naive to CO2 exposure. Two competing hypotheses were tested using a novel experimental design incorporating tidal simulations to predict the future intertidal limit of oysters in a high-CO2 world; either high-shore oysters will be more tolerant of elevated PCO2 because of their regular acidosis, or elevated PCO2  will cause high-shore oysters to reach their limit. Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata, were collected from the high-intertidal and subtidal areas of the shore and exposed in an orthogonal design to either an intertidal or a subtidal treatment at ambient or elevated PCO2 , and physiological variables were measured. The combined treatment of tidal emersion and elevated PCO2  interacted synergistically to reduce the haemolymph pH (pHe) of oysters, and increase the PCO2  in the haemolymph (Pe,CO2 ) and standard metabolic rate. Oysters in the intertidal treatment also had lower condition and growth. Oysters showed a high degree of plasticity, and little evidence was found that intertidal oysters were more resilient than subtidal oysters. It is concluded that in a high-CO2 world the upper vertical limit of oyster distribution on the shore may be reduced. These results suggest that previous studies on intertidal organisms that lacked tidal simulations may have underestimated the effects of elevated PCO2.

  13. An asymmetric tubular ceramic-carbonate dual phase membrane for high temperature CO2 separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xueliang; Ortiz Landeros, José; Lin, Y S

    2013-10-25

    For the first time, a tubular asymmetric ceramic-carbonate dual phase membrane was prepared by a centrifugal casting technique and used for high temperature CO2 separation. This membrane shows high CO2 permeation flux and permeance.

  14. CO2 laser surface treatment of failed dental implants for re-implantation: an animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasraei, Shahin; Torkzaban, Parviz; Shams, Bahar; Hosseinipanah, Seyed Mohammad; Farhadian, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the success rate of failed implants re-implanted after surface treatment with CO2 laser. Despite the widespread use of dental implants, there are many incidents of failures. It is believed that lasers can be applied to decontaminate the implant surface without damaging the implant. Ten dental implants that had failed for various reasons other than fracture or surface abrasion were subjected to CO2 laser surface treatment and randomly placed in the maxillae of dogs. Three failed implants were also placed as the negative controls after irrigation with saline solution without laser surface treatment. The stability of the implants was evaluated by the use of the Periotest values (PTVs) on the first day after surgery and at 1, 3, and 6 months post-operatively. The mean PTVs of treated implants increased at the first month interval, indicating a decrease in implant stability due to inflammation followed by healing of the tissue. At 3 and 6 months, the mean PTVs decreased compared to the 1-month interval (P implant stability. The mean PTVs increased in the negative control group compared to baseline (P implants were significantly lower than control group at 3 and 6 months after implant placement (P implantation of failed implants in Jack Russell Terrier dogs after CO2 laser surface debridement is associated with a high success rate in terms of implant stability.

  15. Combined pulsed dye and CO2 lasers in the treatment of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi, Lior; Halachmi, Shlomit; Levi, Assi; Amitai, Dan Ben; Enk, Claes D; Lapidoth, Moshe

    2016-08-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is an uncommon dermatosis of unknown etiology that manifests as characteristic red nodules and papules with a predilection for the scalp and periauricular region. Treatment is required for both esthetic and functional reasons, as lesions may ulcerate and bleed. Many treatment approaches have been reported, including excision, systemic medical approaches, topical or intralesional therapies, and non-invasive modalities including cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser. Treatments have exhibited variable efficacy, and the recurrence rate is 100 %. We report the combination of pulsed dye laser and CO2 laser in the treatment of ALHE in 14 patients. All patients exhibited clinical response after a mean of 2.4 ± 0.4 treatment sessions. The clinical efficacy of the combined treatment, together with its well-tolerated nature, render the use of pulsed dye laser in combination with CO2 laser, a viable treatment for debulking ALHE lesions. Ongoing maintenance treatments are needed to due to the high degree of relapse.

  16. A new frontier in CO2 flux measurements using a highly portable DIAL laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiβer, Manuel; Granieri, Domenico; Burton, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic CO2 emissions play a key role in the geological carbon cycle, and monitoring of volcanic CO2 fluxes helps to forecast eruptions. The quantification of CO2 fluxes is challenging due to rapid dilution of magmatic CO2 in CO2-rich ambient air and the diffuse nature of many emissions, leading to large uncertainties in the global magmatic CO2 flux inventory. Here, we report measurements using a new DIAL laser remote sensing system for volcanic CO2 (CO2DIAL). Two sites in the volcanic zone of Campi Flegrei (Italy) were scanned, yielding CO2 path-amount profiles used to compute fluxes. Our results reveal a relatively high CO2 flux from Campi Flegrei, consistent with an increasing trend. Unlike previous methods, the CO2DIAL is able to measure integrated CO2 path-amounts at distances up to 2000 m using virtually any solid surface as a reflector, whilst also being highly portable. This opens a new frontier in quantification of geological and anthropogenic CO2 fluxes. PMID:27652775

  17. Highly optimized CO2 capture by inexpensive nanoporous covalent organic polymers and their amine composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hasmukh A; Yavuz, Cafer T

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage and utilization requires effective capture strategies that limit energy penalties. Polyethylenimine (PEI)-impregnated covalent organic polymers (COPs) with a high CO2 adsorption capacity are successfully prepared in this study. A low cost COP with a high specific surface area is suitable for PEI loading to achieve high CO2 adsorption, and the optimal PEI loading is 36 wt%. Though the adsorbed amount of CO2 on amine impregnated COPs slightly decreased with increasing adsorption temperature, CO2/N2 selectivity is significantly improved at higher temperatures. The adsorption of CO2 on the sorbent is very fast, and a sorption equilibrium (10% wt) was achieved within 5 min at 313 K under the flow of simulated flue gas streams. The CO2 capture efficiency of this sorbent is not affected under repetitive adsorption-desorption cycles. The highest CO2 capture capacity of 75 mg g(-1) at 0.15 bar is achieved under dry CO2 capture however it is enhanced to 100 mg g(-1) in the mixed gas flow containing humid 15% CO2. Sorbents were found to be thermally stable up to at least 200 °C. TGA and FTIR studies confirmed the loading of PEIs on COPs. This sorbent with high and fast CO2 sorption exhibits a very promising application in direct CO2 capture from flue gas.

  18. Research and survey report of FY 1997 on the CO2 balance for high-temperature CO2 fixation and utilization technology; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to clarify the application condition and effectiveness of high-temperature CO2 fixation and utilization technology. To evaluate the present process, it was compared with others, such as separation using a polymer membrane, physico-chemical absorption process, adsorption process, hydrogen contact reduction process, and biological fixation. The development trends of absorption, membrane, adsorption, and cryogenic separation were investigated. The questionnaire was carried out about the separation technologies which are in the stage of performance test using actual gas, to arrange and compare the data and information. The current trends of chemical and biological CO2 fixation and utilization technology were also investigated for arranging the subjects. High-temperature CO2 disposal by the carbonation in concrete waste has been studied, to clarify its application conditions and effectiveness. In order to compare the separation technologies, treatment processes of CO2 in the exhaust gas from boilers of LNG power generation and coal fired power generation were simulated. These processes were simulated by ASPEN PLUS for the modeling. Trends of application of ASPEN PLUS and collection of information were surveyed by participating in the ASPEN WORLD. 103 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  19. Removal of high concentration CO2 from natural gas at elevated pressure via absorption process in packed column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.S.Tan; K.K.Lau; M.A.Bustam; A.M.Shariff

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) removal is an essential step in natural gas (NG) processing to provide high quality gas stream products and minimize operational difficulties.This preliminary study aims to investigate the removal of CO2 at high concentration level from the mixture of CO2-NG gas stream at elevated pressure via absorption process.This is to explore the possibility of exploring high CO2 content natural gas reserves by treatment at offshore platform.A mixed amine solvent,Stonvent-Ⅱ,was used for the absorption of approximately 75 vol% CO2 in CO2-NG stream at a pressure of 10 barg.The initial solvent temperature was varied in order to study the impact of initial temperature on the absorption performance.Preliminary study at temperatures of 35 ℃ and 45 ℃ indicates that Stonvent-Ⅱ was able to perform almost 100% removal of CO2 under both conditions.However,the CO2 absorption effect took place faster when the initial liquid temperature was lower.This is because when the initial liquid temperature is high,the temperature increase in the packing bed caused by the reaction heat is high which impacts the efficiency of absorption negatively.

  20. Skeletal mineralogy of coral recruits under high temperature and pCO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Foster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aragonite, which is the polymorph of CaCO3 precipitated by modern corals during skeletal formation, has a higher solubility than the more stable polymorph calcite. This higher solubility leaves animals that produce aragonitic skeletons more vulnerable to anthropogenic ocean acidification. It is therefore, important to determine whether scleractinian corals have the plasticity to adapt and produce calcite in their skeletons in response to changing environmental conditions. Both high pCO2 and lower Mg / Ca ratios in seawater are thought to have driven changes in the skeletal mineralogy of major marine calcifiers in the past ∼540 myr. Experimentally reduced Mg / Ca ratios in ambient seawater have been shown to induce some calcite precipitation in both adult and newly settled modern corals, however, the impact of high pCO2 on the mineralogy of recruits is unknown. Here we determined the skeletal mineralogy of one-month old Acropora spicifera coral recruits grown under high temperature (+3 °C and pCO2 (∼900 μatm conditions, using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. We found that newly settled coral recruits produced entirely aragonitic skeletons regardless of the treatment. Our results show that elevated pCO2 alone is unlikely to drive changes in the skeletal mineralogy of young corals. Not having an ability to switch from aragonite to calcite precipitation may leave corals and ultimately coral reef ecosystems more susceptible to predicted ocean acidification. An important area for prospective research would be to investigate the combined impact of high pCO2 and reduced Mg / Ca ratio on coral skeletal mineralogy.

  1. High-CO2 tolerance in microalgae: possible mechanisms and implications for biotechnology and bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovchenko, Alexei; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna

    2013-11-01

    Recent developments in the field of microalgal biotechnology, including CO2 biomitigation and the discovery of new species of microalgae that are tolerant to extremely high CO2 levels (40-100 vol%), have renewed interest in the physiological effects and mechanisms of high-CO2 tolerance in photoautotrophs. Photosynthetic apparatus state transitions that increase ATP generation, upregulation of H(+)-ATPases pumping protons out of the cell, rapid shutdown of CO2-concentrating mechanisms, and adjustment of membranes' fatty acid composition are currently believed to be the key mechanisms governing cellular pH homeostasis and hence microalgae's tolerance to high CO2 levels, which is especially characteristic of extremophile and symbiotic species. The mechanisms governing acclimation to high CO2 comprise the subject of this review and are discussed in view of the use of CO2 enrichment to increase the productivity of microalgal cultures, as well as the practice of carbon capture from flue gases.

  2. Optimization of antitumor treatment conditions for transcutaneous CO2 application: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueha, Takeshi; Kawamoto, Teruya; Onishi, Yasuo; Harada, Risa; Minoda, Masaya; Toda, Mitsunori; Hara, Hitomi; Fukase, Naomasa; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Akisue, Toshihiro; Sakai, Yoshitada

    2017-06-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) therapy can be applied to treat a variety of disorders. We previously found that transcutaneous application of CO2 with a hydrogel decreased the tumor volume of several types of tumors and induced apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. However, only one condition of treatment intensity has been tested. For widespread application in clinical antitumor therapy, the conditions must be optimized. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the duration, frequency, and treatment interval of transcutaneous CO2 application and antitumor effects in murine xenograft models. Murine xenograft models of three types of human tumors (breast cancer, osteosarcoma, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma/undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma) were used to assess the antitumor effects of transcutaneous CO2 application of varying durations, frequencies, and treatment intervals. In all human tumor xenografts, apoptosis was significantly induced by CO2 treatment for ≥10 min, and a significant decrease in tumor volume was observed with CO2 treatments of >5 min. The effect on tumor volume was not dependent on the frequency of CO2 application, i.e., twice or five times per week. However, treatment using 3- and 4-day intervals was more effective at decreasing tumor volume than treatment using 2- and 5-day intervals. The optimal conditions of transcutaneous CO2 application to obtain the best antitumor effect in various tumors were as follows: greater than 10 min per application, twice per week, with 3- and 4-day intervals, and application to the site of the tumor. The results suggest that this novel transcutaneous CO2 application might be useful to treat primary tumors, while mitigating some side effects, and therefore could be safe for clinical trials.

  3. Deep Sea Memory of High Atmospheric CO2 Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathesius, Sabine; Hofmann, Matthias; Caldeira, Ken; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the atmosphere has been proposed as a powerful measure to mitigate global warming and ocean acidification. Planetary-scale interventions of that kind are often portrayed as "last-resort strategies", which need to weigh in if humankind keeps on enhancing the climate-system stock of CO2. Yet even if CDR could restore atmospheric CO2 to substantially lower concentrations, would it really qualify to undo the critical impacts of past emissions? In the study presented here, we employed an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC) to investigate how CDR might erase the emissions legacy in the marine environment, focusing on pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen. Against a background of a world following the RCP8.5 emissions path ("business-as-usual") for centuries, we simulated the effects of two massive CDR interventions with CO2 extraction rates of 5 GtC yr-1 and 25 GtC yr-1, respectively, starting in 2250. We found that the 5 GtC yr-1 scheme would have only minor ameliorative influence on the oceans, even after several centuries of application. By way of contrast, the extreme 25 GtC yr-1 scheme eventually leads to tangible improvements. However, even with such an aggressive measure, past CO2 emissions leave a substantial legacy in the marine environment within the simulated period (i.e., until 2700). In summary, our study demonstrates that anthropogenic alterations of the oceans, caused by continued business-as-usual emissions, may not be reversed on a multi-centennial time scale by the most aspirational geoengineering measures. We also found that a transition from the RCP8.5 state to the state of a strong mitigation scenario (RCP2.6) is not possible, even under the assumption of extreme extraction rates (25 GtC yr-1). This is explicitly demonstrated by simulating additional scenarios, starting CDR already in 2150 and operating until the atmospheric CO2 concentration reaches 280 ppm and 180 ppm, respectively. The simulated

  4. Qualidade de caqui 'Rama forte' após armazenamento refrigerado, influenciada pelos tratamentos 1-MCP e/ou CO2 Quality of 'Rama Forte' perssimon following cold torage influenced by 1-MCP and/or CO2treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Peterson Pereira Gardin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos tratamentos com CO2 e 1-MCP (1-metilciclopropeno sobre a adstringência (índice de tanino, firmeza da polpa e distúrbios da epiderme em caqui 'Rama Forte'. Frutos foram tratados com 1-MCP por 24 h, logo após a colheita e/ou com alto CO2 (70% por 24 ou 48 h, um dia após a colheita ou após o armazenamento refrigerado (AR. Os caquis foram armazenados sob atmosfera modificada a 0 ºC, por 45 dias, e a seguir mantidos a 23 ºC, por 9 dias. Frutos-controle (não tratados com 1-MCP nem com CO2 amoleceram em três dias e perderam aproximadamente 50% da adstringência em 6 dias após o AR. A exposição ao CO2 acelerou a redução da adstringência. Esse efeito do CO2 foi menor em frutos tratados com 1-MCP, especialmente quando o CO2 foi aplicado após o AR, por apenas 24 h. O tratamento com 1-MCP inibiu o amolecimento e a redução da adstringência, especialmente nos frutos não tratados com CO2. O amolecimento de frutos tratados com 1-MCP foi maior quando a exposição ao CO2 ocorreu antes do AR. A combinação dos tratamentos com 1-MCP e alto CO2 reduziu a incidência de podridões e manchas translúcidas, mas não alterou o desenvolvimento de pintas pretas ('estrias'. Os resultados indicam que é possível induzir perda da adstringência sem excessiva perda da firmeza da polpa de caquis 'Rama Forte' após o AR pela associação dos tratamentos com 1-MCP logo após a colheita e alto CO2 após o AR.This study evaluated the effects of CO2 and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene treatments on astringency (tannin index, flesh firmness and skin disorders on 'Rama Forte' persimmon. Fruit were treated with 1-MCP for 24 h right after harvest and/or with high CO2 (70% CO2 balanced with air for 24 or 48 h, one day after harvest or after cold storage (CS. Fruit were stored in modified atmosphere for 45 days at 0ºC and then held at 23ºC for 9 days. Control fruit (untreated with neither 1-MCP nor CO2 softened in 3 days and lost about 50

  5. Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum Treatment with Fractional CO2 Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Grassi Salles, MD, PhD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PE is a rare genetic disease characterized by calcification and fragmentation of elastic fibers of the skin, retina, and cardiovascular system. We report a case of PE in which fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment was successfully used to achieve improvement of the cervical skin with 2-year follow-up, in a patient with Fitzpatrick skin type IV. After the fifth session, the patient presented with a local herpes infection. The postlaser reaction of the PE skin was similar to that of the normal skin, in terms of the duration of redness, pain, swelling, and duration of crusting. The overall cosmetic result was satisfactory, with improvement in skin texture, irregularity, volume, and distensibility. The herpetic infection reinforces the value of antiviral prophylaxis during laser treatment of extrafacial areas.

  6. Measurement of CO2 concentration at high-temperature based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiuying; Li, Chuanrong; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Jianguo; Kan, Ruifeng; Xu, Zhenyu

    2017-01-01

    A diode laser sensor based on absorption spectroscopy has been developed for sensitive measurement of CO2 concentration at high-temperature. Measurement of CO2 can provide information about the extent of combustion and mix in a combustor that may be used to improve fuel efficiency. Most methods of in-situ combustion measurement of CO2 use the spectroscopic parameters taken from database like HITEMP which is mainly derived from the theoretical calculation and remains a high degree of uncertainty in the spectroscopic parameters. A fiber-coupled diode laser system for measurement of CO2 in combustion environment by use of the high-temperature spectroscopic parameters which are obtained by experiment was proposed. Survey spectra of the R(50) line of CO2 at 5007.787 cm-1 were recorded at high-temperature and various pressures to determine line intensities. The line intensities form the theoretical foundation for future applications of this diode laser sensor system. Survey spectra of four test gas mixtures containing 5.01%CO2, 10.01%CO2, 20.08%CO2, and 49.82%CO2 were measured to verify the accuracy of the diode laser sensor system. The measured results indicate that this sensor can measure CO2 concentration with 2% uncertainty in high temperatures.

  7. High-performance Polymer Membranes with Multi-functional Amphiphilic Micelles for CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Jeon, Harim; Kim, Dong Jun; Kim, Jong Hak

    2015-11-01

    Herein, we report a high performance polymer membrane with simultaneously large improvements in the CO2 permeability and CO2/N2 selectivity. These improvements are obtained by incorporation of a multi-functional amphiphilic comb copolymer micelle, that is, poly(dimethylsiloxane)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (PDMS-g-POEM), into a poly(amide-b-ethylene oxide) (Pebax) matrix. Both CO2 and N2 permeabilities continuously increased with PDMS-g-POEM content, whereas the CO2/N2 selectivity increased up to 40 wt % of PDMS-g-POEM, which enabled the maximum performance to approach the upper bound limit (2008). The membranes with PDMS-g-POEM exhibited greater CO2 permeability and CO2/N2 selectivity than those with a zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8), a well-known expensive inorganic filler, indicating the effectiveness of PDMS-g-POEM micelles for CO2 capture.

  8. Effects of high CO2 levels on dynamic photosynthesis: carbon gain, mechanisms, and environmental interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimatsu, Hajime; Tang, Yanhong

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the photosynthetic responses of terrestrial plants to environments with high levels of CO2 is essential to address the ecological effects of elevated atmospheric CO2. Most photosynthetic models used for global carbon issues are based on steady-state photosynthesis, whereby photosynthesis is measured under constant environmental conditions; however, terrestrial plant photosynthesis under natural conditions is highly dynamic, and photosynthetic rates change in response to rapid changes in environmental factors. To predict future contributions of photosynthesis to the global carbon cycle, it is necessary to understand the dynamic nature of photosynthesis in relation to high CO2 levels. In this review, we summarize the current body of knowledge on the photosynthetic response to changes in light intensity under experimentally elevated CO2 conditions. We found that short-term exposure to high CO2 enhances photosynthetic rate, reduces photosynthetic induction time, and reduces post-illumination CO2 burst, resulting in increased leaf carbon gain during dynamic photosynthesis. However, long-term exposure to high CO2 during plant growth has varying effects on dynamic photosynthesis. High levels of CO2 increase the carbon gain in photosynthetic induction in some species, but have no significant effects in other species. Some studies have shown that high CO2 levels reduce the biochemical limitation on RuBP regeneration and Rubisco activation during photosynthetic induction, whereas the effects of high levels of CO2 on stomatal conductance differ among species. Few studies have examined the influence of environmental factors on effects of high levels of CO2 on dynamic photosynthesis. We identified several knowledge gaps that should be addressed to aid future predictions of photosynthesis in high-CO2 environments.

  9. Ambient CO2 capture and storage in bioelectrochemically mediated wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhe; Jiang, Daqian; Lu, Lu; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-09-01

    This study reports that wastewater can be used to capture and store CO2 directly from ambient air and produce energy. The proof-of-concept system consisted of an ion exchange resin column that captures and concentrates ambient CO2 using a moisture-driven cycle. The concentrated CO2 was then transferred into a microbial electrochemical carbon capture (MECC) reactor for carbon sequestration and hydrogen production. Data from an average batch cycle showed that approximately 8mmol/L CO2 was captured in the MECC cathode when 0.14g/LCOD was removed in the anode. With 90% hydrogen conversion efficiency, the energy intensity and CO2 absorption from the process could be 11.3kJ/gCOD and 0.49gCO2/gCOD respectively. If the proposed process is applied, over 68milliontons of atmospheric CO2 can be captured yearly during wastewater treatment in the US, which equates to significant economic values if CO2 taxes were to be implemented more widely.

  10. Physiological and molecular alterations in plants exposed to high [CO2] under phosphorus stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Renu; Zinta, Gaurav; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Ahmad, Altaf; Jain, Vanita; Janssens, Ivan A

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric [CO2] has increased substantially in recent decades and will continue to do so, whereas the availability of phosphorus (P) is limited and unlikely to increase in the future. P is a non-renewable resource, and it is essential to every form of life. P is a key plant nutrient controlling the responsiveness of photosynthesis to [CO2]. Increases in [CO2] typically results in increased biomass through stimulation of net photosynthesis, and hence enhance the demand for P uptake. However, most soils contain low concentrations of available P. Therefore, low P is one of the major growth-limiting factors for plants in many agricultural and natural ecosystems. The adaptive responses of plants to [CO2] and P availability encompass alterations at morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular levels. In general low P reduces growth, whereas high [CO2] enhances it particularly in C3 plants. Photosynthetic capacity is often enhanced under high [CO2] with sufficient P supply through modulation of enzyme activities involved in carbon fixation such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). However, high [CO2] with low P availability results in enhanced dry matter partitioning towards roots. Alterations in below-ground processes including root morphology, exudation and mycorrhizal association are influenced by [CO2] and P availability. Under high P availability, elevated [CO2] improves the uptake of P from soil. In contrast, under low P availability, high [CO2] mainly improves the efficiency with which plants produce biomass per unit P. At molecular level, the spatio-temporal regulation of genes involved in plant adaptation to low P and high [CO2] has been studied individually in various plant species. Genome-wide expression profiling of high [CO2] grown plants revealed hormonal regulation of biomass accumulation through complex transcriptional networks. Similarly, differential transcriptional regulatory networks are involved in P

  11. Use of CO2 laser as an adjunctive treatment for caudal stomatitis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John R; Tsugawa, Anson J; Reiter, Alexander M

    2007-12-01

    Lasers have become a popular tool in veterinary practice, particularly the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. In humans, the CO2 laser is used most commonly in oral and maxillofacial soft tissue surgery due to its favorable interactions with oral soft tissues. Other types of lasers are better suited for use on hard tissues such as enamel and dentin. This article reviews the history of laser use, physics of laser-tissue interaction, delivery systems, and laser types used in dentistry and oral surgery. This is followed by a case report describing the use of CO2 laser as an adjunctive treatment for therapy of refractory caudal stomatitis in a cat.

  12. High pressurized CO2 release CFD calculations from onshore pipeline leakages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Nicoleta; Gorenz, Paul; Egbers, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Emissions from high pressurized pipelines can be determined on the basis of hydrodynamical and thermophysical calculations of the escaped fluid. If a rupture occurs when CO2 is onshore transported in liquid form there will be initially a large pressure drop in the pipeline, the pressure will fall until the liquid becomes a mixture of saturated vapor/liquid. In the vicinity of the rupture, liquid CO2 will escape and immediately vaporize and expand, some of the liquid will desublimate into dry ice, which will precipitate onto the ground [1, 2]. The period of time taken for a large amount of carbon dioxide to be discharged would be short. Initially CO2 will escape by pushing the overlying soil upwards at an explosion-like speed. After the pressure in the pipe fell the flow profile of the escaping gas will almost be as described for gaseous material transport. The expansion of carbon dioxide will occur at sonic speed and will continue to do so until the pressure ratio between the CO2 and the ambient air is lower than about 1.9 [3]. As a result of the expansion also the temperature of the escaping gas will fall drastically and a cloud of cold gas will form which is then dispersed and slowly mixed with ambient air. The rate of emptying the pipeline is controlled by the pipe cross-section area and the speed of the escaping gas, or by the pressure difference between the pipeline and the atmosphere. Therefore the mass flow will be largest immediately after the accident with an exponential decay in time. In this study a two-phase model is applied to a high pressurized pipeline through which liquid carbon dioxide flows. A leakage is considered to be at different positions along the pipeline and the release pressure is calculated over several parameter ranges. It is also intended to characterize from hydrodynamical point of view the dispersion of released CO2 in the ambient medium by means of CFD simulations which includes multiphase flow treatment. For that a turbulent two

  13. Highly efficient CO2 sorbents: development of synthetic, calcium-rich dolomites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filitz, Rainer; Kierzkowska, Agnieszka M; Broda, Marcin; Müller, Christoph R

    2012-01-03

    The reaction of CaO with CO(2) is a promising approach for separating CO(2) from hot flue gases. The main issue associated with the use of naturally occurring CaCO(3), that is, limestone, is the rapid decay of its CO(2) capture capacity over repeated cycles of carbonation and calcination. Interestingly, dolomite, a naturally occurring equimolar mixture of CaCO(3) and MgCO(3), possesses a CO(2) uptake that remains almost constant with cycle number. However, owing to the large quantity of MgCO(3) in dolomite, the total CO(2) uptake is comparatively small. Here, we report the development of a synthetic Ca-rich dolomite using a coprecipitation technique, which shows both a very high and a stable CO(2) uptake over repeated cycles of calcination and carbonation. To obtain such an excellent CO(2) uptake characteristic it was found to be crucial to mix the Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) on a molecular level, that is, within the crystalline lattice. For sorbents which were composed of mixtures of microscopic crystals of CaCO(3) and MgCO(3), a decay behavior similar to natural limestone was observed. After 15 cycles, the CO(2) uptake of the best sorbent was 0.51 g CO(2)/g sorbent exceeding the CO(2) uptake of limestone by almost 100%.

  14. Highly integrated CO2 capture and conversion: Direct synthesis of cyclic carbonates from industrial flue gas

    KAUST Repository

    Barthel, Alexander

    2016-02-08

    Robust and selective catalytic systems based on early transition metal halides (Y, Sc, Zr) and organic nucleophiles were found able to quantitatively capture CO2 from diluted streams via formation of hemicarbonate species and to convert it to cyclic organic carbonates under ambient conditions. This observation was exploited in the direct and selective chemical fixation of flue gas CO2 collected from an industrial exhaust, affording high degrees of CO2 capture and conversion.

  15. Study of the thermohydraulics of CO2 discharge from a high pressure reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, M.; Osch, M.B.V.; Buit, L.; Florisson, O.; Hulsbosch-Dam, C.; Spruijt, M.; Davolio, F.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental test set up has been constructed to carry out controlled CO2 release experiments from a high pressure vessel. The test set up is made up of a 500l stainless steel vessel where CO2 can be introduced up to high pressures and where controlled releases can be conducted. The work objectiv

  16. STRUCTURAL EFFECTS ON THE HIGH TEMPERATURE ADSORPTION OF CO2 ON A SYNTHETIC HYDROTALCITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlcs) are solid sorbents that may potentially be used for high temperature separation and capture of CO2. The high-temperature adsorption of CO2 on Mg-Al-CO3 HTlc is affected by structural changes that take place upo...

  17. Clinical applications of CO2 laser resurfacing in the treatment of various pathologic skin disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giler, Shamai

    1997-12-01

    CO2 laser skin resurfacing devices are widely used in cosmetic surgery for the treatment of facial rhytides, acne scars and aging skin. This technique is also useful in the treatment of various benign and premalignant or multiple pathological skin conditions and disorders originating in the epidermal, dermal and skin appendages, vascular lesions, epidermal nevi, infected wounds and ulcers, and keloids. Various surgical techniques have been developed in our clinic using laser resurfacing in the treatment of more than 2,000 patients with various skin pathologic disorders. We describe our experience with the various techniques used. The precise depth control and ablation properties combined with the hemostatic and sterilizing effects of the CO2 laser beam, reduction of the possibility of bleeding, infection and damage to healthy tissues, make the CO2 laser resurfacing techniques the treatment of choice for cosmetic surgery and treatment of benign, premalignant and multiple pathologic skin conditions.

  18. Fractional CO2 lasers for the treatment of atrophic acne scars: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Lauren Rose; Schweiger, Eric S

    2014-04-01

    This review examines the efficacy and safety of fractional CO2 lasers for the treatment of atrophic scarring secondary to acne vulgaris. We reviewed 20 papers published between 2008 and 2013 that conducted clinical studies using fractional CO2 lasers to treat atrophic scarring. We discuss the prevalence and pathogenesis of acne scarring, as well as the laser mechanism. The histologic findings are included to highlight the ability of these lasers to induce the collagen reorganization and formation that improves scar appearance. We considered the number of treatments and different laser settings to determine which methods achieve optimal outcomes. We noted unique treatment regimens that yielded superior results. An overview of adverse effects is included to identify the most common ones. We concluded that more studies need to be done using uniform treatment parameters and reporting in order to establish which fractional CO2 laser treatment approaches allow for the greatest scar improvement.

  19. High-precision gas gain and energy transfer measurements in Ar–CO2 mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Şahin, Özkan; Veenhof, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Ar–CO2 is a Penning mixture since a fraction of the energy stored in Ar 3p53d3p53d and higher excited states can be transferred to ionize CO2 molecules. In the present work, concentration and pressure dependence of Penning transfer rate and photon feedback parameter in Ar–CO2 mixtures have been investigated with recent systematic high-precision gas gain measurements which cover the range 1–50% CO2 at 400, 800, 1200, 1800 hPa and gas gain from 1 to 5×105.

  20. High resolution infrared spectroscopy of carbon dioxide clusters up to (CO2)13

    OpenAIRE

    Norooz Oliaee, J.; Dehghany, M.; McKellar, A. R. W.; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

    2011-01-01

    Thirteen specific infrared bands in the 2350 cm−1 region are assigned to carbon dioxide clusters, (CO2)N, with N = 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13. The spectra are observed in direct absorption using a tuneable infrared laser to probe a pulsed supersonic jet expansion of a dilute mixture of CO2 in He carrier gas. Assignments are aided by cluster structure calculations made using two reliable CO2 intermolecular potential functions. For (CO2)6, two highly symmetric isomers are observed, one with S6 ...

  1. High Materials Performance in Supercritical CO2 in Comparison with Atmospheric Pressure CO2 and Supercritical Steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Tylczak, Joseph [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Carney, Casey [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Dogan, Omer N. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2017-02-26

    This presentation covers environments (including advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) steam boiler/turbine and sCO2 indirect power cycle), effects of pressure, exposure tests, oxidation results, and mechanical behavior after exposure.

  2. Fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing as monotherapy in the treatment of atrophic facial acne scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Majid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: While laser resurfacing remains the most effective treatment option for atrophic acne scars, the high incidence of post-treatment adverse effects limits its use. Fractional laser photothermolysis attempts to overcome these limitations of laser resurfacing by creating microscopic zones of injury to the dermis with skip areas in between. Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the efficacy and safety of fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing in atrophic facial acne scars. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with moderate to severe atrophic facial acne scars were treated with 3-4 sessions of fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing at 6-week intervals. The therapeutic response to treatment was assessed at each follow up visit and then finally 6 months after the last laser session using a quartile grading scale. Response to treatment was labelled as ′excellent′ if there was >50% improvement in scar appearance and texture of skin on the grading scale while 25-50% response and <25% improvement were labelled as ′good′ and ′poor′ response, respectively. The overall satisfaction of the patients and any adverse reactions to the treatment were also noted. Results: Most of the patients showed a combination of different morphological types of acne scars. At the time of final assessment 6 months after the last laser session, an excellent response was observed in 26 patients (43.3% while 15 (25% and 19 patients (31.7% demonstrated a good and poor response respectively. Rolling and superficial boxcar scars responded the best while pitted scars responded the least to fractional laser monotherapy. The commonest reported adverse effect was transient erythema and crusting lasting for an average of 3-4 and 4-6 days, respectively while three patients developed post-inflammatory pigmentation lasting for 8-12 weeks. Conclusions: Fractional laser resurfacing as monotherapy is effective in treating acne scars especially rolling and superficial boxcar

  3. Effect of High-pressure CO2 Processing on Bacterial Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Lei; Bi, Xiufang; Zhao, Feng; Wu, Jihong; Hu, Xiaosong; Liao, Xiaojun

    2016-08-17

    High-pressure CO2 (HPCD) is a nonthermal technology that can effectively inactivate the vegetative forms of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, yeasts, and molds at pressures less than 30 MPa and temperatures in the range of 20°C to 40°C. However, HPCD alone at moderate temperatures (20-40°C) is often insufficient to obtain a substantial reduction in bacterial spore counts because their structures are more complex than those of vegetative cells. In this review, we first thoroughly summarized and discussed the inactivation effect of HPCD treatment on bacterial spores. We then presented and discussed the kinetics by which bacterial spores are inactivated by HPCD treatment. We also summarized hypotheses drawn by different researchers to explain the mechanisms of spore inactivation by HPCD treatment. We then summarized the current research status and future challenges of spore inactivation by HPCD treatment.

  4. Effects of immersion in water containing high concentrations of CO2 (CO2-water) at thermoneutral on thermoregulation and heart rate variability in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Maki; Kanikowska, Dominika; Iwase, Satoshi; Nishimura, Naoki; Shimizu, Yuuki; de Chantemele, Eric Belin; Matsumoto, Takaaki; Inukai, Yoko; Taniguchi, Yumiko; Ogata, Akihiro; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2009-01-01

    Immersion in high concentrations of CO2 dissolved in freshwater (CO2-water) might induce peripheral vasodilatation in humans. In this study, we investigated whether such immersion could affect the autonomic nervous system in humans using spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Ten healthy men participated in this study. Tympanic temperature, cutaneous blood flow and electrocardiogram (ECG) were measured continuously during 20 min of immersion in CO2-water. The ECG was analyzed by spectral analysis of R-R intervals using the maximal entropy method. The decrease in tympanic temperature was significantly greater in CO2-water immersion than in freshwater immersion. Cutaneous blood flow at the immersed site was significantly increased with CO2-water immersion compared to freshwater. The high frequency component (HF: 0.15-0.40 Hz) was significantly higher in CO2-water immersion than in freshwater immersion, but the low frequency (LF: 0.04-0.15 Hz) /high frequency ratio (LF/HF ratio) was significantly lower in CO2-water immersion than in freshwater immersion. The present study contributes evidence supporting the hypothesis that CO2-water immersion activates parasympathetic nerve activity in humans.

  5. Potassium-based sorbents from fly ash for high-temperature CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Aimaro; Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes

    2016-11-01

    Potassium-fly ash (K-FA) sorbents were investigated for high-temperature CO2 sorption. K-FAs were synthesised using coal fly ash as source of silica and aluminium. The synthesised materials were also mixed with Li2CO3 and Ca(OH)2 to evaluate their effect on CO2 capture. Temperature strongly affected the performance of the K-FA sorbents, resulting in a CO2 uptake of 1.45 mmol CO2/g sorbent for K-FA 1:1 at 700 °C. The CO2 sorption was enhanced by the presence of Li2CO3 (10 wt%), with the K-FA 1:1 capturing 2.38 mmol CO2/g sorbent at 700 °C in 5 min. This sorption was found to be similar to previously developed Li-Na-FA (2.54 mmol/g) and Li-FA (2.4 mmol/g) sorbents. The presence of 10 % Li2CO3 also accelerated sorption and desorption. The results suggest that the increased uptake of CO2 and faster reaction rates in presence of K-FA can be ascribed to the formation of K-Li eutectic phase, which favours the diffusion of potassium and CO2 in the material matrix. The cyclic experiments showed that the K-FA materials maintained stable CO2 uptake and reaction rates over 10 cycles.

  6. High-accuracy C-14 measurements for atmospheric CO2 samples by AMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.A.J.; Pertuisot, M.H.; van der Plicht, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how to achieve high-accuracy radiocarbon measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry (ANIS) and present measurement series (performed on archived CO2) of (CO2)-C-14 between 1985 and 1991 for Point Barrow (Alaska) and the South Pole. We report in detail the measurement

  7. A 5 cm single-discharge CO2 laser having high power output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, G.J.; Boer, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    A single-discharge self-sustained CO2 laser has been constructed with a gap distance of 5 cm. The system has a very simple construction; it produces a very uniform discharge with an output power of 50 Joules per liter for a CO2 : N2 : He = 1 : 1 : 3 mixture. The efficiency can be as high as 19%.

  8. Effects of CO 2 on a High Performance Hollow-Fiber Membrane for Natural Gas Purification

    KAUST Repository

    Omole, Imona C.

    2010-05-19

    A 6FDA-based, cross-linkable polyimide was characterized in the form of a defect-free asymmetric hollow-fiber membrane. The novel membrane was cross-linked at various temperatures and tested for natural gas purification in the presence of high CO2 partial pressures. The cross-linked membrane material shows high intrinsic separation performance for CO2 and CH4 (selectivity ∼49, CO2 permeability ∼161 barrer, with a feed at 65 psia, 35 °C, and 10% CO2). Cross-linked asymmetric hollow-fiber membranes made from the material show good resistance to CO2-induced plasticization. Carbon dioxide partial pressures as high as ∼400 psia were employed, and the membrane was shown to be promisingly stable under these aggressive conditions. The performance of the membrane was also analyzed using the dual-mode sorption/transport model. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  9. Decreased pCO(2) accumulation by eliminating bicarbonate addition to high cell-density cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudar, Chetan T; Matanguihan, Ricaredo; Long, Edward; Cruz, Christopher; Zhang, Chun; Piret, James M; Konstantinov, Konstantin B

    2007-04-15

    High-density perfusion cultivation of mammalian cells can result in elevated bioreactor CO(2) partial pressure (pCO(2)), a condition that can negatively influence growth, metabolism, productivity, and protein glycosylation. For BHK cells in a perfusion culture at 20 x 10(6) cells/mL, the bioreactor pCO(2) exceeded 225 mm Hg with approximate contributions of 25% from cellular respiration, 35% from medium NaHCO(3), and 40% from NaHCO(3) added for pH control. Recognizing the limitations to the practicality of gas sparging for CO(2) removal in perfusion systems, a strategy based on CO(2) reduction at the source was investigated. The NaHCO(3) in the medium was replaced with a MOPS-Histidine buffer, while Na(2)CO(3) replaced NaHCO(3) for pH control. These changes resulted in 63-70% pCO(2) reductions in multiple 15 L perfusion bioreactors, and were reproducible at the manufacturing-scale. Bioreactor pCO(2) values after these modifications were in the 68-85 mm Hg range, pCO(2) reductions consistent with those theoretically expected. Low bioreactor pCO(2) was accompanied by both 68-123% increased growth rates and 58-92% increased specific productivity. Bioreactor pCO(2) reduction and the resulting positive implications for cell growth and productivity were brought about by process changes that were readily implemented and robust. This philosophy of pCO(2) reduction at the source through medium and base modification should be readily applicable to large-scale fed-batch cultivation of mammalian cells.

  10. 高含CO2气井产能计算新方法%A new method of productivity prediction for high CO2-content gas wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严谨; 刘传喜

    2011-01-01

    Productivity of gas wells in Songnan volcanic gas reservoir is difficult to predict as high CO2 content has great influences on PVT of natural gas, resulting in large difference between the measured and predicted productivity. Based on laboratory experiments, this paper studied the effects of temperature, pressure and CO2 content on PVT of gas with high CO2 content and established the relational expressions of gas viscosity and Z-facto to pressure for gas with different CO2 contents. A new prediction model considering PVT variations of gas with high CO2 content was built based on gas percolation theory. The case study results indicate that the productivity reduces with the CO2 content increasing; the effect of Μz factor changes on productivity prediction should be considered when CO2 content is above 20 %; and the impacts of CO2 content on productivity lowers to a level that can be neglect in late production period. The new method is accurate and practical for the high CO2-content gas reservoirs.%松南火山岩气藏高含CO2,这种气体的存在对天然气的高压物性产生很大影响,使得气井产能预测与实际相差较大.在高含CO2气体高压物性分析(PVT)实验的基础上,研究了温度、压力和CO2含量对天然气高压物性参数的影响规律,建立了不同CO2含量下天然气粘度和偏差因子与压力的相关关系,并结合气体渗流理论建立了考虑高含CO2天然气高压物性变化的产能预测新模型.实例计算表明:①气井产能随着CO2含量的增高而降低;②当CO2含量大于20%时,气井产能评价必须考虑μΖ值(天然气粘度与偏差因子的乘积)变化的影响;③开发中后期可以忽略CO2含量对气井产能的影响.新的产能计算方法能反映CO2含量对产能计算的影响,精确度更高,对于高含CO2天然气田的产能评价和生产制度的制定具有重要的指导意义.

  11. High efficiency nanocomposite sorbents for CO2 capture based on amine-functionalized mesoporous capsules

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng

    2011-01-01

    A novel high efficiency nanocomposite sorbent for CO2 capture has been developed based on oligomeric amine (polyethylenimine, PEI, and tetraethylenepentamine, TEPA) functionalized mesoporous silica capsules. The newly synthesized sorbents exhibit extraordinary capture capacity up to 7.9 mmol g-1 under simulated flue gas conditions (pre-humidified 10% CO 2). The CO2 capture kinetics were found to be fast and reached 90% of the total capacities within the first few minutes. The effects of the mesoporous capsule features such as particle size and shell thickness on CO2 capture capacity were investigated. Larger particle size, higher interior void volume and thinner mesoporous shell thickness all improved the CO2 capacity of the sorbents. PEI impregnated sorbents showed good reversibility and stability during cyclic adsorption-regeneration tests (50 cycles). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Response of Microbial Reactions to High CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qusheng; Kirk, Matthew F.

    2016-01-01

    Geological carbon sequestration captures CO2 from industrial sources and stores the CO2 in subsurface reservoirs, a viable strategy for mitigating global climate change. In assessing the environmental impact of the strategy, a key question is how microbial reactions respond to the elevated CO2 concentration. This study uses biogeochemical modeling to explore the influence of CO2 on the thermodynamics and kinetics of common microbial reactions in subsurface environments, including syntrophic oxidation, iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis. The results show that increasing CO2 levels decreases groundwater pH and modulates chemical speciation of weak acids in groundwater, which in turn affect microbial reactions in different ways and to different extents. Specifically, a thermodynamic analysis shows that increasing CO2 partial pressure lowers the energy available from syntrophic oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenesis, but raises the available energy of microbial iron reduction, hydrogenotrophic sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Kinetic modeling suggests that high CO2 has the potential of inhibiting microbial sulfate reduction while promoting iron reduction. These results are consistent with the observations of previous laboratory and field studies, and highlight the complexity in microbiological responses to elevated CO2 abundance, and the potential power of biogeochemical modeling in evaluating and quantifying these responses. PMID:27909425

  13. Thermodynamic and kinetic response of microbial reactions to high CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qusheng Jin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Geological carbon sequestration captures CO2 from industrial sources and stores the CO2 in subsurface reservoirs, a viable strategy for mitigating global climate change. In assessing the environmental impact of the strategy, a key question is how microbial reactions respond to the elevated CO2 concentration. This study uses biogeochemical modeling to explore the influence of CO2 on the thermodynamics and kinetics of common microbial reactions in subsurface environments, including syntrophic oxidation, iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis. The results show that increasing CO2 levels decreases groundwater pH and modulates chemical speciation of weak acids in groundwater, which in turn affect microbial reactions in different ways and to different extents. Specifically, a thermodynamic analysis shows that increasing CO2 partial pressure lowers the energy available from syntrophic oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenesis, but raises the available energy of microbial iron reduction, hydrogenotrophic sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Kinetic modeling suggests that high CO2 has the potential of inhibiting microbial sulfate reduction while promoting iron reduction. These results are consistent with the observations of previous laboratory and field studies, and highlight the complexity in microbiological responses to elevated CO2 abundance, and the potential power of biogeochemical modeling in evaluating and quantifying these responses.

  14. Antibacterial and Odontogenesis Efficacy of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Combined with CO2 Laser Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tuan-Ti; Yeh, Chia-Hung; Kao, Chia-Tze; Chen, Yi-Wen; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Yang, Jaw-Ji; Shie, Ming-You

    2015-07-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been successfully used in clinical applications in endodontics. Studies show that the antibacterial effects of CO2 laser irradiation are highly efficient when bacteria are embedded in biofilm because of a photothermal mechanism. The aim of this study was to confirm the effects of CO2 laser irradiation on MTA with regard to both material characterization and cell viability. MTA was irradiated with a dental CO2 laser using directly mounted fiber optics in the wound healing mode with a spot area of 0.25 cm(2) and then stored in an incubator at 100% relative humidity and 37°C for 1 day to set. The human dental pulp cells cultured on MTA were analyzed along with their proliferation and odontogenic differentiation behaviors. The results indicate that the setting time of MTA after irradiation by the CO2 laser was significantly reduced to 118 minutes rather than the usual 143 minutes. The maximum diametral tensile strength and x-ray diffraction patterns were similar to those obtained without CO2 laser irradiation. However, the CO2 laser irradiation increased the amount of Ca and Si ions released from the MTA and regulated cell behavior. CO2 laser-irradiated MTA promoted odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs, with the increased formation of mineralized nodules on the substrate's surface. It also up-regulated the protein expression of multiple markers of odontogenic and the expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein protein. The current study provides new and important data about the effects of CO2 laser irradiation on MTA with regard to the decreased setting time and increased ion release. Taking cell functions into account, the Si concentration released from MTA with laser irradiation may be lower than a critical value, and this information could lead to the development of new regenerative therapies for dentin and periodontal tissue. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. TiO(OH)2 - highly effective catalysts for optimizing CO2 desorption kinetics reducing CO2 capture cost: A new pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hongbao; Toan, Sam; Huang, Liang; Fan, Maohong; Wang, Yujun; Russell, Armistead G; Luo, Guangsheng; Fei, Weiyang

    2017-06-07

    The objective is to find a new pathway for significant reduction in CO2 capture energy consumption. Specifically, nanoporous TiO(OH)2 was used to realize the objective, which was desired as a catalyst to significantly accelerate the decomposition of aqueous NaHCO3, essentially CO2 desorption - the key step of Na2CO3/NaHCO3 based CO2 capture technologies from overall CO2 energy consumption perspective. Effects of several important factors on TiO(OH)2-catalyzed NaHCO3 decomposition were investigated. The quantity of CO2 generated from 0.238 mol/L NaHCO3 at 65 °C with catalyst is ~800% of that generated without the presence of catalyst. When a 12 W vacuum pump was used for carrying the generated CO2 out of reactor, the total amount of CO2 released was improved by ~2,500% under the given experimental conditions. No significant decrease in the catalytic effect of TiO(OH)2 was observed after five cyclic CO2 activated tests. In addition, characterizations with in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravity analysis and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller of TiO(OH)2 indicate that TiO(OH)2 is quite stable. The discovery in this research could inspire scientists' interests in starting to focus on a new pathway instead of making huge effort or investment in designing high-capacity but expensive CO2 sorbent for developing practical or cost-effective CO2 technologies.

  16. Effects of CO2 on the resuscitation of Listeria monocytogenes injured by various bactericidal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houteghem, Nancy; Devlieghere, Frank; Rajkovic, Andreja; Gómez, Sandra Maria Osés; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Debevere, Johan

    2008-03-31

    To assure the microbiological safety and quality of a food product, a combination of preservation hurdles is often used. Therefore, the effects of carbon dioxide at concentrations of 0, 20, 40 and 60% in modified atmospheres on the resuscitation of Listeria monocytogenes cells injured by mild bactericidal treatments during storage at 7 degrees C were examined. The bactericidal treatments were intense light pulses (ILP), chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)), lactic acid (LA) and heat. The results indicated additional bactericidal effects of CO(2) on cultures treated with LA, ClO(2) and ILP, with additional reductions in viable L. monocytogenes of 0.5-1.0 log cfu/ml. Lag phase duration was significantly different between the different treatments, with non-treated cells having the shortest lag phase, followed by that of heat, intense light pulses, lactic acid and finally ClO(2) treated cells. Maximum growth rate was also estimated and results showed a negative correlation with increasing CO(2) concentrations. A relationship was found between the amount of sub-lethally damaged cells after a mild inactivation treatment and the lag phase duration in the CO(2) environment. Current findings demonstrate the possibility that combining mild decontamination treatments and packaging in a CO(2) enriched environment could reduce the risk of L. monocytogenes infections in food due to an extension of the lag phase.

  17. Treatment of striae distensae with needling therapy versus CO2 fractional laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Mohamed H; Khattab, Fathia M; Abdelhaleem, Manal R

    2016-01-01

    Striae are atrophic dermal scars with overlying epidermal atrophy causing cosmetic concern. This study assesses and compares the efficacy and safety of needling therapy versus CO2 fractional laser in treatment of striae. Twenty Egyptian female patients with striae in the abdomen and lower limbs were involved in the study. The patients were treated with needling therapy and CO2 laser every 1 month for 3 sessions. Follow-up by digital photography and skin biopsy was conducted at baseline and 6 months after treatment. Clinical improvement was assessed by comparing photographs and patient's satisfaction before and after treatment. Nine of 10 (90%) needle-treated patients showed improvement. Among them, 3 (30%) had good, 4 (40%) had fair, and 2 (20%) had poor improvements; however, 1 (10%) did not show any improvement after the treatment. In CO2-laser treated patients, 5 of 10 (50%) of the patients showed clinical improvement; 1 (10%) were good, 3 (30%) were fair, and 1 (10%) were poor; however, 5 (50%) did not show improvement. The results support the use of microneedle therapy over CO2 lasers for striae treatment.

  18. Development and Evaluation of a High Sensitivity DIAL System for Profiling Atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Syed; Koch, Grady J.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Abedin, M. N.; Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.

    2008-01-01

    A ground-based 2-micron Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) CO2 profiling system for atmospheric boundary layer studies and validation of space-based CO2 sensors is being developed and tested at NASA Langley Research Center as part of the NASA Instrument Incubator Program. To capture the variability of CO2 in the lower troposphere a precision of 1-2 ppm of CO2 (less than 0.5%) with 0.5 to 1 km vertical resolution from near surface to free troposphere (4-5 km) is one of the goals of this program. In addition, a 1% (3 ppm) absolute accuracy with a 1 km resolution over 0.5 km to free troposphere (4-5 km) is also a goal of the program. This DIAL system leverages 2-micron laser technology developed under NASA's Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) and other NASA programs to develop new solid-state laser technology that provides high pulse energy, tunable, wavelength-stabilized, and double-pulsed lasers that are operable over pre-selected temperature insensitive strong CO2 absorption lines suitable for profiling of lower tropospheric CO2. It also incorporates new high quantum efficiency, high gain, and relatively low noise phototransistors, and a new receiver/signal processor system to achieve high precision DIAL measurements. This presentation describes the capabilities of this system for atmospheric CO2 and aerosol profiling. Examples of atmospheric measurements in the lidar and DIAL mode will be presented.

  19. High Energy 2-Micron Solid-State Laser Transmitter for NASA's Airborne CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin

    2012-01-01

    A 2-micron pulsed, Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar instrument for ground and airborne atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements via direct detection method is being developed at NASA Langley Research Center. This instrument will provide an alternate approach to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. A high energy pulsed approach provides high-precision measurement capability by having high signal-to-noise level and unambiguously eliminates the contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement.

  20. Mapping of CO2 at High Spatiotemporal Resolution using Satellite Observations: Global distributions from OCO-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerling, Dorit M.; Michalak, Anna M.; Kawa, S. Randolph

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observations of CO2 offer new opportunities to improve our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Using such observations to infer global maps of atmospheric CO2 and their associated uncertainties can provide key information about the distribution and dynamic behavior of CO2, through comparison to atmospheric CO2 distributions predicted from biospheric, oceanic, or fossil fuel flux emissions estimates coupled with atmospheric transport models. Ideally, these maps should be at temporal resolutions that are short enough to represent and capture the synoptic dynamics of atmospheric CO2. This study presents a geostatistical method that accomplishes this goal. The method can extract information about the spatial covariance structure of the CO2 field from the available CO2 retrievals, yields full coverage (Level 3) maps at high spatial resolutions, and provides estimates of the uncertainties associated with these maps. The method does not require information about CO2 fluxes or atmospheric transport, such that the Level 3 maps are informed entirely by available retrievals. The approach is assessed by investigating its performance using synthetic OCO-2 data generated from the PCTM/ GEOS-4/CASA-GFED model, for time periods ranging from 1 to 16 days and a target spatial resolution of 1deg latitude x 1.25deg longitude. Results show that global CO2 fields from OCO-2 observations can be predicted well at surprisingly high temporal resolutions. Even one-day Level 3 maps reproduce the large-scale features of the atmospheric CO2 distribution, and yield realistic uncertainty bounds. Temporal resolutions of two to four days result in the best performance for a wide range of investigated scenarios, providing maps at an order of magnitude higher temporal resolution relative to the monthly or seasonal Level 3 maps typically reported in the literature.

  1. Dual Phase Membrane for High Temperature CO2 Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Lin

    2007-06-30

    This project aimed at synthesis of a new inorganic dual-phase carbonate membrane for high temperature CO{sub 2} separation. Metal-carbonate dual-phase membranes were prepared by the direct infiltration method and the synthesis conditions were optimized. Permeation tests for CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} from 450-750 C showed very low permeances of those two gases through the dual-phase membrane, which was expected due to the lack of ionization of those two particular gases. Permeance of the CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} mixture was much higher, indicating that the gases do form an ionic species, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, enhancing transport through the membrane. However, at temperatures in excess of 650 C, the permeance of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} decreased rapidly, while predictions showed that permeance should have continued to increase with temperature. XRD data obtained from used membrane indicated that lithium iron oxides formed on the support surface. This lithium iron oxide layer has a very low conductivity, which drastically reduces the flow of electrons to the CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} gas mixture; thus limiting the formation of the ionic species required for transport through the membrane. These results indicated that the use of stainless steel supports in a high temperature oxidative environment can lead to decreased performance of the membranes. This revelation created the need for an oxidation resistant support, which could be gained by the use of a ceramic-type membrane. Work was extended to synthesize a new inorganic dual-phase carbonate membrane for high temperature CO{sub 2} separation. Helium permeance of the support before and after infiltration of molten carbonate are on the order of 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -10} moles/m{sup 2} {center_dot} Pa {center_dot} s respectively, indicating that the molten carbonate is able to sufficiently infiltrate the membrane. It was found that La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF) was a suitable candidate for the support

  2. CO2–CH4 permeation in high zeolite 4A loading mixed matrix membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Adams, Ryan T.

    2011-02-01

    Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) with low particle loadings have been shown to improve the properties of pure polymers for many gas separations. Comparatively few reports have been made for high particle loading (≥50vol.%) MMMs. In this work, CO2-CH4 feeds were used to study the potential of 50vol.% zeolite 4A-poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) MMMs for natural gas separations. A low CO2 partial pressure mixed feed probed MMM performance below the plasticization pressure of PVAc and a high CO2 partial pressure mixed feed probed MMM performance at industrially relevant conditions above the plasticization pressure.Under both mixed feed conditions at 35°C, substantial improvements in overall separation performance were observed. At low CO2 partial pressures, CO2 permeability roughly doubled with a nearly 50% increase in selectivity versus pure PVAc under the same conditions. For the high CO2 partial pressure feed, CO2 permeability remained effectively unchanged with a 63% increase in selectivity versus pure PVAc. Surprisingly, the performance of these PVAc based MMMs approached the properties of current " upper bound" polymers. Overall, this work shows that significantly improved performance MMMs can be made with traditional techniques from a low cost, low performance polymer without costly adhesion promoters. © 2010.

  3. Efficacy of fractional CO2 laser in treatment of atrophic scar of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Nahidi, Yalda; Maleki, Masoud; Esmaily, Habibollah; Moghimi, Hamid Reza

    2016-05-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Iran. Unfortunately, it can lead to unsightly atrophic scars with limited treatment options. Fractional CO2 laser is accepted for treatment of atrophic acne scars and recently has been used to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis, so we planned to use fractional CO2 laser on leishmaniasis scar. We conducted this study on 60 leishmaniasis scars on the face of 40 patients. The lesions were treated by a fractional CO2 laser with beam size of 120 μm, with energy of 50-90 mJ, and 50-100 spots/cm(2) density with two passes in three monthly sessions. Evaluation was done in the first and second months after the first treatment and 3 and 6 months after the last treatment. Digital photography was performed at each visit. Assessment of improvement rate by patient and physician was rated separately as follows: no improvement (0%), mild (CO2 laser for leishmaniasis scar. No significant adverse effects were noted.

  4. Coral energy reserves and calcification in a high-CO2 world at two temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, Verena; Grottoli, Andréa G; Warner, Mark E; Cai, Wei-Jun; Melman, Todd F; Hoadley, Kenneth D; Pettay, D Tye; Hu, Xinping; Li, Qian; Xu, Hui; Wang, Yongchen; Matsui, Yohei; Baumann, Justin H

    2013-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations threaten coral reefs globally by causing ocean acidification (OA) and warming. Yet, the combined effects of elevated pCO2 and temperature on coral physiology and resilience remain poorly understood. While coral calcification and energy reserves are important health indicators, no studies to date have measured energy reserve pools (i.e., lipid, protein, and carbohydrate) together with calcification under OA conditions under different temperature scenarios. Four coral species, Acropora millepora, Montipora monasteriata, Pocillopora damicornis, Turbinaria reniformis, were reared under a total of six conditions for 3.5 weeks, representing three pCO2 levels (382, 607, 741 µatm), and two temperature regimes (26.5, 29.0 °C) within each pCO2 level. After one month under experimental conditions, only A. millepora decreased calcification (-53%) in response to seawater pCO2 expected by the end of this century, whereas the other three species maintained calcification rates even when both pCO2 and temperature were elevated. Coral energy reserves showed mixed responses to elevated pCO2 and temperature, and were either unaffected or displayed nonlinear responses with both the lowest and highest concentrations often observed at the mid-pCO2 level of 607 µatm. Biweekly feeding may have helped corals maintain calcification rates and energy reserves under these conditions. Temperature often modulated the response of many aspects of coral physiology to OA, and both mitigated and worsened pCO2 effects. This demonstrates for the first time that coral energy reserves are generally not metabolized to sustain calcification under OA, which has important implications for coral health and bleaching resilience in a high-CO2 world. Overall, these findings suggest that some corals could be more resistant to simultaneously warming and acidifying oceans than previously expected.

  5. Coral energy reserves and calcification in a high-CO2 world at two temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Schoepf

    Full Text Available Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations threaten coral reefs globally by causing ocean acidification (OA and warming. Yet, the combined effects of elevated pCO2 and temperature on coral physiology and resilience remain poorly understood. While coral calcification and energy reserves are important health indicators, no studies to date have measured energy reserve pools (i.e., lipid, protein, and carbohydrate together with calcification under OA conditions under different temperature scenarios. Four coral species, Acropora millepora, Montipora monasteriata, Pocillopora damicornis, Turbinaria reniformis, were reared under a total of six conditions for 3.5 weeks, representing three pCO2 levels (382, 607, 741 µatm, and two temperature regimes (26.5, 29.0 °C within each pCO2 level. After one month under experimental conditions, only A. millepora decreased calcification (-53% in response to seawater pCO2 expected by the end of this century, whereas the other three species maintained calcification rates even when both pCO2 and temperature were elevated. Coral energy reserves showed mixed responses to elevated pCO2 and temperature, and were either unaffected or displayed nonlinear responses with both the lowest and highest concentrations often observed at the mid-pCO2 level of 607 µatm. Biweekly feeding may have helped corals maintain calcification rates and energy reserves under these conditions. Temperature often modulated the response of many aspects of coral physiology to OA, and both mitigated and worsened pCO2 effects. This demonstrates for the first time that coral energy reserves are generally not metabolized to sustain calcification under OA, which has important implications for coral health and bleaching resilience in a high-CO2 world. Overall, these findings suggest that some corals could be more resistant to simultaneously warming and acidifying oceans than previously expected.

  6. Superpulsed CO2 Laser with Intraoperative Pathologic Assessment for Treatment of Periorbital Basal Cell Carcinoma Involving Eyelash Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Periorbital basal cell carcinoma (BCC is considered a high risk case because it is associated with high rate of recurrence and complication. Superpulsed CO2 laser with intraoperative pathologic assessment could be an alternative and appropriate treatment for periocular lesions where Mohs micrographic surgery is not available. Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of superpulsed CO2 laser therapy with intraoperative pathologic assessment on periocular BCC involving eyelash line. Method. This follow-up study was performed on 20 patients with a total of 21 BCC lesions that were pathologically documented. Firstly, debulkation of tumoral mass was done by curettage. Then, irradiation and intraoperative pathologic evaluation were done by concurrent CO2 laser. The patients were followed up for a period of 36 months. Results. Out of 21 lesions, the nodular type accounted for 15 (71.4% lesions, and 12 (57.1% lesions were seen in the lower lid as the most common clinical type and site involvement. Twenty BCC lesions (95.2% were treated after one session. Damage to eyelash was seen in 2 (10% patients, but ectropion and other complications were not seen in any patient. Conclusion. Treatment with superpulsed CO2 laser and intraoperative pathologic evaluation for periorbital BCC lesions much close to conjunctiva could be an effective method with minimal complications without major danger of recurrence. This modality can be used with care in the inner canthus and high risk pathologic lesions.

  7. Pressure-induced alteration in effects of high CO2 on marine bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, N.; Tsukasaki, A.; Tsurushima, N.; Suzumura, M.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a key mitigation technology to reduce the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. Current CCS research is dominated by improvements of the efficiency of the capturing, transport or storage of CO2. Also, it is important to estimate potential impacts on marine environments related to potential CO2 leakage. It has been demonstrated that seawater acidification effects on marine community structure and food chains. Bacteria are the basis of marine microbial food web and responsible for a significant part of marine biogeochemical cycles in both water column and bottom sediments. We used a high pressure incubation system which is composed of an HPLC pump and stainless-steel pressure vessels. The system could maintain stably the pressure up to 30 MPa. Using the system, we investigated the effects of high CO2 concentration on a deep-sea bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp., isolated from the western North Pacific Ocean. The isolate was incubated in acidified seawaters at various CO2 concentrations under simulated pressure conditions between 0.1 MPa and 30 MPa. We determined bacterial growth rate and live/dead cell viability. It was found that both CO2 concentration and pressure influenced substantially the growth rate of the isolate. In order to assess potential effects of leaked CO2 on microbial assemblages in marine environments, it was suggested that hydraulic pressure is one essential variable to be considered.

  8. Painted Goby Larvae under High-CO2 Fail to Recognize Reef Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Joana M.; Amorim, M. Clara P.; Oliveira, Ana P.; Gonçalves, Emanuel J.; Munday, Philip L.; Simpson, Stephen D.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 levels have been increasing at an unprecedented rate due to anthropogenic activity. Consequently, ocean pCO2 is increasing and pH decreasing, affecting marine life, including fish. For many coastal marine fishes, selection of the adult habitat occurs at the end of the pelagic larval phase. Fish larvae use a range of sensory cues, including sound, for locating settlement habitat. This study tested the effect of elevated CO2 on the ability of settlement-stage temperate fish to use auditory cues from adult coastal reef habitats. Wild late larval stages of painted goby (Pomatoschistus pictus) were exposed to control pCO2 (532 μatm, pH 8.06) and high pCO2 (1503 μatm, pH 7.66) conditions, likely to occur in nearshore regions subjected to upwelling events by the end of the century, and tested in an auditory choice chamber for their preference or avoidance to nighttime reef recordings. Fish reared in control pCO2 conditions discriminated reef soundscapes and were attracted by reef recordings. This behaviour changed in fish reared in the high CO2 conditions, with settlement-stage larvae strongly avoiding reef recordings. This study provides evidence that ocean acidification might affect the auditory responses of larval stages of temperate reef fish species, with potentially significant impacts on their survival. PMID:28125690

  9. High spin-polarization in ultrathin Co2MnSi/CoPd multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanakis, I.

    2015-03-01

    Half-metallic Co2MnSi finds a broad spectrum of applications in spintronic devices either in the form of thin films or as spacer in multilayers. Using state-of-the-art ab-initio electronic structure calculations we exploit the electronic and magnetic properties of ultrathin Co2MnSi/CoPd multilayers. We show that these heterostructures combine high values of spin-polarization at the Co2MnSi spacer with the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of binary compounds such as CoPd. Thus they could find application in spintronic/magnetoelectronic devices.

  10. Gravity waves and high-altitude CO$_2$ ice cloud formation in the Martian atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Yiğit, Erdal; Hartogh, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We present the first general circulation model simulations that quantify and reproduce patches of extremely cold air required for CO$_2$ condensation and cloud formation in the Martian mesosphere. They are created by subgrid-scale gravity waves (GWs) accounted for in the model with the interactively implemented spectral parameterization. Distributions of GW-induced temperature fluctuations and occurrences of supersaturation conditions are in a good agreement with observations of high-altitude CO$_2$ ice clouds. Our study confirms the key role of GWs in facilitating CO$_2$ cloud formation, discusses their tidal modulation, and predicts clouds at altitudes higher than have been observed to date.

  11. Photorespiration and carbon concentrating mechanisms: two adaptations to high O2, low CO2 conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroney, James V; Jungnick, Nadine; Dimario, Robert J; Longstreth, David J

    2013-11-01

    This review presents an overview of the two ways that cyanobacteria, algae, and plants have adapted to high O2 and low CO2 concentrations in the environment. First, the process of photorespiration enables photosynthetic organisms to recycle phosphoglycolate formed by the oxygenase reaction catalyzed by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). Second, there are a number of carbon concentrating mechanisms that increase the CO2 concentration around Rubisco which increases the carboxylase reaction enhancing CO2 fixation. This review also presents possibilities for the beneficial modification of these processes with the goal of improving future crop yields.

  12. Experimental study of CO2 dissolution a convection phenomenon at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Imen; Chevalier, Sylvie; Faisal, Titly Farhana; Abderrahmane, Hamid; Sassi, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    The density driven convection phenomenon has a significant role in enhancing the CO2 geological storage capacity. Deep saline aquifers are targeted for large scale geological sequestration. Once the CO2 is injected in saline aquifer, the supercritical CO2 rises up, forms a thin layer of free phase CO2, and the dissolution and molecular diffusion of the dissolved CO2 in brine begins. The CO2 saturated brine is denser than the original brine leading to gravitational convection of CO2 saturated brine. Convection accelerates the dissolution process and thus improves the safety and the efficiency of the sequestration. Laboratory experiments have been previously performed with experimental set-ups allowing the visualization of the phenomenon (1) eventually combined to the measurements of the dissolved CO2 mass transfer (2) as a function of the permeability of the medium. The visualization of the process was possible as Hele-Shaw cells at atmospheric pressure were used. Pressurized cylindrical vessel containing porous media allows measuring mass transfer of CO2 using the pressure decay concept (3) but visualization of the convection/dissolution was not possible for these setups. In this work, we performed experiments in a pressurized transparent cell similar to a Hele-Shaw cell but with bigger aperture. Permeability was varied by changing the size of the glass beads filling the cell. Bromocrysol green was used as a dye to track the pH change due to the presence of dissolved CO2 (1). The phenomenon is captured by a high resolution camera. We studied the effect of the pressure and of the permeability on the fingering pattern, the onset and the timescale of the phenomenon and the quantitative mass transfer of dissolved CO2. Experiments were validated on numerical simulations performed using STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) developed by the PNNL (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) Hydrology group of the Department of Energy, USA. (1) Kneafsey, T

  13. Simulated leakage of high pCO2 water negatively impacts bivalve dominated infaunal communities from the Western Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Hanna; Mevenkamp, Lisa; Guilini, Katja; Meyer, Stefanie; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Abele, Doris; Vanreusel, Ann; Melzner, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Carbon capture and storage is promoted as a mitigation method counteracting the increase of atmospheric CO2 levels. However, at this stage, environmental consequences of potential CO2 leakage from sub-seabed storage sites are still largely unknown. In a 3-month-long mesocosm experiment, this study assessed the impact of elevated pCO2 levels (1,500 to 24,400 μatm) on Cerastoderma edule dominated benthic communities from the Baltic Sea. Mortality of C. edule was significantly increased in the highest treatment (24,400 μatm) and exceeded 50%. Furthermore, mortality of small size classes (0-1 cm) was significantly increased in treatment levels ≥6,600 μatm. First signs of external shell dissolution became visible at ≥1,500 μatm, holes were observed at >6,600 μatm. C. edule body condition decreased significantly at all treatment levels (1,500-24,400 μatm). Dominant meiofauna taxa remained unaffected in abundance. Densities of calcifying meiofauna taxa (i.e. Gastropoda and Ostracoda) decreased in high CO2 treatments (>6,600 μatm), while the non - calcifying Gastrotricha significantly increased in abundance at 24,400 μatm. In addition, microbial community composition was altered at the highest pCO2 level. We conclude that strong CO2 leakage can alter benthic infauna community composition at multiple trophic levels, likely due to high mortality of the dominant macrofauna species C. edule.

  14. CO2, CH4, and DOC Flux During Long Term Thaw of High Arctic Tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, B. T.; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Layton, A.; Bennett, P.; Mykytczuk, N.; Lau, C. M.; Whyte, L.; Onstott, T. C.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic regions are expected to experience temperature increases of >4° C by the end of this century. This warming is projected to cause a drastic reduction in the extent of permafrost at high northern latitudes, affecting an estimated 1000 Pg of SOC in the top 3 m. Determining the effects of this temperature change on CO2 and CH4 emissions is critical for defining source constraints to global climate models. To investigate this problem, 18 cores of 1 m length were collected in late spring 2011 before the thawing of the seasonal active layer from an ice-wedge polygon near the McGill Arctic Research Station (MARS) on Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada (N79°24, W90°45). Cores were collected from acidic soil (pH 5.5) with low SOC (~1%), summertime active layer depth between 40-70 cm (2010-2013), and sparse vegetation consisting primarily of small shrubs and sedges. Cores were progressively thawed from the surface over the course of 14 weeks to a final temperature of 4.5° C and held at that temperature for 15 months under the following conditions: in situ water saturation conditions versus fully water saturated conditions using artificial rain fall, surface light versus no surface light, cores from the polygon edge, and control cores with a permafrost table maintained at 70 cm depth. Core headspaces were measured weekly for CO2, CH4, H2, CO, and O2 flux during the 18 month thaw experiment. After ~20 weeks of thawing maximum, CO2 flux for the polygon edge and dark treatment cores were 3.0×0.7 and 1.7×0.4 mmol CO2 m-2 hr-1, respectively. The CO2 flux for the control, saturated, and in situ saturation cores reached maximums of 0.6×0.2, 0.9×0.5, and 0.9×0.1 mmol CO2 m-2 hr-1, respectively. Field measurements of CO2 flux from an adjacent polygon during the mid-summer of 2011 to 2013 ranged from 0.3 to 3.7 mmol CO2 m-2 hr-1. Cores from all treatments except water saturated were found to consistently oxidize CH4 at ~atmospheric concentrations (2 ppmv) with a maximum

  15. Carbon assimilation in Eucalyptus urophylla grown under high atmospheric CO2 concentrations: A proteomics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bruna Marques Dos; Balbuena, Tiago Santana

    2017-01-06

    Photosynthetic organisms may be drastically affected by the future climate projections of a considerable increase in CO2 concentrations. Growth under a high concentration of CO2 could stimulate carbon assimilation-especially in C3-type plants. We used a proteomics approach to test the hypothesis of an increase in the abundance of the enzymes involved in carbon assimilation in Eucalyptus urophylla plants grown under conditions of high atmospheric CO2. Our strategy allowed the profiling of all Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes and associated protein species. Among the 816 isolated proteins, those involved in carbon fixation were found to be the most abundant ones. An increase in the abundance of six key enzymes out of the eleven core enzymes involved in carbon fixation was detected in plants grown at a high CO2 concentration. Proteome changes were corroborated by the detection of a decrease in the stomatal aperture and in the vascular bundle area in Eucalyptus urophylla plantlets grown in an environment of high atmospheric CO2. Our proteomics approach indicates a positive metabolic response regarding carbon fixation in a CO2-enriched atmosphere. The slight but significant increase in the abundance of the Calvin enzymes suggests that stomatal closure did not prevent an increase in the carbon assimilation rates.

  16. Optimal Surface Amino-Functionalization Following Thermo-Alkaline Treatment of Nanostructured Silica Adsorbents for Enhanced CO2 Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obdulia Medina-Juárez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Special preparation of Santa Barbara Amorphous (SBA-15, mesoporous silica with highly hexagonal ordered, these materials have been carried out for creating adsorbents exhibiting an enhanced and partially selective adsorption toward CO2. This creation starts from an adequate conditioning of the silica surface, via a thermo-alkaline treatment to increase the population of silanol species on it. CO2 adsorption is only reasonably achieved when the SiO2 surface becomes aminated after put in contact with a solution of an amino alkoxide compound in the right solvent. Unfunctionalized and amine-functionalized substrates were characterized through X-ray diffraction, N2 sorption, Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, 29Si solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, and NH3 thermal programmed desorption. These analyses proved that the thermo-alkaline procedure desilicates the substrate and eliminates the micropores (without affecting the SBA-15 capillaries, present in the original solid. NMR analysis confirms that the hydroxylated solid anchors more amino functionalizing molecules than the unhydroxylated material. The SBA-15 sample subjected to hydroxylation and amino-functionalization displays a high enthalpy of interaction, a reason why this solid is suitable for a strong deposition of CO2 but with the possibility of observing a low-pressure hysteresis phenomenon. Contrastingly, CH4 adsorption on amino-functionalized, hydroxylated SBA-15 substrates becomes almost five times lower than the CO2 one, thus giving proof of their selectivity toward CO2. Although the amount of retained CO2 is not yet similar to or higher than those determined in other investigations, the methodology herein described is still susceptible to optimization.

  17. Optimal Surface Amino-Functionalization Following Thermo-Alkaline Treatment of Nanostructured Silica Adsorbents for Enhanced CO2 Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Juárez, Obdulia; García-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel; Arellano-Sánchez, Ulises; Kornhauser-Straus, Isaac; Rojas-González, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Special preparation of Santa Barbara Amorphous (SBA)-15, mesoporous silica with highly hexagonal ordered, these materials have been carried out for creating adsorbents exhibiting an enhanced and partially selective adsorption toward CO2. This creation starts from an adequate conditioning of the silica surface, via a thermo-alkaline treatment to increase the population of silanol species on it. CO2 adsorption is only reasonably achieved when the SiO2 surface becomes aminated after put in contact with a solution of an amino alkoxide compound in the right solvent. Unfunctionalized and amine-functionalized substrates were characterized through X-ray diffraction, N2 sorption, Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, 29Si solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and NH3 thermal programmed desorption. These analyses proved that the thermo-alkaline procedure desilicates the substrate and eliminates the micropores (without affecting the SBA-15 capillaries), present in the original solid. NMR analysis confirms that the hydroxylated solid anchors more amino functionalizing molecules than the unhydroxylated material. The SBA-15 sample subjected to hydroxylation and amino-functionalization displays a high enthalpy of interaction, a reason why this solid is suitable for a strong deposition of CO2 but with the possibility of observing a low-pressure hysteresis phenomenon. Contrastingly, CH4 adsorption on amino-functionalized, hydroxylated SBA-15 substrates becomes almost five times lower than the CO2 one, thus giving proof of their selectivity toward CO2. Although the amount of retained CO2 is not yet similar to or higher than those determined in other investigations, the methodology herein described is still susceptible to optimization. PMID:28774017

  18. High resolution modeling of CO2 over Europe: implications for representation errors of satellite retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Koch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite retrievals for column CO2 with better spatial and temporal sampling are expected to improve the current surface flux estimates of CO2 via inverse techniques. However, the spatial scale mismatch between remotely sensed CO2 and current generation inverse models can induce representation errors, which can cause systematic biases in flux estimates. This study is focused on estimating these representation errors associated with utilization of satellite measurements in global models with a horizontal resolution of about 1 degree or less. For this we used simulated CO2 from the high resolution modeling framework WRF-VPRM, which links CO2 fluxes from a diagnostic biosphere model to a weather forecasting model at 10×10 km2 horizontal resolution. Sub-grid variability of column averaged CO2, i.e. the variability not resolved by global models, reached up to 1.2 ppm with a median value of 0.4 ppm. Statistical analysis of the simulation results indicate that orography plays an important role. Using sub-grid variability of orography and CO2 fluxes as well as resolved mixing ratio of CO2, a linear model can be formulated that could explain about 50% of the spatial patterns in the systematic (bias or correlated error component of representation error in column and near-surface CO2 during day- and night-times. These findings give hints for a parameterization of representation error which would allow for the representation error to taken into account in inverse models or data assimilation systems.

  19. Skeletal mineralogy of coral recruits under high temperature and pCO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Foster

    2016-03-01

    Our results show that elevated pCO2 alone is unlikely to drive changes in the skeletal mineralogy of young corals. Not having an ability to switch from aragonite to calcite precipitation may leave corals and ultimately coral reef ecosystems more susceptible to predicted ocean acidification. An important area for prospective research would be the investigation of the combined impact of high pCO2 and reduced Mg ∕ Ca ratio on coral skeletal mineralogy.

  20. High temporal resolution tracing of xylem CO2 transport in oak trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemen, Jasper; Ingrisch, Johannes; Bahn, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Carbon (C) allocation defines the flows of C between plant organs and their storage pools and metabolic processes and is therefore considered as an important determinant of forest C budgets and their responses to climate change. In trees, assimilates derived from leaf photosynthesis are transported via the phloem to above- and belowground sink tissues, where partitioning between growth, storage, and respiration occurs. At the same time, root- and aboveground respired CO2 can be dissolved in water and transported in the xylem tissue, thereby representing a C flux of large magnitude whose role in C allocation yet is unresolved. In this study, we infused 13C labeled water into the stem base of five year old potted oak (Quercus rubra) trees as a surrogate for respired CO2 to investigate the role of respired CO2 transport in trees in C allocation. We used high-resolution laser-based measurements of the isotopic composition of stem and soil CO2 efflux combined with stem gas probes to monitor the transport of 13C label. The high enrichment of the gas probes in the stem at the bottom of the canopy showed that the label was transported upwards from the base of the tree toward the top. During its ascent, the 13C label was removed from the transpiration stream and lost to the atmosphere at stem level, as was observed using the stem CO2 efflux laser-based measurements. This study is the first to show results from tracing xylem CO2 transport in trees at high temporal resolution using a 13C labeling approach. Moreover, they extend results from previous studies on internal CO2 transport in species with high transpiration rates like poplar to species with lower transpiration rates like oak. Internal transport of CO2 indicates that the current concepts of the tree C allocation need to be revisited, as they show that current gas exchange approach to estimating above- and belowground autotrophic respiration is inadequate.

  1. Tail gas treatment of sour-SEWGS CO2 product. Public version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dijk, H.A.J. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    This literature review covers the technologies suitable for the CO2-H2S separation within the context of CO2 purification of a pre-combustion captured stream intended for storage or reuse. The technologies considered cover existing industrially applied processes, emerging processes as well as processes in development. Several technologies capable of achieving the desired CO2-H2S separation were identified. Among them are liquid scrubbing processes Thiopaq and CrystaSulf producing elemental sulphur, selective oxidation to elemental sulphur such as MODOP or based on novel catalysts and sorbent-based (reactive) separations using low-, medium- or high-temperature (reactive) sorbents. SEWGS stands for Sorption Enhanced Water Gas Shift process.

  2. Limitations and high pressure behavior of MOF-5 for CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joo Young; Karadas, Ferdi; Zulfiqar, Sonia; Deniz, Erhan; Aparicio, Santiago; Atilhan, Mert; Yavuz, Cafer T; Han, Seung Min

    2013-09-14

    Porous network structures (e.g. metal-organic frameworks, MOFs) show considerable potential in dethroning monoethanol amine (MEA) from being the dominant scrubber for CO2 at the fossil-fuel-burning power generators. In contrast to their promise, structural stability and high-pressure behavior of MOFs are not well documented. We herein report moisture stability, mechanical properties and high-pressure compression on a model MOF structure, MOF-5. Our results show that MOF-5 can endure all tested pressures (0-225 bar) without losing its structural integrity, however, its moist air stability points at a 3.5 hour safety window (at 21.6 °C and 49% humidity) for an efficient CO2 capture. Isosteric heats of CO2 adsorption at high pressures show moderate interaction energy between CO2 molecules and the MOF-5 sorbent, which combined with the large sorption ability of MOF-5 in the studied pressure-temperature ranges show the viability of this sorbent for CO2 capturing purposes. The combination of the physicochemical methods we used suggests a generalized analytical standard for measuring viability in CO2 capture operations.

  3. Facile synthesis of hybrid CNTs/NiCo2S4 composite for high performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Delong; Gong, Youning; Pan, Chunxu

    2016-07-11

    In this work, a novel carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/NiCo2S4 composite for high performance supercapacitors was prepared via a simple chemical bath deposition combined with a post-anion exchange reaction. The morphologies and phase structures of the composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (Raman), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low-temperature sorption of nitrogen (BET). The electro-chemical tests revealed that the CNT/NiCo2S4 composite exhibited high electrochemical performance, because the CNTs were used as a conductive network for the NiCo2S4 hexagonal nanoplates. Compared with pure NiCo2S4 and the mechanically mixed CNTs/NiCo2S4 composite, the CNTs/NiCo2S4 composite electrode material exhibited excellent supercapacitive performance, such as a high specific capacitance up to 1537 F/g (discharge current density of 1 A/g) and an outstanding rate capability of 78.1% retention as the discharge current density increased to 100 A/g. It is therefore expected to be a promising alternative material in the area of energy storage.

  4. Experimental and modeling study of NO emission under high CO2 concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    An experimental and numerical study of the NOx formation and reduction process in a designed coal combustion furnace under both traditional air atmosphere and O2/CO2 atmosphere was conducted, in an attempt to explore the chemistry mechanism of the experimentally observed NOx suppression under high CO2 concentration atmospheres. A simplified ‘chemically oriented’ approach, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-chemical kinetics modeling method, was validated and used to model the experimental process. The high CO2 concentration’s chemical effect on NO reduction has been studied, and the differences in NOx reaction behaviors between O2/CO2 atmosphere and air atmosphere were analyzed by detailed chemical kinetic model. On the basis of investigations through elementary chemical reactions, it can be concluded that high CO2 concentration plays an important role on NOx conversion process during oxy-fuel combustion. Moreover, the dominant reaction steps and the most important reactions for NO conversion under different atmospheres were discussed. Under O2/CO2 atmosphere, the main active sequence for NO reaction includes: NO→N→N2, and the main active path for NO reaction under air atmosphere is through N2→N→NO.

  5. Influence of secondary treatment with CO2 laser irradiation for mitigation site on fused silica surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong; Zhou, Qiang; Qiu, Rong; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Hui-Li; Yao, Cai-Zhen; Wang, Jun-Bo; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Chun-Ming; Xiang, Xia; Zu, Xiao-Tao; Yuan, Xiao-Dong; Miao, Xin-Xiang

    2016-10-01

    The ablation debris and raised rim, as well as residual stress and deep crater will be formed during the mitigation of damage site with a CO2 laser irradiation on fused silica surface, which greatly affects the laser damage resistance of optics. In this study, the experimental study combined with numerical simulation is utilized to investigate the effect of the secondary treatment on a mitigated site by CO2 laser irradiation. The results indicate that the ablation debris and the raised rim can be completely eliminated and the depth of crater can be reduced. Notable results show that the residual stress of the mitigation site after treatment will reduce two-thirds of the original stress. Finally, the elimination and the controlling mechanism of secondary treatment on the debris and raised rim, as well as the reasons for changing the profile and stress are analyzed. The results can provide a reference for the optimization treatment of mitigation sites by CO2 laser secondary treatment. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61505170, 61505171, and 51535003), the Joint Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. U1530109), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2016M592709).

  6. CO2气调储藏对大米食用品质调控效应的研究%Effects of Controlled Atmospheres with High CO2 Concentrations on Eating Quality of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨维巧; 雷桂明; 刘霞; 李喜宏

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated the effects of high CO2 atmosphere control condition on the insoluble amylase content and the quality of cooked rice. The sample named W45 from Tianjin was storaged at 10℃ and 30℃ separately for 6 months in gas-controlled chambers, which could quantitatively regulate the content of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The results showed that, under the condition of 10 ℃ and 8% O2, high-concentration CO2 could inhibit the increasing of insoluble amylase of rice, the effect of CO2 concentration was 20% > 10% > 2%, and the insoluble amylase content of rice, which storaged at 20% CO2 atmosphere control condition, increased by 9.39% compared to the initial value, the control (uninflated treatment) increased by 15.01% compared to the initial value. Under the storage condition of 30 X and 8% O2, there was no remarkable influence when high CO2 atmosphere charging at storage on insoluble amylase content At 10 X and 30 ℃ temperature storage conditions, the high CO2 treatment could effectively improve the cooking quality of rice, inhibit the heat water absorption rate of rice, increase the soluble solids content of rice water, the higher CO2 concentration the more obvious effects, and under the storage condition of 20% CO2 and 10 ℃, the heat water absorption rate of rice decreased by 12.71% compared to control, the soluble solids content of rice water increased by 24.56% compared to control.%以W45号大米为试材,定量控制储藏环境中的O2和CO2浓度,研究10℃和30℃条件下,高浓度CO2储藏6个月对大米不溶性直链淀粉含量及蒸煮品质的影响.结果表明:在低温10℃、O2浓度8%条件下,高浓度CO2可有效抑制大米不溶性直链淀粉含量的增加,CO2浓度作用效果20%>10%>2%,其中20%CO2气调储藏大米的不溶性直链淀粉含量与初始值相比仅增加了9.39%,显著低于对照(不充气处理);在高温30℃、O2浓度8%条件下,高浓度CO2调控大米不溶性直链

  7. High Precision 2.0 μm Photoacoustic Spectrometer for Determination of the ^{13}CO_{2}/^{12}CO_{2} Isotope Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Zachary; Hodges, Joseph T.

    2017-06-01

    We have developed a portable photoacoustic spectrometer for high precision measurements of the ^{13}CO_{2}/^{12}CO_{2} isotope ratio and the absolute molar concentration of each isotope. The spectrometer extends on our previous work at 1.57 μm [1], and now employs two separate intensity modulated distributed feedback lasers and a fiber amplifier, operating in the 2.0 μm wavelength region. Each DFB is selected to probe individual spectrally isolated ro-vibrational transitions for ^{12}CO_{2} and ^{13}CO_{2}. The spectrometer is actively temperature controlled, mitigating variations in the two spectral line intensities and the temperature dependent system response. For measurements of ambient concentrations of carbon dioxide at nominally natural abundance in dry air, we demonstrate a measurement precision of 140 ppb for ^{12}CO_{2} with a 1 s averaging time and 10 ppb for ^{13}CO_{2} with a 60 s averaging time. Precision in δ13C of better than 0.1 permil is demonstrated. The analyzer response is calibrated in terms of certified gas mixtures and compared to characterization by cavity ringdown spectroscopy. We also investigate how water vapor affects the photoacoustic signals by promoting collisional relaxation for each isotope. [1] Z.D. Reed, B. Sperling, et al. App. Phys. B. 117, 645-657, 2014

  8. Boron-Functionalized Graphene Oxide-Organic Frameworks for Highly Efficient CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Enamul; Islam, Md Monirul; Pourazadi, Ehsan; Sarkar, Shuranjan; Harris, Andrew T; Minett, Andrew I; Yanmaz, Ekrem; Alshehri, Saad M; Ide, Yusuke; Wu, Kevin C-W; Kaneti, Yusuf Valentino; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Hossain, Md Shahriar A

    2017-02-01

    The capture and storage of CO2 have been suggested as an effective strategy to reduce the global emissions of greenhouse gases. Hence, in recent years, many studies have been carried out to develop highly efficient materials for capturing CO2 . Until today, different types of porous materials, such as zeolites, porous carbons, N/B-doped porous carbons or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), have been studied for CO2 capture. Herein, the CO2 capture performance of new hybrid materials, graphene-organic frameworks (GOFs) is described. The GOFs were synthesized under mild conditions through a solvothermal process using graphene oxide (GO) as a starting material and benzene 1,4-diboronic acid as an organic linker. Interestingly, the obtained GOF shows a high surface area (506 m(2)  g(-1) ) which is around 11 times higher than that of GO (46 m(2)  g(-1) ), indicating that the organic modification on the GO surface is an effective way of preparing a porous structure using GO. Our synthetic approach is quite simple, facile, and fast, compared with many other approaches reported previously. The synthesized GOF exhibits a very large CO2 capacity of 4.95 mmol g(-1) at 298 K (1 bar), which is higher those of other porous materials or carbon-based materials, along with an excellent CO2 /N2 selectivity of 48.8.

  9. High CO2 levels impair alveolar epithelial function independently of pH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Briva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In patients with acute respiratory failure, gas exchange is impaired due to the accumulation of fluid in the lung airspaces. This life-threatening syndrome is treated with mechanical ventilation, which is adjusted to maintain gas exchange, but can be associated with the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the lung. Carbon dioxide (CO2 is a by-product of cellular energy utilization and its elimination is affected via alveolar epithelial cells. Signaling pathways sensitive to changes in CO2 levels were described in plants and neuronal mammalian cells. However, it has not been fully elucidated whether non-neuronal cells sense and respond to CO2. The Na,K-ATPase consumes approximately 40% of the cellular metabolism to maintain cell homeostasis. Our study examines the effects of increased pCO2 on the epithelial Na,K-ATPase a major contributor to alveolar fluid reabsorption which is a marker of alveolar epithelial function. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that short-term increases in pCO2 impaired alveolar fluid reabsorption in rats. Also, we provide evidence that non-excitable, alveolar epithelial cells sense and respond to high levels of CO2, independently of extracellular and intracellular pH, by inhibiting Na,K-ATPase function, via activation of PKCzeta which phosphorylates the Na,K-ATPase, causing it to endocytose from the plasma membrane into intracellular pools. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that alveolar epithelial cells, through which CO2 is eliminated in mammals, are highly sensitive to hypercapnia. Elevated CO2 levels impair alveolar epithelial function, independently of pH, which is relevant in patients with lung diseases and altered alveolar gas exchange.

  10. Modelling Plant and Soil Nitrogen Feedbacks Affecting Forest Carbon Gain at High CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtrie, R. E.; Norby, R. J.; Franklin, O.; Pepper, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Short-term, direct effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on plant carbon gain are relatively well understood. There is considerable uncertainty, however, about longer-term effects, which are influenced by various plant and ecosystem feedbacks. A key feedback in terrestrial ecosystems occurs through changes in plant carbon (C) allocation patterns. For instance, if high CO2 were to increase C allocation to roots, then plants may experience positive feedback through improved plant nutrition. A second type of feedback, associated with decomposition of soil-organic matter, may reduce soil-nutrient availability at high CO2. This paper will consider mechanistic models of both feedbacks. Effects of high CO2 on plant C allocation will be investigated using a simple model of forest net primary production (NPP) that incorporates the primary mechanisms of plant carbon and nitrogen (N) balance. The model called MATE (Model Any Terrestrial Ecosystem) includes an equation for annual C balance that depends on light- saturated photosynthetic rate and therefore on [CO2], and an equation for N balance incorporating an expression for N uptake as a function of root mass. The C-N model is applied to a Free Air CO2 Exchange (FACE) experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee, USA, where closed-canopy, monoculture stands of the deciduous hardwood sweetgum ( Liquidambar styraciflua) have been growing at [CO2] of 375 and 550 ppm for ten years. Features of this experiment are that the annual NPP response to elevated CO2 has averaged approximately 25% over seven years, but that annual fine-root production has almost doubled on average, with especially large increases in later years of the experiment (Norby et al. 2006). The model provides a simple graphical approach for analysing effects of elevated CO2 and N supply on leaf/root/wood C allocation and productivity. It simulates increases in NPP and fine-root production at the ORNL FACE site that are consistent

  11. Vagarious successful treatment of recalcitrant warts in combination with CO2 laser and imiquimod 5% cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ying; Zheng, Yi-Qing; Wang, Lin

    2014-12-01

    Imiquimod 5% cream is widely regarded as a safe and effective option when treating recalcitrant warts, owing to the ointment's negligible side effects. However, our observations highlighted case of a patient incurring severe adverse reactions due to application of the cream, although the treatment proved successful in curing recalcitrant warts which had developed on the external auditory canal and external ear. All lesions were entirely removed with short-pulsed CO2 laser. As soon as the wound-healing process was completed, imiquimod 5% cream was self-applied on the healing wounds once daily for 5 days per week in a total of 2 weeks. The patient appeared normal after the CO2 laser treatment and experienced severe redness, itching, exudation, and incrustation after a 2-week imiquimod 5% cream therapy. All lesions showed no recurrence during the 12-month followed-up process. We concluded that a feasible treatment modality to cure recalcitrant cutaneous warts is in combination of CO2 laser and imiquimod. Immunoenhancement plays an important role in the treatment of recalcitrant warts.

  12. Facilely synthesized porous NiCo2O4 flowerlike nanostructure for high-rate supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haichao; Jiang, Jianjun; Zhang, Li; Qi, Tong; Xia, Dandan; Wan, Houzhao

    2014-02-01

    We have developed a facile and scalable method to grow porous NiCo2O4 nanostructure. The conductivity is measured by a linear sweep voltammetry, which indicates that the conductivity of the NiCo2O4 sample is at least two orders of magnitude higher than those of NiO and Co3O4 samples. The conductive NiCo2O4 hybrid electrode delivers an enhanced specific capacitance of 658 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 compared to NiO and Co3O4. Excellent rate capability, 78% specific capacitance retention for a 20-time current density increase and 77% specific capacitance retention for a 50-time scan rate rise, is achieved. The NiCo2O4 sample demonstrates ultralong cycling lifespan, no observable degradation is found for the total cycle numbers as high as 10000 cycles. Furthermore, the excellent capacitive performance of porous NiCo2O4 electrode is also evaluated by a two-electrode asymmetric supercapacitor device. The asymmetric supercapacitor device delivers a 64% rate property for the current density increase 20 times. Remarkably, the asymmetric supercapacitor device also shows ultrahigh long-term stability, 93.5% of specific capacitance can still be retained after 10,000 cycles cycling. These excellent capacitive performances indicate the as-fabricated porous NiCo2O4 flowerlike nanostructure a promising electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  13. Finely tuning MOFs towards high-performance post-combustion CO2 capture materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Bai, Junfeng; Lu, Zhiyong; Pan, Yi; You, Xiaozeng

    2016-01-11

    CO2 capture science and technology, particularly for the post-combustion CO2 capture, has become one of very important research fields, due to great concern of global warming. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with a unique feature of structural fine-tunability, unlike the traditional porous solid materials, can provide many and powerful platforms to explore high-performance adsorbents for post-combustion CO2 capture. Until now, several strategies for finely tuning MOF structures have been developed, in which either the larger quadrupole moment and polarizability of CO2 are considered: metal ion change (I), functional groups attachment (II) and functional group insertion (III), vary the electronic nature of the pore surface; or targeting the smaller kinetic diameter of CO2 over N2 is focused on: framework interpenetration (IV), ligand shortening (V) and coordination site shifting (VI) contract the pore size of frameworks to improve their CO2 capture properties. In this review, from the viewpoint of synthetic materials scientists/chemists, we would like to introduce and summarize these strategies based upon recent work published by other groups and ourselves.

  14. Combined Tin-Containing Fluoride Solution and CO2 Laser Treatment Reduces Enamel Erosion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; Witulski, Nadine; Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Apel, Christian; Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of combined CO2 laser and tin-containing fluoride treatment on the formation and progression of enamel erosive lesions. Ninety-six human enamel samples were obtained, stored in thymol solution and, after surface polishing, randomly divided into 6 different surface treatment groups (n = 16 in each group) as follows: no treatment, control (C); one CO2 laser irradiation (L1); two CO2 laser irradiations (L2); daily application of fluoride solution (F); combined daily fluoride solution + one CO2 laser irradiation (L1F), and combined daily fluoride solution + two CO2 laser irradiations (L2F). Laser irradiation was performed at 0.3 J/cm2 (5 µs/226 Hz/10.6 µm) on day 1 (L1) and day 6 (L2). The fluoride solution contained AmF/NaF (500 ppm F), and SnCl2 (800 ppm Sn) at pH 4.5. After surface treatment the samples were submitted to an erosive cycling over 10 days, including immersion in citric acid (2 min/0.05 M/pH = 2.3) 6 times daily and storage in remineralization solution (≥1 h) between erosive attacks. At the end of each cycling day, the enamel surface loss (micrometers) was measured using a 3D laser profilometer. Data were statistically analyzed by means of a 2-level mixed effects model and linear contrasts (α = 0.05). Group F (-3.3 ± 2.0 µm) showed significantly lower enamel surface loss than groups C (-27.22 ± 4.1 µm), L1 (-18.3 ± 4.4 µm) and L2 (-16.3 ± 5.3 µm) but higher than L1F (-1.0 ± 4.4 µm) and L2F (1.4 ± 3.2 µm, p surface loss, while its combination with CO2 laser irradiation at 0.3 J/cm2 hampered erosive loss almost completely. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Highly porous organic polymers bearing tertiary amine group and their exceptionally high CO2 uptake capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Ruth; Bhaumik, Asim

    2015-02-01

    We report a very simple and unique strategy for synthesis of a tertiary amine functionalized high surface area porous organic polymer (POP) PDVTA-1 through the co-polymerization of monomers divinylbenzene (DVB) and triallylamine (TAA) under solvothermal reaction conditions. Two different PDVTA-1 samples have been synthesized by varying the molar ratio of the monomers. The porous polymeric materials have been thoroughly characterized by solid state 13C CP MAS-NMR, FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopy, N2 sorption, HR TEM and FE SEM to understand its chemical environment, nanostructure, bonding, morphology and related surface properties. PDVTA-1 with higher amine content (DVB/TAA=4.0) showed exceptionally high CO2 uptake capacity of 85.8 wt% (19.5 mmol g-1) at 273 K and 43.69 wt% (9.93 mmol g-1) at 298 K under 3 bar pressure, whereas relatively low amine loaded material (DVB/TAA=7.0) shows uptake capacity of 59.2 wt% (13.45 mmol g-1) at 273 K and 34.36 wt% (7.81 mmol g-1) at 298 K. Highly porous nanostructure together with very high surface area and basicity at the surface due to the presence of abundant basic tertiary amine N-sites in the framework of PDVTA-1 could be responsible for very high CO2 adsorption.

  16. Nanocrystallization of the Ti50Ni48Co2 Shape Memory Alloy by Thermomechanical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Sharifi, E.; Karimzadeh, F.; Kermanpur, A.

    2015-01-01

    The microstructural evolution during nanostructuring of the Ti50Ni48Co2 shape memory alloy by thermomechanical processing is investigated. The high purity ingots were fabricated by a copper boat vacuum induction melting technique. The differential scanning calorimetry measurements showed that the homogenized Ti50Ni48Co2 specimen have two-stage transformation during cooling including the austenite to R phase and the R phase to martensite. The homogenized specimens were then hot rolled and annealed to prepare the initial microstructure. Thereafter, annealed specimens were subjected to cold rolling with various thickness reductions up to 70 %. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the severe cold rolling led to the formation of a mixed microstructure consisting of amorphous and nanocrystalline phases in Ti50Ni48Co2 alloy. After annealing at 400 °C, the amorphous phase formed in the 70 % cold-rolled specimen was completely crystallized and an entire nanocrystalline structure with the grain size between 10 and 60 nm was achieved. The nanocrystalline Ti50Ni48Co2 alloy exhibited about 12 % of recoverable strain and very high plateau stress (about 730 MPa) which was significantly higher than that of the coarse-grained state.

  17. Highly conductive NiCo2S4 urchin-like nanostructures for high-rate pseudocapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haichao; Jiang, Jianjun; Zhang, Li; Wan, Houzhao; Qi, Tong; Xia, Dandan

    2013-09-01

    A 3D highly conductive urchin-like NiCo2S4 nanostructure has been successfully prepared using a facile precursor transformation method. Remarkably, the NiCo2S4 electroactive material demonstrates superior electrochemical performance with ultrahigh high-rate capacitance, very high specific capacitance, and excellent cycling stability.A 3D highly conductive urchin-like NiCo2S4 nanostructure has been successfully prepared using a facile precursor transformation method. Remarkably, the NiCo2S4 electroactive material demonstrates superior electrochemical performance with ultrahigh high-rate capacitance, very high specific capacitance, and excellent cycling stability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, and the electrochemical performances of NiCo2O4, Co9S8 and NiS. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02958a

  18. Safety and Efficacy Evaluation of Pulsed Dye Laser Treatment, CO2 Ablative Fractional Resurfacing, and Combined Treatment for Surgical Scar Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel L; Geronemus, Roy

    2016-11-01

    Surgical scars are an unwanted sequela following surgical procedures. Several different treatment modalities and approaches are currently being employed to improve the cosmesis of surgical scars with each having varying degrees of success. The objective of this study was to assess the ef cacy and safety pulsed dye laser treatment, CO2 ablative fractional resurfacing, and a combined treatment with these two modalities for the cosmetic improvement of surgical scarring that occurred following the surgical removal of skin cancer from different anatomic areas. Twenty-five patients with surgical scarring most frequently on the face following recent surgical excision of skin cancer with Mohs surgery were included in this multicenter, prospective clinical study. Patients were randomized into 4 treatment arms, namely, pulsed dye laser alone, CO2 laser alone, a combined treatment with these two modalities, and CO2 ablative fractional resurfacing on the same day of surgery to half of the scar, followed by a combined treatment with the two modalities to that half of the scar. Patients in each study arm received a total of 3-4 treatments, while those patients in Arm 4 underwent an additional treatment with CO2 laser immediately after surgery. Patients were followed up at 1 and 3 months after the final treatment session. No adverse events were seen. Significant improvements in the appearance of scars were achieved in all study arms, as as- sessed by the Vancouver Scar Scale and Global Evaluation Response scales, with the best clinical outcomes seen in those scars that underwent a combination treatment. All patients reported very high satisfaction from treatment. Both pulsed dye laser treatment and CO2 ablative fractional resurfacing, when used as a monotherapy, are safe and effective in the treatment and improvement of recent surgical scarring. When both of these modalities are used in combination, however, they appear to potentially have a synergistic effect and an accelerated

  19. Photodynamic therapy in combination with CO2 laser for the treatment of Bowen's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong; Wang, Yi-xia; Zheng, Ji-Chun; Sun, Ping; Yang, Zhi-yong; Li, Yuan-li; Liu, Xiao-yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the activation of a previously administered photosensitizing agent by visible light to induce tumor necrosis. Photosensitizers are topically applied in the treatment of skin tumors to avoid systemic side effects. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) as a photosensitizer (ALA-PDT) in combination with CO2 laser in the treatment of Bowen's disease (BD; intraepithelial squamous cell carcinoma). Twenty-two lesions from 18 patients were randomized into two groups: 11 lesions were treated with topical ALA-PDT (180 J/cm(2) at 100 mW/cm(2)) + CO2 laser for one to three sessions. The remaining 11 lesions were treated with CO2 laser alone, serving as control group. All patients were reviewed at ≤1-week intervals. Biopsies were taken from BD lesions prior to treatment. The initial evaluation was undertaken 1 month after treatment, and biopsies were harvested for histological evaluation. Patients who did not respond to the three sessions of treatment were referred to surgical treatment. In the ALA-PDT + CO2 laser group, 72.73 % (8/11) of BD lesions showed complete remission, with an overall clearance of 90.91 %, and only one recurred (9 %) during follow-up. Local side effects included mild erythema, edema, erosion, and burning and/or stinging sensation. No systemic side effects were observed. In the control group, 63.63 % (7/11) of lesions had complete remission and the overall clearance was 54.55 %. However, five lesions (45.45 %) had recurrence. Local side effects included mild to moderate edema, erosion, ulceration, delayed healing, prolonged pain, and scarring. There existed a significant difference in recurrence rate between the two groups (P laser treatment, complete necrosis was observed in responsive lesions, and 3 months later, the atypical BD cells were replaced by normal keratinocytes. Topical ALA-PDT in combination with CO2 laser is safe, effective, and is

  20. A new set-up for simultaneous high-precision measurements of CO2, δ13C-CO2 and δ18O-CO2 on small ice core samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenk, Theo Manuel; Rubino, Mauro; Etheridge, David; Ciobanu, Viorela Gabriela; Blunier, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Palaeoatmospheric records of carbon dioxide and its stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) obtained from polar ice cores provide important constraints on the natural variability of the carbon cycle. However, the measurements are both analytically challenging and time-consuming; thus only data exist from a limited number of sampling sites and time periods. Additional analytical resources with high analytical precision and throughput are thus desirable to extend the existing datasets. Moreover, consistent measurements derived by independent laboratories and a variety of analytical systems help to further increase confidence in the global CO2 palaeo-reconstructions. Here, we describe our new set-up for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios and atmospheric δ13C and δ18O-CO2 in air extracted from ice core samples. The centrepiece of the system is a newly designed needle cracker for the mechanical release of air entrapped in ice core samples of 8-13 g operated at -45 °C. The small sample size allows for high resolution and replicate sampling schemes. In our method, CO2 is cryogenically and chromatographically separated from the bulk air and its isotopic composition subsequently determined by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). In combination with thermal conductivity measurement of the bulk air, the CO2 mixing ratio is calculated. The analytical precision determined from standard air sample measurements over ice is ±1.9 ppm for CO2 and ±0.09 ‰ for δ13C. In a laboratory intercomparison study with CSIRO (Aspendale, Australia), good agreement between CO2 and δ13C results is found for Law Dome ice core samples. Replicate analysis of these samples resulted in a pooled standard deviation of 2.0 ppm for CO2 and 0.11 ‰ for δ13C. These numbers are good, though they are rather conservative estimates of the overall analytical precision achieved for single ice sample measurements. Facilitated by the small sample requirement

  1. Cross-Linking Amine-Rich Compounds into High Performing Selective CO2 Absorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Enrico; Dillon, Eoghan P.; Cullum, Laurie; Alemany, Lawrence B.; Barron, Andrew R.

    2014-12-01

    Amine-based absorbents play a central role in CO2 sequestration and utilization. Amines react selectively with CO2, but a drawback is the unproductive weight of solvent or support in the absorbent. Efforts have focused on metal organic frameworks (MOFs) reaching extremely high CO2 capacity, but limited selectivity to N2 and CH4, and decreased uptake at higher temperatures. A desirable system would have selectivity (cf. amine) and high capacity (cf. MOF), but also increased adsorption at higher temperatures. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept where polyethyleneimine (PEI) is converted to a high capacity and highly selective CO2 absorbent using buckminsterfullerene (C60) as a cross-linker. PEI-C60 (CO2 absorption of 0.14 g/g at 0.1 bar/90°C) is compared to one of the best MOFs, Mg-MOF-74 (0.06 g/g at 0.1 bar/90°C), and does not absorb any measurable amount of CH4 at 50 bar. Thus, PEI-C60 can perform better than MOFs in the sweetening of natural gas.

  2. CO2laser minimally invasive treatment of hypopharyngeal carcinoma%喉咽癌CO2激光微创治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志刚

    2016-01-01

    随着人们对生活质量要求的提高,微创手术成为21世纪发展的新趋势。激光结合内镜技术实现了喉咽癌治疗的微创化,目前已经取得了丰硕的研究及应用成果。随着新兴辅助技术的出现,CO2激光在喉咽癌的治疗中将起到更大的作用,未来会有更多的应用前景。%With the improvement of people's quality of life requirements,minimally invasive surgery has become a new trend in the 21st century. Laser technology combined with endoscopic technology realized the minimally invasive treatment in hypopharyngeal cancer,as a result,fruitful research and application results have been achieved. With the emergence of emerging assistive technologies,the use of CO2 laser in the treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer would got a broader range, CO2 laser in hypopharynx cancer treatment there will be more prospects.

  3. Development of a mobile and high-precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, M.; Haszpra, L.; Major, I.; Svingor, É.; Veres, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays one of the most burning questions for the science is the rate and the reasons of the recent climate change. Greenhouse gases (GHG), mainly CO2 and CH4 in the atmosphere could affect the climate of our planet. However, the relation between the amount of atmospheric GHG and the climate is complex, full with interactions and feedbacks partly poorly known even by now. The only way to understand the processes, to trace the changes, to develop and validate mathematical models for forecasts is the extensive, high precision, continuous monitoring of the atmosphere. Fossil fuel CO2 emissions are a major component of the European carbon budget. Separation of the fossil fuel signal from the natural biogenic one in the atmosphere is, therefore, a crucial task for quantifying exchange flux of the continental biosphere through atmospheric observations and inverse modelling. An independent method to estimate trace gas emissions is the top-down approach, using atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements combined with simultaneous radiocarbon (14C) observations. As adding fossil fuel CO2 to the atmosphere, therefore, leads not only to an increase in the CO2 content of the atmosphere but also to a decrease in the 14C/12C ratio in atmospheric CO2. The ATOMKI has more than two decade long experience in atmospheric 14CO2 monitoring. As a part of an ongoing research project being carried out in Hungary to investigate the amount and temporal and spatial variations of fossil fuel CO2 in the near surface atmosphere we developed a mobile and high-precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station. We describe the layout and the operation of the measuring system which is designed for the continuous, unattended monitoring of CO2 mixing ratio in the near surface atmosphere based on an Ultramat 6F (Siemens) infrared gas analyser. In the station one atmospheric 14CO2 sampling unit is also installed which is developed and widely used since more than one decade by ATOMKI. Mixing ratio of CO2 is

  4. Combined treatment approach of gingivectomy and CO2 laser for cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haytac, Cenk M; Ustun, Yakup; Essen, Emin; Ozcelik, Onur

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present a combined treatment approach with gingivectomy and CO2 laser for the management of cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth in 4 cases. Four renal transplant patients were surgically treated for marked gingival overgrowth by means of gingivectomy and CO2 laser. Postoperatively, all patients were followed for bleeding, pain, infection during the early healing period, and recurrence of gingival overgrowth for 12 months. The healing was uneventful, and no signs of bleeding, postoperative pain, or infection were observed in any patient during the early healing period. In the 12th postoperative month, there was evidence of mild recurrence in 1 patient, while no sign of recurrence was observed in the other patients during the follow-up period. The advantages of this combined technique include satisfactory bleeding control and clear visibility during the procedure, as well as reduced postoperative pain and swelling.

  5. Functional dental realignment after treatment of gingival overgrowth lesions with CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Bruno S.; Nicola, Ester M. D.; Fiorotti, Renata C.; Baldin, Diva H. Z.

    2000-03-01

    Proliferative lesions of the oral cavity are very frequent and depend on various factors such as: traumatism, irritating conditions, medications, heredity and others. In this work we present the CO2 laser ablation as a very conservative method to treat these lesions. In the 5 cases discussed in this work, the gingival overgrowth lesions induced an important dental misalignment, which culminated in severe functional disorder. After previous biopsy to establish the diagnostic (Gingival Fibromatosis, 4 cases -- and Miofibroma, one adult female), the treatments were performed with a CO2 laser (Sharplan 40C) under local anesthesia with lidocaine 2% without vasoconstrictor. The patients were submitted to 3 to 6 sessions with tissue vaporization of 8 to 12 w continuous swift-focused mode, with an interval of 4 weeks between each session. The results were evaluated photographically before each laser application. The use of this technique assures a very satisfactory dental alignment associated to good functional rehabilitation.

  6. Time and temperature dependent multiple hierarchical NiCo2O4 for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shen; Sun, Shumin; Li, Shaodan; Gong, Feilong; Li, Yannan; Wu, Qiong; Song, Pei; Fang, Shaoming; Wang, Peiyuan

    2016-05-07

    A multiple hierarchical NiCo2O4 (denoted as P-100), which was constructed of nanosheets covered with nanowires, was obtained by a facial hydrothermal method in combination with annealing treatment at 300 °C. The hydrothermal temperature and reaction time play key roles in the formation of the unique hierarchical NiCo2O4 based on the morphology evolution. As a supercapacitor electrode material, the obtained P-100 displays a high specific capacitance of 1393 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1). Furthermore, the assembled P-100//AC asymmetric supercapacitor demonstrates a high energy density (21.4 Wh kg(-1)) at a power density of 350 W kg(-1) and remarkable cycling stability. The good electrochemical performances of the P-100 are mainly due to its three dimensional hierarchical porous nanostructure and high specific surface area as well as the synergetic effect of the nanosheets and nanowires in NiCo2O4. The experimental results demonstrated that the multiple hierarchical NiCo2O4 is a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.

  7. Sharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Shoibal; Chikkatur, Ananth; de Coninck, Heleen; Pacala, Stephen; Socolow, Robert; Tavoni, Massimo

    2009-07-21

    We present a framework for allocating a global carbon reduction target among nations, in which the concept of "common but differentiated responsibilities" refers to the emissions of individuals instead of nations. We use the income distribution of a country to estimate how its fossil fuel CO(2) emissions are distributed among its citizens, from which we build up a global CO(2) distribution. We then propose a simple rule to derive a universal cap on global individual emissions and find corresponding limits on national aggregate emissions from this cap. All of the world's high CO(2)-emitting individuals are treated the same, regardless of where they live. Any future global emission goal (target and time frame) can be converted into national reduction targets, which are determined by "Business as Usual" projections of national carbon emissions and in-country income distributions. For example, reducing projected global emissions in 2030 by 13 GtCO(2) would require the engagement of 1.13 billion high emitters, roughly equally distributed in 4 regions: the U.S., the OECD minus the U.S., China, and the non-OECD minus China. We also modify our methodology to place a floor on emissions of the world's lowest CO(2) emitters and demonstrate that climate mitigation and alleviation of extreme poverty are largely decoupled.

  8. Silicate minerals for CO2 scavenging from biogas in Autogenerative High Pressure Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, Ralph E F; Ferrer, Ivet; Weijma, Jan; van Lier, Jules B

    2013-07-01

    Autogenerative High Pressure Digestion (AHPD) is a novel concept that integrates gas upgrading with anaerobic digestion by selective dissolution of CO2 at elevated biogas pressure. However, accumulation of CO2 and fatty acids after anaerobic digestion of glucose resulted in pH 3-5, which is incompatible with the commonly applied high-rate methanogenic processes. Therefore, we studied the use of wollastonite, olivine and anorthosite, with measured composition of CaSi1.05O3.4, Mg2Fe0.2Ni0.01Si1.2O5.3 and Na0.7Ca1K0.1Mg0.1Fe0.15Al3.1Si4O24, respectively, to scavenge CO2 during batch AHPD of glucose. Depending on the glucose to mineral ratio the pH increased to 6.0-7.5. Experiments with wollastonite showed that Ca(2+)-leaching was caused by volatile fatty acid (VFA) production during glucose digestion. At 1, 3 and 9 bar, the CH4 content reached 74%, 86% and 88%, respectively, indicating CO2 scavenging. Fixation of produced CO2 by CaCO3 precipitation in the sludge was confirmed by Fourier Transferred-InfraRed, Combined Field emission Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric Analysis-Mass Spectroscopy.

  9. An Innovative Configuration for CO2 Capture by High Temperature Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Rossi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many technological solutions have been proposed for CO2 capture in the last few years. Most of them are characterized by high costs in terms of energy consumption and, consequently, higher fossil fuel use and higher economic costs. High temperature fuel cells are technological solutions currently developed for energy production with low environmental impact. In CIRIAF—University of Perugia labs, cylindrical geometry, small-sized molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC prototypes were built and tested with good energy production and lifetime performances. In the present work, an innovative application for MCFCs is proposed, and an innovative configuration for CO2 capture/separation is investigated. The plant scheme is based on a reformer and a cylindrical MCFC. MCFCs are the most suitable solutions, because CO2 is used in their operating cycle. An analysis in terms of energy consumption/kgCO2 captured is made by coupling the proposed configuration with a gas turbine plant. The proposed configuration is characterized by a theoretical energy consumption of about 500 kJ/kgCO2, which is quite lower than actual sequestration technologies. An experimental campaign will be scheduled to verify the theoretical findings.

  10. Development of experimental structure and influence of high CO2 concentration in maize cro Desenvolvimento de estrutura experimentale influências da alta concentração de CO2 na cultura do milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João B. Lopes da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Maize is a C4 plant that shows few or no response to high [CO2]. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the photosynthetic rate and yield of maize under high [CO2] and develop open-top chambers (OTC to create an atmosphere enriched with CO2. The experiment was conducted between October 2008 and March 2009. The OTCs were developed in modular scheme. Measurement of photosynthetic rates, transpiration, stomata conductance, grain yield and dry matter were performed. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications and three treatments: P1 - plants grown in OTC with 700 ppm [CO2], P2 - plants grown in OTC with environmental [CO2], and P3 - control, cultivated in open field. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (PrO milho é uma planta C4 que apresenta pouca, ou nenhuma, resposta às elevadas [CO2]; assim, neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar respostas fisiológicas e produtivas da cultura do milho sob alta [CO2], e desenvolver câmaras de topo aberto (CTA para criar uma atmosfera enriquecida com CO2. O experimento foi conduzido entre outubro de 2008 e março de 2009. As CTAs foram desenvolvidas em esquema modular. Foram realizadas medições da taxa fotossintética, transpiração, condutância estomática, produção de grãos e matéria seca. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e três tratamentos: P1 - plantas cultivadas em CTA a [CO2] de 700ppm; P2 - plantas cultivadas em CTAcom [CO2] ambiente; e P3 -plantas cultivadas em campo aberto, testemunhas. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de Tukey (Pr<0,05. As câmaras reduzem em 25% a Radiação Fotossinteticamente Ativa e aumentam a temperatura do ar e das folhas, em relação ao ambiente externo. As plantas sob alta [CO2] (P1 apresentaram as maiores taxas fotossintéticas e as menores condutâncias estomáticas e transpiração. O peso total dos grãos (g e a matéria seca da parte a

  11. TREATMENT OF CONDYLOMATA ACUMINATA AND BOWENOID PAPULOSIS WITH CO2 LASER AND IMIQUIMOD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilko Bakardzhiev

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most common manifestation of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV infection in venereology are Condylomata acuminata and Bowenoid Papulosis. These diseases are often difficult to diagnose by dermatologists, obstetricians, gynecologists and urologists. This article represents our entire clinical experience with the use of carbon dioxide (CO-2 laser in the treatment of 58 (40 male and 18 female patients with Condylomata Acuminata after other treatments had failed. Successful eradication was accomplished in 53 patients with wide distribution of condylomatous lesions, with 88% per cent responding to a single laser treatment. In our experience there are no side effects, damage to the surrounding tissue is minimal and the lesions have not reccured. In 82.3% of the patients the treatment resulted in complete disappearance of the lesions, whereas in the other two to three percent treatments were required. The advantages of the laser treatment are discussed in this article.

  12. Methods for determining the CO2 sorption capacity of coal: Experimental and theoretical high pressure isotherms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přibyl, Oldřich

    2016-04-01

    One way to reduce CO2 emissions discharged into the atmosphere is by trapping it and storing it in suitable repositories, including coal-bearing strata. The history of coal mining in the Czech Republic is very rich but most of the mines have been closed down in recent years. However, the unmined coal seams are interesting for the purposes of CO2 storage, especially due the opportunities they offer for recovering coal-bed methane. Mine structures of this kind can be found in large parts of the Upper Silesian Basin, where the total storage capacity has been estimated at about 380 Mt CO2. This is an interesting storage potential. In order to identify a suitable high-capacity locality for CO2 storage within a coal seam, it is necessary to study not only the geological conditions within the seam, but also the textural properties of the coal, which control the mechanism and the extent of the storage. The major storage mechanism is by sorption processes that take place in the coal porous system (adsorption in micropores and on the surface of meso/macropores, and absorption in the macromolecular structure). The CO2 sorption capacity is generally indirectly determined in a laboratory by measuring the amount of carbon dioxide captured in a coal sample at a pressure and temperature corresponding to the in situ conditions, using high pressure sorption techniques. The low pressure sorption technique can be used, by setting the partial volumes of CO2 according to its binding and storage mode. The sorption capacity is determined by extrapolation to the saturation pressure as the sum of the individual partially sorbed volumes. The aim of the study was to determine the partial volumes of CO2 bound by different mechanisms in the individual parts of the porous system of the coal, and to compare the sum with the results obtained by the high pressure isotherm. The study was carried out with 3 samples from a borehole survey in the Czech part of the Upper Silesian Basin. A high pressure

  13. High nitrate to phosphorus regime attenuates negative effects of rising pCO2 on total population carbon accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Krug

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing rise in atmospheric pCO2 and consequent increase in ocean acidification have direct effects on marine calcifying phytoplankton, which potentially alters carbon export. To date it remains unclear, firstly, how nutrient regime, in particular by coccolithophores preferred phosphate limitation, interacts with pCO2 on particulate carbon accumulation; secondly, how direct physiological responses on the cellular level translate into total population response. In this study, cultures of Emiliania huxleyi were full-factorially exposed to two different N:P regimes and three different pCO2 levels. Cellular biovolume and PIC and POC content significantly declined in response to pCO2 in both nutrient regimes. Cellular PON content significantly increased in the Redfield treatment and decreased in the high N:P regime. Cell abundance significantly declined in the Redfield and remained constant in the high N:P regime. We hypothesise that in the high N:P regime severe phosphorous limitation could be compensated either by reduced inorganic phosphorous demand and/or by enzymatic uptake of organic phosphorous. In the Redfield regime we suggest that enzymatic phosphorous uptake to supplement enhanced phosphorous demand with pCO2 was not possible and thus cell abundance declined. These hypothesised different physiological responses of E. huxleyi among the nutrient regimes significantly altered population carrying capacities along the pCO2 gradient. This ultimately led to the attenuated total population response in POC and PIC content and biovolume to increased pCO2 in the high N:P regime. Our results point to the fact that the physiological (i.e. cellular PIC and POC response to ocean acidification cannot be linearly extrapolated to total population response and thus carbon export. It is therefore necessary to consider both effects of nutrient limitation on cell physiology and their consequences for population size when predicting the influence of

  14. Chemical effects of a high CO2 concentration in oxy-fuel combustion of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Bentzen, L.L.B.

    2008-01-01

    in terms of a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for hydrocarbon oxidation. On the basis of results of the present study, it can be expected that oxy-fuel combustion will lead to strongly increased CO concentrations in the near-burner region. The CO2 present will compete with O-2 for atomic hydrogen......The oxidation of methane in an atmospheric-pres sure flow reactor has been studied experimentally under highly diluted conditions in N-2 and CO2, respectively. The stoichiometry was varied from fuel-lean to fuel-rich, and the temperatures covered the range 1200-1800 K. The results were interpreted...... and lead to formation of CO through the reaction CO2 + H reversible arrow CO + OH. Reactions of CO2 with hydrocarbon radicals may also contribute to CO formation. The most important steps are those of singlet and triplet CH2 with CO2, while other radicals such as CH3 and CH are less important for consuming...

  15. High resolution infrared spectroscopy of carbon dioxide clusters up to (CO2)13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norooz Oliaee, J; Dehghany, M; McKellar, A R W; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N

    2011-07-28

    Thirteen specific infrared bands in the 2350 cm(-1) region are assigned to carbon dioxide clusters, (CO(2))(N), with N = 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13. The spectra are observed in direct absorption using a tuneable infrared laser to probe a pulsed supersonic jet expansion of a dilute mixture of CO(2) in He carrier gas. Assignments are aided by cluster structure calculations made using two reliable CO(2) intermolecular potential functions. For (CO(2))(6), two highly symmetric isomers are observed, one with S(6) symmetry (probably the more stable form), and the other with S(4) symmetry. (CO(2))(13) is also symmetric (S(6)), but the remaining clusters are asymmetric tops with no symmetry elements. The observed rotational constants tend to be slightly (≈2%) smaller than those from the predicted structures. The bands have increasing vibrational blueshifts with increasing cluster size, similar to those predicted by the resonant dipole-dipole interaction model but significantly larger in magnitude.

  16. Exploring the Phase Diagram SiO2-CO2 at High Pressures and Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavner, A.

    2015-12-01

    CO2 is an important volatile system relevant for planetary sciences and fundamental chemistry. Molecular CO2 has doubly bonded O=C=O units but high pressure-high temperature (HP-HT) studies have recently shown its transformation into a three-dimensional network of corner-linked [CO4] units analogous to the silica mineral polymorphs, through intermediate non-molecular phases. Here, we report P-V-T data on CO2-IV ice from time-of-flight neutron diffraction experiments, which allow determining the compressibility and thermal expansivity of this intermediate molecular-to-non-molecular phase.1 Aditionally, we have explored the SiO2-CO2 phase diagram and the potential formation of silicon carbonate compounds. New data obtained by laser-heating diamond-anvil experiments in CO2-filled microporous silica polymorphs will be shown. In particular, these HP-HT experiments explore the existence of potential CO2/SiO2 compounds with tetrahedrally-coordinated C/Si atoms by oxygens, which are predicted to be stable (or metastable) by state-of-the-art ab initio simulations.2,3 These theoretical predictions were supported by a recent study that reports the formation of a cristobalite-type Si0.4C0.6O2 solid solution at high-pressures and temperatures, which can be retained as a metastable solid down to ambient conditions.4 Entirely new families of structures could exist based on [CO4]4- units in various degrees of polymerisation, giving rise to a range of chain, sheet and framework solids like those found in silicate chemistry. References[1] S. Palaich et al., Am. Mineral. Submitted (2015) [2] A. Morales-Garcia et al., Theor. Chem. Acc. 132, 1308 (2013) [3] R. Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. X, 4, 011030 (2014) [4] M. Santoro et al. Nature Commun. 5, 3761 (2014)

  17. CO2 surgical laser in the treatment of some types of pathology of pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Christian; Pinna, Stefania; Venturini, Antonio; Rossi, Giacomo; Fortuna, Damiano

    2002-10-01

    We have treated with CO2 laser surgery 40 cases which contemplated: stomatitis and other oral pathologies, anorectal, cutaneous, subcutaneous lesions, and other ophthalmic ones. The parameters employed to evaluate surgical treatment success were: histological analyses, time of healing process and incidence (per cent) of relapses. During the T/3 period (45 days) all cases of feline stomatitis relapsed. The 83% of pets that suffered of anorectal pathologies healed up to 21 days and no relapse was observed in T/4 period (180 days). The cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules vaporization caused lesions that healed during 7 days (T/1) and no relapse was observed after laser treatment. In cutaneous chronic ulcers and in reptilian abscesses we had the lesions reparation by second intention healing in T/3. A case of feline oral squamocellular carcinoma relapsed in T/3 after laser treatment. The results showed three different level of utility: indispensable, useful but unnecessary, inefficacious. The CO2 laser application resulted the best treatment for anorectal pathologies, cutaneous ulcerations and reptilian abscesses. The laser surgery was only useful but unnecessary in treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous neoformations and also in oral and peri-ophthalmic pathologies. Finally, the laser application appeared inefficacious in squamocellular carcinoma and in chronic phlogosis of feline oral cavity.

  18. High-pressure Phase Equilibria for Binary Ethanol System Containing Supercritical CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    High-pressure phase behavior of supercritical (SC) CO2+ethanol system was investigated at 333.2 K, 348.2 K, 353.2 K, 368.2 K, 413.2 K and 453.2 K and pressure from 2.0 MPa to 14.3 MPa. The measurement was carried out in a cylindrical autoclave with a moveable piston and a window for adjustment and observation of phase equilibria at given T and p. The samples were taken from two coexisting phases and were analyzed to obtain their compositions. It is shown that the solubility of SC CO2 in ethanol increases drastically with pressures at the given temperature, but the content of ethanol in CO2-rich phase increase faintly.

  19. High-pressure Phase Equilibria for Binary Ethanol System Containing Supercriticai CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱虎刚; 田宜灵; 陈丽; 秦颖; 冯季军

    2001-01-01

    High-pressure phase behavior of supercritical (SC) CO2+ethanol system was investigated at 333.2 K,348.2K, 353.2K, 368.2K, 413.2K and 453.2K and pressure from 2.0MPa to 14.3MPa. The measurement was carried out in a cylindrical autoclave with a moveable piston and a window for adjustment and observation of phase equilibria at given T and p. The samples were taken from two coexisting phases and were analyzed to obtain their compositions. It is shown that the solubility of SC CO2 in ethanol increases drastically with pressures at the given temperature, but the content of ethanol in CO2-rich phase increase faintly.

  20. High quality electron bunch generation with CO2-laser plasma accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, L G; Xu, J C; Ji, L L; Zhang, X M; Wang, W P; Zhao, X Y; Yi, L Q; Yu, Y H; Shi, Y; Xu, T J; Xu, Z Z

    2014-01-01

    CO2 laser-driven electron acceleration is demonstrated with particle-in-cell simulation in low-density plasma. An intense CO2 laser pulse with long wavelength excites wakefield. The bubble behind it has a broad space to sustain a large amount of electrons before reaching its charge saturation limit. A transversely propagating inject pulse is used to induce and control the ambient electron injection. The accelerated electron bunch with total charge up to 10 nC and the average charge per energy interval of more than 0.6 nC/MeV are obtained. Plasma-based electron acceleration driven by intense CO2 laser provides a new potential way to generate high-charge electron bunch with low energy spread, which has broad applications, especially for X-ray generation by table-top FEL and bremsstrahlung.

  1. High quality electron bunch generation with CO2-laser-plasma interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingang; Shen, Baifei; Xu, Jiancai; Ji, Liangliang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Wang, Wenpeng; Zhao, Xueyan; Yi, Longqing; Yu, Yahong; Shi, Yin; Xu, Tongjun; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-02-01

    CO2 laser-driven electron acceleration in low-density plasma is demonstrated using particle-in-cell simulation. An intense CO2 laser pulse of long wavelength excites a wake bubble that has a large elongated volume for accelerating a large number of electrons before reaching the charge saturation limit. A transversely injected laser pulse is used to induce and control the electron injection. It is found that an electron bunch with total charge up to 10 nC and absolute energy spread less than 16 MeV can be obtained. As a result, the charge per energy interval of the bunch reaches up to 0.6 nC/MeV. Intense CO2-laser based electron acceleration can provide a new direction for generating highly charged electron bunches with low energy spread, which is of much current interest, especially for table-top X-ray generation.

  2. Fluorous Metal-Organic Frameworks with Enhanced Stability and High H2/CO2 Storage Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-Shuai; Chang, Ze; Li, Yi-Fan; Jiang, Zhong-Yi; Xuan, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Ying-Hui; Li, Jian-Rong; Chen, Qiang; Hu, Tong-Liang; Bu, Xian-He

    2013-01-01

    A new class of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been synthesized by ligand-functionalization strategy. Systematic studies of their adsorption properties were performed at low and high pressure. Importantly, when fluorine was introduced into the framework via the functionalization, both the framework stabilities and adsorption capacities towards H2/CO2 were enhanced significantly. This consequence can be well interpreted by theoretical studies of these MOFs structures. In addition, one of these MOFs TKL-107 was used to fabricate mixed matrix membranes, which exhibit great potential for the application of CO2 separation. PMID:24264725

  3. Low Overpotential and High Current CO2 Reduction with Surface Reconstructed Cu Foam Electrodess

    KAUST Repository

    Min, Shixiong

    2016-06-23

    While recent reports have demonstrated that oxide-derived Cu-based electrodes exhibit high selectivity for CO2 reduction at low overpotential, the low catalytic current density (<2 mA/cm2 at -0.45 V vs. RHE) still largely limits its applications for large-scale fuel synthesis. Here we report an extremely high current density for CO2 reduction at low overpotential using a Cu foam electrode prepared by air-oxidation and subsequent electroreduction. Apart from possessing three-dimensional (3D) open frameworks, the resulting Cu foam electrodes prepared at higher temperatures exhibit enhanced electrochemically active surface area and distinct surface structures. In particular, the Cu foam electrode prepared at 500 °C exhibits an extremely high geometric current density of ~9.4 mA/cm2 in CO2-satrurated 0.1 M KHCO3 aqueous solution and achieving ~39% CO and ~23% HCOOH Faradaic efficiencies at -0.45 V vs. RHE. The high activity and significant selectivity enhancement are attributable to the formation of abundant grain-boundary supported active sites and preferable (100) and (111) facets as a result of reconstruction of Cu surface facets. This work demonstrates that the structural integration of Cu foam with open 3D frameworks and the favorable surface structures is a promising strategy to develop an advanced Cu electrocatalyst that can operate at high current density and low overpotential for CO2 reduction.

  4. Modelling ruptures of buried high pressure dense phase CO2 pipelines in carbon capture and storage applications - Part I. Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Wareing, CJ; Fairweather, M.; Falle, SAEG; Woolley, RM

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage presents a short-term option for significantly reducing the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere and mitigating the effects of climate change. To this end, National Grid initiated the COOLTRANS research programme to consider the pipeline transportation of high pressure dense phase CO2, including the development and application of a mathematical model for predicting the sonic near-field dispersion of pure CO2 following the venting or failure of su...

  5. VUV-absorption cross section of CO2 at high temperatures and impact on exoplanet atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venot Olivia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV absorption cross sections are an essential ingredient of photochemical atmosphere models. Exoplanet searches have unveiled a large population of short-period objects with hot atmospheres, very different from what we find in our solar system. Transiting exoplanets whose atmospheres can now be studied by transit spectroscopy receive extremely strong UV fluxes and have typical temperatures ranging from 400 to 2500 K. At these temperatures, UV photolysis cross section data are severely lacking. Our goal is to provide high-temperature absorption cross sections and their temperature dependency for important atmospheric compounds. This study is dedicated to CO2, which is observed and photodissociated in exoplanet atmospheres. We performed these measurements for the 115 - 200 nm range at 300, 410, 480, and 550 K. In the 195 - 230 nm range, we worked at seven temperatures between 465 and 800 K. We found that the absorption cross section of CO2 is very sensitive to temperature, especially above 160 nm. Within the studied range of temperature, the CO2 cross section can vary by more than two orders of magnitude. This, in particular, makes the absorption of CO2 significant up to wavelengths as high as 230 nm, while it is negligible above 200 nm at 300 K. To investigate the influence of these new data on the photochemistry of exoplanets, we implemented the measured cross section into a 1D photochemical model. The model predicts that accounting for this temperature dependency of CO2 cross section can affect the computed abundances of NH3, CO2, and CO by one order of magnitude in the atmospheres of hot Jupiter and hot Neptune.

  6. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy

  7. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, Adelbert; van de Sanden, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy efficiency.

  8. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy

  9. Abiotic formation of O2 and O3 in high-CO2 terrestrial atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Segura, A; Kasting, J F; Crisp, D; Cohen, M

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that high amounts of ozone (O3) and oxygen (O2) may be produced abiotically in atmospheres with high concentrations of CO2. The abiotic production of these two gases, which are also characteristic of photosynthetic life processes, could pose a potential "false-positive" for remote-sensing detection of life on planets around other stars.We show here that such false positives are unlikely on any planet that possesses abundant liquid water, as rainout of oxidized species onto a reduced planetary surface should ensure that atmospheric H2 concentrations remain relatively high, and that O2 and O3 remain low. Our aim is to determine the amount of O3 and O2 formed in a high CO2 atmosphere for a habitable planet without life. We use a photochemical model that considers hydrogen (H2) escape and a detailed hydrogen balance to calculate the O2 and O3 formed on planets with 0.2 of CO2 around the Sun, and 0.02, 0.2 and 2 bars of CO2 around a young Sun-like star with higher UV radiation. The ...

  10. Hierarchical porous NiCo2O4 nanowires for high-rate supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Ma, Jan; Li, Chunzhong

    2012-05-11

    We demonstrate a simple and scalable strategy for synthesizing hierarchical porous NiCo(2)O(4) nanowires which exhibit a high specific capacitance of 743 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) with excellent rate performance (78.6% capacity retention at 40 A g(-1)) and cycling stability (only 6.2% loss after 3000 cycles).

  11. Design of an Optical System for High Power CO2 Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lange, D.F.; Meijer, J.; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2003-01-01

    The results of a design study for the optical system for cutting with high power CO2 lasers (6 kW and up) will be presented. As transparent materials cannot be used for these power levels, mirrors have been applied. A coaxial cutting gas supply has been designed with a laser beam entrance into th...

  12. High CO2 concentration as an inductor agent to drive production of recombinant phytotoxic antimicrobial peptides in plant biofactories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Cristina; Pla, Maria; Company, Nuri; Riudavets, Jordi; Nadal, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Cationic α-helical antimicrobial peptides such as BP100 are of increasing interest for developing novel phytosanitary or therapeutic agents and products with industrial applications. Biotechnological production of these peptides in plants can be severely impaired due to the toxicity exerted on the host by high-level expression. This can be overcome by using inducible promoters with extremely low activity throughout plant development, although the yields are limited. We examined the use of modified atmospheres using the increased levels of [CO2], commonly used in the food industry, as the inductor agent to biotechnologically produce phytotoxic compounds with higher yields. Here we show that 30% [CO2] triggered a profound transcriptional response in rice leaves, including a change in the energy provision from photosynthesis to glycolysis, and the activation of stress defense mechanisms. Five genes with central roles in up-regulated pathways were initially selected and their promoters successfully used to drive the expression of phytotoxic BP100 in genetically modified (GM) rice. GM plants had a normal phenotype on development and seed production in non-induction conditions. Treatment with 30 % [CO2] led to recombinant peptide accumulation of up to 1 % total soluble protein when the Os.hb2 promoter was used. This is within the range of biotechnological production of other peptides in plants. Using BP100 as a proof-of-concept we demonstrate that very high [CO2] can be considered an economically viable strategy to drive production of recombinant phytotoxic antimicrobial peptides in plant biofactories.

  13. Winners always win: growth of a wide range of plant species from low to future high CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Andries A; Liu, Jin Chun; Cornwell, William K; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Aerts, Rien

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionary adaptation to variation in resource supply has resulted in plant strategies that are based on trade-offs in functional traits. Here, we investigate, for the first time across multiple species, whether such trade-offs are also apparent in growth and morphology responses to past low, current ambient, and future high CO 2 concentrations. We grew freshly germinated seedlings of up to 28 C3 species (16 forbs, 6 woody, and 6 grasses) in climate chambers at 160 ppm, 450 ppm, and 750 ppm CO 2. We determined biomass, allocation, SLA (specific leaf area), LAR (leaf area ratio), and RGR (relative growth rate), thereby doubling the available data on these plant responses to low CO 2. High CO 2 increased RGR by 8%; low CO 2 decreased RGR by 23%. Fast growers at ambient CO 2 had the greatest reduction in RGR at low CO 2 as they lost the benefits of a fast-growth morphology (decoupling of RGR and LAR [leaf area ratio]). Despite these shifts species ranking on biomass and RGR was unaffected by CO 2, winners continued to win, regardless of CO 2. Unlike for other plant resources we found no trade-offs in morphological and growth responses to CO 2 variation, changes in morphological traits were unrelated to changes in growth at low or high CO 2. Thus, changes in physiology may be more important than morphological changes in response to CO 2 variation.

  14. [The application of a CO(2)-laser for tonsillectomy in the patients presenting with chronic decompensated tonsillitis as an alternative to the traditional methods of surgical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofman, V R; Kniaz'kov, V B

    2012-01-01

    to estimate the clinical efficiency and advantages of the surgical treatment of palatal tonsils with the use of a CO(2)-laser in comparison with the traditional methods of tonsillectomy. A total of 175 patients presenting with decompensated tonsillitis were available for the observation of which 79 were operated with the use of a CO(2)-laser. The control group was comprised of the patients undergoing conventional tonsillectomy. The study confirmed the high clinical efficiency of the ablation of palatal tonsils using the CO(2)-laser and its advantages in terms of reduced duration of the postoperative period, requirements for analgesic and antibacterial medications, recovery of the swallowing function and speech.

  15. High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Kevin R; Mendoza, Daniel L; Zhou, Yuyu; Fischer, Marc L; Miller, Chris C; Geethakumar, Sarath; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2009-07-15

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO2 measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of approximately 100 km2 and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO2 inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the "Vulcan" inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO2 emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km2 and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Comparison to the global 1degree x 1 degree fossil fuel CO2 inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach.

  16. Bubble Stripping as a Tool To Reduce High Dissolved CO2 in Coastal Marine Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koweek, David A; Mucciarone, David A; Dunbar, Robert B

    2016-04-01

    High dissolved CO2 concentrations in coastal ecosystems are a common occurrence due to a combination of large ecosystem metabolism, shallow water, and long residence times. Many important coastal species may have adapted to this natural variability over time, but eutrophication and ocean acidification may be perturbing the water chemistry beyond the bounds of tolerance for these organisms. We are currently limited in our ability to deal with the geochemical changes unfolding in our coastal ocean. This study helps to address this deficit of solutions by introducing bubble stripping as a novel geochemical engineering approach to reducing high CO2 in coastal marine ecosystems. We use a process-based model to find that air/sea gas exchange rates within a bubbled system are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than within a nonbubbled system. By coupling bubbling-enhanced ventilation to a coastal ecosystem metabolism model, we demonstrate that strategically timed bubble plumes can mitigate exposure to high CO2 under present-day conditions and that exposure mitigation is enhanced in the more acidic conditions predicted by the end of the century. We argue that shallow water CO2 bubble stripping should be considered among the growing list of engineering approaches intended to increase coastal resilience in a changing ocean.

  17. Altered Carbon Isotope Discrimination of C3 Plants Under Very High pCO2 Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, R. J.; Schubert, B.; Jahren, H.

    2009-12-01

    Various modeling and proxy-based reconstructions of atmospheric pCO2 levels for the last 120 Ma have estimated RCO2 as high as 12x for the Early Cretaceous, generally decreasing into the Cenozoic, and decreasing further into the Quaternary. Multiple ecological studies to assess the effect of elevated CO2 on plant biomass and δ13C value have been spurred on by recent increases in greenhouse gases, however these studies typically grow plants under only slightly elevated CO2 levels (i.e., the twenty foremost studies published since 1990 involved 550 to 750 ppm pCO2, which equals RCO2 = 1.4 to 1.9x). In order to recreate the highest pCO2 environments of the last 120 Ma, we grew radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in growth chambers that maintained controlled environmental conditions and pCO2 levels ranging from ~5 to 11x that of today’s atmosphere (1791 to 4200 ppm); upon harvest we measured total biomass and stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13Cplant) in both above and below ground plant tissue. Unlike the 1:1 relationship between stable isotopes of atmospheric CO2 (δ13Catm) and δ13Cplant observed at lower pCO2 levels (i.e., RCO2 = 1x to 3x; Jahren et al., 2008), the δ13Cplant of biomass grown at more elevated RCO2 was dependent upon δ13Catm according to the linear relationship: δ13Cplant = 1.9(δ13Cplant) - 12.2 ‰ (r2 = 0.71). Concomitantly, we see a highly significant (p sativus L. from -27.0 to -28.0 ‰ at RCO2 = 5x to 11x, respectively. We will discuss possible mechanisms for changing isotope discrimination at very high pCO2 levels that may not be operative at lower concentrations. For example, we noted a striking reduction in the variability of biomass between plants grown at the same (very high) level of pCO2. This variability (calculated as the standard deviation of the log-transformed biomass data after Poorter and Garnier, 1996) decreased by 37 % (above-ground) and 48 % (below-ground) for plants grown at RCO2 > 5x compared to plants grown at RCO2 = 1x to 3x

  18. Concentration of soil CO2 as an indicator of the decalcification rate after liming treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Stanisław; Hałas, Stanisław; Głowacki, Sławomir; Sposób, Joanna; Maciejewska, Ewa; Trembaczowski, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the results of investigation of decalcification of acid sandy and loamy sand soils by infiltration waters, and potential Ca-leaching after liming treatment. For this purpose, monthly measurements were made of the concentration of CO2 in the soil air, dissolved inorganic carbon in the soil waters, and their ionic composition. The determined dissolved inorganic carbon ranged from 5.9 to 10.6 mg dm-3 and from 9.9 to 16.5 mg dm-3 for the sandy and loamy sand soil, respectively. The Ca concentration in soil waters was determined as 5.9-12.4 mg dm-3 in sandy soil and 14.2-19.8 mg dm-3 in soil loamy sand. The calculated rate of decalcification amounted to 23.0 kg ha-1 year-1 in soil sandy and 19.4 kg ha-1 year-1 in loamy sand soil. The potential Ca-leaching is predicted as 124 kg ha-1 year-1 for S and 87 kg ha-1 year-1 for loamy sand soil. At the treatment level of 3 000 kg ha-1 4 year-1 of CaO, ~20% of the Ca-fertilizer can be leached after the liming treatment. The results of the CO2 concentration in the soil air may be useful in estimation of Ca-leaching from soils developed by slightly clayey sands and clayey sands in zones with a moderate climate.

  19. Porous materials as high performance adsorbents for CO2 capture, gas separation and purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun

    Global warming resulted from greenhouse gases emission has received a widespread attention. Among the greenhouse gases, CO2 contributes more than 60% to global warming due to its huge emission amount. The flue gas contains about 15% CO2 with N2 as the balance. If CO2 can be separated from flue gas, the benefit is not only reducing the global warming effect, but also producing pure CO2 as a very useful industry raw material. Substantial progress is urgent to be achieved in an industrial process. Moreover, energy crisis is one of the biggest challenges for all countries due to the short life of fossil fuels, such as, petroleum will run out in 50 years and coal will run out in 150 years according to today's speed. Moreover, the severe pollution to the environment caused by burning fossil fuels requires us to explore sustainable, environment-friendly, and facile energy sources. Among several alternative energy sources, natural gas is one of the most promising alternative energy sources due to its huge productivity, abundant feed stock, and ease of generation. In order to realize a substantial adsorption process in industry, synthesis of new adsorbents or modification of existing adsorbent with improved properties has become the most critical issue. This dissertation reports systemic characterization and development of five serials of novel adsorbents with advanced adsorption properties. In chapter 2, nitrogen-doped Hypercross-linking Polymers (HCPs) have been synthesized successfully with non-carcinogenic chloromethyl methyl ether (CME) as the cross-linking agent within a single step. Texture properties, surface morphology, CO2/N2 selectivity, and adsorption heat have been presented and demonstrated properly. A comprehensive discussion on factors that affect the CO2 adsorption and CO2/N 2 separation has also been presented. It was found that high micropore proportion and N-content could effectively enhance CO2 uptake and CO2/N2 separation selectivity. In chapter 3, a

  20. Ultrathin porous NiCo2O4 nanosheet arrays on flexible carbon fabric for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jun; Zhou, Gang; Zhang, Haiming; Cheng, Chao; Ma, Jianmin; Wei, Weifeng; Chen, Libao; Wang, Taihong

    2013-08-14

    NiCo2O4 with higher specific capacitance is an excellent pseudocapacitive material. However, the bulk NiCo2O4 material prevents the achievement of high energy desity and great rate performance due to the limited electroactive surface area. In this work, NiCo2O4 nanosheet arrays were deposited on flexible carbon fabric (CF) as a high-performance electrode for supercapacitors. The NiCo2O4 arrays were constructed by interconnected ultrathin nanosheets (10 nm) with many interparticle pores. The porous feature of NiCo2O4 nanosheets increases the amount of electroactive sites and facilitates the electrolyte penetration. Hence, the NiCo2O4/CF composites exhibited a high specific capacitance of 2658 F g(-1) (2 A g(-1)), good rate performance, and superior cycling life, suggesting the NiCo2O4/CF is a promising electrode material for flexible electrochemical capacitors.

  1. Advanced concepts for high-power, short-pulse CO2 laser development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Daniel F.; Hasson, Victor; von Bergmann, Hubertus; Chen, Yu-hsin; Schmitt-Sody, A.; Penano, Joseph R.

    2016-06-01

    Ultra-short pulse lasers are dominated by solid-state technology, which typically operates in the near-infrared. Efforts to extend this technology to longer wavelengths are meeting with some success, but the trend remains that longer wavelengths correlate with greatly reduced power. The carbon dioxide (CO2) laser is capable of delivering high energy, 10 micron wavelength pulses, but the gain structure makes operating in the ultra-short pulse regime difficult. The Naval Research Laboratory and Air Force Research Laboratory are developing a novel CO2 laser designed to deliver ~1 Joule, ~1 picosecond pulses, from a compact gain volume (~2x2x80 cm). The design is based on injection seeding an unstable resonator, in order to achieve high energy extraction efficiency, and to take advantage of power broadening. The unstable resonator is seeded by a solid state front end, pumped by a custom built titanium sapphire laser matched to the CO2 laser bandwidth. In order to access a broader range of mid infrared wavelengths using CO2 lasers, one must consider nonlinear frequency multiplication, which is non-trivial due to the bandwidth of the 10 micron radiation.

  2. Molecular template-directed synthesis of microporous polymer networks for highly selective CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yao-Qi; Zhu, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Qin; Geng, Jian-Cheng; Sun, Lin-Bing

    2014-11-26

    Porous polymer networks have great potential in various applications including carbon capture. However, complex monomers and/or expensive catalysts are commonly used for their synthesis, which makes the process complicated, costly, and hard to scale up. Herein, we develop a molecular template strategy to fabricate new porous polymer networks by a simple nucleophilic substitution reaction of two low-cost monomers (i.e., chloromethylbenzene and ethylene diamine). The polymerization reactions can take place under mild conditions in the absence of any catalysts. The resultant materials are interconnected with secondary amines and show well-defined micropores due to the structure-directing role of solvent molecules. These properties make our materials highly efficient for selective CO2 capture, and unusually high CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 selectivities are obtained. Furthermore, the adsorbents can be completely regenerated under mild conditions. Our materials may provide promising candidates for selective capture of CO2 from mixtures such as flue gas and natural gas.

  3. A Highly Stable Microporous Covalent Imine Network Adsorbent for Natural Gas Upgrading and Flue Gas CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Swapan Kumar

    2016-06-06

    The feasible capture and separation of CO2 and N2 from CH4 is an important task for natural gas upgrading and the control of greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we studied the microporous covalent imine networks (CIN) material prepared through Schiff base condensation and exhibited superior chemical robustness under both acidic and basic conditions and high thermal stability. The material possesses a relatively uniform nanoparticle size of approximately 70 to 100 nm. This network featured permanent porosity with a high surface area (722 m2g-1) and micropores. A single-component gas adsorption study showed enhanced CO2 and CH4 uptakes of 3.32 mmol/g and 1.14 mmol/g, respectively, at 273 K and 1 bar, coupled with high separation selectivities for CO2/CH4, CH4/N2, and CO2/N2 of 23, 11.8 and 211, respectively. The enriched Lewis basicity in the porous skeletons favours the interaction of quadrupolar CO2 and polarizable CH4, resulting in enhanced CH4 and CO2 uptake and high CH4/N2, CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 selectivities. Breakthrough experiments showed high CO2/CH4, CH4/N2 and CO2/N2 selectivities of 7.29, 40 and 125, respectively, at 298 K and 1 bar. High heats of adsorption for CH4 and CO2 (QstCH4; 32.61 kJ mol-1 and QstCO2; 42.42 kJ mol-1) provide the ultimate validation for the high selectivity. To the best of our knowledge, such a versatile adsorbent material that displays both enhanced uptake and selectivity for a variety of binary gas mixtures, including CO2/ CH4, CO2/N2 and CH4/N2, has not been extensively explored.

  4. High light-induced hydrogen peroxide production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is increased by high CO2 availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Thomas; Na, Chae Sun; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja

    2015-03-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an unavoidable part of photosynthesis. Stress that accompanies high light levels and low CO2 availability putatively includes enhanced ROS production in the so-called Mehler reaction. Such conditions are thought to encourage O2 to become an electron acceptor at photosystem I, producing the ROS superoxide anion radical (O2·-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). In contrast, here it is shown in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that CO2 depletion under high light levels lowered cellular H2 O2 production, and that elevated CO2 levels increased H2 O2 production. Using various photosynthetic and mitochondrial mutants of C. reinhardtii, the chloroplast was identified as the main source of elevated H2 O2 production under high CO2 availability. High light levels under low CO2 availability induced photoprotective mechanisms called non-photochemical quenching, or NPQ, including state transitions (qT) and high energy state quenching (qE). The qE-deficient mutant npq4 produced more H2 O2 than wild-type cells under high light levels, although less so under high CO2 availability, whereas it demonstrated equal or greater enzymatic H2 O2 -degrading capacity. The qT-deficient mutant stt7-9 produced the same H2 O2 as wild-type cells under high CO2 availability. Physiological levels of H2 O2 were able to hinder qT and the induction of state 2, providing an explanation for why under high light levels and high CO2 availability wild-type cells behaved like stt7-9 cells stuck in state 1. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed on supercritical CO2 extraction of oil

    OpenAIRE

    Da Porto, C.; Natolino, A.; Decorti, D.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound pre-treatment of intact hemp seeds without any solvent assistance was carried out for 10, 20 and 40 min prior to SCCO2 extraction at 40 °C, 300 bar and 45 kg CO2/kg feed. Sonication time effect on SC-CO2 extraction was investigated by the extraction kinetics. The maximum extraction yield was estimated to be 24.03 (% w/w) after 10 min of ultrasonic pre-treatment. The fatty acid compositions of the oils extracted by SC-CO2 without and with ultrasound pre-treatments was analyzed using...

  6. Modeling The Anthropogenic CO2 Footprint in Europe Using a High Resolution Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Gruber, Nicolas; Brunner, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    The localized nature of most fossil fuel emission sources leaves a distinct footprint on atmospheric CO2 concentrations, yet to date, most studies have used relatively coarse atmospheric transport models to simulate this footprint, causing an excess amount of spatial smoothing. In addition, most studies have considered only monthly variations in emissions, neglecting their substantial diurnal and weekly fluctuations. With the fossil fuel emission fluxes dominating the carbon balance in Europe and many other industrialized countries, it is paramount to simulate the fossil fuel footprint in atmospheric CO2 accurately in time and space in order to discern the footprint of the terrestrial biosphere. Furthermore, a good understanding of the fossil fuel footprint also provides the opportunity to monitor and verify any change in fossil fuel emission. We use here a high resolution (7 km) atmospheric model setup for central Europe based on the operational weather forecast model COSMO and simulate the atmospheric CO2 concentrations separately for 5 fossil fuel emission sectors (i.e., power generation, heating, transport, industrial processes, and rest), and for 10 different country-based regions. The emissions were based on high-resolution emission inventory data (EDGAR(10km) and MeteoTest(500m)), to which we have added detailed time functions for each process and country. The total anthropogenic CO2 footprint compares well with observational estimates based on radiocarbon (C14) and CO for a number of sites across Europe, providing confidence in the emission inventory and atmospheric transport. Despite relatively rapid atmospheric mixing, the fossil fuel footprint shows strong annual mean structures reflecting the point-source nature of most emissions. Among all the processes, the emissions from power plants dominates the fossil fuel footprint, followed by industry, while traffic emissions are less distinct, largely owing to their spatially more distributed nature. However

  7. Comparison of CO2 laser combined with imiquimod cream and CO2 laser alone for the clinical treatment of periungual wart%CO2激光联合咪喹莫特乳膏治疗甲周疣疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段民录; 赵亮; 朱蕾

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察CO2激光联合咪喹莫特乳膏治疗甲周疣的临床疗效,并与单纯CO2激光治疗做比较.方法:将入选的182例甲周疣患者随机分为两组:对照组91例,单纯CO2激光手术治疗;治疗组91例,CO2激光加咪喹莫特乳膏治疗.3个月后分别对两组有效率及复发率进行随访.结果:对照组有效率84.5%,治疗组有效率90.2%,复发率分别是12.5%、7.9%.两组疗效比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:CO2激光联合5%咪喹莫特乳膏治愈率高,复发率低.联合治疗对特殊部位疣有一定推广价值.%Objective To compare the treatment of periungual wart using CO2 laser combined with imiquimod cream and using CO2 laser alone. Methods 182 cases with periungual warts were selected and randomly divided into two groups. The observation group included 91 cases, which were treated by CO2 laser plus imiquimod cream. The control group with 91 cases were treated by CO2 laser alne. All patients were followed for 3 months after the initial treatment. The cure rate and recurrence rate were compared in two groups. Results The data showed that the cure rate in control group and observation group patients was 84.5% and 90.2% (P<0.05), respectively. The wart recurrence rate was 12.5% and 7.9% in two group (P<0.05), respectively. Conclusion The high cure rate and low recurrence rate can be obtained in the treatment of periungual wart using CO2 laser combined with 5% imiquimod cream. Combination therapy for periungual parts should be promoted.

  8. General solution growth of mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanosheets on various conductive substrates as high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Genqiang; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2013-02-20

    Mesoporous NiCo(2) O(4) nanosheets can be directly grown on various conductive substrates, such as Ni foam, Ti foil, stainless-steel foil and flexible graphite paper, through a general template-free solution method combined with a simple post annealing treatment. As a highly integrated binder- and conductive-agent-free electrode for supercapacitors, the mesoporous NiCo(2) O(4) nanosheets supported on Ni foam deliver ultrahigh capacitance and excellent high-rate cycling stability.

  9. The treatment of oral leukoplakia with the CO2 laser: A retrospective study of 65 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogedas-Vegara, Alfonso; Hueto-Madrid, Juan-Antonio; Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo; Bescós-Atín, Coro

    2015-06-01

    The use of CO2 laser has become a routine procedure for the treatment of oral leukoplakia. In this retrospective study, we evaluated 65 patients with oral leukoplakia treated with CO2 laser vaporization. The main location was the tongue (n = 21/65, 32.3%). The initial biopsy showed mild/moderate dysplasia in almost half the patients (n = 29, 44.6%) and hyperplasia without dysplasia in around a third of the patients (n = 21, 32.3%). The recurrence and malignant transformation rates were 33.8% (n = 22) and 15.4% (n = 10), respectively. The follow-up mean (standard deviation) was 15.0 (10.6) months. The procedure-related complications rate was 7.7% (n = 5). The Kaplan-Meier curves for time to recurrence showed differences only for gingiva lesions compared to tongue lesions (log rank, p = 0.032). Malignant leukoplakia transformation is independent of treatment, although it seems advisable to treat leukoplakia with or without dysplasia.

  10. Seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) seedlings in a high-CO2 world: from physiology to herbivory

    KAUST Repository

    Hernán, Gema

    2016-12-01

    Under future increased CO2 concentrations, seagrasses are predicted to perform better as a result of increased photosynthesis, but the effects in carbon balance and growth are unclear and remain unexplored for early life stages such as seedlings, which allow plant dispersal and provide the potential for adaptation under changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, the outcome of the concomitant biochemical changes in plant-herbivore interactions has been poorly studied, yet may have important implications in plant communities. In this study we determined the effects of experimental exposure to current and future predicted CO2 concentrations on the physiology, size and defense strategies against herbivory in the earliest life stage of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica. The photosynthetic performance of seedlings, assessed by fluorescence, improved under increased pCO2 conditions after 60 days, although these differences disappeared after 90 days. Furthermore, these plants exhibited bigger seeds and higher carbon storage in belowground tissues, having thus more resources to tolerate and recover from stressors. Of the several herbivory resistance traits measured, plants under high pCO2 conditions had a lower leaf N content but higher sucrose. These seedlings were preferred by herbivorous sea urchins in feeding trials, which could potentially counteract some of the positive effects observed.

  11. Seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) seedlings in a high-CO2 world: from physiology to herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernán, Gema; Ramajo, Laura; Basso, Lorena; Delgado, Antonio; Terrados, Jorge; Duarte, Carlos M.; Tomas, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Under future increased CO2 concentrations, seagrasses are predicted to perform better as a result of increased photosynthesis, but the effects in carbon balance and growth are unclear and remain unexplored for early life stages such as seedlings, which allow plant dispersal and provide the potential for adaptation under changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, the outcome of the concomitant biochemical changes in plant-herbivore interactions has been poorly studied, yet may have important implications in plant communities. In this study we determined the effects of experimental exposure to current and future predicted CO2 concentrations on the physiology, size and defense strategies against herbivory in the earliest life stage of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica. The photosynthetic performance of seedlings, assessed by fluorescence, improved under increased pCO2 conditions after 60 days, although these differences disappeared after 90 days. Furthermore, these plants exhibited bigger seeds and higher carbon storage in belowground tissues, having thus more resources to tolerate and recover from stressors. Of the several herbivory resistance traits measured, plants under high pCO2 conditions had a lower leaf N content but higher sucrose. These seedlings were preferred by herbivorous sea urchins in feeding trials, which could potentially counteract some of the positive effects observed. PMID:27905514

  12. Hydrolases in supercritical CO2 and their use in a high-pressure membrane reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Z; Habulin, M; Primozic, M

    2003-03-01

    The thermal stability and activity of enzymes in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO(2)) and near-critical propane were studied at a pressure of 300 bar in the temperature range 20-90 degrees C. Proteinase from Carica papaya was incubated in microaqueous SC CO(2) at atmospheric pressure in a nonaqueous system. Lipase stability in an aqueous medium at atmospheric pressure and in SC CO(2) as well as near-critical propane at 100 bar and 40 degrees C was studied. In order to investigate the impact of solvent on lipases, these were chosen from different sources: Pseudomonas fluorescences, Rhizpous javanicus, Rhizopus niveus and porcine pancreas. On the basis of our previous study on lipase activities in dense gases, a high-pressure continuous flat-shape membrane reactor was designed. The hydrolysis of sunflower oil in SC CO(2) was performed as a model reaction in this reactor. The reaction was catalyzed by the lipase preparation Lipolase 100T and was performed at 50 degrees C and 200 bar.

  13. Analysis of therapeutical effects of Er:YAG and CO2 laser post treatments of small hemangiomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remlová, E.; Vránová, J.; Rosina, J.; Navrátil, L.

    2011-09-01

    The main goal of our study was the evaluation of treatment efficiency of two types of ablative laser-CO2 and Er:YAG (or ERB) treatment. 183 patients (Er:YAG—105 patients, CO2—78 patients) were analyzed to compare the curative effects and adverse events, such as loss of pigment and appearance of scars caused by these two lasers. The results of the study showed the slightly better effectiveness of Er:YAG laser radiation in comparison with CO2 laser in the case of treatment of small hemangiomas up to 3 mm in diameter. In the Er:YAG laser application the curative effect was in 99%, hypo-pigmentation occurred in 18%, and scars in 70% of all treatments. In the CO2 laser application the curative effect was in 97%, hypo-pigmentation in 52%, and scars in 77% from all treatments.

  14. Technology of discharge and laser resonators for high power CO2 lasers. Koshutsuryoku CO2 laser ni tsukawareru hoden reiki laser kyoshinki gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takenaka, Y.; Kuzumoto, M. (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-03-20

    This paper describes discharge excitation technology and resonator technology as basic technologies for high power CO2 lasers. As a result of progress in high-frequency power element techniques, the discharge excitation technology now generally uses laser excitation using AC discharge of capacity coupling type. Its representative example is silent discharge (SD) excitation. This is a system to excite laser by applying high voltages with as high frequency as 100 kHz to 1 MHz across a pair of electrodes covered with a dielectric material. The system maintains stability in discharge even if power supply voltage amplitude is modulated, and easily provides pulse outputs. Discharge excitation for diffusion cooled type CO2 laser generates a discharge in a gap with a gap length of about 2 mm, and can perform gas cooling by means of thermal conduction of gas, whereas a compact resonator can be fabricated. A resonator for the diffusion cooled type CO2 laser eliminates gas circulation and cooling systems, hence the device can be made more compact. A report has been given that several of these compact resonators were combined, from which a laser output of 85W was obtained by using RF discharge of 2kW. 43 refs., 21 figs.

  15. Covalent Triazine-Based Frameworks with Ultramicropores and High Nitrogen Contents for Highly Selective CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keke; Huang, Hongliang; Liu, Dahuan; Wang, Chang; Li, Jinping; Zhong, Chongli

    2016-05-03

    Porous organic frameworks (POFs) are a class of porous materials composed of organic precursors linked by covalent bonds. The objective of this work is to develop POFs with both ultramicropores and high nitrogen contents for CO2 capture. Specifically, two covalent triazine-based frameworks (CTFs) with ultramicropores (pores of width capture CO2 due to ultramicroporous nature. Especially, CTF-FUM-350 has the highest nitrogen content (27.64%) and thus the highest CO2 adsorption capacity (57.2 cc/g at 298 K) and selectivities for CO2 over N2 and CH4 (102.4 and 20.5 at 298 K, respectively) among all CTF-FUM and CTF-DCN. More impressively, as far as we know, the CO2/CH4 selectivity is larger than that of all reported CTFs and ranks in top 10 among all reported POFs. Dynamic breakthrough curves indicate that both CTFs could indeed separate gas mixtures of CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 completely.

  16. Improvement of photosynthetic CO2 fixation at high light intensity through reduction of chlorophyll antenna size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James W; Mets, Laurens; Greenbau, Elias

    2002-01-01

    At elevated light intensities (greater than approximately 200 microE/[m2 x s]), the kinetic imbalance between the rate of photon excitation and thermally activated electron transport results in saturation of the rate of photosynthesis. Since maximum terrestrial solar radiation can reach 200 microE/(m2 x s), a significant opportunity exists to improve photosynthetic efficiency at elevated light intensities by achieving a kinetic balance between photon excitation and electron transport, especially in designed large-scale photosynthetic reactors in which a low-cost and efficient biomass production system is desired. One such strategy is a reduction in chlorophyll (chl) antenna size in relation to the reaction center that it serves. In this article, we report recent progress in this area of research. Light-saturation studies for CO2 fixation were performed on an antenna-deficient mutant of Chlamydomonas (DS521) and the wild type (DES15) with 700 ppm of CO2 in air. The light-saturated rate for CO2 assimilation in the mutant DS521 was about two times higher (187 micromol/[h x mg of chl]) than that of the wild type, DES15 (95 micromol/[h x mg of chl]). Significantly, a partial linearization of the light-saturation curve was also observed. These results confirmed that DS521 has a smaller relative chl antenna size and demonstrated that reduction of relative antenna size can improve the overall efficiency of photon utilization at higher light intensities. The antenna-deficient mutant DS521 can provide significant resistance to photoinhibition, in addition to improvement in the overall efficiency of CO2 fixation at high light. The experimental data reported herein support the idea that reduction in chl antenna size could have significant implications for both fundamental understanding of photosynthesis and potential application to improve photosynthetic CO2 fixation efficiency.

  17. Hydrogen production from food wastes and gas post-treatment by CO2 adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondas, V; Gómez, X; García, S; Pevida, C; Rubiera, F; Morán, A; Pis, J J

    2012-01-01

    The production of H(2) by biological means, although still far from being a commercially viable proposition, offers great promise for the future. Purification of the biogas obtained may lead to the production of highly concentrated H(2) streams appropriate for industrial application. This research work evaluates the dark fermentation of food wastes and assesses the possibility of adsorbing CO(2) from the gas stream by means of a low cost biomass-based adsorbent. The reactor used was a completely stirred tank reactor run at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) while the concentration of solids of the feeding stream was kept constant. The results obtained demonstrate that the H(2) yields from the fermentation of food wastes were affected by modifications in the hydraulic retention time (HRT) due to incomplete hydrolysis. The decrease in the duration of fermentation had a negative effect on the conversion of the substrate into soluble products. This resulted in a lower amount of soluble substrate being available for metabolisation by H(2) producing microflora leading to a reduction in specific H(2) production. Adsorption of CO(2) from a gas stream generated from the dark fermentation process was successfully carried out. The data obtained demonstrate that the column filled with biomass-derived activated carbon resulted in a high degree of hydrogen purification. Co-adsorption of H(2)S onto the activated carbon also took place, there being no evidence of H(2)S present in the bio-H(2) exiting the column. Nevertheless, the concentration of H(2)S was very low, and this co-adsorption did not affect the CO(2) capture capacity of the activated carbon.

  18. A multi-decade record of high-quality fCO2 data in version 3 of the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Dorothee; Landa, Camilla S.; Pfeil, Benjamin; Metzl, Nicolas; O’Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Smith, Karl; Cosca, Cathy; Harasawa, Sumiko; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Jones, Stephen; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Steinhoff, Tobias; Sweeney, Colm; Schuster, Ute; Takahashi, Taro; Tilbrook, Bronte; Wada, Chisato; Wanninkhof, Rik; Alin, Simone R.; Balestrini, Carlos F.; Barbero, Leticia; Bates, Nicholas; Bianchi, Alejandro A.; Bonou, Frédéric; Boutin, Jacqueline; Bozec, Yann; Burger, Eugene F.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Castle, Robert D.; Chen, Liqi; Chierici, Melissa; Currie, Kim; Evans, Wiley; Featherstone, Charles; Feely, Richard; Fransson, Agneta; Goyet, Catherine; Greenwood, Naomi; Gregor, Luke; Hankin, Steven; Hardman-Mountford, Nick J.; Harlay, Jérôme; Hauck, Judith; Hoppema, Mario; Humphreys, Matthew P.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Huss, Betty; Ibánhez, J. Severino P.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Johannessen, Truls; Kitidis, Vassilis; Körtzinger, Arne; Kozyr, Alex; Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Kuwata, Akira; Landschützer, Peter; Lauvset, Siv K.; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lo Monaco, Claire; Manke, Ansley; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Merlivat, Liliane; Millero, Frank J.; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Murata, Akihiko; Newberger, Timothy; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Paterson, Kristina; Pearce, David; Pierrot, Denis; Robbins, Lisa L.; Saito, Shu; Salisbury, Joe; Schlitzer, Reiner; Schneider, Bernd; Schweitzer, Roland; Sieger, Rainer; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Sullivan, Kevin F.; Sutherland, Stewart C.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Tadokoro, Kazuaki; Telszewski, Maciej; Tuma, Matthias; van Heuven, Steven M. A. C.; Vandemark, Douglas; Ward, Brian; Watson, Andrew J.; Xu, Suqing

    2016-01-01

    The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) is a synthesis of quality-controlled f CO2 (fugacity of carbon dioxide) values for the global surface oceans and coastal seas with regular updates. Version 3 of SOCAT has 14.7 million f CO2 values from 3646 data sets covering the years 1957 to 2014. This latest version has an additional 4.6 million f CO2 values relative to version 2 and extends the record from 2011 to 2014. Version 3 also significantly increases the data availability for 2005 to 2013. SOCAT has an average of approximately 1.2 million surface water f CO2 values per year for the years 2006 to 2012. Quality and documentation of the data has improved. A new feature is the data set quality control (QC) flag of E for data from alternative sensors and platforms. The accuracy of surface water f CO2 has been defined for all data set QC flags. Automated range checking has been carried out for all data sets during their upload into SOCAT. The upgrade of the interactive Data Set Viewer (previously known as the Cruise Data Viewer) allows better interrogation of the SOCAT data collection and rapid creation of high-quality figures for scientific presentations. Automated data upload has been launched for version 4 and will enable more frequent SOCAT releases in the future. High-profile scientific applications of SOCAT include quantification of the ocean sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide and its long-term variation, detection of ocean acidification, as well as evaluation of coupled-climate and ocean-only biogeochemical models. Users of SOCAT data products are urged to acknowledge the contribution of data providers, as stated in the SOCAT Fair Data Use Statement. This ESSD (Earth System Science Data) “living data” publication documents the methods and data sets used for the assembly of this new version of the SOCAT data collection and compares these with those used for earlier versions of the data collection (Pfeil et al., 2013; Sabine et al., 2013; Bakker et al., 2014). 

  19. A multi-decade record of high-quality fCO2 data in version 3 of the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Pfeil, Benjamin; Landa, Camilla S.; Metzl, Nicolas; O'Brien, Kevin M.; Olsen, Are; Smith, Karl; Cosca, Cathy; Harasawa, Sumiko; Jones, Stephen D.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Schuster, Ute; Steinhoff, Tobias; Sweeney, Colm; Takahashi, Taro; Tilbrook, Bronte; Wada, Chisato; Wanninkhof, Rik; Alin, Simone R.; Balestrini, Carlos F.; Barbero, Leticia; Bates, Nicholas R.; Bianchi, Alejandro A.; Bonou, Frédéric; Boutin, Jacqueline; Bozec, Yann; Burger, Eugene F.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Castle, Robert D.; Chen, Liqi; Chierici, Melissa; Currie, Kim; Evans, Wiley; Featherstone, Charles; Feely, Richard A.; Fransson, Agneta; Goyet, Catherine; Greenwood, Naomi; Gregor, Luke; Hankin, Steven; Hardman-Mountford, Nick J.; Harlay, Jérôme; Hauck, Judith; Hoppema, Mario; Humphreys, Matthew P.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Huss, Betty; Ibánhez, J. Severino P.; Johannessen, Truls; Keeling, Ralph; Kitidis, Vassilis; Körtzinger, Arne; Kozyr, Alex; Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Kuwata, Akira; Landschützer, Peter; Lauvset, Siv K.; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lo Monaco, Claire; Manke, Ansley; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Merlivat, Liliane; Millero, Frank J.; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Murata, Akihiko; Newberger, Timothy; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Paterson, Kristina; Pearce, David; Pierrot, Denis; Robbins, Lisa L.; Saito, Shu; Salisbury, Joe; Schlitzer, Reiner; Schneider, Bernd; Schweitzer, Roland; Sieger, Rainer; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Sullivan, Kevin F.; Sutherland, Stewart C.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Tadokoro, Kazuaki; Telszewski, Maciej; Tuma, Matthias; van Heuven, Steven M. A. C.; Vandemark, Doug; Ward, Brian; Watson, Andrew J.; Xu, Suqing

    2016-09-01

    The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) is a synthesis of quality-controlled fCO2 (fugacity of carbon dioxide) values for the global surface oceans and coastal seas with regular updates. Version 3 of SOCAT has 14.7 million fCO2 values from 3646 data sets covering the years 1957 to 2014. This latest version has an additional 4.6 million fCO2 values relative to version 2 and extends the record from 2011 to 2014. Version 3 also significantly increases the data availability for 2005 to 2013. SOCAT has an average of approximately 1.2 million surface water fCO2 values per year for the years 2006 to 2012. Quality and documentation of the data has improved. A new feature is the data set quality control (QC) flag of E for data from alternative sensors and platforms. The accuracy of surface water fCO2 has been defined for all data set QC flags. Automated range checking has been carried out for all data sets during their upload into SOCAT. The upgrade of the interactive Data Set Viewer (previously known as the Cruise Data Viewer) allows better interrogation of the SOCAT data collection and rapid creation of high-quality figures for scientific presentations. Automated data upload has been launched for version 4 and will enable more frequent SOCAT releases in the future. High-profile scientific applications of SOCAT include quantification of the ocean sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide and its long-term variation, detection of ocean acidification, as well as evaluation of coupled-climate and ocean-only biogeochemical models. Users of SOCAT data products are urged to acknowledge the contribution of data providers, as stated in the SOCAT Fair Data Use Statement. This ESSD (Earth System Science Data) "living data" publication documents the methods and data sets used for the assembly of this new version of the SOCAT data collection and compares these with those used for earlier versions of the data collection (Pfeil et al., 2013; Sabine et al., 2013; Bakker et al., 2014). Individual

  20. Ablative fractional laser treatment for hypertrophic scars: comparison between Er:YAG and CO2 fractional lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Eun; Oh, Ga Na; Kim, Jong Yeob; Seo, Soo Hong; Ahn, Hyo Hyun; Kye, Young Chul

    2014-08-01

    Nonablative fractional photothermolysis has been reported to show early promise in the treatment of hypertrophic scars, but there are few reports on ablative fractional photothermolysis for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. To evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of Er:YAG fractional laser (EYFL) and CO2 fractional laser (CO2FL) for treatment of hypertrophic scars. Thirteen patients with hypertrophic scars were treated with 2,940 nm EYFL, and ten were treated with 10,600 nm CO2FL. An independent physician evaluator assessed the treatment outcomes using Vancouver scar scale (VSS) and 5-point grading scale (grade 0, no improvement; grade 1, 1-25%; grade 2, 26-50%; grade 3, 51-75%; grade 4, 76-100% improvement). Patients are queried about their subjective satisfaction with the treatment outcomes. After the final treatment, average percentage changes of VSS were 28.2% for EYFL and 49.8% for CO2FL. Improvement was evident in terms of pliability, while insignificant in terms of vascularity and pigmentation. Based on physician's global assessment, mean grade of 1.8 for EYFL and 2.7 for CO2FL was achieved. Patient's subjective satisfaction scores paralleled the physician's objective evaluation. CO2FL is a potentially effective and safe modality for the treatment of hypertrophic scars, particularly in terms of pliability.

  1. Impact of high CO2 on the geochemistry of the coralline algae Lithothamnion glaciale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzola, F.; Foster, L. C.; Jones, C. J.; Scott, T. B.; Fietzke, J.; Kilburn, M. R.; Schmidt, D. N.

    2016-02-01

    Coralline algae are a significant component of the benthic ecosystem. Their ability to withstand physical stresses in high energy environments relies on their skeletal structure which is composed of high Mg-calcite. High Mg-calcite is, however, the most soluble form of calcium carbonate and therefore potentially vulnerable to the change in carbonate chemistry resulting from the absorption of anthropogenic CO2 by the ocean. We examine the geochemistry of the cold water coralline alga Lithothamnion glaciale grown under predicted future (year 2050) high pCO2 (589 μatm) using Electron microprobe and NanoSIMS analysis. In the natural and control material, higher Mg calcite forms clear concentric bands around the algal cells. As expected, summer growth has a higher Mg content compared to the winter growth. In contrast, under elevated CO2 no banding of Mg is recognisable and overall Mg concentrations are lower. This reduction in Mg in the carbonate undermines the accuracy of the Mg/Ca ratio as proxy for past temperatures in time intervals with significantly different carbonate chemistry. Fundamentally, the loss of Mg in the calcite may reduce elasticity thereby changing the structural properties, which may affect the ability of L. glaciale to efficiently function as a habitat former in the future ocean.

  2. A Highly Collimated, Young and Fast CO(2-1) Outflow in OMC1 South

    CERN Document Server

    Zapata, L A; Ho, P T P; Zhang, Q; Qi, C; Kurtz, S E; Zapata, Luis A.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Ho, Paul T.P.; Zhang, Qizhou; Qi, Chunhua

    2005-01-01

    We present high angular resolution (~ 1''), sensitive CO(2-1) line observations of the region OMC1 South in the Orion Nebula made using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). We detect the CO(2-1) high velocity outflow that was first found by Rodriguez-Franco et al. (1999a) with the IRAM 30 m. Our observations resolve the outflow, whose velocity-integrated emission has a deconvolved width of 0.89'' \\pm 0.06'' (490 AU) and a projected length of ~ 48'' (21,000 AU) with very high redshifted and blueshifted gas with velocities of about \\pm 80 km/s. This outflow is among the most collimated (~ 3 degrees) and youngest outflows (600 yr) that have been reported. The data show that this collimated outflow has been blowing in the same direction during the last 600 yr. At high velocities, the CO(2-1) outflow traces an extremely collimated jet, while at lower velocities the CO emission traces an envelope possibly produced by entrainment of ambient gas. Furthermore, we also detect for the first time a millimeter wavelength contin...

  3. Impact of high CO2 on the geochemistry of the coralline algae Lithothamnion glaciale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzola, F; Foster, L C; Jones, C J; Scott, T B; Fietzke, J; Kilburn, M R; Schmidt, D N

    2016-01-01

    Coralline algae are a significant component of the benthic ecosystem. Their ability to withstand physical stresses in high energy environments relies on their skeletal structure which is composed of high Mg-calcite. High Mg-calcite is, however, the most soluble form of calcium carbonate and therefore potentially vulnerable to the change in carbonate chemistry resulting from the absorption of anthropogenic CO2 by the ocean. We examine the geochemistry of the cold water coralline alga Lithothamnion glaciale grown under predicted future (year 2050) high pCO2 (589 μatm) using Electron microprobe and NanoSIMS analysis. In the natural and control material, higher Mg calcite forms clear concentric bands around the algal cells. As expected, summer growth has a higher Mg content compared to the winter growth. In contrast, under elevated CO2 no banding of Mg is recognisable and overall Mg concentrations are lower. This reduction in Mg in the carbonate undermines the accuracy of the Mg/Ca ratio as proxy for past temperatures in time intervals with significantly different carbonate chemistry. Fundamentally, the loss of Mg in the calcite may reduce elasticity thereby changing the structural properties, which may affect the ability of L. glaciale to efficiently function as a habitat former in the future ocean.

  4. Polar Ketone-Functionalized Metal-Organic Framework Showing a High CO2 Adsorption Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Genfeng; Peng, Yuxin; Liu, Wei; Chang, Feifan; Dai, Yafei; Huang, Wei

    2017-03-06

    The incorporation of various functionalities into porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represents an efficacious strategy to improving their gas adsorption properties. In this work, a carbonylated tetracarboxylic acid ligand (5,5'-carbonyldiisophthalic acid) was synthesized, and a ketone-functionalized MOF with exposed metal sites based on this ligand was formed successfully. Structural analysis reveals that the new MOF possesses channels decorated by the carbonyl groups and rhombicuboctahedral cages, with open Cu(II) sites pointing toward the cage center. The framework exhibits exceptionally high CO2 (46.7 wt % at 273 K and 1 bar) and H2 (2.8 wt % at 77 K and 1 bar) uptake. Furthermore, it displays high selectivities of CO2 adsorption over N2 and CH4 at 298 K.

  5. A low-cost sensor for high density urban CO2 monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, N.; Martin, C.

    2015-12-01

    The high spatial-termporal variability of greenhouse gases and other pollution sources in an urban environment can not be easily resolved with current high-accuracy but expensive instruments. We have tested a small, low-cost NDIR CO2 sensor designed for potential use. It has a manufacturer's specified accuracy of +- 30 parts per million (ppm). However, initial results running parallel with a research-grade greenhouse gas analyzer have shown that the absolute accuracy of the sensor is within +-5ppm, suggesting their utility for sensing ambient air variations in carbon dioxide. Through a multivariate analysis, we have determined a correction procedure that when accounting for environmental temperature, humidity, air pressure, and the device's span and offset, we can further increase the accuracy of the collected data. We will show results from rooftop measurements over a period of one year and CO2 tracking data in the Washington-Baltimore Metropolitan area.

  6. Enhancement of CO2 capture in limestone and dolomite granular beds by high intensity sound waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Jose Manuel; Perez-Ebri, Jose Manuel; Sanchez-Quintanilla, Miguel Angel

    2017-06-01

    The calcium looping (CaL) process, based on the calcination/carbonation of CaCO3 at high temperatures, has emerged in the last years as a potentially low cost technology for CO2 capture. In this work, we show that the application of high intensity sound waves to granular beds of limestone and dolomite in a CaL reactor enhances significantly their multicycle CO2 capture capacity. Sound waves are applied either during the calcination stage of each CaL cycle or in the carbonation stage. The effect of sound is to intensify the transfer of heat, mass and momentum and is more marked when sound is applied during calcination by promoting CaO regeneration. The application of sound would allow reducing the calcination temperature thereby mitigating the decay of capture capacity with the number of cycles and reducing the energy penalty of the technology.

  7. High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Performance Characterisation with CO and CO2 using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Vang, Jakob Rabjerg; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    In this work, extensive electrochemical impedance measurements have been conducted on a 45 cm2 BASF Celtec P2100 high temperature PEM MEA. The fuel cell performance has been examined subject to some of the poisoning effects experienced when running on a reformate gas. The impedance is measured...... at different temperatures, currents, and different content of CO, CO2 and H2 in the anode gas. The impedance spectrum at each operating point is fitted to an equivalent circuit and an analysis to identify the different mechanisms governing the impedance is performed. The trends observed, when varying...... the operating conditions under pure H2, generally show good agreement with results from the literature. When adding CO and CO2 to the anode gas the entire frequency spectrum is affected, and especially the measurements conducted at low temperatures and high CO concentrations reveal undesirable transient effects....

  8. Analysis of Pacific oyster larval proteome and its response to high-CO2

    KAUST Repository

    Dineshram, R.

    2012-10-01

    Most calcifying organisms show depressed metabolic, growth and calcification rates as symptoms to high-CO2 due to ocean acidification (OA) process. Analysis of the global expression pattern of proteins (proteome analysis) represents a powerful tool to examine these physiological symptoms at molecular level, but its applications are inadequate. To address this knowledge gap, 2-DE coupled with mass spectrophotometer was used to compare the global protein expression pattern of oyster larvae exposed to ambient and to high-CO2. Exposure to OA resulted in marked reduction of global protein expression with a decrease or loss of 71 proteins (18% of the expressed proteins in control), indicating a wide-spread depression of metabolic genes expression in larvae reared under OA. This is, to our knowledge, the first proteome analysis that provides insights into the link between physiological suppression and protein down-regulation under OA in oyster larvae. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Tratamiento del rinofima con láser de CO2: Presentación de un caso Treatment of rhinophyma with CO2 laser: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Cebrián Carretero

    2006-04-01

    observed during the first week. Two months later the epithelization was complete and no scabs or erythema remained. Conclusion. The use of the CO2 laser for the treatment of advanced rhinophyma is an adequate therapy that provides excellent aesthetic results, with minimal morbidity and surgical risk.

  10. Formate-Dependent Microbial Conversion of CO2 and the Dominant Pathways of methanogenesis in production water of high-temperature oil reservoirs amended with bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Chao eYang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CO2 sequestration in deep-subsurface formations including oil reservoirs is a potential measure to reduce the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. However, the fate of the CO2 and the ecological influences in Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CDCS facilities is not understood clearly. In the current study, the fate of CO2 (in bicarbonate form (0~90 mM with 10 mM of formate as electron donor and carbon source was investigated with high-temperature production water from oilfield in China. The isotope data showed that bicarbonate could be reduced to methane by methanogens and major pathway of methanogenesis could be syntrophic formate oxidation coupled with CO2 reduction and formate methanogenesis under the anaerobic conditions. The bicarbonate addition induced the shift of microbial community. Addition of bicarbonate and formate was associated with a decrease of Methanosarcinales, but promotion of Methanobacteriales in all treatments. Thermodesulfovibrio was the major group in all the samples and Thermacetogenium dominated in the high bicarbonate treatments. The results indicated that CO2 from CDCS could be transformed to methane and the possibility of microbial CO2 conversion for enhanced microbial energy recovery in oil reservoirs.

  11. Highly Regioselective Palladium-Catalyzed Carboxylation of Allylic Alcohols with CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Tsuyoshi; Higuchi, Yuki; Sato, Yoshihiro

    2015-11-01

    Various allylic alcohols were carboxylated in the presence of a catalytic amount of PdCl2 and PPh3 using ZnEt2 as a stoichiometric transmetalation agent under a CO2 atmosphere (1 atm). This carboxylation proceeded in a highly regioselective manner to afford branched carboxylic acids predominantly. The β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acid thus obtained was successfully converted into an optically active γ-butyrolactone, a known intermediate of (R)-baclofen.

  12. Effects of high CO2 and warming on a Baltic Sea microzooplankton community

    OpenAIRE

    Henriette G Horn; Boersma, Maarten; Garzke, Jessica; Löder, Martin G. J.; Sommer, Ulrich; Aberle, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Global warming and ocean acidification are among the most important stressors for aquatic ecosystems in the future. To investigate their direct and indirect effects on a near-natural plankton community, a multiple-stressor approach is needed. Hence, we set up mesocosms in a full-factorial design to study the effects of both warming and high CO2 on a Baltic Sea autumn plankton community, concentrating on the impacts on microzooplankton (MZP). MZP abundance, biomass, and species composition wer...

  13. High Efficiency Mask Based Laser Materials Processing with TEA-CO2 - and Excimer Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    In general, mask based laser materials processing techniques suffer from a very low energy efficiency. We have developed a simple device called an energy enhancer, which is capable of increasing the energy efficiency of typical mask based laser materials processing systems. A short review...... line marking with TEA-CO2 laser of high speed canning lines. The second one is manufactured for marking or microdrilling with excimer laser....

  14. Hierarchical NiCo2O4@NiCo2O4 core/shell nanoflake arrays as high-performance supercapacitor materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiayuan; Shi, Shaojun; Xiong, Qinqin; Li, Lu; Zhang, Yijun; Tang, Hong; Gu, Changdong; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping

    2013-09-11

    Hierarchical NiCo2O4@NiCo2O4 core/shell nanoflake arrays on nickel foam for high-performance supercapacitors are fabricated by a two-step solution-based method which involves in hydrothermal process and chemical bath deposition. Compared with the bare NiCo2O4 nanoflake arrays, the core/shell electrode displays better pseudocapacitive behaviors in 2 M KOH, which exhibits high areal specific capacitances of 1.55 F cm(-2) at 2 mA cm(-2) and 1.16 F cm(-2) at 40 mA cm(-2) before activation as well as excellent cycling stability. The specific capacitance can achieve a maximum of 2.20 F cm(-2) at a current density of 5 mA cm(-2), which can still retain 2.17 F cm(-2) (98.6% retention) after 4000 cycles. The enhanced pseudocapacitive performances are mainly attributed to its unique core/shell structure, which provides fast ion and electron transfer, a large number of active sites, and good strain accommodation.

  15. Surface treatment of dental porcelain: CO2 laser as an alternative to oven glaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgura, Ricardo; Reis, Mariana Cavalcante; Hernandes, Antonio Carlos; de Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Andreeta, Marcello Rubens Barsi; Medeiros, Igor Studart

    2015-02-01

    This work tested continuous CO2 laser as a surface treatment to dental porcelain and compared it to oven glaze (auto-glaze) by means of roughness and color parameters. Three commercial veneering porcelains with different crystalline content were tested: VM7, VM9, and VM13. Porcelain discs (3.5 × 2.0 mm, diameter × height) were sintered and had one side ground by a diamond bur (45 μm) simulating a chairside adjustment in a clinical office. Specimens (n = 7) were divided into the following groups: C--control (no treatment), G--auto-glaze (oven), and L--surface continuous irradiation with CO2 laser (Gem Laser, Coherent; λ = 10.6 μm). Laser was tested in three exposure times (3, 4, or 5 min) and two irradiances (45 and 50 W/cm(2)). Roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, and Rpm/Rz) were measured using a rugosimeter (Surftest 301, Mitutoyo). Color differences (ΔE) between the G and L groups were calculated (VITA Easyshade); ΔE values up to 3.3 were considered as not perceivable. A surface analysis was conducted by stereomicroscopy (Olympus SZ61) and SEM (Stereoscan 440, LEO). Crystalline content of specimens from groups C and L (50 W/cm(2), 5 min) was assessed by X-ray diffraction and then compared. Surface roughness (Ra and Rz) observed for laser-irradiated groups was similar to G for all studied porcelains. Rpm/Rz ratios were near 1.0 for all groups that indicated a sharp ridge profile for all specimens. Only one laser condition studied (50 W/cm(2), 3 min) from VM7 porcelain resulted in color difference (ΔE = 3.5) to G. Specimens irradiated with 50 W/cm(2) for 5 min presented the smoother surface observed by SEM, comparable to G. X-ray diffraction data revealed an increase in leucite crystallite size for VM9 and VM13 porcelains after laser treatment. Regarding roughness, continuous CO2 laser applied on porcelain surface was as effective as conventional oven auto-glaze.

  16. CO2 laser scribe of chemically strengthened glass with high surface compressive stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinghua; Vaddi, Butchi R.

    2011-03-01

    Chemically strengthened glass is finding increasing use in handheld, IT and TV cover glass applications. Chemically strengthened glass, particularly with high (>600MPa) compressive stress (CS) and deeper depth of layer (DOL), enable to retain higher strength after damage than non-strengthened glass when its surface is abraded. Corning Gorilla® Glass has particularly proven to be advantageous over competition in this attribute. However, due to high compressive stress (CS) and Central Tension (CT) cutting ion-exchanged glass is extremely difficult and often unmanageable where ever the applications require dicing the chemically strengthened mother glass into smaller parts. We at Corning have developed a CO2 laser scribe and break method (LSB) to separate a single chemically strengthened glass sheet into plurality of devices. Furthermore, CO2 laser scribe and break method enables debris-free separation of glass with high edge strength due to its mirror-like edge finish. We have investigated laser scribe and break of chemically strengthened glass with surface compressive stress greater than 600 MPa. In this paper we present the results of CO2 scribe and break method and underlying laser scribing mechanisms. We demonstrated cross-scribe repetitively on GEN 2 size chemically strengthened glass substrates. Specimens for edge strength measurements of different thickness and CS/DOL glass were prepared using the laser scribe and break technique. The specimens were tested using the standard 4-point bend method and the results are presented.

  17. Exploring highly porous Co2P nanowire arrays for electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minghua; Zhou, Weiwei; Qi, Meili; Yin, Jinghua; Xia, Xinhui; Chen, Qingguo

    2017-02-01

    Controllable synthesis of mesoporous conductive metal phosphide nanowire arrays is critical for developing highly-active electrodes of alkaline batteries. Herein we develop a simple combined strategy for rational synthesis of mesoporous Co2P nanowire arrays by hydrothermal-phosphorization method. Free-standing mesoporous Co2P nanowires consisting of interconnected nanoparticles of 10-20 nm grow vertically to the substrate forming arrays. High electrical conductivity and large porosity are obtained in the arrays architecture. When characterized as the cathode of high-rate alkaline batteries, the designed Co2P nanowire arrays are proven with good electrochemical performance with a large capacity (133 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1), stable cycling life with a capacity retention of almost 100% after 5000 cycles at 10 A g-1 owing to the mesoporous nanowire structure with short ion/electron transport path. Our synthetic approach can be useful for construction of other porous metal phosphide arrays for energy storage and conversion.

  18. Enhanced macroboring and depressed calcification drive net dissolution at high-CO2 coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enochs, Ian C; Manzello, Derek P; Kolodziej, Graham; Noonan, Sam H C; Valentino, Lauren; Fabricius, Katharina E

    2016-11-16

    Ocean acidification (OA) impacts the physiology of diverse marine taxa; among them corals that create complex reef framework structures. Biological processes operating on coral reef frameworks remain largely unknown from naturally high-carbon-dioxide (CO2) ecosystems. For the first time, we independently quantified the response of multiple functional groups instrumental in the construction and erosion of these frameworks (accretion, macroboring, microboring, and grazing) along natural OA gradients. We deployed blocks of dead coral skeleton for roughly 2 years at two reefs in Papua New Guinea, each experiencing volcanically enriched CO2, and employed high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to create three-dimensional models of changing skeletal structure. OA conditions were correlated with decreased calcification and increased macroboring, primarily by annelids, representing a group of bioeroders not previously known to respond to OA. Incubation of these blocks, using the alkalinity anomaly methodology, revealed a switch from net calcification to net dissolution at a pH of roughly 7.8, within Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) predictions for global ocean waters by the end of the century. Together these data represent the first comprehensive experimental study of bioerosion and calcification from a naturally high-CO2 reef ecosystem, where the processes of accelerated erosion and depressed calcification have combined to alter the permanence of this essential framework habitat. © 2016 The Authors.

  19. Effects of high-pressure CO2 processing on flavor, texture, and color of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linyan; Bi, Xiufang; Xu, Zenghui; Yang, Yingjie; Liao, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    High-pressure CO2 (HPCD) is a pasteurization method that inactivates microorganism and enzymes through molecular effects of CO2 under pressures below 50 MPa without exposing foods to adverse effects of heat. Thermal pasteurization can impart undesirable changes on organoleptic and nutritional quality of the foods, which can reduce sensory perception and consumer acceptance of the foods. As a novel nonthermal processing technique, HPCD does avoid drawbacks such as loss of flavor, denaturation of nutrients, production of side toxic reactions, as well as changes in physical, mechanical, and optical properties of the food materials involved in the processing. This review gives a survey and analysis of recent publications regarding the effects of HPCD on the flavor, texture and color of processed foods, and possible mechanisms explaining HPCD technique on the flavor, texture, and color of the foods were discussed.

  20. VUV-absorption cross section of CO2 at high temperatures and impact on exoplanet atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Venot, Olivia; Bénilan, Yves; Gazeau, Marie-Claire; Hébrard, Eric; Larcher, Gwenaelle; Schwell, Martin; Dobrijevic, Michel; Selsis, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) absorption cross sections are an essential ingredient of photochemical atmosphere models. Exoplanet searches have unveiled a large population of short-period objects with hot atmospheres, very different from what we find in our solar system. Transiting exoplanets whose atmospheres can now be studied by transit spectroscopy receive extremely strong UV fluxes and have typical temperatures ranging from 400 to 2500 K. At these temperatures, UV photolysis cross section data are severely lacking. Our goal is to provide high-temperature absorption cross sections and their temperature dependency for important atmospheric compounds. This study is dedicated to CO2, which is observed and photodissociated in exoplanet atmospheres. We performed these measurements for the 115 - 200 nm range at 300, 410, 480, and 550 K. In the 195 - 230 nm range, we worked at seven temperatures between 465 and 800 K. We found that the absorption cross section of CO2 is very sensitive to temperature, especially above 160 nm....

  1. Advances in CO2 laser fabrication for high power fibre laser devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Keiron; Rees, Simon; Simakov, Nikita; Daniel, Jae M. O.; Swain, Robert; Mies, Eric; Hemming, Alexander; Clarkson, W. A.; Haub, John

    2016-03-01

    CO2 laser processing facilitates contamination free, rapid, precise and reproducible fabrication of devices for high power fibre laser applications. We present recent progress in fibre end-face preparation and cladding surface modification techniques. We demonstrate a fine feature CO2 laser process that yields topography significantly smaller than that achieved with typical mechanical cleaving processes. We also investigate the side processing of optical fibres for the fabrication of all-glass cladding light strippers and demonstrate extremely efficient cladding mode removal. We apply both techniques to fibres with complex designs containing multiple layers of doped and un-doped silica as well as shaped and circularly symmetric structures. Finally, we discuss the challenges and approaches to working with various fibre and glass-types.

  2. Phase Behavior at High Pressure of the Ternary System: CO2, Ionic Liquid and Disperse Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Mazzer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High pressure phase behavior experimental data have been measured for the systems carbon dioxide (CO2 + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim] [PF6] and carbon dioxide (CO2 + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim] [PF6] + 1-amino-2-phenoxy-4-hydroxyanthraquinone (C.I. Disperse Red 60. Measurements were performed in the pressure up to 18 MPa and at the temperature (323 to 353 K. As reported in the literature, at higher concentrations of carbon dioxide the phase transition pressure increased very steeply. The experimental data for the binary and ternary systems were correlated with good agreement using the Peng-Robinson equation of state. The amount of water in phase behavior of the systems was evaluated.

  3. A DC excited waveguide multibeam CO2 laser using high frequency pre-ionization technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S V Deshmukh; C Rajagopalan

    2003-12-01

    High power industrial multibeam CO2 lasers consist of a large number of closely packed parallel glass discharge tubes sharing a common plane parallel resonator. Every discharge tube forms an independent resonator. When discharge tubes of smaller diameter are used and the Fresnel number $ \\ll 1$ for all resonators, they operate in waveguide mode. Waveguide modes have excellent discrimination of higher order modes. A DC excited waveguide multibeam CO2 laser is reported having six glass discharge tubes. Simultaneous excitation of DC discharge in all sections is achieved by producing pre-ionization using an auxiliary high frequency pulsed discharge along with its other advantages. Maximum 170 W output power is obtained with all beams operating in EH11 waveguide mode. The specific power of 28 W/m is much higher as compared to similar AC excited waveguide multibeam CO2 lasers. Theoretical analysis shows that all resonators of this laser will support only EH11 mode. This laser is successfully used for woodcutting.

  4. Protective Response Mechanisms to Heat Stress in Interaction with High [CO2] Conditions in Coffea spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Madlles Q.; Rodrigues, Weverton P.; Fortunato, Ana S.; Leitão, António E.; Rodrigues, Ana P.; Pais, Isabel P.; Martins, Lima D.; Silva, Maria J.; Reboredo, Fernando H.; Partelli, Fábio L.; Campostrini, Eliemar; Tomaz, Marcelo A.; Scotti-Campos, Paula; Ribeiro-Barros, Ana I.; Lidon, Fernando J. C.; DaMatta, Fábio M.; Ramalho, José C.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling studies have predicted that coffee crop will be endangered by future global warming, but recent reports highlighted that high [CO2] can mitigate heat impacts on coffee. This work aimed at identifying heat protective mechanisms promoted by CO2 in Coffea arabica (cv. Icatu and IPR108) and Coffea canephora cv. Conilon CL153. Plants were grown at 25/20°C (day/night), under 380 or 700 μL CO2 L−1, and then gradually submitted to 31/25, 37/30, and 42/34°C. Relevant heat tolerance up to 37/30°C for both [CO2] and all coffee genotypes was observed, likely supported by the maintenance or increase of the pools of several protective molecules (neoxanthin, lutein, carotenes, α-tocopherol, HSP70, raffinose), activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), and the upregulated expression of some genes (ELIP, Chaperonin 20). However, at 42/34°C a tolerance threshold was reached, mostly in the 380-plants and Icatu. Adjustments in raffinose, lutein, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and HSP70 pools, and the upregulated expression of genes related to protective (ELIPS, HSP70, Chape 20, and 60) and antioxidant (CAT, CuSOD2, APX Cyt, APX Chl) proteins were largely driven by temperature. However, enhanced [CO2] maintained higher activities of GR (Icatu) and CAT (Icatu and IPR108), kept (or even increased) the Cu,Zn-SOD, APX, and CAT activities, and promoted a greater upregulation of those enzyme genes, as well as those related to HSP70, ELIPs, Chaperonins in CL153, and Icatu. These changes likely favored the maintenance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at controlled levels and contributed to mitigate of photosystem II photoinhibition at the highest temperature. Overall, our results highlighted the important role of enhanced [CO2] on the coffee crop acclimation and sustainability under predicted future global warming scenarios. PMID:27446174

  5. A Convective Cloud Feedback and Spring Arctic Sea Ice Forecasting at High CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbot, D. S.; Walker, C. C.; Tziperman, E.

    2008-12-01

    Winter and spring sea ice dramatically cool the Arctic climate during the the coldest seasons of the year and may have remote effects on global climate as well. Accurate forecasting of winter and spring sea ice has significant social and economic benefits. Such forecasting requires the identification and understanding of all the feedbacks that can affect sea ice. A novel convective cloud feedback has recently been proposed in the context of explaining equable climates, e.g., the climate of the Eocene, that might be important for determining future winter and spring sea ice. In this feedback CO2 -initiated warming leads to sea ice reduction, which which allows increased heat and moisture fluxes from the ocean surface, which destabilizes the atmosphere and leads to atmospheric convection. This atmospheric convection produces high and optically thick convective clouds and increases high-altitude moisture levels, both of which trap outgoing longwave radiation and therefore result in a further warming and sea ice loss. Here it is shown that this convective cloud feedback is active during winter in the coupled ocean-sea ice-land-atmosphere global climate models used for the 1%/year CO2 increase to quadrupling scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report. It is further shown that the convective cloud feedback plays an essential role in the elimination of maximum seasonal (spring) sea ice in NCAR's CCSM model, one of the IPCC models that nearly completely loses spring sea ice. This is done by performing a sensitivity analysis using the atmospheric component of CCSM, run at a CO2 concentration of 1120 ppm, by selectively disabling the convective cloud feedback and the ocean heat transport feedback. The result is that both feedbacks are necessary for the elimination of spring sea ice at this CO2 concentration.

  6. Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 with rapidly changing high Arctic landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, Craig A; St Louis, Vincent L; Humphreys, Elyn R; Gamon, John A; Barker, Joel D; Pastorello, Gilberto Z

    2016-03-01

    High Arctic landscapes are expansive and changing rapidly. However, our understanding of their functional responses and potential to mitigate or enhance anthropogenic climate change is limited by few measurements. We collected eddy covariance measurements to quantify the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 with polar semidesert and meadow wetland landscapes at the highest latitude location measured to date (82°N). We coupled these rare data with ground and satellite vegetation production measurements (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) to evaluate the effectiveness of upscaling local to regional NEE. During the growing season, the dry polar semidesert landscape was a near-zero sink of atmospheric CO2 (NEE: -0.3 ± 13.5 g C m(-2) ). A nearby meadow wetland accumulated over 300 times more carbon (NEE: -79.3 ± 20.0 g C m(-2) ) than the polar semidesert landscape, and was similar to meadow wetland NEE at much more southerly latitudes. Polar semidesert NEE was most influenced by moisture, with wetter surface soils resulting in greater soil respiration and CO2 emissions. At the meadow wetland, soil heating enhanced plant growth, which in turn increased CO2 uptake. Our upscaling assessment found that polar semidesert NDVI measured on-site was low (mean: 0.120-0.157) and similar to satellite measurements (mean: 0.155-0.163). However, weak plant growth resulted in poor satellite NDVI-NEE relationships and created challenges for remotely detecting changes in the cycling of carbon on the polar semidesert landscape. The meadow wetland appeared more suitable to assess plant production and NEE via remote sensing; however, high Arctic wetland extent is constrained by topography to small areas that may be difficult to resolve with large satellite pixels. We predict that until summer precipitation and humidity increases enough to offset poor soil moisture retention, climate-related changes to productivity on polar semideserts may be restricted.

  7. A sublimation technique for high-precision measurements of δ13CO2 and mixing ratios of CO2 and N2O from air trapped in ice cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fischer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide high precision stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13CO2 or δ13C of CO2 from small bubbly, partially and fully clathrated ice core samples we developed a new method based on sublimation coupled to gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS. In a first step the trapped air is quantitatively released from ~30 g of ice and CO2 together with N2O are separated from the bulk air components and stored in a miniature glass tube. In an off-line step, the extracted sample is introduced into a helium carrier flow using a minimised tube cracker device. Prior to measurement, N2O and organic sample contaminants are gas chromatographically separated from CO2. Pulses of a CO2/N2O mixture are admitted to the tube cracker and follow the path of the sample through the system. This allows an identical treatment and comparison of sample and standard peaks. The ability of the method to reproduce δ13C from bubble and clathrate ice is verified on different ice cores. We achieve reproducibilities for bubble ice between 0.05 ‰ and 0.07 ‰ and for clathrate ice between 0.05 ‰ and 0.09 ‰ (dependent on the ice core used. A comparison of our data with measurements on bubble ice from the same ice core but using a mechanical extraction device shows no significant systematic offset. In addition to δ13C, the CO2 and N2O mixing ratios can be volumetrically derived with a precision of 2 ppmv and 8 ppbv, respectively.

  8. The effect of exogenous sugar solution and high concentration of CO2 on the contents of sugar and protein of Betula platyphylla leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUYu-mei; YANGChuan-ping; WANGShu-juan; WUYue-liang; WANGWen-zhang

    2003-01-01

    The content of total sugar,sucrose,fructose and protein in the leaves of 3-yr.-old Betula platyphylla was measured after the treatment by three exogenous sugar solutions(sucrose,fructose,glucose) and three high concentrations of CO2(700,1400,2100μL·L-1) for about a month in 1998.The results showed that spraying three exogenous sugar solutions increased markedly the content of sugar and protein of leaves under 700μL·L-1 and 1400μL·L-1 CO2.The effect of spraying exogenous sucrose solution was the best among the three exogenous sugars.The treatment of spraying exogenous sugar solution and 2100μL·L-1 CO2 constrained the accumulation of total sugar and protein of leaves.There was no difference in protein content of leaves when spraying glucose and fructose solutions under 700μL·L-1 and 1400μL·L-1 CO2.The treatrnent of 2100μL·L-1 CO2 concentration significantly increased the contents of total sugar,sucrose,fructose,and protein of leaves compared with that of the 700μL·L-1 and 1400μL·L-1 CO2 except the plants spraying fructose solution.there was positive correlation between the content of sugar of leaves and CO2 concentration when spraying same exogenous sugar solution.

  9. Granular bamboo-derived activated carbon for high CO(2) adsorption: the dominant role of narrow micropores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Haoran; Deng, Shubo; Hu, Bingyin; Chen, Zhenhe; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang

    2012-12-01

    Cost-effective biomass-derived activated carbons with a high CO(2) adsorption capacity are attractive for carbon capture. Bamboo was found to be a suitable precursor for activated carbon preparation through KOH activation. The bamboo size in the range of 10-200 mesh had little effect on CO(2) adsorption, whereas the KOH/C mass ratio and activation temperature had a significant impact on CO(2) adsorption. The bamboo-derived activated carbon had a high adsorption capacity and excellent selectivity for CO(2) , and also the adsorption process was highly reversible. The adsorbed amount of CO(2) on the granular activated carbon was up to 7.0 mmol g(-1) at 273 K and 1 bar, which was higher than almost all carbon materials. The pore characteristics of activated carbons responsible for high CO(2) adsorption were fully investigated. Based on the analysis of narrow micropore size distribution of several activated carbons prepared under different conditions, a more accurate micropore range contributing to CO(2) adsorption was proposed. The volume of micropores in the range of 0.33-0.82 nm had a good linear relationship with CO(2) adsorption at 273 K and 1 bar, and the narrow micropores of about 0.55 nm produced the major contribution, which could be used to evaluate CO(2) adsorption on activated carbons.

  10. Development of a 1 J short pulse tunable TEA CO2 laser with high energy stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Reghu, T.; Biswas, A. K.; Bhargav, Pankaj; Pakhare, J. S.; Kumar, Shailesh; Verma, Abrat; Mandloi, Vagesh; Kukreja, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    The design, development and operational characteristics of a 1 J, repetitively pulsed, line tunable TEA CO2 laser producing nearly tail free short pulses (~170 ns) suitable for laser isotope separation is discussed. Tail free short laser pulses were generated by employing a nitrogen lean gaseous active medium. Use of an indigenously developed stable pulsed power supply, uniform and intense UV spark pre-ionization and optimum gas purging with catalytic regeneration to control the deleterious oxygen accumulation helps generate laser pulses with high energy stability. Integration of a sensitive arc detection system allows long term arc-free operation of the laser and protects it from catastrophic failure. Laser pulses in more than 90 lines in 10.6 μm and 9.6 μm bands of CO2 laser spectrum with energy about 1 J in as many as 50 lines could be generated with a typical efficiency of about 4%. A typical pulse to pulse energy stability of ±1.4% was obtained during one hour of continuous operation of the TEA CO2 laser at 75 Hz.

  11. Study on Laser Transformation Hardening of HT250 by High Speed Axis Flow CO2 Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In this article, laser transformation hardening of HT250 material by high speed axis flow CO2 laser was investigated for first time in China. Appropriate laser hardening parameters, such as laser energy power P(W), laser scanning rate V(m/min),were optimized through a number of experiments. The effect of the mentioned parameters on the hardened zone, including its case depth, microhardness distributions etc., were analyzed. Through the factual experiments, it is proved that axial flow CO2 laser, which commonly outputs low mode laser beam, can also treat materials as long as the treating parameters used are rational. During the experiments, the surface qualities of some specimens treated by some parameters were found to be enhanced, which does not coincide with the former results. Furthermore in the article, the abnormal phenomenon observed in the experiments is discussed. According to the experimental results, the relationship between laser power density q and scanning rate V is shown in a curve and the corresponding formulation, which have been proved to be valuable for choosing the parameters of laser transformation hardening by axial flow CO2 lasers, was also given.

  12. Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2003-01-01

    Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

  13. Design of experimental setup for supercritical CO2 jet under high ambient pressure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huaizhong; Li, Gensheng; He, Zhenguo; Wang, Haizhu; Zhang, Shikun

    2016-12-01

    With the commercial extraction of hydrocarbons in shale and tight reservoirs, efficient methods are needed to accelerate developing process. Supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) jet has been considered as a potential way due to its unique fluid properties. In this article, a new setup is designed for laboratory experiment to research the SC-CO2 jet's characteristics in different jet temperatures, pressures, standoff distances, ambient pressures, etc. The setup is composed of five modules, including SC-CO2 generation system, pure SC-CO2 jet system, abrasive SC-CO2 jet system, CO2 recovery system, and data acquisition system. Now, a series of rock perforating (or case cutting) experiments have been successfully conducted using the setup about pure and abrasive SC-CO2 jet, and the results have proven the great perforating efficiency of SC-CO2 jet and the applications of this setup.

  14. High CO2 in MORB - a link to explosive submarine eruptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helo, C.; Longpré, M.; Shimizu, N.; Clague, D. A.; Stix, J.

    2009-12-01

    We analyzed volatile (CO2, H2O, S, F, Cl), and other trace elements, using the Cameca IMS 1280 and the Cameca 3F secondary ion mass spectrometer, in carefully selected plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions and matrix glass from mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) hyaloclastite sequences erupted from Axial caldera, Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR). The hyaloclastites were sampled at 1400 m below sea-level, and are inferred to result from a series of small pyroclastic eruptions. The trace elements reveal variations from normal to transitional MORB for Axial caldera (e.g., Nb = 1.1-6.5 ppm, Zr/Nb = 9-39). The CO2 concentrations in the melt inclusions range from 260 to 9160 ppm, with 16 out of 47 analyzed inclusions reaching > 1000 ppm. Surface contamination was ruled out by very low CO2 concentrations measured in adjacent plagioclase hosts (Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 98]. When plotted together, CO2 and H2O define a vertical trend suggesting decompression degassing, with apparent vapour saturation pressures ranging from 57 to > 600 MPa. We recognize two possible scenarios: (1) limited degassing during early stages of magma ascent, culminating in supersaturation and sudden, rapid bubble growth at shallower levels, or (2) open-system degassing accompanied by bubble growth and separation as magma rises. The close spatial occurrence of high- and low-CO2 inclusions (crystals may argue towards the first interpretation. Saturation pressures for low-CO2 inclusions are consistent with pressures expected within the present day magma reservoir beneath Axial (~ 70-160 MPa). The matrix glass is oversaturated with respect to the depth of eruption; CO2 concentrations vary from 87 to 248 ppm, yielding saturation pressures between 14 MPa and 54 MPa. Water concentrations in the inclusions range from 0.05 to 0.39 wt %. Such low concentrations will not be affected significantly by degassing. H2O does not covary with incompatible elements such as Nb, or Zr; we interpret the variability

  15. Highly efficient photochemical HCOOH production from CO2 and water using an inorganic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yotsuhashi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We have constructed a system that uses solar energy to react CO2 with water to generate formic acid (HCOOH at an energy conversion efficiency of 0.15%. It consists of an AlGaN/GaN anode photoelectrode and indium (In cathode that are electrically connected outside of the reactor cell. High energy conversion efficiency is realized due to a high quantum efficiency of 28% at 300 nm, attributable to efficient electron-hole separation in the semiconductor's heterostructure. The efficiency is close to that of natural photosynthesis in plants, and what is more, the reaction product (HCOOH can be used as a renewable energy source.

  16. Photosynthetic pigments and gas exchange in castor bean under conditions of above the optimal temperature and high CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola França Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The castor bean plant, a Euphorbiaceae oil seed C3-metabolism rustic and drought-resistant plant, is cultivated in a wide range of environments due to its good adaptive capacity. However, given the current environmental changes, many biochemical and physiological impacts may affect the productivity of important crops, such as castor bean. This work aimed to evaluate the impacts of the castor bean gas exchange in response to high temperature and increased CO2concentration.Our experiment was conducted in a phytotron located at Embrapa Algodão in 2010. We adopted a completely randomized design, with four treatments in a factorial combination of two temperatures (30/20 and 37/30°C and two CO2 levels (400 and 800 mmol L-1; four replications were performed, obtained in five surveys over the growth cycle, for a total of 80 sample units. An infrared gas analyzer (IRGA - Infra Red Gas Analyzer was used for the quantification of the photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration. An increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature negatively affected the physiology of the castor bean plants, decreasing the net rate of photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance.

  17. Osteogenesis differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells by CO2 laser-treatment stimulating macrophages via BMP2 signalling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Hung, Chi-Jr; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Tze; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-11-01

    Immune reactions play an important role in determining the biostimulation of bone formation, either in new bone formation or inflammatory fibrous tissue encapsulation. Macrophage cell, the important effector cells in the immune reaction, which are indispensable for osteogenesis and their heterogeneity and plasticity, render macrophages a primer target for immune system modulation. However, there are very few studies about the effects of macrophage cells on laser treatment-regulated osteogenesis. In this study, we used CO2 laser as a model biostimulation to investigate the role of macrophage cells on the CO2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) was also significantly up regulated by the CO2 laser stimulation, indicating that macrophage may participate in the CO2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Interestingly, when laser treatment macrophage-conditioned medium were applied to human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLs), the osteogenesis differentiation of hPDLs was significantly enhanced, indicating the important role of macrophages in CO2 laser-induced osteogenesis. These findings provided valuable insights into the mechanism of CO2 laser-stimulated osteogenic differentiation, and a strategy to optimize the evaluation system for the in vitro osteogenesis capacity of laser treatment.

  18. Effect of Different High CO2 Concentrations on the Development of 2-cell Mouse Embryos in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-hua LU; Wei-jie ZHU

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate effects of different high CO2 concentrations on the development of 2-cell mouse embryos in vitroMethods At levels of 5% CO2 (control group), 5.7% CO2, 6.0% CO2 and 15% CO2, embryos were incubated in drops with CZB medium, respectively, and the drops were covered by paraffin oil which was treated with three-distilled water. In addition, at the level of 15% CO2, there were another two groups, in which paraffin oil was treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution or the drops were uncovered. The development of embryos in all stages was noted.Results The developmental rates of blastocysts in five experimental groups were significantly lower than that of the control group (P0.05). At the level of 15% CO2, 15% embryos developed in the 4-cell stage with irregular blastomere and degenerated quickly in the group which paraffin oil was treated with distilled water; 2.2% embryos developed in the 4-cell stage in the group which paraffin oil was treated with PBS and the rest stagnated in the 2-cell stage. Conclusions High CO2 concentrations had toxic effect on the in vitro development of 2-cell mouse embryos, and was responsible for the inhibition of the embryos. It is important for the development of embryos in vitro to detect strictly CO2 concentration.

  19. Plant-plant interactions mediate the plastic and genotypic response of Plantago asiatica to CO2 : an experiment with plant populations from naturally high CO2 areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, Marloes P; Rietkerk, Max; Dekker, Stefan C; Hikosaka, Kouki; Ueda, Miki U; Anten, Niels P R

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is a ubiquitous selective force that may strongly impact species distribution and vegetation functioning. Plant–plant interactions could mediate the trajectory of vegetation responses to elevated [CO2], because some plants may bene

  20. Flow of CO2 ethanol and of CO2 methanol in a non-adiabatic microfluidic T-junction at high pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanch Ojea, R.; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Pallares, J.; Grau, F.X.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, an experimental investigation of the single- and multiphase flows of two sets of fluids, CO2–ethanol and CO2–methanol, in a non-adiabatic microfluidic T-junction is presented. The operating conditions ranged from 7 to 18 MPa, and from 294 to 474 K. The feed mass fraction of CO2 in the

  1. CO2 Laser Glazing Treatment of a Veneering Porcelain: Effects on Porosity, Translucency, and Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgura, R; dos Reis, M C; Salvadori, M C; Hernandes, A C; Cesar, P F; Medeiros, I S

    2015-01-01

    This work tested CO2 laser as a glazing agent and investigated the effects of irradiation on the porosity, translucency, and mechanical properties of veneering porcelain. Sixty discs (diameter 3.5 × 2.0 mm) of veneering porcelain for Y-TZP frameworks (VM9, VITA Zahnfabrik) were sintered and had one of their faces mirror polished. The specimens were divided into six groups (n=10/group) according to surface treatment, as follows: no treatment-control; auto-glaze in furnace following manufacturer's instructions (G); and CO2 laser (45 or 50 W/cm(2)) applied for four or five minutes (L45/4, L45/5, L50/4, L50/5). Optical microscopy (Shimadzu, 100×) was conducted and the images were analyzed with Image J software for the determination of the following porosity parameters: area fraction, average size, and Feret diameter. The translucency parameter studied was masking ability, determined by color difference (ΔE) over black and white backgrounds (CM3370d, Konica Minolta). Microhardness and fracture toughness (indentation fracture) were measured with a Vickers indenter (HMV, Shimadzu). Contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) (50 × 50 μm(2), Nanoscope IIIA, Veeco) was performed at the center of one sample from each group, except in the case of L45/5. With regard to porosity and translucency parameters, auto-glazed and laser-irradiated specimens presented statistical similarity. The area fraction of the surface pores ranged between 2.4% and 5.4% for irradiated specimens. Group L50/5 presented higher microhardness when compared to the G group. The higher (1.1) and lower (0.8) values for fracture toughness (MPa.m(1/2)) were found in laser-irradiated groups (L50/4 and L45/4, respectively). AFM performed after laser treatment revealed changes in porcelain surface profile at a submicrometric scale, with the presence of elongated peaks and deep valleys.

  2. High-Precision Instrumentation for CO2 Isotope Ratio Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Knowing atmospheric 13CO2/12CO2 ratios precisely is important to understanding biogenic and anthroprogenic sources and sinks for carbon. Currently available field...

  3. High-Yield Process for Selectively Converting CO2 to Aromatics and Olefins Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed Phase I addresses the selective conversion of CO2 to hydrocarbons via integrated CO2-to-methanol, methanol-to-olefins, and olefins-to-aromatics...

  4. Design of an Optical System for High Power CO2 Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lange, D.F.; Meijer, J.; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2003-01-01

    The results of a design study for the optical system for cutting with high power CO2 lasers (6 kW and up) will be presented. As transparent materials cannot be used for these power levels, mirrors have been applied. A coaxial cutting gas supply has been designed with a laser beam entrance into th...... independent of the entering beam angle or position. manufacturing tolerances have been compensated in a one time adjustment during the assembly of the optical system. Preliminary cutting results in 13 mm thick steel in a shipyard application show a signinficant improvement in the cutting performance....

  5. Response of High Latitude Coralline Algae to pCO2 and Thermal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlick-Ott, K.; Williams, B.; Chan, P. T. W.; Westfield, I. T.; Rasher, D.; Ries, J. B.; Adey, W.; Halfar, J.

    2016-12-01

    The impacts of recent and future anthropogenic increases in atmospheric pCO2 causing ocean acidification and temperature on high-latitude oceans, and the marine organisms that inhabit them, are varied and poorly understood. The ecologically important crustose coralline alga Clathromorphum compactum may be particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification due to the relatively high solubility of its high Mg-calcite skeleton . This species of coralline algae is abundant throughout coastal mid-to-high latitude areas of the northern hemisphere, and calcifies annually-banded skeletons with longevities of up to 650 years. Here we used micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to evaluate the impact of decreasing seawater pH and increasing temperature on skeletal density of algal specimens cultured in a fully crossed pCO2 (280, 400, 700, 2800 µatm) and temperature (6.5, 8.7, 12.4 °C) laboratory experiment. To examine the natural variability in coralline algal skeletal density, additional long-lived wild C. compactum specimens were collected along a latitudinal transect extending from the Gulf of Maine to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Density time series generated from the wild specimens spans the past several decades to century, and were used to evaluate other environmental parameters that may influence the skeletal density of coralline algae. This research will evaluate the resiliency of this alga to future environmental change.

  6. Comparison of ion exchange and cw CO2 laser treatment of Nd-doped phosphate laser glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Gong; Chengfu, Li

    1996-05-01

    In recent years, the effect of laser pre-irradiation and ion exchange on glasses surface were widely carried out to stabilize their damage thresholds. But comparison of ion exchange and CW CO2 laser treatment is never studied, this paper is devoted to the investigation of this question. Nd-doped phosphate laser glasses were heated with CW CO2 laser radiation and were strengthened by ion exchange. Laser damage thresholds of the surface were measured with 1064 nm 10 ns pulses focused to small spots irradiation. Both ion exchange treatment and CW CO2 laser treatment result in residual compress stress occurred at surface, peak-to- volley and microcracks decreased in surface appearance, and damage thresholds of surfaces increased by a factor of over 2. Polariscope, reflected optical microscope and atomic force microscope are used for stress, damage morphologies and surface topography analysis on glass surface. It is shown that laser condition mechanism is consistent with ion exchange treatment mechanism.

  7. A perfluorinated covalent triazine-based framework for highly selective and water-tolerant CO2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    We designed and synthesized a perfluorinated covalent triazine-based framework (FCTF-1) for selective CO2 capture. The incorporation of fluorine (F) groups played multiple roles in improving the framework\\'s CO 2 adsorption and separation capabilities. Thermodynamically, the strongly polar C-F bonds promoted CO2 adsorption via electrostatic interactions, especially at low pressures. FCTF-1\\'s CO2 uptake was 1.76 mmol g-1 at 273 K and 0.1 bar through equilibrium adsorption, exceeding the CO2 adsorption capacity of any reported porous organic polymers to date. In addition, incorporating F groups produced a significant amount of ultra-micropores (<0.5 nm), which offered not only high gas adsorption potential but also kinetic selectivity for CO2-N 2 separation. In mixed-gas breakthrough experiments, FCTF-1 exhibited an exceptional CO2-N2 selectivity of 77 under kinetic flow conditions, much higher than the selectivity (31) predicted from single-gas equilibrium adsorption data. Moreover, FCTF-1 proved to be tolerant to water and its CO2 capture performance remained excellent when there was moisture in the gas mixture, due to the hydrophobic nature of the C-F bonds. In addition, the moderate adsorbate-adsorbent interaction allowed it to be fully regenerated by pressure swing adsorption processes. These attributes make FCTF-1 a promising sorbent for CO2 capture from flue gas. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Molecular basis for the high CO2 adsorption capacity of chabazite zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Trong D; Hudson, Matthew R; Brown, Craig M; Lobo, Raul F

    2014-11-01

    CO2 adsorption in Li-, Na-, K-CHA (Si/Al=6,=12), and silica chabazite zeolites was investigated by powder diffraction. Two CO2 adsorption sites were found in all chabazites with CO2 locating in the 8-membered ring (8MR) pore opening being the dominant site. Electric quadrupole-electric field gradient and dispersion interactions drive CO2 adsorption at the middle of the 8 MRs, while CO2 polarization due to interaction with cation sites controls the secondary CO2 site. In Si-CHA, adsorption is dominated by dispersion interactions with CO2 observed on the pore walls and in 8 MRs. CO2 adsorption complexes on dual cation sites were observed on K-CHA, important for K-CHA-6 samples due to a higher probability of two K(+) cations bridging CO2. Trends in isosteric heats of CO2 adsorption based on cation type and concentration can be correlated with adsorption sites and CO2 quantity. A decrease in the hardness of metal cations results in a decrease in the direct interaction of these cations with CO2.

  9. Preparation of porous poly(trimethylene carbonate structures for controlled release applications using high pressure CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalawade, S.P.; Hennink, W.E.; Westerman, D.; Feijen, J.; Sam, A.P.; Leeke, G.; Santos, R.C.D.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Feijen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Porous poly(trimethylene carbonate) structures can readily be prepared using high pressure CO2. Differences in CO2 solubility in the polymer matrix at the different processing temperatures and pressures lead to different pore morphologies upon depressurization. Furthermore, crystallization of the

  10. Preparation of porous poly(trimethylene carbonate) structures for controlled release applications using high pressure CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalawade, S.P.; Westerman, D.; Leeke, G.; Santos, R.C.D.; Grijpma, D.W.; Feijen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Porous poly(trimethylene carbonate) structures can readily be prepared using high pressure CO2. Differences in CO2 solubility in the polymer matrix at the different processing temperatures and pressures lead to different pore morphologies upon depressurization. Furthermore, crystallization of the in

  11. Metal nanoparticle-directed NiCo2O4 nanostructure growth on carbon nanofibers with high capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Zhu, Jiahua

    2014-08-04

    Metal nanoparticles (Ni, Co) decorated on an electrospun carbon nanofiber surface directed the growth of NiCo2O4 into nanorod and nanosheet morphologies. These metal nanoparticles served as a transition layer to strengthen the interface and promote charge transfer between carbon and NiCo2O4 to achieve a high capacitance of 781 F g(-1).

  12. Modular structure of a robust microporous MOF based on Cu2 paddle-wheels with high CO2 selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, José M; Fairen-Jimenez, David; Calahorro, Antonio J; Méndez-Liñán, Laura; Pérez-Mendoza, Manuel; Casati, Nicola; Colacio, Enrique; Rodríguez-Diéguez, Antonio

    2013-12-14

    The synthesis of a new MOF with Cu2 paddle-wheels connected to glutarate and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane linkers has been explored. Experimental gas adsorption measurements reveal that the MOF is essentially non-porous to methane whereas it presents a type III isotherm upon CO2 adsorption, leading to high capacity and outstanding CO2 selectivity.

  13. High nitrogen and elevated [CO2] effects on the growth, defense and photosynthetic performance of two eucalypt species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novriyanti, Eka; Watanabe, Makoto; Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Utsugi, Hajime; Uemura, Akira; Koike, Takayoshi

    2012-11-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition and [CO(2)] are increasing and represent environmental problems. Planting fast-growing species is prospering to moderate these environmental impacts by fixing CO(2). Therefore, we examined the responses of growth, photosynthesis, and defense chemical in leaves of Eucalyptus urophylla (U) and the hybrid of E. deglupta × E. camadulensis (H) to different CO(2) and nitrogen levels. High nitrogen load significantly increased plant growth, leaf N, net photosynthetic rate (A(growth)), and photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE). High CO(2) significantly increased A(growth), photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) and WUE. Secondary metabolite (SM, i.e. total phenolics and condensed tannin) was specifically altered; as SM of U increased by high N load but not by elevated [CO(2)], and vice versa for SM of H.

  14. High Resolution X-ray CMT Imaging of Supercritical CO2 in Porous Media: Experimental Challenges, Solutions, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, A. L.; Andersson, L.; Newell, D. L.; Carey, J. W.; Wildenschild, D.

    2013-12-01

    temperature and pressure measurement is necessary, and temperature and pressure uniformity throughout flow lines and other system components is crucial for flow experiments. Additional challenges associated with the imaging process include allowing for 180° of rotation of the sample and connected fluid lines and pressure sensing devices, and ensuring physical stability of the sample during scanning; all while maintaining uniform high pressure and temperature conditions. We present our methods to address these concerns, as well as preliminary results from the supercritical CO2 experiments conducted during July 2013 at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.

  15. Highly Stable Porous Covalent Triazine-Piperazine Linked Nanoflower as a Feasible Adsorbent for Flue Gas CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Swapan Kumar

    2016-02-11

    Here, we report a porous covalent triazine-piperazine linked polymer (CTPP) featuring 3D nanoflower morphology and enhanced capture/removal of CO2, CH4 from air (N2), essential to control greenhouse gas emission and natural gas upgrading. 13C solid-state NMR and FTIR analyses and CHN and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) elemental analyses confirmed the integration of triazine and piperazine components in the network. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses revealed a relatively uniform particle size of approximately 400 to 500 nm with 3D nanoflower microstructure, which was formed by the self-assembly of interwoven and slight bent nanoflake components. The material exhibited outstanding chemical robustness under acidic and basic medium and high thermal stability up to 773 K. The CTPP possess high surface area (779 m2/g) and single-component gas adsorption study exhibited enhanced CO2 and CH4 uptake of 3.48 mmol/g, 1.09 mmol/g, respectively at 273 K, 1 bar; coupled with high sorption selectivities for CO2/N2 and CH4/N2 of 128 and 17, respectively. The enriched Lewis basicity of the CTPP favors the interaction with CO2, which results in an enhanced CO2 adsorption capacity and high CO2/N2 selectivity. The binary mixture breakthrough study for the flue gas composition at 298 K showed a high CO2/N2 selectivity of 82. CO2 heats of adsorption for the CTPP (34 kJ mol−1) were realized at the borderline between strong physisorption and weak chemisorption (QstCO2; 25−50 kJ mol−1) and low Qst value for N2 (22.09 kJ mol−1), providing the ultimate validation for the high selectivity of CO2 over N2.

  16. Altered carbon turnover processes and microbiomes in soils under long-term extremely high CO2 exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beulig, Felix; Urich, Tim; Nowak, Martin; Trumbore, Susan E; Gleixner, Gerd; Gilfillan, Gregor D; Fjelland, Kristine E; Küsel, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    There is only limited understanding of the impact of high p(CO2) on soil biomes. We have studied a floodplain wetland where long-term emanations of temperate volcanic CO2 (mofettes) are associated with accumulation of carbon from the Earth's mantle. With an integrated approach using isotope geochemistry, soil activity measurements and multi-omics analyses, we demonstrate that high (nearly pure) CO2 concentrations have strongly affected pathways of carbon production and decomposition and therefore carbon turnover. In particular, a promotion of dark CO2 fixation significantly increased the input of geogenic carbon in the mofette when compared to a reference wetland soil exposed to normal levels of CO2. Radiocarbon analysis revealed that high quantities of mofette soil carbon originated from the assimilation of geogenic CO2 (up to 67%) via plant primary production and subsurface CO2 fixation. However, the preservation and accumulation of almost undegraded organic material appeared to be facilitated by the permanent exclusion of meso- to macroscopic eukaryotes and associated physical and/or ecological traits rather than an impaired biochemical potential for soil organic matter decomposition. Our study shows how CO2-induced changes in diversity and functions of the soil community can foster an unusual biogeochemical profile.

  17. Water Vapor Adsorption on Biomass Based Carbons under Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Conditions: Effect of Post-Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querejeta, Nausika; Plaza, Marta G.; Rubiera, Fernando; Pevida, Covadonga

    2016-01-01

    The effect of post-treatment upon the H2O adsorption performance of biomass-based carbons was studied under post-combustion CO2 capture conditions. Oxygen surface functionalities were partially replaced through heat treatment, acid washing, and wet impregnation with amines. The surface chemistry of the final carbon is strongly affected by the type of post-treatment: acid treatment introduces a greater amount of oxygen whereas it is substantially reduced after thermal treatment. The porous texture of the carbons is also influenced by post-treatment: the wider pore volume is somewhat reduced, while narrow microporosity remains unaltered only after acid treatment. Despite heat treatment leading to a reduction in the number of oxygen surface groups, water vapor adsorption was enhanced in the higher pressure range. On the other hand acid treatment and wet impregnation with amines reduce the total water vapor uptake thus being more suitable for post-combustion CO2 capture applications. PMID:28773488

  18. Water Vapor Adsorption on Biomass Based Carbons under Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Conditions: Effect of Post-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nausika Querejeta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of post-treatment upon the H2O adsorption performance of biomass-based carbons was studied under post-combustion CO2 capture conditions. Oxygen surface functionalities were partially replaced through heat treatment, acid washing, and wet impregnation with amines. The surface chemistry of the final carbon is strongly affected by the type of post-treatment: acid treatment introduces a greater amount of oxygen whereas it is substantially reduced after thermal treatment. The porous texture of the carbons is also influenced by post-treatment: the wider pore volume is somewhat reduced, while narrow microporosity remains unaltered only after acid treatment. Despite heat treatment leading to a reduction in the number of oxygen surface groups, water vapor adsorption was enhanced in the higher pressure range. On the other hand acid treatment and wet impregnation with amines reduce the total water vapor uptake thus being more suitable for post-combustion CO2 capture applications.

  19. Chemical Fixation of CO2 with Highly Efficient ZnCl/[BMIm]Br Catalyst System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fuwei; Xia Chungu

    2004-01-01

    The search for environmentally benign and economic process has been the impetus for much of the research involving epoxide and carbon dioxide coupling in view of the so called "green chemistry" and" atom economy ", since CO2 is a renewable resource and can be used as a safe and cheap C 1 building block to synthesize useful organic compounds without producing any coproducts.[1-2] One of the most attractive synthetic goals starting from carbon dioxide is the chemical fixation of CO2 onto epoxide to afford the five-membered cyclic carbonates (Scheme 1),which are excellent aprotic polar solvents and are used extensively as intermediates in the production of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals.[3] In the last decades of the twentieth century numerous catalytic systems have been developed for this transformation. While some advances have been obtained, all suffer from either low catalyst stability/reactivity, the need for co-solvent, or the requirement for high pressure and/or catalyst costing expensive.[4] Therefore, to find an effective,not exrensive, environmentally benign and economic catalyst system is urgent.In this paper, chemical fixation of CO2 with mono-substituted terminal epoxides or cyclohexene oxide to form cyclic carbonates under the ZnCl2/[BMIm]Br Catalyst System without using additional organic solvents was achieved in excellent selectivity (>98%) and TOF(5410h-1) Besides,the pure cis-cyclic carbonate of cyclohexene oxide was obtained in this catalyst system.It was important to note that the catalyst could be recovered by simple vacuum distillation of the corresponding cyclic carbonates and could be used six times almost without losing its catalytic activity and selectivity. The catalyst system was found to be applicable to a variety of terminal epoxides and cyclohexene oxide, forming the corresponding cyclic carbonates in very high TOF and more than 98% selectivity. Based on the obtained results, we also propose the plausible mechanism for this

  20. Magnetic domain structures of precipitation-hardened SmCo 2:17-type sintered magnets: Heat treatment effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiu-Mei; Fang Yi-Kun; Guo Zhao-Hui; Liu Tao; Guo Yong-Quan; Li Wei; Han Bao-Shan

    2008-01-01

    The typical magnetic domains of Sm(CobalFe0.25Cu0.07Zr0.02)7.4 magnets quenched through various heat-treatment steps have been revealed by using magnetic force microscopy (MFM). For the specimens in which the nominal c-axis is perpendicular to the imaging plane, the domain configurations change from plate-like for the as-sintered mag-net to corrugation and spike-like for the homogenized one, and then to a coarse and finally to a finer domain structure when isothermally aged at 830℃ and then annealed at 400℃. However, only plate-like domains can be detected on the surfaces with the nominal c-axis parallel to the imaging plane. The finer domain (so-called interaction domain) is a characteristic magnetic domain pattern of the Sm-Co 2:17-type magnets with high coercivities. Domain walls in a zigzag shape are revealed by means of MFM in final bulk Sm-Co 2:17-type sintered magnets.

  1. Effect of Surface Treatment with Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Laser on Bond Strength between Cement Resin and Zirconia

    OpenAIRE

    Kasraei, Shahin; Atefat, Mohammad; Beheshti, Maryam; Safavi, Nassimeh; Mojtahedi, Maryam; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Since it is not possible to form an adequate micromechanical bond between resin cement and zirconia ceramics using common surface treatment techniques, laser pretreatment has been suggested for zirconia ceramic surfaces. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Laser treatment on shear bond strength (SBS) of resin cement to zirconia ceramic.

  2. Effect of atmospheric CO 2 enrichment on rubisco content in herbaceous species from high and low altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Rowan F.; Schäppi, Bernd; Körner, Christian

    Atmospheric CO 2 enrichment reduces Rubisco content in many species grown in controlled environments; however, relatively few studies have examined CO 2 effects on Rubisco content of plants grown in their natural habitat. We examined the response of Rubisco content to atmospheric CO 2 enrichment (600-680 μmol mol -1 in place of ppm) in 5 herbaceous species growing in a low altitude grassland (550 m) near Basel, Switzerland, and 3 herbaceous species from Swiss alpine grassland at 2470 m. At low elevation, the dominant grass Bromus erectus and the subdominant dicot Sanquisorba minor exhibited 20% to 25% reduction of Rubisco content following high CO 2 exposure; no CO 2 effect was observed in the subdominants Carex flacca, Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium repens. At the Alpine site, the subdominant grass Poa alpina maintained 27% less Rubisco content when grown at high CO 2 while the co-dominant forb Leontodon helveticus had 19% less Rubisco in high CO 2. Rubisco content was unaffected in the tundra dominant Carex curvula. Because the degree of Rubisco modulation was similar between high and low elevation sites, it does not appear that differences in local partial pressure of CO 2 (altitude) or differences in stress in general induce different patterns of modulation of photosynthetic capacity in response to high CO 2. In addition, the degree of Rubisco reduction (<30%) was less than might be indicated by the low biomass response to CO 2 enrichment previously observed at these sites. Thus, plants in Swiss lowland and alpine grassland appear to maintain greater Rubisco concentration and photosynthetic capacity than whole plants can effectively exploit in terms of harvestable biomass.

  3. Interfacial Tension of CO2 and Organic Liquid under High Pressure and Temperature☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zihao Yang; Mingyuan Li; Bo Peng; Meiqin Lin; Zhaoxia Dong; Yong Ling

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of organic liquid molecular structure and the intermolecular force operating with CO2 molecules and organic liquid molecules on interfacial tension (IFT) between CO2 and organic liquid at the first contact, the interfacial tension between CO2 and hexane, octane, ethanol and cyclohexane at different tem-peratures and pressures is measured by using the pendant drop method and the axisymmetric drop shape anal-ysis (ADSA). The results show that the interfacial tension between CO2 and organic liquids is affected by the polarity and the structure of the organic liquid molecule obviously. The intermolecular force operating within CO2 molecules or organic liquid, and that between CO2 and organic liquids molecules play a dominate role on the interfacial tension between CO2 and the organic liquids.

  4. Heterogeneity of impacts of high CO2 on the North Western European Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Artioli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in atmospheric CO2 is a dual threat to the marine environment: from one side it drives climate change leading to changes in water temperature, circulation patterns and stratification intensity; on the other side it causes a decrease in pH (Ocean Acidification or OA due to the increase in dissolved CO2. Assessing the combined impact of climate change and OA on marine ecosystems is a challenging task: the response of the ecosystem to a single driver is highly variable and still uncertain, as well as the interaction between these that could be either synergistic or antagonistic. In this work we use the coupled oceanographic-ecosystem model POLCOMS-ERSEM driven by climate forcing to study the interaction between climate change and OA. We focus in particular on primary production and nitrogen speciation. The model has been run in three different configurations in order to separate the impacts of ocean acidification from those due to climate change. The model shows significant interaction among the drivers and high variability in the spatial response of the ecosystem. Impacts of climate change and of OA on primary production have similar magnitude, compensating in some area and exacerbating in others. On the contrary, the direct impact of OA on nitrification is much lower than the one imposed by climate change.

  5. Trajectory study of supercollision relaxation in highly vibrationally excited pyrazine and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziman; Sansom, Rebecca; Bonella, Sara; Coker, David F; Mullin, Amy S

    2005-09-01

    Classical trajectory calculations were performed to simulate state-resolved energy transfer experiments of highly vibrationally excited pyrazine (E(vib) = 37,900 cm(-1)) and CO(2), which were conducted using a high-resolution transient infrared absorption spectrometer. The goal here is to use classical trajectories to simulate the supercollision energy transfer pathway wherein large amounts of energy are transferred in single collisions in order to compare with experimental results. In the trajectory calculations, Newton's laws of motion are used for the molecular motion, isolated molecules are treated as collections of harmonic oscillators, and intermolecular potentials are formed by pairwise Lennard-Jones potentials. The calculations qualitatively reproduce the observed energy partitioning in the scattered CO(2) molecules and show that the relative partitioning between bath rotation and translation is dependent on the moment of inertia of the bath molecule. The simulations show that the low-frequency modes of the vibrationally excited pyrazine contribute most to the strong collisions. The majority of collisions lead to small DeltaE values and primarily involve single encounters between the energy donor and acceptor. The large DeltaE exchanges result from both single impulsive encounters and chattering collisions that involve multiple encounters.

  6. High Repetition Rate Pulsed 2-Micron Laser Transmitter for Coherent CO2 DIAL Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Uprendra N.; Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Petzar, Paul J.; Trieu, Bo C.; Lee, Hyung

    2009-01-01

    A high repetition rate, highly efficient, Q-switched 2-micron laser system as the transmitter of a coherent differential absorption lidar for CO2 measurement has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. Such a laser transmitter is a master-slave laser system. The master laser operates in a single frequency, either on-line or off-line of a selected CO2 absorption line. The slave laser is a Q-switched ring-cavity Ho:YLF laser which is pumped by a Tm:fiber laser. The repetition rate can be adjusted from a few hundred Hz to 10 kHz. The injection seeding success rate is from 99.4% to 99.95%. For 1 kHz operation, the output pulse energy is 5.5mJ with the pulse length of approximately 50 ns. The optical-to-optical efficiency is 39% when the pump power is 14.5W. The measured standard deviation of the laser frequency jitter is about 3 MHz.

  7. Numerical simulation of CO2 dispersion from punctures and ruptures of buried high-pressure dense phase CO2 pipelines with experimental validation

    OpenAIRE

    Wareing, CJ; Fairweather, M.; Woolley, RM; Falle, SAEG

    2014-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) presents an option for significantly reducing the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere and mitigating the effects of climate change. Pipelines are considered to be the most likely method for transporting captured CO2 and their safe operation is of paramount importance as their contents are likely to be in the region of several thousand tonnes and CO2 poses a number of concerns upon release due to its unusual physical properties. To this ...

  8. Localized CO2 laser treatment and post-heating process to reduce the growth coefficient of fused silica surface damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shizhen Xu; Xiaotao Zu; Xiaodong Yuan

    2011-01-01

    The lifetime of optical components in high-fluence ultraviolet (UV) laser applications is typically limited by laser-initiated damage and its subsequent growth. Using 10.6-μm CO2 laser pulses, we successfully mitigate 355-nm laser induced damage sites on fused silica surface with dimensions less than 200 μm.The damage threshold increases and the damage growth mitigates. However, the growth coefficients of new damage on the CO2 laser processed area are higher than those of the original sample. The damage grows with crack propagation for residual stress after CO2 laser irradiation. Furthermore, post-heating is beneficial to the release of residual stress and slows down the damage growth.%@@ The lifetime of optical components in high-fluence ultraviolet (UV) laser applications is typically limited by laser-initiated damage and its subsequent growth.Using 10.6-μm CO2 laser pulses, we successfully mitigate 355-nm laser induced damage sites on fused silica surface with dimensions less than 200 μm.The damage threshold increases and the damage growth mitigates.However, the growth coefficients of new damage on the CO2 laser processed area are higher than those of the original sample.The damage grows with crack propagation for residual stress after CO2 laser irradiation.Furthermore, post-heating is beneficial to the release of residual stress and slows down the damage growth.

  9. Successful Treatment of Keloid With Fractionated Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Laser and Laser-Assisted Drug Delivery of Triamcinolone Acetonide Ointment in an African-American Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeva, Ekaterina; Ho, Derek; Jagdeo, Jared

    2017-09-01

    Keloids are fibrous growths that occur as a result of abnormal response to dermal injury. Keloids are cosmetically disfiguring and may impair function, often resulting in decreased patient quality-of-life. Treatment of keloids remains challenging, and rate of recurrence is high. We present a case of a 39-year-old African-American man (Fitzpatrick VI) with a 10-year history of keloid, who was successfully treated with eight sessions of fractionated carbon dioxide (CO2) laser immediately followed by laser-assisted drug delivery (LADD) of topical triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) ointment and review the medical literature on fractionated CO2 laser treatment of keloids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of a keloid using combination therapy of fractionated CO2 laser and LADD with topical TAC ointment in an African-American man (Fitzpatrick VI) with excellent cosmetic results sustained at 22 months post-treatment. We believe that this combination treatment modality may be safe and efficacious for keloids in skin of color (Fitzpatrick IV-VI) and other patients. This case highlights the ability of laser surgeons to safely use fractionated CO2 lasers in patients of all skin colors. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):925-927..

  10. Contemporary reliance on bicarbonate acquisition predicts increased growth of seagrass Amphibolis antarctica in a high-CO2 world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnell, Owen W; Connell, Sean D; Irving, Andrew D; Watling, Jennifer R; Russell, Bayden D

    2014-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 is increasing the availability of dissolved CO2 in the ocean relative to HCO3 (-). Currently, many marine primary producers use HCO3 (-) for photosynthesis, but this is energetically costly. Increasing passive CO2 uptake relative to HCO3 (-) pathways could provide energy savings, leading to increased productivity and growth of marine plants. Inorganic carbon-uptake mechanisms in the seagrass Amphibolis antarctica were determined using the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (AZ) and the buffer tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (TRIS). Amphibolis antarctica seedlings were also maintained in current and forecasted CO2 concentrations to measure their physiology and growth. Photosynthesis of A. antarctica was significantly reduced by AZ and TRIS, indicating utilization of HCO3 (-)-uptake mechanisms. When acclimated plants were switched between CO2 treatments, the photosynthetic rate was dependent on measurement conditions but not growth conditions, indicating a dynamic response to changes in dissolved CO2 concentration, rather than lasting effects of acclimation. At forecast CO2 concentrations, seedlings had a greater maximum electron transport rate (1.4-fold), photosynthesis (2.1-fold), below-ground biomass (1.7-fold) and increase in leaf number (2-fold) relative to plants in the current CO2 concentration. The greater increase in photosynthesis (measured as O2 production) compared with the electron transport rate at forecasted CO2 concentration suggests that photosynthetic efficiency increased, possibly due to a decrease in photorespiration. Thus, it appears that the photosynthesis and growth of seagrasses reliant on energetically costly HCO3 (-) acquisition, such as A. antarctica, might increase at forecasted CO2 concentrations. Greater growth might enhance the future prosperity and rehabilitation of these important habitat-forming plants, which have experienced declines of global significance.

  11. Dual phase high-temperature membranes for CO2 separation - performance assessment in post- and pre-combustion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaman, Rahul; Peters, Thijs; Xing, Wen; Fontaine, Marie-Laure; Bredesen, Rune

    2016-10-20

    Dual phase membranes are highly CO2-selective membranes with an operating temperature above 400 °C. The focus of this work is to quantify the potential of dual phase membranes in pre- and post-combustion CO2 capture processes. The process evaluations show that the dual phase membranes integrated with an NGCC power plant for CO2 capture are not competitive with the MEA process for post-combustion capture. However, dual phase membrane concepts outperform the reference Selexol technology for pre-combustion CO2 capture in an IGCC process. The two processes evaluated in this work, post-combustion NGCC and pre-combustion IGCC, represent extremes in CO2 partial pressure fed to the separation unit. Based on the evaluations it is expected that dual phase membranes could be competitive for post-combustion capture from a pulverized coal fired power plant (PCC) and pre-combustion capture from an Integrated Reforming Cycle (IRCC).

  12. Thermogravimetric and model-free kinetic studies on CO2 gasification of low-quality, high-sulphur Indian coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Tonkeswar; Saikia, Ananya; Mahanta, Banashree; Choudhury, Rahul; Saikia, Binoy K.

    2016-10-01

    Coal gasification with CO2 has emerged as a cleaner and more efficient way for the production of energy, and it offers the advantages of CO2 mitigation policies through simultaneous CO2 sequestration. In the present investigation, a feasibility study on the gasification of three low-quality, high-sulphur coals from the north-eastern region (NER) of India in a CO2 atmosphere using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTA) has been made in order to have a better understanding of the physical and chemical characteristics in the process of gasification of coal. Model-free kinetics was applied to determine the activation energies (E) and pre-exponential factors (A) of the CO2 gasification process of the coals. Multivariate non-linear regression analyses were performed to find out the formal mechanisms, kinetic model, and the corresponding kinetic triplets. The results revealed that coal gasification with CO2 mainly occurs in the temperature range of 800∘-1400∘C and a maximum of at around 1100∘C. The reaction mechanisms responsible for CO2 gasification of the coals were observed to be of the ` nth order with autocatalysis (CnB)' and ` nth order (Fn) mechanism'. The activation energy of the CO2 gasification was found to be in the range 129.07-146.81 kJ mol-1.

  13. An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of CO2 Distribution in the Upper Airways During Nasal High Flow Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hove, S C; Storey, J; Adams, C; Dey, K; Geoghegan, P H; Kabaliuk, N; Oldfield, S D; Spence, C J T; Jermy, M C; Suresh, V; Cater, J E

    2016-10-01

    Nasal high flow (NHF) therapy is used to treat a variety of respiratory disorders to improve patient oxygenation. A CO2 washout mechanism is believed to be responsible for the observed increase in oxygenation. In this study, experimentally validated Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of the CO2 concentration within the upper airway during unassisted and NHF assisted breathing were undertaken with the aim of exploring the existence of this washout mechanism. An anatomically accurate nasal cavity model was generated from a CT scan and breathing was reproduced using a Fourier decomposition of a physiologically measured breath waveform. Time dependent CO2 profiles were obtained at the entrance of the trachea in the experimental model, and were used as simulation boundary conditions. Flow recirculation features were observed in the anterior portion of the nasal cavity upon application of the therapy. This causes the CO2 rich gas to vent from the nostrils reducing the CO2 concentration in the dead space and lowering the inspired CO2 volume. Increasing therapy flow rate increases the penetration depth within the nasal cavity of the low CO2 concentration gas. A 65% decrease in inspired CO2 was observed for therapy flow rates ranging from 0 to 60 L min(-1) supporting the washout mechanism theory.

  14. Thermogravimetric and model-free kinetic studies on CO2 gasification of low-quality, high-sulphur Indian coals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tonkeswar Das; Ananya Saikia; Banashree Mahanta; Rahul Choudhury; Binoy K Saikia

    2016-10-01

    Coal gasification with CO$_2$ has emerged as a cleaner and more efficient way for the production of energy, and it offers the advantages of CO$_2$ mitigation policies through simultaneous CO$_2$ sequestration. In the present investigation, a feasibility study on the gasification of three low-quality, high-sulphur coals fromthe north-eastern region (NER) of India in a CO$_2$ atmosphere using thermogravimetric analysis (TGADTA) has been made in order to have a better understanding of the physical and chemical characteristics in the process of gasification of coal. Model-free kinetics was applied to determine the activation energies (E) and pre-exponential factors (A) of the CO$_2$ gasification process of the coals. Multivariate nonlinear regression analyses were performed to find out the formal mechanisms, kinetic model, and the corresponding kinetic triplets. The results revealed that coal gasification with CO$_2$ mainly occurs in the temperature range of 800◦–1400◦C and a maximum of at around 1100◦C. The reaction mechanisms responsible for CO$_2$ gasification of the coals were observed to be of the ‘nth order with autocatalysis (CnB)’ and ‘nth order (Fn) mechanism’. The activation energy of the CO$_2$ gasification was found to be in the range 129.07–146.81 kJ mol$^{−1}$.

  15. A Preview of High-CO2 Fixation Technology by Microorganisms%微生物固定高浓度CO2技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨闯; 岳丽宏; 康阿青

    2012-01-01

    The greenhouse effect, which is believed to occur primarily as a result of the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere by the combustion of fossil fuel, has become one of the major environmental concerns. This paper summarizes the research status of high-CO2 fixation by microorganisms, which includes the mechanism of CO2 fixation by microorganisms, the effect of high-CO2 on microorganisms and the optimization of photobioreactors.%大气中的CO2浓度升高主要是化石燃料燃烧造成的,CO2浓度升高引发的温室效应已经成为一个重大的环境问题.从微生物固定CO2机理及高浓度CO2对微生物的影响、固定高浓度CO2的微生物和生物反应器的优化等方面分析目前国内外微生物固定高浓度CO2的研究状况.

  16. Fabrication of elliptic microfibers with CO2 laser for high-sensitivity refractive index sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Peng; Li, Jie; Gao, Shuai; Jin, Long; Ran, Yang; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2014-06-15

    We propose a convenient method for achieving highly birefringent (HiBi) elliptic microfibers by use of the CO2-laser machining and the flame-brushing techniques. With optimization of fabrication process, a high birefringence of up to 2.10×10(-2) is experimentally obtained. Especially, within a polarization Sagnac interferometer acting as a refractive index (RI) sensor, both positive and abnormal negative sensitivity is measured, dependent on the geometrical variables of the HiBi microfiber. The maximum RI sensitivity is ∼195,348  nm/RI-unit around RI=1.35887, which is the highest among the microfiber devices as reported, to our knowledge.

  17. High Efficiency Low Cost CO2 Compression Using Supersonic Shock Wave Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J; Aarnio, M; Grosvenor, A; Taylor, D; Bucher, J

    2010-12-31

    Development and testing results from a supersonic compressor are presented. The compressor achieved record pressure ratio for a fully-supersonic stage and successfully demonstrated the technology potential. Several tasks were performed in compliance with the DOE award objectives. A high-pressure ratio compressor was retrofitted to improve rotordynamics behavior and successfully tested. An outside review panel confirmed test results and design approach. A computational fluid dynamics code used to analyze the Ramgen supersonic flowpath was extensively and successfully modified to improve use on high-performance computing platforms. A comprehensive R&D implementation plan was developed and used to lay the groundwork for a future full-scale compressor demonstration. Conceptual design for a CO2 demonstration compressor was developed and reviewed.

  18. High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium data for CO2-orange peel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Stuart

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a growing interest in fractionating orange peel oil by the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2. However, progress in this area has been hindered by the lack of more comprehensive work concerning the phase equilibrium behavior of the SCCO2-orange peel oil system. In this context, the aim of this work is to provide new phase equilibrium data for this system over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, permitting the construction of coexistence PT-xy curves as well as the P-T diagram. The experiments were performed in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell in the temperature range of 50-70ºC from 70 to 135 atm and in the CO2 mass fraction composition range of 0.35-0.98. Based on the experimental phase equilibrium results, appropriate operating conditions can be set for high-pressure fractionation purposes.

  19. High-Field Magnetization in PrCo2Si2 Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeoka, Toru; Fujii, Hironobu; Yonenobu, Kenji; Sugiyama, Kiyohiro; Date, Muneyuki

    1989-02-01

    Magnetic properties of PrCo2Si2 single crystals have been studied by measurements of high-field magnetization, magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity. Anomalous behaviors in the resistivity appear at three successive magnetic phase transition temperatures of 9, 17 and 30K. The magnetic susceptibility is highly anisotropic and is analyzed using the single-ion Hamiltonian, including the crystal-field and molecular-field effects. The thermal variations of the susceptibilities can be well reproduced by the crystal-field parameters estimated from the point-charge model. Metamagnetic transitions with four steps are observable in the c-axis magnetization process up to 300 kOe. The magnetization process is discussed in terms of the incommensurate exchange field model in the Ising system proposed by Date.

  20. 新型高重复频率脉冲CO2激光器%Novel high repetition-rate pulse CO2 laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑义军; 刁伟伦; 谭荣清; 王东雷; 张阔海; 黄文武; 刘世明; 李能文; 孙科; 卢远添

    2013-01-01

    A novel transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser with high repetition- rate was reported. The size of laser is 300 mmí300 mmí300 mm. The discharge volume is 12í103 mm3, the length of cavity is 310 mm. The ultraviolet preionization makes the discharge even and stable, the output energy can be as high as 15 mJ under the circumstance of free oscillation, and the full width at half maximum of the light pulse is 70 ns. To acquire the high wind velocity, a turbocharger was used in the system of the fast- gas flow cycle. When the pressure in the cavity is 100 kPa, the wind speed is 100 m/s, and the repetition rate of the TEA CO2 laser is up to 1.5 kHz. On the basis of preliminary experiment, the system of the grating tuning line selection can be applied to the high repetition- rate pulse laser to abtain the output of grating line selection accurately and fast.%报道了一种新型高重复频率的脉冲CO2激光器。该型激光器结构紧凑,激光器外型尺寸为300 mm×300 mm×300 mm,工作气体放电增益体积为12×103 mm3,谐振腔的长度为310 mm。为了获得大体积均匀稳定的气体放电,激光器采用了紫外电晕预电离方式。在激光器自由运转时,单脉冲激光的输出能量达到15 mJ ,输出脉冲的半高全宽为70 ns。激光器采用紧凑型高速涡轮增压风机,在一个大气压的条件下,气流循环速度超过100 m/s,激光脉冲重复频率为1.5 kHz,采用大体积强迫冷却和气体主动置换技术,可以获得较长时间激光稳定输出。在已有的实验基础上,采用光栅调谐,可快速准确地实现高重复频率脉冲CO2激光器的谱线选支输出。

  1. Longitudinally excited CO2 laser with short laser pulse operating at high repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhui; Uno, Kazuyuki; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2016-11-01

    A short-pulse longitudinally excited CO2 laser operating at a high repetition rate was developed. The discharge tube was made of a 45 cm-long or 60 cm-long dielectric tube with an inner diameter of 16 mm and two metallic electrodes at the ends of the tube. The optical cavity was formed by a ZnSe output coupler with a reflectivity of 85% and a high-reflection mirror. Mixed gas (CO2:N2:He = 1:1:2) was flowed into the discharge tube. A high voltage of about 33 kV with a rise time of about 200 ns was applied to the discharge tube. At a repetition rate of 300 Hz and a gas pressure of 3.4 kPa, the 45 cm-long discharge tube produced a short laser pulse with a laser pulse energy of 17.5 mJ, a spike pulse energy of 0.2 mJ, a spike width of 153 ns, and a pulse tail length of 90 μs. The output power was 5.3 W. The laser pulse waveform did not depend on the repetition rate, but the laser beam profile did. At a low repetition rate of less than 50 Hz, the laser beam had a doughnut-like shape. However, at a high repetition rate of more than 150 Hz, the discharge concentrated at the center of the discharge tube, and the intensity at the center of the laser beam was higher. The laser beam profile depended on the distribution of the discharge. An output power of 7.0 W was achieved by using the 60 cm-long tube.

  2. Loss of genetic diversity as a consequence of selection in response to high pCO 2

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Melanie M.; Makukhov, April D.; Pespeni, Melissa H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Standing genetic variation may allow for rapid evolutionary response to the geologically unprecedented changes in global conditions. However, there is little known about the consequences of such rapid evolutionary change. Here, we measure genetic responses to experimental low and high pCO 2 levels in purple sea urchin larvae, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We found greater loss of nucleotide diversity in high pCO 2 levels (18.61%; 900 μatm) compared to low pCO 2 levels (10.12%; 400 μ...

  3. High-performance composite membrane with enriched CO2-philic groups and improved adhesion at the interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yifan; Wang, Shaofei; Wu, Hong; Guo, Ruili; Liu, Ye; Jiang, Zhongyi; Tian, Zhizhang; Zhang, Peng; Cao, Xingzhong; Wang, Baoyi

    2014-05-14

    A novel strategy to design a high-performance composite membrane for CO2 capture via coating a thin layer of water-swellable polymers (WSPs) onto a porous support with enriched CO2-philic groups is demonstrated in this study. First, by employing a versatile platform technique combining non-solvent-induced phase separation and surface segregation, porous support membranes with abundant CO2-philic ethylene oxide (EO) groups at the surface are successfully prepared. Second, a thin selective layer composed of Pebax MH 1657 is deposited onto the support membranes via dip coating. Because of the water-swellable characteristic of Pebax and the enriched EO groups at the interface, the composite membranes exhibit high CO2 permeance above 1000 GPU with CO2/N2 selectivity above 40 at a humidified state (25 °C and 3 bar). By tuning the content of the PEO segment at the interface, the composite membranes can show either high CO2 permeance up to 2420 GPU with moderate selectivity of 46.0 or high selectivity up to 109.6 with fairly good CO2 permeance of 1275 GPU. Moreover, enrichment of the PEO segment at the interface significantly improves interfacial adhesion, as revealed by the T-peel test and positron annihilation spectroscopy measurement. In this way, the feasibility of designing WSP-based composite membranes by enriching CO2-philic groups at the interface is validated. We hope our findings may pave a generic way to fabricate high-performance composite membranes for CO2 capture using cost-effective materials and facile methods.

  4. Clinical observation on the treatment of hemangioma by CO2 laser supplemented with He-Ne laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhigui

    1993-03-01

    Sixty-six cases of hemangioma were treated with CO2 laser alone (22 cases as a control group), or CO2 laser supplemented with He-Ne laser (44 cases of the treated group). Optimum power dosage was first sought on normal volunteers. Arteriolar vasculature and lymphatics were blocked 3 - 5 times with procaine hydrochloride (5:1) to minimize local blood congestion. Results show that the healing rate of the treated group was significantly higher than that of the control group (X3 equals 3.92, P hemangioma. Furthermore, it is also proposed that the supplement of copper and Chinese herbal medicines may prevent the incidence of recurrence. Laser was used for the treatment of hemangioma in our country during the 1980s. In foreign literature, there were several reports using Nd:YAG and copper vapor laser for the treatment of agniomasimplex and nevus flammeus. Ar+ laser agglomeration was commonly used for the treatment of angioma conjunctive in our country, but the use of CO2 laser for the treatment of angioma epiderma is not well documented. We wish to report the use of CO2 laser supplemented with He-Ne laser for the treatment of hemangioma in our hospital from April 1988 to December 1989.

  5. Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electricity Generation Inclusive of CO2 Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Manfrida

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Three basic options for advanced power plants, allowing energy conversion inclusive of CO2 capture, are discussed: the semi-closed gas turbine cycle with atmospheric base pressure, the integrated gassifier/combined cycle with pressurised absorption of CO2, and the supercritical semi-closed CO2/H2O cycle with liquid CO2 capture. The merits of the different options are discussed and compared, and improvements to the basic layouts are proposed. The results show that all three solutions have a good potential for application, depending on the size of the plant and on the near or medium-term future perspective.

  6. Calcifying invertebrates succeed in a naturally CO2-rich coastal habitat but are threatened by high levels of future acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wahl

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available CO2 emissions are leading to an acidification of the oceans. Predicting marine community vulnerability towards acidification is difficult, as adaptation processes cannot be accounted for in most experimental studies. Naturally CO2 enriched sites thus can serve as valuable proxies for future changes in community structure. Here we describe a natural analogue site in the Western Baltic Sea. Seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord is elevated for large parts of the year due to upwelling of CO2 rich waters. Peak pCO2 values of >230 Pa (>2300 μatm and pHNBS values of pCO2 values are ~70 Pa (~700 μatm. In contrast to previously described naturally CO2 enriched sites that have suggested a progressive displacement of calcifying auto- and heterotrophic species, the macrobenthic community in Kiel Fjord is dominated by calcifying invertebrates. We show that blue mussels from Kiel Fjord can maintain control rates of somatic and shell growth at a pCO2 of 142 Pa (1400 μatm, pHNBS = 7.7. Juvenile mussel recruitment peaks during the summer months, when high water pCO2 values of ~100 Pa (~1000 μatm prevail. Our findings indicate that calcifying keystone species may be able to cope with surface ocean pHNBS values projected for the end of this century when food supply is sufficient. However, owing to non-linear synergistic effects of future acidification and upwelling of corrosive water, peak seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord and many other productive estuarine habitats could increase to values >400 Pa (>4000 μatm. These changes will most likely affect calcification and recruitment, and increase external shell dissolution.

  7. Calcifying invertebrates succeed in a naturally CO2 enriched coastal habitat but are threatened by high levels of future acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wahl

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available CO2 emissions are leading to an acidification of the oceans. Predicting marine community vulnerability towards acidification is difficult, as adaptation processes cannot be accounted for in most experimental studies. Naturally CO2 enriched sites thus can serve as valuable proxies for future changes in community structure. Here we describe a natural analogue site in the Western Baltic Sea. Seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord is elevated for large parts of the year due to upwelling of CO2 rich waters. Peak pCO2 values of >230 Pa (>2300 μatm and pH values of pCO2 values are ~70 Pa (~700 μatm. In contrast to previously described naturally CO2 enriched sites that have suggested a progressive displacement of calcifying auto- and heterotrophic species, the macrobenthic community in Kiel Fjord is dominated by calcifying invertebrates. We show that blue mussels from Kiel Fjord can maintain control rates of somatic and shell growth at a pCO2 of 142 Pa (1400 μatm, pH=7.7. Juvenile mussel recruitment peaks during the summer months, when high water pCO2 values of ~100 Pa (~1000 μatm prevail. Our findings indicate that calcifying keystone species may be able to cope with surface ocean pH values projected for the end of this century. However, owing to non-linear synergistic effects of future acidification and upwelling of corrosive water, peak seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord and many other productive estuarine habitats could increase to values >400 Pa (>4000 μatm. These changes will most likely affect calcification and recruitment, and increase external shell dissolution.

  8. Seasonally varying contributions to urban CO2 in the Chicago, Illinois, USA region: Insights from a high-resolution CO2 concentration and δ13C record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Moore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Understanding urban carbon cycling is essential given that cities sustain 54% of the global population and contribute 70% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. When combined with CO2 concentration measurements ([CO2], stable carbon isotope analyses (δ13C can differentiate sources of CO2, including ecosystem respiration and combustion of fossil fuels, such as petroleum and natural gas. In this study, we used a wavelength scanned-cavity ringdown spectrometer to collect ∼2x106 paired measurements for [CO2] and δ13C values in Evanston, IL for August 2011 through February 2012. Evanston is located immediately north of Chicago, IL, the third largest city in the United States. The measurements represent one of the longest records of urban [CO2] and δ13C values thus far reported. We also compiled local meteorological information, as well as complementary [CO2] and δ13C data for background sites in Park Falls, WI and Mauna Loa, HI. We use the dataset to examine how ecosystem processes, fossil fuel usage, wind speed, and wind direction control local atmospheric [CO2] and δ13C in a midcontinent urban setting on a seasonal to daily basis. On average, [CO2] and δ13C values in Evanston were 16–23 ppm higher and 0.97–1.13‰ lower than the background sites. While seasonal [CO2] and δ13C values generally followed broader northern hemisphere trends, the difference between Evanston and the background sites was larger in winter versus summer. Mixing calculations suggest that ecosystem respiration and petroleum combustion equally contributed CO2 in excess of background during the summer and that natural gas combustion contributed 80%–94% of the excess CO2 in winter. Wind speed and direction strongly influenced [CO2] and δ13C values on an hourly time scale. The highest [CO2] and lowest δ13C values occurred at wind speeds <3 m s−1 and when winds blew from the northwest, west, and south over densely populated neighborhoods.

  9. Reversible alteration of CO2 adsorption upon photochemical or thermal treatment in a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhee; Yuan, Daqiang; Pham, Khanh T; Li, Jian-Rong; Yakovenko, Andrey; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-01-11

    A metal-organic framework (MOF) for reversible alteration of guest molecule adsorption, here carbon dioxide, upon photochemical or thermal treatment has been discovered. An azobenzene functional group, which can switch its conformation upon light irradiation or heat treatment, has been introduced to the organic linker of a MOF. The resulting MOF adsorbs different amount of CO(2) after UV or heat treatment. This remarkable stimuli-responsive adsorption effect has been demonstrated through experiments.

  10. Three-dimensional welding and cutting using high-power CO2 or YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Tiechuan; Chen, Jiming; Xiao, Rongshi; Bao, Yong

    2000-10-01

    In this paper, the theory of 3D laser welding and cutting was established firstly. Then the expert system for 3D laser processing and software of 3D laser processing CAD/CAM were developed, respectively. Under the guidance of these software, with high power CO2 laser, the 3D covers of a car have been cut and edge smoothed, which decrease the number of models and shorten the period of production. With adoption of this technology, the covers of extended Hong Qi cars and furthermore Da Hong Qi cars have been processed successfully, which will bring out the innovation of production design and the revolution of processing technology in manufacture industry.

  11. Impact of high pCO2 on shell structure of the bivalve Cerastoderma edule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Stefania; Schöne, Bernd R; Wang, Schunfeng; Müller, Werner E

    2016-08-01

    Raised atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) result in an increased ocean pCO2 level and decreased carbonate saturation state. Ocean acidification potentially represents a major threat to calcifying organisms, specifically mollusks. The present study focuses on the impact of elevated pCO2 on shell microstructural and mechanical properties of the bivalve Cerastoderma edule. The mollusks were collected from the Baltic Sea and kept in flow-through systems at six different pCO2 levels from 900 μatm (control) to 24,400 μatm. Extreme pCO2 levels were used to determine the effects of potential leaks from the carbon capture and sequestration sites where CO2 is stored in sub-seabed geological formations. Two approaches were combined to determine the effects of the acidified conditions: (1) Shell microstructures and dissolution damage were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and (2) shell hardness was tested using nanoindentation. Microstructures of specimens reared at different pCO2 levels do not show significant changes in their size and shape. Likewise, the increase of pCO2 does not affect shell hardness. However, dissolution of ontogenetically younger portions of the shell becomes more severe with the increase of pCO2. Irrespective of pCO2, strong negative correlations exist between microstructure size and shell mechanics. An additional sample from the North Sea revealed the same microstructural-mechanical interdependency as the shells from the Baltic Sea. Our findings suggest that the skeletal structure of C. edule is not intensely influenced by pCO2 variations. Furthermore, our study indicates that naturally occurring shell mechanical property depends on the shell architecture at μm-scale.

  12. A bio-metal-organic framework for highly selective CO(2) capture: A molecular simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yifei; Jiang, Jianwen

    2010-08-23

    A recently synthesized bio-metal-organic framework (bio-MOF-11) is investigated for CO(2) capture by molecular simulation. The adenine biomolecular linkers in bio-MOF-11 contain Lewis basic amino and pyrimidine groups as the preferential adsorption sites. The simulated and experimental adsorption isotherms of pure CO(2), H(2), and N(2) are in perfect agreement. Bio-MOF-11 exhibits larger adsorption capacities compared to numerous zeolites, activated carbons, and MOFs, which is attributed to the presence of multiple Lewis basic sites and nano-sized channels. The results for the adsorption of CO(2)/H(2) and CO(2)/N(2) mixtures in bio-MOF-11 show that CO(2) is more dominantly adsorbed than H(2) and N(2). With increasing pressure, the selectivity of CO(2)/H(2) initially increases owing to the strong interactions between CO(2) and the framework, and then decreases as a consequence of the entropy effect. However, the selectivity of CO(2)/N(2) monotonically increases with increasing pressure and finally reaches a constant. The selectivities in bio-MOF-11 are higher than in many nanoporous materials. The simulation results also reveal that a small amount of H(2)O has a negligible effect on the separation of CO(2)/H(2) and CO(2)/N(2) mixtures. The simulation study provides quantitative microscopic insight into the adsorption mechanism in bio-MOF-11 and suggests that bio-MOF-11 may be interesting for pre- and post-combustion CO(2) capture.

  13. High-pressure sapphire cell for phase equilibria measurements of CO2/organic/water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollet, Pamela; Ethier, Amy L; Senter, James C; Eckert, Charles A; Liotta, Charles L

    2014-01-24

    The high pressure sapphire cell apparatus was constructed to visually determine the composition of multiphase systems without physical sampling. Specifically, the sapphire cell enables visual data collection from multiple loadings to solve a set of material balances to precisely determine phase composition. Ternary phase diagrams can then be established to determine the proportion of each component in each phase at a given condition. In principle, any ternary system can be studied although ternary systems (gas-liquid-liquid) are the specific examples discussed herein. For instance, the ternary THF-Water-CO2 system was studied at 25 and 40 °C and is described herein. Of key importance, this technique does not require sampling. Circumventing the possible disturbance of the system equilibrium upon sampling, inherent measurement errors, and technical difficulties of physically sampling under pressure is a significant benefit of this technique. Perhaps as important, the sapphire cell also enables the direct visual observation of the phase behavior. In fact, as the CO2 pressure is increased, the homogeneous THF-Water solution phase splits at about 2 MPa. With this technique, it was possible to easily and clearly observe the cloud point and determine the composition of the newly formed phases as a function of pressure. The data acquired with the sapphire cell technique can be used for many applications. In our case, we measured swelling and composition for tunable solvents, like gas-expanded liquids, gas-expanded ionic liquids and Organic Aqueous Tunable Systems (OATS)(1-4). For the latest system, OATS, the high-pressure sapphire cell enabled the study of (1) phase behavior as a function of pressure and temperature, (2) composition of each phase (gas-liquid-liquid) as a function of pressure and temperature and (3) catalyst partitioning in the two liquid phases as a function of pressure and composition. Finally, the sapphire cell is an especially effective tool to gather

  14. Wear Resistance of CO2 Corrosion Product Scale Formed at High Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Guan-fa; ZHENG Mao-sheng; BAI Zhen-quan; FENG Yao-rong

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between structure characteristics and wear resistance of CO2 corrosion product scales at high temperature and high pressure, an autoclave was used to prepare CO2 corrosion product scales on N80 steel in carbon dioxide corrosion environment. The correlation between wear resistance of the scales and many other factors, such as temperature, pressure, morphology, structure, velocity of fluid medium, sand grain size, and so on, was comparatively analyzed by a self-assembled wear device, and the scale morphologies before or after being worn were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). And then the surface grain size and thickness of scale were measured. The results showed that the cross-section of the corrosion scale was of a double-layer structure, the outer layer of which was composed of regular crystals, whereas the inner layer was a thin scale of fine grains. The outer grain size and thickness of scale varied with temperature, and the initial wear loss was consistent with the surface grain size; at the same time, the total wear loss corresponded to the thickness of scale. Compared to wear resistance in different depths of the scale, it was found that the structure of scale was a double-layer structure in cross-section, and the wear resistance of inner layer was better than that of the outer layer; the closer the scale to the matrix, the greater was the wear resistance of scale; and the larger the size or the higher the rotary speed of solid grain in multiphase flowing medium, the more was the wear loss of scale.

  15. Effects of Single and Multifactor Treatments with Elevated Temperature, CO2 and Ozone on Oilseed Rape and Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sabine Karin; Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon Gareth;

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of elevated [CO2], [O3] and temperature on plant productivity and if these climate factors interacted with each other in multifactor treatments. The climate effects were studied in 14 different cultivars/lines of European spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and spri...

  16. Tail gas treatment of SEWGS technology. Literature review on CO2 and H2S separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, E.N.; Van Dijk, H.A.J. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    This literature review is the result of an investigation of the most important way to remove sulphur for the last decades. We will discuss Claus and Claus tail gas process options to solve the problem. Next to solutions which come from membranes, direct oxidation catalysis, from acid gas removal technology, sorbent technology, and liquid oxidation. Each field will be described and explained to understand in which way it could be suitable to separate CO2 and H2S and reach our goals with regard to CO2 transport and storage conditions. Finally, the target of this work will be to propose some interesting and promising solutions in view of future experiments.

  17. Metabolic balance of a plankton community in a pelagic water of a northern high latitude fjord in response to increased pCO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Gattuso

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ocean acidification on the balance between gross community production (GCP and community respiration (CR (i.e. net community production, NCP of plankton communities was investigated in summer 2010 in Kongsfjorden, West of Svalbard. Surface water, which was characterized by low concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients and chlorophyll, was enclosed in 9 mesocosms and subjected to 8 pCO2 levels (2 replicated controls and 7 enhanced pCO2 treatments for one month. Nutrients were added to all mesocosms on day 13 of the experiment, and thereafter increase of chlorophyll (index of phytoplankton biomass was provoked in all mesocosms. No clear trend in response to increasing pCO2 was found in the daily values of NCP, CR, and GCP. For further analysis, these parameters were cumulated for the following three periods: phase 1: end of CO2 manipulation until nutrient addition (t4 to t13; phase 2: nutrient addition until the second chlorophyll minimum (t14 to t21; phase 3: the second chlorophyll minimum until the end of this study (t22 to t28. Significant response was detected as a decrease of NCP with increasing pCO2 during phase 3. CR was relatively stable throughout the experiment in all mesocosms. As a result, the cumulative GCP significantly decreased with increasing pCO2 during phase 3. After the nutrient addition, the ratios of cumulative NCP to cumulative consumption of NO3 and PO4 showed significant decrease during phase 3 with increasing pCO2. The results suggest that elevated pCO2 influenced cumulative NCP and stoichiometric C and nutrient coupling of the plankton community in a high latitude fjord only for a limited period. However provided that there were some differences or weak correlations between NCP data based on different methods in the same experiment, this conclusion should be taken with caution.

  18. Comparison of melting and crystallization behaviors of polylactide under high-pressure CO2, N2, and He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofar, M.; Tabatabaei, A.; Ameli, A.; Park, C. B.

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the melting and crystallization behaviors of polylactide (PLA) under high-pressure CO2, N2, and helium (He) using a high-pressure differential scanning calorimeter. The results showed that the PLA's melting temperature was depressed only in contact with pressurized CO2 where at high CO2 pressures the lubricating gas molecules induced more imperfect melt and cold crystals during the cooling and heating cycles, respectively. PLA's melt crystallization was analyzed during nonisothermal processes. Despite the effect of dissolved CO2 that expedited the PLA's crystallization rate, N2 showed almost a neutral impact on the PLA's crystallization kinetics. Because of the lower solubility, N2 gas content dissolved in the PLA had a diminutive plasticization effect, and thereby it could only counterbalance its negative hydraulic pressure effect. Moreover, as the helium pressure increased, the PLA's final crystallinity was reduced due to the dominant effect of helium's hydraulic pressure.

  19. Evidence of wintertime CO2 emission from snow-covered grounds in high latitudes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方精云; 唐艳鸿KOIZUMI; Hiroshi(Division; of; Plant; Ecology; National; Institute; of; Agro-Environmental; Sciences; Tsukuba; 305; Japan)BEKKU; Yukiko(National; Polar; Institute; Tokyo; 192; Japan)

    1999-01-01

    In order to measure CO2 flux in wintertime arctic ecosystems, CO2 gas was sampled from various snow-covered grounds by using a closed chamber method during the First China Arctic Scientific Expedition from March to May in 1995. The CO2 gas samples were measured by using an infra-red analyzer (IRGA). The results showed that (ⅰ) CO2 emission was detected from all kinds of the snow-covered grounds, which provides direct evidence that the arctic tundra is functioning as a source of atmospheric CO2; (ⅱ) CO2 release was also detected from the permanent ice profile and icecap, and (ⅲ) CO2 evolution from terrestrial ecosystems in higher latitudes increased with an increase of surface temperature in accordance with the exponential function. This indicates a close coincidence with that under normal temperature conditions, and provides a useful method for predicting change in CO2 flux in the arctic ecosystems with the global climate change.

  20.  Winter time burst of CO2 from the High Arctic soils of Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Thomas; Hansen, Birger; Elberling, Bo;

    of relatively few measurements which appear to give small and constant emission rates. Further, most studies of the processes behind winter time emission of CO2 conclude that the flux during this time of year can be linked to the respiratory release of CO2 from soil micro organisms, which is temperature...

  1. Particle image velocimetry for quantification of high pressure CO 2 release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A. de; Spruijt, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the current work evaluation of CO2 release velocity profiles is determined using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The formation of solid CO2 particles using the rapid expansion of nozzle flow is used as a seeder particle, making the method truly nonintrusive and negates the use of special seeder

  2. In situ X-ray ptychography imaging of high-temperature CO2 acceptor particle agglomerates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høydalsvik, Kristin; Fløystad, Jostein Bø; Zhao, Tiejun

    2014-01-01

    be used for in situ phase contrast imaging in structure studies at atmospheric pressure and elevated temperatures. Lithium zirconate, a candidate CO2 capture material, was studied at a pressure of one atmosphere in air and in CO2, at temperatures exceeding 600 °C. Images with a spatial resolution better...

  3. High precision dual-inlet IRMS measurements of the stable isotopes of CO2 and the N2O/CO2 ratio from polar ice core samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Bauska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An important constraint on mechanisms of past carbon cycle variability is provided by the stable isotopic composition of carbon in atmospheric carbon dioxide (δ13C-CO2 trapped in polar ice cores, but obtaining very precise measurements has proven to be a significant analytical challenge. Here we describe a new technique to determine the δ13C of CO2 at exceptional precision, as well as measuring the CO2 and N2O mixing ratios. In this method, ancient air is extracted from relatively large ice samples (~ 400 grams with a dry-extraction "ice-grater" device. The liberated air is cryogenically purified to a CO2 and N2O mixture and analyzed with a micro-volume equipped dual-inlet IRMS (Thermo MAT 253. The reproducibility of the method, based on replicate analysis of ice core samples, is 0.02‰ for δ13C-CO2 and 2 ppm and 4 ppb for the CO2 and N2O mixing ratios, respectively (1-sigma pooled standard deviation. Our experiments show that minimizing water vapor pressure in the extraction vessel by housing the grating apparatus in a ultra-low temperature freezer (−60 °C improves the precision and decreases the experimental blank of the method. We describe techniques for accurate calibration of small samples and the application of a mass spectrometric method based on source fragmentation for reconstructing the N2O history of the atmosphere. The oxygen isotopic composition of CO2 is also investigated, confirming previous observations of oxygen exchange between gaseous CO2 and solid H2O within the ice archive. These data offer a possible constraint on oxygen isotopic fractionation during H2O and CO2 exchange below the H2O bulk melting temperature.

  4. Flexible and High Performance Supercapacitors Based on NiCo2O4for Wide Temperature Range Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ram K.; Candler, John; Palchoudhury, Soubantika; Ramasamy, Karthik; Gupta, Bipin Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Binder free nanostructured NiCo2O4 were grown using a facile hydrothermal technique. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the phase purity of NiCo2O4. The surface morphology and microstructure of the NiCo2O4 analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed flower-like morphology composed of needle-like structures. The potential application of binder free NiCo2O4 as an electrode for supercapacitor devices was investigated using electrochemical methods. The cyclic voltammograms of NiCo2O4 electrode using alkaline aqueous electrolytes showed the presence of redox peaks suggesting pseudocapacitance behavior. Quasi-solid state supercapacitor device fabricated by sandwiching two NiCo2O4 electrodes and separating them by ion transporting layer. The performance of the device was tested using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The device showed excellent flexibility and cyclic stability. The temperature dependent charge storage capacity was measured for their variable temperature applications. Specific capacitance of the device was enhanced by ~150% on raising the temperature from 20 to 60 °C. Hence, the results suggest that NiCo2O4 grown under these conditions could be a suitable material for high performance supercapacitor devices that can be operated at variable temperatures.

  5. CO2 laser resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, R E

    2001-07-01

    The CO2 Laser offers a variety of unique features in resurfacing facial photodamage and acne scarring. These include hemostasis, efficient removal of the epidermis in a single pass, thermally induced tissue tightening, and safe, predictable tissue interaction. Knowledge of these mechanisms will result in the capability of using the CO2 laser effectively and safely whether the goal is superficial or deep treatment.

  6. Three-dimensional nickel foam/graphene/NiCo2O4 as high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Hoa; Shim, Jae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    A facile and efficient two-step method for the decoration of graphene sheets and nickel cobalt oxide (NiCo2O4) nanoparticles on conducting nickel foam was developed. First, graphene and a bimetallic (Ni, Co) hydroxide precursor were deposited on a Ni foam support by electrodeposition followed by a thermal transformation of the bimetallic hydroxide to NiCo2O4. The graphene layer with a thickness of a few nanometers was decorated with NiCo2O4 nanoparticles, ranging in size from 3 to 5 nm. The nickel foam electrode supported graphene and NiCo2O4 exhibited rapid electron and ion transport, large electroactive surface area, and excellent structural stability. The specific capacitance of the obtained electrode was as high as 1950 F g-1 at a high current density of 7.5 A g-1, suggesting its promising applications as an efficient electrode for electrochemical capacitors.

  7. Interfacial Evolution of Cement and Steel in CO2 Dissolved Solution Under High Temperature and High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chengqiang; Peng, Ye; Li, Bing; Wang, Shuliang; Shi, Taihe

    2016-09-01

    The experiments were operated for the cylindrical sample (cement/steel) in high temperature and high pressure (HTHP) CO2 environment to simulate surrounding CO2 attack in oil and gas well. The interfacial evolutions between well cement and casing steel were measured, including mechanical property, structure alteration, chemical change and electrochemical character. The interfacial behaviors are attributed to the competition of hydration and degradation of Portland cement. The damage at the interface was faster than the cement bulk deterioration by carbonation. Thus, the interface provided a potential flow leakage pathway for the HTHP gas and fluid in the well, so improving interfacial stability between well cement and casing steel is the key issue to long-term zonal isolation.

  8. The metabolic response of thecosome pteropods from the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans to high CO2 and low O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Amy E.; Lawson, Gareth L.; Aleck Wang, Zhaohui

    2016-11-01

    As anthropogenic activities directly and indirectly increase carbon dioxide (CO2) and decrease oxygen (O2) concentrations in the ocean system, it becomes important to understand how different populations of marine animals will respond. Water that is naturally low in pH, with a high concentration of carbon dioxide (hypercapnia) and a low concentration of oxygen, occurs at shallow depths (200-500 m) in the North Pacific Ocean, whereas similar conditions are absent throughout the upper water column in the North Atlantic. This contrasting hydrography provides a natural experiment to explore whether differences in environment cause populations of cosmopolitan pelagic calcifiers, specifically the aragonitic-shelled pteropods, to have a different physiological response when exposed to hypercapnia and low O2. Using closed-chamber end-point respiration experiments, eight species of pteropods from the two ocean basins were exposed to high CO2 ( ˜ 800 µatm) while six species were also exposed to moderately low O2 (48 % saturated, or ˜ 130 µmol kg-1) and a combined treatment of low O2/high CO2. None of the species tested showed a change in metabolic rate in response to high CO2 alone. Of those species tested for an effect of O2, only Limacina retroversa from the Atlantic showed a response to the combined treatment, resulting in a reduction in metabolic rate. Our results suggest that pteropods have mechanisms for coping with short-term CO2 exposure and that there can be interactive effects between stressors on the physiology of these open ocean organisms that correlate with natural exposure to low O2 and high CO2. These are considerations that should be taken into account in projections of organismal sensitivity to future ocean conditions.

  9. Emissions of CO2 and CH4 from sludge treatment reed beds depend on system management and sludge loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Linda; Dam Larsen, Julie; Ye, Siyuan

    2014-01-01

    Sludge treatment reed beds (STRB) are considered as eco-friendly and sustainable alternatives to conventional sludge treatment methods, although little is known about greenhouse gas emissions from such systems. We measured CO2 and CH4 emissions and substrate characteristics in a STRB, an occasion......Sludge treatment reed beds (STRB) are considered as eco-friendly and sustainable alternatives to conventional sludge treatment methods, although little is known about greenhouse gas emissions from such systems. We measured CO2 and CH4 emissions and substrate characteristics in a STRB......, the SD had no vegetation and a poor dewatering capacity, which resulted in anaerobic conditions favoring CH4 emission. In contrast, the well-managed STRB had more aerobic conditions in the sludge residue resulting in low CH4 emission rates. We conclude that well-designed and well-managed STRBs have a low...

  10. Los Angeles megacity: a high-resolution land-atmosphere modelling system for urban CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Sha; Lauvaux, Thomas; Newman, Sally; Rao, Preeti; Ahmadov, Ravan; Deng, Aijun; Díaz-Isaac, Liza I.; Duren, Riley M.; Fischer, Marc L.; Gerbig, Christoph; Gurney, Kevin R.; Huang, Jianhua; Jeong, Seongeun; Li, Zhijin; Miller, Charles E.; O'Keeffe, Darragh; Patarasuk, Risa; Sander, Stanley P.; Song, Yang; Wong, Kam W.; Yung, Yuk L.

    2016-07-01

    Megacities are major sources of anthropogenic fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions. The spatial extents of these large urban systems cover areas of 10 000 km2 or more with complex topography and changing landscapes. We present a high-resolution land-atmosphere modelling system for urban CO2 emissions over the Los Angeles (LA) megacity area. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Chem model was coupled to a very high-resolution FFCO2 emission product, Hestia-LA, to simulate atmospheric CO2 concentrations across the LA megacity at spatial resolutions as fine as ˜ 1 km. We evaluated multiple WRF configurations, selecting one that minimized errors in wind speed, wind direction, and boundary layer height as evaluated by its performance against meteorological data collected during the CalNex-LA campaign (May-June 2010). Our results show no significant difference between moderate-resolution (4 km) and high-resolution (1.3 km) simulations when evaluated against surface meteorological data, but the high-resolution configurations better resolved planetary boundary layer heights and vertical gradients in the horizontal mean winds. We coupled our WRF configuration with the Vulcan 2.2 (10 km resolution) and Hestia-LA (1.3 km resolution) fossil fuel CO2 emission products to evaluate the impact of the spatial resolution of the CO2 emission products and the meteorological transport model on the representation of spatiotemporal variability in simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We find that high spatial resolution in the fossil fuel CO2 emissions is more important than in the atmospheric model to capture CO2 concentration variability across the LA megacity. Finally, we present a novel approach that employs simultaneous correlations of the simulated atmospheric CO2 fields to qualitatively evaluate the greenhouse gas measurement network over the LA megacity. Spatial correlations in the atmospheric CO2 fields reflect the coverage of individual measurement sites when a

  11. Physiological and genetic control mechanisms for plant adaptation to high temperature and elevated CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiger, Eduardo

    2001-02-01

    Acclimations of the stomatal response to CO2 were characterized. Stomata from the model plant used, Vicia faba, are very sensitive to ambient CO2 when grown in growth chambers as compared to stomata from green house grown leaves. The different CO2 sensitivities of growth chamber and green house grown guard cells was confirmed by reciprocal transfer experiments. Stomata acclimated to their new environment and acquired the CO2 sensitivity typical of that environment. A mechanism for CO2 sensing was also characterized. Results show that CO2 concentration alters the concentration of zeaxanthin in the guard cell chloroplast, thus modifying the light response of the guard cells. This mechanism accounts for the well characterized interactions of light and CO2 in the stomatal responses. The xanthophyll cycle in the stomata of the facultative CAM plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, was characterized. In the C3 mode, zeaxanthin is formed in the light and stomata open. Upon induction of the CAM mode, zeaxanthin synthesis is blocked and stomata no longer respond to light. These results implicate the regulation of the xanthophyll cycle of guard cells in the CAM adaptation.

  12. Implications of high amplitude atmospheric CO2 fluctuations on past millennium climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoof, Thomas; Kouwenberg, Lenny; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Visscher, Henk

    2010-05-01

    Stomatal frequency analysis of leaves of land plants preserved in peat and lake deposits can provide a proxy record of pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration complementary to measurements in Antarctic ice cores. Stomatal frequency based CO2 trends from the USA and NW European support the presence of significant CO2 variability during the first half of the last millennium (Kouwenberg et al., 2005; Wagner et al., 2004; van Hoof et al., 2008). The timing of the most significant perturbation in the stomata records (1200 AD) is in agreement with an observed CO2 fluctuation in the D47 Antarctic ice-core record (Barnola et al., 1995; van Hoof et al., 2005). The amplitude of the stomatal frequency based CO2 changes (> 34ppmv) exceeds the maximum amplitude of CO2 variability in the D47 ice core (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, v. 105, no. 41, pp. 15815-15818 Wagner F., L.L.R. Kouwenberg, T.B. van Hoof and H. Visscher 2004. Reproducibility of Holocene atmospheric CO2 records based on stomatal frequency. Quartenary Science Reviews. V. 23, pp. 1947-1954

  13. Wearable CO2 sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Radu, Tanja; Fay, Cormac; Lau, King-Tong; Waite, Rhys; Diamond, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    High concentrations of CO2 may develop particularly in the closed spaces during fires and can endanger the health of emergency personnel by causing serious physiological effects. The proposed prototype provides real-time continuous monitoring of CO2 in a wearable configuration sensing platform. A commercially available electrochemical CO2 sensor was selected due to its selectivity, sensitivity and low power demand. This was integrated onto an electronics platform that performed signal capture...

  14. The application of CO2 laser in the treatment of oral and maxillofacial lesion%CO2激光在治疗口腔颌面部病损中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志权

    2016-01-01

    CO2 laser has been the widely used in various areas of medicine abroad. However,it is seldom reported CO2 laser in oral and maxillofacial region at home. There are important advantages of CO2 laser with precise cutting and gasify-sealed action to its application in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Hence,combined with the author's experiences and international/internal literatures, this review focuses on the application of CO2 laser in treatment of oral and maxillofacial lesions.%CO2激光在国外已被广泛应用于医学的各个领域,但在国内特别是在口腔颌面外科领域,仍处于起步和探索阶段。CO2激光具有的精确的切割能力、对组织血运的气化封闭作用,是其应用于口腔颌面外科手术的重要优势。本文拟结合笔者经验、国内外文献资料,探讨CO2激光在治疗口腔颌面部病损的应用。

  15. High-frequency analysis of the complex linkage between soil CO(2) fluxes, photosynthesis and environmental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jonathan G; Phillips, Claire L; Schmidt, Andres; Irvine, James; Law, Beverly E

    2012-01-01

    High-frequency soil CO(2) flux data are valuable for providing new insights into the processes of soil CO(2) production. A record of hourly soil CO(2) fluxes from a semi-arid ponderosa pine stand was spatially and temporally deconstructed in attempts to determine if variation could be explained by logical drivers using (i) CO(2) production depths, (ii) relationships and lags between fluxes and soil temperatures, or (iii) the role of canopy assimilation in soil CO(2) flux variation. Relationships between temperature and soil fluxes were difficult to establish at the hourly scale because diel cycles of soil fluxes varied seasonally, with the peak of flux rates occurring later in the day as soil water content decreased. Using a simple heat transport/gas diffusion model to estimate the time and depth of CO(2) flux production, we determined that the variation in diel soil CO(2) flux patterns could not be explained by changes in diffusion rates or production from deeper soil profiles. We tested for the effect of gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) by minimizing soil flux covariance with temperature and moisture using only data from discrete bins of environmental conditions (±1 °C soil temperature at multiple depths, precipitation-free periods and stable soil moisture). Gross ecosystem productivity was identified as a possible driver of variability at the hourly scale during the growing season, with multiple lags between ~5, 15 and 23 days. Additionally, the chamber-specific lags between GEP and soil CO(2) fluxes appeared to relate to combined path length for carbon flow (top of tree to chamber center). In this sparse and heterogeneous forested system, the potential link between CO(2) assimilation and soil CO(2) flux may be quite variable both temporally and spatially. For model applications, it is important to note that soil CO(2) fluxes are influenced by many biophysical factors, which may confound or obscure relationships with logical environmental drivers and act at

  16. Selective synthesis of hierarchical mesoporous spinel NiCo2O4 for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufei; Ma, Mingze; Yang, Jun; Su, Haiquan; Huang, Wei; Dong, Xiaochen

    2014-03-01

    Hierarchical mesoporous spinel NiCo2O4 was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method assisted by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and a post annealing treatment. The synthesized hierarchical mesoporous NiCo2O4 presents a hierarchical mesoporous structure with diameters of 5.0 and 25 nm, respectively. Compared to conventional flower-like NiCo2O4, the hierarchical mesoporous structured NiCo2O4 exhibits excellent supercapacitor performance. The specific capacitance can reach 1619.1 F g-1 at a current density of 2.0 A g-1. When the current density is increased to 10.0 A g-1, a specific capacitance of 571.4 F g-1 can be obtained. Furthermore, the hierarchical mesoporous structured NiCo2O4 presents excellent stability. The outstanding electrochemical performance of the hierarchical mesoporous NiCo2O4 reveals its potential to be a promising material for use in supercapacitors, and also inspires continued research on binary metal oxides as energy transformation materials.

  17. CO2 Laser Surgery and Prosthetic Management for the Treatment of Epulis Fissuratum

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arruda Paes-Junior, Tarcisio José; Cavalcanti, Sâmia Carolina Mota; Nascimento, Daniela Fernandes Figueira; Saavedra, Guilherme de Siqueira Ferreira Anzaloni; Kimpara, Estevão Tomomitsu; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; Niccoli-Filho, Walter; Komori, Paula Carolina de Paiva

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a case report of the surgical removal of hyperplasia in the oral cavity, using carbon dioxide (CO2) laser radiation and rehabilitation with a complete denture. Epulis fissuratum occurs in complete denture patients, because a constant irritative action induces the mucosa to grow under poorly fitting dentures. These lesions must be removed, and to avoid a relapse, new complete dentures should be made to maintain healthy surgical tissues. The clinical sequence presented in this case shows a completely edentulous patient with epulis fissuratum on the lower alveolar ridge extending to the vestibular sulcus of the anterior region of mandible. Immediate complete dentures were made prior to the lesion removal with CO2 laser radiation, providing satisfactory results in oral function and tissue health. PMID:21991461

  18. High-efficiency laser-irradiation spheroidizing of NiCo2O4 nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-sheng; Wang, Hao; Zeng, Hai-bo; Fan, Guang-ming; Liu, Ya-hong

    2016-11-01

    We realized the desired spheroidizing of NiCo2O4 nanomaterials by laser irradiating NiCo2O4 suspensions with different concentrations. The results reveal that the as-prepared samples are desired spheres with the maximal average size of 568 nm and the superior dispersity, which were obtained at the energy density of 0.30 J·pulse-1·cm-2 and NiCo2O4 suspension concentration of 0.2 mg·mL-1. However, the phase segregation, which was induced by large amounts of solid redox of Co3+/Co2+ and Ni3+/Ni2+, also appears in the laser-irradiation process.

  19. Solubilities of CO2 in some glycol ethers under high pressure by experimental determination and correlation☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Zhi Yun; Zhigang Tang; Xia Gui

    2016-01-01

    The binary vapor–liquid equilibrium data of CO2 in diethylene glycol (monomethyl, monoethyl, monobutyl, di-methyl, diethyl, dibutyl) ether were determined from 288.15 to 318.15 K at pressure up to 6 MPa based on the constant-volume method. It was found by contrast that the ether group in solvents can promote the CO2 absorp-tion, but the hydroxyl group will inhibit the CO2 absorption. Furthermore, the solubilities of CO2 showed an up-ward trend with the increasing molecular lengths of absorbents. The experimental data were also correlated with a modified Patel–Teja equation of state (PT EOS) combined with the traditional van der Waals one-fluid mixing rules and the results showed a satisfactory agreement between the model and the experimental data.

  20. Atomic Layer Deposition of High-k Dielectrics Using Supercritical CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Rajesh

    2005-03-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of high-κdielectric was performed in supercritical CO2 (SCCO2), using a two-step reaction sequence. In step one, tetraethoxy silane (TEOS) precursor was injected in SCCO2 at 80-100 C and 50 MPa pressure to obtain a chemisorbed surface monolayer, which was then oxidized into SiO2 using peroxide entrained in SCCO2. ALD process was controlled by estimating precursor solubility and its mass transport with respect to the density of SCCO2, and correlating these parameters with precursor injection volume. In the ALD process, 7 pulses of precursor were used anticipating deposition of one atomic layer in each of the pulses. The thickness of the SiO2 atomic layers deposited using SCCO2 was measured by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE), and the C-V measurements were also performed. The result obtained using VASE indicates that there were 7 monolayers of SiO2 with total thickness of 35 å, and the dielectric constant of the deposited layers was 4.0±0.1. Our initial findings clearly demonstrate that SCCO2 is capable of atomic layer deposition of high quality dielectric films at very low process temperatures preventing interface reaction. More research is in progress to achieve ALD of HfO2 and TiO2 in SCCO2.

  1. Polyethyleneimine Incorporated Metal-Organic Frameworks Adsorbent for Highly Selective CO2 Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yichao; Yan, Qiuju; Kong, Chunlong; Chen, Liang

    2013-01-01

    A series of polyethyleneimine (PEI) incorporated MIL-101 adsorbents with different PEI loadings were reported for the first time in the present work. Although the surface area and pore volume of MIL-101 decreased significantly after loading PEI, all the resulting composites exhibited dramatically enhanced CO2 adsorption capacity at low pressures. At 100 wt% PEI loading, the CO2 adsorption capacity at 0.15 bar reached a very competitive value of 4.2 mmol g−1 at 25°C, and 3.4 mmol g−1 at 50°C. More importantly, the resulting adsorbents displayed rapid adsorption kinetics and ultrahigh selectivity for CO2 over N2 in the designed flue gas with 0.15 bar CO2 and 0.75 bar N2. The CO2 over N2 selectivity was up to 770 at 25°C, and 1200 at 50°C. We believe that the PEI based metal-organic frameworks is an attractive adsorbent for CO2 capture. PMID:23681218

  2. Implications of High Temperature and Elevated CO2 on Flowering Time in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadish, S V Krishna; Bahuguna, Rajeev N; Djanaguiraman, Maduraimuthu; Gamuyao, Rico; Prasad, P V Vara; Craufurd, Peter Q

    2016-01-01

    Flowering is a crucial determinant for plant reproductive success and seed-set. Increasing temperature and elevated carbon-dioxide (e[CO2]) are key climate change factors that could affect plant fitness and flowering related events. Addressing the effect of these environmental factors on flowering events such as time of day of anthesis (TOA) and flowering time (duration from germination till flowering) is critical to understand the adaptation of plants/crops to changing climate and is the major aim of this review. Increasing ambient temperature is the major climatic factor that advances flowering time in crops and other plants, with a modest effect of e[CO2].Integrated environmental stimuli such as photoperiod, temperature and e[CO2] regulating flowering time is discussed. The critical role of plant tissue temperature influencing TOA is highlighted and crop models need to substitute ambient air temperature with canopy or floral tissue temperature to improve predictions. A complex signaling network of flowering regulation with change in ambient temperature involving different transcription factors (PIF4, PIF5), flowering suppressors (HvODDSOC2, SVP, FLC) and autonomous pathway (FCA, FVE) genes, mainly from Arabidopsis, provides a promising avenue to improve our understanding of the dynamics of flowering time under changing climate. Elevated CO2 mediated changes in tissue sugar status and a direct [CO2]-driven regulatory pathway involving a key flowering gene, MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT), are emerging evidence for the role of e[CO2] in flowering time regulation.

  3. Preparation of Sandwich-like NiCo2O4/rGO/NiO Heterostructure on Nickel Foam for High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Delong; Gong, Youning; Wang, Miaosheng; Pan, Chunxu

    2017-04-01

    A kind of sandwich-like NiCo2O4/rGO/NiO heterostructure composite has been successfully anchored on nickel foam substrate via a three-step hydrothermal method with successive annealing treatment. The smart combination of NiCo2O4, reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and NiO nanostructure in the sandwich-like nano architecture shows a promising synergistic effect for supercapacitors with greatly enhanced electrochemical performance. For serving as supercapacitor electrode, the NiCo2O4/rGO/NiO heterostructure materials exhibit remarkable specific capacitance of 2644 mF cm-2 at current density of 1 mA cm-2, and excellent capacitance retentions of 97.5% after 3000 cycles. It is expected that the present heterostructure will be a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.

  4. Prognostic significance of high-risk HPV persistence after laser CO2 conization for high-grade CIN: a prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallani, M G; Penna, C; Marchionni, M; Bussani, C; Pieralli, A; Andersson, K L; Fambrini, M

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the persistence rate of high-risk HPV DNA (HR-HPV DNA) in a population treated totally by laser CO2 conization for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-CIN), and to examine if this persistence might be considered an independent risk factor for relapsing disease. All women with a histological diagnosis of HG-CIN and planned for laser CO2 conization from January 2003 to December 2004 were prospectively submitted to a HR-HPV test prior to surgery and at three and six months of follow-up. Women providing written informed consent with 24 months of follow-up were enrolled in the study group. A positive HPV test, involvement of resection margins, age at first intercourse, smoking habits, parity and age at conization > 50 years old were considered as risk factors for relapsing HG-CIN during follow-up, and were univariately and multivariately analyzed to discover any independent influencing factors. Of HG-CIN 15.4% resulted not to be HPV related nor relapsing. The HPV clearance rate after treatment was 78.8%. Involvement of resection margins and HR-HPV DNA persistence post-treatment resulted as the only two statistically significant risk factors for HG-CIN recurrence (rate 3.8%). HR-HPV DNA persistence in follow-up resulted to be independent from other risk factors at multivariate analysis. Although able to reach a low recurrence rate of HG-CIN, laser CO2 conization does not remove HPV infection completely from the cervix with a case of persistence in every five treated patients. In our experience this persistence in itself represents an independent risk factor for developing relapsing disease and constitutes the basis to introduce HPV testing even in the follow-up of patients treated for HG-CIN by laser CO2 conization.

  5. High-repetition rate industrial TEA CO2 laser with average output power of 1.5 kW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chongyi; Liu, Shiming; Zhou, Jinwen; Qi, Jilan; Yang, Xiaola; Wu, Jin; Tan, Rongqing; Wang, Lichun; Mei, Qichu

    1995-03-01

    High power high repetition rate TEA CO2 laser has potential importance in material processing such as shock hardening, glazing, drilling, welding, and cutting for high damage threshold materials, as well as in chemical reaction and isotope separation. This paper describes a transverse-flow closed-cycle UV-preionized TEA CO2 laser with peak pulse power of 20 MW, maximum average power of 1.5 KW at repetition rate of 300 HZ. The laser has compact constructure of gas flow circulation system using tangential fans. With addition of small amounts of H2 and CO to the normal CO2-N2-He gas mixture, one filling sealed operating lifetime is up to millions of pulses. A novel spark gap switch has been developed for very high repetition rate laser discharge in the condition of high pulse power.

  6. Interacting ZnCo2O4 and Au nanodots on carbon nanotubes as highly efficient water oxidation electrocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui; Su, Chang-Yuan; Tan, Zhi-Yun; Tai, Su-Zhen; Liu, Zhao-Qing

    2017-07-01

    An advanced hybrid electrocatalyst consisting of ZnCo2O4 nanodots and Au decorated carbon nanotubes is developed for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). In the catalyst system, carbon nanotubes are served as the support substrate to enhance the conductivity of ZnCo2O4 and provide a high specific area; meanwhile, Au species accelerate the electron-stripping from cobalt ions during the catalytic process, leading to a fast promotion of cobalt ions with high valence state which possess a highly electrocatalytic efficiency. With the well synergistic effect between the components, ZnCo2O4/Au/CNTs exhibits low potential of 1.67 V at j = 10 mA cm-2, large current density of 97.8 mA cm-2 at high operating potential (1.8 V), and prominent durability in alkaline. This finding will pave a new avenue to search highly efficient and stable electrocatalysts for water splitting devices.

  7. Soybean grown under elevated CO2 benefits more under low temperature than high temperature stress: Varying response of photosynthetic limitations, leaf metabolites, growth, and seed yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangli; Singh, Shardendu K; Reddy, Vangimalla R; Barnaby, Jinyoung Y; Sicher, Richard C; Li, Tian

    2016-10-20

    To evaluate the combined effect of temperature and CO2 on photosynthetic processes, leaf metabolites and growth, soybean was grown under a controlled environment at low (22/18°C, LT), optimum (28/24°C, OT) and high (36/32°C HT) temperatures under ambient (400μmolmol(-1); aCO2) or elevated (800μmolmol(-1); eCO2) CO2 concentrations during the reproductive stage. In general, the rate of photosynthesis (A), stomatal (gs) and mesophyll (gm) conductance, quantum yield of photosystem II, rates of maximum carboxylation (VCmax), and electron transport (J) increased with temperature across CO2 levels. However, compared with OT, the percentage increases in these parameters at HT were lower than the observed decline at LT. The photosynthetic limitation at LT and OT was primarily caused by photo-biochemical processes (49-58%, Lb) followed by stomatal (27-32%, Ls) and mesophyll (15-19%, Lm) limitations. However, at HT, it was primarily caused by Ls (41%) followed by Lb (33%) and Lm (26%). The dominance of Lb at LT and OT was associated with the accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates (e.g., starch) and several organic acids, whereas this accumulation did not occur at HT, indicating increased metabolic activities. Compared with OT, biomass and seed yield declined more at HT than at LT. The eCO2 treatment compensated for the temperature-stress effects on biomass but only partially compensated for the effects on seed yield, especially at HT. Photosynthetic downregulation at eCO2 was possibly due to the accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates and the decrease in gs and Astd (standard A measured at 400μmolmol(-1) sub-stomatal CO2 concentration), as well as the lack of CO2 effect on gm, VCmax, and J, and photosynthetic limitation. Thus, the photosynthetic limitation was temperature-dependent and was primarily influenced by the alteration in photo-biochemical processes and metabolic activities. Despite the inconsistent response of photosynthesis (or biomass accumulation

  8. Biomimetic CO2 capture using a highly thermostable bacterial α-carbonic anhydrase immobilized on a polyurethane foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliardini, Fortunato; De Luca, Viviana; Carginale, Vincenzo; Rossi, Mosè; Corbo, Pasquale; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2014-02-01

    The biomimetic approach represents an interesting strategy for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, offering advantages over other methods, due to its specificity for CO2 and its eco-compatibility, as it allows concentration of CO2 from other gases, and its conversion to water soluble ions. This approach uses microorganisms capable of fixing CO2 through metabolic pathways or via the use of an enzyme, such as carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1). Recently, our group cloned and purified a novel bacterial α-CA, named SspCA, from the thermophilic bacteria, Sulfurihydrogenibium yellowstonense YO3AOP1 living in hot springs at temperatures of up to 110 °C. This enzyme showed an exceptional thermal stability, retaining its high catalytic activity for the CO2 hydration reaction even after being heated at 70 °C for several hours. In the present paper, the SspCA was immobilized within a polyurethane (PU) foam. The immobilized enzyme was found to be catalytically active and showed a long-term stability. A bioreactor containing the "PU-immobilized enzyme" (PU-SspCA) as shredded foam was used for experimental tests aimed to verify the CO2 capture capability in conditions close to those of a power plant application. In this bioreactor, a gas phase, containing CO2, was put into contact with a liquid phase under conditions, where CO2 contained in the gas phase was absorbed and efficiently converted into bicarbonate by the extremo-α-CA.

  9. High-resolution estimates of net community production and air-sea CO2 flux in the northeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Deirdre; Quay, Paul D.; Kavanaugh, Maria T.; Juranek, Lauren W.; Feely, Richard A.

    2012-12-01

    Rates of net community production (NCP) and air-sea CO2 flux in the Northeast Pacific subarctic, transition zone and subtropical regions (22°N-50°N, 145°W-152°W) were determined on a cruise in August-September 2008 by continuous measurement of surface values of the ratio of dissolved oxygen to argon (O2/Ar) and the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). These estimates were compared with simultaneous measurements of sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (chl-a), flow cytometry, and discrete surface nutrient concentrations. NCP and CO2 influx were greatest in the subarctic (45°N-50°N, 25.8 ± 4.6 and 4.1 ± 0.9 mmol C m-2 d-1) and northern transition zone (40°N-45°N, 17.1 ± 4.4 and 2.1 ± 0.5 mmol C m-2 d-1), with mean NCP ˜6-8× greater than mean CO2 invasion (error estimates reflect 1 σ confidence intervals). Contrastingly, the southern transition zone (32°N-40°N) and subtropics (22°N-32°N) had lower mean NCP (5.4 ± 1.8 and 8.1 ± 2.1 mmol C m-2 d-1, respectively) and mean CO2 efflux (3.0 ± 0.5 and 0.1 ± 0.0 mmol C m-2 d-1, respectively). In the subarctic and transition zone, NCP was highly correlated with surface chl-a and CO2 influx, indicating strong coupling between the biological pump and CO2 uptake. Meridional trends in our NCP estimates in the transition zone and subtropics were similar to those for integrated summertime NCP along the cruise track determined using an upper ocean climatological carbon budget.

  10. [Research on soil bacteria under the impact of sealed CO2 leakage by high-throughput sequencing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Di; Ma, Xin; Li, Yu-E; Zha, Liang-Song; Wu, Yang; Zou, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Shuang

    2013-10-01

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage has provided a new option for mitigating global anthropogenic CO2 emission with its unique advantages. However, there is a risk of the sealed CO2 leakage, bringing a serious threat to the ecology system. It is widely known that soil microorganisms are closely related to soil health, while the study on the impact of sequestered CO2 leakage on soil microorganisms is quite deficient. In this study, the leakage scenarios of sealed CO2 were constructed and the 16S rRNA genes of soil bacteria were sequenced by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology on Miseq platform, and related biological analysis was conducted to explore the changes of soil bacterial abundance, diversity and structure. There were 486,645 reads for 43,017 OTUs of 15 soil samples and the results of biological analysis showed that there were differences in the abundance, diversity and community structure of soil bacterial community under different CO, leakage scenarios while the abundance and diversity of the bacterial community declined with the amplification of CO2 leakage quantity and leakage time, and some bacteria species became the dominant bacteria species in the bacteria community, therefore the increase of Acidobacteria species would be a biological indicator for the impact of sealed CO2 leakage on soil ecology system.

  11. Photodissociation in the atmosphere of Mars - Impact of high resolution, temperature-dependent CO2 cross-section measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.; Allen, M.; Nair, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the impact of high resolution, temperature-dependent CO2 cross-section measurements, reported by Lewis and Carver (1983), on calculations of photodissociation rate coefficients in the Martian atmosphere. We find that the adoption of 50 A intervals for the purpose of computational efficiency results in errors in the calculated values for photodissociation of CO2, H2O, and O2 which are generally not above 10 percent, but as large as 20 percent in some instances. These are acceptably small errors, especially considering the uncertainties introduced by the large temperature dependence of the CO2 cross section. The inclusion of temperature-dependent CO2 cross sections is shown to lead to a decrease in the diurnally averaged rate of CO2 photodissociation as large as 33 percent at some altitudes, and increases of as much as 950 percent and 80 percent in the photodissociation rate coefficients of H2O and O2, respectively. The actual magnitude of the changes depends on the assumptions used to model the CO2 absorption spectrum at temperatures lower than the available measurements, and at wavelengths longward of 1970 A.

  12. The synergistic effects of CO2 laser treatment with calcium silicate cement of antibacterial, osteogenesis and cementogenesis efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, T.-T.; Kao, C.-T.; Chen, Y.-W.; Huang, T.-H.; Yang, J.-J.; Shie, M.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    Calcium silicate-based material (CS) has been successfully used in dental clinical applications. Some researches show that the antibacterial effects of CO2 laser irradiation are highly efficient when bacteria are embedded in biofilm, due to a photo-thermal mechanism. The purpose of this study was to confirm the effects of CO2 laser irradiation on CS, with regard to both material characterization and human periodontal ligament cell (hPDLs) viability. CS was irradiated with a dental CO2 laser using directly mounted fiber optics in wound healing mode with a spot area of 0.25 cm2, and then stored in an incubator at 100% relative humidity and 37 °C for 1 d to set. The hPDLs cultured on CS were analyzed, along with their proliferation and odontogenic differentiation behaviors. The results indicate that the CO2 laser irradiation increased the amount of Ca and Si ions released from the CS, and regulated cell behavior. CO2 laser-irradiated CS promoted cementogenic differentiation of hPDLs, with the increased formation of mineralized nodules on the substrate’s surface. It also up-regulated the protein expression of multiple markers of cementogenic and the expression of cementum attachment protein. The current study provides new and important data about the effects of CO2 laser irradiation on CS. Taking cell functions into account, the Si concentration released from CS with laser irradiated may be lower than a critical value, and this information could lead to the development of new regenerative therapies for dentin and periodontal tissue.

  13. Microleakage in Class V Composite Restorations after Desensitizing Surface Treatment with Er:YAG and CO2 Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Hamid Reza; Ehteshami, Alireza; Zallaghi, Farshad; Chiniforush, Nasim; Moradi, Zohreh

    2016-12-30

    Aims: Glutaraldehyde, CO2 and Er:YAG lasers can be used for treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. However, their application may have adverse effects on the clinical service of restorations. This study aimed to assess the microleakage in composite restorations following surface treatment with Glutaraldehyde desensitizer, CO2 and Er:YAG laser irradiation for treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. Materials and methods: This experimental study was conducted on 60 extracted sound human teeth. Class V cavities were prepared measuring 3×3 mm using a diamond bur. Specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups of 15. Group one:no surface treatment, Group two:applying Glutaraldehyde desensitizer, Groups of three and four were irradiated with CO2 and Er:YAG lasers, respectively. Surfaces were restored with bonding agent (Single Bond 2, 3M, USA) and Z250 composite (3M, USA). Specimens were thermocycled and immersed in 1% methylene blue solution for 24 hours. Microleakage scores were assessed under a stereomicroscope at ×20 magnification. Data were analyzed using SPSS and the Kruskal Wallis test (P=0.05). Results: There was no significant difference between microleakage of groups in enamel margins (P=0.694). The difference in microleakage at the dentin margin was significant between groups (P=0.018). Conclusions: Application of Glutaraldehyde-desensitizer and CO2 laser irradiation of surfaces prior to composite restoration do not increase microleakage at the enamel or dentin margins but tooth surface treatment with Er:YAG laser significantly increased the microleakage at the dentin margins.

  14. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed on supercritical CO2 extraction of oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Porto, C; Natolino, A; Decorti, D

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound pre-treatment of intact hemp seeds without any solvent assistance was carried out for 10, 20 and 40 min prior to SCCO2 extraction at 40 °C, 300 bar and 45 kg CO2/kg feed. Sonication time effect on SC-CO2 extraction was investigated by the extraction kinetics. The maximum extraction yield was estimated to be 24.03 (% w/w) after 10 min of ultrasonic pre-treatment. The fatty acid compositions of the oils extracted by SC-CO2 without and with ultrasound pre-treatments was analyzed using gas chromatography. It was shown that the content of linoleic, α-linolenic and oleic acids (the most abundant unsaturated fatty acids) of the hemp seed oils were not affected significantly by the application of ultrasound. UV spectroscopy indices (K232 and K268) and antiradical capacity were used to follow the quality of oils. Significant were the changes in their antiradical capacity due to ultrasound treatment. A comparison with the oil extracted by Soxhlet was also given.

  15. High CO2 fluxes from grassland on histic Gleysol along soil carbon and drainage gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiber-Sauheitl, K.; Fuß, R.; Voigt, C.; Freibauer, A.

    2014-02-01

    Drained organic soils are anthropogenic emission hotspots of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Most studies have focused on deep peat soils and on peats with high organic carbon content. In contrast, histic Gleysols are characterized by shallow peat layers, which are left over from peat cutting activities or by peat mixed with mineral soil. It is unknown whether they emit less GHGs than deep Histosols when drained. We present the annual carbon and GHG balance of grasslands for six sites on nutrient-poor histic Gleysols with a shallow (30 cm) histic horizon or mixed with mineral soil in Northern Germany (soil organic carbon concentration (Corg) from 9 to 52%). The net GHG balance, corrected for carbon export by harvest, was around 4 t CO2-C-eq ha-1 yr-1 on soils with peat layer and little drainage (mean annual water table GHG inventories which are likely not to include histic Gleysols. The land area with GHG emission hotspots due to drainage is likely to be much higher than anticipated. Deeply drained histic Gleysols are GHG hotspots that have so far been neglected or underestimated. Peat mixing with sand does not mitigate GHG emissions. Our study implies that rewetting organic soils, including histic Gleysols, has a much higher relevance for GHG mitigation strategies than currently recognized.

  16. High-Gravity Carbonation Process for Enhancing CO2 Fixation and Utilization Exemplified by the Steelmaking Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chen, Chun-Da; Shen, Ai-Lin; Lin, Michael; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-10-20

    The high-gravity carbonation process for CO2 mineralization and product utilization as a green cement was evaluated using field operation data from the steelmaking industry. The effect of key operating factors, including rotation speed, liquid-to-solid ratio, gas flow rate, and slurry flow rate, on CO2 removal efficiency was studied. The results indicated that a maximal CO2 removal of 97.3% was achieved using basic oxygen furnace slag at a gas-to-slurry ratio of 40, with a capture capacity of 165 kg of CO2 per day. In addition, the product with different carbonation conversions (i.e., 0%, 17%, and 48%) was used as supplementary cementitious materials in blended cement at various substitution ratios (i.e., 0%, 10%, and 20%). The performance of the blended cement mortar, including physicochemical properties, morphology, mineralogy, compressive strength, and autoclave soundness, was evaluated. The results indicated that the mortar with a high carbonation conversion of slag exhibited a higher mechanical strength in the early stage than pure portland cement mortar, suggesting its suitability for use as a high early strength cement. It also possessed superior soundness compared to the mortar using fresh slag. Furthermore, the optimal operating conditions of the high-gravity carbonation were determined by response surface models for maximizing CO2 removal efficiency and minimizing energy consumption.

  17. Day and Night Variability of CO2 Fluxes and Priming Effects under zea Mays Measured in High Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splettstoesser, Thomas; Pausch, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    Plant induced increase of soil organic matter turnover rates contribute to carbon emissions in agricultural land use systems. In order to better understand these rhizosphere priming effects, we conducted an experiment which enabled us to monitor CO2 fluxes under Zea mays plants in high resolution. The experiment was conducted in a climate chamber where the plants were grown in tightly sealed boxes for 40 days and CO2 efflux from soil was measured twice a day. Continuous 13C-CO2 label was used to allow differentiation between plant- and soil-derived CO2.This enabled us to monitor root respiration and soil organic matter turnover in the early stages of plant growth and to highlight changes in soil CO2 emissions and priming effects between day and night. The measurements were conducted with a PICARRO G2131-I C high-precision isotopic CO2 Analyzer (PICARRO INC.) utilizing an automated valve system governed by a CR1000 data logger (Campbell Scientific). After harvest roots and shoots were analyzed for 13C content. Microbial biomass, root length density and enzymatic activities in soil were measured and linked to soil organic matter turnover rates. Results show an increased soil CO2 efflux at day time periods and an overall increase with increasing plant biomass. No difference in chloroform fumigation extractable microbial biomass has been found but a strong negative priming effect was measured in the short experimental period, suggesting that the microbes shifted to the utilization of plant exudates without actual microbial growth triggered by the new labile C input. This is coherent with the observed shift in enzyme kinetics. With this experimental setup we show that measurement of priming effects in high resolution can be achieved.

  18. Review of Lithium Silicate Ceramic for High Temperature CO2 Capture%硅酸锂陶瓷材料高温捕获CO2的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱亚琴; 汪文哲; 陈潇湘; 王少龙

    2015-01-01

    The greenhouse effect which is mainly caused by carbon dioxide has become a global concern. CO2 capture and storage (CCS) is an effective technology that enables the capture of CO2 from fuel combustion or industrial processes and its storage underground,thereby preventing it from entering the atmosphere. Recent research process on the capture of CO2 from high temperature flue gas by lithium silicate ceramic material is summarized,including the theory of CO2 capture,the preparation of lithium silicate ceramic materials,the factors affecting CO2 capture capacity,as well as the technological process of CO2 capture from high temperature flue gas. Furthermore,challenges and future work for the development of this field are proposed.%CO2是造成全球气候变暖的主要因素,需要从排放源中直接捕获二氧化碳,然后进行储存,以有效地控制大气中的二氧化碳浓度.本文综述了硅酸锂陶瓷材料高温捕获烟气中二氧化碳的分离理论,硅酸锂陶瓷材料的制备方法,CO2高温捕获效率的影响因素,以及电厂CO2高温捕获工艺,并提出了硅酸锂陶瓷材料高温捕获CO2今后的发展方向和研究重点.

  19. Utilization of CO2 in High Performance Building and Infrastructure Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeCristofaro, Nicholas [Solidia Technologies Inc., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The overall objective of DE-FE0004222 was to demonstrate that calcium silicate phases, in the form of either naturally-occuring minerals or synthetic compounds, could replace Portland cement in concrete manufacturing. The calcium silicate phases would be reacted with gaseous CO2 to create a carbonated concrete end-product. If successful, the project would offer a pathway to a significant reduction in the carbon footprint associated with the manufacture of cement and its use in concrete (approximately 816 kg of CO2 is emitted in the production of one tonne of Portland cement). In the initial phases of the Technical Evaluation, Rutgers University teamed with Solidia Technologies to demonstrate that natural wollastonite (CaSiO3), milled to a particle size distribution consistent with that of Portland cement, could indeed fit this bill. The use of mineral wollastonite as a cementitious material would potentially eliminate the CO2 emitted during cement production altogether, and store an additional 250 kg of CO2 during concrete curing. However, it was recognized that mineral wollastonite was not available in volumes that could meaningfully impact the carbon footprint associated with the cement and concrete industries. At this crucial juncture, DE-FE0004222 was redirected to use a synthetic version of wollastonite, hereafter referred to as Solidia Cement™, which could be manufactured in conventional cement making facilities. This approach enables the new cementitious material to be made using existing cement industry raw material supply chains, capital equipment, and distribution channels. It would also offer faster and more complete access to the concrete marketplace. The latter phases of the Technical Evaluation, conducted with Solidia Cement made in research rotary kilns, would demonstrate that industrially viable CO2-curing practices were possible. Prototypes of full-scale precast concrete products such as pavers, concrete masonry units, railroad ties, hollow

  20. Highly CO2-supersaturated melts in the Pannonian lithospheric mantle - A transient carbon reservoir?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Créon, Laura; Rouchon, Virgile; Youssef, Souhail; Rosenberg, Elisabeth; Delpech, Guillaume; Szabó, Csaba; Remusat, Laurent; Mostefaoui, Smail; Asimow, Paul D.; Antoshechkina, Paula M.; Ghiorso, Mark S.; Boller, Elodie; Guyot, François

    2017-08-01

    Subduction of carbonated crust is widely believed to generate a flux of carbon into the base of the continental lithospheric mantle, which in turn is the likely source of widespread volcanic and non-volcanic CO2 degassing in active tectonic intracontinental settings such as rifts, continental margin arcs and back-arc domains. However, the magnitude of the carbon flux through the lithosphere and the budget of stored carbon held within the lithospheric reservoir are both poorly known. We provide new constraints on the CO2 budget of the lithospheric mantle below the Pannonian Basin (Central Europe) through the study of a suite of xenoliths from the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field. Trails of secondary fluid inclusions, silicate melt inclusions, networks of melt veins, and melt pockets with large and abundant vesicles provide numerous lines of evidence that mantle metasomatism affected the lithosphere beneath this region. We obtain a quantitative estimate of the CO2 budget of the mantle below the Pannonian Basin using a combination of innovative analytical and modeling approaches: (1) synchrotron X-ray microtomography, (2) NanoSIMS, Raman spectroscopy and microthermometry, and (3) thermodynamic models (Rhyolite-MELTS). The three-dimensional volumes reconstructed from synchrotron X-ray microtomography allow us to quantify the proportions of all petrographic phases in the samples and to visualize their textural relationships. The concentration of CO2 in glass veins and pockets ranges from 0.27 to 0.96 wt.%, higher than in typical arc magmas (0-0.25 wt.% CO2), whereas the H2O concentration ranges from 0.54 to 4.25 wt.%, on the low end for estimated primitive arc magmas (1.9-6.3 wt.% H2O). Trapping pressures for vesicles were determined by comparing CO2 concentrations in glass to CO2 saturation as a function of pressure in silicate melts, suggesting pressures between 0.69 to 1.78 GPa. These values are generally higher than trapping pressures for fluid inclusions

  1. Shellfish face uncertain future in high CO2 world: influence of acidification on oyster larvae calcification and growth in estuaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Whitman Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human activities have increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide by 36% during the past 200 years. One third of all anthropogenic CO(2 has been absorbed by the oceans, reducing pH by about 0.1 of a unit and significantly altering their carbonate chemistry. There is widespread concern that these changes are altering marine habitats severely, but little or no attention has been given to the biota of estuarine and coastal settings, ecosystems that are less pH buffered because of naturally reduced alkalinity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address CO(2-induced changes to estuarine calcification, veliger larvae of two oyster species, the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica, and the Suminoe oyster (Crassostrea ariakensis were grown in estuarine water under four pCO(2 regimes, 280, 380, 560 and 800 microatm, to simulate atmospheric conditions in the pre-industrial era, present, and projected future concentrations in 50 and 100 years respectively. CO(2 manipulations were made using an automated negative feedback control system that allowed continuous and precise control over the pCO(2 in experimental aquaria. Larval growth was measured using image analysis, and calcification was measured by chemical analysis of calcium in their shells. C. virginica experienced a 16% decrease in shell area and a 42% reduction in calcium content when pre-industrial and end of 21(st century pCO(2 treatments were compared. C. ariakensis showed no change to either growth or calcification. Both species demonstrated net calcification and growth, even when aragonite was undersaturated, a result that runs counter to previous expectations for invertebrate larvae that produce aragonite shells. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that temperate estuarine and coastal ecosystems are vulnerable to the expected changes in water chemistry due to elevated atmospheric CO(2 and that biological responses to acidification, especially calcifying

  2. 凋落物处理对森林地表CO2通量的影响及其调控机理%Effects of litter treatments on CO2 emission at forest floor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张灏; 肖崟; 刘兴诏; 闫俊华

    2014-01-01

    (advanced stage) in Dinghushan Nature Reserve. 5 replicates of litter remove, litter double, litter replacement (e.g., litter from mixed forest and monsoon forest take the place of original litter in Masson pine forest), and control treatments were established in each forest type. CO2 emission at forest floor was measured using static chamber and gas chromatography techniques and air temperature, soil temperature and moisture were determined during the study period. We found that:(1) Litter remove decreased CO2 emission at forest floor in each of three successional forests, while litter double increased CO2 emission at forest floor in each of three successional forests. (2)The response of CO2 emission at forest floor to litter replacement was very different in the three forests. Litter replacement from Masson pine forest or mixed forest in monsoon forest increased CO2 emission at forest floor. Litter replacement from Masson pine forest or monsoon forest in mixed forest decreased CO2 emission at forest floor. Litter replacement from monsoon forest in Masson pine forest increased CO2 emission at forest floor. Litter replacement from mixed forest in Masson pine forest decreased CO2 emission at forest floor. (e)Both litter quality and amount affected CO2 emission at forest floor through the changes of soil temperature and moisture. (4) CO2 emission at forest floor increase exponentially with soil temperature under all treatments in each forest. Different treatments can alter differently the sensitivity of CO2 emission at forest floor to soil temperature.

  3. A new CO2 laser technique for the treatment of pediatric hypertrophic burn scars: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żądkowski, Tomasz; Nachulewicz, Paweł; Mazgaj, Maciej; Woźniak, Magdalena; Cielecki, Czesław; Wieczorek, Andrzej Paweł; Beń-Skowronek, Iwona

    2016-10-01

    Treatment of hypertrophic scars arising as a result of thermal burns in children is still a big problem. The results of the treatment are not satisfactory for patients and parents, and new methods of treatment are still investigated.We present the use of one of the most modern carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers (Lumenis Encore laser equipped with a Synergistic Coagulation and Ablation for Advanced Resurfacing module) in the treatment of hypertrophic scars in children after burns.From March to April of 2013, a group of 47 patients aged 6 to 16 years underwent 57 laser surgery treatments. The average time from accident was 7.5 years. The results of treatment were investigated in 114 areas. The assessed areas were divided into 2 groups: 9-cm area 1, where the thickness of the scar measured by physician was the lowest and 9-cm area 2, where the thickness of the scar was the biggest. The results were considered on the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) independently by the surgeon and by parents 1, 4, and 8 months after the procedure. In addition, ultrasound evaluation of the scar thickness before and after laser procedure was made.VSS total score improved in all areas assessed by both the physician and parents. The biggest change in total VSS score in area 1 in the evaluation of the investigator was obtained at follow-up after the 1st month of treatment (average 7.23 points before and 5.18 points after the 1st month after surgery-a difference of 2.05 points). Scar ratings by parents and the physician did not differ statistically (P CO2 laser in the treatment of hypertrophic scars in children is an effective and safe method. The use of a CO2 laser improves the appearance and morphology of scarring assessed using the VSS by both the parents and the physician. The treatment also reduced the thickness of scars evaluated by ultrasound.

  4. Transport realization of high resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions in an urban domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Gurney, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion are the largest net annual flux of carbon in the earth atmosphere system and energy consumption in urban environments is a major contributor to total fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Understanding how the emissions are transported in space and time, especially in urban environments and resolving contributions from individual sources of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are an essential component of a complete reliable monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) system that are emerging at local, national, and international levels. As grid models are not designed to resolve concentrations on local scales, we tested the transport realization of fossil fuel CO2 emissions using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) model, a commonly used transport algorithm for small domain air quality studies, in the greater Indianapolis region, USA. A typical 24-hour point, mobile, and area sources fossil fuel CO2 emissions in four seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) were processed from hourly emissions data and prepared at 500-meter spatial resolution for the model inputs together with other parameters. The simulation result provides a complete 4-dimensional concentration matrix transported from all sources for the urban domain which can be analyzed in order to isolate individual sources or test sampling strategies for verification at selected time periods. In addition, the urban 4-dimensional concentration matrix can be visualized in a virtual environment, which provides a powerful education and outreach platform for researchers, students, and public.

  5. Physiological advantages of dwarfing in surviving extinctions in high-CO2 oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garilli, Vittorio; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Scuderi, Danilo; Brusca, Lorenzo; Parrinello, Daniela; Rastrick, Samuel P. S.; Foggo, Andy; Twitchett, Richard J.; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Milazzo, Marco

    2015-07-01

    Excessive CO2 in the present-day ocean-atmosphere system is causing ocean acidification, and is likely to cause a severe biodiversity decline in the future, mirroring effects in many past mass extinctions. Fossil records demonstrate that organisms surviving such events were often smaller than those before, a phenomenon called the Lilliput effect. Here, we show that two gastropod species adapted to acidified seawater at shallow-water CO2 seeps were smaller than those found in normal pH conditions and had higher mass-specific energy consumption but significantly lower whole-animal metabolic energy demand. These physiological changes allowed the animals to maintain calcification and to partially repair shell dissolution. These observations of the long-term chronic effects of increased CO2 levels forewarn of changes we can expect in marine ecosystems as CO2 emissions continue to rise unchecked, and support the hypothesis that ocean acidification contributed to past extinction events. The ability to adapt through dwarfing can confer physiological advantages as the rate of CO2 emissions continues to increase.

  6. High Resilience in Heathland Plants to Changes in Temperature, Drought, and CO2 in Combination: Results from the CLIMAITE Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, J.; Schmidt, Inger K.; Riis-Nielsen, Torben;

    2012-01-01

    Climate change scenarios predict simultaneouslyincrease in temperature, altered precipitation patternsand elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration,which will affect key ecosystem processes and plantgrowth and species interactions. In a large-scaleexperiment, we investigated the effects...... the standingbiomass for either D. flexuosa or the ecosystem asmore litter was produced. Treatment combinationsshowed little interactions on the measuredparameters and in particular elevated CO2 did notcounterbalance the drought effect on plant growth,as we had anticipated. The plant community didnot show any...... significant responses to the imposedclimate changes and we conclude that the twoheathland species, on a short time scale, will berelatively resistant to the changes in climatic conditions...

  7. New approach in the treatment of refractory vitiligo: CO2 laser combined with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Paulo Rowilson; Scabine Pessotti, Nabila; Bonati Mattos, Camila; Salai, Ana Flavia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of fractional carbon dioxide laser (CO2 ) with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution in the treatment of patients with refractory vitiligo in hands. Each hand of the patient was randomly assigned to one of two groups: lesion treated with fractional carbon dioxide laser associated with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution administration or lesion treated only with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution. We conclude that combined treatment with fractional carbon dioxide laser and betamethasone associated with salicylic acid solution could effectively and safely be used in the treatment of refractory vitiligo.

  8. CO2 laser and/or fluoride enamel treatment against in situ/ex vivo erosive challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    JORDÃO, Maísa Camillo; FORTI, Gustavo Manzano; NAVARRO, Ricardo Scarparo; FREITAS, Patrícia Moreira; HONÓRIO, Heitor Marques; RIOS, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective This in situ/ex vivo study investigated the effect of CO2 laser irradiation and acidulated phosphate fluoride gel (APF) application, separately and in combination, on enamel resistance to erosion. Material and Methods During 2 experimental 5-day crossover phases, 8 volunteers wore intraoral appliances containing bovine enamel blocks which were submitted to four groups: 1st phase - control, untreated and CO2 laser irradiation, 2nd phase - fluoride application and fluoride application before CO2 laser irradiation. Laser irradiation was performed at 10.6 µm wavelength, 5 µs pulse duration and 50 Hz frequency, with average power input and output of 2.3 W and 2.0 W, respectively (28.6 J/cm2). APF gel (1.23%F, pH 3.5) was applied on enamel surface with a microbrush and left on for 4 minutes. Then, the enamel blocks were fixed at the intraoral appliance level. The erosion was performed extraorally 4 times daily for 5 min in 150 mL of cola drink. Enamel loss was measured profilometrically after treatment and after the in situ phase. The data were tested using one-way Repeated Measures Anova and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Results CO2 laser alone (2.00±0.39 µm) did not show any significantly preventive effect against enamel erosion when compared with the control group (2.41±1.20 µm). Fluoride treated enamel, associated (1.50±0.30 µm) or not (1.47±0.63 µm) with laser irradiation, significantly differed from the control. Conclusion The APF application decreased enamel wear; however, CO2 laser irradiation did not enhance fluoride ability to reduce enamel wear. PMID:27383703

  9. Utilization of CO2 in High Performance Building and Infrastructure Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeCristofaro, Nicholas [Solidia Technologies Inc., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The overall objective of DE-FE0004222 was to demonstrate that calcium silicate phases, in the form of either naturally-occuring minerals or synthetic compounds, could replace Portland cement in concrete manufacturing. The calcium silicate phases would be reacted with gaseous CO2 to create a carbonated concrete end-product. If successful, the project would offer a pathway to a significant reduction in the carbon footprint associated with the manufacture of cement and its use in concrete (approximately 816 kg of CO2 is emitted in the production of one tonne of Portland cement). In the initial phases of the Technical Evaluation, Rutgers University teamed with Solidia Technologies to demonstrate that natural wollastonite (CaSiO3), milled to a particle size distribution consistent with that of Portland cement, could indeed fit this bill. The use of mineral wollastonite as a cementitious material would potentially eliminate the CO2 emitted during cement production altogether, and store an additional 250 kg of CO2 during concrete curing. However, it was recognized that mineral wollastonite was not available in volumes that could meaningfully impact the carbon footprint associated with the cement and concrete industries. At this crucial juncture, DE-FE0004222 was redirected to use a synthetic version of wollastonite, hereafter referred to as Solidia Cement™, which could be manufactured in conventional cement making facilities. This approach enables the new cementitious material to be made using existing cement industry raw material supply chains, capital equipment, and distribution channels. It would also offer faster and more complete access to the concrete marketplace. The latter phases of the Technical Evaluation, conducted with Solidia Cement made in research rotary kilns, would demonstrate that industrially viable CO2-curing practices were possible. Prototypes of full-scale precast concrete products such as pavers, concrete masonry units, railroad ties, hollow

  10. High CO2 enhances the competitive strength of seaweeds over corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Gouezo, Marine; Tilbrook, Bronte; Dove, Sophie; Anthony, Kenneth R N

    2011-01-01

    Space competition between corals and seaweeds is an important ecological process underlying coral-reef dynamics. Processes promoting seaweed growth and survival, such as herbivore overfishing and eutrophication, can lead to local reef degradation. Here, we present the case that increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 may be an additional process driving a shift from corals to seaweeds on reefs. Coral (Acropora intermedia) mortality in contact with a common coral-reef seaweed (Lobophora papenfussii) increased two- to threefold between background CO2 (400 ppm) and highest level projected for late 21st century (1140 ppm). The strong interaction between CO2 and seaweeds on coral mortality was most likely attributable to a chemical competitive mechanism, as control corals with algal mimics showed no mortality. Our results suggest that coral (Acropora) reefs may become increasingly susceptible to seaweed proliferation under ocean acidification, and processes regulating algal abundance (e.g. herbivory) will play an increasingly important role in maintaining coral abundance. PMID:21155961

  11. Magnetically Induced Continuous CO2 Hydrogenation Using Composite Iron Carbide Nanoparticles of Exceptionally High Heating Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordet, Alexis; Lacroix, Lise-Marie; Fazzini, Pier-Francesco; Carrey, Julian; Soulantica, Katerina; Chaudret, Bruno

    2016-12-19

    The use of magnetic nanoparticles to convert electromagnetic energy into heat is known to be a key strategy for numerous biomedical applications but is also an approach of growing interest in the field of catalysis. The heating efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles is limited by the poor magnetic properties of most of them. Here we show that the new generation of iron carbide nanoparticles of controlled size and with over 80 % crystalline Fe2.2 C leads to exceptional heating properties, which are much better than the heating properties of currently available nanoparticles. Associated to catalytic metals (Ni, Ru), iron carbide nanoparticles submitted to magnetic excitation very efficiently catalyze CO2 hydrogenation in a dedicated continuous-flow reactor. Hence, we demonstrate that the concept of magnetically induced heterogeneous catalysis can be successfully applied to methanation of CO2 and represents an approach of strategic interest in the context of intermittent energy storage and CO2 recovery.

  12. Hydroquinone and Quinone-Grafted Porous Carbons for Highly Selective CO2 Capture from Flue Gases and Natural Gas Upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Krishna, Rajamani; Yang, Jiangfeng; Deng, Shuguang

    2015-08-04

    Hydroquinone and quinone functional groups were grafted onto a hierarchical porous carbon framework via the Friedel-Crafts reaction to develop more efficient adsorbents for the selective capture and removal of carbon dioxide from flue gases and natural gas. The oxygen-doped porous carbons were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. CO2, CH4, and N2 adsorption isotherms were measured and correlated with the Langmuir model. An ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) selectivity for the CO2/N2 separation of 26.5 (298 K, 1 atm) was obtained on the hydroquinone-grafted carbon, which is 58.7% higher than that of the pristine porous carbon, and a CO2/CH4 selectivity value of 4.6 (298 K, 1 atm) was obtained on the quinone-grafted carbon (OAC-2), which represents a 28.4% improvement over the pristine porous carbon. The highest CO2 adsorption capacity on the oxygen-doped carbon adsorbents is 3.46 mmol g(-1) at 298 K and 1 atm. In addition, transient breakthrough simulations for CO2/CH4/N2 mixture separation were conducted to demonstrate the good separation performance of the oxygen-doped carbons in fixed bed adsorbers. Combining excellent adsorption separation properties and low heats of adsorption, the oxygen-doped carbons developed in this work appear to be very promising for flue gas treatment and natural gas upgrading.

  13. European source and sink areas of CO2 retrieved from Lagrangian transport model interpretation of combined O2 and CO2 measurements at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brunner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The University of Bern monitors carbon dioxide (CO2 and oxygen (O2 at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch since the year 2000 by means of flasks sampling and since 2005 using a continuous in situ measurement system. This study investigates the transport of CO2 and O2 towards Jungfraujoch using backward Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM simulations and utilizes CO2 and O2 signatures to classify air masses. By investigating the simulated transport patterns associated with distinct CO2 concentrations it is possible to decipher different source and sink areas over Europe. The highest CO2 concentrations, for example, were observed in winter during pollution episodes when air was transported from Northeastern Europe towards the Alps, or during south Foehn events with rapid uplift of polluted air from Northern Italy, as demonstrated in two case studies. To study the importance of air-sea exchange for variations in O2 concentrations at Jungfraujoch the correlation between CO2 and APO (Atmospheric Potential Oxygen deviations from a seasonally varying background was analyzed. Anomalously high APO concentrations were clearly associated with air masses originating from the Atlantic Ocean, whereas low APO concentrations were found in air masses advected either from the east from the Eurasian continent in summer, or from the Eastern Mediterranean in winter. Those air masses with low APO in summer were also strongly depleted in CO2 suggesting a combination of CO2 uptake by vegetation and O2 uptake by dry summer soils. Other subsets of points in the APO-CO2 scatter plot investigated with respect to air mass origin included CO2 and APO background values and points with regular APO but anomalous CO2 concentrations. Background values were associated with free tropospheric air masses with little contact with the boundary layer during the last few days, while high or low CO2 concentrations reflect the various levels of influence of anthropogenic

  14. U.S. onroad transportation CO2 emissions analysis comparing highly resolved CO2 emissions and a national average approach : mitigation options and uncertainty reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Gurney, K. R.

    2011-12-01

    The transportation sector is the second largest CO2 emitting economic sector in the United States, accounting for 32.3% of the total U.S. emissions in 2002. Within the transportation sector, the largest component (80%) is made up of onroad emissions. In order to accurately quantify future emissions and evaluate emissions regulation strategies, analysis must account for spatially-explicit fleet distribution, driving patterns, and mitigation strategies. Studies to date, however, have either focused on one of these three components, have been only completed at the national scale, or have not explicitly represented CO2 emissions instead relying on the use of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) as an emissions proxy. We compare a high resolution onroad emissions data product (Vulcan) to a national averaging of the Vulcan result. This comparison is performed in four groupings: light duty (LD) and heavy duty (HD) vehicle classes, and rural and urban road classes. Two different bias metrics are studied: 1) the state-specific, group-specific bias and 2) the same bias when weighted by the state share of the national group-specific emissions. In the first metric, we find a spread of positive and negative biases for the LD and HD vehicle groupings and these biases are driven by states having a greater/lesser proportion of LD/HD vehicles within their total state fleet than found from a national average. The standard deviation of these biases is 2.01% and 0.75% for the LD and HD groupings, respectively. These biases correlate with the road type present in a state, so that biases found in the urban and LD groups are both positive or both negative, with a similar relationship found between biases of the rural and HD groups. Additionally, the road group bias is driven by the distribution of VMT on individual road classes within the road groupings. When normalized by national totals, the state-level group-specific biases reflect states with large amounts of onroad travel that deviate

  15. Polydopamine-based synthesis of a zeolite imidazolate framework ZIF-100 membrane with high H2/CO2 selectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Nanyi; Liu, Yi; QIAO, ZHIWEI; Diestel, Lisa; Zhou, Jian; Huang, Aisheng; Caro, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    A highly permselective ZIF-100 molecular sieve membrane has been prepared on a polydopamine (PDA)-modified support. Attributed to the formation of strong covalent and non-covalent bonds between PDA and ZIF-100, the ZIF-100 nutrients are attracted and bound to the support surface, thus promoting the growth of well-intergrown and phase-pure ZIF-100 membranes. The developed ZIF-100 membranes show high H2/CO2 selectivity due to the outstanding CO2 adsorption capacity of ZIF-100.

  16. Superhot-X-ray and -electron transport in high-intensity CO2-laser-plasma interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, G. D.; Burnett, N. H.

    1985-12-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the high-energy (70-400-keV) X-ray emission from CO2 laser-produced plasmas at intensities up to 3 x 10 to the 14th W/sq cm has revealed the presence of a 'superhot' component. The intensity of this component scales very strongly with incident laser intensity. It is expected that for intensities greater than about 5 x 10 to the 15th W/sq cm energy balance in CO2-laser-produced plasmas would be dominated by the energetic electrons responsible for this high-energy X-ray emission.

  17. Porous Organic Polymers for CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Baiyang

    2013-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has long been regarded as the major greenhouse gas, which leads to numerous negative effects on global environment. The capture and separation of CO2 by selective adsorption using porous materials proves to be an effective way to reduce the emission of CO2 to atmosphere. Porous organic polymers (POPs) are promising candidates for this application due to their readily tunable textual properties and surface functionalities. The objective of this thesis work is to develop new POPs with high CO2 adsorption capacities and CO2/N2 selectivities for post-combustion effluent (e.g. flue gas) treatment. We will also exploit the correlation between the CO2 capture performance of POPs and their textual properties/functionalities. Chapters Two focuses on the study of a group of porous phenolic-aldehyde polymers (PPAPs) synthesized by a catalyst-free method, the CO2 capture capacities of these PPAPs exceed 2.0 mmol/g at 298 K and 1 bar, while keeping CO2/N2 selectivity of more than 30 at the same time. Chapter Three reports the gas adsorption results of different hyper-cross-linked polymers (HCPs), which indicate that heterocyclo aromatic monomers can greatly enhance polymers’ CO2/N2 selectivities, and the N-H bond is proved to the active CO2 adsorption center in the N-contained (e.g. pyrrole) HCPs, which possess the highest selectivities of more than 40 at 273 K when compared with other HCPs. Chapter Four emphasizes on the chemical modification of a new designed polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM) with high CO2/N2 selectivity (50 at 273 K), whose experimental repeatability and chemical stability prove excellent. In Chapter Five, we demonstrate an improvement of both CO2 capture capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity by doping alkali metal ions into azo-polymers, which leads a promising method to the design of new porous organic polymers.

  18. Satellite observations reveal high variability and a decreasing trend in CO2 fluxes on the Scotian Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Salisbury

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We develop an algorithm to compute pCO2 in the Scotian Shelf region (NW Atlantic from satellite-based estimates of chlorophyll-a concentration, sea-surface temperature, and observed wind speed. This algorithm is based on a high-resolution time-series of pCO2 observations from an autonomous mooring. At the mooring location (44.3° N and 63.3° W, the surface waters act as a source of CO2 to the atmosphere over the annual scale, with an outgassing of −1.1 mol C m−2 yr−1 in 2007/2008. A hindcast of air-sea CO2 fluxes from 1999 to 2008 reveals significant variability both spatially and from year to year. Over the decade, the shelf-wide annual air-sea fluxes range from an outgassing of −1.7 mol C m−2 yr−1 in 2002, to −0.02 mol C m−2 yr−1 in 2006. There is a gradient in the air-sea CO2 flux between the northeastern Cabot Strait region which acts as a net sink of CO2 with an annual uptake of 0.5 to 1.0 mol C m−2 yr−1, and the southwestern Gulf of Maine region which acts as a source ranging from −0.8 to −2.5 mol C m−2 yr−1. There is a decline, or a negative trend, in the air-sea pCO2 gradient of 23 μatm over the decade, which can be explained by a cooling of 1.3 °C over the same period. Regional conditions govern spatial, seasonal, and interannual variability on the Scotian Shelf, while multi-annual trends appear linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  19. The Synergistic Effect of High Pressure CO2 and Nisin on Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis Spores in Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Lei; Wang, Yongtao; Chen, Fang; Liao, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    The inactivation effects of high pressure CO2 + nisin (simultaneous treatment of HPCD and nisin, HPCD + nisin), HPCD→nisin (HPCD was followed by nisin), and nisin→HPCD (nisin was followed by HPCD) treatments on Bacillus subtilis spores in aqueous solutions were compared. The spores were treated by HPCD at 6.5 or 20 MPa, 84–86°C and 0–30 min, and the concentration of nisin was 0.02%. Treated spores were examined for the viability, the permeability of inner membrane (IM) using flow cytometry method and pyridine-2, 6-dicarboxylic acid (DPA) release, and structural damage by transmission electron microscopy. A synergistic effect of HPCD + nisin treatment on inactivation of the spores was found, and the inactivation efficiency of the spores was HPCD + nisin > HPCD→nisin or nisin→HPCD. Moreover, HPCD + nisin caused higher IM permeability and DPA release of the spores than HPCD. A possible action mode of nisin-enhanced inactivation of the spores was suggested as that HPCD firstly damaged the coat and cortex of spores, and nisin penetrated into and acted on the IM of spores, which increased the damage to the IM of spores, and resulted in higher inactivation of the spores. PMID:27708639

  20. High power CO2 laser development with AOM integration for ultra high-speed pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Markus; Vaupel, Matthias; Nirnberger, Robert; Weinberger, Bernhard; Jamalieh, Murad

    2017-01-01

    There is a 500 billion USD world market for packaging expected to grow to a trillion in 2030. Austria plays an important role world wide for high speed laser engraving applications — especially when it comes to high end solutions. Such high end solutions are fundamental for the production of print forms for the packaging and decorating industry (e. g. cans). They are additionally used for security applications (e. g. for printing banknotes), for the textile printing industry and for creating embossing forms (e. g. for the production of dashboards in the automotive industry). High speed, high precision laser engraving needs laser resonators with very stable laser beams (400 - 800W) especially in combination with AOMs. Based upon a unique carbon fiber structure - stable within the sub-micrometer range - a new resonator has been developed, accompanied by most recent thermo-mechanical FEM calculations. The resulting beam is evaluated on an automated optical bench using hexapods, allowing to optimize the complete beam path with collimators and AOM. The major steps related to laser engraving of dry offset printing plates during the full workflow from the artists design to the printed result on an aluminum can is presented in this paper as well as laser characteristics, AOM integration and correlative CLSM and SEM investigation of the results.

  1. Analysis on CO2 Refrigeration Cycle with High Pressure Gas Vortex Expansion for Low Temperature%高压气体涡流膨胀的CO2低温制冷循环分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵家华; 宁静红

    2016-01-01

    通过设计高压气体涡流膨胀的CO2低温制冷循环,对其进行热力性能分析,并与两级节流中间完全冷却的CO2低温制冷循环的性能进行对比,得出高压气体涡流膨胀的CO2低温制冷循环存在获得最大性能系数的最优的高压压力。提高蒸发温度与中间压力,增大冷气流质量比,减少进入蒸发器的冷气流质量比,降低气体冷却器出口温度,均可提高高压气体涡流膨胀的CO2低温制冷循环的性能系数。在冷气流的质量比为0.6,冷气流进入蒸发器的质量比为0.2时,高压气体涡流膨胀的CO2低温制冷循环的最佳的性能系数较两级节流中间完全冷却的CO2低温制冷循环最佳的性能系数提高36.4%。随着气体冷却器出口温度的升高,高压气体涡流膨胀的CO2低温制冷循环的性能系数较两级节流中间完全冷却的CO2低温制冷循环的性能系数降低的幅度小。%The CO2 refrigeration cycle with high pressure gas vortex expansion for low temperature is designed. The thermal performances of this CO2 refrigeration cycle with high pressure gas vortex expansion for low temperature are analyzed and compared with that of the CO2 low temperature refrigeration cycle of two-stage throttle and complete cooling in middle. The following conclusions are obtained. The CO2 refrigeration cycle with high pressure gas vortex expansion for low temperature has the maximum coefficient of performance ( COP) at the optimal high pressure. The coefficient of performances of the CO2 refrigeration cycle with high pressure gas vortex expansion for low temperature can be improved by increasing the evaporation temperature, the middle pressure and the mass ratio of cold gas, by reducing the mass ratio of cold gas into evaporator, as well as by decreasing the temperature of gas-cooler out-let. At the mass ratio of cold gas is 0. 6 and the mass ratio of cold gas into evaporator is 0. 2, the maximum coeffi-cient of performance of

  2. Metal–organic framework based mixed matrix membranes: a solution for highly efficient CO2 capture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seoane, B.; Coronas, J.; Gascon, I.; Benavides, M.E.; Karvan, O.; Caro, J.; Kapteijn, F.; Gascon, J.

    2015-01-01

    The field of metal–organic framework based mixed matrix membranes (M4s) is critically reviewed, with special emphasis on their application in CO2 capture during energy generation. After introducing the most relevant parameters affecting membrane performance, we define targets in terms of selectivity

  3. Adsorptive separation of CO2/CH4/CO gas mixtures at high pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishna, R.

    2012-01-01

    The major objective of this communication is to compare the performance of three metal-organic frameworks (MOFs): CuBTC, MIL-101, and Zn(bdc)dabco, with that of NaX zeolite for selective adsorption of CO2 from mixtures containing CH4 and CO in a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit operating at

  4. HIGH TEMPERATURE ADSORPTION OF CO2 ON VARIOUS HYDROTALCITE-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes and quantifies how substitution of the divalent cation and interlayer charge compensating anions affect the CO2 adsorptive capacity of various hydrotalcite-like compounds (Htlcs). Physical and chemical properties of the Htlcs were evaluated using a number of ...

  5. How do polymerized room-temperature ionic liquid membranes plasticize during high pressure CO2 permeation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, K.; Nijmeijer, D.C.; Bara, J.B.; Noble, R.D.; Wessling, M.

    2010-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are a class of organic solvents that have been explored as novel media for CO2 separations. Polymerized RTILs (poly(RTILs)) can be synthesized from RTIL monomers to form dense, solid gas selective membranes. It is of interest to understand the permeation proper

  6. Physiological basis for high CO2 tolerance in marine ectothermic animals: pre-adaptation through lifestyle and ontogeny?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bleich

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Future ocean acidification has the potential to adversely affect many marine organisms. A growing body of evidence suggests that many species could suffer from reduced fertilization success, decreases in larval- and adult growth rates, reduced calcification rates, and even mortality when being exposed to near-future levels (year 2100 scenarios of ocean acidification. Little research focus is currently placed on those organisms/taxa that might be less vulnerable to the anticipated changes in ocean chemistry; this is unfortunate, as the comparison of more vulnerable to more tolerant physiotypes could provide us with those physiological traits that are crucial for ecological success in a future ocean. Here, we attempt to summarize some ontogenetic and lifestyle traits that lead to an increased tolerance towards high environmental pCO2. In general, marine ectothermic metazoans with an extensive extracellular fluid volume may be less vulnerable to future acidification as their cells are already exposed to much higher pCO2 values (0.1 to 0.4 kPa, ca. 1000 to 3900 μatm than those of unicellular organisms and gametes, for which the ocean (0.04 kPa, ca. 400 μatm is the extracellular space. A doubling in environmental pCO2 therefore only represents a 10% change in extracellular pCO2 in some marine teleosts. High extracellular pCO2 values are to some degree related to high metabolic rates, as diffusion gradients need to be high in order to excrete an amount of CO2 that is directly proportional to the amount of O2 consumed. In active metazoans, such as teleost fish, cephalopods and many brachyuran crustaceans, exercise induced increases in metabolic rate require an efficient ion-regulatory machinery for CO2 excretion and acid-base regulation, especially when anaerobic metabolism is involved and metabolic protons leak into the extracellular space. These ion-transport systems, which are located in highly developed gill epithelia, form the basis for

  7. Physiological basis for high CO2 tolerance in marine ectothermic animals: pre-adaptation through lifestyle and ontogeny?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzner, F.; Gutowska, M. A.; Langenbuch, M.; Dupont, S.; Lucassen, M.; Thorndyke, M. C.; Bleich, M.; Pörtner, H.-O.

    2009-10-01

    Future ocean acidification has the potential to adversely affect many marine organisms. A growing body of evidence suggests that many species could suffer from reduced fertilization success, decreases in larval- and adult growth rates, reduced calcification rates, and even mortality when being exposed to near-future levels (year 2100 scenarios) of ocean acidification. Little research focus is currently placed on those organisms/taxa that might be less vulnerable to the anticipated changes in ocean chemistry; this is unfortunate, as the comparison of more vulnerable to more tolerant physiotypes could provide us with those physiological traits that are crucial for ecological success in a future ocean. Here, we attempt to summarize some ontogenetic and lifestyle traits that lead to an increased tolerance towards high environmental pCO2. In general, marine ectothermic metazoans with an extensive extracellular fluid volume may be less vulnerable to future acidification as their cells are already exposed to much higher pCO2 values (0.1 to 0.4 kPa, ca. 1000 to 3900 μatm) than those of unicellular organisms and gametes, for which the ocean (0.04 kPa, ca. 400 μatm) is the extracellular space. A doubling in environmental pCO2 therefore only represents a 10% change in extracellular pCO2 in some marine teleosts. High extracellular pCO2 values are to some degree related to high metabolic rates, as diffusion gradients need to be high in order to excrete an amount of CO2 that is directly proportional to the amount of O2 consumed. In active metazoans, such as teleost fish, cephalopods and many brachyuran crustaceans, exercise induced increases in metabolic rate require an efficient ion-regulatory machinery for CO2 excretion and acid-base regulation, especially when anaerobic metabolism is involved and metabolic protons leak into the extracellular space. These ion-transport systems, which are located in highly developed gill epithelia, form the basis for efficient compensation of

  8. Waste Water Treatment of Wet Reclamation CO2 Sand%CO2水玻璃砂湿法再生废水处理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊星之

    2005-01-01

    CO2水玻璃砂在成本,效率,环保等方面比树脂砂优越,其生产的铸件质量也相当不错,但旧砂回收是阻碍该工艺推广应用的难题之一。目前,旧砂回收有干法和湿法两种方法,湿法比干法效果好。笔者采用简易设备进行湿法回收,运行3年来效果很好,其中废水处理是该法的重要一环,其基本原理是:一方面针对废水呈碱性,通过加酸调节pH值,

  9. Synthesis and Electrospraying of Nanoscale MOF (Metal Organic Framework) for High-Performance CO2 Adsorption Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahiduzzaman; Allmond, Kelsey; Stone, John; Harp, Spencer; Mujibur, Khan

    2017-01-01

    We report the sonochemical synthesis of MOF (metal organic framework) nanoparticles of 30-200 nm in size and electrospraying of those particles on electrospun nanofibers to process a MOF-attached nanofibrous membrane. This membrane displayed significant selectivity towards CO2 and capacity of adsorbing with 4000-5000 ppm difference from a mixed gas flow of 1% CO2 and 99% N2. Applying ultrasonic waves during the MOF synthesis offered rapid dispersion and formation of crystalline MOF nanoparticles in room temperature. The MOF nanoparticles of 100-200 nm in size displayed higher surface area and adsorption capacity comparing to that of 30-60 nm in size. Nanofibrous membrane was produced by electrospinning of MOF blended PAN solution followed by electrospraying of additional MOF nanoparticles. This yielded uniform MOF deposition on nanofibers, occurred due to electrostatic attraction between highly charged nanoparticles and conductive nanofibers. A test bench for real-time CO2 adsorption at room temperature was built with non-dispersive Infrared (NDIR) CO2 sensors. Comparative tests were performed on the membrane to investigate its enhanced adsorption capacity. Three layers of the as-produced membranes displayed CO2 adsorption for approximately 2 h. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the membrane showed the thermal stability of the MOF and PAN up to 290 and 425 °C, respectively.

  10. High-Throughput Screening of Metal-Organic Frameworks for CO2 Capture in the Presence of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Chung, Yongchul G; Snurr, Randall Q

    2016-10-11

    Competitive coadsorption of water is a major problem in the deployment of adsorption-based CO2 capture. Water molecules may compete for adsorption sites, reducing the capacity of the material, and dehumidification prior to separating CO2 from N2 increases process complexity and cost. The development of adsorbent materials that can selectively adsorb CO2 in the presence of water would be a major step forward in the deployment of CO2 capture materials in practice. In this study, large-scale computational screening was carried out to search for metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with high selectivity toward CO2 over H2O. Calculating framework charges for thousands of MOFs is a significant challenge, so initial screening used a fast, but approximate, charge calculation method. On the basis of the initial screening, 15 MOFs were selected, and Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to compute the adsorption isotherms for these MOFs using more accurate framework charges calculated by density functional theory. A detailed investigation was performed on the effect of using different methods for calculating partial charges, and it was found that electrostatic interactions contribute the majority of the adsorption energy of H2O in the selected MOFs.

  11. Effect of combined treatment with supercritical CO2 and rosemary on microbiological and physicochemical properties of ground pork stored at 4°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shirong; Liu, Bin; Ge, Du; Dai, Jiehui

    2017-03-01

    The effect of combined treatment with supercritical CO2 (2000psi, 35°C for 2h) and rosemary powder (2.5% and 5.0% (w/w)) on microbiological and physicochemical properties of ground pork stored at 4°C was investigated. The changes in total viable count, pH, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), lipid oxidation and instrumental color (CIE L(⁎), a(⁎), b(⁎)) were analyzed during a week period of refrigerated storage. It was found that microbial populations were reduced by supercritical CO2 treatment, with the more pronounced effect being achieved by combined treatment with supercritical CO2 and 5.0g rosemary powder/100g meat. Supercritical CO2 treatment for 2h could accelerate lipid oxidation of ground pork during refrigerated storage, whereas combination with rosemary can significantly slow down the increase of oxidation rate. Combined treatment of supercritical CO2 and rosemary significantly increased L(⁎) and b(⁎) values of the ground pork, while the a(⁎), pH and TVB-N value were not affected as compared to the treatment with supercritical CO2 alone. The results of this study indicate that combined treatment of supercritical CO2 and rosemary may be useful in the meat industry to enhance the storage stability of ground pork treated with long time exposure of supercritical CO2 during refrigerated storage.

  12. Mineral Carbonation in Wet Supercritical CO2: An in situ High-Pressure Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcu, R. V.; Hoyt, D. H.; Sears, J. A.; Rosso, K. M.; Felmy, A. R.; Hu, J. Z.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms and kinetics of mineral carbonation reactions relevant to sequestering carbon dioxide as a supercritical fluid (scCO2) in geologic formations is crucial for accurately predicting long-term storage risks. In situ probes that provide molecular-level information at geologically relevant temperatures and pressures are highly desirable and challenging to develop. Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) is a powerful tool for obtaining detailed molecular structure and dynamics information of a system regardless whether the system is in a solid, a liquid, a gaseous, a supercritical state, or a mixture thereof. However, MAS NMR under scCO2 conditions has never been realized due to the tremendous technical difficulties of achieving and maintaining high pressure within a fast spinning MAS sample rotor. In this work, we report development of a unique high pressure MAS NMR capability capable of handling fluid pressure exceeding 170 bars and temperatures up to 80°C, and its application to mineral carbonation in scCO2 under geologically relevant temperatures and pressures. Mineral carbonation reactions of the magnesium silicate mineral forsterite and the magnesium hydroxide brucite reacted with scCO2 (up to 170 bar) and containing variable content of H2O (at, below, and above saturation in scCO2) were investigated at 50 to 70°C. In situ 13C MAS NMR spectra show peaks corresponding to the reactants, intermediates, and the magnesium carbonation products in a single spectrum. For example, Figure 1 shows the reaction dynamics, i.e., the formation and conversion of reaction intermediates, i.e., HCO3- and nesquehonite, to magnesite as a function of time at 70°C. This capability offers a significant advantage over traditional ex situ 13C MAS experiments on similar systems, where, for example, CO2 and HCO3- are not directly observable.

  13. 石灰石和白云石高温循环脱除CO2过程分析%Process analysis of cyclic CO2 capture using limestone and dolomite at high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英杰; 孙荣岳; 刘红玲; 赵建立; 韩奎华; 路春美

    2011-01-01

    The main system parameters, including long-term cyclic carbonation conversion, average carbonation conversion, CO2 capture efficiency and energy requirement for a calciner in the two kinds of typical calcination atmospheres, including pure N2 and high concentration CO2 were investigated by experiment and calculation during the cyclic calcination/carbonation process for CO2 capture using limestone and dolomite. The results showed that fresh sorbent flow ratio and recycled sorbent flow ratio had direct effect on average carbonation conversion, CO2 capture efficiency and energy requirement for the calciner. For the same fresh sorbent and recycled sorbent flow ratios, dolomite exhibited greater average carbonation conversion and CO2 capture efficiency than limestone. At CO2 capture efficiency of 95 % and in the same calcination atmosphere, at least 82 kJ · (mol CO2)-1 was saved in the minimum energy requirement for the calciner using dolomite than that using limestone. Compared with the results in pure N2 calcination atmosphere, the two sorbents both showed a decrease in average carbonation conversion and CO2 capture efficiency for the sorbents and exhibited an increase in minimum energy requirement for the calciner in high concentration CO2 atmosphere, however, the changes of these main system parameters for dolomite were less than those for limestone.%在N2气氛和高浓度CO2气氛两种典型锻烧气氛下,对石灰石和白云石在循环煅烧/碳酸化捕集CO2过程中的主要系统参数包括长周期循环碳酸化转化率、平均碳酸化转化率、CO2捕集效率和煅烧炉能量需求进行了实验研究和计算分析.结果表明,吸收剂补充流率和吸收剂循环流率对平均碳酸化转化率、CO2捕集效率和煅烧炉所需能量具有直接影响.在相同吸收剂补充流率和循环流率条件下,采用白云石时的平均碳酸化转化率、CO2捕集效率均高于采用石灰石时;在CO2捕集效率为95%和相同煅

  14. Larvae of the coral eating crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci in a warmer-high CO2 ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamya, Pamela Z; Dworjanyn, Symon A; Hardy, Natasha; Mos, Benjamin; Uthicke, Sven; Byrne, Maria

    2014-11-01

    Outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS), Acanthaster planci, contribute to major declines of coral reef ecosystems throughout the Indo-Pacific. As the oceans warm and decrease in pH due to increased anthropogenic CO2 production, coral reefs are also susceptible to bleaching, disease and reduced calcification. The impacts of ocean acidification and warming may be exacerbated by COTS predation, but it is not known how this major predator will fare in a changing ocean. Because larval success is a key driver of population outbreaks, we investigated the sensitivities of larval A. planci to increased temperature (2-4 °C above ambient) and acidification (0.3-0.5 pH units below ambient) in flow-through cross-factorial experiments (3 temperature × 3 pH/pCO2 levels). There was no effect of increased temperature or acidification on fertilization or very early development. Larvae reared in the optimal temperature (28 °C) were the largest across all pH treatments. Development to advanced larva was negatively affected by the high temperature treatment (30 °C) and by both experimental pH levels (pH 7.6, 7.8). Thus, planktonic life stages of A. planci may be negatively impacted by near-future global change. Increased temperature and reduced pH had an additive negative effect on reducing larval size. The 30 °C treatment exceeded larval tolerance regardless of pH. As 30 °C sea surface temperatures may become the norm in low latitude tropical regions, poleward migration of A. planci may be expected as they follow optimal isotherms. In the absence of acclimation or adaptation, declines in low latitude populations may occur. Poleward migration will be facilitated by strong western boundary currents, with possible negative flow-on effects on high latitude coral reefs. The contrasting responses of the larvae of A. planci and those of its coral prey to ocean acidification and warming are considered in context with potential future change in tropical reef ecosystems.

  15. Fragmentation dynamics of CO(2)(3+) investigated by multiple electron capture in collisions with slow highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, N; Hant, D; Schmidt, L Ph H; Titze, J; Jahnke, T; Czasch, A; Schöffler, M S; Kreidi, K; Jagutzki, O; Schmidt-Böcking, H; Dörner, R

    2010-03-12

    Fragmentation of highly charged molecular ions or clusters consisting of more than two atoms can proceed in a one step synchronous manner where all bonds break simultaneously or sequentially by emitting one ion after the other. We separated these decay channels for the fragmentation of CO(2)(3+) ions by measuring the momenta of the ionic fragments. We show that the total energy deposited in the molecular ion is a control parameter which switches between three distinct fragmentation pathways: the sequential fragmentation in which the emission of an O(+) ion leaves a rotating CO(2+) ion behind that fragments after a time delay, the Coulomb explosion and an in-between fragmentation--the asynchronous dissociation. These mechanisms are directly distinguishable in Dalitz plots and Newton diagrams of the fragment momenta. The CO(2)(3+) ions are produced by multiple electron capture in collisions with 3.2 keV/u Ar(8+) ions.

  16. A highly selective copper-indium bimetallic electrocatalyst for the electrochemical reduction of aqueous CO2to CO

    KAUST Repository

    Rasul, Shahid

    2014-12-23

    The challenge in the electrochemical reduction of aqueous carbon dioxide is in designing a highly selective, energy-efficient, and non-precious-metal electrocatalyst that minimizes the competitive reduction of proton to form hydrogen during aqueous CO2 conversion. A non-noble metal electrocatalyst based on a copper-indium (Cu-In) alloy that selectively converts CO2 to CO with a low overpotential is reported. The electrochemical deposition of In on rough Cu surfaces led to Cu-In alloy surfaces. DFT calculations showed that the In preferentially located on the edge sites rather than on the corner or flat sites and that the d-electron nature of Cu remained almost intact, but adsorption properties of neighboring Cu was perturbed by the presence of In. This preparation of non-noble metal alloy electrodes for the reduction of CO2 provides guidelines for further improving electrocatalysis.

  17. Hierarchically porous Ni monolith@branch-structured NiCo2O4 for high energy density supercapacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengjie Xu; Rongjun Xu; Ying Zhao; Libao Chen; Boyun Huang; Weifeng Wei n

    2016-01-01

    A variety of NiCo2O4 nanostrucutures ranging from nanowire to nanoplate and branched structures were successfully prepared via a simple hydrothermal process. The experimental results show that NiCo2O4 with branched structures possesses the best overall electrochemical performance. The improvement of energy density was explored in terms of hierarchically three-dimensional (3D) metal substrates and a high specific area capacitance, and area energy density is obtained with hierarchically porous Ni monolith synthesized through a controlled combustion procedure.

  18. Hierarchically porous Ni monolith@branch-structured NiCo2O4 for high energy density supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjie Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A variety of NiCo2O4 nanostrucutures ranging from nanowire to nanoplate and branched structures were successfully prepared via a simple hydrothermal process. The experimental results show that NiCo2O4 with branched structures possesses the best overall electrochemical performance. The improvement of energy density was explored in terms of hierarchically three-dimensional (3D metal substrates and a high specific area capacitance, and area energy density is obtained with hierarchically porous Ni monolith synthesized through a controlled combustion procedure.

  19. Experimental determination and prediction of the compressibility factor of high CO2 content natural gas with and without water vapor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoqiang Bian; Zhimin Du; YongTang

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the effect of different CO2 contents on gas compressibility factor (Z-factor),the JEFRI-PVT apparatus has been used to measure the Z-factor of dry natural gas with CO2 content range from 10.74 to 70.42 mol% at the temperature range from 301.2 to 407.3 K and pressure range from 7 to 44 MPa.The results show that Z-factor decreases with increasing CO2 content in natural gas at constant temperature and increases with increasing temperature for natural gas with the same CO2 content.In addition,the Z-factor of water-saturated natural gas with high CO2 content has been measured.A comparison of the Z-factor between natural gas with and without saturated water vapor indicates that the former shows a higher Z-factor than the latter.Furthermore,Peng-Robinson,Hall-Yarborough,and Soave-Benedict-WebbRubin equations of state (EoS) are used for the calculation of Z-factor of high CO2 content natural gas with and without water vapor.The optimal binary interaction parameters (BIP) for PR EoS are presented.The measured Z-factor is compared with the calculated Z-factor based on three models,which shows that PR EoS combined with van der Waals mixing rule for gas without water and Huron-Vidal mixing rule for water-saturated gas,are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  20. Sun leaves up-regulate the photorespiratory pathway to maintain a high rate of CO2 assimilation in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shi-Bao; Hu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The greater rate of CO2 assimilation (A n) in sun-grown tobacco leaves leads to lower intercellular and chloroplast CO2 concentrations and, thus, a higher rate of oxygenation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) than in shade-grown leaves. Impairment of the photorespiratory pathway suppresses photosynthetic CO2 assimilation. Here, we hypothesized that sun leaves can up-regulate photorespiratory pathway to enhance the A n in tobacco. To test this hypothesis, we examined the responses of photosynthetic electron flow (J T) and CO2 assimilation to incident light intensity and intercellular CO2 concentration (C i) in leaves of 'k326' tobacco plants grown at 95% sunlight (sun plants) or 28% sunlight (shade plants). The sun leaves had higher photosynthetic capacity and electron flow devoted to RuBP carboxylation (J C) than the shade leaves. When exposed to high light, the higher Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) content and lower C i in the sun leaves led to greater electron flow devoted to RuBP oxygenation (J O). The J O/J C ratio was significantly higher in the sun leaves than in the shade leaves under strong illumination. As estimated from CO2-response curves, the maximum J O was linearly correlated with the estimated Rubisco content. Based on light-response curves, the light-saturated J O was linearly correlated with light-saturated J T and light-saturated photosynthesis. These findings indicate that enhancement of the photorespiratory pathway is an important strategy by which sun plants maintain a high A n.

  1. Maintaining consistent traceability in high precision isotope measurements of CO2: verifying atmospheric trends of δ13C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-S. Lee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining consistent traceability of high precision measurements of CO2 isotopes is critical in being able to observe accurate atmospheric trends of δ13C (CO2. Although a number of laboratories/organizations around the world have been involved in baseline measurements of atmospheric CO2 isotopes for several decades, the reports on their traceability measures are rare. In this paper, a principle and an approach for the traceability maintenance of high precision isotope measurements (δ13C and δ18O in atmospheric CO2 is described. The uncertainties of the traceability have been estimated based on the history of annual calibrations over the last 10 yr. The overall uncertainties of CO2 isotope measurements for individual ambient samples carried out by our program at Environment Canada are estimated (excluding the uncertainty associated with the sampling. The values are 0.02‰ and 0.05‰ in δ13C and δ18O, respectively, close to the WMO targets for data compatibility. The annual rate of change in δ13C of the primary anchor used in our program (which is the laboratory standard linking ambient measurements back to the primary VPDB scale is close to zero (−0.0016 ± 0.0012‰ per year over the period of 10 yr (2001–2011. The average annual decreasing rate of δ13C in air CO2 measurements at Alert over the period from 1999 to 2010 has been confirmed and verified, which is −0.025 ± 0.003‰ per year. The total change of δ13C in the annual mean value during this period is ∼−0.27‰. The concept of "Big Delta" is introduced and its role in maintaining traceability of the isotope measurements is described and discussed extensively. Finally, the challenges and a strategy for maintaining traceability are also discussed and suggested.

  2. Treatment of atrophic scars with fractionated CO2 laser facilitating delivery of topically applied poly-L-lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rkein, Ali; Ozog, David; Waibel, Jill S

    2014-06-01

    Atrophic scars represent a loss of collagen and a challenging reconstructive dilemma with disappointing traditional treatments. To study the safety and efficacy of the treatment of atrophic scars using an ablative fractionated CO2 laser and topical poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) immediately after to improve atrophic scars. This was an uncontrolled, institutional review board-approved, prospective study evaluating the treatment of atrophic scars. Four blinded dermatologists evaluated a total of 20 photographs taken at baseline and 3 months after the laser and PLLA treatments using the Modified Manchester Scar Scale. Four criteria were evaluated: (1) overall improvement, (2) improvement in scar atrophy, (3) improvement in scar color/dyschromia mismatch, and (4) improvement in scar contour. All 4 observers accurately identified 76 of the 80 "before" and "after" photographs. Therefore, the blinded evaluating physicians agreed that at the 3-month follow-up visit, 95% of the scars had improved. Each criterion demonstrated an average improvement of at least 33%. The combination of using an ablative fractional CO2 laser and PLLA in the treatment of atrophic scars has a synergistic effect on their inherent properties in up-regulating new collagen synthesis to improve atrophic scars.

  3. High-Calorific Biogas Production by Selective CO2 Retention at Autogenerated Biogas Pressures up to 20 Bar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, R.E.F.; Weijma, J.; Lier, van J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Autogenerative high pressure digestion (AHED) is a novel configuration of anaerobic digestion, in which micro-organisms produce autogenerated biogas pressures up to 90 bar with >90% CH4-content in a single step reactor. The less than 10% CO2-content was postulated to be resulting from

  4. Changes in polyphenols and expression levels of related genes in 'Duke' blueberries stored under high CO2 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Jamil; Saleh, Omar; Kittemann, Dominikus; Neuwald, Daniel Alexandre; Hoffmann, Thomas; Reski, Ralf; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-07-30

    Blueberries are highly perishable fruits, and consequently, storage under high CO2 and low O2 levels is recommended to preserve the highly appreciated polyphenols. However, high CO2 levels might be detrimental for certain cultivars. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of storage conditions on various quality parameters, including polyphenol composition in 'Duke' berries. Results show that storage under 18 kPa CO2, coupled with 3 kPa O2, resulted in accelerated softening of berries, which was accompanied by lower levels compared to other conditions of hexosides and arabinosides of malvidin, petunidin, cyanidine, and delphinidin. However, this storage condition had no negative impact on chlorogenic acid levels. Expression data of key polyphenol-biosynthesis genes showed higher expression levels of all investigated genes at harvest time compared to all storage conditions. Of particular importance is the expression level of chalcone synthase (VcCHS), which is severely affected by storage at 18 kPa CO2.

  5. Fragile Reefs of the Eastern Pacific: Does low Cementation Provide a Model for Reefs in a High CO2 World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzello, D.; Kleypas, J.; Eakin, M.; Budd, D.

    2007-05-01

    Around the world, reefs will experience high pCO2, low pH, low carbonate concentrations, and low aragonite saturation state as atmospheric CO2 rises. Ocean carbon chemistry measurements show that eastern Pacific waters already exist at high pCO2 and low carbonate concentrations due to natural upwelling in the region. Because of the upwelling, this region may serve as a model for coral reef development under enhanced atmospheric CO2 and oceanic pCO2; that is, low coral growth, low secondary cementation, and high physical, chemical, and biological erosion. Reefs in the eastern Pacific Ocean are characterized by low biological diversity and relatively small size. Both past coring and recent analysis reveal that, while many reefs in the eastern Pacific are several thousand years old, they are fragile and lack significant cementation, even in the innermost, oldest structures. They are also extremely porous with high water throughflow. Without secondary cementation, branching coral frameworks are held together only by organically produced calcium carbonate (e.g. coralline algae), sponges, and other reef infauna, and contain a high proportion of loose sediments. The result is reef frameworks that are more susceptible to destruction from mechanical or biological erosion. The poorly cemented nature of eastern Pacific reefs is thus hypothesized to have been a factor in the severe bioerosion that occurred on these reefs after past bleaching events (1982-3, 1997-8). We will present data that indicate low rates of cementation and high rates of erosion on eastern Pacific coral reefs and will compare current carbonate chemistry in the eastern Pacific to model predictions of what reefs around the globe may experience in coming decades.

  6. Interannual variability of pteropod shell weights in the high-CO2 Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Bray

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic inputs of CO2 are altering ocean chemistry and may alter the role of marine calcifiers in ocean ecosystems. CO2 emissions over the coming centuries may produce changes in ocean pH not seen for millions of years. Laboratory evidence has shown decreased calcification in some species of coccolithophores, foraminifera, corals and pteropods in response to CO2 enrichment. However, in situ observations of calcification in marine organisms are limited, especially for the aragonitic pteropods. This group of pelagic molluscs are likely to be more sensitive to changes in carbonate chemistry than calcite producers such as foraminifera and coccolithophores. Here we present observations of pteropod shell-weight and flux from 1997–2006 in sediment traps deployed at 47° S, 142° E at 2000 meters below sea surface in the Southern Ocean. A decadal trend of –1.17±0.47 μg yr−1 (P=0.02 in mean shell weight in the pteropod Limacina helicina antarctica forma antarctica suggests a small but detectable reduction in calcification. Gaps in the data make it difficult to state with certainty the significance of the trend. However, this data set represents the first attempt to estimate interannual variations in pteropod calcification and establish a benchmark against which future impacts of ocean acidification may be detected. Contributions of Limacina helicina antarctica morphotypes to the total pteropod flux were also reduced over the decade. We suggest these small though discernible trends are due to changing carbonate chemistry in the Subantarctic, as other oceanographic variables show no clear decadal trends. With CO2 continuing to enter the ocean such impacts on pteropods and other marine calcifiers could result in changes to the distribution of species and the structure of Southern Ocean ecosystems.

  7. Antarctic contribution to global sea level in a high CO2 world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golledge, Nicholas R.; Levy, Richard H.; Naish, Timothy R.; McKay, Robert M.; Gasson, Edward G. W.; Kowalewski, Douglas E.; Fogwill, Christopher J.

    2016-04-01

    In 2014 atmospheric CO2 levels exceeded 400 ppm for the first time since the early Pliocene (3.5-5 Ma). Although the rise in global mean surface temperatures that will accompany continued increases in CO2 is hard to predict, proxy evidence from the early Pliocene suggest that these CO2 concentrations, together with higher-than-present summer insolation, were associated with circum-Antarctic seas 2-4° C warmer than present and air temperatures 6-10° C warmer. Large sectors of the present-day Antarctic ice sheet rest on bedrock below sea level, and as such these areas are more sensitive to environmental forcings than ice grounded above sea level because the geometry of their submarine beds allows for runaway retreat in response to relatively small initial perturbations (Thomas & Bentley, 1978; Mengel & Levermann, 2014). Here we present an ice-sheet model ensemble that explores the consequences of a range of air and ocean warming scenarios representative of a higher-than-present CO2 world. Using circum-Antarctic palaeoenvironmental proxy data to constrain the range of likely conditions adjacent to the continent we calculate probability densities of likely sea-level equivalent ice-sheet volume changes relative to present, together with their associated uncertainties, for a range of timeframes. We find that multi-metre sea-level contributions are likely within centuries, increasing to over ten metres within subsequent millennia. Our results are consistent with empirically-based sea-level reconstructions for the Pliocene, and in addition offer new insights into basin-specific responses within the Antarctic continent.

  8. Comparative study of dentine permeability after apicectomy and surface treatment with 9.6 microm TEA CO2 and Er:YAG laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouw-Soares, S; Stabholz, A; Lage-Marques, J L; Zezell, D M; Groth, E B; Eduardo, C P

    2004-04-01

    Failure of apicectomies is generally attributed to dentine surface permeability as well as to the lack of an adequate marginal sealing of the retrofilling material, which allows the percolation of microorganisms and their products from the root canal system to the periodontal region, thus compromising periapical healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dentine and the marginal permeability after apicectomy and surface treatment with 9.6 micro m TEA CO(2) or Er:YAG 2.94 micro m laser irradiation. Sixty-five single rooted human endodontically treated teeth were divided into five experimental groups: group I (control), apicectomy with high speed bur; group II, similar procedure to that of group I, followed by dentinal surface treatment with 9.6 micro m CO(2) laser; group III, similar procedure to group I followed by dentinal surface treatment with Er:YAG laser 2.94 micro m; group IV, apicectomy and surface treatment with CO(2) 9.6 micro m laser; and group V, apicectomy and surface treatment with Er:YAG laser 2.94 micro m. The analysis of methylene blue dye infiltration through the dentinal surface and the retrofilling material demonstrated that the samples from the groups that were irradiated with the lasers showed significantly lower infiltration indexes than the ones from the control group. These results were compatible with the structural morphological changes evidenced through SEM analysis. Samples from groups II and IV (9.6 micro m CO(2)) showed clean smooth surfaces, fusion, and recrystallized dentine distributed homogeneously throughout the irradiated area sealing the dentinal tubules. Samples from groups III and V (Er:YAG 2.94 micro m) also presented clean surfaces, without smear layer, but roughly compatible to the ablationed dentine and without evidence of dentinal tubules. Through the conditions of this study, the Er:YAG 2.94 micro m and the 9.6 micro m CO(2) laser used for root canal resection and dentine surface treatment showed a reduction of

  9. Drawing Nylon 6,6 Fibers in High Pressure CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-07

    studies have been performed on various fibers using supercritical carbon dioxide treatments. In these studies, Nylon6,6, PBO ( Zylon ) and...Supercritical carbon dioxide, High Performance Fibers , Nylon6,6, PBO ( Zylon ), Polyester Fibers 15. NUMBER OF PAGES...conducted on poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole (PBO) currently manufactured by Toyobo under the commercial name Zylon . These fibers were selected because of

  10. Corrosive Effect of Formation Water in Petroleum with High Contents of CO2 on Steel Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Cueli Corugedo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion of the carbon steel pipelines of petroleum, is a serious problem, because big economic and material losses take place and in some cases damages to productive lands. The purpose of this work is to determine the aggressiveness of the formation water of the petroleum contaminated with CO2 (g, on the construction steel of the pipelines, keeping in mind the variations of temperature that happens during the course of petroleum. The Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR was used to determine the corrosion rate of the steel. It was demonstrated that the increase of the temperature and the saturation condition of CO2 in the formation water of the petroleum, increase the corrosion in the steel. The spectra of electrochemical noise results and the localization index calculated demonstrate the presence of corrosion located in the API 5L X - 52 steel surface. This result was complemented by the Optic Microscopy technique that allowed corroborating the poor adherence of the layers that were deposited on the metal and the appearance of located events increases in the environment that was investigated with the increment of the temperature and CO2 concentration.

  11. Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy of High Performance Polymer Films under CO2 Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.A. Quarles; John R. Klaehn; Eric S. Peterson; Jagoda M. Urban-Klaehn

    2010-08-01

    Positron annihilation Lifetime and Doppler broadening measurements are reported for six polymer films as a function of carbon dioxide absolute pressure ranging from 0 to 45 psi. Since the polymer films were thin and did not absorb all positrons, corrections were made in the lifetime analysis for the absorption of positrons in the positron source and sample holder using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP. Different polymers are found to behave differently. Some polymers studied form positronium and some, such as the polyimide structures, do not. For those samples that form positronium an interpretation in terms of free volume is possible; for those that don’t form positronium, further work is needed to determine how best to describe the behavior in terms of the bulk positron annihilation parameters. Some polymers exhibit changes in positron lifetime and intensity under CO2 pressure which may be described by the Henry or Langmuir sorption models, while the positron response of other polymers is rather insensitive to the CO2 pressure. The results demonstrate the usefulness of positron annihilation spectroscopy in investigating the sorption of CO2 into various polymers at pressures up to about 3 atm.

  12. Effect of cw-CO2 laser surface treatment on structure and properties of AZ91 magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaszko, Józef; Strzelecka, Monika

    2016-06-01

    In the study, samples of AZ91 magnesium alloy were subjected to a surface remelting treatment by means of a continuous wave (cw) CO2 laser. The scope of the investigation included both macro- and microstructural examination, hardness measurements, and wear resistance tests. The investigation has shown that remelting treatment leads to a strong refinement of structure in the surface layer and a more even distribution of phases. Fine α-phase dendrites have been observed to dominate in the remelting zone. The dendritic arm spacing in the laser treated surface was in the range of 1-2.5 μm. The structural changes triggered by remelting have contributed to an increase in the hardness and the wear resistance of AZ91 alloy. The microhardness of the remelted zone has increased to 71-93 HV0.05 for single-strip remelting and to 84-107 HV0.05 for multi-strip remelting in comparison with about ~60 HV0.05 for untreated alloy. The friction coefficient has decreased from 0.375 for material w/o treatment to 0.311 for remelted material. SEM investigations of samples after tribological tests have revealed the presence of parallel grooves proving the occurrence of microploughing and micro cutting of the material during the tribological testing. The results of the conducted investigation have indicated a beneficial influence of the cw-CO2 laser remelting treatment on the structure and properties of AZ91 alloy.

  13. Successful treatment of traumatic scars with combined nonablative fractional laser and pinpoint technique of standard CO2 laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shady M; Elsaie, Mohamed L; Kamel, Mohamed Ismail; Mohammed, Essam-Eldin

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the use of a pinpoint irradiation technique followed by nonablative fractional technique in treatment of traumatic scars. Thirteen patients with traumatic sacrs were treated with pinpoint technique of CO2 laser using traditional headpiece activating laser at a frequency (50 Hz) to deliver pulsed mode with power of 1 W using the focusing technique followed by 3-5 passes of the nonablative 1540 nm fractional Er:glass laser. An independent physician evaluator assessed the treatment outcomes using Vancouver scar scale (VSS) and 5-point grading scale (grade 0, no improvement; grade 1, 1-25%; grade 2, 26-50%; grade 3, 51-75%; grade 4, 76-100% improvement). After the final treatment, average percentage changes of VSS were 41.5%. Improvement was evident in terms of vascularity, pigmentation, and height, while insignificant in terms of Pliability. Based on physician's global assessment, mean grade of 2.5 was achieved. Patient's subjective satisfaction scores paralleled the physician's objective evaluation. Pinpoint irradiation technique by CO2 laser followed by nonablative fractional laser is a safe and effective modality in treatment of scars.

  14. Lime-based sorbents for high-temperature CO2 capture--a review of sorbent modification methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manovic, Vasilije; Anthony, Edward J

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents a review of the research on CO(2) capture by lime-based looping cycles undertaken at CanmetENERGY's (Ottawa, Canada) research laboratories. This is a new and very promising technology that may help in mitigation of global warming and climate change caused primarily by the use of fossil fuels. The intensity of the anticipated changes urgently requires solutions such as more cost-effective technologies for CO(2) capture. This new technology is based on the use of lime-based sorbents in a dual fluidized bed combustion (FBC) reactor which contains a carbonator-a unit for CO(2) capture, and a calciner-a unit for CaO regeneration. However, even though natural materials are cheap and abundant and very good candidates as solid CO(2) carriers, their performance in a practical system still shows significant limitations. These limitations include rapid loss of activity during the capture cycles, which is a result of sintering, attrition, and consequent elutriation from FBC reactors. Therefore, research on sorbent performance is critical and this paper reviews some of the promising ways to overcome these shortcomings. It is shown that reactivation by steam/water, thermal pre-treatment, and doping simultaneously with sorbent reforming and pelletization are promising potential solutions to reduce the loss of activity of these sorbents over multiple cycles of use.

  15. Lime-Based Sorbents for High-Temperature CO2 Capture—A Review of Sorbent Modification Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Anthony

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the research on CO2 capture by lime-based looping cycles undertaken at CanmetENERGY’s (Ottawa, Canada research laboratories. This is a new and very promising technology that may help in mitigation of global warming and climate change caused primarily by the use of fossil fuels. The intensity of the anticipated changes urgently requires solutions such as more cost-effective technologies for CO2 capture. This new technology is based on the use of lime-based sorbents in a dual fluidized bed combustion (FBC reactor which contains a carbonator—a unit for CO2 capture, and a calciner—a unit for CaO regeneration. However, even though natural materials are cheap and abundant and very good candidates as solid CO2 carriers, their performance in a practical system still shows significant limitations. These limitations include rapid loss of activity during the capture cycles, which is a result of sintering, attrition, and consequent elutriation from FBC reactors. Therefore, research on sorbent performance is critical and this paper reviews some of the promising ways to overcome these shortcomings. It is shown that reactivation by steam/water, thermal pre-treatment, and doping simultaneously with sorbent reforming and pelletization are promising potential solutions to reduce the loss of activity of these sorbents over multiple cycles of use.

  16. Lime-Based Sorbents for High-Temperature CO2 Capture—A Review of Sorbent Modification Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manovic, Vasilije; Anthony, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the research on CO2 capture by lime-based looping cycles undertaken at CanmetENERGY’s (Ottawa, Canada) research laboratories. This is a new and very promising technology that may help in mitigation of global warming and climate change caused primarily by the use of fossil fuels. The intensity of the anticipated changes urgently requires solutions such as more cost-effective technologies for CO2 capture. This new technology is based on the use of lime-based sorbents in a dual fluidized bed combustion (FBC) reactor which contains a carbonator—a unit for CO2 capture, and a calciner—a unit for CaO regeneration. However, even though natural materials are cheap and abundant and very good candidates as solid CO2 carriers, their performance in a practical system still shows significant limitations. These limitations include rapid loss of activity during the capture cycles, which is a result of sintering, attrition, and consequent elutriation from FBC reactors. Therefore, research on sorbent performance is critical and this paper reviews some of the promising ways to overcome these shortcomings. It is shown that reactivation by steam/water, thermal pre-treatment, and doping simultaneously with sorbent reforming and pelletization are promising potential solutions to reduce the loss of activity of these sorbents over multiple cycles of use. PMID:20948952

  17. Effects of Controlled Atmospheres with High-O2 or High-CO2 Concentrations on Postharvest Physiology and Storability of "Napoleon" Sweet Cherry%高O2或高CO2浓度气调贮藏对"那翁"甜樱桃采后生理和贮藏性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜爱丽; 田世平; 徐勇

    2002-01-01

    Sweet cherries ( Prunus avium L. cv. Napoleon) were stored in controlled atmospheres (CA) of high O2 (70% O2+0% CO2) or high CO2 (5% O2+10% CO2), in modified atmosphere package (MAP, (13%-18%) O2+(2%-4%) CO2) and in air (control) at 1 ℃ to investigate the effects of different O2 and CO2 concentrations on physiological properties, quality and storability of the fruits during storage. The results indicated that compared with other treatments, CA with high O2 concentration decreased fruit decay and ethanol content, but increased the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and stimulated browning. CA with high CO2 concentration inhibited polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, reduced MDA content, maintained vitamin C content and firmness, decreased fruit decay and browning. Soluble solids contents (SSC) were not significantly affected by different atmosphere treatments. "Napoleon" fruits stored in 5% O2+10% CO2 for as long as 80 d were of good quality, but only 40, 20 and 30 d stored in MAP, 70% O2+ 0% CO2 and air, respectively.%研究了甜樱桃品种"那翁" ( Prunus avium L. cv. Napoleon)在1 ℃的高O2 浓度气调(CA-I: 70% O2+0% CO2)、高CO2 浓度气调 (CA-II: 5% O2+10% CO2)、自发气调 (modified atmosphere package, MAP) 和普通冷藏条件下果实生理、品质、耐藏性的变化.结果表明:与其他处理相比,高O2 浓度的气调可以抑制果实腐烂、减少果肉中乙醇含量,但果实的丙二醛(MDA)含量迅速上升、褐变严重.高CO2浓度的气调能有效抑制MDA含量上升的速率和多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性,保持果实硬度和维生素C含量,减少果实腐烂和褐变,延长贮藏寿命.不同处理对果实可溶性固形物含量的影响不大."那翁" 甜樱桃在5% O2+10% CO2气调中贮藏80 d能保持果实固有的风味品质.在MAP下, 70% O2+0% CO2和普通冷藏中的适宜贮藏期分别为40 d、20 d和30 d.

  18. CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of cervical human papillomavirus infection in women with abnormal Papanicolaou smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, S; Felding, C; Skouby, S O

    1992-01-01

    In a randomized study, we have evaluated the treatment of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions by CO2 laser vaporization. Fifty patients with abnormal Papanicolaou smears and histological evidence of cervical HPV infection associated or not with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade...... I were randomized to either a treatment or a control group. The cervical swabs were obtained every 3 months in both groups and examined for HPV type 16 DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. After a follow-up period of 12 months no significant differences were found between the laser treatment...... and the control groups in relation to the disappearance of the abnormal Papanicolaou smear. Two patients in the treatment group and 3 in the control group had a conization because of development of CIN I or aggravation of the concomitant CIN found at the initial visit. The percentage of women who demonstrated HPV...

  19. Carbon-Supported Fe Catalysts for CO2 Electroreduction to High-Added Value Products: A DEMS Study: Effect of the Functionalization of the Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pérez-Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulcan XC-72R-supported Fe catalysts have been synthesised for the electroreduction of CO2 to high-added value products. Catalysts were obtained by the polyol method, using ethylene glycol as solvent and reducing agent. Prior to the metal deposition, Vulcan was subjected to different oxidation treatments in order to modify its surface chemistry and study its influence on the physicochemical and electrochemical properties of the catalysts, as well as on the product distribution. The oxidation treatments of the supports modify their textural properties, but do not affect significantly the physicochemical properties of catalysts. However, DEMS studies showed that the carbon support degradation, the distribution of products, and the catalytic activity toward the CO2 electroreduction reaction depend significantly on the surface chemistry of the carbon support.

  20. Fabrication of a microresonator-fiber assembly maintaining a high-quality factor by CO2 laser welding

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zhiwei; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhengming; Yao, Jinping; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate fabrication of a microtoroid resonator of a high-quality (high-Q) factor using femtosecond laser three-dimensional (3D) micromachining. A fiber taper is reliably assembled to the microtoroid using CO2 laser welding. Specifically, we achieve a high Q-factor of 2.12*10^6 in the microresonator-fiber assembly by optimizing the contact position between the fiber taper and the microtoroid.

  1. A simple high-performance matrix-free biomass molten carbonate fuel cell without CO2 recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen

    2016-08-01

    In previous reports, flowing CO2 at the cathode is essential for either conventional molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) based on molten carbonate/LiAlO2 electrolytes or matrix-free MCFCs. For the first time, we demonstrate a high-performance matrix-free MCFC without CO2 recirculation. At 800°C, power densities of 430 and 410 mW/cm(2) are achieved when biomass-bamboo charcoal and wood, respectively-is used as fuel. At 600°C, a stable performance is observed during the measured 90 hours after the initial degradation. In this MCFC, CO2 is produced at the anode when carbon-containing fuels are used. The produced CO2 then dissolves and diffuses to the cathode to react with oxygen in open air, forming the required [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] ions for continuous operation. The dissolved [Formula: see text] ions may also take part in the cell reactions. This provides a simple new fuel cell technology to directly convert carbon-containing fuels such as carbon and biomass into electricity with high efficiency.

  2. Molecular and physiological evidence of genetic assimilation to high CO2 in the marine nitrogen fixer Trichodesmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Nathan G; Lee, Michael D; Fu, Fei-Xue; Hutchins, David A; Webb, Eric A

    2016-11-22

    Most investigations of biogeochemically important microbes have focused on plastic (short-term) phenotypic responses in the absence of genetic change, whereas few have investigated adaptive (long-term) responses. However, no studies to date have investigated the molecular progression underlying the transition from plasticity to adaptation under elevated CO2 for a marine nitrogen-fixer. To address this gap, we cultured the globally important cyanobacterium Trichodesmium at both low and high CO2 for 4.5 y, followed by reciprocal transplantation experiments to test for adaptation. Intriguingly, fitness actually increased in all high-CO2 adapted cell lines in the ancestral environment upon reciprocal transplantation. By leveraging coordinated phenotypic and transcriptomic profiles, we identified expression changes and pathway enrichments that rapidly responded to elevated CO2 and were maintained upon adaptation, providing strong evidence for genetic assimilation. These candidate genes and pathways included those involved in photosystems, transcriptional regulation, cell signaling, carbon/nitrogen storage, and energy metabolism. Conversely, significant changes in specific sigma factor expression were only observed upon adaptation. These data reveal genetic assimilation as a potentially adaptive response of Trichodesmium and importantly elucidate underlying metabolic pathways paralleling the fixation of the plastic phenotype upon adaptation, thereby contributing to the few available data demonstrating genetic assimilation in microbial photoautotrophs. These molecular insights are thus critical for identifying pathways under selection as drivers in plasticity and adaptation.

  3. Physiological basis for high CO2 tolerance in marine ectothermic animals: pre-adaptation through lifestyle and ontogeny?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bleich

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Future ocean acidification has the potential to adversely affect many marine organisms. A growing body of evidence suggests that many species could suffer from reduced fertilization success, decreases in larval- and adult growth rates, reduced calcification rates, metabolic depression and even mortality when being exposed to near-future levels (year 2100 scenarios of ocean acidification. Little research focus is currently placed on those organisms/taxa that might be less vulnerable to the anticipated changes in ocean chemistry; this is unfortunate, as the comparison of more vulnerable to more tolerant physiotypes could provide us with those physiological traits that are crucial for ecological success in a future ocean. Here, we attempt to summarize some ontogenetic and lifestyle traits that lead to an increased tolerance towards high environmental pCO2. In general, marine ectothermic metazoans with an extensive extracellular fluid volume may be less vulnerable to future acidification as their cells are already exposed to much higher pCO2 values (0.1 to 0.4 kPa, 1000 to 4000 μatm than those of unicellular organisms and gametes, for which the ocean (0.04 kPa, 400 μatm is the extracellular space. A doubling in environmental pCO2 therefore only represents a 10% change in extracellular CO2 in some marine teleosts. High extracellular pCO2 values are to some degree related to high metabolic rates, as diffusion gradients need to be high in order to excrete an amount of CO2 that is directly proportional to the amount of O2 consumed. In active metazoans, such as teleost fish, cephalopods and many brachyuran crustaceans, exercise induced increases in metabolic rate require an efficient ion-regulatory machinery for CO2 excretion and acid-base regulation, especially when anaerobic metabolism is involved and metabolic protons leak into the extracellular space. These ion-transport systems, which are located in highly developed gill epithelia, form the basis

  4. A novel neuroprotective strategy for ischemic stroke: transient mild acidosis treatment by CO2 inhalation at reperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yan-Ying; Shen, Zhe; He, Ping; Jiang, Lei; Hou, Wei-wei; Shen, Yao; Zhang, Xiang-Nan; Hu, Wei-Wei; Chen, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Acidosis is one of the key components in cerebral ischemic postconditioning that has emerged recently as an endogenous strategy for neuroprotection. We set out to test whether acidosis treatment at reperfusion can protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Adult male C57BL/6 J mice were subjected to 60-minute middle cerebral arterial occlusion followed by 24-hour reperfusion. Acidosis treatment by inhaling 10%, 20%, or 30% CO2 for 5 or 10 minutes at 5, 50, or 100 minutes after reperfusion was applied. Our results showed that inhaling 20% CO2 for 5 minutes at 5 minutes after reperfusion-induced optimal neuroprotection, as revealed by reduced infarct volume. Attenuating brain acidosis with NaHCO3 significantly compromised the acidosis or ischemic postconditioning-induced neuroprotection. Consistently, both acidosis-treated primary cultured cortical neurons and acute corticostriatal slices were more resistant to oxygen–glucose deprivation/reperfusion insult. In addition, acidosis inhibited ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis, caspase-3 expression, cytochrome c release to cytoplasm, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. The neuroprotection of acidosis was inhibited by the mPTP opener atractyloside both in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, these findings indicate that transient mild acidosis treatment at reperfusion protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. This neuroprotection is likely achieved, at least partly, by inhibiting mPTP opening and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. PMID:24192637

  5. Study on Recycling CO2 with Li4 SiO4 at High Temperatures%掺杂Li4SiO4材料的CO2吸附研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕国强; 阳书文; 马文会; 王华; 于洁

    2009-01-01

    Recycling and utilizing CO2 is very important significance to realizing energy saving and emission reduction. Lithium silicate (Li4SiO4) absorbents for CO2 were prepared by high-temperature solid-state reaction. Thermodynamic equilibrium of Li4SiO4 absorp-tion CO2was discussed using the HSC5.0 code. The capability of Li4SiO4 for absorption CO2 was investigated using the thermobalance instrument. The crystal structure and surface morphologies of the Li4SiO4were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction, SEM. The results showed: the absorption reaction is fast in the temperature range 600~720 ℃, the maximum absorption rate (w) was 29.16% ; and the desorption reaction began in 750 ℃, then Li4SiO4 is regenerated. The concentrations of CO2 obviously affect on the absorption speed and the maximum absorption rate; but the flow rate of CO2 little influences the absorption capability.

  6. Study on treatment of facial acne atrophic scar by Ultra Pulse CO2 fractional laser%Acupulse CO2点阵激光治疗面部痤疮凹陷性瘢痕疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈业忠; 续言凤; 刘永生; 谷晓广; 肖睿; 李漫; 张萌萌; 胡文竹; 李洒

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo observe the clinical efifcacy of Acupulse CO2 fractional laser in the treatment of acne scar on the face.Methods 86 cases with Acne facial depression scar were used combined treatment of Acupulse CO2 dot matrix laser super pulse mode and dot matrix. once for two months, three times for one course of treatment. All patients were followed up at the end of a course of treatment after two months. Efifcacy and adverse reactions were evaluated according to four criteria of excellence, effective, improved and ineffective.Results Acne scar size, deep depression, skin color of the face have different degrees of improvement. The excellence rate was 64.15%, the effective rate was 31.13%, total effective rate 95.28%. More treatment times, the effect was better, there was no obvious adverse reaction. Conclusion Acupulse CO2 fractional laser treatment of acne facial depression scar has better effect and less side effects , it is a better treatment method.%目的:观察Acupulse CO2点阵激光治疗面部痤疮凹陷性瘢痕的临床疗效。方法:86例面部痤疮凹陷性瘢痕患者,采用Acupulse CO2点阵激光超脉冲模式及点阵深浅治疗模式等复合治疗,每隔2个月治疗一次,3次为1疗程,1个疗程治疗结束后2个月复诊,按照显效、有效、好转和无效四级标准评价疗效和观察不良反应。结果:面部痤疮瘢痕的大小、凹陷深度、皮肤色泽都有不同程度改善,显效率64.15%、有效率为31.13%,总有效率95.28%;治疗次数越多,效果越好;无明显不良反应。结论:Acupulse CO2点阵激光治疗面部痤疮凹陷性瘢痕效果好、副作用少,是面部痤疮凹陷性瘢痕较好的治疗方法之一。

  7. High temporal resolution ecosystem CH4, CO2 and H2O flux data measured with a novel chamber technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg Larsen, Klaus; Riis Christiansen, Jesper

    2016-04-01

    switching automatically between transparent and darkened mode enabling for separation of light-sensitive and light-indifferent processes in chambers. In a pilot study we measured hourly fluxes of CO2, H2O and CH4 continuously for two weeks in Danish Calluna vulgaris (common heather) heathland (Larsen et al. 2011). We will present an analysis of the novel, high-frequency data of CH4 fluxes under light and dark conditions, assess the advantages and limitations of the experimental setup and recommend future improvements of the technology involved. References: Carter, M.S., Larsen, K.S., et al. 2012. Synthesizing greenhouse gas fluxes across nine European peatlands and shrublands: responses to climatic and environmental changes. Biogeosciences 3739-3755. Christiansen, J.R., Korhonen, J.F.J., et al. 2011. Assessing the effects of chamber placement, manual sampling and headspace mixing on CH4 fluxes in a laboratory experiment. Plant and Soil 343, 171-185. Christiansen, J.R., Outhwaite, J., et al. 2015. Comparison of CO2, CH4 and N2O soil-atmosphere exchange measured in static chambers with cavity ring-down spectroscopy and gas chromatography. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 211-212, 48-57. Creelman, C., Nickerson, N., Risk, D., 2013. Quantifying Lateral Diffusion Error in Soil Carbon Dioxide Respiration Estimates using Numerical Modeling. Soil Science Society of America Journal 77, 699-708. Larsen, K.S., Andresen, L.C., et al. 2011. Reduced N cycling in response to elevated CO2, warming, and drought in a Danish heathland: Synthesizing results of the CLIMAITE project after two years of treatments. Global Change Biology 17, 1884-1899. Pihlatie, M.K., Christiansen, J.R., et al. 2013. Comparison of static chambers to measure CH4 emissions from soils. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 171-172, 124-136.

  8. High Fidelity Computational Analysis of CO2 Trapping at Pore Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vinod

    2013-07-13

    With an alarming rise in carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from anthropogenic sources, CO2 sequestration has become an attractive choice to mitigate the emission. Some popular storage media for CO{sub 2} are oil reservoirs, deep coal-bed, and deep oceanic-beds. These have been used for the long term CO{sub 2} storage. Due to special lowering viscosity and surface tension property of CO{sub 2}, it has been widely used for enhanced oil recovery. The sites for CO{sub 2} sequestration or enhanced oil recovery mostly consist of porous rocks. Lack of knowledge of molecular mobility under confinement and molecule-surface interactions between CO2 and natural porous media results in generally governed by unpredictable absorption kinetics and total absorption capacity for injected fluids, and therefore, constitutes barriers to the deployment of this technology. Therefore, it is important to understand the flow dynamics of CO{sub 2} through the porous microstructures at the finest scale (pore-scale) to accurately predict the storage potential and long-term dynamics of the sequestered CO{sub 2}. This report discusses about pore-network flow modeling approach using variational method and analyzes simulated results this method simulations at pore-scales for idealized network and using Berea Sandstone CT scanned images. Variational method provides a promising way to study the kinetic behavior and storage potential at the pore scale in the presence of other phases. The current study validates variational solutions for single and two-phase Newtonian and single phase non-Newtonian flow through angular pores for special geometries whose analytical and/or empirical solutions are known. The hydraulic conductance for single phase flow through a triangular duct was also validated against empirical results derived from lubricant theory.

  9. High CO2 emissions from the tropical Godavari estuary (India) associated with monsoon river discharges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V; Kumar, N.A.; Prasad, V; Venkataramana, V; Appalanaidu, S.; Sridevi, B.; Kumar, B.S.K.; Bharati, M.D.; Subbaiah, C.V; Acharyya, T.; Rao, G.D.; Viswanadham, R.; Gawade, L; Manjary, D.T.; Kumar, P.P.; Rajeev, K.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Sarma, V.V.; Kumar, M.D.; Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, T.V.R.

    . Appalanaidu, B. Sridevi, B.S.K. Kumar, M.D. Bharati, Ch.V. Subbaiah, T. Acharya, G.D. Rao, R. Viswanadham, L. Gawade, D.T. Manjary, P. P. Kumar, K. Rajeev, N.P.C. Reddy, V.V. Sarma, M.D. Kumar, Y. Sadhuram and T.V.R. Murty National Institute...-67. Borges, A.V., B. Delille and M. Frankignoulle (2005), Budgeting sinks and sources of CO2 in the coastal ocean: Diversity of ecosystems counts. Geophysical Research Letters, 32, No. L14601. Bouillon, S., M. Frankignoulle, F. Dehairs, F. et al.(2003...

  10. High-performance modeling of CO2 sequestration by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a parallel computational framework for CO2 sequestration simulation by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics (MD) on massively parallel HPC systems. In this framework, a parallel reservoir simulator, Reservoir Simulation Toolbox (RST), solves the flow and transport equations that describe the subsurface flow behavior, while the molecular dynamics simulations are performed to provide the required physical parameters. Numerous technologies from different fields are employed to make this novel coupled system work efficiently. One of the major applications of the framework is the modeling of large scale CO2 sequestration for long-term storage in the subsurface geological formations, such as depleted reservoirs and deep saline aquifers, which has been proposed as one of the most attractive and practical solutions to reduce the CO2 emission problem to address the global-warming threat. To effectively solve such problems, fine grids and accurate prediction of the properties of fluid mixtures are essential for accuracy. In this work, the CO2 sequestration is presented as our first example to couple the reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics, while the framework can be extended naturally to the full multiphase multicomponent compositional flow simulation to handle more complicated physical process in the future. Accuracy and scalability analysis are performed on an IBM BlueGene/P and on an IBM BlueGene/Q, the latest IBM supercomputer. Results show good accuracy of our MD simulations compared with published data, and good scalability are observed with the massively parallel HPC systems. The performance and capacity of the proposed framework are well demonstrated with several experiments with hundreds of millions to a billion cells. To our best knowledge, the work represents the first attempt to couple the reservoir simulation and molecular simulation for large scale modeling. Due to the complexity of the subsurface systems

  11. High efficiency metal marking with CO2 laser and glass marking with excimer laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    with a thoroughly tested ray-tracing model is presented and compared with experimental results. Special emphasis is put on two different applications namely marking in metal with TEA-CO2 laser and marking in glass with excimer laser. The results are evaluated on the basis of the achievable energy enhancement......Today, mask based laser materials processing and especially marking is widely used. However, the energy efficiency in such processes is very low [1].This paper gives a review of the results, that may be obtained using the energy enhancing technique [1]. Results of simulations performed...

  12. CO2 laser-fabricated cladding light strippers for high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Keiron; Simakov, Nikita; Hemming, Alexander; Daniel, Jae; Swain, Robert; Mies, Eric; Rees, Simon; Andrew Clarkson, W; Haub, John

    2016-04-10

    We present and characterize a simple CO2 laser processing technique for the fabrication of compact all-glass optical fiber cladding light strippers. We investigate the cladding light loss as a function of radiation angle of incidence and demonstrate devices in a 400 μm diameter fiber with cladding losses of greater than 20 dB for a 7 cm device length. The core losses are also measured giving a loss of cladding light stripping of a 300 W laser diode with minimal heating of the fiber coating and packaging adhesives.

  13. Synthesis of ultrathin mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanosheets on carbon fiber paper as integrated high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fangze; Yu, Lin; Cheng, Gao; Lin, Ting; Sun, Ming; Ye, Fei; Li, Yongfeng

    2014-04-01

    Two-dimensional ultrathin mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanosheets on carbon fiber paper (CFP) are synthesized through a facile solvothermal method combined with a post thermal treatment. The well interconnected ultrathin NiCo2O4 nanosheets directly grown on the carbon nanofibers could allow for easy diffusion of the electrolyte, shorten the transport path of ion and electron and accommodate the strain during cycling. As a result, superior pseudocapacitive performance is achieved with large specific capacitance of 999 F g-1 at a high current density of 20 A g-1. The capacitance loss is 15.6% after 3000 cycles at a current density of 10 A g-1, displaying good cycle ability and high rate capability.

  14. Heterogeneous NiCo2O4@polypyrrole core/sheath nanowire arrays on Ni foam for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Li, Minchan; Lv, Fucong; Yang, Mingyang; Tao, Pengpeng; Tang, Yougen; Liu, Hongtao; Lu, Zhouguang

    2015-10-01

    A novel heterogeneous NiCo2O4@PPy core/sheath nanowire arrays are directly grown on Ni foam involving three facile steps, hydrothermal synthesis and calcination of NiCo2O4 nanowire arrays and subsequent in-situ oxidative polymerization of polypyrrole (PPy). When investigated as binder- and conductive additive-free electrodes for supercapacitors (SCs) in 6 M KOH, the NiCo2O4@PPy core/sheath nanowire arrays exhibit high areal capacitance of 3.49 F cm-2 at a discharge current density of 5 mA cm-2, which is almost 1.5 times as much as the pristine NiCo2O4 (2.30 F cm-2). More importantly, it can remain 3.31 F cm-2 (94.8% retention) after 5000 cycles. The as-obtained electrode also displays excellent rate capability, whose areal capacitance can still remain 2.79 F cm-2 while the discharge current density is increased to 50 mA cm-2. The remarkable electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the unique heterogeneous core/sheath nanowire-array architectures.

  15. Ni/MgO catalyst prepared using atmospheric high-frequency discharge plasma for CO2 reforming of methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Qin; Huiyuan Xu; Huali Long; Yi Ran; Shuyong Shang; Yongxiang Yin; Xiaoyan Dai

    2011-01-01

    A new type of Ni/MgO catalyst was prepared using atmospheric high-frequency discharge cold plasma.The influences of conventional method,plasma method,and plasma plus calcination method on the catalytic activity were studied and the CO2 reforming of methane was chosen as the probe reaction.The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),transmission electron microscope (TEM),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,and CO2 temperature-programmed surface reaction techniques.The results suggested that the nickel-based catalyst prepared by plasma plus calcination method possessed a smaller particle size and a higher dispersion of active component,better low-temperature activity and enhanced anti-coking ability.The conversion of CO2 and CH4 was 90.70% and 89.37%,respectively,and the reaction lasted for 36 h without obvious deactivation under 101.325 kPa and 750 ℃ with CO2/CH4 =1/1.

  16. Imagining CO2: development and assessment of interactive visualizations for high resolution greenhouse gas observations collected by BEACO2N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheja, G.; Shusterman, A.; Martin, S.; Shahar, E.; Laughner, J.; Turner, A. J.; Miller, M. K.; Cohen, R. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Berkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network (BEACO2N) is a high-density network of 28 carbon dioxide sensors distributed around the San Francisco Bay Area that serve to enhance understanding of intra-city variations in CO2 concentrations that are not necessarily captured by sparser networks maintained by local and national air quality management agencies. We partner with designers at the San Francisco Exploratorium to create a suite of interactive exhibits and hands-on activities that creatively visualize data from BEACO2N for general audiences. Museum goers can manipulate a light-up "bar graph" of live CO2 concentrations by exhaling on an in-room sensor, query the current readings of rooftop sensors using a scale model of the Wired Pier observation system, scroll through the data from other BEACO2N sites projected on a 3-D "topographic table" of the Bay Area, and view interpolated CO2 fields driven by research-grade weather models on a nine-screen LCD display. We present lessons learned from these initial installations, from layperson audience feedback to details of the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model coupled to Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) weather fields used to generate intuitive concentration maps. We propose that compelling visual demonstrations of elevated CO2 concentrations due to routine small-scale high-emission anthropogenic activities (e.g. rush hour) and/or special events (such as fireworks or factory fires) generate deeper engagement in local environmental issues and interest in undertaking personal actions that can become part of the broader climate solution. While global means and other large-scale aggregate climate metrics can lead to feelings of disconnect and subsequent ambivalence, via such exhibitions, distributed network instruments like BEACO2N can provide the local sensitivity needed to "personalize" greenhouse gas concentrations to a given individual or community and incite the drive toward

  17. High Resolution Measurement of Rhizosphere Priming Effects and Temporal Variability of CO2 Fluxes under Zea Mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splettstößer, T.; Pausch, J.

    2016-12-01

    Plant induced increase of soil organic matter turnover rates contribute to carbon emissions in agricultural land use systems. In order to better understand these rhizosphere priming effects, we conducted an experiment, which enabled us to monitor CO2 fluxes under zea mays plants with high resolution. The experiment was conducted in a climate chamber where the plants were grown in thin, tightly sealed boxes for 40 days and CO2 efflux from soil was measured twice a day. 13C-CO2 was introduced to allow differentiation between plant and soil derived CO2.This enabled us to monitor root respiration and soil organic matter turnover in the early stages of plant growth and to highlight changes in soil CO2 emissions and priming effects between day and night. The measurements were conducted with a PICARRO G2131-I δ13C high-precision isotopic CO2 Analyzer (PICARRO INC.) utilizing an automated valve system governed by a CR1000 data logger (Campbell Scientific). After harvest roots and shoots were analyzed for 13C content. Microbial biomass, root length density and enzymatic activities in soil were measured and linked to soil organic matter turnover rates. In order to visualize the spatial distribution of carbon allocation to the root system a few plants were additionally labeled with 14C and 14C distribution was monitored by 14C imaging of the root systems over 4 days. Based on the 14C distribution a grid was chosen and the soil was sampled from each square of the grid to investigate the impact of carbon allocation hotspots on enzymatic activities and microbial biomass. First initial results show an increase of soil CO2 efflux in the night periods, whereby the contribution of priming is not fully analyzed yet. Additionally, root tips were identified as hotspots of short term carbon allocation via 14C imaging and an in increase in microbial biomass could be measured in this regions. The full results will be shown at AGU 2016.

  18. Treatment of tooth fracture by medium energy CO2 laser and DP-bioactive glass paste: thermal behavior and phase transformation of human tooth enamel and dentin after irradiation by CO2 laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C P; Lee, B S; Kok, S H; Lan, W H; Tseng, Y C; Lin, F H

    2000-06-01

    Acute trauma or trauma associated with occlusal disharmony can produce tooth crack or fracture. Although several methods are proposed to treat the defect, however, the prognosis is generally poor. If the fusion of a tooth fracture by laser is possible it will offer an alternative to extraction or at least serve as an adjunctive treatment in the reconstruction. The responses of soft tissues to lasers of different wavelengths are fairly well known, but the reactions of hard tissues are still to be understood. The purpose of this research was to study the feasibility of using a medium energy continuous-wave CO(2) laser and a low melting-point bioactive glass to fuse or bridge tooth fractures. The present report is focused on the first part of the research, the analysis of changes in laser-irradiated human tooth enamel/dentin by means of X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier-transforming infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric analysis (DTA/TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After CO(2) laser irradiation, there were no marked changes in the X-ray diffraction pattern of the enamel when compared to that before laser treatment. However, a small peak belonging to alpha-TCP appeared at the position of 2theta=30.78 degrees C. After being treated with CO(2) laser, the dentin showed much sharper peaks on the diffraction patterns because of grain growth and better crystallinity. alpha-TCP and beta-TCP were identified after laser treatment. In the FTIR analysis, an HPO(4)(-2) absorption band was noted before laser treatment disappeared after the irradiation. No significant change in the absorption band of HPO(4)(-2) was found on the FTIR curves of enamel after laser treatment. The results of DTA/TGA indicated that loss of water and organic materials occurred in both enamel and dentin after laser treatment. Under SEM, melting and resolidification occurred in both enamel and dentin by medium energy of CO(2) laser. This implies that

  19. Fabrication and Characterization of Polyimide-CNTs hybrid membrane to enhance high performance CO2 separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutuk Djoko Kusworo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the CO2 separation performance of a hybrid membranes flat sheet based on polyimide incorporated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs particles. CNTs was selected and its loading were a 1 wt% in total solid. The hybrid composite membranes were fabricated in order to increase their separation performance for the gaseous mixture of CO2 and CH4. Hybrid Composite  membrane incorporated carbon nanotubes were mannufactured  by the dry-wet phase inversion technique using flat sheet membrane casting machine system,  in which the CNTs were embedded into the polyimide membrane and the resulting membranes were characterized. The results from the FESEM, DSC and FTIR analysis confirmed that chemical modification on carbon nanotubes surface had taken place. Sieve-in-a-cage’ morphology observed shows the poor adhesion between polymer and unmodified CNT. The results revealed that the good multi-wall carbon nanotubes dispersion leads to enhanced gas permeation properties. It is also concluded that addition of carbon nanotubes particles into the matrix of Polyimide polymer has significant effect on the membrane structure and properties.

  20. Study on calcium precursors for CaO preparation to capture CO2 at high temperature%CaO高温吸附捕集CO2-制备CaO的钙基前驱体材料筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明明; 计超; 孙泽; 汪瑾; 李平; 于建国

    2012-01-01

    价格低廉的CaO材料在高温下能高效吸附捕集CO2气体,被认为是碳减排的有效方法之一.然而,CaO长时间循环碳酸化/煅烧解吸后,其CO2的化学吸附容量下降,稳定性较差,限制了该材料的工业应用.本文采用天然钙源(牡蛎壳和方解石等)和化学试剂(醋酸钙)为钙基前驱材料制备CaO.采用扫描电子显微镜(SEM),X射线衍射仪(XRD)和氮气吸附仪等手段对制备的CaO材料进行形貌和物理结构的分析表征;在高温和模拟的烟道气氛条件下(10% CO2和90% N2),采用热重分析仪测量CaO吸附CO2的能力和长时间循环碳酸化/煅烧解吸后的稳定性.我们经过与目前所报道的其他钙基吸附材料进行比较,并结合钙基前驱材料的市场价格,发现CaO(醋酸钙)的CO2吸附能力和稳定性较为理想,醋酸钙在高温烟气捕碳方面具有非常好的应用前景.%As an abundant and cheap material, calcium oxide (CaO) is an efficient sorbent for CO2 capture at high temperature. The carbonation/calcination loop of CaO/CaCO3 is an effective process for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). However, both the gradual decline of the CO2 capture capacity and the poor stability, because of the pore filling and pore closure at the high calcination temperature, limit the industrial application of calcium-based sorbents. In this paper, study on calcium precursors was carried out in order to obtain CaO sorbents to capture CO2 with high efficiency. The candidate materials include seashell materials (oyster shells), natural minerals (calcite) and chemical reagents (calcium acetate hydrate). Oyster shell powder and calcite powder were analyzed by XRD, and CaO sorbents prepared from various precursors were characterized by nitrogen physisorption apparatus. The fresh CaO sorbents and CaO after multiple cycles to capture CO2 were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The capture CO2 capability and the stability of CaO sorbents were

  1. Greenhouse Gas (CH4, CO2 and N2O) Emission Levels by Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) Ponds in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossete, A. L. M.; Sundefeld Junior, G.; Aparicio, C.; Baldi, G. G.; Montes, C. R.; Piveli, R. P.; Melfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    This study measured greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by Facultative Ponds on Wastewater Treatment Plants. The most studied GHGs include CO2, CH4and N2O. The level of GHG (CO2, CH4 and N2O) emissions by WWTPs in Australian-type stabilization ponds was measured in the city of Lins (22º21'S, 49º50'W), state of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. GHG collection was carried outusing a collection chamber installed at the center of the facultative pond's final third. The effluent's pH and temperature (ET) were registered by probes, and meteorological information regarding air temperature (AT) and solar radiation (SR) were obtained from INMET, Brazil. GHG collection was carried out for 72 consecutive hours in June 2014, on an hourly basis, once every 5 minutes, for the first 30 minutes, and once every 10 minutes from 30 to 50 minutesand subsequently analyzed by gas chromatograph (GC).After three days of data collection, the average AT, SR, ET and pH values were, respectively, 18oC, 2583kJm-2, 23oC and 8.2. Average values for GHG emission levels (CH4, CO2 and N2O) were 79.01; 100.65 and 0.0 mg m-2 h-1, respectively. GHG emission levels were divided into light periods (morning, afternoon and evening)in order to verify the periods with the highest GHG emissions.The highest CH4 emission levels were measured between morning and early afternoon. The maximum CO2 emissions were observed from evening to early morning. N2O emissions were constant and values were close to the ones found in the atmosphere, which shows the emission of N2O by facultative ponds does not contribute to greenhouse gases emissions.The results enabled us to characterize and quantify GHG emission levels per Facultative Pond on Wastewater Treatment Plant. Acknowledgment to FAPESP and SABESP, Brazil.

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of NiCo2O4 nanowires/nitrogen-doped graphene for high-performance supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mei; Chen, Jianpeng; Ma, Yuxiao; Zhang, Jingdan; Liu, Jianhua; Li, Songmei; An, Junwei

    2014-09-01

    NiCo2O4 nanowires/nitrogen-doped graphene (NCO/NG) composite materials were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment in a water-glycerol mixed solvent and subsequent thermal transformation. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical performance of the composites was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectrum techniques. NiCo2O4 nanowires are densely coated by nitrogen-doped graphene and the composite displays good electrochemical performance. The maximum specific capacitance of NCO/NG is 1273.13 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 in 6 M KOH aqueous solution, and it exhibits good capacity retention without noticeable degradation after 3000 cycles at 4 A g-1.

  3. The Albano Maar Lake high resolution bathymetry and dissolved CO 2 budget (Colli Albani volcano, Italy): Constrains to hazard evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzidei, Marco; Carapezza, Maria Luisa; Esposito, Alessandra; Giordano, Guido; Lelli, Matteo; Tarchini, Luca

    2008-04-01

    The Albano Lake is the deepest volcanic lake in Italy (- 167 m) and fills the youngest maar of the quiescent Colli Albani volcano. The lake has undergone significant level changes and lahar generating overflows occurred about 5800 yrs B.P. and likely in 398 b.C., when Romans excavated a tunnel drain through the maar wall. Hazardous lake rollovers and CO 2 release are still possible because the Albano volcano shows active ground deformation, gas emission and periodic seismic swarms. On November 2005, the first high resolution bathymetric survey of the Albano Lake was performed. Here we present the results provided by a Digital Elevation Model and 2-D and 3-D images of the crater lake floor, which is made by coalescent and partly overlapping craters and wide flat surfaces separated by some evident scarps. Submerged shorelines are identified at depths between - 20 m and - 41 m and indicate the occurrence of significant lake level changes, likely between 7.1 and 4.1 ka. The current lake volume is ~ 447.5 × 10 6 m 3 and the total quantity of dissolved CO 2 is 6850 t estimated by chemical analyses of samples collected on May 2006. A decrease of nearly one order of magnitude of the CO 2 dissolved in the lake water below - 120 m, observed from December 1997 to May 2006 (from 4190 to 465 t respectively), has been attributed to lake water overturn. The observed oscillations of the dissolved CO 2 concentrations justify the efforts of monitoring the chemical and physical characteristics of the lake. At present the quantity of dissolved CO 2 is very far from saturation and Nyos-type events cannot presently occur.

  4. Fractional CO 2 laser as an effective modality in treatment of striae alba in skin types III and IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Fatemi Naein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Rapid stretching of the skin over the weak connective tissue leads to development of striae distensae. Recently, researchers have shown special interest towards use of fractional photothermolysis in treatment of striae and several studies have shown its usefulness. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of Fractional CO 2 laser in treatment of striae alba. Materials and Methods: A randomized clinical trial was carried out in female patients with striae alba. Ninety two striae were randomly selected and divided into two groups. Five sessions of laser resurfacing, were performed in Group 1, every 2-4 weeks. Group 2 was treated with 10% glycolic acid+0.05% tretinoin cream nightly during the study. Photographs were taken from the striae before and two weeks after the end of treatment. Mean surface area of striae compared between two groups. Patients′ views regarding the degree of improvement were assessed via visual analogue scale (VAS. Results: Forty six striae in Group 1 underwent laser resurfacing and 46 matched striae in Group 2, were treated with topical cream. Mean difference of striae surface area, was significantly decreased after treatment in Group 1 (-37.1±15.6 cm 2 in comparison with Group 2 (-7.9±9 cm 2 (P value >0.001. Mean VAS was significantly higher in Group 1 (3.05±0.74 compared to Group 2 (0.63±0.66 (P value >0.001. Conclusions: Fractional photothermolysis via Fractional CO 2 laser seems to be an effective method for treatment of striae alba.

  5. High and low frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation inhibits nociceptive responses induced by CO2 laser stimulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tommaso, Marina; Fiore, Pietro; Camporeale, Alfonso; Guido, Marco; Libro, Giuseppe; Losito, Luciana; Megna, Marisa; Puca, Francomichele; Megna, Gianfranco

    2003-05-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) on CO(2) laser evoked potentials (LEPs) in 16 normal subjects. The volar side of the forearm was stimulated by 10 Hz TENS in eight subjects and by 100 Hz TENS in the remainder; the skin of the forearm was stimulated by CO(2) laser and the LEPs were recorded in basal conditions and soon after and 15 min after TENS. Both low and high frequency TENS significantly reduced the subjective rating of heat stimuli and the LEPs amplitude, although high frequency TENS appeared more efficacious. TENS seemed to exert a mild inhibition of the perception and processing of pain induced by laser Adelta fibres activation; the implications of these effects in the clinical employment of TENS remain to be clarified.

  6. Monte Carlo simulations of high-pressure phase equilibria of CO2-H2O mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2011-05-26

    Histogram-reweighting grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations were used to obtain the phase behavior of CO(2)-H(2)O mixtures over a broad temperature and pressure range (50 °C ≤ T ≤ 350 °C, 0 ≤ P ≤ 1000 bar). We performed a comprehensive test of several existing water (SPC, TIP4P, TIP4P2005, and exponential-6) and carbon dioxide (EPM2, TraPPE, and exponential-6) models using conventional Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules for the unlike-pair parameters. None of the models we studied reproduce adequately experimental data over the entire temperature and pressure range, but critical assessments were made on the range of T and P where particular model pairs perform better. Away from the critical region (T ≤ 250 °C), the exponential-6 model combination yields the best predictions for the CO(2)-rich phase, whereas the TraPPE/TIP4P2005 model combination provides the most accurate coexistence composition and pressure for the H(2)O-rich phase. Near the critical region (250 °C < T ≤ 350 °C), the critical points are not accurately estimated by any of the models studied, but the exponential-6 models are able to qualitatively capture the critical loci and the shape of the phase envelopes. Local improvements can be achieved at specific temperatures by introducing modification factors to the Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules, but the modified combining rule is still not able to achieve global improvements over the entire temperature and pressure range. Our work points to the challenge and importance of improving current atomistic models so as to accurately predict the phase behavior of this important binary mixture.

  7. Nonlinear optical compression of high-power 10-μm CO2 laser pulses in gases and semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, Jeremy; Tochitsky, Sergei; Joshi, Chan

    2017-03-01

    We review a series of experiments on nonlinear optical compression of high-power, picosecond, 10-µm CO2 laser pulses. Presented schemes include self-phase modulation in a Xe-filled hollow glass waveguide, self-phase modulation in GaAs followed by compression, and multiple four-wave mixing compression of a laser beat-wave in GaAs. The novel nonlinear optics and technical challenges uncovered through these experiments are discussed.

  8. Treatment of squamous intraepithelial lesion of type CIN2 et CIN3 with laser CO2 vaporization: retrospective study of 52 cases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saah-Briffaut, E; Collinet, P; Saah, R; Boman, F; Leroy, J-L

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out over an 8-year period in order to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of laser CO2 vaporization in the treatment of squamous intraepithelial lesion of type CIN2 and CIN3...

  9. Ni Nanoparticles Supported on Cage-Type Mesoporous Silica for CO2 Hydrogenation with High CH4 Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Canggih Setya; Wu, Hung-Chi; Chen, Ching-Shiun; Saikia, Diganta; Kao, Hsien-Ming

    2016-09-08

    Ni nanoparticles (around 4 nm diameter) were successfully supported on cage-type mesoporous silica SBA-16 (denoted as Ni@SBA-16) via wet impregnation at pH 9, followed by the calcination-reduction process. The Ni@SBA-16 catalyst with a very high Ni loading amount (22.9 wt %) exhibited exceptionally high CH4 selectivity for CO2 hydrogenation. At a nearly identical loading amount, the Ni@SBA-16 catalysts with smaller particle size of Ni NPs surprisingly exhibited a higher catalytic activity of CO2 hydrogenation and also led to a higher selectivity on CH4 formation than the Ni@SiO2 catalysts. This enhanced activity of the Ni@SBA-16 catalyst is suggested to be an accumulative result of the advantageous structural properties of the support SBA-16 and the well confined Ni NPs within the support; both induced a favorable reaction pathway for high selectivity of CH4 in CO2 hydrogenation.

  10. Effect of Saturated CO2 on Corrosion Behavior of 13Cr Pipe Steel in High Chloride Environment%高氯环境中饱和CO2对13Cr油管钢腐蚀行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷冰; 马元泰; 李瑛; 王福会; 常泽亮; 谢俊峰; 宋文文; 周理志

    2013-01-01

    The effect of saturated CO2 on corrosion behavior of 13Cr pipe steel in high concentration chloride environment was studied by EIS, polarization test, EN test and SEM. The results indicated that the corrosion rate and corrosion probability of 13Cr pipe steel were accelerated in high chloride environment with the presence of saturated CO2. The 13Cr pipe steel suffered from pitting corrosion in high chloride concentration environment, whilst, from uniform corrosion by the synergistic effect of Cl and CO2. The stability of the passive film of 13Cr pipe steel decreased in high concentration chloride environment with saturated CO2, which can be explained by the dehydroxylation of the outer part of the passive film by carbonic acid and the increase of ionic conductivity of the passive film in aqueous electrolytes.%采用电化学阻抗(EIS)、极化曲线、电化学噪声(EN)和扫描电子显微镜(SEM)研究了高氯环境中饱和CO2对13Cr油管钢腐蚀行为的影响.结果表明:饱和CO2加速材料的腐蚀,增大了腐蚀的发生频率,使材料的腐蚀由点蚀转变为均匀腐蚀.碳酸对钝化膜的去羟基化作用和增大钝化膜的导通率,是材料腐蚀行为变化的原因.

  11. Fractional carbon-dioxide (CO2) laser-assisted topical therapy for the treatment of onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Anil Kumar; Keyal, Uma; Huang, Xin; Zhao, Jing Jun

    2016-05-01

    Inability of topical medications to penetrate via nail plate brings a great challenge to clinicians in treating onychomycosis. Furthermore, oral medications are not appropriate for all patients because of drug interactions, adverse effects, and contraindications. We sought to evaluate the clinical efficacy of fractional carbon-dioxide laser-assisted topical therapy for onychomycosis. In total, 75 patients with 356 onychomycotic nails confirmed by mycologic examination were included in this study. All the affected nails received 3 sessions of laser therapy at 4-week intervals and once-daily application of terbinafine cream for 3 months. In all, 94.66% and 92% of the treated patients were potassium hydroxide and culture negative, respectively, after 3 months of treatment. However, only 84% and 80% were potassium hydroxide and culture negative, respectively, at 6 months of follow-up. Using Scoring Clinical Index for Onychomycosis electronic calculator, 73.33% of the patients scored higher than 6 and 26.66% of the patients scored 6 or less. Those who scored more than 6 were evaluated clinically and 98.18% of them showed response to treatment at 3 months and 78.18% of them at 6 months of follow-up. Lack of control group and short duration of follow-up are limitations. Fractional carbon-dioxide laser therapy combined with topical antifungal was found to be effective in the treatment of onychomycosis. However, randomized clinical studies are needed before it can be widely used in clinics. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimisation of biological and physical parameters for lycopene supercritical CO2 extraction from ordinary and high-pigment tomato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenucci, Marcello S; Caccioppola, Alessandro; Durante, Miriana; Serrone, Lucia; Leonardo, Rescio; Piro, Gabriella; Dalessandro, Giuseppe

    2010-08-15

    Lycopene is used for several industrial applications. Supercritical CO(2) (SC-CO(2)) extraction from red-ripe tomato fruits is an excellent technique to replace the use of harmful solvents. In this study, starting from red-ripe tomatoes of ordinary and high-lycopene cultivars, the effect of different agronomical and technical aspects on lycopene content, stability and yield was evaluated throughout the production process from fresh tomatoes to the final SC-CO(2)-extracted oleoresin containing lycopene. Red-ripe tomato cultivars differed in their lycopene content. Irrigation excess or deficit caused an increase in the amount of lycopene in the fruits. Fresh tomatoes were processed into a lyophilised matrix suitable for SC-CO(2) extraction, which could be stored for more than 6 months at -20 degrees C without lycopene loss. Under the optimal extraction conditions, efficiencies of up to 80% were achieved, but the recovery of lycopene in the extracted oleoresin was very low (approximately 24%). Co-extraction of the tomato matrix mixed with a lipid co-matrix allowed the recovery of approximately 90% of lycopene in the oleoresin. Using the high-lycopene cultivars, the yield of total extracted lycopene increased by approximately 60% with respect to the ordinary cultivars. Lipids and other biologically active molecules were present in the oleoresin. A method for extracting, from a tomato matrix, a natural and solvent-free oleoresin containing lycopene dissolved in a highly unsaturated vegetable oil has been described. The oleoresin represents an excellent product for testing on cancer and cardiovascular disease prevention. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Morphological Changes Of The Root Surface And Fracture Resistance After Treatment Of Root Fracture By CO2 Laser And Glass Ionomer Or Mineral Trioxide Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Y. A.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.; Ghaith, M. E.

    2009-09-01

    This in vitro study evaluates the morphological changes of the root surface and fracture resistance after treatment of root cracks by CO2 laser and glass Ionomer or mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA). Fifty freshly extracted human maxillary central incisor teeth with similar dimension were selected. Crowns were sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction, and the lengths of the roots were adjusted to 13 mm. A longitudinal groove with a dimension of 1×5 mm2 and a depth of 1.5 mm was prepared by a high speed fissure bur on the labial surface of the root. The roots were divided into 5 groups: the 10 root grooves in group 1 were remained unfilled and were used as a control group. The 10 root grooves in group 2 were filled with glass Ionomer, 10 root grooves in group 3 were filled with MTA, the 10 root grooves in group 4 were filled with glass Ionomer and irradiated by CO2 laser and the 10 root grooves in group 5 were filled with MTA and irradiated with CO2 laser. Scanning electron microscopy was performed for two samples in each group. Tests for fracture strength were performed using a universal testing machine and a round tip of a diameter of 4 mm. The force was applied vertically with a constant speed of 1 mm min 1. For each root, the force at the time of fracture was recorded in Newtons. Results were evaluated statistically with ANOVA and Turkey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) tests. SEM micrographs revealed that the melted masses and the plate-like crystals formed a tight Chemical bond between the cementum and glass Ionomer and melted masses and globular like structure between cementum and MTA. The mean fracture resistance was the maximum fracture resistance in group 5 (810.8 N). Glass Ionomer and MTA with the help of CO2 laser can be an alternative to the treatment of tooth crack or fracture. CO2 laser increase the resistance of the teeth to fracture.

  14. Kinetic modeling of a high power fast-axial-flow CO2 laser with computational fluid dynamics method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method for the simulation of fast-axial-flow CO2 laser is developed.The model which is solved by CFD software uses a set of dynamic differential equations to describe the dynamic process in one discharge tube.The velocity,temperature,pressure and turbulence energy distributions in discharge passage are presented.There is a good agreement between the theoretical prediction and the experimental results.This result indicates that the parameters of the laser have significant effect on the flow distribution in the discharge passage.It is helpful to optimize the output of high power CO2 laser by mastering its kinetic characteristics.

  15. High-Frequency, Automated Measurements of CO2, N2O and CH4 from Forested Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, K. E.; Davidson, E. A.; Phillips, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Soils are the dominant natural source of N2O, and fertilized agricultural soils are a major source of increasing anthropogenic N2O. Anthropogenic sources of CH4 include rice cultivation, while wetlands are a significant natural source, and upland soils are a natural CH4 sink. While most anthropogenic CO2 is derived from fossil fuel combustion, a significant fraction is from land use change, including a portion from loss of soil carbon. Soils play a central role as sources and sinks of the three most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases of the 21st century, CO2, CH4, and N2O. Variation in soil moisture can be very dynamic, and it is one of the dominant factors controlling soil aeration, and hence the balance between aerobic (CO2 producing) and anaerobic (CH4 producing) respiration. The production and consumption of N2O is also highly dependent on spatial and temporal variation in soil moisture. Although technologies for high frequency, precise measurements of CO2 have been available for years, methods for measuring soil fluxes of CH4 and N2O at high temporal frequency have been hampered by lack of appropriate technology for in situ real-time measurements. We utilized a previously developed automated chamber system for measuring CO2 efflux (Licor 6252 IRGA) from soils, and configured it to run in-line with a new model quantum cascade laser (QCL) system which measures N2O and CH4 (Aerodyne model QC-TILDAS-CS). The QCL is thermoelectrically cooled and uses a 76-meter path length, 0.5 liter volume, and multiple pass absorption cell for sampling. The QCL sampling frequency is 10Hz, and its range is 0.3 to 3000 ppb for N2O with a sensitivity of 0.3 ppb, and 0.5 to 5000 ppb for CH4 with a sensitivity of 0.5 ppb. Six sampling chambers, with corresponding soil water content and soil temperature sensors, were deployed at the Howland Forest ME, in an upland

  16. High-performance aqueous rechargeable batteries based on zinc anode and NiCo2O4 cathode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jun Wang; Zhijun Jia; Songbo Li; Yi Wang; Wei Guo; Tao Qi

    2015-09-01

    A new aqueous Zn–NiCo2O4 rechargeable battery system with a high voltage, consisting of NiCo2O4 as cathode and metal Zn as anode, is proposed for the first time. It is cheap and environmental friendly, and its energy density is about 202.8 Wh kg–1. The system still maintains excellent capacity retention of about 85% after 100 full cycles at a current rate of 2 A g–1 between 1.5 and 1.95 V. This work not only provides a new battery system but also shows promise for application in large-scale energy storage for its low cost, good cycling and environmental friendliness.

  17. Development of Advanced High Strength Steel for Improved Vehicle Safety, Fuel Efficiency and CO2 Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satendra; Singhai, Mrigandra; Desai, Rahul; Sam, Srimanta; Patra, Pradip Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Global warming and green house gas emissions are the major issues worldwide and their impacts are clearly visible as a record high temperatures, rising sea, and severe `flooding and droughts'. Motor vehicles considered as a major contributor on global warming due to its green house gas emissions. Hence, the automobile industries are under tremendous pressure from government and society to reduce green house gas emission to maximum possible extent. In present work, Dual Phase steel with boron as microalloying is manufactured using thermo-mechanical treatment during hot rolling. Dual phase steel with boron microalloying improved strength by near about 200 MPa than dual phase steel without boron. The boron added dual phase steel can be used for manufacturing stronger and a lighter vehicle which is expected to perform positively on green house gas emissions. The corrosion resistance behavior is also improved with boron addition which would further increase the life cycle of the vehicle even under corrosive atmosphere.

  18. Development of Advanced High Strength Steel for Improved Vehicle Safety, Fuel Efficiency and CO2 Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satendra; Singhai, Mrigandra; Desai, Rahul; Sam, Srimanta; Patra, Pradip Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Global warming and green house gas emissions are the major issues worldwide and their impacts are clearly visible as a record high temperatures, rising sea, and severe `flooding and droughts'. Motor vehicles considered as a major contributor on global warming due to its green house gas emissions. Hence, the automobile industries are under tremendous pressure from government and society to reduce green house gas emission to maximum possible extent. In present work, Dual Phase steel with boron as microalloying is manufactured using thermo-mechanical treatment during hot rolling. Dual phase steel with boron microalloying improved strength by near about 200 MPa than dual phase steel without boron. The boron added dual phase steel can be used for manufacturing stronger and a lighter vehicle which is expected to perform positively on green house gas emissions. The corrosion resistance behavior is also improved with boron addition which would further increase the life cycle of the vehicle even under corrosive atmosphere.

  19. Modeling atmospheric transport of CO2 at High Resolution to estimate the potentialities of spaceborne observation to monitor anthropogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciais, P.; Chimot, J.; Klonecki, A.; Prunet, P.; Vinuessa, J.; Nussli, C.; Breon, F.

    2010-12-01

    There is a crucial and urgent need to quantify and monitor anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of CO2. Spaceborne measurements, such as those from GOSAT or the forthcoming OCO-2, or other space missions in preparation, could provide the necessary information, in particular over regions with few in-situ measurements of atmospheric concentration are too scarce. Contrarily to biogenic flux, anthropogenic emissions are highly heterogeneous in space with typical values that vary by several orders of magnitudes. A proper analysis of the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the atmospheric concentration of CO2 therefore requires a high spatial resolution, typically of a few km. Simulations of the transport of fossil CO2 plumes were performed with a resolution of 1 km over the main industrialized regions of France, and using other models of lower resolution to account for the influence of distant sources advected into the area of interest. The results clearly show the plumes from intense yet localized sources, such as urban areas or power plants, and how their structures vary with the meteorology (wind speed and direction). They also show that the plume from distant sources, such as the large emission from Northern Europe, may sometime mask the local plume, even from large cities like Paris or Lyon. These atmospheric transport simulations are then sampled according to cloud cover, spaceborne instrument sampling and typical errors, to analyze the information content of the remote sensing data and how they can improve the current knowledge on anthropogenic emissions.

  20. Investigation of the calcification response of foraminifera and pteropods to high CO2 environments in the Pleistocene, Paleogene and Cretaceous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, M.; Pettit, L.; Wall-Palmer, D.; Smart, C.; Hall-Spencer, J.; Medina-Sanchez, A.; Prol Ledesma, R. M.; Rodolfo-Metalpa, R.; Collins, P.

    2012-04-01

    Ocean acidification is regarded as a current problem and there is an extensive literature on how various organisms are responding to changes in oceanic pH: the result of increasing atmospheric pCO2. Acidification is, however, not just a recent phenomenon and there are times in the geological record where pCO2 has been higher than present day levels (especially in the Cretaceous and Paleogene). Understanding the response of various microfossil groups to the changes in oceanic pH is on-going as part of a major investigation of ocean acidification in both modern and 'fossil' environments. Extensive carbon dioxide vents have recently been described in the Wagner Basin (northern Gulf of California, Mexico), which cause dramatic changes in carbonate chemistry. The pHT decreased from 7.88 to 7.55 near the most active vents where the lowest saturation states of aragonite (ΩArag) and calcite (ΩCalc) were 0.95 and 1.47 respectively. Foraminifera (unicellular protists) present in the top 2 cm of the sediment (both living and dead individuals) had a range of mainly calcareous taxa (including Bolivina acuminata, B. acutula, Bulimina marginata and Nonionella basispinata). This is a normal composition for these water depths. The lack of dissolution features and the generally good preservation of the tests, even when viewed under a scanning electron microscope, were striking. With no evidence of breakage caused by transportation, it is assumed that this composition is representative in terms of numbers of individuals and taxa represented. Benthic foraminifera from CO2 vents around the island of Ischia (Italy) have shown dramatic long-term effects of ocean acidification. The foraminifera of the Wagner Basin appear to be surviving in high CO2 environments comparable to those that occurred during the Cretaceous-Paleogene "greenhouse" world where atmospheric pCO2 was much higher, but with calcareous foraminifera apparently thriving. In the Pleistocene, pCO2 levels are known to have

  1. High-resolution atmospheric inversion of urban CO2 emissions during the dormant season of the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauvaux, Thomas; Miles, Natasha L.; Deng, Aijun; Richardson, Scott J.; Cambaliza, Maria O.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Gaudet, Brian; Gurney, Kevin R.; Huang, Jianhua; O'Keefe, Darragh; Song, Yang; Karion, Anna; Oda, Tomohiro; Patarasuk, Risa; Razlivanov, Igor; Sarmiento, Daniel; Shepson, Paul; Sweeney, Colm; Turnbull, Jocelyn; Wu, Kai

    2016-05-01

    Based on a uniquely dense network of surface towers measuring continuously the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs), we developed the first comprehensive monitoring systems of CO2 emissions at high resolution over the city of Indianapolis. The urban inversion evaluated over the 2012-2013 dormant season showed a statistically significant increase of about 20% (from 4.5 to 5.7 MtC ± 0.23 MtC) compared to the Hestia CO2 emission estimate, a state-of-the-art building-level emission product. Spatial structures in prior emission errors, mostly undetermined, appeared to affect the spatial pattern in the inverse solution and the total carbon budget over the entire area by up to 15%, while the inverse solution remains fairly insensitive to the CO2 boundary inflow and to the different prior emissions (i.e., ODIAC). Preceding the surface emission optimization, we improved the atmospheric simulations using a meteorological data assimilation system also informing our Bayesian inversion system through updated observations error variances. Finally, we estimated the uncertainties associated with undetermined parameters using an ensemble of inversions. The total CO2 emissions based on the ensemble mean and quartiles (5.26-5.91 MtC) were statistically different compared to the prior total emissions (4.1 to 4.5 MtC). Considering the relatively small sensitivity to the different parameters, we conclude that atmospheric inversions are potentially able to constrain the carbon budget of the city, assuming sufficient data to measure the inflow of GHG over the city, but additional information on prior emission error structures are required to determine the spatial structures of urban emissions at high resolution.

  2. Treatment for intranasal synechiae by CO2 laser under endoscopic visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunhai; Yin, Shankai

    2005-07-01

    Endonasal low intensity laser therapy (ELILT) began in China in 1998. Now in China it is widely applied to treat hyperlipidemia and brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, insomnia, poststroke depression, intractable headache, ache in head or face, cerebral thrombosis, acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease, migraine, brain lesion and mild cognitive impairment. There are four pathways mediating EILILT, Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells. Two unhealth acupoints of Yangming channal inside nose might mediate the one as is low intensity laser acupuncture. Unbalance autonomic nervous systems might be modulated. Blood cells might mediate the one as is intravascular low intensity laser therapy. These three pathways are integrated in ELILT so that serum amyloid β protein, malformation rate of erythrocyte, CCK-8, the level of viscosity at lower shear rates and hematocrit, or serum lipid might decrease, and melanin production/SOD activity or β endorphin might increase after ELILT treatment. These results indicate ELILT might work, but it need to be verified by randomized placebo-controlled trial.

  3. 超高压联合高密度 CO2处理钝化对虾多酚氧化酶%Inactivation of polyphenol oxidase from Litopenaeus vannamei treated by ultra high pressure combined dense phase carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓倩琳; 刘书成; 刘蒙娜; 刘媛; 郭明慧; 吉宏武; 李承勇; 高静

    2016-01-01

    Ultra high pressure (UHP) and dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) processes are effective non-thermal pasteurization methods that have gained increasing attention in inactivation of undesired enzymes and microorganisms in food industry. The advantage of UHP is to process foods that are already packaged and therefore are not liable to post-process contamination. Although UHP effectively eliminates microorganisms, it does not inactivate some key enzymes that reduce the product quality. For example, UHP may increase the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) at lower pressure. As a continuous operation, DPCD needs aseptic filling to containers, but can inactivate enzymes. Therefore it is logical to combine these technologies to benefit from their individual advantages. The presence of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the sample medium might create a more acidic environment and synergistically interact with pressure to damage or alter the structures of enzymes and microbial cells. In order to make up for the disadvantage of UHP in inactivating PPO and use the advantage of DPCD in inactivating PPO, the inactivation effect of PPO from Litopenaeus vannamei treated by UHP combined with CO2 (UHP+CO2) was studied, and the feasibility of developing new shrimp products by UHP+CO2 was explored. The crude PPO extracts of 2 mL were treated with 2% CO2 (v/v) package alone, or UHP alone, or UHP + 2% CO2 (v/v). The treatment temperature was 30±2 ℃. The treatment pressure was 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 MPa, respectively. The treatment time was 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min, respectively. The results showed that: The PPO was inactivated more effectively by UHP+CO2 than CO2 treatment and UHP treatment alone. Treated at 100 MPa for 30 min by UHP+CO2, PPO activity dropped to 18.92%±1.52%. At 200 MPa for 10 min by UHP+CO2, PPO activity dropped to 10.91%±1.08%. At 300 MPa for 10 min by UHP+CO2, 95% PPO was inactivated. At 400 MPa for 5 min by UHP+CO2, the residual activity of PPO was less than 3

  4. Pteropod eggs released at high pCO2 lack resilience to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manno, Clara; Peck, Victoria L.; Tarling, Geraint A.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of ocean acidification (OA) on the early recruitment of pteropods in the Scotia Sea, was investigated considering the process of spawning, quality of the spawned eggs and their capacity to develop. Maternal OA stress was induced on female pteropods (Limacina helicina antarctica) through exposure to present day pCO2 conditions and two potential future OA states (750 μatm and 1200 μatm). The eggs spawned from these females, both before and during their exposure to OA, were incubated themselves in this same range of conditions (embryonic OA stress). Maternal OA stress resulted in eggs with lower carbon content, while embryonic OA stress retarded development. The combination of maternal and embryonic OA stress reduced the percentage of eggs successfully reaching organogenesis by 80%. We propose that OA stress not only affects the somatic tissue of pteropods but also the functioning of their gonads. Corresponding in-situ sampling found that post-larval L. helicina antarctica concentrated around 600 m depth, which is deeper than previously assumed. A deeper distribution makes their exposure to waters undersaturated for aragonite more likely in the near future given that these waters are predicted to shoal from depth over the coming decades. PMID:27181210

  5. Tropical coral reef habitat in a geoengineered, high-CO2 world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couce, E.; Irvine, P. J.; Gregorie, L. J.; Ridgwell, A.; Hendy, E. J.

    2013-05-01

    Continued anthropogenic CO2 emissions are expected to impact tropical coral reefs by further raising sea surface temperatures (SST) and intensifying ocean acidification (OA). Although geoengineering by means of solar radiation management (SRM) may mitigate temperature increases, OA will persist, raising important questions regarding the impact of different stressor combinations. We apply statistical Bioclimatic Envelope Models to project changes in shallow water tropical coral reef habitat as a single niche (without resolving biodiversity or community composition) under various representative concentration pathway and SRM scenarios, until 2070. We predict substantial reductions in habitat suitability centered on the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool under net anthropogenic radiative forcing of ≥3.0 W/m2. The near-term dominant risk to coral reefs is increasing SSTs; below 3 W/m2 reasonably favorable conditions are maintained, even when achieved by SRM with persisting OA. "Optimal" mitigation occurs at 1.5 W/m2 because tropical SSTs overcool in a fully geoengineered (i.e., preindustrial global mean temperature) world.

  6. Highly efficient supramolecular photocatalysts for CO2 reduction using visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shunsuke; Koike, Kazuhide; Inoue, Haruo; Ishitani, Osamu

    2007-04-01

    We report the most efficient homogeneous photocatalyst yet for CO(2) reduction using a wide range of visible-light wavelength. We synthesized new Ru(II)-Re(I) binuclear complexes with 1,3-bis(4'-methyl-[2,2']bipyridinyl-4-yl)-propan-2-ol (bpyC3bpy) as a bridge ligand, specifically [Ru-ReP(OEt)(3)](3+) and [Ru-Repy](3+) where a P(OEt)(3) or pyridine ligand coordinates on the Re site. Their photocatalytic activities were compared with [Ru-ReCl](2+), which has a Cl(-) ligand on the Re site and has recently been reported as a much better photocatalyst (Phi = 0.12, TN(CO) = 160) than a 1:1 mixed system of the corresponding Ru(II) and Re(I) mononuclear complexes. The best photocatalyst was [Ru-ReP(OEt)(3)](3+), for which Phi = 0.21 and TN(CO) = 232. A mechanistic study clearly showed that [Ru-ReP(OEt)(3)](3+) is rapidly converted into the solvento complex [Ru-ReSol](3+), (Sol = DMF or TEOA) which is the actual photocatalyst. Although similar rapid ligand substitution occurs with other supramolecules, the pyridine and Cl(-) anions accelerate the decomposition of the supramolecular photocatalysts.

  7. In-operando elucidation of bimetallic CoNi nanoparticles during high-temperature CH 4 /CO 2 reaction

    KAUST Repository

    AlSabban, Bedour

    2017-05-02

    Dry reforming of methane (DRM) proceeds via CH4 decomposition to leave surface carbon species, followed by their removal with CO2-derived species. Reactivity tuning for stoichiometric CH4/CO2 reactants was attempted by alloying the non-noble metals Co and Ni, which have high affinity with CO2 and high activity for CH4 decomposition, respectively. This study was focused on providing evidence of the capturing surface coverage of the reactive intermediates and the associated structural changes of the metals during DRM at high temperature using in-operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). On the Co catalysts, the first-order effects with respect to CH4 pressure and negative-order effects with respect to CO2 pressure on the DRM rate are consistent with the competitive adsorption of the surface oxygen species on the same sites as the CH4 decomposition reaction. The Ni surface provides comparatively higher rates of CH4 decomposition and the resultant DRM than the Co catalyst but leaves some deposited carbon on the catalyst surface. In contrast, the bimetallic CoNi catalyst exhibits reactivity towards the DRM but with kinetic orders resembling Co catalyst, producing negligible carbon deposition by balancing CH4 and CO2 activation. The in-operando X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements confirmed that the Co catalyst was progressively oxidized from the surface to the bulk with reaction time, whereas CoNi and Ni remained relatively reduced during DRM. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation considering the high reaction temperature for DRM confirmed the unselective site arrangement between Co and Ni atoms in both the surface and bulk of the alloy nanoparticle (NP). The calculated heat of oxygen chemisorption became more exothermic in the order of Ni, CoNi, Co, consistent with the catalytic behavior. The comprehensive experimental and theoretical evidence provided herein clearly suggests

  8. Predicting Effects of Corrosion Erosion of High Strength Steel Pipelines Elbow on CO2-Acetic Acid (HAc) Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmara, Y. P.; Ismail, M. F.; Giok Chui, L.; Halimi, Jamiludin

    2016-02-01

    Simultaneously effect of erosion combined with corrosion becomes the most concern in oil and gas industries. It is due to the fast deterioration of metal as effects of solid particles mixed with corrosive environment. There are many corrosion software to investigate possible degradation mechanisms developed by researchers. They are using many combination factors of chemical reactions and physical process. However effects of CO2 and acid on pipelines orientations are still remain uncovered in their simulation. This research will investigate combination effects of CO2 and HAc on corrosion and erosion artificial environmental containing sands particles in 45°, 90° and 180° elbow pipelines. The research used theoretical calculations combined with experiments for verification. The main concerns are to investigate the maximum erosion corrosion rate and maximum shear stress at the surface. Methodology used to calculate corrosion rate are Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) and weight loss. The results showed that at 45°, erosion rate is the more significant effects in contributing degradation of the metal. The effects of CO2 and HAc gave significant effects when flow rate of the solution are high which reflect synergism effects of solid particles and those chemical compositions.

  9. Tropical Cyclones Cause CaCO3 Undersaturation of Coral Reef Seawater in a High-CO2 World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzello, D.; Enochs, I.; Carlton, R.; Musielewicz, S.; Gledhill, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean acidification is the global decline in seawater pH and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) saturation state (Ω) due to the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the world's oceans. Acidification impairs CaCO3 shell and skeleton construction by marine organisms. Coral reefs are particularly vulnerable, as they are constructed by the CaCO3 skeletons of corals and other calcifiers. We understand relatively little about how coral reefs will respond to ocean acidification in combination with other disturbances, such as tropical cyclones. Seawater carbonate chemistry data collected from two reefs in the Florida Keys before, during, and after Tropical Storm Isaac provide the most thorough data to-date on how tropical cyclones affect the seawater CO2-system of coral reefs. Tropical Storm Isaac caused both an immediate and prolonged decline in seawater pH. Aragonite saturation state was depressed by 1.0 for a full week after the storm impact. Based on current 'business-as-usual' CO2 emissions scenarios, we show that tropical cyclones with high rainfall and runoff can cause periods of undersaturation (Ω strength, frequency, and rainfall of the most severe tropical cyclones with climate change in combination with ocean acidification will negatively impact the structural persistence of coral reefs over this century.

  10. Aqueous and Template-Free Synthesis of Meso-Macroporous Polymers for Highly Selective Capture and Conversion of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuan; Liu, Fujian; Jiang, Lilong; Dai, Sheng

    2017-09-01

    Meso-macroporous polymers possessing nitrogen functionality were innovatively synthesized via an aqueous and template-free route in this work. Specifically, the polymerization of 1-(4-vinylbenzyl)-1,3,5,7-tetraazaadamantan-1-ium chloride in aqueous solutions under high temperatures induces the decomposition of hexamethylenetetramine unit into ammonia and formaldehyde molecules, followed by the cross-linking of benzene rings via "resol chemistry". During this process, extended meso-macroporous frameworks were constructed, and meanwhile active nitrogen species were incoporated. Taking the advantage of meso-macroporosity and nitrogen functionality, the synthesized polymers offer competitive CO2 capacities (0.37-1.58 mmol/g at 0˚C and 0.15 bar) and extraodinary CO2/N2 selectivities (155-324 at 0 ˚C). Furthermore, after complexed with metal ions, the synthesized polymers show excellent activity for catalyzing the cycloaddition of propylene oxide with CO2 (Yield>98.5%, TOF: 612.9-761.1 h-1). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Reforestation in a high-CO2 world -- Higher mitigation potential than expected, lower adaptation potential than hoped for

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Sebastian; Pongratz, Julia; Reick, Christian H.; Schmidt, Hauke

    2016-06-01

    We assess the potential and possible consequences for the global climate of a strong reforestation scenario for this century. We perform model experiments using the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM), forced by fossil-fuel CO2 emissions according to the high-emission scenario Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5, but using land use transitions according to RCP4.5, which assumes strong reforestation. Thereby, we isolate the land use change effects of the RCPs from those of other anthropogenic forcings. We find that by 2100 atmospheric CO2 is reduced by 85 ppm in the reforestation model experiment compared to the reference RCP8.5 model experiment. This reduction is higher than previous estimates and is due to increased forest cover in combination with climate and CO2 feedbacks. We find that reforestation leads to global annual mean temperatures being lower by 0.27 K in 2100. We find large annual mean warming reductions in sparsely populated areas, whereas reductions in temperature extremes are also large in densely populated areas.

  12. Experimental determination of carbonation rate in Portland cement at 25°C and relatively high CO2 partial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rodríguez, Ana; Montegrossi, Giordano; Huet, Bruno; Virgili, Giorgio; Orlando, Andrea; Vaselli, Orlando; Marini, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work is to study the alteration of Portland class G Cement at ambient temperature under a relatively high CO2 partial pressure through suitably designed laboratory experiments, in which cement hydration and carbonation are taken into account separately. First, the hydration process was carried out for 28 days to identify and quantify the hydrated solid phases formed. After the completion of hydration, accompanied by partial carbonation under atmospheric conditions, the carbonation process was investigated in a stirred micro-reactor (Parr instrument) with crushed cement samples under 10 bar or more of pure CO2(g) and MilliQ water adopting different reaction times. The reaction time was varied to constrain the reaction kinetics of the carbonation process and to investigate the evolution of secondary solid phases. Chemical and mineralogical analyses (calcimetry, chemical composition, SEM and X-ray Powder Diffraction) were carried out to characterize the secondary minerals formed during cement hydration and carbonation. Water analyses were also performed at the end of each experimental run to measure the concentrations of relevant solutes. The specific surface area of hydrated cement was measured by means of the BET method to obtain the rates of cement carbonation. Experimental outcomes were simulated by means of the PhreeqC software package. The obtained results are of interest to understand the comparatively fast cement alteration in CO2 production wells with damaged casing.

  13. Ca-rich Ca-Al-oxide, high-temperature-stable sorbents prepared from hydrotalcite precursors: synthesis, characterization, and CO2 capture capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Hsueh; Chang, Yen-Po; Chen, San-Yuan; Yu, Ching-Tsung; Chyou, Yau-Pin

    2011-12-16

    We present the design and synthesis of Ca-rich Ca-Al-O oxides, with Ca(2+)/Al(3+) ratios of 1:1, 3:1, 5:1, and 7:1, which were prepared by hydrothermal decomposition of coprecipitated hydrotalcite-like Ca-Al-CO(3) precursors, for high-temperature CO(2) adsorption at 500-700 °C. In situ X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that the coprecipitated, Ca-rich, hydrotalcite-like powders with Ca(2+)/Al(3+) ratios of 5:1 and 7:1 contained Ca(OH)(2) and layered double hydroxide (LDH) phases. Upon annealing, LDH was first destroyed at approximately 200 °C to form an amorphous matrix, and then at 450-550 °C, the Ca(OH)(2) phase was converted into a CaO matrix with incorporated Al(3+) to form a homogeneous solid solution without a disrupted lattice structure. CaO nanocrystals were grown by thermal treatment of the weakly crystalline Ca-Al-O oxide matrix. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that a CO(2) adsorption capacity of approximately 51 wt. % can be obtained from Ca-rich Ca-Al-O oxides prepared by calcination of 7:1 Ca-Al-CO(3) LDH phases at 600-700 °C. Furthermore, a relatively high CO(2) capture capability can be achieved, even with gas flows containing very low CO(2) concentrations (CO(2)/N(2) = 10 %). Approximately 95.6 % of the initial CO(2) adsorption capacity of the adsorbent is retained after 30 cycles of carbonation-calcination. TEM analysis indicates that carbonation-promoted CaCO(3) formation in the Ca-Al-O oxide matrix at 600 °C, but a subsequent desorption in N(2) at 700 °C, caused the formation CaO nanocrystals of approximately 10 nm. The CaO nanocrystals are widely distributed in the weakly crystalline Ca-Al-O oxide matrix and are present during the carbonation-calcination cycles. This demonstrates that Ca-Al-O sorbents that developed through the synthesis and calcination of Ca-rich Ca-Al LDH phases are suitable for long-term cyclic operation in severe temperature environments.

  14. Design of highly active binary catalyst systems for CO2/epoxide copolymerization: polymer selectivity, enantioselectivity, and stereochemistry control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Bing; Shi, Lei; Wang, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Ying-Ju; Peng, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Li, Bo

    2006-02-01

    Asymmetric, regio- and stereoselective alternating copolymerization of CO(2) and racemic aliphatic epoxides proceeds effectively under mild temperature and pressure by using a binary catalyst system of a chiral tetradentate Schiff base cobalt complex [SalenCo(III)X] as the electrophile in conjunction with an ionic organic ammonium salt or a sterically hindered strong organic base as the nucleophile. The substituent groups on the aromatic rings, chiral diamine backbone, and axial X group of the electrophile, as well as the nucleophilicity, leaving ability, and coordination ability of the nucleophile, all significantly affect the catalyst activity, polymer selectivity, enantioselectivity, and stereochemistry. A bulky chiral cyclohexenediimine backbone complex [SalcyCo(III)X] with an axial X group of poor leaving ability as the electrophile, combined with a bulky nuclephile with poor leaving ability and low coordination ability, is an ideal binary catalyst system for the copolymerization of CO(2) and a racemic aliphatic epoxide to selectively produce polycarbonates with relatively high enantioselectivity, >95% head-to-tail connectivity, and >99% carbonate linkages. A fast copolymerization of CO(2) and epoxides was observed when the concentration of the electrophile or/and the nucleophile was increased, and the number of polycarbonate chains was proportional to the concentration of the nucleophile. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, in combination with a kinetic study, showed that the copolymerization involved the coordination activation of the monomer by the electrophile and polymer chain growth predominately occurring in the nucleophile. Both the enantiomorphic site effect resulting from the chiral electrophile and the polymer chain end effect mainly from the bulky nucleophile cooperatively control the stereochemistry of the CO(2)/epoxide copolymerization.

  15. Modelling ruptures of buried high-pressure dense-phase CO2 pipelines in carbon capture and storage applications - Part II. A full-scale rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Wareing, CJ; Fairweather, M.; Falle, SAEG; Woolley, RM

    2015-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) presents a short-term option for significantly reducing the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere. National Grid initiated the COOLTRANS research programme to consider the CCS pipeline transportation of high-pressure dense-phase CO2, including the development and application of a mathematical model for predicting the sonic near-field dispersion of pure CO2 following pipeline venting or failure. In Part I (Wareing et al., 2015a) validation...

  16. Expression Profiles and DNA-Binding Affinity of Five ERF Genes in Bunches of Vitis vinifera cv. Cardinal Treated with High Levels of CO2 at Low Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Irene; Vazquez-Hernandez, Maria; Escribano, M. I.; Merodio, Carmen; Sanchez-Ballesta, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene response factors (ERFs) play an important role in plants by regulating defense response through interaction with various stress pathways. After harvest, table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are subject to a range of problems associated with postharvest storage at 0°C, such as fungal attack, water loss and rachis browning. The application of a 3-day high CO2 treatment maintained fruit quality and activated the induction of transcription factors belonging to different families such as ERF. In this paper, we have isolated five VviERFs from table grapes cv. Cardinal, whose deduced amino acid sequence contained the conserved apetalous (AP2)/ERF domain. The phylogeny and putative conserved motifs in VviERFs were analyzed and compared with those previously reported in Vitis. VviERFs-c gene expression was studied by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in the different tissues of bunches stored at low temperature and treated with high levels of CO2. The results showed that in most of the tissues analyzed, VviERFs-c gene expression was induced by the storage under normal atmosphere although the application of high levels of CO2 caused a greater increase in the VviERFs-c transcript accumulation. The promoter regions of two PRs (pathogenesis related proteins), Vcchit1b and Vcgns1, were obtained and the in silico analysis revealed the presence of a cis-acting ethylene response element (GCC box). In addition, expression of these two PR genes was analyzed in the pulp and rachis of CO2-treated and non-treated table grapes stored at 0°C and results showed significant correlations with VviERF2-c and VviERF6L7-c gene expression in rachis, and between VviERF11-c and Vcchit1b in pulp. Finally by using electro mobility shift assays, we denoted differences in binding of VviERFs to the GCC sequences present in the promoters of both PRs, with VviERF6L7-c being the only member which did not bind to any tested probe. Overall, our results suggest that the beneficial effect of high CO2

  17. Hardening characteristics of CO2 laser welds in advanced high strength steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tae-Kyo; Park, Bong-Gyu; Kang, Chung-Yun

    2012-06-01

    When the CO2 laser welder with 6 kW output was used to weld 4 TRIP steels, 2 DP steels and a precipitation-hardened steel, which have the tensile strength in the range of 600-1000 MPa, the effect of welding speed on hardening characteristics was investigated. In the weld of TRIP steels and DP steels, the maximum hardness was shown in the fusion zone and the HAZ near the bond line, and the hardness was decreased from the HAZ to the base metal. Only in the PH600 steel, the maximum hardness was shown in the fusion zone and the hardness was decreased from bond line to the base metal. The maximum hardness value was not changed due to the variation of the welding speed within a given range of the welding speed. When the correlation with maximum hardness value using 6 known carbon equivalents was examined, those of CEL (=C+Si/50+Mn/25+P/2+Cr/25) and PL (=C+Mn/22+14B) were 0.96 and 0.95 respectively, and CEL was better because it could reflect the contribution of Si and Cr added to AHSS. The maximum hardness value could be calculated by the equation "Hmax=701CEL+281". The phase transformation analysis indicated that only martensitic transformation was expected in the given range of the welding conditions. Therefore, the maximum hardness of the weld was the same as that of water cooled steel and not changed with the variation of the welding speed

  18. Novel synthesis of highly porous spinel cobaltite (NiCo2O4) electrode material for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, A. Nirmalesh; Selladurai, S.

    2014-04-01

    High performing porous nickel cobaltite (NiCo2O4) nanomaterial is prepared using novel cost effective auto combustion technique. Physical characterization reveals the formation of nickel rich spinel cobaltitie with average crystallite size of 17 nm. Electrochemical evaluation of the sample is carried using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronopotentiometry (CP) and AC impedance techniques. The Pseudocapacitive nature of the material is observed from CV and CP studies exhibiting a high specific capacitance of 772 Fg-1 at a current density of 1 Ag-1. The low resistive behavior of the material is seen from the impedance spectra, projecting nickel cobaltite as promising material for supercapcitor applications.

  19. Test and Analysis on Phase Features of High-CO2 Condensate Gas%高含CO2凝析气相态测试及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余华杰; 王星; 谭先红; 田波

    2013-01-01

    To determine a suitable development mode and enhance condensate oil recovery in high-CO2 condensate gas reservoir, the phase changing behavior of condensate gas flow in the development process was identified. The HTHP Multi-functional Fluid Analyzer was used in single flash vaporization test,dew point pressure test, constant component expansion test, and constant volume depletion test for high-CO2 condensate gas samples with different mole fractions,and the impacts of such fractions on the phase behavior and HP physical parameters were also compared. With higher mole fraction of CO2, the rate of retrograde condensation dropped,the peak of retrograde condensation liquid decreased by about 15%,the recovery factor of condensate oil increased by about 20%,the recovery of natural gas was about 85%,and the phase envelope curve shrank inwards. CO2 in the system contributes to higher condensate recovery by inhibiting its retrograde condensation and enhancing the retrograde vaporization. It is significant for determining a reasonable production strategy.%为了制定高含CO2凝析气藏的合理开发方式、提高凝析油采收率,需要了解高含CO2的凝析气流体在开发过程中存在的复杂相变行为.采用高温高压多功能地层流体分析仪,对不同摩尔分数CO2凝析气体系样品进行了单次闪蒸实验、露点压力测试、等组分膨胀实验和定容衰竭实验,对比分析了CO2摩尔分数对凝析气体系高压物性参数和相态特征的影响.研究结果表明,随着CO2摩尔分数的增加,凝析油的反凝析速度减缓,且最大反凝析液量减小约15%、凝析油的采出程度增加约20%、天然气采出程度为85%左右、相包络线向内收缩.富含CO2凝析气体系中的CO2既有利于抑制凝析油的反凝析,又有利于增强凝析油的反蒸发,对于提高凝析油采收率具有显著效果.

  20. Coral Reefs and People in a High-CO2 World: Where Can Science Make a Difference to People?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Linwood; Comte, Adrien; Langdon, Chris; Ekstrom, Julia A; Cooley, Sarah R; Suatoni, Lisa; Beck, Michael W; Brander, Luke M; Burke, Lauretta; Cinner, Josh E; Doherty, Carolyn; Edwards, Peter E T; Gledhill, Dwight; Jiang, Li-Qing; van Hooidonk, Ruben J; Teh, Louise; Waldbusser, George G; Ritter, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere put shallow, warm-water coral reef ecosystems, and the people who depend upon them at risk from two key global environmental stresses: 1) elevated sea surface temperature (that can cause coral bleaching and related mortality), and 2) ocean acidification. These global stressors: cannot be avoided by local management, compound local stressors, and hasten the loss of ecosystem services. Impacts to people will be most grave where a) human dependence on coral reef ecosystems is high, b) sea surface temperature reaches critical levels soonest, and c) ocean acidification levels are most severe. Where these elements align, swift action will be needed to protect people's lives and livelihoods, but such action m