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Sample records for high chromium cast

  1. Primary Crystallization of High Chromium Cast Steel in Metastable Conditions

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    A. Studnicki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the primary crystallization of wear corrosive-erosive high chromium cast steel was introduced in the article on the basis of investigations the widened method of the differential thermal analysis with testers DTA-C and DTA-Is. The use of these testers enabled the analysis of crystallization for the various rates of cooling.

  2. Abrasion Resistance of as-Cast High-Chromium Cast Iron

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    Pokusová Marcela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High chromium cast irons are widely used as abrasion resistant materials. Their properties and wear resistance depend on carbides and on the nature of the matrix supporting these carbides. The paper presents test results of irons which contain (in wt.% 18-22 Cr and 2-5 C, and is alloyed by 1.7 Mo + 5 Ni + 2 Mn to improve the toughness. Tests showed as-cast irons with mostly austenitic matrix achieved hardness 36-53 HRC but their relative abrasion-resistance was higher than the tool steel STN 19436 heat treated on hardness 60 HRC.

  3. Heat Treatment in High Chromium White Cast Iron Ti Alloy

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    Khaled M. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of high chromium white cast iron alloyed with titanium was investigated. The austenitizing temperatures of 980°C and 1150°C for 1 hour each followed by tempering at 260°C for 2 hours have been performed and the effect of these treatments on wear resistance/impact toughness combination is reported. The microstructure of irons austenitized at 1150°C showed a fine precipitate of secondary carbides (M6C23 in a matrix of eutectic austenite and eutectic carbides (M7C3. At 980°C, the structure consisted of spheroidal martensite matrix, small amounts of fine secondary carbides, and eutectic carbides. Titanium carbides (TiC particles with cuboidal morphology were uniformly distributed in both matrices. Irons austenitized at 980°C showed relatively higher tensile strength compared to those austenitized at 1150°C, while the latter showed higher impact toughness. For both cases, optimum tensile strength was reported for the irons alloyed with 1.31% Ti, whereas maximum impact toughness was obtained for the irons without Ti-addition. Higher wear resistance was obtained for the samples austenitized at 980°C compared to the irons treated at 1150°C. For both treatments, optimum wear resistance was obtained with 1.3% Ti.

  4. Inoculation of chromium white cast iron

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    D. Kopyciński

    2009-01-01

    It has been proved that an addition of boron carbide introduced as an inoculant to the chromium white cast iron changes the structureof castings. Castings after inoculation revealed a different structure with numerous grains. Primary precipitates of chromium carbide also appeared, reducing the mechanical properties of as-cast parts. Properly established heat treatment regime makes chromium iron castings regain their, originally high, mechanical properties.

  5. Inoculation of chromium white cast iron

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    D. Kopyciński

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proved that an addition of boron carbide introduced as an inoculant to the chromium white cast iron changes the structureof castings. Castings after inoculation revealed a different structure with numerous grains. Primary precipitates of chromium carbide also appeared, reducing the mechanical properties of as-cast parts. Properly established heat treatment regime makes chromium iron castings regain their, originally high, mechanical properties.

  6. The Althoff-Radtke Test Adapted for High Chromium Cast Iron

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    Kopyciński D.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the possibility of adapting the Althoff-Radtke test for High Chromium Cast Iron. The Althoff-Radtke test is a clump attempt used for steel. The Althoff-Radtke test has four different lengths of clamp which qualifies it as a test to quantitatively take into account different kinds of shrinkage ΔL. The length of the slot of the cracked corner and the length of each staple (50 - 350 mm are the parameters tendency to cast cracks. Castings of white cast iron have a high tendency to hot cracking due to the large range of solidification temperatures, unfavorable kinetics parameters of shrinkage, and especially a lack of expansion before shrinkage. Shrinkage of high chromium white cast iron is similar to the shrinkage of cast steel, and is approximately 2%. Therefore it is important to test susceptibility to hot cracks. Research was carried out under industrial conditions. Four melts were performed, one of the initial chemical composition and the other three modified by different amounts of Fe-Ti, respectively, 0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75% Fe-Ti. The propensity for hot cracking was based on the observation of the dark surface in the corner of the sample. The study shows that the Althoff-Radtke test can be adapted to determine the tendency for hot cracking of high chromium cast iron. It should however be noted that the test results cannot be compared with those for other alloys.

  7. Effect of molybdenum, vanadium, boron on mechanical properties of high chromium white cast iron in as-cast condition

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    Nurjaman, F.; Sumardi, S.; Shofi, A.; Aryati, M.; Suharno, B.

    2016-02-01

    In this experiment, the effect of the addition carbide forming elements on high chromium white cast iron, such as molybdenum, vanadium and boron on its mechanical properties and microstructure was investigated. The high chromium white cast iron was produced by casting process and formed in 50 mm size of grinding balls with several compositions. Characterization of these grinding balls was conducted by using some testing methods, such as: chemical and microstructure analysis, hardness, and impact test. From the results, the addition of molybdenum, vanadium, and boron on high chromium white cast iron provided a significant improvement on its hardness, but reduced its toughness. Molybdenum induced fully austenitic matrix and Mo2C formation among eutectic M7C3 carbide. Vanadium was dissolved in the matrix and carbide. While boron was played a role to form fine eutectic carbide. Grinding balls with 1.89 C-13.1 Cr-1.32 Mo-1.36 V-0.00051 B in as-cast condition had the highest hardness, which was caused by finer structure of eutectic carbide, needle like structure (upper bainite) matrix, and martensite on its carbide boundary.

  8. TO SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGICAL SCHEME OF SOFTENING HEAT TREATMENT FOR HIGH CHROMIUM CAST IRON

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    V. G. Efremenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. High chromium cast irons with austenitic matrix have low machinability. The aim of work is search of new energy-saving modes of preliminary softening heat treatment enhancing the machinability of castings by forming an optimum microstructure. Methodology. Metallographic analysis, hardness testing and machinability testing are applied. Findings. It was found out that high temperature annealing with continuous cooling yields to martensite-austenite matrix in cast iron 270Х15Г2Н1MPhT, which abruptly affects the machinability of cast iron. Significant improvement of machinability is achieved by forming of structure "ferrite + granular carbides" and by decline of hardness to 37-39 HRC in the case of two-stage isothermal annealing in the subcritical temperature range or by the use of quenching and tempering (two-step or cyclic. Originality. It was found that the formation of the optimal structure of the matrix and achievement of desired hardness level needed for improving machinability of high chromium cast iron containing 3 % austenite-forming elements, can be obtained: 1 due to pearlite original austenite followed by spherodization eutectoid carbides, and 2 by getting predominantly martensite structure followed by the decay of martensite and carbides coagulation at high-temperature tempering. Practical value. The new energy-saving schemes of softening heat treatment to ensure the growth of machinability of high chromium cast iron, alloyed by higher quantity of austenite forming elements, are proposed.

  9. Effects of tungsten on erosion-corrosion behavior of high chromium white cast iron

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    Mousavi Anijdan, S.H. [Mining, Metals and Materials Engineering Department, McGill University, M.H. Wong Building, 3610 University Street, Montreal, H3A 2B2 (Canada); Materials Science and Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9944, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: hashem.mousavi@mail.mcgill.ca; Bahrami, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Varahram, N. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9944, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davami, P. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9944, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-04-25

    In this study, effects of tungsten on wear resistance of high chromium white cast iron with and without tungsten in erosion-corrosion condition have been investigated. At the same time, the comparison between wear resistance of this grade of cast iron and low alloy steels with various contents of Cr which are used in industrial condition (in Sarcheshme Company, the greatest copper production company in the Middle East and with more than 4000 years historical cupper production background) was studied, while, copper concentrates have used for erosion particles. Results show that, because of higher hardness of matrix due to the tungsten, the wear resistance of high chromium cast iron increases. In addition to that, combine cutting and deformation wear mechanism and spalling mechanism were attributed in high chromium cast iron and low alloy steels, respectively. Subsequently, pitting mechanism in corrosion aspect was recognized because of inhomogeneity in chemical composition and sulfide inclusions content. Finally, the combine effects of erosion and corrosion (synergetic effect) were recognized in the high chromium white iron in industrial condition for the damaged samples.

  10. Influence of Titanium on Crystallization and Wear Resistance of High Chromium Cast Iron

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    Studnicki A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents the results of studies on primary crystallization and wear resistance of high chromium cast iron inoculated with ferrotitanium intended for work in abrasive conditions. Primary crystallization was examined with use of TDA method, wear tests of the samples were conducted using the modified pin-on-disk method.

  11. Influence of Titanium on Crystallization and Wear Resistance of High Chromium Cast Iron

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    Studnicki A.; Dojka R.; Gromczyk M.; Kondracki M.

    2016-01-01

    Paper presents the results of studies on primary crystallization and wear resistance of high chromium cast iron inoculated with ferrotitanium intended for work in abrasive conditions. Primary crystallization was examined with use of TDA method, wear tests of the samples were conducted using the modified pin-on-disk method.

  12. The Effect of Addition of Titanium on The Structure and Properties of High Chromium Cast Iron

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    Kopyciński D.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of Ti-addition to High Chromium Cast Iron (HCCI on the structure and selected mechanical properties. For this study casted two sets of cylinders with dimensions ø20 mm, ø15 mm × 250 mm, for the High Chromium Cast Iron (HCCI and with the 4% by mass Ti-addition. Melts were performed in the induction furnace crucible capacity of 15 kg. During the heats the cup with installed S type thermocouple was poured to record the cooling curves. The cylinders were subjected to the static bending strength test. Samples for the test microstructure and Rockwell hardness were cut from the cylinders. The study shows that the addition of titanium had an impact on the structure and thus the properties of High Chromium Cast Iron (HCCI. In subsequent studies, through an appropriate choice of chemical composition and proper process control, it is planned to obtain in the structure the titanium carbides TiC and chromium carbides with type (Cr, Fe7C3.

  13. Casting of Hearth Plates from High-chromium Steel

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    Drotlew A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on the development of manufacturing technologies to cast hearth plates operating in chamber furnaces for heat treatment. Castings made from the heat-resistant G-X40CrNiSi27-4 steel were poured in hand-made green sand molds. The following operations were performed: computer simulation to predict the distribution of internal defects in castings produced by the above mentioned technology with risers bare and coated with exothermic and insulating sleeves, analysis of each variant of the technology, and manufacture of experimental castings. As a result of the conducted studies and analysis it was found that the use of risers with exothermic sleeves does not affect to a significant degree the quality of the produced castings of hearth plates, but it significantly improves the metal yield.

  14. Effect of vibration frequency on microstructure and performance of high chromium cast iron prepared by lost foam casting

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    Wen-qi Zou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, high chromium cast irons (HCCIs were prepared using the lost foam casting (LFC process. To improve the wear resistance of the high chromium cast irons (HCCIs, mechanical vibration was employed during the solidification of the HCCIs. The effects of vibration frequency on the microstructure and performance of the HCCIs under as-cast, as-quenched and as-tempered conditions were investigated. The results indicated that the microstructures of the LFC-produced HCCIs were refined due to the introduction of mechanical vibration, and the hardness was improved compared to that of the alloy without vibration. However, only a slight improvement in hardness was found in spite of the increase of vibration frequency. In contrast, the impact toughness of the as-tempered HCCIs increased with an increase in the vibration frequency. In addition, the wear resistance of the HCCIs was improved as a result of the introduction of vibration and increased with an increase in the vibration frequency.

  15. CLUSTER MECHANISM OF NUCLEUS FORMATION AND CONFORMITIES OF PRIMARY CRYSTALLIZATION OF CAST ALLOYS (AT THE EXAMPLE OF HIGH-CHROMIUM CAST IRONS

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    N. I. Bestuzhev

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical concepts on crystallization of cast alloys on the basis of cluster mechanism of nucleation and growth of initial crystals are given, the technological methods of receiving of fine-grained structure of high-chromium hypercutectic cast irons are outlined.

  16. Effect of Titanium Inoculation on Tribological Properties of High Chromium Cast Iron

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    Siekaniec D.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation focuses on the study of the influence of titanium inoculation on tribological properties of High Chromium Cast Iron. Studies of tribological properties of High Chromium Cast Iron, in particularly the wear resistance are important because of the special application of this material. High Chromium Cast Iron is widely used for parts that require high wear resistance for example the slurry pumps, brick dies, several pieces of mine drilling equipment, rock machining equipment, and similar ones. Presented research described the effects of various amounts of Fe-Ti as an inoculant for wear resistance. The results of wear resistance were collated with microstructural analysis. The melts were conducted in industrial conditions. The inoculation was carried out on the stream of liquid metal. The following amount of inoculants have been used; 0.17% Fe-Ti, 0.33% Fe-Ti and 0.66% Fe-Ti. The tests were performed on the machine type MAN. The assessment of wear resistance was made on the basis of the weight loss. The experimental results indicate that inoculation improve the wear resistance. In every sample after inoculation the wear resistance was at least 20% higher than the reference sample. The best result, thus the smallest wear loss was achieved for inoculation by 0.66% Fe-Ti. There is the correlation between the changing in microstructure and wear resistance. With greater amount of titanium the microstructure is finer. More fine carbides do not crumbling so quickly from the matrix, improving the wear resistance.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF HIGH-CHROMIUM CAST IRONS ON THE MACHINABILITY

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    V. V. Netrebko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This research is aimed to obtain the regression dependence of the machinability on the chemical composition of pig iron (C, Cr, Mn and Ni in cast state. Methodology. The method of active experiment planning was used to build a mathematical model. Cast irons of composition 1.09…3.91 % С; 11.43…25.57 % Cr; 0.6…5.4 % Mn; 0.19…3.01 % Ni were studied. Cutting tools with plates 10х10 mm out of ВК8 according to State Standard 19051-80 were used for turning. Cutting modes: cutting depth – 0.8 mm, longitudinal feed – 0.15 mm/rot., spindle’s rotation frequency during turning – 200…360 rot./min. Lubricating and cooling liquids were not applied. Evaluation of iron workability was produced by determining the linear tool flank wear per unit length of the cutting path. Findings. Mathematically probabilistic equation of the regression dependence of the cutting tool’s wear on the C, Cr, Mn and Ni content in the machined cast iron were obtained. It was established that with the increase of Cr content in the cast iron to 14.8 % the cutting tool’s wear decreased as a result of formation of carbide eutectic which destroyed the doped ledeburite continuous frame. Further increase of chromium content promoted appearing of chromic carbides with high microhardness which considerably increased the tool’s wear. The conducted research shown that the minimum cutting tool’s wear 0,18 mkm/m was observed during the machining of cast iron containing: 1.09 % C, 14.8 % Cr, 2.3 % Mn and 1.2 % Ni; and the maximum wear is 48,96 mkm/m – when the content was: 3.91 % C, 11.43 % Cr, 5.4 % Mn and 0.19 % Ni. The tool’s wear reached 47.61 mkm/m during the treatment of cast iron containing 3.91 % C, 25.57 % Cr, 5.4 % Mn and 0.19 % Ni. Originality. Mathematically probabilistic model of the dependence of the cutting tool’s wear on the C, Cr, Mn and Ni content in the machined cast iron has been elaborated by the author. Practical value. The model

  18. Microstructure and wear resistance of high chromium cast iron containing niobium

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    Zhang Zhiguo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the effect of niobium addition on the microstructure, mechanical properties and wear resistance of high chromium cast iron has been studied. The results show that the microstructure of the heat-treated alloys is composed of M7C3 and M23C6 types primary carbide, eutectic carbide, secondary carbide and a matrix of martensite and retained austenite. NbC particles appear both inside and on the edge of the primary carbides. The hardness of the studied alloys maintains around 66 HRC, not significantly affected by the Nb content within the selected range of 0.48%-0.74%. The impact toughness of the alloys increases with increasing niobium content. The wear resistance of the specimens presents little variation in spite of the increase of Nb content under a light load of 40 N. However, when heavier loads of 70 and 100 N are applied, the wear resistance increases with increasing Nb content.

  19. Study on fragmentation and dissolution behavior of carbide in a hot-rolled hypereutectic high chromium cast iron

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    Liu, Fei; Jiang, Yehua, E-mail: jiangyehua@kmust.edu.cn; Xiao, Han; Tan, Jun

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • The method to prepare Carbon steel/High chromium iron is totally new. • High chromium iron can achieve small plastic deformation during hot rolling process. • Carbides in high chromium irons are crushed, refined obviously and becoming isolated, which is benefit to improve the impact toughness. • The carbide fragmentation and dissolution behavior of the hot-rolled HCCI were analyzed. - Abstract: A sandwich-structured composite containing a hypereutectic high chromium cast iron (HCCI) and low carbon steel (LCS) claddings was newly fabricated by centrifugal casting, then the blank was hot-rolled into composite plate. The carbide fragmentation and dissolution behavior of the hot-rolled HCCI were analyzed. During hot rolling, significant refinement of carbides was discovered in hot-rolled HCCI specimens. The carbides were broken and partly dissolved into the austenite matrix. The results show that carbides are firstly dissolved under the action of stress. There are grooves appeared at the boundaries of the carbides. The grooves reduce the cross section of the carbide. When the cross section of the carbide reaches to the required minimum critical cross section, the carbide breaks through the tensile force. After break, carbides continue to dissolve since more interfaces between the matrix and carbides are generated. The secondary carbides precipitated due to the dissolution are index as fcc and stacking faults parallel to the {1 1 1} are observed.

  20. Effects of Heat-Treatment on the Microstructure and Wear Resistance of a High-Chromium Cast Iron for Rolls

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    Zhi-hong Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The variations of microstructure and mechanical properties of a high-chromium cast iron for rolls were studied from as-cast to the final heat treatments. Results show that the as-cast microstructure of the HCCI consists of M7C3 carbide, M23C6 carbide, martensite matrix, and retained austenite. The large dendritic M7C3 carbide surrounds the matrix, and the M23C6 carbide is mainly distributed in the matrix. Part of M23C6 carbide transforms to M7C3 carbide and is dissolved in austenite during austenization at 1020°C. Thus, the amount of M23C6 carbide decreases, whereas that of M7C3 carbide increases after quenching; the highest hardness is also obtained. After tempering, the martensite transforms to a tempered martensite, and some carbide precipitates in the martensite matrix. The hardness also changes from HRC62.1, which corresponds to quenching, to HRC55.2 and HRC56.3, which correspond to once and twice tempering, respectively. However, tempering could improve the impact toughness and wear resistance of the HCCI.

  1. The influence of solidification speed during heating on allotropic transformations of chromium cast iron casting

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    M. Przybył

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The unique stand to founding dilatometric samples ("on ready” which solidify with different cooling speeds was presented. The dilatometric investigations, X-ray, metallographic they disclosed the occurrence in matrix of chromium cast iron of considerable quantity of austenite in dependence from concentration of chromium (18% and 23% and the speed of solidification. Castings these despite large part of austenite mark with high hardness in raw state.

  2. Analysis of the structure of castings made from chromium white cast iron resistant to abrasive wear

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    D. Kopyciński

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been proved that an addition of boron carbide and disintegrated steel scrap introduced as an inoculant to the chromium white cast iron changes the structure of castings. The said operation increases the number of crystallization nuclei for dendrites of the primary austenite. In this case, the iron particles act as substrates for the nucleation of primary austenite due to a similar crystallographic lattice. The more numerous are the dendrites of primary austenite and the structure more refined and the mechanical properties higher. Castings after B4C inoculation revealed a different structure of fine grained fracture. Primary precipitates of chromium carbide also appeared, reducing the mechanical properties of as-cast parts. Properly established heat treatment regime makes chromium iron castings regain their, originally high, mechanical properties.

  3. As-cast microstructures and behavior at high temperature of chromium-rich cobalt-based alloys containing hafnium carbides

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    Berthod, Patrice, E-mail: Patrice.Berthod@univ-lorraine.fr; Conrath, Elodie

    2014-02-14

    Hafnium is often used to improve the high temperature oxidation resistance of superalloys but not to form carbides for strengthen them against creep. In this work hafnium was added in cobalt-based alloys for verifying that HfC can be obtained in cobalt-based alloys and for characterizing their behavior at a very temperature. Three Co–25Cr–0.25 and 0.50C alloys containing 3.7 and 7.4 Hf to promote HfC carbides, and four Co–25Cr– 0 to 1C alloys for comparison (all contents in wt.%), were cast and exposed at 1200 °C for 50 h in synthetic air. The HfC carbides formed instead chromium carbides during solidification, in eutectic with matrix and as dispersed compact particles. During the stage at 1200 °C the HfC carbides did not significantly evolve, even near the oxidation front despite oxidation early become very fast and generalized. At the same time the chromium carbides present in the Co–Cr–C alloys totally disappeared in the same conditions. Such HfC-alloys potentially bring efficient and sustainable mechanical strengthening at high temperature, but their hot oxidation resistance must be significantly improved. - Highlights: • Co-based alloys containing HfC carbides were successfully obtained by foundry. • HfC are pro-eutectic or form an interdendritic eutectic compound with matrix. • The HfC carbides appear very stable on long time at 1200 °C. • The hot oxidation of the alloys is fast and they require higher Cr contents. • The high stability of HfC may allow Cr-enrichment by pack-cementation.

  4. Performance characteristics of mill rolls from graphite chromium cast iron

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    Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline; Terziev, L.; Breyer, J. P.

    2000-01-01

    The main requirements for the development of a new grade for the later finishing section of the mill are : good oxidation and thermal behaviour, high wear resistance, good resistance to rolling incidents. The approach of Marichal Ketin to improve the rolling performances in the last finishing stands is presented. The Hi-Cr cast iron possesses excellent wear resistance due to the presence of hard chromium carbides, but its thermal conductivity and sticking properties are fairly low. A graphite...

  5. The temperature gradient on section of casting in process of primary crystallization of chromium cast iron

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    A. Studnicki

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of defining in article was introduced the temperature gradient in process of primary crystallization during cooling the casting from chromium cast iron on basis of measurements of thermal field in test DTA-K3. Insert also the preliminary results of investigations of influence temperature gradient on structure of studied wear resistance chromium cast iron.

  6. THE WEAR RESISTANCE INCREASE OF CHROMIUM CAST IRON

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    V. M. Ilyushenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the tests on the wear resistance of chromium cast irons of different compositions obtained in sand forms. It has been shown that increase of the wear resistance and mechanical properties of the cast iron is possible to obtain using the casting in metal molds. A further increase in wear resistance of parts produced in metal molds is possible by changing the technological parameters of casting and alloying by titanium.

  7. Developing of chromium cast steel on sleeves of heavy machines

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    J. Kilarski; A. Studnicki; J. Suchoń

    2010-01-01

    The results of investigations of hardness, impact resistance, abrasive and corrosive wear of selected chromium cast steel with destination on sleeves of heavy machines were introduced in the article. First results of exploational investigations talked over on the end.

  8. Stereology of carbide phase in modified hypereutectic chromium cast iron

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    J. Suchoń

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In paper are presented results of studies of carbide phase stereology modified hypereutectic wear resistance chromium cast iron which contains carbon about 3,5% and chromium about 25%. Three substances were applied to the modification: boron carbide (B4C, ferroniobium (FeNb and mixture of ferroniobium and rare-earth (RE. The measurements of geometrical features of carbides were conducted on microsection taken from castings wich were cooled with various velocities.

  9. Stereological Analysis of Carbides in Hypoeutectic Chromium Cast Iron

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    Gromczyk M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of research on stereological parameters of carbides in modified hypoeutectic chromium cast iron were shown in the paper. The effect of distance the casting heat centre of casting to the carbide phase morphology was examined. The samples for metallographic examination were taken from various locations of the model casting prepared in a special tester. This model casting was designed to simulate the solidification of heavy castings. Using the proposed methodology the relation of the distance from the model mould and the size, perimeter, length, width and the shape factor of carbides was examined. During the analysis, the values of stereological parameters of carbides changed on various sections of the model casting.

  10. Cathode material and pulsed plasma treatment influence on the microstructure and microhardness of high-chromium cast iron surface

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    Юлія Геннадіївна Чабак

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the cathode material and the pulse plasma treatment mode influence on the surface microstructure and microhardness of high chrome (15% Cr cast iron. The methods of metallographic analysis and microhardness measurements were used. It has been shown that pulsed plasma treatment at 4 kV voltage with the use of the electro-axial thermal accelerator results in surface modification with high microhardness 950-1050 HV50, and in the formation of the coating due to the transfer of the electrodes material. The specific features of using different cathode materials have been systematized. It has been found that graphite electrodes are not recommended to be used due to their low strength and fracture under plasma pulses. In case of using tungsten cathode a coating of small thickness (20-30 microns and having cracks has been formed on the specimen surface. The most expedient is to apply the electrodes with low melting point (such as killed St.3, which provides a high-quality state of treated surface and formation the protective crack-free coating of 80-100 microns thick. It has been found that as a result of the plasma pulsed treatment the enrichment of coating with carbon is likely to occur that results in microhardness increase. The prospects of this technology as well as its shortcomings have been described

  11. Stereological parameters of carbides on section of casting made from modified chromium cast iron

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    A. Studnicki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of stereological parameters of carbides on the section of the model castingmade from modified (the mixture FeNb+FeV+RE wear resistance chromium cast iron was introduced in the article. The jump change of some stereological parameters of carbides in certain distance from the surface of the casting was observed.

  12. The change of temperature gradient in solidification of hypereutectic chromium cast iron casting

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    A. Studnicki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the analysis of temperature gradient of solidification in section of hypereutectic chromium cast iron model casting was introduced. On this example was presented the method (DTGA – derivative and thermal gradient analysis, which was worked out in Department of Foundry Silesian University of Technology enabling the record of indispensable data to execution of analysis the temperature gradient and its derivative after time on section of model casting. It multichanneled apparatus to registration of data was used Crystaldigraph - PC.

  13. Developing of chromium cast steel on sleeves of heavy machines

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    J. Kilarski

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of hardness, impact resistance, abrasive and corrosive wear of selected chromium cast steel with destination on sleeves of heavy machines were introduced in the article. First results of exploational investigations talked over on the end.

  14. Primary and secondary crystallization of modified hypoeutectic chromium cast iron

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    A. Studnicki

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents investigations of crystallization of modified hypoeutectic wear resistant chromium cast iron which contains carbon about 2% and chromium on three levels (12%, 18% and 25%. Three substances were applied to the modification ( boron carbide (B4C, ferroniobium (FeNb and mixture of ferroniobium and mischmetal (RE. The investigations of crystallization were conducted the DTA method in DTA-C and DTA-Is testers. The influence on the course of the process of primary and secondary crystallization was observed.

  15. The Abrasive Wear Resistance of Chromium Cast Iron

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    Kopyciński D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of cast iron to abrasive wear depends on the metal abrasive hardness ratio. For example, hardness of the structural constituents of the cast iron metal matrix is lower than the hardness of ordinary silica sand. Also cementite, the basic component of unalloyed white cast iron, has hardness lower than the hardness of silica. Some resistance to the abrasive effect of the aforementioned silica sand can provide the chromium white cast iron containing in its structure a large amount of (Cr, Fe7C3 carbides characterised by hardness higher than the hardness of the silica sand in question. In the present study, it has been anticipated that the white cast iron structure will be changed by changing the type of metal matrix and the type of carbides present in this matrix, which will greatly expand the application area of castings under the harsh operating conditions of abrasive wear. Moreover, the study compares the results of abrasive wear resistance tests performed on the examined types of cast iron. Tests of abrasive wear resistance were carried out on a Miller machine. Samples of standard dimensions were exposed to abrasion in a double to-and-fro movement, sliding against the bottom of a trough filled with an aqueous abrasive mixture containing SiC + distilled water. The obtained results of changes in the sample weight were approximated with a power curve and shown further in the study.

  16. Effect of Chromium on the Solidification Process and Microstructure of Vermicular Graphite Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumienny G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies of the effect of chromium concentration on the solidification process, microstructure and selected properties of cast iron with vermicular graphite. The vermicular graphite cast iron was obtained by an Inmold process. Studies covered the cast iron containing chromium in a concentration at which graphite is still able to preserve its vermicular form. The effect of chromium on the temperature of eutectic crystallization and on the temperature of the start and end of austenite transformation was discussed. The conditions under which, at a predetermined chromium concentration, the vermicular graphite cast iron of a pearlitic matrix is obtained were presented, and the limit concentration of chromium was calculated starting from which partial solidification of the cast iron in a metastable system takes place. The effect of chromium on the hardness of cast iron, microhardness of individual phases and surface fraction of carbides was disclosed.

  17. High integrity automotive castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D. [Eck Industries Inc., St. Manitowoc, WI (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This paper described the High Integrity Magnesium Automotive Casting (HI-MAC) program, which was developed to ensure the widespread adoption of magnesium in structural castings. The program will encourage the use of low pressure permanent molds, squeeze casting, and electromagnetic pumping of magnesium into dies. The HI-MAC program is currently investigating new heat treatment methods, and is in the process of creating improved fluid flow and solidification modelling to produce high volume automotive components. In order to address key technology barriers, the program has been divided into 8 tasks: (1) squeeze casting process development; (2) low pressure casting technology; (3) thermal treatment; (4) microstructure control; (5) computer modelling and properties; (6) controlled molten metal transfer and filling; (7) emerging casting technologies; and (8) technology transfer throughout the automotive value chain. Technical challenges were outlined for each of the tasks. 1 ref., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Identification Trial of Crystallization Parameters of Modified Chromium Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Studnicki

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the paper results of researches of abrasion-resisting chromium cast iron inoculated with boron carbide B4C primary crystallization are presented. The main aim of work was make an attempt to identification of crystallization parameters that changed in reason of inoculation. Essential primary crystallization parameters, with the help of which, will be possible to evaluate the inoculation capacity were searched. It was found that in the result of inoculant actions characteristic temperatures were changed and time of primary crystallization was decreased. For tests the new broadened Derivative Thermal Analysis method, in which three samples with different solidification module were applied, was used. Thanks to this inoculation capacity in casts with significant diversified self-cooling ranges was possible to observe.

  19. Obtaining of High Cr Content Cast Iron Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, C.; Bejinariu, C.; Carcea, I.; Cimpoesu, N.; Chicet, D. L.; Savin, C.

    2017-06-01

    We have obtained, through the classic casting process, 3 highly chromium-based experimental alloys proposed for replacing the FC 250 classical cast iron in braking applications. Casting was carried out in an induction furnace and cast into moulds made of KALHARTZ 8500 resin casting mixture and HARTER hardener at SC RanCon SRL Iasi. It is known that the microstructure of the cast iron is a combination of martensite with a small amount of residual austenite after the heat treatment of the ingot. In the case of high-alloy chromium alloys, the performance of the material is due to the presence of M7C3 carbides distributed in the iron matrix Resistance to machining and deformation is based on alloy composition and microstructure, while abrasion resistance will depend on properties and wear conditions.

  20. Melt Cast High Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Cudziło

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. This paper reviews the current state and future developments of melt-cast high explosives. First the compositions, properties and methods of preparation of trinitrotoluene based (TNT conventional mixtures with aluminum, hexogen (RDX or octogen (HMX are described. In the newer, less sensitive explosive formulations, TNT is replaced with dinitroanisole (DNANDNANDNAN and nitrotriazolone (NTONTONTO, nitroguanidine (NG or ammonium perchlorate (AP are the replacement for RDRDX and HMX. Plasticized wax or polymer-based binder systems for melt castable explosives are also included. Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HPTB is the binder of choice, but polyethylene glycol, and polycaprolactone with energetic plasticizers are also used. The most advanced melt-cast explosives are compositions containing energetic thermoplastic elastomers and novel highly energetic compounds (including nitrogen rich molecules in whose particles are nanosized and practically defect-less.[b]Keywords[/b]: melt-cast explosives, detonation parameters

  1. Transmission electron microscope studies of the chromium cast iron modified at use of B4C addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Labisz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of studies of the high alloy chromium cast iron with boron addition in form of the B4C phase powder are presented in this paper.The main field of interest is the identification of phases based on the transmission electron microscope study, occurred in this alloy aftersolidification process. The structure mainly consists of the austenite matrix and M7C3 carbide identified as the Cr7C3 phase.

  2. Effect of boron carbide on primary crystallization of chromium cast iron

    OpenAIRE

    A. Studnicki

    2008-01-01

    In the paper results of the influence of boron carbide (B4C ) as inoculant of abrasion-resisting chromium cast iron (about 2,8% carbon and 18% chromium) on primary crystallization researches are presented. Boron carbide dispersion was introduced at the bottom of pouring ladle before tap of liquid cast iron. In this investigations were used three different quantities of inoculant in amounts 0,1%; 0,2% and 0,3% with relation to bath weight. It has been demonstrated that such small additions of ...

  3. Effect of boron carbide on primary crystallization of chromium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Studnicki

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper results of the influence of boron carbide (B4C as inoculant of abrasion-resisting chromium cast iron (about 2,8% carbon and 18% chromium on primary crystallization researches are presented. Boron carbide dispersion was introduced at the bottom of pouring ladle before tap of liquid cast iron. In this investigations were used three different quantities of inoculant in amounts 0,1%; 0,2% and 0,3% with relation to bath weight. It has been demonstrated that such small additions of boron carbide change primary crystallization parameters, particularly temperature characteristic of process, their time and kinetics.

  4. Influence of selected modifiers on crystallization curve of chromium cast iron

    OpenAIRE

    A. Studnicki

    2009-01-01

    In article was introduced the results of investigations of modified chromium cast iron crystallization process. It the cast iron about composition of basic elements C = 2,8 % and Cr = 18% was modified with five substances (boron carbide, ferrosilicon, ferrocalciumsilicon, ferroniobium and ferroniobium with ferrovanadium). Influence on course of primary and secondary crystallization process was observed. The investigations of crystallization was conducted DTA method in tester DTA - C.

  5. Influence of selected modifiers on crystallization curve of chromium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Studnicki

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In article was introduced the results of investigations of modified chromium cast iron crystallization process. It the cast iron about composition of basic elements C = 2,8 % and Cr = 18% was modified with five substances (boron carbide, ferrosilicon, ferrocalciumsilicon, ferroniobium and ferroniobium with ferrovanadium. Influence on course of primary and secondary crystallization process was observed. The investigations of crystallization was conducted DTA method in tester DTA - C.

  6. Chromium and copper influence on the nodular cast iron with carbides microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gumienny

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper chromium to 1,00% and copper to 1,50% influence at constant molybdenum content of about 1,50% on the nodular cast ironwith carbides microstructure has been presented. It was found, that as a result of synergic addition of above-mentioned elements there isthe possibility obtaining an ausferrite in nodular cast iron with carbides castings. Conditions have been given, when in nodular cast iron with carbides at cooling at first in the form, then air-cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite, its mixture with lower bainite, martensite or ausferrite takes place. Transformations proceed during cooling and the crystallization of cast iron have been determined and the casting hardness has been presented.

  7. Effects of surface finishing conditions on the biocompatibility of a nickel-chromium dental casting alloy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinley, Emma Louise

    2011-07-01

    To assess the effects of surface finishing condition (polished or alumina particle air abraded) on the biocompatibility of direct and indirect exposure to a nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) d.Sign®10 dental casting alloy on oral keratinocytes. Biocompatibility was performed by assessing cellular viability and morphology, metabolic activity, cellular toxicity and presence of inflammatory cytokine markers.

  8. FEATURES OF CHROMIUM DOPING OF WEAR-RESISTANT CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Netrebko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work analysis of the influence of chromium on the process of carbide formation, changes in chemical composition of the metal substrate in the areas adjacent to the carbides and at the hardness of iron while economy nickel and manganesealloying.

  9. Marginal accuracy of nickel chromium copings fabricated by conventional and accelerated casting procedures, produced with ringless and metal ring investment procedures: A comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Deepa; Shetty, Y Bharath; Miranda, Glynis Anita; Prabhu, M Bharath; Karkera, Reshma

    2015-01-01

    Conventional investing and casting techniques are time-consuming and usually requires 2-4 h for completion. Accelerated nonstandard, casting techniques have been reported to achieve similar quality results in significantly less time, namely, in 30-40 min. During casting, it is essential to achieve compensation for the shrinkage of solidifying alloy by investment expansion. The metal casting ring restricts the thermal expansion of investment because the thermal expansion of the ring is lesser than that of the investment. The use of casting ring was challenged with the introduction of the ringless technique. A total of 40 test samples of nickel chromium (Ni-Cr) cast copings were obtained from the patterns fabricated using inlay casting wax. The 20 wax patterns were invested using metal ring and 20 wax patterns were invested using the ringless investment system. Of both the groups, 10 samples underwent conventional casting, and the other 10 underwent accelerated casting. The patterns were casted using the induction casting technique. All the test samples of cast copings were evaluated for vertical marginal gaps at four points on the die employing a stereo optical microscope. The vertical marginal discrepancy data obtained were tabulated. Mean and standard deviations were obtained. Vertical discrepancies were analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey honestly significantly different. The data obtained were found to be very highly significant (P cast copings fabricated with the conventional casting using ringless investment system showed significantly better marginal fit than that of cast copings fabricated from conventional and accelerated casting with metal ring investment and accelerated casting using ringless investment since those copings had shown the least vertical marginal discrepancies among the four methods evaluated in this study.

  10. Investigation of Wear Resistant of Low-Alloyed and Chromium Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Studnicki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of investigations of wear resistant of two species of cast steel were introduced in the article (low-alloyed and chromium cast steel on the background of the standard material which was low alloy wear resistant steel about the trade name CREUSABRO ®8000. The investigations were executed with two methods: abrasive wears in the stream of loose particles (the stream of quartz sand and abrasive wears particles fixed (abrasive paper with the silicon carbide. Comparing the results of investigations in the experiments was based about the counted wear index which characterizes the wears of the studied material in the relation to the standard material.

  11. The influence of chosen modifiers on stereological parameters of carbides of chromium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Studnicki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of stereological carbides in the modified wear resistance chromium cast iron resistant were introduced in the article. There were following elements: boron, niobium, vanadium, cerium and lanthanum (RE, nitrogen in the composition of modifiers. The influence of used modifiers on such stereological parameters of carbides as: size, perimeter, shape coefficient and volume fraction was showed in tables and on diagrams.

  12. FORMATION OF WEAR-RESISTANT CHROMIUM CAST IRON CASTING INTO THE CHILL MOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of thermal processes of formation of castings from wearproof chromic cast irons for replaceable details of centrifugal mills and crushers is carried out. Influence of protective and dividing coverings on intensity of heating of the chill mold is investigated.

  13. Corrosion of two kinds of cast steels containing chromium in hot concentrated alkaline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Wei

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A typical hot concentrated alkaline corrosion environment exists in alumina metallurgical industry, so that steel materials with outstanding alkaline corrosion resistance are strongly demanded for its processing equipment. In this paper, the corrosion resistance of two kinds of martensitic cast steels containing chromium in static 303g/L NaOH alkaline solution at 85℃ was studied through polarization and potential-time curves, corrosion weight loss and corrosion morphology analysis. Experimental results showed that protection effect by passive film of cast steel containing Cr was temporary. The low carbon steel without Cr content also exhibited chemical passivity in the same solution. The corrosion mode of the tested Cr-containing cast steel was composed of active dissolving corrosion and caustic embrittlement cracking. Dissolving corrosion was the primary mechanism for the induced weight loss, while severe caustic embrittlement cracking was secondary. With the increase of chromium content in the cast steel, the tendency of the caustic embrittlement cracking decreased, while the active dissolving corrosion increased.

  14. The structure of high-quality aluminium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study presents the analyse of aluminium iron cast structure (as-cast condition which are used in high temperature. While producing the casts of aluminium iron major influence has been preserve the structure of technological process parameters. The addition to Fe-C-Al alloy V, Ti, Cr leads to the improvement of functional and mechanical cast qualities. In this study, a method was investigated to eliminate the presence of undesirable Al4C3 phases in a aluminium cast iron structure and thus improve the production process. V and Ti additions in aluminium cast iron allows to development of FeAl - VC or TiC alloys. In particular, V or Ti contents above 5 wt.% were found to totally eliminate the presence of Al4C3. In addition, preliminary work indicates that the alloy with the FeAl - VC or TiC structure reveals high oxidation resistance. The introduction of 5 wt.% chromium to aluminium cast iron strengthened Al4C3 precipitate. Thus, the resultant alloy can be considered an intermetallic FeAl matrix strengthened by VC and TiC or modified Al4C3 reinforcements.

  15. The Influence Of Temperature Gradient On Stereological Parameters Of Carbide Phase On Cross-Section Of Abrasive Wear Resistant Chromium Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studnicki A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper analysis of temperature gradient and parameters of structure on casting cross-section of abrasive wear resistant chromium cast iron at carbon content of 2,5%wt. and chromium 17%wt. with nickel and molybdenum additives are presented. The castings were made with use of special tester ϕ100mm (method of temperature gradient and derivative analysis with temperature recording in many points from thermal centre to surface (to mould of casting. Registered cooling curves were used to describe the temperature gradient on cross-section of analyzed casting. On the basis of determined curves of temperature gradient measurement fields were selected to make the quantitative studies of structure. The results of studies show significant influence of temperature gradient on quantitative parameters of chromium cast iron structure. Moreover was affirmed that exists a critical temperature gradient for which is present rapid change of quantitative parameters of chromium cast iron structure.

  16. Retention strength of cobalt-chromium vs nickel-chromium titanium vs CP titanium in a cast framework association of removable partial overdenture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Jose Everaldo de Aquino; Silva, Nelson Renato Franca Alves da; Coelho, Paulo Guilherme; Zavanelli, Adriana Cristina; Ferracioli, Renata Cristina Silveira Rodrigues; Zavanelli, Ricardo Alexandre

    2011-05-01

    There is little information considering the framework association between cast clasps and attachments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the retention strength of frameworks match circumferential clasps and extra resilient attachment cast in three different alloys (cobalt-chromium, nickel-chromium titanium and commercially pure titanium), using two undercut (0.25 and 0.75 mm) and considering different period of time (0, 1/2, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years). Using two metallic matrices, representing a partially edentulous mandibular right hemiarch with the first molar crown, canine root and without premolars, 60 frameworks were fabricated. Three groups (n = 20) of each metal were cast and each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 10), corresponding the molar undercut of 0.25 mm and 0.75 mm. The nylon male was positioned at the matrix and attached to the acrylic resin of the prosthetic base. The samples were subjected to an insertion and removal test under artificial saliva environment. The data were analyzed and compared with ANOVAs and Tukey's test at 95% of probability. The groups cast in cobaltchromium and nickel-chromium-titanium had the highest mean retention strength (5.58 N and 6.36 N respectively) without significant difference between them, but statistically different from the group cast in commercially pure titanium, which had the lowest mean retention strength in all the periods (3.46 N). The association frameworks using nickel-chromium- titanium and cobalt-chromium could be used with 0.25 mm and 0.75 mm of undercut, but the titanium samples seems to decrease the retention strength, mainly in the 0.75 mm undercut. The circumferential clasps cast in commercially pure titanium used in 0.75 mm undercuts have a potential risk of fractures, especially after the 2nd year of use. This in vitro study showed that the framework association between cast clasp and an extra resilient attachment are suitable to the three metals evaluated, but strongly suggest extra

  17. Effect of Topical Fluoride on Surface of Cast Titanium and Nickel-Chromium: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Sheena Suvarna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the effect of topical fluoride on surface of cast titanium and nickel-chromium.Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine rectangular specimens of titanium (grade 2 and 39 rectangular specimens of nickel-chromium were cast in equal dimensions and divided into three groups of 13 samples each. Group one specimens of titanium and nickel-chromium were placed in 2% neutral sodium fluoride (NaF solution for 16 minutes. Group two specimens of titanium and nickel-chromium were immersed in 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF gel for eight minutes. Group three specimens of titanium and nickel-chromium were immersed in distilled water for 16 minutes. The surface roughness of the specimens was evaluated and the data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and post-hoc comparison test with the level of significance set at 5% (P< 0.05. The surface of the specimens was further analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS.Results: Group two titanium specimens showed a statistically significant increase in surface roughness (P<0.05; but no statistically significant increase was noted in the surface roughness of nickel-chromium specimens in groups one, two and three (P>0.05. Qualitative SEM and EDS analyses further revealed the surface corrosion of titanium (group two and localized mild corrosive pitting of nickel-chromium specimens (group two.Conclusion: Topical fluoride with acidic pH affects the surface roughness of titanium and to a certain extent, nickel-chromium. Neutral NaF solutions cause no significant change in corrosion resistance of titanium or nickel-chromium.

  18. Assessment of corrosion resistance of cast cobalt- and nickel-chromium dental alloys in acidic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercieca, Sven; Caligari Conti, Malcolm; Buhagiar, Joseph; Camilleri, Josette

    2017-10-26

    The aim of this study was to compare the degradation resistance of nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) and cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys used as a base material for partial dentures in contact with saliva. Wiron® 99 and Wironit Extra-Hard® were selected as representative casting alloys for Ni-Cr and Co-Cr alloys, respectively. The alloys were tested in contact with deionized water, artificial saliva and acidified artificial saliva. Material characterization was performed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and microhardness and nanohardness testing. The corrosion properties of the materials were then analyzed using open circuit potential analysis and potentiodynamic analysis. Alloy leaching in solution was assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques. Co-Cr alloy was more stable than the Ni-Cr alloy in all solutions tested. Leaching of nickel and corrosion attack was higher in Ni-Cr alloy in artificial saliva compared with the acidified saliva. The corrosion resistance of the Co-Cr alloy was seen to be superior to that of the Ni-Cr alloy, with the former exhibiting a lower corrosion current in all test solutions. Microstructural topographical changes were observed for Ni-Cr alloy in contact with artificial saliva. The Ni-Cr alloy exhibited microstructural changes and lower corrosion resistance in artificial saliva. The acidic changes did not enhance the alloy degradation. Ni-Cr alloys are unstable in solution and leach nickel. Co-Cr alloys should be preferred for clinical use.

  19. Chromium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intravenously showed signs of diabetes (including weight loss, neuropathy, and impaired glucose tolerance) until chromium was added to their feeding solution. The chromium, added at doses of 150 to 250 mcg/day for up to two weeks, corrected their diabetes ...

  20. Comparative study between laser sintering and casting for retention of resin composite veneers to cobalt-chromium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratomi, Ryuta; Kamada, Kohji; Taira, Yohsuke; Higuchi, Shizuo; Watanabe, Ikuya; Sawase, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the bond strengths between resin composite veneer and laser-sintered cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy with and without retention devices (Laser-R and Laser-N respectively). Cast Co-Cr alloy with and without retention devices (Cast-R and Cast-N respectively) were also prepared for fabrication technique comparison. Disk-shaped Co-Cr alloy specimens were air-abraded with alumina and veneered with a veneering system, Estenia C&B (ES) or Ceramage (CE). After 20,000 thermocycles, tensile testing was performed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and multiple comparison test. When no retention devices were present, no significant differences were observed between Laser-N/ES and Cast-N/ES, or between Laser- N/CE and Cast-N/CE, but ES exhibited significantly higher bond strength than CE. With retention devices, Laser-R/ES, Cast- R/ES and Laser-R/CE showed no significant differences, and their retention strengths were significantly higher than that of Cast- R/CE. Compared to cast Co-Cr alloy, laser-sintered Co-Cr alloy with retention devices provided better retention durability for resin composite-veneered prostheses.

  1. Bond strength of poly(methyl methacrylate) denture base material to cast titanium and cobalt-chromium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Yanagida, Hiroaki; Ide, Takako; Matsumura, Hideo; Tanoue, Naomi

    2010-06-01

    The shear bond strength of an auto-polymerizing poly(methyl methacrylate) denture base resin material to cast titanium and cobalt-chromium alloy treated with six conditioning methods was investigated. Disk specimens (10 mm in diameter and 2.5 mm in thickness) were cast from pure titanium and cobalt-chromium alloy. The specimens were wet ground to a final surface finish of 600 grit, air dried, and treated with the following bonding systems: 1) air abraded with 50-70-microm-grain alumina (SAN); 2) air abraded with 50-70-microm-grain alumina + conditioned with Alloy Primer (ALP); 3) air abraded with 50-70-microm-grain alumina + conditioned with AZ Primer (AZP); 4) air abraded with 50-70-microm-grain alumina + conditioned with Estenia Opaque Primer (EOP); 5) air abraded with 50-70-microm-grain alumina + conditioned with Metal Link Primer (MLP), and 6) treated with ROCATEC system (ROC). A denture base material (Palapress Vario) was then applied to each metal specimen. Shear bond strengths were determined before and after 10,000 thermocycles. The strengths decreased after thermocycling in all combinations. Among the treatment methods assessed, groups 2 and 4 showed significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced shear bond strengths for both metals. In group 4, the strength in MPa (n = 7) after thermocycling for cobalt-chromium alloy was 38.3, which was statistically (p < 0.05) higher than that for cast titanium (34.7). Air abrasion followed by the application of two primers containing a hydrophobic phosphate monomer (MDP) effectively improved the strength of the bond of denture base material to cast titanium and cobalt-chromium alloy.

  2. Comparison of Heavy-Duty Scuffing Behavior between Chromium-Based Ceramic Composite and Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Coated Ring Sliding against Cast Iron Liner under Starvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Yu, Baihong; Lv, Yutao; Li, Bin

    2017-01-01

    A running-in and starved lubrication experiment is designed to investigate the heavy-duty scuffing behavior of piston ring coatings against cast iron (Fe) cylinder liner using the piston ring reciprocating liner test rig. The scuffing resistance of the piston ring with the chromium-based ceramic composite coating (CKS), and that with the thermally sprayed nickel-chromium-molybdenum coating (NCM) is compared at different nominal pressures (40~100 MPa) and temperatures (180~250 °C). With the failure time as a criterion, the rank order is as follows: NCM/Fe > CKS/Fe. Before the scoring occurs at the interface of the piston ring and cylinder liner (PRCL), the cast iron liner enters into a “polish wear” stage, and iron-based adhesive materials begin to form on the piston ring surface. With the macroscopic adhesion formation, the plastic shearing cycle causes surface damages mainly due to abrasive effects for the CKS/Fe pairs and adhesive effects for the NCM/Fe pairs. PMID:29036911

  3. Comparison of Heavy-Duty Scuffing Behavior between Chromium-Based Ceramic Composite and Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Coated Ring Sliding against Cast Iron Liner under Starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A running-in and starved lubrication experiment is designed to investigate the heavy-duty scuffing behavior of piston ring coatings against cast iron (Fe cylinder liner using the piston ring reciprocating liner test rig. The scuffing resistance of the piston ring with the chromium-based ceramic composite coating (CKS, and that with the thermally sprayed nickel-chromium-molybdenum coating (NCM is compared at different nominal pressures (40~100 MPa and temperatures (180~250 °C. With the failure time as a criterion, the rank order is as follows: NCM/Fe > CKS/Fe. Before the scoring occurs at the interface of the piston ring and cylinder liner (PRCL, the cast iron liner enters into a “polish wear” stage, and iron-based adhesive materials begin to form on the piston ring surface. With the macroscopic adhesion formation, the plastic shearing cycle causes surface damages mainly due to abrasive effects for the CKS/Fe pairs and adhesive effects for the NCM/Fe pairs.

  4. Comparison of marginal accuracy of castings fabricated by conventional casting technique and accelerated casting technique: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S Srikanth; Revathi, Kakkirala; Reddy, S Kranthikumar

    2013-01-01

    Conventional casting technique is time consuming when compared to accelerated casting technique. In this study, marginal accuracy of castings fabricated using accelerated and conventional casting technique was compared. 20 wax patterns were fabricated and the marginal discrepancy between the die and patterns were measured using Optical stereomicroscope. Ten wax patterns were used for Conventional casting and the rest for Accelerated casting. A Nickel-Chromium alloy was used for the casting. The castings were measured for marginal discrepancies and compared. Castings fabricated using Conventional casting technique showed less vertical marginal discrepancy than the castings fabricated by Accelerated casting technique. The values were statistically highly significant. Conventional casting technique produced better marginal accuracy when compared to Accelerated casting. The vertical marginal discrepancy produced by the Accelerated casting technique was well within the maximum clinical tolerance limits. Accelerated casting technique can be used to save lab time to fabricate clinical crowns with acceptable vertical marginal discrepancy.

  5. Cracks in high-manganese cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chojecki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The reasons which account for the formation of in service cracks in castings made from Hadfield steel were discussed. To explain the source of existence of the nuclei of brittle fractures, the properties of cast steel were examined within the range of solidification temperatures, remembering that feeding of this material is specially difficult, causing microporosity in hot spots. This creates conditions promoting the formation of microcracks which tend to propagate during service conditions involving high dynamic stresses, and explains why the cracks are mainly characterized by a brittle nature. The reason for crack formation in service are micro-porosities formed during casting solidification.

  6. Comparative analysis of the fit of 3-unit implant-supported frameworks cast in nickel-chromium and cobalt-chromium alloys and commercially pure titanium after casting, laser welding, and simulated porcelain firings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiossi, Rodrigo; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; de Mattos, Maria da Glória Chiarello; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the vertical misfit of 3-unit implant-supported nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) and cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy and commercially pure titanium (cpTi) frameworks after casting as 1 piece, after sectioning and laser welding, and after simulated porcelain firings. The results on the tightened side showed no statistically significant differences. On the opposite side, statistically significant differences were found for Co-Cr alloy (118.64 microm [SD: 91.48] to 39.90 microm [SD: 27.13]) and cpTi (118.56 microm [51.35] to 27.87 microm [12.71]) when comparing 1-piece to laser-welded frameworks. With both sides tightened, only Co-Cr alloy showed statistically significant differences after laser welding. Ni-Cr alloy showed the lowest misfit values, though the differences were not statistically significantly different. Simulated porcelain firings revealed no significant differences.

  7. Effect of oxidation heat treatment on the bond strength between a ceramic and cast and milled cobalt-chromium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jieyin; Ye, Xiuhua; Li, Bohua; Liao, Juankun; Zhuang, Peilin; Ye, Jiantao

    2015-08-01

    There is a dearth of dental scientific literature on the effect of different oxidation heat treatments (OHTs) (as surface pretreatments) on the bonding performance of cast and milled cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloys. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different OHTs on the bond strength between a ceramic and cast and milled CoCr alloys. Cobalt-chromium metallic specimens were prepared using either a cast or a milled method. Specimens were subjected to four different OHT methods: without OHT; OHT under normal atmospheric pressure; OHT under vacuum; and OHT under vacuum followed by sandblasting. The metal-ceramic bond strength was evaluated using a three-point bending test according to ISO9693. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to study the specimens' microstructure and elemental composition. The bond strength was not affected by the CoCr manufacturing method. Oxidation heat treatment performed under normal atmospheric pressure resulted in the highest bond strength. The concentration of oxygen on the alloy surfaces varied with the different pretreatment methods in the following order: OHT under normal atmospheric pressure > OHT under vacuum > without OHT ≈ OHT under vacuum followed by sandblasting. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  8. Iron chromium potential to model high-chromium ferritic alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Bonny, Giovanni; Pasianot, Roberto C; Terentyev, Dmitry; Malerba, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we present a Fe-Cr interatomic potential to model high-Cr ferritic steels. The potential is fitted to thermodynamic and point-defect properties obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experiments. The here developed potential is also benchmarked against other potentials available in literature. It shows particularly good agreement with the DFT obtained mixing enthalpy of the random alloy, the formation energy of intermetallics and exper...

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Metal-ceramic Bond Strengths of Nickel Chromium and Cobalt Chromium Alloys on Repeated Castings: An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atluri, Kaleswara Rao; Vallabhaneni, Tapan Teja; Tadi, Durga Prasad; Vadapalli, Sriharsha Babu; Tripuraneni, Sunil Chandra; Averneni, Premalatha

    2014-09-01

    Recasting the base metal alloys is done as a routine procedure in the dental laboratories whenever there is casting failure or to decrease the unit cost of a fixed partial denture. However, this procedure may affect the metal ceramic bond. Furthermore, it is unclear, as to which test closely predicts the bond strength of metal-ceramic interface. The aim was to compare the bond strength of nickel chromium (Ni-Cr) and cobalt chromium (Co-Cr) alloys with dental ceramic on repeated castings using shear bond test with a custom made apparatus. Sixty metal ceramic samples were prepared using Wiron 99 and Wirobond C, respectively. Three subgroups were prepared for each of the groups. The first subgroup was prepared by casting 100% fresh alloy. The second and third subgroups were prepared by adding 50% of fresh alloy and the remnants of the previous cast alloy. The bond load (N) between alloy and dental porcelain was evaluated using universal testing machine using a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min, which had a 2500-kgf load cell. Mean values were compared using oneway analysis of variance with post-hoc Tukey's test and Student's t-test. The mean shear bond load of A0 (842.10N) was significantly higher than the load of A1 (645.50N) and A2 (506.28N). The mean shear bond load of B0 (645.57N) was significantly higher than the load of B1 (457.35N) and B2 (389.30N). Significant reduction in the bond strength was observed with the addition of the first recast alloy (A1 and B1) compared with the addition of second recast alloy (A2 and B2). Ni-Cr alloys (664.63N) showed higher bond strengths compared to that of Co-Cr alloys (497.41N). The addition of previously used base metal dental alloy for fabricating metal ceramic restorations is not recommended.

  10. Cast Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    Originally developed by NASA as high performance piston alloys to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low exhaust emission, the novel NASA alloys now offer dramatic increase in tensile strength for many other applications at elevated temperatures from 450 F (232 C) to about 750 F (400 C). It is an ideal low cost material for cast automotive components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. It can be very economically produced from conventional permanent mold, sand casting or investment casting, with silicon content ranging from 6% to 18%. At high silicon levels, the alloy exhibits excellent dimensional stability, surface hardness and wear resistant properties.

  11. Bond strengths of porcelain to cobalt-chromium alloys made by casting, milling, and selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jieyin; Chen, Chaojie; Liao, Juankun; Liu, Lang; Ye, Xiuhua; Lin, Shiyao; Ye, Jiantao

    2017-07-01

    Cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys have been widely used for metal-ceramic fixed prostheses and can be fabricated using conventionally cast or new computer-aided technology. However, the effect of different manufacturing methods on the metal-ceramic bond strength needs further evaluation. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the metal-ceramic bond strength of a Co-Cr alloy made by casting, milling, and selective laser melting (SLM). Co-Cr specimens (25×3×0.5 mm) were prepared using a cast, milled, or SLM method and layered with ceramic (8×3×1.1 mm). Metal-ceramic bond strength was measured by a 3-point bend test according to ISO9693. The area fraction of adherence porcelain (AFAP) was determined by measuring the Si content of the specimens with scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The metal-ceramic bond strength and AFAP results were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni post hoc test (α=.05). SEM/EDS and metallurgic microscopy were also used to study the specimens' morphology, elemental composition, and metallurgic structure. No significant differences (P>.05) were found for the bond strength among cast, milled, and SLM Co-Cr alloys. The milled and SLM groups showed significantly more porcelain adherence than the cast group (Palloys were similar, whereas the metallurgic structures were different. The bond strength between ceramics and Co-Cr alloys is independent of the manufacturing method. However, milling- and SLM-produced alloys had better porcelain adherence. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The nature of temper brittleness of high-chromium ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrak, V.I.; Suvorova, S.O.; Golovin, I.S.; Mishin, V.M.; Kislyuk, I.V. [Central Scientific-Research Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-03-01

    The reasons for development of {open_quotes}475{degrees}C brittleness{close_quotes} of high-chromium ferritic steels are considered from the standpoint of fracture mechanics. It is shown that the general rise in the curve of temperature-dependent local flow stress has the decisive influence on the position of the ductile-to-brittle transformation temperature and the increase in it as the result of a hold at temperatures of development of brittleness. The established effect is related to the change in the parameters determining dislocation mobility, that is, the activation energy of dislocation movement in high-chromium ferrite and the resistance to microplastic deformation, both caused by processes of separation into layers of high-chromium ferrite and decomposition of the interstitial solid solution.

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a new type of austempered boron alloyed high silicon cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a new type of austempered boron alloyed high silicon cast steel has been developed, and its microstructures and mechanical properties at different temperatures were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the boron alloyed high silicon cast steel comprises a dendritic matrix and interdendritic eutectic borides in as-cast condition. The dendritic matrix is made up of pearlite, ferrite, and the interdendritic eutectic boride is with a chemical formula of M2B (M represents Fe, Cr, Mn or Mo which is much like that of carbide in high chromium white cast iron. Pure ausferrite structure that consists of bainitic ferrite and retained austenite can be obtained in the matrix by austempering treatment to the cast steel. No carbides precipitate in the ausferrite structure and the morphology of borides remains almost unchanged after austempering treatments. Secondary boride particles precipitate during the course of austenitizing. The hardness and tensile strength of the austempered cast steel decrease with the increase of the austempering temperature, from 250 篊 to 400 篊. The impact toughness is 4-11 J昪m-2 at room temperature and the impact fracture fractogragh indicates that the fracture is caused by the brittle fracture of the borides.

  14. Characterization of surface chromium and molybdenum alloying on gray cast iron obtained by the plasma-transferred arc technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, L.; Tiziani, A.; Zambon, A. (DIMEG, Univ. Padua (Italy)); Antolotti, N. (FLAMETAL Spa, Parma (Italy))

    1991-07-07

    Chromium and molybdenum alloying of gray cast iron to obtain surface wear-resistance coatings by means of the plasma-transferred arc (PTA) technique has been studied. Disk-shaped specimens for mounting on a pin-on-disk wear-testing machine were obtained. The disks were then heat treated to develop different hardness values and wear resistance behavior. Besides an untreated sample, samples treated at 900degC for 10 min, at 1000degC for 10 min and at 1100degC for 20 min were studied. The specimens showed defect-free coatings with the complete absence of porosity, cracks and segregation. The obtained coatings were stable as regards thermal cycles, which could affect workpieces subject to wear conditions. Microhardness profile, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations were performed together with qualitative and quantitative energy-dispersive spectroscopy microanalysis, as well as X-ray diffraction on the extracted carbides. (orig.).

  15. Effects of high concentration of chromium stress on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the effects of high concentration of chromium (Cr) stress on physiological and biochemical characters and accumulation of Cr in Pingyang Tezao tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kutze 'Pingyangtezao'] through a pot experiment. The results show that the indicators of photosynthesis were all suppressed with ...

  16. CAST-IRONS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Krutilin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of physical-mechanical characteristics of cast iron slugs, received by semicontinuos way of casting, at temperatures from 850 up to 1100^ С are given. 

  17. Effect of Intensive Cooling of Alloy AZ91 with a Chromium Addition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapiejko C.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the results of the investigations of the effect of intensive cooling of alloy AZ91 with an addition of chromium on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the obtained casts. The experimental castings were made in ceramic moulds preliminarily heated to 180°C, into which alloy AZ91 with the addition was poured. Within the implementation of the research, a comparison was made of the microstructure and mechanical properties of the castings obtained in ceramic moulds cooled at room temperature and the ones intensively cooled in a cooling liquid. The kinetics and dynamics as well as the thermal effects recorded by the TDA method were compared. Metallographic tests were performed with the use of an optical microscope and the strength properties of the obtained castings were examined: UTS (Rm, elongation (A%, and HB hardness.

  18. Reactor target from metal chromium for "pure" high-intensive artificial neutrino source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrin, V. N.; Kozlova, Yu. P.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Logachev, A. V.; Logacheva, A. I.; Lednev, I. S.; Okunkova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the first results of development of manufacturing technology of metallic chromium targets from highly enriched isotope 50Cr for irradiation in a high flux nuclear reactor to obtain a compact high intensity neutrino source with low content of radionuclide impurities and minimum losses of enriched isotope. The main technological stages are the hydrolysis of chromyl fluoride, the electrochemical reduction of metallic chromium, the hot isostatic pressing of chromium powder and the electrical discharge machining of chromium bars. The technological stages of hot isostatic pressing of chromium powder and of electrical discharge machining of Cr rods have been tested.

  19. Effects of Rare Earth Metal Addition on Wear Resistance of Chromium-Molybdenum Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasinska J.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses changes in the microstructure and abrasive wear resistance of G17CrMo5-5 cast steel modified with rare earth metals (REM. The changes were assessed using scanning microscopy. The wear response was determined in the Miller test to ASTM G75. Abrasion tests were supplemented with the surface profile measurements of non-modified and modified cast steel using a Talysurf CCI optical profilometer. It was demonstrated that the modification substantially affected the microstructure of the alloy, leading to grain size reduction and changed morphology of non-metallic inclusions. The observed changes in the microstructure resulted in a three times higher impact strength (from 33 to 99 kJ/cm2 and more than two times higher resistance to cracking (from 116 to 250 MPa. The following surface parameters were computed: Sa: Arithmetic mean deviation of the surface, Sq: Root-mean-square deviation of the surface, Sp: Maximum height of the peak Sv: Maximum depth of the valley, Sz: Ten Point Average, Ssk: Asymmetry of the surface, Sku: Kurtosis of the surface. The findings also indicated that the addition of rare earth metals had a positive effect on the abrasion behaviour of G17CrMo5-5 cast steel.

  20. Casting Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Three articles discuss (1) casting technology as it relates to industry, with comparisons of shell casting, shell molding, and die casting; (2) evaporative pattern casting for metals; and (3) high technological casting with silicone rubber. (JOW)

  1. An invitro analysis of elemental release and cytotoxicity of recast nickel-chromium dental casting alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Nagam Raja; Abraham, Anandapandian Ponsekar; Murugesan, Krishnan; Matsa, Vasanthakumar

    2011-06-01

    Recasting of the casting alloys affects the composition and elemental release which may have cytotoxic effect different from the pure alloy in the surrounding tissues. An Invitro study was conducted to investigate the elemental release and their cytotoxic effects from commercially available Ni-Cr dental casting alloys, commonly used for fabricating fixed partial dentures. Three Ni-Cr alloys [Wiron 99(A), Ceramet (B), and Hi Nickel CB (C)] were tested. Alloy specimens (disks 3 × 5 mm) were casted and grouped as follows: Group I (A(1)/B(1)/C(1)): 100% pure alloy; Group II (A(2)/B(2)/C(2)): 50% new with 50% recast; and Group III (A(3)/B(3)/C(3)): 100% recast. Disks of each alloy type from each group were transferred to Dulbecco's modified eagle medium and left for 3 days at 37°C in an atmosphere of 5% CO(2). Ni, Cr, Co, Cu and Mo elemental release from metal alloys into culture medium was investigated using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Cytotoxicity was tested using mouse fibroblast cells and MTT Assay. Controls consisted of 6 wells containing cells with no alloy specimens. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance followed by t-test. The total amount of elements released in parts per billion for various casting groups were Group I, A(1)-6.572, B(1)-6.732, C(1)-8.407; Group II, A(2)-22.046, B(2)-26.450, C(2)-29.189; Group III, A(3)-84.554, B(3)-88.359, C(3)-92.264. More amounts of elements were released in Hi Nickel CB than Ceramet and Wiron 99 in all the three test groups. Percentage of viable cells from MTT analysis were Group I, A(1)-62.342, B(1)-61.322 C(1)-60.593, Group II, A(2)-58.699, B(2)-56.494, C(2)-52.688, Group III, A(3)-53.101, B(3)-52.195, C(3)-47.586. The viable cells present in the culture media were more in Wiron 99 than Ceramet and Hi Nickel CB. Elemental release increased with amount of recast alloy. Amongst the three alloys tested Hi Nickel CB had significantly higher elements released compared to Ceramet and Wiron 99

  2. Use of thermogravimetry and thermodynamic calculations for specifying chromium diffusion occurring in alloys containing chromium carbides during high temperature oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthod, Patrice, E-mail: Patrice.Berthod@univ-lorraine.fr; Conrath, Elodie

    2015-09-01

    The chromium diffusion is of great importance for the high temperature oxidation behaviour of the chromium-rich carbides-strengthened superalloys. These ones contain high chromium quantities for allowing them well resisting hot corrosion by constituting and maintaining a continuous external scale of chromia. Knowing how chromium can diffuse in such alloys is thus very useful for predicting the sustainability of their chromia-forming behaviour. Since Cr diffusion occurs through the external part of the alloy already affected by the previous steps of oxidation (decarburized subsurface) it is more judicious to specify this diffusion during the oxidation process itself. This was successfully carried out in this work in the case of a model chromia-forming nickel-based alloy containing chromium carbides, Ni(bal.)–25Cr–0.5C (in wt.%). This was done by specifying, using real-time thermogravimetry, the mass gain kinetic due to oxidation, and by combining it with the post-mortem determination of the Cr concentration profiles in subsurface. The values of D{sub Cr} thus obtained for 1000, 1050 and 1100 °C in the alloy subsurface are consistent with the values obtained in earlier works for similar alloy's chemical compositions. - Highlights: • A Ni25Cr0.50C alloy was oxidized at high temperature in a thermo-balance. • The mass gain files were analysed to specify the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} volatilization constant K{sub v}. • Concentration profiles were acquired to specify the chromium gradient. • The diffusion coefficient of chromium through the subsurface was deduced. • The obtained diffusion coefficient is consistent with values previously obtained.

  3. Fracture strength of porcelain fused to metal crowns made of cast, milled or laser-sintered cobalt-chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Sozan Hama; Vult von Steyern, Per

    2013-09-01

    The aim was to compare the fracture strength of porcelain fused to metal crowns with copings fabricated in Co-Cr using different manufacturing techniques (casting, milling and laser-sintering) with crowns manufactured in a high-gold alloy. A total of 50 identical crowns were fabricated and sub-divided into five groups; cast Co-Cr, milled Co-Cr, two groups of laser-sintered Co-Cr and a control group cast in a high-gold alloy. After thermocycling (5000 cycles, 5-55°C) and pre-load (30-300 N, 10,000 cycles) the crowns were loaded until fracture. Load (N) and fracture mode were recorded. There was a significant difference (p alloy present numerically higher fracture strength than crowns made with copings fabricated in Co-Cr alloys. The difference is confirmed when analyzing the fracture surfaces, but the difference in fracture strength value is limited and is only significant with regard to one of the two laser-sintered groups.

  4. High temperature oxidation of iron-chromium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, Lars

    2003-06-15

    The high temperature oxidation of the ferritic alloy Fe78Cr22 has been investigated in the present work. The effect of small alloying additions of cerium and/or silicon was also investigated. The alloys were oxidized at 973, 1173 and 1373 K in either air or a hydrogen/argon mixture. The various reaction atmospheres contained between 0.02 and 50% water vapour. The oxide scales formed on the various alloys at 973 K consisted of thin chromia layers. The oxide scales grown on the alloys at 1173 K also consisted of a chromia layer. The microstructure of the chromia scales was found to depend on the reaction atmosphere. The chromia scales grown in hydrogen/argon atmospheres formed oxide whiskers and oxide ridges at the surface of the scales, while the chromia scales grown in air formed larger oxide grains near the surface. This difference in oxide microstructure was due to the vaporization of chromium species from the chromia scales grown in air. Two different growth mechanisms are proposed for the growth of oxide whiskers. The growth rate of the chromia scales was independent of the oxygen activity. This is explained by a growth mechanism of the chromia scales, where the growth is governed by the diffusion of interstitial chromium. The addition of silicon to the iron-chromium alloy resulted in the formation of silica particles beneath the chromia scale. The presence of silicon in the alloy was found to decrease the growth rate of the chromia scale. This is explained by a blocking mechanism, where the silica particles beneath the chromia scale partly block the outwards diffusion of chromium from the alloy to the chromia scale. The addition of cerium to the iron-chromium alloy improved the adhesion of the chromia scale to the alloy and decreased the growth rate of chromia. It was observed that the minimum concentration of cerium in the alloy should be 0.3 at.% in order to observe an effect of the cerium addition. The effect of cerium is explained by the &apos

  5. Aluminium Foam and Magnesium Compound Casting Produced by High-Pressure Die Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iban Vicario

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions are two of the main focal points in vehicle design, promoting the reduction in the weight of vehicles by using lighter materials. The aim of the work is to evaluate the influence of different aluminium foams and injection parameters in order to obtain compound castings with a compromise between the obtained properties and weight by high-pressure die cast (HPDC using aluminium foams as cores into a magnesium cast part. To evaluate the influence of the different aluminium foams and injection parameters on the final casting products quality, the type and density of the aluminium foam, metal temperature, plunger speed, and multiplication pressure have been varied within a range of suitable values. The obtained compound HPDC castings have been studied by performing visual and RX inspections, obtaining sound composite castings with aluminium foam cores. The presence of an external continuous layer on the foam surface and the correct placement of the foam to support injection conditions permit obtaining good quality parts. A HPDC processed magnesium-aluminium foam composite has been developed for a bicycle application obtaining a suitable combination of mechanical properties and, especially, a reduced weight in the demonstration part.

  6. Microstructure Control of High-alloyed White Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawalec M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of studies of high-alloyed white cast iron modified with lanthanum, titanium, and aluminium-strontium. The samples were taken from four melts of high-vanadium cast iron with constant carbon and vanadium content and near-eutectic microstructure into which the tested inoculants were introduced in an amount of 1 wt% respective of the charge weight. The study included a metallographic examinations, mechanical testing, as well as hardness and impact resistance measurements taken on the obtained alloys. Studies have shown that different additives affect both the microstructure and mechanical properties of high-vanadium cast iron.

  7. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Abrasive Wear Behavior of High Chromium Iron under Dry Sliding Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Ayeni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat treatment on the abrasive wear behavior of high chromium cast iron (NF253AHT under dry sliding condition has been investigated. Rectangular cross sectioned samples of the alloy were produced by sand casting. After casting, the samples were machined to equal dimensions of 50 mm x 15 mm x 10 mm and heat treated by annealing, hardening and tempering. Abrasive wear tests were carried out on the samples using the pin-on-disc wear test. The tests were carried out under restricted values of speed, load and time. Within this limit, the hardened sample displayed a superior wear resistance, while the annealed sample displayed the weakest wear resistance. A graphical model (wear map displaying all the wear regimes of the alloy, which may serve as a wear predictive tool was subsequently developed from the results of the wear tests. With the exception of the as-cast and annealed specimen, all other specimens (hardened and tempered have functioned adequately in wear prone environment, but with different degree of effectiveness. Hence, the hardened and tempered samples can be used in shot blast equipments and in the grinding of minerals.

  8. Comparison of Ultrasound-Assisted and Regular Leaching of Vanadium and Chromium from Roasted High Chromium Vanadium Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Jiang, Tao; Gao, Huiyang; Liu, Yajing; Zheng, Xiaole; Xue, Xiangxin

    2018-02-01

    Ultrasound-assisted leaching (UAL) was used for vanadium and chromium leaching from roasted material obtained by the calcification roasting of high-chromium-vanadium slag. UAL was compared with regular leaching. The effect of the leaching time and temperature, acid concentration, and liquid-solid ratio on the vanadium and chromium leaching behaviors was investigated. The UAL mechanism was determined from particle-size-distribution and microstructure analyses. UAL decreased the reaction time and leaching temperature significantly. Furthermore, 96.67% vanadium and less than 1% chromium were leached at 60°C for 60 min with 20% H2SO4 at a liquid-solid ratio of 8, which was higher than the maximum vanadium leaching rate of 90.89% obtained using regular leaching at 80°C for 120 min. Ultrasonic waves broke and dispersed the solid sample because of ultrasonic cavitation, which increased the contact area of the roasted sample and the leaching medium, the solid-liquid mass transfer, and the vanadium leaching rate.

  9. [Study of Ag-containing on casting cobalt chromium alloy on the surface structure and the cell toxicity in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Liang, Rui-ying; Meng, He; Xu, Yan-li; Li, Jing-dong; Wu, Wen-hui

    2012-10-01

    To detect cobalt chromium alloy antimicrobial coating silver of the surface structure and the cell toxicity in order to provide a theoretical basis for clinical application. Plasma spraying technique was adopted to prepare cobalt chromium alloy antimicrobial coating silver. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to evaluate the surface properties. The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium and flow cytometry method was adopted to test the L929 cell proliferation and the influence of the cell cycle. The surface of the coating was uniform and compact, combined perfectly with substrate material. The content of the surface was mainly Ag, Cr and a small amount of Ag(2)O, Cr(2)O(3). After cobalt chromium alloy was cultured in leach liquor for 1, 2 and 3 days, the statistical result showed that there was no significant different between the three groups. The cytotoxic level of negative control group was level 0 at each time point and that of other groups was level 1 at each time point. There was no significant difference between cobalt chromium alloy and cobalt chromium alloy antimicrobial coating silver in cell toxicity (P > 0.05). There was no statistical significance of the influence on cell cycle between cobalt chromium alloy with Ag coating [the G2's rate of cell cycle was (8.23 ± 0.39)%] and cobalt chromium alloy group [the G2's rate of cell cycle was (8.70 ± 0.46)%] (P > 0.05). The surface of the coating was stable and there was no significant difference between cobalt chromium alloy widely used in clinic and cobalt chromium alloy with Ag coating of the influence on proliferation of L929 cell and cell cycle, the cell compatibility of cobalt chromium with Ag coating is well.

  10. Effect of Ti, Nb, Cr and B on Structure and Mechanical Properties of High Aluminium Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a method was investigated to eliminate the presence of undesirable Al4C3 phases in a high-aluminium alloys, and thusimprove the production process. The melting conditions employed in this work enabled the formation of a Fe-Al-C liquid solution.Moreover, titanium additions into the liquid allowed the precipitation of TiC. According to this reaction, the extent of carbon removal from the melt is strongly influenced by the amount of Ti additions. Hence, proper titanium levels can result in total removal of carbon from the liquid. Notice from this figure that Ti additions above 4.5%, totally eliminate the undesirable Al4C3 precipitates. Making Cr, Ti, B additions reduces size of FeAl alloys grains. In addition, this work indicates that the high-aluminium cast iron posses high oxidation resistance, exceeding that of high-chromium cast iron and chromium cast steels. Finally, the alloy ductility can be enhanced by additions of dopants such as B and Cr. Hence, additions of 0.03% B and 0.03%B-5% Cr combined with a heat treatment were implemented. As a result, the alloy ductility was significantly improved, where the strain of up to 5.3%, (B alone or 15% (B-Cr were obtained.

  11. Effect of Ti, Nb, Cr and B on Structure and Mechanical Properties of High Aluminium Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopyciński D.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a method was investigated to eliminate the presence of undesirable Al4C3 phases in a high-aluminium alloys, and thus improve the production process. The melting conditions employed in this work enabled the formation of a Fe-Al-C liquid solution. Moreover, titanium additions into the liquid allowed the precipitation of TiC. According to this reaction, the extent of carbon removal from the melt is strongly influenced by the amount of Ti additions. Hence, proper titanium levels can result in total removal of carbon from the liquid. Notice from this figure that Ti additions above 4.5%, totally eliminate the undesirable Al4C3 precipitates. Making Cr, Ti, B additions reduces size of FeAl alloys grains. In addition, this work indicates that the high-aluminium cast iron posses high oxidation resistance, exceeding that of high-chromium cast iron and chromium cast steels. Finally, the alloy ductility can be enhanced by additions of dopants such as B and Cr. Hence, additions of 0.03% B and 0.03%B-5% Cr combined with a heat treatment were implemented. As a result, the alloy ductility was significantly improved, where the strain of up to 5.3%, (B alone or 15% (B-Cr were obtained.

  12. Fracture behavior of metal-ceramic fixed dental prostheses with frameworks from cast or a newly developed sintered cobalt-chromium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Klaus-Peter; Knauber, Andreas W; Nothdurft, Frank P

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the fracture behavior of metal-ceramic bridges with frameworks from cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo), which are manufactured using conventional casting or a new computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) milling and sintering technique. A total of 32 metal-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDPs), which are based on a nonprecious metal framework, was produced using a conventional casting process (n = 16) or a new CAD/CAM milling and sintering process (n = 16). Eight unveneered frameworks were manufactured using each of the techniques. After thermal and mechanical aging of half of the restorations, all samples were subjected to a static loading test in a universal testing machine, in which acoustic emission monitoring was performed. Three different critical forces were revealed: the fracture force (F max), the force at the first reduction in force (F decr1), and the force at the critical acoustic event (F acoust1). With the exception of the veneered restorations with cast or sintered metal frameworks without artificial aging, which presented a statistically significant but slightly different F max, no statistically significant differences between cast and CAD/CAM sintered and milled FDPs were detected. Thermal and mechanical loading did not significantly affect the resulting forces. Cast and CAD/CAM milled and sintered metal-ceramic bridges were determined to be comparable with respect to the fracture behavior. FDPs based on CAD/CAM milled and sintered frameworks may be an applicable and less technique-sensitive alternative to frameworks that are based on conventionally cast frameworks.

  13. Steel castings Ultrasonic examination, Part 2: Steel castings for highly stressed components

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    This European Standard specifies the requirements for the ultrasonic examination of steel castings (with ferritic structure) for highly stressed components and the methods for determining internal discontinuities by the pulse echo technique. This European Standard applies to the ultrasonic examination of steel castings which have usually received a grain refining heat treatment and which have wall thicknesses up to and including 600 mm. For greater wall thicknesses, special agreements apply with respect to test procedure and recording levels. This European Standard does not apply to austenitic steels and joint welds.

  14. High-valent imido complexes of manganese and chromium corroles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicola Y; Eikey, Rebecca A; Loring, Megan I; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2005-05-16

    The oxidation reaction of M(tpfc) [M = Mn or Cr and tpfc = tris(pentafluorophenyl)corrole] with aryl azides under photolytic or thermal conditions gives the first examples of mononuclear imido complexes of manganese(V) and chromium(V). These complexes have been characterized by NMR, mass spectrometry, UV-vis, EPR, elemental analysis, and cyclic voltammetry. Two X-ray structures have been obtained for Mn(tpfc)(NMes) and Cr(tpfc)(NMes) [Mes = 2,4,6-(CH(3))(3)C(6)H(2)]. Short metal-imido bonds (1.610 and 1.635 Angstroms) as well as nearly linear M-N-C angles are consistent with triple M triple-bond NR bond formation. The kinetics of nitrene [NR] group transfer from manganese(V) corroles to various organic phosphines have been defined. Reduction of the manganese(V) corrolato complex affords phosphine imine and Mn(III) with reaction rates that are sensitive to steric and electronic elements of the phosphine substrate. An analogous manganese complex with a variant corrole ligand containing bromine atoms in the beta-pyrrole positions, Mn(Br(8)tpfc)(NAr), has been prepared and studied. Its reaction with PEt(3) is 250x faster than that of the parent tpfc complex, and its Mn(V/IV) couple is shifted by 370 mV to a more positive potential. The EPR spectra of chromium(V) imido corroles reveal a rich signal at ambient temperature consistent with Cr(V) triple-bond NR (d(1), S = 1/2) containing a localized spin density in the d(xy) orbital, and an anisotropic signal at liquid nitrogen temperature. Our results demonstrate the synthetic utility of organic aryl azides in the preparation of mononuclear metal imido complexes previously considered elusive, and suggest strong sigma-donation as the underlying factor in stabilizing high-valent metals by corrole ligands.

  15. Nonaqueous slip casting of high temperature ceramic superconductors using an investment casting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Matthew W. (Inventor); Taylor, Theodore D. (Inventor); Wise, Stephanie A. (Inventor); Buckley, John D. (Inventor); Vasquez, Peter (Inventor); Buck, Gregory M. (Inventor); Hicks, Lana P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for slip casting ceramic articles that does not employ parting agents and affords the casting of complete, detailed, precision articles that do not possess parting lines is presented. This process is especially useful for high temperature superconductors and water-sensitive ceramics. A wax pattern for a shell mold is provided, and an aqueous mixture of a calcium sulfate-bonded investment material is applied as a coating to the wax pattern. The coated wax pattern is then dried, followed by curing to vaporize the wax pattern and leave a shell mold of the calcium sulfate-bonded investment material. The shell mold is cooled to room temperature, and a ceramic slip, created by dispersing a ceramic powder in an organic liquid, is poured therein. After a ceramic shell of desired thickness or a solid article has set up in the shell mold, excess ceramic slip is poured out. The shell mold is misted with water and peeled away from the ceramic article, after which the ceramic is fired to provide a complete, detailed, precision, high temperature superconductive ceramic article without parting lines. The casting technique may take place in the presence of a magnetic field to orient the ceramic powders during the casting process.

  16. [The effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the surface properties of nickel-chromium dental casting alloys after electrochemical corrosion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Guang-yan; Zhang, Li-xia; Wang, Jue; Shen, Qing-ping; Su, Jian-sheng

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the surface properties of nickel-chromium dental alloys after electrochemical corrosion. The surface morphology and surface structure of nickel-chromium dental alloys were examined by stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy before and after electrochemical tests in 0 g/L and 1.0 g/L EGCG artificial saliva. The surface element component and chemical states of nickel-chromium dental alloys were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectrograph after electrochemical tests in 0 g/L and 1.0 g/L EGCG artificial saliva. More serious corrosion happened on the surface of nickel-chromium alloy in 1.0 g/L EGCG artificial saliva than in 0 g/L EGCG. The diameters of corrosion pits were smaller, and the dendrite structure of the alloy surface was not affected in 0 g/L EGCG. While the diameters of corrosion pits were larger, the dendritic interval of the alloy surface began to merge, and the dendrite structure was fuzzy in 1.0 g/L EGCG. In addition, the O, Ni, Cr, Be, C and Mo elements were detected on the surface of nickel-chromium alloys after sputtered for 120 s in 0 g/L EGCG and 1.0 g/L EGCG artificial saliva after electrochemical corrosion, and the surface oxides were mainly NiO and Cr(2)O(3). Compared with 0 g/L EGCG artificial saliva, the content of O, NiO and Cr(2)O(3) were lower in 1.0 g/L EGCG. The results of surface morphology and the corrosion products both show that the corrosion resistance of nickel-chromium alloys become worse and the oxide content of corrosion products on the surface reduce in 1.0 g/L EGCG artificial saliva.

  17. Changing Relations between High Castes and Tamang in Melamchi Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Pokharel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the processes of transformation of social relations between high caste groups and Tamang in Melamchi Valley for the period of 1980-2010. Development interventions made by government of Nepal and (I NGOs, a decade long undergoing Melamchi Water Supply Project and labor migration are major factors for ongoing changes in the study area. Spread of literacy classes and primary education, availability of credit institutions, introduction of modern farming, road networks, seasonal out migration from the area, etc. primarily define new relations among the groups. Borrowing and lending money were one of the basis of high caste and Tamang relation in past. The latter was regarded as borrower loan from first one. Before 1980s, money and agriculture commodities were controlled by few rich and high castes people. Cash income from various sources made enable the Tamang to stand on an equal footing with high caste people. Open political economy and liberal policy for issuing pass port in 1990s and after that encourage the people to diversify the destination of seasonal migration from India to Gulf countries and East Asia. Various processes of socio-economic and political changes led to local peoples to seek their position and identity in the changing context. Discourse of Tamang, high castes and Dalit entered into the Valley along with the development resources of (INGO and political movements of the country. This made possible to Tamang and other disadvantage groups to define and redefine their ethnic identity. Keywords: High castes; Tamang; credit facilities; subsistence farming; identity construction; money lending; wage labor DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4513 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.4 2010 pp.65-84

  18. Modeling of high temperature- and diffusion-controlled die soldering in aluminum high pressure die casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domkin, Konstantin; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Thorborg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Soldering of cast alloys to the dies has been a continuing source of die surface damage in the aluminum die-casting industry. To reduce the repair and maintenance costs, an approach to modeling the damage and predicting the die lifetime is required. The aim of the present study is the estimation...... the die-casting industry. As an example, the model is applied to several cases of high pressure die casting (HPDC) where A380 alloy parts are cast in the H13 steel die. The predicted locations of the higher strength of soldering appear in the "hot spot" areas of the die surface in agreement...

  19. Adhesion of dental porcelain to cast, milled, and laser-sintered cobalt-chromium alloys: shear bond strength and sensitivity to thermocycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Prat, Josep; Cano-Batalla, Jordi; Cabratosa-Termes, Josep; Figueras-Àlvarez, Oscar

    2014-09-01

    New technologies have led to the introduction of new materials, so an evaluation of the adhesion of ceramics to these materials is needed. The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of dental porcelain to cast, milled, and laser-sintered cobalt-chromium alloys, and to investigate the adhesive bond and failure type after thermocycling, 90 metal cylinders (10 mm diameter and 10 mm height) were prepared from cast (30 specimens), milled (30 specimens), and laser-sintered (30 specimens) alloys. Ceramic cylinders (2.5 mm diameter and 4 mm length) were fused to the alloy cylinders. For each group, 15 specimens were thermocycled 5500 times at temperatures between 4°C and 60°C before testing. After testing, the specimen surfaces were visually examined to determine the failure mode. Differences in adhesion values according to manufacturing method, testing condition (thermocycling or no thermocycling), and interaction between the factors were evaluated with a 2-way ANOVA. The χ(2) test (95% confidence level) was performed to determine whether the failure mode was associated with the testing condition. Adhesion strengths for the nonthermocycled specimens were 42.79 ±14.14 MPa (cast), 37.56 ±9.18 MPa (milled), and 29.09 ±6.95 MPa (laser-sintered), and, for the thermocycled specimens, 16.52 ±8.96 MPa (cast), 22.21 ±13.25 MPa (milled), and 24.28 ±10.13 MPa (laser-sintered). Two-way ANOVA results indicated no statistically significant differences in adhesion among the manufacturing methods (P=.257), but statistically significant differences were observed according to both testing conditions (Pporcelain adhesion values for all the materials were adequate for clinical applications. No significant adhesion differences were observed between cast, milled, and laser-sintered specimens, or among thermocycled and nonthermocycled laser-sintered specimens. However, significant adhesion differences were observed among the thermocycled and nonthermocycled

  20. Development of High-Performance Cast Crankshafts. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Mark E [General Motors, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop technologies that would enable the production of cast crankshafts that can replace high performance forged steel crankshafts. To achieve this, the Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) of the new material needs to be 850 MPa with a desired minimum Yield Strength (YS; 0.2% offset) of 615 MPa and at least 10% elongation. Perhaps more challenging, the cast material needs to be able to achieve sufficient local fatigue properties to satisfy the durability requirements in today’s high performance gasoline and diesel engine applications. The project team focused on the development of cast steel alloys for application in crankshafts to take advantage of the higher stiffness over other potential material choices. The material and process developed should be able to produce high-performance crankshafts at no more than 110% of the cost of current production cast units, perhaps the most difficult objective to achieve. To minimize costs, the primary alloy design strategy was to design compositions that can achieve the required properties with minimal alloying and post-casting heat treatments. An Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) based approach was utilized, rather than relying only on traditional trial-and-error methods, which has been proven to accelerate alloy development time. Prototype melt chemistries designed using ICME were cast as test specimens and characterized iteratively to develop an alloy design within a stage-gate process. Standard characterization and material testing was done to validate the alloy performance against design targets and provide feedback to material design and manufacturing process models. Finally, the project called for Caterpillar and General Motors (GM) to develop optimized crankshaft designs using the final material and manufacturing processing path developed. A multi-disciplinary effort was to integrate finite element analyses by engine designers and geometry-specific casting

  1. The new foundry line for magnesium alloys high-pressure die-casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N Braszczyńska-Malik

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The new foundry line for high-pressure die-casting of magnesium alloys constructed in the “SILUM” Foundry (Opojowice, Poland is described. In the process cold chamber die-casting machines are used. The experimental casts and the radiators fabricated using the new cold chamber die-casting line are presented as the final results. The new production line allows to obtain good quality magnesium casts.

  2. Influence of silicon content and heat treatment on wear resistance of white chromium cast irons under high speed solidification conditions; Influencia del contenido de silicio y el tratamiento termico en la resistencia al desgaste de fundiciones blancas al cromo en condiciones de rapida solidificacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyo, L.; Varela, A.; Verhaege, M.; Garcia, A.; Mier, J.; Moors, M.

    2012-11-01

    The influence of silicon content and heat treatment on microstructure, abrasive and dry friction wear resistance of a 3 % C, 12 % Cr cast iron, under fast solidification conditions is studied. The fast solidification condition diminishes the carbide volume and the silicon content increases their dispersion and finesses. All matrixes obtained were perlitics, whit different finesses. No intermediate transformation products were noticed. Hardness had little variation. Austenization treatment show little effectivity, with tendency to increase wear in reference to as cast and maintenance treatments. Behavior under dry friction and abrasive wear were similar under test conditions applied whit more influence of carbide morphology in the abrasive wear conditions. (Author) 32 refs.

  3. Microstructural analysis of aluminum high pressure die castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Maria Diana

    Microstructural analysis of aluminum high pressure die castings (HPDC) is challenging and time consuming. Automating the stereology method is an efficient way in obtaining quantitative data; however, validating the accuracy of this technique can also pose some challenges. In this research, a semi-automated algorithm to quantify microstructural features in aluminum HPDC was developed. Analysis was done near the casting surface where it exhibited fine microstructure. Optical and Secondary electron (SE) and backscatter electron (BSE) SEM images were taken to characterize the features in the casting. Image processing steps applied on SEM and optical micrographs included median and range filters, dilation, erosion, and a hole-closing function. Measurements were done on different image pixel resolutions that ranged from 3 to 35 pixel/μm. Pixel resolutions below 6 px/μm were too low for the algorithm to distinguish the phases from each other. At resolutions higher than 6 px/μm, the volume fraction of primary α-Al and the line intercept count curves plateaued. Within this range, comparable results were obtained validating the assumption that there is a range of image pixel resolution relative to the size of the casting features at which stereology measurements become independent of the image resolution. Volume fraction within this curve plateau was consistent with the manual measurements while the line intercept count was significantly higher using the computerized technique for all resolutions. This was attributed to the ragged edges of some primary α-Al; hence, the algorithm still needs some improvements. Further validation of the code using other castings or alloys with known phase amount and size may also be beneficial.

  4. High-Pressure Die-Casting: Contradictions and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonollo, Franco; Gramegna, Nicola; Timelli, Giulio

    2015-05-01

    High-pressure die casting (HPDC) is particularly suitable for high production rates and it is applied in several industrial fields; actually, approximately half of the world production of light metal castings is obtained by this technology. An overview of the actual status of HPDC technology is described in the current work, where both critical aspects and potential advantages are evidenced. Specific attention is paid to the quality requirements from the end users, as well as to the achievable production rate, the process monitoring and control, and the European and worldwide scenario. This overview leads to individuate the most relevant challenges for HPDC industry: "zero-defect" production, real-time process control, understanding the role of the process variables, process optimization, introduction of research and development activities, and disseminating the knowledge about HPDC technology. Performing these actions, HPDC foundries could achieve a more mature and efficient approach to large end users and exploit their really relevant potential.

  5. Prediction of Surface Porosity Defects in High Pressure Die Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedipour, Mahdi; Schneiderbauer, Simon; Pirker, Stefan; Bozorgi, Salar

    High pressure die casting (HPDC) is a novel manufacturing method with capability of mass production with higher accuracy. Porosity is one of the challenging defects in final product and may be affected by jet instability and atomization during injection phase. In case of atomization a large number of droplets with high velocity impinges the colder confining walls of the casting mold and might solidify consecutively. Different time scales of the impingement of the droplets and their solidification may result in heterogeneous structures near the surface of final product. A numerical framework using volume of fluid method (VOF) and an Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is established to simulate the liquid metal jet breakup and droplet formation during the injection phase. An analytical model for droplet impact on mold walls and solidification is studied and implemented in the numerical framework. The latter enables the prediction of porosity formation near the surface of final product.

  6. Process to Continuously Melt, Refine and Cast High Quality Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to conduct research and development targeted at designing a revolutionary steelmaking process. This process will deliver high quality steel from scrap to the casting mold in one continuous process and will be safer, more productive, and less capital intensive to build and operate than conventional steelmaking. The new process will produce higher quality steel faster than traditional batch processes while consuming less energy and other resources.

  7. Chromium (d-Phenylalanine)3 Alleviates High Fat-Induced Insulin Resistance and Lipid Abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Kandadi, Machender Reddy; Unnikrishnan, MK; Warrier, Ajaya Kumar Sankara; Du, Min; Ren, Jun; Sreejayan, Nair

    2011-01-01

    High-fat diet has been implicated as a major cause of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of dietary-supplementation of chromium (d-phenylalanine)3 [Cr(d-Phe)3] on -glucose and -insulin tolerance in high-fat diet fed mice. C57BL/6-mice were randomly assigned to orally receive vehicle or Cr(d-Phe)3 (45 μg of elemental chromium/kg/day) for 8-weeks. High-fat-fed mice exhibited impaired whole-body -glucose and- insulin tolerance and elevated...

  8. Galvanic Interaction between Chalcopyrite and Pyrite with Low Alloy and High Carbon Chromium Steel Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Azizi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the galvanic interaction between pyrite and chalcopyrite with two types of grinding media (low alloy and high carbon chromium steel ball in grinding of a porphyry copper sulphide ore. Results indicated that injection of different gases into mill altered the oxidation-reduction environment during grinding. High carbon chromium steel ball under nitrogen gas has the lowest galvanic current, and low alloy steel ball under oxygen gas had the highest galvanic current. Also, results showed that the media is anodic relative to pyrite and chalcopyrite, and therefore pyrite or chalcopyrite with a higher rest potential acted as the cathode, whilst the grinding media with a lower rest potential acted as the anode, when they are electrochemically contacted. It was also found that low alloy steel under oxygen produced the highest amount of EDTA extractable iron in the slurry, whilst high carbon chromium steel under nitrogen atmosphere led to the lowest amount.

  9. Interactive high-resolution isosurface ray casting on multicore processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; JaJa, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    We present a new method for the interactive rendering of isosurfaces using ray casting on multi-core processors. This method consists of a combination of an object-order traversal that coarsely identifies possible candidate 3D data blocks for each small set of contiguous pixels, and an isosurface ray casting strategy tailored for the resulting limited-size lists of candidate 3D data blocks. While static screen partitioning is widely used in the literature, our scheme performs dynamic allocation of groups of ray casting tasks to ensure almost equal loads among the different threads running on multi-cores while maintaining spatial locality. We also make careful use of memory management environment commonly present in multi-core processors. We test our system on a two-processor Clovertown platform, each consisting of a Quad-Core 1.86-GHz Intel Xeon Processor, for a number of widely different benchmarks. The detailed experimental results show that our system is efficient and scalable, and achieves high cache performance and excellent load balancing, resulting in an overall performance that is superior to any of the previous algorithms. In fact, we achieve an interactive isosurface rendering on a 1024(2) screen for all the datasets tested up to the maximum size of the main memory of our platform.

  10. Microstructure of high-pressure die-casting AM50 magnesium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Dabrowski, R.; K.N. Braszczynska -Malik; Braszczynski, J.

    2009-01-01

    Microstructure analyses of high-pressure die-casting AM50 magnesium alloy are presented. Investigated pressure casting wasproduced on a cold chamber die-casting machine with locking force at 1100 tones in “FINNVEDEN Metal Structures”. Light microscopyand X-ray phase analysis techniques were used to characterize the obtained material. In microstructure, an

  11. Microstructure of high-pressure die-casting AM50 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dabrowski

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure analyses of high-pressure die-casting AM50 magnesium alloy are presented. Investigated pressure casting wasproduced on a cold chamber die-casting machine with locking force at 1100 tones in “FINNVEDEN Metal Structures”. Light microscopyand X-ray phase analysis techniques were used to characterize the obtained material. In microstructure, an

  12. Application of a criterion for cold cracking to casting high strength aluminum alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalpoor, M.; Eskin, D.G.; Fjaer, H.G.; Ten Cate, A.; Ontijt, N.; Katgerman, L.

    2010-01-01

    Direct chill (DC) casting of high strength 7xxx series aluminium alloys is difficult mainly due to solidification cracking (hot cracks) and solid state cracking (cold cracks). Poor thermal properties along with extreme brittleness in the as-cast condition make DC-casting of such alloys a challenging

  13. Best practices for making high integrity lightweight metal castings - molten metal composition and cleanliness control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qigui Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To make high integrity lightweight metal castings, best practices are required in various stages of casting and heat treatment processes, including liquid metal composition and quality control, casting and gating/riser system design, and process optimization. This paper presents best practices for liquid metal processing and quality assurance of molten metal in both melting and mold filling. Best practices for other aspects of lightweight metal casting will be published separately.

  14. High Pressure Die Casting of Aluminium and Magnesium Alloys: Grain Structure and Segregation Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Laukli, Hans Ivar

    2004-01-01

    Cold chamber high pressure die casting, (HPDC), is an important commercial process for the production of complex near net shape aluminium and magnesium alloy castings. The work presented in the thesis was aimed at investigating the microstructure formation in this type of casting. The solidification characteristics related to the process and the alloys control the formation of grains and defects. This again has a significant impact on the mechanical properties of the castings. The investi...

  15. The Cementite Spheroidization Process in High-Carbon Steels with Different Chromium Contents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzginova, N.V.; Zhao, L.; Sietsma, J.

    2008-01-01

    The cementite spheroidization process is investigated in hypereutectoid steels with different chromium (Cr) contents. A spheroidized structure in high-carbon steel is usually obtained by a divorced eutectoid transformation (DET) reaction, which occurs during slow cooling of austenite with fine

  16. Cast iron zinc galvanizing improved by high temperature oxidation process

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jędrzejczyk; M. Hajduga

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate influence of the high-temperature oxidation, as the preliminary stage previous to coating with zinc on the change of surface layer structure as well as subsurface layer of cast iron with flake, vermicular and nodular graphite.Design/methodology/approach: The experiment was led in the temperature range: 850-1050ºC in ambient air. Samples have been taken out from the furnace separately after: 2-12 hours. After scale layer removal the hot dip zinc coating in industrial condi...

  17. Corrosion of High Chromium Ferritic/Martensitic Steels in High Temperature Water. a Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, P.; Lapena, J.; Blazquez, F. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Available literature concerning corrosion of high-chromium ferritic/martensitic steels in high temperature water has been reviewed. The subjects considered are general corrosion, effect of irradiation on corrosion, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). In addition some investigations about radiation induced segregation (RIS) are shown in order to know the compositional changes at grain boundaries of these alloys and their influence on corrosion properties. The data on general corrosion indicate moderate corrosion rates in high temperature water up to 350 degree centigree. Considerably larger corrosion rates were observed under neutron irradiation. The works concerning to the behaviour of these alloys to stress corrosion cracking seem to conclude that in these materials is necessary to optimize the temper temperature and to carry out the post-weld heat treatments properly in order to avoid stress corrosion cracking. (Author) 40 refs.

  18. High pressure die casting of Fe-based metallic glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Parthiban; Szabo, Attila; Borzel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen; Stoica, Mihai; Bárdos, András

    2016-10-11

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples. This can be attributed to the laminar filling of the mold and to a lower heat transfer coefficient, which avoids the skin effect in the steel mold. In addition, magnetic measurements reveal that the amorphous structure of the material is maintained throughout the key-shaped samples. Although it is difficult to control the flow and cooling rate of the molten metal in the corners of the key due to different cross sections, this can be overcome by proper tool geometry. The present results confirm that HPDC is a suitable method for the casting of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys even with complex geometries for a broad range of applications.

  19. High pressure die casting of Fe-based metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Parthiban; Szabo, Attila; Borzel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen; Stoica, Mihai; Bárdos, András

    2016-10-01

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples. This can be attributed to the laminar filling of the mold and to a lower heat transfer coefficient, which avoids the skin effect in the steel mold. In addition, magnetic measurements reveal that the amorphous structure of the material is maintained throughout the key-shaped samples. Although it is difficult to control the flow and cooling rate of the molten metal in the corners of the key due to different cross sections, this can be overcome by proper tool geometry. The present results confirm that HPDC is a suitable method for the casting of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys even with complex geometries for a broad range of applications.

  20. Feeding Mechanisms in High-Pressure Die Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otarawanna, S.; Laukli, H. I.; Gourlay, C. M.; Dahle, A. K.

    2010-07-01

    This work focuses on understanding the feeding behavior during high-pressure die casting (HPDC). The effects of intensification pressure (IP) and gate thickness on the transport of material through the gate during the latter stages of HPDC were investigated using an AlSi3MgMn alloy. Microstructural characterization of the gate region indicated a marked change in feeding mechanism with increasing IP and gate size. Castings produced with a high IP or thick gate contained a relatively low fraction of total porosity, and shear band-like features existed through the gate, suggesting that semisolid strain localization in the gate is involved in feeding during the pressure intensification stage. When a low IP is combined with a thin gate, no shear band is observed in the gate and feeding is less effective, resulting in a higher level of porosity in the HPDC component. Although shear banding through the gate was found to reduce porosity in HPDC parts, if gates are not properly designed, deformation of the mushy zone through the gate can cause severe macrosegregation, large pores, and large cracks, which could severely reduce the performance of the component.

  1. Chromium and Genomic Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, Sandra S.; Wise, John Pierce

    2011-01-01

    Many metals serve as micronutrients which protect against genomic instability. Chromium is most abundant in its trivalent and hexavalent forms. Trivalent chromium has historically been considered an essential element, though recent data indicate that while it can have pharmacological effects and value, it is not essential. There are no data indicating that trivalent chromium promotes genomic stability and, instead may promote genomic instability. Hexavalent chromium is widely accepted as high...

  2. Performance capabilities of EDM of high carbon high chromium steel with copper and brass electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surekha, B.; Swain, Sudiptha; Suleman, Abu Jafar; Choudhury, Suvan Dev

    2017-07-01

    The paper address the statistical modeling of input-output relationships of electric discharge machining. In the present work, peak current (I) pulse on time (T) and gap voltage of electric discharge machining (EDM) process are chosen as control parameters to analyze the performance of the process. The output characteristics, namely radial overcut, electrode wear rate (EWR) and metal removal rate (MRR) are treated as the responses. A full factorial design (FFD) of experiments has been used to conduct the experiments and linear regression models are developed for different process characteristics. While conducting the experiments, high carbon and high chromium steel is considered as work piece material and brass and copper are used as electrode material. It is important to note that the experimental conditions are kept similar while machining with the help of different electrode materials. The data obtained from the experiments has been used to develop the regression models for three process parameters for two electrode materials.

  3. Cast construction elements for heat treatment furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Piekarski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study presents sketches and photos of the cast creep-resistant components used in various types of heat treatment furnaces. The shape of the elements results from the type of the operation carried out in the furnace, while dimensions are adjusted to the size of the furnace working chamber. The castings are mainly made from the high-alloyed, austenitic chromium-nickel or nickel-chromium steel, selecting the grade in accordance with the furnace operating conditions described by the rated temperature, the type and parameters of the applied operating atmosphere, and the charge weight. Typical examples in this family of construction elements are: crucibles, roller tracks, radiant tubes and guides. The majority of castings are produced in sand moulds.

  4. Metallographic problems of the production of parts from continuously cast high-speed steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supov, A. V.; Aleksandrova, N. M.; Paren'kov, S. A.; Kakabadze, R. V.; Pavlov, V. P.

    1998-09-01

    It has been assumed until recently that high-speed steels cannot be produced by the method of continuous casting. Numerous attempts to use this highly efficient technology for manufacturing such steels have failed because of breakage of the cast preforms. A solution was sought in improving the design of the continuous-casting machines (CCM), increasing the level of their automation, and using rational compositions of slag-forming mixtures (SFM). The idea was that a high-speed steel can be cast only in vertical CCM. The present work concerns regimes of secondary cooling under which the structures formed in high-speed steels provide a ductility sufficient for bending the continuously cast preform without failure. Steel R6M5 cast continuously in such a machine can easily be machined into hot-rolled preforms for sheets, wire, silver-steel rods, and other final products without a forging stage.

  5. Novel high chromium containing braze filler metals for heat exchanger applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangaswamy, S.; Fortuna, D. [Sulzer Metco, Troy (United States)

    2007-07-01

    A new family of boron-free, high chromium containing braze filler metal compositions were developed (Amdry 105, Amdry 108, Amdry 805). Filler metal properties including metallurgical phases, melting range, flow, corrosion resistance and high temperature oxidation resistance are reported. Additionally, the technical and economical advantages of using these new filler metals in fabricating flat plate type of heat exchangers and metallic catalytic converters is discussed. (orig.)

  6. Cold cracking in DC-cast high strength aluminum alloy ingots : An intrinsic problem intensified by casting process parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalpoor, M.; Eskin, D.G.; Ruvalcaba, D.; Fjaer, H.G.; Ten Cate, A.; Ontijt, N.; Katgerman, L.

    2011-01-01

    For almost half a century the catastrophic failure of direct chill (DC) cast high strength aluminum alloys has been challenging the production of sound ingots. To overcome this problem, a criterion is required that can assist the researchers in predicting the critical conditions which facilitate the

  7. High temperature corrosion of cast irons and cast steels in dry air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tholence, F.; Norell, M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Engineering Metals

    2001-07-01

    The oxidation in dry air of four cast alloys intended for exhaust gas systems has been examined. Particular interest was directed to how the oxide growth was related to the microstructures. The examined alloys were two cast ductile irons, a SiMo alloy (Fe3,86Si0,6Mo3C) and a Ni-Resist alloy (Fe32Ni5,3Si2,1C), and two cast stainless steels, one ferritic (Fe18Cr2,1Mn0,32C) and one austenitic (Fe20Cr9Ni0,47C). Coupons were oxidised for 50 h at temperatures between 650 C and 1050 C. The samples were characterised by using XRD, SEM/EDX and AES. As expected, the overall oxide thickness increased with temperature and partial spallation occurred at the highest temperatures for all alloys. Porous Fe oxide nodules nucleate at the graphite nodules on the ductile irons. These Fe-oxide nodules formed above a continuous layer of Fe-Si-oxide for the SiMo and mixed Fe-Ni-Si oxides for the Ni-Resist. The total oxide thickness is about (60 {mu}m). Thick oxides at the interdendritic regions in the cast steels were attributed to non-Cr-carbides. Segregation of Cr directed the formation of iron oxide nodules to the centre of the dendrites in the austenitic alloy. (orig.)

  8. Determination of silicon and chromium content in gray cast iron by the Van der Pauw method; Determinacion del contenido de silicio y cromo en fundiciones grises mediante el metodo de Van der Pauw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremps, E.; Enrique, J. L.; Moron, C.; Garcia, A.; Gomez, A.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we show a system based on the resistivity measurement of samples of gray cast iron by the Van der Pauw method to calculate the silicon content in the samples. Twenty five trials have been carried out, studying resistive and metallographic characteristics of the samples. This has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain, by this method, the silicon content in molten flat with low content of alloying elements, also the content of chromium in series smelters where the rate of silicon remains constant. (Author)

  9. Nematic ordering in pyrochlore antiferromagnets: high-field phase of chromium spinel oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Takata, Emika; Momoi, Tsutomu; Oshikawa, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by recent observation of a new high field phase near saturation in chromium spinels $A$Cr$_2$O$_4$ ($A=$ Zn, Cd, Hg), we study the $S = 3/2$ pyrochlore Heisenberg antiferromagnet with biquadratic interactions. Magnon instability analysis at the saturation field reveals that a very small biquadratic interaction can induce magnon pairing in pyrochlore antiferromagnets, which leads to the emergence of a ferro-quadrupolar phase, or equivalently a spin nematic phase, below the saturation...

  10. Effect of Process Parameters, Casting Thickness, and Alloys on the Interfacial Heat-Transfer Coefficient in the High-Pressure Die-Casting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-Peng; Xiong, Shou-Mei; Liu, Bai-Cheng; Li, Mei; Allison, John

    2008-12-01

    The heat transfer at the metal-die interface is believed to have great influence on the solidification process and cast structure of the high-pressure die-casting (HPDC) process. The present article focused on the effects of process parameters, casting thickness, and alloys on the metal-die interfacial heat-transfer coefficient (IHTC) in the HPDC process. Experiment was carried out on a cold-chamber die-casting machine with two casting alloys AM50 and ADC12. A special casting, namely, “step-shape” casting, was used and cast against a H13 steel die. The IHTC was determined using an inverse approach based on the temperature measurements inside the die. Results show that the IHTC is different at different steps and changes as the solidification of the casting proceeds. Process parameters only influence the IHTC in its peak value, and for both AM50 and ADC12 alloys, a greater fast shot velocity leads to a greater IHTC peak value at steps 1 and 2. The initial die surface temperature has a more prominent influence on the IHTC peak values at the thicker steps, especially step 5. Results also show that a closer contact between the casting and die could be achieved when the casting alloy is ADC12 instead of AM50, which consequently leads to a higher IHTC.

  11. Solidification microstructure of M2 high speed steel by different casting technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xuefeng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the solidification microstructure of AISI M2 high speed steel manufactured by different casting technologies, namely iron mould casting and continuous casting. The results revealed that the as-cast structure of the steel was composed of the iron matrix and the M2C eutectic carbide networks, which were greatly refined in the ingot made by continuous casting process, compared with that by the iron mould casting process. M2C eutectic carbides presented variation in their morphologies and growth characteristics in the ingots by both casting methods. In the ingot by iron mould casting, they have a plate-like morphology and grow anisotropically. However, in the ingot made by continuous casting, the carbides evolved into the fiber-like shape that exhibited little characteristics of anisotropic growth. It was noticed that the fiber-like M2C was much easier to decompose and spheroidize after heated, as a result, the carbides refined remarkably, compared with the case of plate-like carbides in the iron mould casting ingot.

  12. ToxCast Workflow: High-throughput screening assay data processing, analysis and management (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    US EPA’s ToxCast program is generating data in high-throughput screening (HTS) and high-content screening (HCS) assays for thousands of environmental chemicals, for use in developing predictive toxicity models. Currently the ToxCast screening program includes over 1800 unique c...

  13. The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST): Test-Retest Reliability in a High Scoring Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Carrie; Williams, Jo; Scott, Fiona; Stott, Carol; Bolton, Patrick; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) is a 37-item parental self-completion questionnaire designed to screen for high-functioning autism spectrum conditions in epidemiological research. The CAST has previously demonstrated good accuracy for use as a screening test, with high sensitivity in studies with primary school aged children in…

  14. Hot corrosion of TD nickel and TD nickel chromium in a high velocity gas stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, W. A.; Probst, H. B.

    1971-01-01

    Results of cyclical tests of TD nickel (2% thoria-dispersed nickel) and TD nickel chromium (2% thoria-dispersed nickel-20% chromium alloy) 1.5 mm (60 mil) sheet specimens for susceptibility to hot corrosion in a Mach 0.5 gas stream of Jet A-1 fuel combustion products containing 2 ppm sea salt. Tests as long as 500 one-hour cycles between room temperature and specimen hot zone temperatures of 899 C (1650 F), 982 C (1800 F), and 1149 C (2100 F) were performed. Evidence of hot corrosion was found for both materials in the 899 C (1650 F) and 982 C (1800 F) tests, but not at 1149 C (2100 F). It was concluded that because of high metal thickness losses neither alloy in sheet form is suitable for long-time engine application in a hot corrosion environment at temperatures of 982 C (1800 F) or above.

  15. Commercialization of NASA's High Strength Cast Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the commercialization of a new high strength cast aluminum alloy, invented by NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, for high temperature applications will be presented. Originally developed to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low- exhaust emission, the novel NASA aluminum alloy offers dramatic improvement in tensile and fatigue strengths at elevated temperatures (450 F-750 F), which can lead to reducing part weight and cost as well as improving performance for automotive engine applications. It is an ideal low cost material for cast components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. NASA alloy also offers greater wear resistance, dimensional stability, and lower thermal expansion compared to conventional aluminum alloys, and the new alloy can be produced economically from sand, permanent mold and investment casting. Since 2001, this technology was licensed to several companies for automotive and marine internal combustion engines applications.

  16. Determination of hexavalent chromium in traditional Chinese medicines by high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Li, Li-Min; Xia, Jing; Cao, Shuai; Hu, Xin; Lian, Hong-Zhen; Ji, Shen

    2015-12-01

    An analytical method that combined high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of hexavalent chromium in traditional Chinese medicines. Hexavalent chromium was extracted using the alkaline solution. The parameters such as the concentration of alkaline and the extraction temperature have been optimized to minimize the interconversion between trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium. The extracted hexavalent chromium was separated on a weak anion exchange column in isocratic mode, followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry determination. To obtain a better chromatographic resolution and sensitivity, 75 mM NH4 NO3 at pH 7 was selected as the mobile phase. The linearity of the proposed method was investigated in the range of 0.2-5.0 μg L(-1) (r(2) = 0.9999) for hexavalent chromium. The limits of detection and quantitation are 0.1 and 0.3 μg L(-1) , respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of hexavalent chromium in Chloriti lapis and Lumbricus with satisfactory recoveries of 95.8-112.8%. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Mg-Al-RE Magnesium Alloys for High-Pressure Die-Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braszczyńska-Malik K.N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Mg-Al-RE type magnesium alloys for high-pressure die-casting are presented. Alloys based on the commercial AM50 magnesium alloy with 1, 3 and 5 mass % of rare earth elements were fabricated in a foundry and cast in cold chamber die-casting machines. The obtained experimental casts have good quality surfaces and microstructure consisting of an α(Mg-phase, Al11RE3, Al10RE2Mn7 intermetallic compound and small amount of α+γ eutectic and Al2RE phases.

  18. Determination of interfacial heat transfer coefficient and its application in high pressure die casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Yongyou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the research progress of the interfacial heat transfer in high pressure die casting (HPDC is reviewed. Results including determination of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC, influence of casting thickness, process parameters and casting alloys on the IHTC are summarized and discussed. A thermal boundary condition model was developed based on the two correlations: (a IHTC and casting solid fraction and (b IHTC peak value and initial die surface temperature. The boundary model was then applied during the determination of the temperature field in HPDC and excellent agreement was found.

  19. New developments in high quality grey cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Riposan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews original data obtained by the present authors, revealed in recent separate publications, describing specific procedures for high quality grey irons, and reflecting the forecast needs of the worldwide iron foundry industry. High power, medium frequency coreless induction furnaces are commonly used in electric melting grey iron foundries. This has resulted in low sulphur (1,500 °C, contributing to unfavourable conditions for graphite nucleation. Thin wall castings are increasingly produced by these electric melt shops with a risk of greater eutectic undercooling during solidification. The paper focused on two groups of grey cast irons and their specific problems: carbides and graphite morphology control in lower carbon equivalent high strength irons (CE=3.4%-3.8%, and austenite dendrite promotion in eutectic and slightly hypereutectic irons (CE=4.1%-4.5%, in order to increase their strength characteristics. There are 3 stages and 3 steps involving graphite formation, iron chemistry and iron processing that appear to be important. The concept in the present paper sustains a threestage model for nucleating flake graphite [(Mn,XS type nuclei]. There are three important groups of elements (deoxidizer, Mn/S, and inoculant and three technological stages in electric melting of iron (superheat, pre-conditioning of base iron, final inoculation. Attention is drawn to a control factor (%Mn x (%S ensuring it equals to 0.03 – 0.06, accompanied by 0.005wt.%–0.010wt.% Al and/or Zr content in inoculated irons. It was found that iron powder addition promotes austenite dendrite formation in eutectic and slightly eutectic, acting as reinforcement for the eutectic cells. But, there is an accompanying possible negative influence on the characteristics of the (Mn,XS type graphite nuclei (change the morphology of nuclei from polygonal compact to irregular polygonal, and therefore promote chill tendency in treated irons. A double addition (iron

  20. Possibilities of obtaining and controlling high-quality pressure castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the influence of the type of furnace charging melting, refining and modification silumins 226 and 231 on the porosity and microstructure of castings. It was shown that in order to reduce or eliminate the porosity of the castings is necessary to the refining ECOSAL-AL113 of liquid silumin both in the melting furnace, and in the ladle and an additional nitrogen, in the heat furnace modified and refining with nitrogen. To control the effects of refining and modifying the TDA method was used. It was found that based on crystal- lization curve can be qualitatively assess the gas porosity of the castings. In order to control and quality control silumins author developed a computer program using the method of TDA, which sets out: Rm, A5, HB and casting porosity P and the concentration of hydrogen in them. The program also informs the technological procedures to be performed for liquid silumin improper preparation.

  1. Two-phase chromium-niobium alloys exhibiting improved mechanical properties at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chain T.; Takeyama, Masao

    1994-01-01

    The specification discloses chromium-niobium alloys which exhibit improved mechanical properties at high temperatures in the range of 1250.degree. C. and improved room temperature ductility. The alloys contain a Cr.sub.2 Nb-rich intermetallic phase and a Cr-rich phase with an overall niobium concentration in the range of from about 5 to about 18 at. %. The high temperature strength is substantially greater than that of state of the art nickel-based superalloys for enhanced high temperature service. Further improvements in the properties of the compositions are obtained by alloying with rhenium and aluminum; and additional rare-earth and other elements.

  2. The Relationship between Dendrite Arm Spacing and Cooling Rate of Al-Si Casting Alloys in High Pressure Die Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Ik; Kim, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Se-Weon; Kang, Chang-Seog

    The effects of cooling rate on the solidification behavior of Al-8.5%Si-3%Cu and Al-11%Si-3%Cu alloys were studied during high pressure die casting (HPDC). The HPDC experiment was conducted by using the dies with 3 steps for 3 different cooling rates. Because of the high in both melt temperature and pressure, it was difficult to obtain the temperature profile directly from HPDC specimen. Therefore, in this study, cylindrical bar castings with different diameter were poured to acquire the cooling curves at the solidification range of 15°C/s up to 100°C/s and then the microstructures were compared to estimate the cooling rate in HPDC. The solidification characteristics including liquidus/solidus temperature and dendrite arm spacing of each alloy and each cooling rate was analyzed and the results showed strong proportional relationship between dendrite arm spacing and cooling rate in HPDC. The results were also compared with the actual die casting specimens and MAGMA simulation.

  3. Grotrian diagrams for highly ionized chromium Cr V through Cr XXIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirai, Toshizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Sugar, J.; Wiese, W.L.

    1997-07-01

    Grotrian diagrams are presented to provide graphical overviews for 1,640 spectral lines of highly ionized chromium, Cr V through Cr XXIV. In the usual diagram display such as that by Bashkin and Stoner (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1975), the density of transitions is often too high to allow each transition to be drawn separately. Here in our modified diagrams, the transitions are also represented by lines connecting the upper and lower energy levels, but the lower energy levels are extended and repeated for successive configurations as needed. As a sequence, dense packing is avoided and all lines in a multiplet can be accommodated. (author)

  4. Interfacial heat transfer behavior at metal/die in finger-plated casting during high pressure die casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-bo Yu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer at the metal-die interface has a great influence on the solidification process and casting structure. As thin-wall components are extensively produced by high pressure die casting process (HPDC, the B390 alloy finger-plate casting was cast against an H13 steel die on a cold-chamber HPDC machine. The interfacial heat transfer behavior at different positions of the die was carefully studied using an inverse approach based on the temperature measurements inside the die. Furthermore, the filling process and the solidification rate in different finger-plates were also given to explain the distribution of interfacial heat flux (q and interfacial heat transfer coefficient (h. Measurement results at the side of sprue indicates that qmax and hmax could reach 9.2 MW昺-2 and 64.3 kW昺-2昁-1, respectively. The simulation of melt flow in the die reveals that the thinnest (T1 finger plate could accelerate the melt flow from 50 m晄-1 to 110 m晄-1. Due to this high velocity, the interfacial heat flux at the end of T1 could firstly reach a highest value 7.92 MW昺-2 among the ends of Tn (n=2,3,4,5. In addition, the qmax and hmax values of T2, T4 and T5 finger-plates increase with the increasing thickness of the finger plate. Finally, at the rapid decreasing stage of interfacial heat transfer coefficient (h, the decreasing rate of h has an exponential relationship with the increasing rate of solid fraction (f.

  5. Casting Characteristics of High Cerium Content Aluminum Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D; Rios, O R; Sims, Z C; McCall, S K; Ott, R T

    2017-09-05

    This paper compares the castability of the near eutectic aluminum-cerium alloy system to the aluminum-silicon and aluminum-copper systems. The alloys are compared based on die filling capability, feeding characteristics and tendency to hot tear in both sand cast and permanent mold applications. The castability ranking of the binary Al–Ce systems is as good as the aluminum-silicon system with some deterioration as additional alloying elements are added. In alloy systems that use cerium in combination with common aluminum alloying elements such as silicon, magnesium and/or copper, the casting characteristics are generally better than the aluminum-copper system. In general, production systems for melting, de-gassing and other processing of aluminum-silicon or aluminum-copper alloys can be used without modification for conventional casting of aluminum-cerium alloys.

  6. Wear resistance of high chromium white cast iron for coal grinding rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ortega-Cubillos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las fundiciones blancas al alto cromo utilizadas en componentes demolinos de carbón son materiales que presentan diferentes resistencias al desgaste,dependiendo del tratamiento térmico usado en su fabricación. Las propiedades mecánicas,microestructurales y tribológicas de la aleación con 22% de cromo y 3% de carbono (II DASTM A532-10 y su infl uencia en la resistencia al desgaste fueron investigadas. Para lacaracterización de la aleación fueron realizados diversos ensayos, utilizando los siguientesequipos de laboratorio: durómetro, microdurómetro, microscopio óptico, microscopioelectrónico de barrido, difracción de rayos X, espectrofotómetro de emisión óptica, yequipo para ensayo de desgaste abrasivo de acuerdo con la norma ASTM G65-04 (2010.Los resultados encontrados mostraron que la resistencia al desgaste incrementa cuandola matriz tiene una baja fracción volumétrica de austenita retenida y una alta fracción decarburos secundarios. También indican que no es necesario usar largos tiempos durante ladesestabilización en la aleación II D para obtener una óptima resistencia al desgaste, cuandola aleación fue previamente recocida. Estos resultados indican que la industria puede usartiempos cortos durante la desestabilización de los rodillos de molinos de carbón.

  7. Development of precision casting in high speed steel; Seimitsu chuzo haisu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, H.; Fujii, T. [Daido Steel Co. Ltd., Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-07-25

    As to the high speed steel manufactured by precision casting process, effect of decarbonization technology and low temperature casting, and difference between the characteristics of a steel and a high speed steel were examined. The high speed steel was cast by vacuum casing process using a mold manufactured by the lost wax process. Effect of superheating in casting on the product structure and the bending strength was examined. Decarbonization can be prevented by the vacuum casting process. By low temperature casting, the high speed steel structure becomes fine, and the bending strength or toughness is improved; 80% of the T-direction bending strength of the steel can be secured in the high speed steel. The high speed steel exceeds the steel by a little bit in abrasion resistance. When the high speed steel was applied to a spiral cutter, the high speed steel product exceeded 1.2 times the machined steel in the tool life. In the high speed steel, the cutting process is drastically reduced, and reduction of the material cost is also possible compared with the machined steel. The high speed steel is considered to show good results because of excellent abrasion resistance since the tool life depended more on abrasion than on toughness because of the machining conditions. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Cast Steels for Creep-resistant Parts Used in Heat Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Drotlew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Creep-resistant parts of heat treatment furnaces are in most cases made from high-alloyed chromium-nickel and nickel-chromium ironalloys, both cast and wrought. This paper presents the types of casting alloys used for this particular purpose, since the majority of furnace components are made by the casting process. Standards were cited which give symbols of alloy grades used in technical specifications by the domestic industry. It has been indicated that castings made currently are based on a wider spectrum of the creep-resistant alloy grades than the number of alloys covered by the standards. Alloy grades recommended by the technical literature for individual parts of the furnace equipment were given. The recommendations reflect both the type of the technological process used and the technical tasks performed by individual parts of the furnace equipment. Comments were also made on the role of individual alloying elements in shaping the performance properties of castings.

  9. Cast Steels for Creep-Resistant Parts Used in Heat Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drotlew A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Creep-resistant parts of heat treatment furnaces are in most cases made from high-alloyed chromium-nickel and nickel-chromium iron alloys, both cast and wrought. This paper presents the types of casting alloys used for this particular purpose, since the majority of furnace components are made by the casting process. Standards were cited which give symbols of alloy grades used in technical specifications by the domestic industry. It has been indicated that castings made currently are based on a wider spectrum of the creep-resistant alloy grades than the number of alloys covered by the standards. Alloy grades recommended by the technical literature for individual parts of the furnace equipment were given. The recommendations reflect both the type of the technological process used and the technical tasks performed by individual parts of the furnace equipment. Comments were also made on the role of individual alloying elements in shaping the performance properties of castings.

  10. High-Temperature Cast Aluminum for Efficient Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobel, Andrew C.

    Accurate thermodynamic databases are the foundation of predictive microstructure and property models. An initial assessment of the commercially available Thermo-Calc TCAL2 database and the proprietary aluminum database of QuesTek demonstrated a large degree of deviation with respect to equilibrium precipitate phase prediction in the compositional region of interest when compared to 3-D atom probe tomography (3DAPT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experimental results. New compositional measurements of the Q-phase (Al-Cu-Mg-Si phase) led to a remodeling of the Q-phase thermodynamic description in the CALPHAD databases which has produced significant improvements in the phase prediction capabilities of the thermodynamic model. Due to the unique morphologies of strengthening precipitate phases commonly utilized in high-strength cast aluminum alloys, the development of new microstructural evolution models to describe both rod and plate particle growth was critical for accurate mechanistic strength models which rely heavily on precipitate size and shape. Particle size measurements through both 3DAPT and TEM experiments were used in conjunction with literature results of many alloy compositions to develop a physical growth model for the independent prediction of rod radii and rod length evolution. In addition a machine learning (ML) model was developed for the independent prediction of plate thickness and plate diameter evolution as a function of alloy composition, aging temperature, and aging time. The developed models are then compared with physical growth laws developed for spheres and modified for ellipsoidal morphology effects. Analysis of the effect of particle morphology on strength enhancement has been undertaken by modification of the Orowan-Ashby equation for 〈110〉 alpha-Al oriented finite rods in addition to an appropriate version for similarly oriented plates. A mechanistic strengthening model was developed for cast aluminum alloys containing

  11. Chromium and Genomic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Sandra S.; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-01-01

    Many metals serve as micronutrients which protect against genomic instability. Chromium is most abundant in its trivalent and hexavalent forms. Trivalent chromium has historically been considered an essential element, though recent data indicate that while it can have pharmacological effects and value, it is not essential. There are no data indicating that trivalent chromium promotes genomic stability and, instead may promote genomic instability. Hexavalent chromium is widely accepted as highly toxic and carcinogenic with no nutritional value. Recent data indicate that it causes genomic instability and also has no role in promoting genomic stability. PMID:22192535

  12. Influence of Coke Ratio on the Sintering Behavior of High-Chromium Vanadium-Titanium Magnetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songtao Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High-chromium vanadium and titanium magnetite (HCVTM sinter has poor properties. The coke ratio has an important effect on the behavior of HCVTM sintering as it affects the mineral phases in the high-chromium vanadium and titanium sinter (HCVTS via changing the sintering temperature and atmosphere. In this work, the sintering behavior of HCVTM mixed with varying coke ratios was investigated through sintering pot tests, X-ray diffraction (XRD, gas chromatographic analysis, and mineral phase analysis. The results show that, with the increase of the coke ratio from 4.0% to 6.0%, leading to the increase of the combustion ratio of the flue gas, the vertical sintering rate and sinter productivity decrease. Meanwhile, with the change of the coke ratio, the content of magnetite, silicate, and perovskite increase, while the hematite and calcium ferrite decrease. In addition, the tumble strength and reduction ability of HCVTS decrease, and its degradation strength increase. It was found that the appropriate coke ratio for the sintering process was 5.0 wt %.

  13. Heat-Transfer Coefficient and In-Cavity Pressure at the Casting-Die Interface during High-Pressure Die Casting of the Magnesium Alloy AZ91D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaiid, A.; Dour, G.; Dargusch, M. S.; Loulou, T.; Davidson, C.; Savage, G.

    2008-04-01

    The present article deals with the application of a new measurement method to determine the heat-transfer coefficient (HTC) and the heat flux density at the casting-die interface during high-pressure die casting (HPDC) and solidification of the magnesium AZ91D alloy. The main measurements during the trial included velocity and the position of the piston that delivers the metal into the die, the pressure in the die cavity and at the tip of the piston, the alloy surface temperature, and the die temperature at different depths from the surface of the die. The temperature data were analyzed using an inverse method to determine the HTC at the casting-die interface during solidification. This article examines in detail the influence of the piston velocity and in-cavity pressure on heat transfer at the casting-die interface during casting and solidification of the magnesium AZ91D alloy.

  14. Application of High-Temperature Mold Materials to Die Cast Copper Motor Rotor for Improved Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Cowie; Edwin F. Brush, Jr.; Dale T. Peters; Stephen P. Midson; Darryl J. Van Son

    2003-05-01

    The objective of the study, Application of High-Temperature Mold Materials to Die Cast Copper Motor Rotor for Improved Efficiency, was to support the Copper Development Association (CDA) in its effort to design, fabricate and demonstrate mold technologies designed to withstand the copper motor rotor die casting environment for an economically acceptable life. The anticipated result from the compiled data and tests were to: (1) identify materials suitable for die casting copper, (2) fabricate motor rotor molds and (3) supply copper rotor motors for testing in actual compressor systems. Compressor manufacturers can apply the results to assess the technical and economical viability of copper rotor motors.

  15. Effect on Mechanical Properties of Heat Treated High Manganese Austenitic Cast Iron

    OpenAIRE

    Muzafar A.K.; Rashidi M.M.; Mahadzir I.; Shayfull Z.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an attempt to study the effect of manganese addition and heat treatment on higher carbon austenitic cast iron to form high manganese austenitic cast iron with reduced nickel content (Mn-Ni-resist) on mechanical properties. The combination on microstructure (microsegregation), mechanical properties and the relationship of heat treatment on the alloy were analyzed. For this purpose Mn-Ni-resist (4.50C, 2.64Si, 6.0 Mn, 10 Ni) was melted and cast in the form of Y-block test pie...

  16. Die casting for high performance - focus on alloy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakke, P.; Westengen, H. [Hydro Aluminium a.s., Magnesium Competence Centre, PO Box 2560, N-Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2003-12-01

    Development of magnesium die casting alloys is the art of combining a thorough understanding of thermodynamic aspects of alloy composition and phase formation with the solidification kinetics as experienced in the die casting process. The microstructures obtained will determine The Alloy Property profile, which must be in line with the targeted application requirements. Successful development of an industrial alloy means that also The Diecasting Performance profile as well as the Alloy Production and Recycling profile must be fulfilled. In the present paper, a summary of current alloy development efforts will be given. Results from alloy development work by Hydro Magnesium will be presented, focusing mainly on creep resistant alloys. Specifically, alloys within the Mg-Al-RE system are highlighted. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Distortion and Residual Stress in High-Pressure Die Castings: Simulation and Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, P.; Kaschnitz, E.; Schumacher, P.

    2014-09-01

    Two individual high-pressure die casting geometries were developed to study the influence of process parameters and alloy composition on the distortion behavior of aluminum alloy castings. These geometries, a stress lattice and a V-shaped lid, tend to form residual stress due to a difference in wall thickness and a deliberate massive gating system. Castings were produced from two alloys: AlSi12(Fe) and AlSi10MnMg. In the experimental castings, the influence of important process parameters such as die temperature, ejection time, and cooling regime was examined. The time evolution of process temperatures was measured using thermal imaging. Subsequent to casting, distortion was measured by means of a tactile measuring device at ambient temperatures. The measured results were compared against a numerical process and stress simulations of the casting, ejection, and cooling process using the commercial finite element method software ANSYS Workbench. The heat transfer coefficients were adapted to the temperature distributions of the die, and the castings were observed by thermal imaging. A survey of the results of the comparison between simulation and experiment is given for both alloys.

  18. Effects of carbohydrate and chromium ingestion during intermittent high-intensity exercise to fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J M; Welsh, R S; Alerson, N A

    2000-12-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that addition of chromium (Cr) to a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink would enhance the reported benefits of carbohydrate on exercise capacity during intermittent high-intensity shuttle running. Eight physically active men performed 3 exercise trials while ingesting 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO), CHO plus chromium picolinate (400 mg) (CHO + Cr+3), or placebo (P) using a double-blind, counterbalanced design. Each trial consisted of 5 3 15 min bouts of shuttle running (walk, sprint, and run at 95 and 55% of estimated VáO2max, separated by 3-min rest). This was followed by a fatigue test (running alternating 20-m lengths at 55 and 95% of estimated VáO2 until fatigue). During the standardized shuttle running, blood glucose was higher with both CHO and CHO + Cr+3 than P. Plasma free fatty acid was higher in P than both CHO and CHO + Cr+3 at 75 min of exercise and at fatigue. In the fatigue test, subjects ran longer with both CHO and CHO + Cr+3 than P. The data confirm an ergogenic benefit of ingesting CHO during exercise designed to imitate sports like basketball, soccer, and hockey, but do not support the hypothesis that the addition of Cr would enhance this effect.

  19. Fabrication of High-Strength Gray Cast Iron Using Permanent Magnet Scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Seung-Yeon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have developed the manufacturing technology for high strength gray cast irons by using the spent permanent magnet scraps. The cast specimen inoculated by using a spent magnet scraps showed the excellent tensile strength up to 306MPa. This tensile strength value is 50MPa higher than that of the specimen cast without inoculation, and is similar to that of the specimen inoculated by using the expensive misch-metal. These superior mechanical properties are attributed to complex sulfides created during solidification that promote the formation and growth of Type-A graphite. It is therefore concluded that spent magnets scrap can provide an efficient and cost-effective inoculation agent for the fabrication of high-performance gray cast iron.

  20. A highly selective chemiluminescent probe for the detection of chromium(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Sun, Yonghua; Li, Chongying; Yang, Chao

    2017-11-07

    In present work, rhodamine B hydrazide and rhodamine 6G hydrazide were synthesized and the chemiluminescence performance has been investigated. Based on the chemiluminescence of rhodamine 6G hydrazide‑chromium(VI), a selective and sensitive method for the direct detection of chromium(VI) was developed. The chemiluminescence intensity was linearly related to the concentration of chromium(VI) in the range of 2.60×10(-8)-8.00×10(-6)mol/L with a correlation coefficient of r=0.998 and a detection limit of 1.4×10(-8)mol/L (S/N=3). The results indicated rhodamine 6G hydrazide was an excellent chemiluminescent probe for chromium(VI) without reduction of chromium(VI) to chromium(III). A possible mechanism of CL emission was also suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Niobium and chromium rich coatings tailored by laser alloying: XRD analysis at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Rodrigues da Costa

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser treatment technologies have been widely used to modify superficial layers of different materials. In this work we prepare Nb and Cr rich coatings according to laser alloying technique using cast iron as substrate material. Nb and Cr are intensive used in order to overcome challenges like good chemical and mechanical performance at high temperatures. Following laser alloying the surface-modified samples were submitted to an "in situ" XRD analysis under controlled high temperature and atmosphere. The phase transitions registered point to transformations that do not implies formation of fragile phases or cracks induced by high volumes modifications.

  2. PERSPECTIVES OF USING OF HIGH-SPEED STEELS FOR PRODUCTION OF CAST METAL-CUTTING INSTRUMENT. THE PECULIARITIES OF STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF CAST AND DEFORMED STEELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Chaus

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are examined the different ways of improvement of the structure and properties of the high-speed steels, intended for production of the cast metal-cutting instrument. It is shown, that effective methods of improving of impact elasticity of the cast high-speed steel are modification and accelerated cooling of melt at primary crystallization, electroslag remelting with using of magnetic field, and also using of steels with decreased structure dissimilarity.

  3. Freeze-casting: Fabrication of highly porous and hierarchical ceramic supports for energy applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Gaudillere

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the freeze-casting ceramic shaping method and to show how its implementation could be useful for several energy applications where key components comprise a porous scaffold. A detailed presentation of the freeze-casting process and of the characteristics of the resulting porous parts is firstly given. The characteristic of freeze-cast parts and the drawbacks of conventional porous scaffolds existing in energy applications are drawn in order to highlight the expected beneficial effect of this new shaping technique as possible substitute to the conventional ones. Finally, a review of the state of the art freeze-cast based energy applications developed up to now and expected to be promising is given to illustrate the large perspectives opened by the implementation of the freeze-casting of ceramics for energy fields. Here we suggest discussing about the feasibility of incorporate freeze-cast porous support in high temperature ceramic-based energy applications.

  4. Impact of chromium histidinate on high fat diet induced obesity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuzcu Zeynep

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromium (Cr is an essential trace element that has garnered interest for use as a weight loss aid, but its molecular mechanism in obesity is not clear. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effects of chromium histidinate (CrHis on glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65 and the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxynonenal adducts (HNE expressions in liver of rats fed high fat diet (HFD. Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 40, 8 wk-old were divided into four groups. Group I was fed a standard diet (12% of calories as fat; Group II was fed a standard diet and supplemented with 110 μg CrHis/kg BW/d; Group III was fed a HFD (40% of calories as fat; Group IV was fed HFD and supplemented with 110 μg CrHis/kg BW/d. Results Rats fed HFD possessed greater serum insulin (40 vs.33 pmol/L and glucose (158 vs. 143 mg/dL concentration and less liver Cr (44 vs.82 μg/g concentration than rats fed the control diet. However, rats supplemented with CrHis had greater liver Cr and serum insulin and lower glucose concentration in rats fed HFD (P P P Conclusion These findings demonstrate that supplementation of CrHis is protective against obesity, at least in part, through Nrf2-mediated induction of HO-1 in rats fed high fat diet.

  5. REMOVAL OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM FROM AQUEOUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Also, acute systemic poisoning can result from high exposure to hexavalent chromium [2]. Most of the chromium ions in wastewater especially hexavalent chromium originates from industries such as electroplating, metal finishing and magnetic tape manufacturing. For these industrial groups, chromium is a problematic one.

  6. Experimental studies on improving the performance of electrochemical machining of high carbon, high chromium die steel using jet patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sathiyamoorthy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical machining (ECM is a non-traditional process used mainly to cut hard or difficult-to-cut metals, where the application of a more traditional process is not convenient. Stiff market competition and ever-growing demand for better, durable and reliable products has brought about a material revolution, which has greatly expanded the families of difficult-to-machine materials namely highcarbon,high-chromium die steel; stainless steel and superalloys. This investigation attempts to analyze the effect of electrolyte distribution on material removal rate (MRR and surface roughness (SR on electrochemical machining of high-carbon, high-chromium die steel using NaCl aqueous solution. Three electrolyte jet patterns namely straight jet in circular, inclined jet in circular and straight jet in spiral were used for this experimentation. The results reveal that electrolyte distribution significantly improves the performance of ECM and the straight jet in spiral pattern performs satisfactorily in obtaining better MRR and surface roughness.

  7. Isoproterenol exacerbates hyperglycemia and modulates chromium distribution in mice fed with a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Geng-Ruei; Chen, Wen-Kai; Hou, Po-Hsun; Mao, Frank Chiahung

    2017-12-01

    Isoproterenol (ISO), a nonselective β-adrenoceptor agonist for treating bradycardia and asthma, has been proposed to raise blood glucose level. Little is known regarding the relationship between ISO treatment, the induced chromium (Cr) redistribution, and changes in glucose metabolism. We aimed to characterize the effects of a single dose of ISO on glucose homeostasis and Cr level changes in an obesity mouse model. Mice (C57BL6/j strain) were first fed for a continuous period of 12 weeks with either a high fat diet (HFD), to develop an obesity animal model, or a standard diet (SD), to develop a lean animal model as controls. These groups were each separated into two subgroups to receive either a single dose of ISO or saline (control). We measured in vivo their metabolic parameters, fasting glucose level, area under the curve (AUC) for glucose level time profile, insulin level time profile, insulin sensitivity index, and chromium distribution. After a single dose of ISO, the SD-fed mice had slightly higher blood glucose levels compared with the SD controls, when the level was measured 30 and 60min after injection. By contrast, the ISO-treated HFD-fed mice had significantly higher blood glucose levels and AUC during the entire 120min following one administration compared with the HFD control group. Additionally, they had a substantially lower HOMA-IR index, whereas insulin levels remained unchanged. The Cr level in their bones and liver was decreased, and loss of Cr through urinary excretion was elevated. The results demonstrated that ISO exacerbated hyperglycemic syndrome in the obesity animal model. ISO induced a net negative Cr balance as a result of increased urinary excretion, leading to Cr mobilization that was not desirable to overcome the hyperglycemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of low-temperature high-strength integral steel castings for offshore construction by casting process engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Sang-Sub

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In casting steels for offshore construction, manufacturing integral casted structures to prevent fatigue cracks in the stress raisers is superior to using welded structures. Here, mold design and casting analysis were conducted for integral casting steel. The laminar flow of molten metal was analyzed and distributions of hot spots and porosities were studied. A prototype was subsequently produced, and air vents were designed to improve the surface defects caused by the release of gas. A radiographic test revealed no internal defects inside the casted steel. Evaluating the chemical and mechanical properties of specimens sampled from the product revealed that target values were quantitatively satisfied. To assess weldability in consideration of repair welding, the product was machined with grooves and welded, after which the mechanical properties of hardness as well as tensile, impact, and bending strengths were evaluated. No substantive differences were found in the mechanical properties before and after welding.

  9. Modeling studies on divorced eutectic formation of high pressure die cast magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-wu Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and content of the divorced eutectic in the microstructure of high pressure die casting (HPDC magnesium alloy have a great influence on the final performance of castings. Based on the previous work concerning simulation of the nucleation and dendritic growth of primary α-Mg during the solidification of magnesium alloy under HPDC process, an extension was made to the formerly established CA (Cellular Automaton model with the purpose of modeling the nucleation and growth of Mg-Al eutectic. With a temperature field and solute field obtained during simulation of the primary α-Mg dendrites as the initial condition of the modified CA model, modeling of the Mg-Al eutectic with a divorced morphology was achieved. Moreover, the simulated results were in accordance with the experimental ones regarding the distribution and content of the divorced eutectic. Taking a "cover-plate" die casting with AM60 magnesium alloy as an example, the rapid solidification with a high cooling rate at the surface layer of the casting led to a fine and uniform grain size of primary α-Mg, while the divorced eutectic at the grain boundary revealed a more dispersed and granular morphology. Islands of divorced eutectic were observed at the central region of the casting, due to the existence of ESCs (Externally Solidified Crystals which contributed to a coarse and non-uniform grain size of primary α-Mg. The volume percentage of the eutectic β-Mg17Al12 phase is about 2%-6% in the die casting as a whole. The numerical model established in this study is of great significance to the study of the divorced eutectic in the microstructure of die cast magnesium alloy.

  10. Prevention of burn-on defect on surface of hydroturbine blade casting of ultra-low-carbon refining stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ling

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The burn-on sand is common surface defect encountered in CO2-cured silicate-bonded sand casting of hydroturbine blade of ultra-low-carbon martensitic stainless steel, its feature, causes and prevention measures are presented in this paper. Experiments showed that the burn-on defect is caused by oxidization of chromium in the molten steel at high temperature and can be effectively eliminated by using chromium-corundum coating.

  11. Development of high performance casting analysis software by coupled parallel computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyun CHO

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, so much casting analysis software has been continuing to develop the new access way to real casting processes. Those include the melt flow analysis, heat transfer analysis for solidification calculation, mechanical property predictions and microstructure predictions. These trials were successful to obtain the ideal results comparing with real situations, so that CAE technologies became inevitable to design or develop new casting processes. But for manufacturing fields, CAE technologies are not so frequently being used because of their difficulties in using the software or insufficient computing performances. To introduce CAE technologies to manufacturing field, the high performance analysis is essential to shorten the gap between product designing time and prototyping time. The software code optimization can be helpful, but it is not enough, because the codes developed by software experts are already optimized enough. As an alternative proposal for high performance computations, the parallel computation technologies are eagerly being applied to CAE technologies to make the analysis time shorter. In this research, SMP (Shared Memory Processing and MPI (Message Passing Interface (1 methods for parallelization were applied to commercial software "Z-Cast" to calculate the casting processes. In the code parallelizing processes, the network stabilization, core optimization were also carried out under Microsoft Windows platform and their performances and results were compared with those of normal linear analysis codes.

  12. Fatigue Crack Growth Mechanisms in High-Pressure Die-Cast Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kadiri, Haitham; Horstemeyer, M. F.; Jordon, J. B.; Xue, Yibin

    2008-01-01

    Microstructure-affected micromechanisms of fatigue crack growth operating near the limit plasticity regime were experimentally identified for the four main commercial high-pressure die-cast (HPDC) magnesium alloys: AM50, AM60, AZ91, and AE44. These fatigue micromechanisms manifested by the concomitant effects of casting pores, interdendritic Al-rich solid solution layer, β-phase particles, Mn-rich inclusions, rare earth-rich intermetallics, dendrite cell size, and surface segregation phenomena. These concomitant mechanisms clearly delineated the fatigue durability observed for the AM50, AM60, AZ91, and AE44 Mg alloys in both the low- and high-cycle fatigue regimes.

  13. The Effects of Microstructure Heterogeneities and Casting Defects on the Mechanical Properties of High-Pressure Die-Cast AlSi9Cu3(Fe) Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timelli, Giulio; Fabrizi, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Detailed investigations of the salient microstructural features and casting defects of the high-pressure die-cast (HPDC) AlSi9Cu3(Fe) alloy are reported. These characteristics are addressed to the mechanical properties and reliability of separate HPDC tensile bars. Metallographic and image analysis techniques have been used to quantitatively examine the microstructural changes throughout the tensile specimen. The results indicate that the die-cast microstructure consists of several microstructural heterogeneities such as positive eutectic segregation bands, externally solidified crystals (ESCs), cold flakes, primary Fe-rich intermetallics (sludge), and porosities. In addition, it results that sludge particles, gas porosity, as well as ESCs, and cold flakes are concentrated toward the casting center while low porosity and fine-grained structure is observed on the surface layer of the castings bars. The local variation of the hardness along the cross section as well as the change of tensile test results as a function of gage diameter of the tensile bars seem to be ascribed to the change of porosity content, eutectic fraction, and amount of sludge. Further, this behavior reflects upon the reliability of the die-cast alloy, as evidenced by the Weibull statistics.

  14. Using high-content imaging data from ToxCast to analyze toxicological tipping points (TDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Translating results obtained from high-throughput screening to risk assessment is vital for reducing dependence on animal testing. We studied the effects of 976 chemicals (ToxCast Phase I and II) in HepG2 cells using high-content imaging (HCI) to measure dose and time-depende...

  15. Efficiency of protective coatings on high creep resistant cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kubicki

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of research of multilayer aluminium–silicon coatings. Aluminium–silicon coatings were created on high–temperature creep resist cast iron using slurry method in air atmosphere. These coatings protect equipment against hot corrosionin carburizing atmosphere at thermal shocks conditions.Various technological parameters of coatings manufacturing were applied. Main technological parameters were: temperature and time ofannealing and Al-Si ratio in the active mixture. The structure of obtained coatings is three-zonal. Phase composition of two external zones ensures protection against carburizing, but these zones are not resistant to cracking. The cracks form as a result of thermal shocks. The internal zone of the coatings situated next to substrate compensates for differences of thermal expansion of the coating and the substrate. The cracks are stopped in the internal zone and do not propagate into the substrate material. Protective efficiency of the coatings at carburizing conditions with thermal shocks was determined. Structure of the coatings before and after carburizing and thermal shocks is described in present paper. Thickness, chemical composition (EDS and phase composition (XRD of the coatings are determined. Correlation between the coatings structure and depth of carburized layer was determined.

  16. Crystallization of high-Ca chromium garnet upon interaction of serpentine, chromite, and Ca-bearing hydrous fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepurov, A. A.; Turkin, A. I.; Pokhilenko, N. P.

    2017-10-01

    The results of experimental modeling of the conditions of crystallization of high-Ca chromium garnets in the system serpentine-chromite-Ca-Cr-bearing hydrous fluid at a pressure of 5 GPa and temperature of 1300°C are reported. The mineral association including quantitatively predominant high-Mg olivine and diopside-rich clinopyroxene, bright-green garnet, and newly formed chrome spinel was formed. Garnet mostly crystallized around primary chromite grains and was characterized by a high concentration of CaO and Cr2O3. According to the chemical composition, garnets obtained are close to the uvarovite-pyrope varieties, which enter the composition of relatively rare natural paragenesis of garnet wehrlite. The experimental data obtained clearly show that high-Ca chromium garnets are formed in the reaction of chromite-bearing peridotite and Ca-rich fluid at high P-T parameters.

  17. Characterization of Ni-Cr alloys using different casting techniques and molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Teng, Fu-Yuan; Hung, Chun-Cheng

    2014-02-01

    This study differentiated the mechanical properties of nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) alloys under various casting techniques (different casting molds and casting atmospheres). These techniques were sampled by a sand mold using a centrifugal machine in ambient air (group I) and electromagnetic induction in an automatic argon castimatic casting machine (group II). The specimen casting used a graphite mold by a castimatic casting machine (group III). The characteristics of the Ni-Cr alloys, yield and ultimate tensile strength, bending modulus, microhardness, diffraction phase, grindability, ability to spring back, as well as ground microstructure and pattern under different casting conditions were evaluated. The group III specimens exhibited the highest values in terms of strength, modulus, hardness, and grindability at a grind rate of 500 rpm. Moreover, group III alloys exhibited smaller grain sizes, higher ability to spring back, and greater ductility than those casted by sand investment (groups I and II). The main factor, "casting mold," significantly influenced all mechanical properties. The graphite mold casting of the Ni-Cr dental alloys in a controlled atmosphere argon casting system provided an excellent combination of high mechanical properties and good ability to spring back, and preserved the ductile properties for application in Ni-Cr porcelain-fused system. The results can offer recommendations to assist a prosthetic technician in selecting the appropriate casting techniques to obtain the desired alloy properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Avoiding or Promoting Graphite in Carbon-Rich Chromium-Containing CoNiFer Cast Alloys—Part 2: Microstructures of the Elaborated Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Ophélie Hestin; Elise Souaillat; Ahmed Dia; Moussa Ba; Patrice Berthod

    2012-01-01

    Nine M-xCr-yC ternary alloys, three cobalt based, three nickel based and three iron based, were elaborated by foundry, from chemical compositions previously selected by the mean of thermodynamic calculations. They were metallographically characterized, using electron microscopy, image analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The as-cast microstructures are in rather good agreement with the ones predicted at 500 and/or 600°C, despite that the elaboration conditions did not meet any thermodynamic equil...

  19. Simulation of distortion and residual stress in high pressure die casting - modelling and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, P.; Kaschnitz, E.; Schumacher, P.

    2012-07-01

    Two individual high-pressure die-casting geometries were developed in order to study the influence of process parameters and different alloys on the distortion behaviour of castings. These geometries were a stress lattice and a V-shaped sample tending to form residual stress due to different wall thickness respectively by a deliberate massive gating system. In the experimental castings the influence of the most important process parameters such as die temperature and die opening time and the cooling regime was examined. The time evolution of process temperatures was measured using thermal imaging. The heat transfer coefficients were adapted to the observed temperature distributions. Castings were produced from the two alloys AlSi12 and AlSi10MnMg. The distortion of the castings was measured by means of a tactile measuring device. For the alloy AlSi10MnMg thermo-physical and thermo-mechanical data were obtained using differential scanning calorimetry, laser flash technique, dilatometry and tensile testing at elevated temperatures. These data were used for modelling the material behaviour of the AlSi10MnMg alloy in the numerical model while for the alloy AlSi12(Fe) literature data were used. Process and stress simulation were conducted using the commercial FEM software ANSYS Workbench. A survey on the results of the comparison between simulation and experiment is given for both alloys.

  20. Current Developments of Alloyed Steels for Hot Strip Roughing Mills : Characterization of High-Chromium Steel and Semi-High Speed Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline; Sinnaeve, Mario; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack

    2012-01-01

    Two alloys grades for work rolls used in the roughing stand of Hot Strip Mill - high chromium steel (HCS) and semi-high-speed steel (semi-HSS), In this paper, the new semi-high-speed steel grade is studied Peer reviewed

  1. Defect Band Characteristics in Mg-Al and Al-Si High-Pressure Die Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay, C. M.; Laukli, H. I.; Dahle, A. K.

    2007-08-01

    Bands of positive macrosegregation and porosity commonly follow the surface contour of components produced by high-pressure die casting (HPDC). In this article, Al alloy AlSi7Mg and Mg alloys AZ91 and AM60 were cast into tensile test bars using cold-chamber (cc) HPDC. Microstructural characterization revealed that externally solidified crystals (ESCs) are not necessary for defect band formation, and that defect bands can form both near to and relatively far from any surface layer of different microstructure. The defect bands were 140 to 240 μm thick. In addition to defect-band-related macrosegregation, the castings also contained inverse segregation and surface segregation. Defect bands are shown to have the characteristics of the dilatant shear bands reported in past rheology studies, indicating that defect bands form due to strain localization in partially solid material during the HPDC process.

  2. Characterization of pores in high pressure die cast aluminum using active thermography and computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maierhofer, Christiane; Myrach, Philipp; Röllig, Mathias; Jonietz, Florian; Illerhaus, Bernhard; Meinel, Dietmar; Richter, Uwe; Miksche, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    Larger high pressure die castings (HPDC) and decreasing wall thicknesses are raising the issue of casting defects like pores in aluminum structures. Properties of components are often strongly influenced by inner porosity. As these products are being established more and more in lightweight construction (e.g. automotive and other transport areas), non-destructive testing methods, which can be applied fast and on-site, are required for quality assurance. In this contribution, the application of active thermography for the direct detection of larger pores is demonstrated. The analysis of limits and accuracy of the method are completed by numerical simulation and the method is validated using computed tomography.

  3. Ultra-high vacuum compatible induction-heated rod casting furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Andreas; Neubauer, Andreas; Münzer, Wolfgang; Regnat, Alexander; Benka, Georg; Meven, Martin; Pedersen, Björn; Pfleiderer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We report the design of a radio-frequency induction-heated rod casting furnace that permits the preparation of polycrystalline ingots of intermetallic compounds under ultra-high vacuum compatible conditions. The central part of the system is a bespoke water-cooled Hukin crucible supporting a casting mold. Depending on the choice of the mold, typical rods have a diameter between 6 mm and 10 mm and a length up to 90 mm, suitable for single-crystal growth by means of float-zoning. The setup is a...

  4. Advanced manufacturing technologies of large martensitic stainless steel castings with ultra low carbon and high cleanliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Yanchun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The key manufacturing technologies associated with composition, microstructure, mechanical properties, casting quality and key process control for large martensitic stainless steel castings are involved in this paper. The achievements fully satisfied the technical requirements of the large 700 MW stainless steel hydraulic turbine runner for the Three Gorges Hydropower Station, and become the major technical support for the design and manufacture of the largest 700 MW hydraulic turbine generator unit in the world developed through our own efforts. The characteristics of a new high yield to tensile strength (Rp0.2/Rm ratio and high obdurability martensitic stainless steel with ultra low carbon and high cleanliness are also described. Over the next ten years, the large martensitic stainless steel castings and advanced manufacturing technologies will see a huge demand in clean energy industry such as nuclear power, hydraulic power at home and abroad. Therefore, the new high yield o tensile strength (Rp0.2/Rm ratio and high obdurability martensitic stainless steel materials, the fast and flexible manufacturing technologies of large size castings, and new environment friendly sustainable process will face new challenges and opportunities.

  5. High temperature oxidation of alumina forming cast austenitic stainless steels within an environment of pure steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenzlow, Elmer A.

    Steam cracking of hydrocarbons in the petrochemical industry is a multibillion dollar industry. The processes performed in these plants create byproducts that negatively affect the integrity of stainless steel piping through high temperature corrosion. Alloys used presently in industry rely on the formation of chromium oxide (chromia) as a protective layer between the bulk metal pipe and chemical byproducts. However, chromia can become susceptible to attack from aggressive species such as carbon, water vapor, and sulfur compounds, thus creating a need for a better protection method. A new series of austenitic stainless steels have been developed in recent years that, rather than forming chromia, create a protective layer of aluminum oxide (alumina) under oxidative conditions. These alloys have high nickel content for the stabilization of the austenitic phase, and a more thermodynamically stable oxide layer relative to the traditional chromia formers. Consequently, alumina forming alloys have been proposed as replacements for chromia forming alloys in the petrochemical industry. General oxidation testing has been performed on alumina forming alloys under dry and 10% water vapor conditions. However, oxidation conditions in industry resemble a 100% steam environment. Therefore, test methods to mimic such conditions are needed so that alloys can be tested and developed further for these applications. Four alloys with aluminum contents ranging from 2.6 to 3.9 wt% were cut from centrifugally cast pipes and subjected to oxidation in an environment of pure steam for up to 30 hours, at temperatures of 800 °C and 950 °C. Samples were analyzed using Raman, SEM, and EDS and showed a continuous alumina layer free of cracks. The alumina layer thickness increased with time. Additionally, larger thicknesses were observed in samples oxidized at 950 °C from those of 800 °C. Thickness measurements were used to calculate parabolic and non-parabolic oxidation rate constants

  6. Direct synthesis of chromium perovskite oxyhydride with a high magnetic-transition temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassel, Cédric; Goto, Yoshihiro; Kuno, Yoshinori; Hester, James; Green, Mark; Kobayashi, Yoji; Kageyama, Hiroshi

    2014-09-22

    We report a novel oxyhydride SrCrO2H directly synthesized by a high-pressure high-temperature method. Powder neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction revealed that this compound adopts the ideal cubic perovskite structure (Pm3̄m) with O(2-)/H(-) disorder. Surprisingly, despite the non-bonding nature between Cr 3d t(2g) orbitals and the H 1s orbital, it exhibits G-type spin ordering at T(N)≈380 K, which is higher than that of RCrO3 (R=rare earth) and any chromium oxides. The enhanced T(N) in SrCrO2H with four Cr-O-Cr bonds in comparison with RCr(3+)O3 with six Cr-O-Cr bonds is reasonably explained by the tolerance factor. The present result offers an effective strategy to tune octahedral tilting in perovskites and to improve physical and chemical properties through mixed anion chemistry. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. tcpl: The ToxCast Pipeline for High-Throughput Screening Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motivation: The large and diverse high-throughput chemical screening efforts carried out by the US EPAToxCast program requires an efficient, transparent, and reproducible data pipeline.Summary: The tcpl R package and its associated MySQL database provide a generalized platform fo...

  8. Characterization of metal powder based rapid prototyping components under aluminium high pressure die casting process conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFVT

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available used in metal high pressure die casting toolsets. The specimens were subjected to a program of cyclic immersion in molten aluminium alloy and cooling in water based die release medium. The heat checking and soldering phenomena were analyzed through...

  9. Influence of Basicity on High-Chromium Vanadium-Titanium Magnetite Sinter Properties, Productivity, and Mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mi; Yang, Songtao; Jiang, Tao; Xue, Xiangxin

    2015-05-01

    The effect of basicity on high-chromium vanadium-titanium magnetite (V-Ti-Cr) sintering was studied via sintering pot tests. The sinter rate, yield, and productivity were calculated before determining sinter strength (TI) and reduction degradation index (RDI). Furthermore, the effect of basicity on V-Ti-Cr sinter mineralogy was clarified using metallographic microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The results indicate that increasing basicity quickly increases the sintering rate from 25.4 mm min-1 to 28.9 mm min-1, yield from 75.3% to 87.2%, TI from 55.4% to 64.8%, and productivity from 1.83 t (m2 h)-1 to 1.94 t (m2 h)-1 before experiencing a slight drop. The V-Ti-Cr sinter shows complex mineral composition, with main mineral phases such as magnetite, hematite, silicate (dicalcium silicate, Ca-Fe olivine, glass), calcium and aluminum silico-ferrite (SFCA/SFCAI) and perovskite. Perovskite is notable because it lowers the V-Ti sinter strength and RDI. The well intergrowths between magnetite and SFCA/SFCAI, and the decrease in perovskite and secondary skeletal hematite are the key for improving TI and RDI. Finally, a comprehensive index was calculated, and the optimal V-Ti-Cr sinter basicity also for industrial application was 2.55.

  10. Electron Beam Welding Characteristics of Cast Iron and Bonding of Mild Steel to Cast Iron by using Iron-base Alloy of High Nickel Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatate, Minoru; Shiota, Toshio; Nagasaki, Yoichi; Abe, Nobuyuki; Amano, Masaharu; Tanaka, Toshio

    Bonding characteristics of mild steel to cast iron using electron beam welding (EBW) process are investigated from the viewpoint of microstructure and mechanical properties. When the electron beam is radiated to a cast iron, remelting of the surface and corresponding rapid cooling take place, and it results in formation of brittle fine-cementite structure whose hardness is over 700 Hv. As Ni is an alloying element that may prevent formation of cementite, we compare two kinds of welding methods with Ni addition. One method is EBW process, radiating the electron beam to a thin plate made of spheroidal graphite cast iron with a high Ni content after the plate inserts between cast iron and steel, and other one is a metal active gas (MAG) welding process using a Fe-Ni wire. Bonding tensile strength by EBW process is higher than that by MAG welding process. In case of welding of cast iron and other metallic material, EBW process is found to be more advantageous than MAG welding process.

  11. Experimental investigations for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the influence of different casting systems on the mechanical characteristics of dental alloys with a high gold content

    OpenAIRE

    Kossel, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    With the development of casting systems it is to be made certain that the mechanical and physical characteristics of the cast piece correspond to the high requirements in the oral cavity. The aim of this present investigation was to examine the mechanical characteristics in dependency of the influence of different casting systems. Six samples off five different alloys were cast and compared with five different casting systems. The mechanical characteristics were determinated with the t...

  12. Reversible Cleavage/Formation of the Chromium-Chromium Quintuple Bond in the Highly Regioselective Alkyne Cyclotrimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Siang; Huang, Gou-Tao; Liu, Yao-Lun; Yu, Jen-Shiang K; Tsai, Yi-Chou

    2017-11-27

    Herein we report the employment of the quintuply bonded dichromium amidinates [Cr{κ(2) -HC(N-2,6-(i) Pr2 C6 H3 )(N-2,6-R2 C6 H3 )}]2 (R=iPr (1), Me (7)) as catalysts to mediate the [2+2+2] cyclotrimerization of terminal alkynes giving 1,3,5-trisubstituted benzenes. During the catalysis, the ultrashort Cr-Cr quintuple bond underwent reversible cleavage/formation, corroborated by the characterization of two inverted arene sandwich dichromium complexes (μ-η(6) :η(6) -1,3,5-(Me3 Si)3 C6 H3 )[Cr{κ(2) -HC(N-2,6-(i) Pr2 C6 H3 )(N-2,6-R2 C6 H3 )}]2 (R=(i) Pr (5), Me (8)). In the presence of σ donors, such as THF and 2,4,6-Me3 C6 H2 CN, the bridging arene 1,3,5-(Me3 Si)3 C6 H3 in 5 and 8 was extruded and 1 and 7 were regenerated. Theoretical calculations were employed to disclose the reaction pathways of these highly regioselective [2+2+2] cylcotrimerization reactions of terminal alkynes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Effect of Viscosity Measurement Method to Simulate High Pressure Die Casting of Thin-Wall AlSi10MnMg Alloy Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, B. W.; Li, L. X.; Liu, X.; Zhang, L. Q.; Xu, R.

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a rotating cylinder viscometer (RCV) was adopted to measure the viscosity of AlSi10MnMg aluminum alloy. The results show that the measured viscosity is much higher than previously reported viscosity of aluminum alloys measured by oscillation vessel viscometer. The viscosity measured by RCV was introduced into the simulation of the filling progress of high pressure die casting (HPDC) for thin-walled castings of aluminum alloy (TWCA). The simulated results match well with the experimental results indicating that the RCV is the most appropriate to use for simulations of HPDC for TWCA.

  14. Production of high-purity vanadium, chromium and titanium for use in low activation materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D.; Butterworth, G. J.

    1992-09-01

    The presence of radiologically potent tramp elements must be strictly controlled if the intrinsic low activation properties of alloys based on vanadium and chromium are to be fully realized. In this study the incidence of critical impurity elements in commercial sources of vanadium, chromium and titanium metals and precursor compounds is investigated using techniques for trace element analysis. Maximum permitted concentrations corresponding to the attainment of the “hands-on” dose rate limit of 25 μSvh-1 after 100 yr cooling of first wall material were adopted as target values. Chromium and titanium from commercial sources are able to satisfy the purity target. Commercially available vanadium may contain unacceptable levels of Mo, Ag, Nb or Co and additional purification steps designed to remove these impurities are described.

  15. Highly improved chromium (III uptake capacity in modified sugarcane bagasse using different chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina Gonçalves Dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on improving chromium (III uptake capacity of sugarcane bagasse through its chemical modification with citric acid and/or sodium hydroxide. The chemical modifications were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, with an evident peak observed at 1730 cm-1, attributed to carbonyl groups. Equilibrium was reached after 24 h, and the kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model. The highest chromium (III maximum adsorption capacity (MAC value was found when using sugarcane bagasse modified with sodium hydroxide and citric acid (58.00 mg g-1 giving a MAC value about three times greater (20.34 mg g-1 than for raw sugarcane bagasse.

  16. Effect on Mechanical Properties of Heat Treated High Manganese Austenitic Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzafar A.K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an attempt to study the effect of manganese addition and heat treatment on higher carbon austenitic cast iron to form high manganese austenitic cast iron with reduced nickel content (Mn-Ni-resist on mechanical properties. The combination on microstructure (microsegregation, mechanical properties and the relationship of heat treatment on the alloy were analyzed. For this purpose Mn-Ni-resist (4.50C, 2.64Si, 6.0 Mn, 10 Ni was melted and cast in the form of Y-block test pieces. Four different heat treatment procedures were applied to the as-cast to investigate the effect of alloy modifications on Mn-Ni-resist. Optical and scanning electron microscopies were used for microstructure investigation. To determine the mechanical properties tensile test and hardness test were carried out. The result indicates both composition and heat treatment affect the performance of Mn-Ni-resist intensively. Microprobe analysis shows some silicon segregation near the graphite and practically little segregation of manganese. The increase in manganese contents developed some fractions of segregated carbide structures in LTF region located at austenite eutectic cell frame, which caused the tensile properties to drop in a small range. Application of annealing heat treatment gradually changed the carbide formation, so is the material’s strength.

  17. Influence of thermo-mechanical cycling on porcelain bonding to cobalt-chromium and titanium dental alloys fabricated by casting, milling, and selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antanasova, Maja; Kocjan, Andraž; Kovač, Janez; Žužek, Borut; Jevnikar, Peter

    2017-09-05

    The aim has been to determine the effect of thermo-mechanical cycling on shear-bond-strength (SBS) of dental porcelain to Co-Cr and Ti-based alloys fabricated by casting, computer-numerical-controlled milling, and selective-laser-melting (SLM). Seven groups (n=22/group) of metal cylinders were fabricated by casting (Co-Cr and commercially pure-cpTi), milling (Co-Cr, cpTi, Ti-6Al-4V) or by SLM (Co-Cr and Ti-6Al-4V) and abraded with airborne-particles. The average surface roughness (Ra) was determined for each group. Dental porcelain was applied and each metal-ceramic combination was divided into two subgroups - stored in deionized water (24-h, 37°C), or subjected to both thermal (6000-cycles, between 5 and 60°C) and mechanical cycling (105-cycles, 60N-load). SBS test-values and failure modes were recorded. Metal-ceramic interfaces were analyzed with a focused-ion-beam/scanning-electron-microscope (FIB/SEM) and energy-dispersive-spectroscopy (EDS). The elastic properties of the respective metal and ceramic materials were evaluated by instrumented-indentation-testing. The oxide thickness on intact Ti-based substrates was measured with Auger-electron-spectroscopy (AES). Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Tukey's HSD and t-tests (α=0.05). The SBS-means differed according to the metal-ceramic combination (palloys. Values of Ra were dependent on the metal substrate (palloys are more susceptible than Co-Cr to reduction of porcelain bond strength following thermo-mechanical cycling. The porcelain bond strength to Ti-based alloys is affected by the applied metal processing technology. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Technetium, Iodine, and Chromium Adsorption/Desorption Kd Values for Vadose Zone Pore Water, ILAW Glass, and Cast Stone Leachates Contacting an IDF Sand Sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle M.V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephenson, John R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leavy, Ian I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bacon, Diana H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Performance and risk assessments of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) have shown that risks to groundwater are quite sensitive to adsorption-desorption interactions occurring in the near- and far-field environment. These interactions between the underlying sediments and the contaminants present in the leachates that descend from the buried glass, secondary waste grouts, and potentially Cast Stone low-activity waste packages have been represented in these assessments using the contaminant distribution coefficient (Kd) construct. Some contaminants (99Tc, 129I, and Cr) present in significant quantities in these wastes have low Kd values and tend to drive risk to public health and the environment. Relatively small changes in the Kd value can cause relatively large changes in the retardation factor. Thus, even relatively small uncertainty in the Kd value can result in a relatively large uncertainty in the risk determined through performance assessment modeling. The purpose of this study is to further reduce the uncertainty in Kd values for 99Tc, iodine (iodide and iodate), and Cr (chromate; CrO42-) by conducting systematic adsorption-desorption experiments using actual sand-dominated Hanford formation sediments from beneath the IDF and solutions that closely mimic Hanford vadose zone pore water and leachates from Cast Stone and ILAW glass waste forms. Twenty-four batch and 21 flow-through column experiments were conducted, yielding 261 Kd measurements for these key contaminants, and contributing to our understanding for predicting transport from wastes disposed to the IDF. While the batch Kd methodology is not well-suited for measuring Kd values for non-sorbing species (as noted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency), the batch Kd results presented here are not wholly inconsistent with the column Kd results, and could be used for sensitivity purposes. Results from the column experiments are consistent with the best

  19. High lubricious surface of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy prepared by grafting poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyomoto, Masayuki; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Moro, Toru; Konno, Tomohiro; Miyaji, Fumiaki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Takatori, Yoshio; Nakamura, Kozo; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2007-07-01

    Osteolysis caused by wear particles from polyethylene in artificial hip joints is of great concern. Various bearing couple combinations, bearing material improvements, and surface modifications have been attempted to reduce such wear particles. With the aim of reducing the wear and developing a novel artificial hip-joint system, we created a highly lubricious metal-bearing material: A 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer was grafted onto the surface of the cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) alloy. For ensuring the long-term retention of poly(MPC) on the Co-Cr-Mo alloy, we used a 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META) intermediate layer and photo-induced graft polymerization technique to create a strong bonding between the Co-Cr-Mo substrate and the poly(MPC) chain via the 4-META layer. The Co-Cr-Mo alloy was pretreated with nitric acid and O(2) plasma to facilitate efficient interaction between the 4-META carboxyl group and the surface hydroxyl group on the Cr oxide passive layer of the Co-Cr-Mo alloy. After MPC grafting, the MPC unit peaks were clearly observed in the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection (FT-IR/ATR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra of the Co-Cr-Mo surface. Tribological studies with a pin-on-plate machine revealed that surface MPC grafting markedly lowered the friction coefficient. We concluded that the grafted poly(MPC) layer successfully provided high lubricity to the Co-Cr-Mo surface.

  20. Evaluation and comparison of high-level microwave oven disinfection with chemical disinfection of dental gypsum casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghashri, K; Kumar, Prasanna; Prasad, D Krishna; Hegde, Rakshit

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare microwave disinfection with chemical disinfection of dental gypsum casts. A total of 120 casts were prepared from a silicone mold using Type III dental stone. Of the 120 casts, 60 casts were contaminated with 1 ml suspension of Staphylococcus aureus and 60 casts were contaminated with 1 ml suspension of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Then, the casts were disinfected with microwave irradiation and chemical disinfection using the microwave oven and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite. Bacteriologic procedures were performed; the cfu/ml for each cast was calculated as a weighted mean. The results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test. The untreated casts showed Brain heart infusion broth counts of 106 log cfu/ml compared to irradiated and chemically disinfected casts, in which 105 log reduction of cfu/ml was seen. These results satisfied the requirements of current infection control guidelines for the dental laboratory. The results obtained for chemical disinfection were in equivalence with microwave disinfection. Within the limitation of this in vitro study, it was found that microwave disinfection of casts for 5 min at 900 W gives high-level disinfection that complies with the current infection control guidelines for the dental laboratory and microwave disinfection method is an effective and validated method as chemical disinfection. How to cite the article: Meghashri K, Kumar P, Prasad DK, Hegde R. Evaluation and comparison of high-level microwave oven disinfection with chemical disinfection of dental gypsum casts. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):56-60 .

  1. Melt-cast organic glasses as high-efficiency fast neutron scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Joseph S.; Feng, Patrick L., E-mail: plfeng@sandia.gov

    2016-10-01

    In this work we report a new class of organic-based scintillators that combines several of the desirable attributes of existing crystalline, liquid, and plastic organic scintillators. The prepared materials may be isolated in single crystalline form or melt-cast to produce highly transparent glasses that have been shown to provide high light yields of up to 16,000 photons/MeVee, as evaluated against EJ-200 plastic scintillators and solution-grown trans-stilbene crystals. The prepared organic glasses exhibit neutron/gamma pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) and are compatible with wavelength shifters to reduce optical self-absorption effects that are intrinsic to pure materials such as crystalline organics. The combination of high scintillation efficiency, PSD capabilities, and facile scale-up via melt-casting distinguishes this new class of amorphous materials from existing alternatives.

  2. Ultra-high vacuum compatible induction-heated rod casting furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A.; Neubauer, A.; Münzer, W.; Regnat, A.; Benka, G.; Meven, M.; Pedersen, B.; Pfleiderer, C.

    2016-06-01

    We report the design of a radio-frequency induction-heated rod casting furnace that permits the preparation of polycrystalline ingots of intermetallic compounds under ultra-high vacuum compatible conditions. The central part of the system is a bespoke water-cooled Hukin crucible supporting a casting mold. Depending on the choice of the mold, typical rods have a diameter between 6 mm and 10 mm and a length up to 90 mm, suitable for single-crystal growth by means of float-zoning. The setup is all-metal sealed and may be baked out. We find that the resulting ultra-high vacuum represents an important precondition for processing compounds with high vapor pressures under a high-purity argon atmosphere up to 3 bars. Using the rod casting furnace, we succeeded to prepare large high-quality single crystals of two half-Heusler compounds, namely, the itinerant antiferromagnet CuMnSb and the half-metallic ferromagnet NiMnSb.

  3. Secondary Al-Si-Mg High-pressure Die Casting Alloys with Enhanced Ductility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösch, Dominik; Pogatscher, Stefan; Hummel, Marc; Fragner, Werner; Uggowitzer, Peter J.; Göken, Mathias; Höppel, Heinz Werner

    2015-03-01

    Al-Si-Mg-based secondary cast alloys are attractive candidates for thin-walled high-pressure die castings for applications in the transport industry. The present study investigates the effect of manganese additions at high cooling rates on microstructure, mechanical properties, and on the dominating fracture mechanisms of alloy AlSi10Mg with an elevated iron concentration. Systematic variations of the Mn content from 0.20 to 0.85 wt pct at a constant Fe content of 0.55 wt pct illustrate the key changes in type, phase fraction, and shape of the Fe-containing intermetallic phases, and the corresponding influence on the alloy's ductility. For high-pressure die casting (HPDC), an optimal range of the Mn content between 0.40 and 0.60 wt pct, equivalent to a Mn/Fe ratio of approximately 1, has been identified. At these Mn and Fe contents, the high cooling rates obtained in HPDC result in the formation of fine and homogeneously distributed α-Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 phase, and crack initiation is transferred from AlFeSi intermetallics to eutectic silicon. The study interprets the microstructure-property relationship in the light of thermodynamic calculations which reveal a significant increase in undercooling of the α-Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 phase with increased Mn content. It concludes that the interdependence of the well-defined Mn/Fe ratio and the high cooling rate in HPDC can generate superior ductility in secondary AlSi10Mg cast alloys.

  4. Effects of chromium and nitrogen content on the microstructures and mechanical properties of as-cast Co-Cr-Mo alloys for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Keita; Suyalatu; Takaichi, Atsushi; Nomura, Naoyuki; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Doi, Hisashi; Kurosu, Shingo; Chiba, Akihiko; Igarashi, Yoshimasa; Hanawa, Takao

    2012-07-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast Co-(20-33)Cr-5Mo-N alloys were investigated to develop ductile Co-Cr-Mo alloys without Ni addition for dental applications that satisfy the requirements of the type 5 criteria in ISO 22674. The effects of the Cr and N contents on the microstructure and mechanical properties are discussed. The microstructures were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and electron back-scattered diffraction pattern analysis. The mechanical properties were evaluated using tensile testing. The proof strength and elongation of N-containing 33Cr satisfied the type 5 criteria in ISO 22674. ε-phase with striations was formed in the N-free (20-29)Cr alloys, while there was slight formation of ε-phase in the N-containing (20-29)Cr alloys, which disappeared in N-containing 33Cr. The lattice parameter of the γ-phase increased with increasing Cr content (i.e. N content) in the N-containing alloys, although the lattice parameter remained almost the same in the N-free alloys because of the small atomic radius difference between Co and Cr. Compositional analyses by EDS and XRD revealed that in the N-containing alloys Cr and Mo were concentrated in the cell boundary, which became enriched in N, stabilizing the γ-phase. The mechanical properties of the N-free alloys were independent of the Cr content and showed low strength and limited elongation. Strain-induced martensite was formed in all the N-free alloys after tensile testing. On the other hand, the proof strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation of the N-containing alloys increased with increasing Cr content (i.e. N content). Since formation of ε-phase after tensile testing was confirmed in the N-containing alloys the deformation mechanism may change from strain-induced martensite transformation to another form, such as twinning or dislocation slip, as the N content increases. Thus the N

  5. Ferrous alloys cast under high pressure gas atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirowski Z.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is describing the essence of the process of introducing nitrogen to the melt of ferrous alloys by application of overpressure above the metal bath. The problem was discussed in terms of both theory (the thermodynamic aspects of the process and practice (the technical and technological aspects, safety of the furnace stand operation, and technique of conducting the melt. The novel technique of melting under high pressure of the gas atmosphere (up to 5 MPa has not been used so far in the domestic industry, mainly because of the lack of proper equipment satisfyng the requirements of safe operation. Owing to cooperation undertaken with a partner from Bulgaria, a more detailed investigation of this technology has become possible and melting of selected ferrous alloys was conducted under the gas atmosphere at a pressure of about 3,5 MPa.

  6. High temperature reflectance of hyperpure slip cast silica. [for Outer Planet Entry Probe reflective heat shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillow, C. F.; Schmitt, R. J.; Blome, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program to optically characterize hyperpure slip cast silica at elevated temperatures is described. This sintered ceramic material is being used in the development of a reflective heat shield for the Outer Planet Entry Probe. A unique high temperature integrating sphere reflectometer is described and reflectance data in the spectral range 0.23-2.3 micron are presented at temperatures up to 1427 C in air and helium environments. Kubelka-Munk (K-M) scattering and absorptance coefficients (K and S), using the Reichman extension of the K-M theory, are presented as is a unique method of obtaining K and S from the Reichman equations using only reflectance data. The hyperpure slip cast silica material was found to retain its high diffuse reflectance at temperatures up to 1204 C, with slight degradation occurring at higher temperatures.

  7. Characterization of Ni–Cr alloys using different casting techniques and molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng, E-mail: wencchen@fcu.edu.tw [Advanced Medical Devices and Composites Laboratory, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, College of Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Teng, Fu-Yuan [Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Hung, Chun-Cheng [School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-01

    This study differentiated the mechanical properties of nickel–chromium (Ni–Cr) alloys under various casting techniques (different casting molds and casting atmospheres). These techniques were sampled by a sand mold using a centrifugal machine in ambient air (group I) and electromagnetic induction in an automatic argon castimatic casting machine (group II). The specimen casting used a graphite mold by a castimatic casting machine (group III). The characteristics of the Ni–Cr alloys, yield and ultimate tensile strength, bending modulus, microhardness, diffraction phase, grindability, ability to spring back, as well as ground microstructure and pattern under different casting conditions were evaluated. The group III specimens exhibited the highest values in terms of strength, modulus, hardness, and grindability at a grind rate of 500 rpm. Moreover, group III alloys exhibited smaller grain sizes, higher ability to spring back, and greater ductility than those casted by sand investment (groups I and II). The main factor, “casting mold,” significantly influenced all mechanical properties. The graphite mold casting of the Ni–Cr dental alloys in a controlled atmosphere argon casting system provided an excellent combination of high mechanical properties and good ability to spring back, and preserved the ductile properties for application in Ni–Cr porcelain-fused system. The results can offer recommendations to assist a prosthetic technician in selecting the appropriate casting techniques to obtain the desired alloy properties. - Highlights: • Properties of Ni–Cr alloys using various casting techniques are characterized. • Alloys cast by graphite mold exhibited higher recovery angle and more ductility. • Alloys cast by graphite mold exhibited higher strength and grinding rate. • Alloys in this study increase operative room to adjust the precision for prosthesis.

  8. Single-Seed Casting Large-Size Monocrystalline Silicon for High-Efficiency and Low-Cost Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Gao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To grow high-quality and large-size monocrystal-line silicon at low cost, we proposed a single-seed casting technique. To realize this technique, two challenges—polycrystalline nucleation on the crucible wall and dislocation multiplication inside the crystal—needed to be addressed. Numerical analysis was used to develop solutions for these challenges. Based on an optimized furnace structure and operating conditions from numerical analysis, experiments were performed to grow monocrystalline silicon using the single-seed casting technique. The results revealed that this technique is highly superior to the popular high-performance multicrystalline and multiseed casting mono-like techniques.

  9. Hair chromium concentration and chromium excretion in tannery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saner, G; Yüzbasiyan, V; Cigdem, S

    1984-01-01

    Hair and urine samples were collected from 34 male tannery workers and from 12 normal adults. Eighteen of the workers dealt directly with chromium and the remaining 16 (controls) worked in the offices and kitchen of the same factory. All were found to be clinically healthy. Chromium was determined by flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy. When compared with normal adult values, urinary chromium concentration, Cr/Creatinine ratio, daily chromium excretion, and hair chromium, concentrations were significantly higher and urinary beta 2-microglobulin/Cre ratios significantly lower in both tannery workers and in controls. A significant negative correlation was found between urinary beta 2-microglobulin/Cre and Cr/Cre ratios of tannery workers and controls. A significant positive correlation was shown between hair chromium and urinary Cr/Cre values in all workers. No correlations between the duration of exposure to chromium and hair and urinary chromium values were found. Nevertheless, high values observed in workers with short exposures show that chromium is readily absorbed through the respiratory system. PMID:6372853

  10. METHOD OF MEASUREMENT OF STRENGTH OF CORE CASTING PAINT AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The method and device for measuring of the strength of the core casting refractory paint at high temperatures were developed. It has been shown that the failure strength sodium aluminates binder after testified that decrease of sodium aluminates binder strength after being in the range of 300–600 °C is lower than that for sodium silicate. There is a correlation between hardness and strength of the paint during heating at 1300 °C.

  11. Investigation on Microstructure of Heat Treated High Manganese Austenitic Cast Iron

    OpenAIRE

    Muzafar A.K.; Rashidi M.M.; Mahadzir I.; Shayfull Z.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of manganese addition and annealing heat treatment on microstructure of austenitic cast irons with high manganese content (Mn-Ni-resist) were investigated. The complex relationship between the development of the solidification microstructures and buildup of microsegregation in Mn-Ni-resist was obtained by using microstructure analysis and EDS analysis. The annealing heat treatment was applied at 700°C up to 1000°C to investigate the effect of the annealing temperature on the micros...

  12. Determination of the metal/die interfacial heat transfer coefficient of high pressure die cast B390 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yongyou; Guo, Zhipeng; Xiong, Shoumei

    2012-07-01

    High-pressure die cast B390 alloy was prepared on a 350 ton cold chamber die casting machine. The metal/die interfacial heat transfer coefficient of the alloy was investigated. Considering the filling process, a "finger"-shaped casting was designed for the experiments. This casting consisted of five plates with different thicknesses (0.05 inch or 1.27 mm to 0.25 inch or 6.35 mm) as well as individual ingates and overflows. Experiments under various operation conditions were conducted, and temperatures were measured at various specific locations inside the die. Based on the results, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient and heat flux were determined by solving the inverse heat transfer problem. The influence of the mold-filling sequence, sensor locations, as well as processing parameters including the casting pressure, die temperature, and fast/slow shot speeds on the heat transfer coefficient were discussed.

  13. High strength aluminum cast alloy: A Sc modification of a standard Al–Si–Mg cast alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Arfan, E-mail: engr.arfan@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Advanced Materials and Performance of Ministry of Education, School of Material Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Xu, Cong; Xuejiao, Wang [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Advanced Materials and Performance of Ministry of Education, School of Material Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Hanada, Shuji [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yamagata, Hiroshi [Center for Advanced Die Engineering and Technology, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu City, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Hao, LiRong [Hebei Sitong New Metal Material Co., Ltd., Baoding 071105 (China); Chaoli, Ma [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Advanced Materials and Performance of Ministry of Education, School of Material Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-05-01

    A standard Aluminum–Silicon–Magnesium cast alloy (A357 foundry alloy without Beryllium) modified with different weight percentages of Scandium (Sc), has been studied to evaluate the effects of Sc contents on microstructure and strength. Study has been conducted under optimized parameters of melting, casting and heat treatment. Characterization techniques like optical microscopy, SEM, TEM and tensile testing were employed to analyze the microstructure and mechanical properties. Results obtained in this research indicate that with the increase of Sc contents up to 0.4 wt%, grain size is decreased by 80% while ultimate tensile strength and hardness are increased by 28% and 19% respectively. Moreover along with the increase in strength, elongation to failure is also increased up to 165%. This is quite interesting behavior because usually strength and ductility have inverse relationship.

  14. Supplementary chromium(III) propionate complex does not protect against insulin resistance in high-fat-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Ewelina; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Iwanik, Katarzyna

    2014-02-01

    Improper eating habits such as high-fat or high-carbohydrate diets are responsible for metabolic changes resulting in impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and ultimately diabetes. Although the essentiality of trivalent chromium for humans has been recently questioned by researchers, pharmacological dosages of this element can improve insulin sensitivity in experimental animals and diabetic subjects. The aim of the study was to assess the preventive potential of the supplementary chromium(III) propionate complex (CrProp) in rats fed a high-fat diet. The experiment was conducted on 32 male Wistar rats divided into four groups and fed the following diets: the control (C, AIN-93G), high-fat diets (HF, 40% energy from fat), and a high-fat diet supplemented with CrProp at dosages of 10 and 50 mg Cr/kg diet (HF + Cr10 and HF + Cr50, respectively). After 8 weeks, high-fat feeding led to an increased body mass, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, a decreased serum urea concentration, accumulation of lipid droplets in hepatocytes, and increased renal Fe and splenic Cu contents. Supplementary CrProp in both dosages did not alleviate these changes but increased renal Cr content and normalized splenic Cu content in high-fat-fed rats. Supplementary CrProp does not prevent the development of insulin resistance in rats fed a high-fat diet.

  15. Measurements of gas pressure in voids in epoxy castings for high voltage equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Esben; Henriksen, Mogens; Nielsen, E

    1988-01-01

    An investigation of samples of epoxy each containing one void, which were produced at different pressures, is reported. The samples were of the disk type with the void located in the center. The gas in the voids has a pressure somewhat related to the curing pressure, thereby directly influencing...... the partial-discharge inception voltage. Data show that gas pressure in voids in epoxy castings can be determined by use of an ultrasound test method. A relationship between the void gas pressure and the epoxy curing pressure is also found. This investigation is part of an effort to predict the inception...... voltage of partial discharges in high-voltage epoxy castings from the processing parameters...

  16. Mechanical properties of high-pressure die-casting AZ91 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Braszczyńska-Malik

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of mechanical properties of high-pressure die-casting AZ91 magnesium alloy are presented. Performed examinations allowed to determine influence of plunger velocity in the first and second stage and intensification pressure on the ultimate tensile strength (UTS, yield strength (YS, elongation (A5 and Agt, Brinell hardness (HB and impact strength (IS of samples cast on 320 tone cold chamber machine. Obtained results revealed the highest properties at median used parameters and also the most powerful effect of plunger velocity in the first stage. The maximum values of mechanical properties obtained from the performed experiments were: UTS 250 MPa, YS 160 MPa, A5 7%, 70 HB, IS 7 J.

  17. Modeling of microstructure evolution of magnesium alloy during the high pressure die casting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengwu; Xiong, Shoumei

    2012-07-01

    Two important microstructure characteristics of high pressure die cast magnesium alloy are the externally solidified crystals (ESCs) and the fully divorced eutectic which form at the filling stage of the shot sleeve and at the last stage of solidification in the die cavity, respectively. Both of them have a significant influence on the mechanical properties and performance of magnesium alloy die castings. In the present paper, a numerical model based on the cellular automaton (CA) method was developed to simulate the microstructure evolution of magnesium alloy during cold-chamber high pressure die casting (HPDC) process. Modeling of dendritic growth of magnesium alloy with six-fold symmetry was achieved by defining a special neighbourhood configuration and calculating of the growth kinetics from complete solution of the transport equations. Special attention was paid to establish a nucleation model considering both of the nucleation of externally solidified crystals in the shot sleeve and the massive nucleation in the die cavity. Meanwhile, simulation of the formation of fully divorced eutectic was also taken into account in the present CA model. Validation was performed and the capability of the present model was addressed by comparing the simulated results with those obtained by experiments.

  18. Effect of quenching temperature on structure and properties of centrifugal casting high speed steel roll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Hanguang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The critical points and time-temperature-transformation (TTT curves of the isothermal transformation diagrams for a high-speed steel casting on a horizontal centrifugal casting machine had been determined experimentally in the study. The effects of quenching temperature on the microstructures and properties of centrifugal casting high speed steel (HSS roll has been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, light optical microscopy (LOM and X-ray diffraction (XRD as well as using tensile, impact, and hardness tests. The results show that the HSS roll has excellent hardenability and its matrix structure can be transformed into the martensite after being quenched in the sodium silicate solution. The retained austenite in the quenching structure increases and the hardness decreases when the quenching temperature exceeds 1,040℃. The tensile strength and impact toughness of HSS roll increase once the quenching temperature is raised from 980℃ to 1,040℃. However, the tensile strength and impact toughness have no signifi cant change when the quenching temperature exceeds 1,040℃. The HSS roll quenched at 1,040℃ exhibits excellent comprehensive mechanical properties.

  19. Direct determination of chromium in infant formulas employing high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and solid sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Arlene S; Brandao, Geovani C; Matos, Geraldo D; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2015-11-01

    The present work proposed an analytical method for the direct determination of chromium in infant formulas employing the high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry combined with the solid sample analysis (SS-HR-CS ET AAS). Sample masses up to 2.0mg were directly weighted on a solid sampling platform and introduced into the graphite tube. In order to minimize the formation of carbonaceous residues and to improve the contact of the modifier solution with the solid sample, a volume of 10 µL of a solution containing 6% (v/v) H2O2, 20% (v/v) ethanol and 1% (v/v) HNO3 was added. The pyrolysis and atomization temperatures established were 1600 and 2400 °C, respectively, using magnesium as chemical modifier. The calibration technique was evaluated by comparing the slopes of calibration curves established using aqueous and solid standards. This test revealed that chromium can be determined employing the external calibration technique using aqueous standards. Under these conditions, the method developed allows the direct determination of chromium with limit of quantification of 11.5 ng g(-1), precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) in the range of 4.0-17.9% (n=3) and a characteristic mass of 1.2 pg of chromium. The accuracy was confirmed by analysis of a certified reference material of tomato leaves furnished by National Institute of Standards and Technology. The method proposed was applied for the determination of chromium in five different infant formula samples. The chromium content found varied in the range of 33.9-58.1 ng g(-1) (n=3). These samples were also analyzed employing ICP-MS. A statistical test demonstrated that there is no significant difference between the results found by two methods. The chromium concentrations achieved are lower than the maximum limit permissible for chromium in foods by Brazilian Legislation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Corrosion behavior of as-received and previously cast high noble alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, Mohamed F; Vermilyea, Stanley G; Rosenstiel, Stephen F

    2008-07-01

    The rationale for using high noble alloys is based largely upon their alleged ability to resist corrosion. However, combining previously cast metal with new alloy might have a detrimental effect on the corrosion behavior of a high noble alloy. The purpose of this study was to characterize the elemental composition of an as-received and recast high noble alloy and to examine the in vitro corrosion behavior in 2 media, using a potentiodynamic polarization technique. Disk-shaped specimens, 6 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick, were prepared from a high noble alloy (Ney-Oro-B2) under 3 casting protocols, according to the proportion of as-received and recast gold alloy (n=26); the groups included an as-received (100% as-received metal) group, 50% to 50% group (50 wt% new metal, 50 wt% once-recast metal), and recast group (100% once-recast metal). The surface structures of 20 specimens from each group were examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the elemental compositions were determined using x-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy at 3 sites on the specimen, and the data were averaged. Further, the potentiodynamic cyclic polarization between -1000 and +1000 mV (SCE, or saturated calomel electrode) was performed for 6 specimens from each casting protocol in 0.09% NaCl solution (n=3) and Fusayama artificial saliva (n=3) at 37 degrees C. Zero-current potential and corrosion current density were determined. The data were analyzed with 1-way and 2-way analysis of variance and the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple-range t test (alpha=.05). Elemental composition was significantly different among the casting groups (Pcasting protocols were not significant (P=.67 and P=.51, respectively). Moreover, the mean values were not significant for corrosion current density with the electrolyte effect (P=.45). Only zero-current potential had a significant electrolyte effect (Pcasting protocols and electrolyte were not significant among all corrosion parameters. High noble alloy in

  1. Melt-Conditioned, High-Pressure Die Casting of Mg-Zn-Y Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mingxu; Mitra, Subhajit; Dhindaw, Brij; Liu, Guojun; Fan, Zhongyun

    2010-02-01

    The liquid Mg-Zn-Y alloy was conditioned by an application of high-intensive shearing with a pair of intermesh twin screws prior to high-pressure die casting (HPDC). Melt conditioning produces a uniform microstructure with fine grain size and high integrity. The microstructure was analyzed thoroughly, and the solidification characteristics of the melt-conditioned HPDC (MC-HPDC) structure were discussed. The enhancement in I-phase precipitation and the improvement in mechanical properties of MC-HPDC Mg-Zn-Y alloy can be achieved through cyclic annealing.

  2. Flexible high power-per-weight perovskite solar cells with chromium oxide-metal contacts for improved stability in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Adam, Getachew; Głowacki, Eric Daniel; Drack, Michael; Schwödiauer, Reinhard; Leonat, Lucia; Apaydin, Dogukan Hazar; Groiss, Heiko; Scharber, Markus Clark; White, Matthew Schuette; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Bauer, Siegfried

    2015-10-01

    Photovoltaic technology requires light-absorbing materials that are highly efficient, lightweight, low cost and stable during operation. Organolead halide perovskites constitute a highly promising class of materials, but suffer limited stability under ambient conditions without heavy and costly encapsulation. Here, we report ultrathin (3 μm), highly flexible perovskite solar cells with stabilized 12% efficiency and a power-per-weight as high as 23 W g-1. To facilitate air-stable operation, we introduce a chromium oxide-chromium interlayer that effectively protects the metal top contacts from reactions with the perovskite. The use of a transparent polymer electrode treated with dimethylsulphoxide as the bottom layer allows the deposition--from solution at low temperature--of pinhole-free perovskite films at high yield on arbitrary substrates, including thin plastic foils. These ultra-lightweight solar cells are successfully used to power aviation models. Potential future applications include unmanned aerial vehicles--from airplanes to quadcopters and weather balloons--for environmental and industrial monitoring, rescue and emergency response, and tactical security applications.

  3. Flexible high power-per-weight perovskite solar cells with chromium oxide-metal contacts for improved stability in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Adam, Getachew; Głowacki, Eric Daniel; Drack, Michael; Schwödiauer, Reinhard; Leonat, Lucia; Apaydin, Dogukan Hazar; Groiss, Heiko; Scharber, Markus Clark; White, Matthew Schuette; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Bauer, Siegfried

    2015-10-01

    Photovoltaic technology requires light-absorbing materials that are highly efficient, lightweight, low cost and stable during operation. Organolead halide perovskites constitute a highly promising class of materials, but suffer limited stability under ambient conditions without heavy and costly encapsulation. Here, we report ultrathin (3 μm), highly flexible perovskite solar cells with stabilized 12% efficiency and a power-per-weight as high as 23 W g(-1). To facilitate air-stable operation, we introduce a chromium oxide-chromium interlayer that effectively protects the metal top contacts from reactions with the perovskite. The use of a transparent polymer electrode treated with dimethylsulphoxide as the bottom layer allows the deposition-from solution at low temperature-of pinhole-free perovskite films at high yield on arbitrary substrates, including thin plastic foils. These ultra-lightweight solar cells are successfully used to power aviation models. Potential future applications include unmanned aerial vehicles-from airplanes to quadcopters and weather balloons-for environmental and industrial monitoring, rescue and emergency response, and tactical security applications.

  4. Assessment of Computer Simulation Software and Process Data for High Pressure Die Casting of Magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Hatfield, Edward C [ORNL; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Kuwana, Kazunori [University of Kentucky; Viti, Valerio [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Hassan, Mohamed I [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Saito, Kozo [University of Kentucky

    2007-09-01

    Computer software for the numerical simulation of solidification and mold filling is an effective design tool for cast structural automotive magnesium components. A review of commercial software capabilities and their validation procedures was conducted. Aside form the software assessment, the program addressed five main areas: lubricant degradation, lubricant application, gate atomization, and heat transfer at metal mold interfaces. A test stand for lubricant application was designed. A sensor was used for the direct measurement of heat fluxes during lubricant application and casting solidification in graphite molds. Spray experiments were conducted using pure deionized water and commercial die lubricants. The results show that the sensor can be used with confidence for measuring heat fluxes under conditions specific to the die lube application. The data on heat flux was presented in forms suitable for use in HPDC simulation software. Severe jet breakup and atomization phenomena are likely to occur due to high gate velocities in HPDC. As a result of gate atomization, droplet flow affects the mold filling pattern, air entrapment, skin formation, and ensuing defects. Warm water analogue dies were designed for obtaining experimental data on mold filling phenomena. Data on break-up jet length, break-up pattern, velocities, and droplet size distribution were obtained experimentally and was used to develop correlations for jet break-up phenomena specific to die casting gate configurations.

  5. Human biomonitoring of chromium and nickel from an experimental exposure to manual metal arc welding fumes of low and high alloyed steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Jens; Brand, Peter; Schettgen, Thomas; Lenz, Klaus; Purrio, Ellwyn; Reisgen, Uwe; Kraus, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    The uptake and elimination of metals from welding fumes is currently not fully understood. In the Aachen Workplace Simulation Laboratory (AWSL) it is possible to investigate the impact of welding fumes on human subjects under controlled exposure conditions. In this study, the uptake and elimination of chromium or chromium (VI) respectively as well as nickel was studied in subjects after exposure to the emissions of a manual metal arc welding process using low or high alloyed steel. In this present study 12 healthy male non-smokers, who never worked as welders before, were exposed for 6h to welding fumes of a manual metal arc welding process. In a three-fold crossover study design, subjects were exposed in randomized order to either clean air, emissions from welding low alloyed steel, and emissions from welding high alloyed steel. Particle mass concentration of the exposure aerosol was 2.5mg m(-3). The content of chromium and nickel in the air was determined by analysing air filter samples on a high emission scenario. Urine analysis for chromium and nickel was performed before and after exposure using methods of human biomonitoring. There were significantly elevated chromium levels after exposure to welding fumes from high alloyed steel compared to urinary chromium levels before exposure to high alloyed welding fumes, as well as compared to the other exposure scenarios. The mean values increased from 0.27 µg l(-1) to 18.62 µg l(-1). The results were in good agreement with already existing correlations between external and internal exposure (German exposure equivalent for carcinogenic working materials EKA). The variability of urinary chromium levels was high. For urinary nickel no significant changes could be detected at all. Six-hour exposure to 2.5mg m(-3) high alloyed manual metal arc welding fumes lead to elevated urinary chromium levels far higher (7.11-34.16 µg l(-1)) than the German biological exposure reference value (BAR) of 0.6 µg l(-1) directly after

  6. Chromium mobility in freshwater wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattuck, Rosemary; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.

    1996-07-01

    A wetland at a chromium-contaminated electroplating site was studied to determine its ability to immobilize subsurface chromium contamination. First, a site characterization was conducted to determine the lateral and vertical extent of chromium contamination in the sediment and pore water. The wetland was found to be highly contaminated, with sediment concentrations of up to 50,000 μg g -1. Chromium was partitioned largely on the sediment, with Kd's up to 317,000 mL g -1. No Cr(VI) was detected in the pore water. Sequential chemical extractions performed on the sediment found 60-90% of the chromium bound in the {Fe}/{Mn}- oxide and residual fractions of the soil, with very little exchangeable or organic-bound chromium present. These results indicate that the chromium is very tightly bound to the sediment. XPS determined a very low {Cr}/{Si} ratio on the solid surface. Batch leaching experiments using the contaminated sediment were conducted at pH 3, 4, and 5. Leaching of chromium from the sediment increased with lower pH, ranging from 0.02% to 0.34% of the total, and appeared to be solubility controlled. Results indicate that the wetland has been highly effective in immobilizing Cr, by reducing the Cr(VI) and precipitating it as a relatively insoluble Cr(III)-hydroxide.

  7. Development of high-frequeucy motor rotor using copper die casting for ultracentrifuge. Do die cast gijutsu wo riyoshita choenshin bunrikiyo koshuha motor kaitenshi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchiki, T.; Abe, T.; Ito, T.; Tsuruta, K. (Hitachi Koki Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-04-20

    With an objective of meeting the requirement of higher performance in ultracentrifuges, a technique to apply copper diecasting to make rotors of driving motors has been developed. A high-frequency motor rotor is manufactured in the following manner: electrically conductive metal is cast into slots connected in the axial direction on a laminated core made of magnetic steel sheets punched out to a predetermined shape to form several pieces of conductor rods; and then a cage is formed that is connected to both ends of the conductor rods annularly with a conductive metal. While conductor rods and end-rings have been using aluminum or Al alloy conventionally, the present method uses copper whose electric resistance is as small as 3/5 of aluminum. The method was needed for solution of such problems as early damage to the die surface because of high casting and melting temperatures, degraded performance in the magnetic steel sheet, and occurrence of casting defects. These problems have been solved by, for instance, pursuing an optimal condition such as so controlling the structure that the metal composition internal to the slots becomes particle-formed crystal. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Flow analysis and validation of numerical modelling for a thin walled high pressure die casting using SPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Paul W.; Savage, Gary; Ha, Joseph; Prakash, Mahesh

    2014-09-01

    High pressure die casting (HPDC) is an important process for high throughput manufacturing of complex shaped metallic components. The flow involves significant fragmentation and spray formation as the high pressure liquid jets into the die from the gate system. An important class of die cast components is one with large areas of thin walls. An example of this is the chassis of the laptop computer. Computational modelling provides an opportunity to both better understand the filling process and to optimize the runner, gates, flash overs and venting systems for the die. SPH has previously been found to be very suitable for predicting HPDC for bulkier automotive components. The modelling challenges arising from the very thin sections and the many flow paths in a laptop chassis require careful validation. A water analogue experiment is used to validate the predictions of the SPH model for this representative thin walled casting. SPH predictions are used to understand and characterise the filling process. Finally, comparison of flow lines visible in an etched finished casting with the high speed flow paths in the final filled SPH model show very strong agreement. Together these demonstrate that such an SPH model is able to capture substantial detail from both the water analogue system and the actual casting process and is very suitable for simulating these types of complex thin walled castings.

  9. Effect of annealing temperature and time on microstructure and mechanical properties of high Cr ferritic casting steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Z. Y.; Fu, L. M.; Zhang, R. N.; Wang, Y. J.; Shan, A. D.

    2017-09-01

    A new-type of high Cr ferrite cast steel was designed and investigated. Effects of annealing temperature and time on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the high Cr ferrite cast steel were studied. The results show that the microstructures of the as-cast and annealing steels are composed of ferrite and (Cr•Fe)23C6 carbide. The morphology of carbides is from long rod and the continuous network to crystal precipitation for the steels with increasing of annealing temperature and time. The impact toughness is slightly increased from 6 J/cm2 to 8 J/cm2 when the annealing temperature increases from 1180 ℃ to 1200 ℃. But the hardness is about HB 200 and no obvious differences between the as-cast and annealing steels. The most suitable annealing temperature and time are 1200 ℃ and 5 h, respectively. The wear resistance of the high Cr ferrite cast steel is increased and improved with annealing temperature and holding time at 260 ℃. The wear mechanism is changed from abrasion wear to abrasive and adhesive wear. The good wear-resistant of the high Cr ferrite cast steel is mainly attributed to the fine uniformly dispersed carbides.

  10. Development of analytical procedures for determination of total chromium by quadrupole ICP-MS and high-resolution ICP-MS, and hexavalent chromium by HPLC-ICP-MS, in different materials used in the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séby, F; Gagean, M; Garraud, H; Castetbon, A; Donard, O F X

    2003-10-01

    A European directive was recently adopted limiting the use of hazardous substances such as Pb, Hg, Cd, and Cr(VI) in vehicle manufacturing. From July 2003 a maximum of 2 g Cr(VI) will be authorised per vehicle in corrosion-preventing coatings of key components. As no standardised procedures are available to check if produced vehicles are in agreement with this directive, the objective of this work was to develop analytical procedures for total chromium and Cr(VI) determination in these materials. The first step of this study was to optimise digestion procedures for total chromium determination in plastic and metallic materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). High resolution (HR) ICP-MS was used to examine the influence of polyatomic interferences on the detection of the (52)Cr(+) and (53)Cr(+) isotopes. If there was strong interference with m/ z 52 for plastic materials, it was possible to use quadrupole ICP-MS for m/ z 53 if digestions were performed with HNO(3)+H(2)O(2). This mixture was also necessary for digestion of chromium from metallic materials. Extraction procedures in alkaline medium (NH(4)(+)/NH(3) buffer solution at pH 8.9) assisted by sonication were developed for determining Cr(VI) in four different corrosion-preventing coatings by HPLC-ICP-MS. After optimisation and validation with the only solid reference material certified for its Cr(VI) content (BCR 545; welding dusts), the efficiency of this extraction procedure for screw coatings was compared with that described in the EN ISO 3613 standard generally used in routine laboratories. For coatings comprising zinc and aluminium passivated in depth with chromium oxides the extraction procedure developed herein enabled determination of higher Cr(VI) concentrations. This was also observed for the screw covered with a chromium passivant layer on zinc-nickel. For coating comprising a chromium passivant layer on alkaline zinc the standardized extraction procedure was more efficient

  11. Microstructure of Cast Ni-Cr-Al-C Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cios G.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nickel based alloys, especially nickel based superalloys have gained the advantage over other alloys in the field of high temperature applications, and thus become irreplaceable at high temperature creep and aggressive corrosion environments, such as jet engines and steam turbines. However, the wear resistance of these alloys is insufficient at high temperatures. This work describes a microstructure of a new cast alloy. The microstructure consists of γ matrix strengthened by γ’ fine precipitates (dendrites improving the high temperature strength and of Chromium Cr7C3 primary carbides (in interdendritic eutectics which are designed to improve wear resistance as well as the high temperature strength.

  12. High-Mobility Aligned Pentacene Films Grown by Zone-Casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, Claudia M.; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Breiby, Dag W.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the growth and field-effect transistor performance of aligned pentacene thin films deposited by zone-casting from a solution of unsubstituted pentacene molecules in a chlorinated solvent. Polarized optical microscopy shows that solution processed pentacene films grow as large...... devices depends strongly on the underlying dielectric. Divinylsiloxane-bis-benzocyclobutene (BCB) resin is found to be a suitable gate dielectric allowing reproducible film deposition and high field-effect mobilities up to 0.4−0.7 cm2/(V s) and on/off ratios of 106−107. A small mobility anisotropy...

  13. Review. Freeze-casting: Fabrication of highly porous and hierarchical ceramic supports for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudillere, C.; Serra, J. M.

    2016-05-01

    The manufacture of structured ceramic porous support knows an important boom since more than a decade with the development of new shaping techniques. Among the most promising ones, the freeze-casting also called Ice-Tem plating allows the fabrication of ceramic parts exhibiting high porosity (>50%) and vertically aligned and hierarchically organized pores. Such structures were firstly conceived for biomedical applications like bone substitute and tissue engineering, but the distinctive features of freeze-cast structures have attracted the attention of diverse scientific fields, especially in high temperature ceramic-based energy production systems. Indeed, technologies like (a) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Electrolyser Cell (SOEC), (b) gas separation (O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}) by asymmetric supported membranes based on mixed ionic and electronic conductors (MIEC) or hydrogen-permeable metals, and (c) Catalytic Membrane Reactor (CMR) systems present a porous component in their physical structure. This latest, presenting a tortuous pathway for gas access and as a consequence, a high transport limitation, is known to be a limiting component for the operation at high flow streams that would enable to reach industrial target. (Author)

  14. High strength and heat resistant chromium steels for sodium-cooled fast reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, S.; Grandy, C.; Farmer, M.; Brunsvold, A.

    2004-12-22

    This report provides the results of a preliminary phase of a project supporting the Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Initiative at ANL. The project targets the Generation IV nuclear energy systems, particularly the area of reducing the cost of sodium-cooled fast-reactors by utilizing innovative materials. The main goal of the project is to provide the nuclear heat exchanger designers a simplified means to quantify the cost advantages of the recently developed high strength and heat resistant ferritic steels with 9 to 13% chromium content. The emphasis in the preliminary phase is on two steels that show distinctive advantages and have been proposed as candidate materials for heat exchangers and also for reactor vessels and near-core components of Gen IV reactors. These steels are the 12Cr-2W (HCM12A) and 9Cr-1MoVNb (modified 9Cr-1Mo). When these steels are in tube form, they are referred to in ASTM Standards as T122 and T91, respectively. A simple thermal-hydraulics analytical model of a counter-flow, shell-and-tube, once-through type superheated steam generator is developed to determine the required tube length and tube wall temperature profile. The single-tube model calculations are then extended to cover the following design criteria: (i) ratio of the tube stress due to water/steam pressure to the ASME B&PV Code allowable stress, (ii) ratio of the strain due to through-tube-wall temperature differences to the material fatigue limit, (iii) overall differential thermal expansion between the tube and shell, and (iv) total amount of tube material required for the specified heat exchanger thermal power. Calculations were done for a 292 MW steam generator design with 2200 tubes and a steam exit condition of 457 C and 16 MPa. The calculations were performed with the tubes made of the two advanced ferritic steels, 12Cr-2W and 9Cr-1MoVNb, and of the most commonly used steel, 2 1/4Cr-1Mo. Compared to the 2 1/4Cr-1Mo results, the 12Cr-2W tubes required 29% less

  15. Microstructure and properties of Ti–Nb–V–Mo-alloyed high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The correlations of microstructure, hardness and fracture toughness of high chromium cast iron with the addition of alloys (titanium, vanadium, niobium and molybdenum) were investigated. The results indicated that the as-cast microstructure changed from hypereutectic, eutectic to hypoeutectic with the increase of alloy ...

  16. Effect of Chromium on Corrosion Behavior of P110 Steels in CO2-H2S Environment with High Pressure and High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianbo; Sun, Chong; Lin, Xueqiang; Cheng, Xiangkun; Liu, Huifeng

    2016-01-01

    The novel Cr-containing low alloy steels have exhibited good corrosion resistance in CO2 environment, mainly owing to the formation of Cr-enriched corrosion film. In order to evaluate whether it is applicable to the CO2 and H2S coexistence conditions, the corrosion behavior of low-chromium steels in CO2-H2S environment with high pressure and high temperature was investigated using weight loss measurement and surface characterization. The results showed that P110 steel suffered localized corrosion and both 3Cr-P110 and 5Cr-P110 steels exhibited general corrosion. However, the corrosion rate of 5Cr-P110 was the highest among them. The corrosion process of the steels was simultaneously governed by CO2 and H2S. The outer scales on the three steels mainly consisted of FeS1−x crystals, whereas the inner scales on Cr-containing steels comprised of amorphous FeS1−x, Cr(OH)3 and FeCO3, in contrast with the amorphous FeS1−x and FeCO3 mixture film of P110 steel. The more chromium the steel contains, the more chromium compounds the corrosion products contain. The addition of chromium in steels increases the uniformity of the Cr-enriched corrosion scales, eliminates the localized corrosion, but cannot decrease the general corrosion rates. The formation of FeS1−x may interfere with Cr-enriched corrosion scales and lowering the corrosion performance of 3Cr-P110 and 5Cr-P110 steels. PMID:28773328

  17. Effect of Chromium on Corrosion Behavior of P110 Steels in CO2-H2S Environment with High Pressure and High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The novel Cr-containing low alloy steels have exhibited good corrosion resistance in CO2 environment, mainly owing to the formation of Cr-enriched corrosion film. In order to evaluate whether it is applicable to the CO2 and H2S coexistence conditions, the corrosion behavior of low-chromium steels in CO2-H2S environment with high pressure and high temperature was investigated using weight loss measurement and surface characterization. The results showed that P110 steel suffered localized corrosion and both 3Cr-P110 and 5Cr-P110 steels exhibited general corrosion. However, the corrosion rate of 5Cr-P110 was the highest among them. The corrosion process of the steels was simultaneously governed by CO2 and H2S. The outer scales on the three steels mainly consisted of FeS1−x crystals, whereas the inner scales on Cr-containing steels comprised of amorphous FeS1−x, Cr(OH3 and FeCO3, in contrast with the amorphous FeS1−x and FeCO3 mixture film of P110 steel. The more chromium the steel contains, the more chromium compounds the corrosion products contain. The addition of chromium in steels increases the uniformity of the Cr-enriched corrosion scales, eliminates the localized corrosion, but cannot decrease the general corrosion rates. The formation of FeS1−x may interfere with Cr-enriched corrosion scales and lowering the corrosion performance of 3Cr-P110 and 5Cr-P110 steels.

  18. Modelling of Filling, Microstructure Formation, Local Mechanical Properties and Stress – Strain Development in High-Pressure Die Cast Aluminium Castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotas, Petr; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Thorborg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Today, the industrial demands are to reduce product development time as well as costs of producing prototypes. In this context, virtual prototyping by numerical simulation offers an efficient way of lowering costs and shorten lead time. Castings are produced by a manufacturing method which.......e. whether the casting is based on cast iron- or aluminium-alloys. The distribution of local properties in a casting might vary substantially which makes it complex to optimize the casting with good accuracy. Often, mechanical simulations of the load situation are based on the assumption that the cast...

  19. Earthworm casts as a sampling medium – a case study from highly contaminated Hg roasting site Pšenk (Idrija area, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Teršič

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study an interesting sampling medium - earthworm casts was examined in a highly Hg contaminated area. Enrichment factor (EF has been applied to assess elevated concentrations of analyzed elements in earthworm casts and to determine elevated concentrations of these elements in soils and casts with regard to European average concentrations in topsoil. In a previous study (Teršič & Gosar, 2012 it was shown that Hg contents and dispersion in casts from studied roasting site are comparable to those in soil, which indicates that soil contamination is substantially reflected in contamination of earthworm casts. Therefore the comparison between elemental concentrations in earthworm casts and soil was investigated with the intention to assess the reflection of possible soil contamination in casts. Besides Hg contamination, elevated concentrations of As, Ca, Cd, Mo, Pb and U were also determined in earthworm casts. The calculated EFs show moderate enrichment of casts with Ca, Sr and P and minimal enrichment with Mg, Zn and Cu. Cast, SOM (surface organic matter rich soil layer and soil enrichments with regard to the European averages show extreme enrichment of all studied media with Hg, followed by significant enrichment with Mo and Cd and moderate enrichment with As. Spatial distributions of analyzed elements in casts mostly show similar pattern as in soil, however, because of the different nature of different earthworm species and specific properties of different elements, the data about cast contamination can only serve as an approximate prediction about the dispersion and distribution of contaminant in soil.

  20. Effect of tempering temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of high boron white cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhongli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different tempering temperatures on the microstructure and mechanical properties of air-quenched high boron white cast iron was studied. The results indicate that the high boron white cast iron comprises dendritic matrix and inter-dendritic M2B boride; and the matrix comprises martensite and pearlite. After quenching in the air, the matrix is changed into lath martensite; but only 1-μm-size second phase exists in the matrix. After tempering, another second phase of several tens of nanometers is found in the matrix, and the size and quantity increase with an increase in tempering temperature. The two kinds of second precipitation phase with different sizes in the matrix have the same chemical formula, but their forming stages are different. The precipitation phase with larger size forms during the austenitizing process, while the precipitation phase with smaller size forms during the tempering process. When tempered at different temperatures after quenching, the hardness decreases with an increase in the tempering temperature, but it increases a little at 450 ℃ due to the precipitation strengthening effect of the second phase, and it decreases greatly due to the martensite decomposition above 450 ℃. The impact toughness increases a little when tempered below 300 ℃, but it then decreases continuously owing to the increase in size and quantity of the secondary precipitate above 300 ℃. Considered comprehensively, the optimum tempering temperature is suggested at 300 ℃ to obtain a good combination of hardness and toughness.

  1. High temperature formability of graphene nanoplatelets-AZ31 composites fabricated by stir-casting method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rashad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Outstanding mechanical properties of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs make them ideal reinforcement for mass production of composites. In this research, the composites were fabricated by stir-casting method. GNPs were added in 1.5 and 3.0 wt.% into Mg–3wt.% Al–1wt.% Zn (AZ31 magnesium alloy. As cast ingots were preheated for one hour and extruded at 350 °C with extrusion ratio of 5.2:1. As extruded AZ31-GNPs composites were micro-structurally characterized with X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Vickers micro-hardness of synthesized materials was investigated both in parallel and perpendicular to extrusion directions. Room temperature mechanical testing revealed that with increasing GNP's content, tensile fracture strain was remarkably increased without significant compromise in tensile strength. Furthermore, as extruded AZ31-3GNPs composites were subjected to tensile testing at temperatures ranging from 75 °C to 300 °C with initial strain rate of 2 × 10−3 s−1 to evaluate high temperature formability of composite. It was found that like CNTs, GNPs also have the potential to sustain tensile strength at high temperatures.

  2. Microstructure of Al-Si Slurry Coatings on Austenitic High-Temperature Creep Resisting Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka E. Kochmańska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of microstructural examinations on slurry aluminide coatings using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, and X-ray diffraction. Aluminide coatings were produced in air atmosphere on austenitic high-temperature creep resisting cast steel. The function of aluminide coatings is the protection of the equipment components against the high-temperature corrosion in a carburising atmosphere under thermal shock conditions. The obtained coatings had a multilayered structure composed of intermetallic compounds. The composition of newly developed slurry was powders of aluminium and silicon; NaCl, KCl, and NaF halide salts; and a water solution of a soluble glass as an inorganic binder. The application of the inorganic binder in the slurry allowed to produce the coatings in one single step without additional annealing at an intermediate temperature as it is when applied organic binder. The coatings were formed on both: the ground surface and on the raw cast surface. The main technological parameters were temperature (732–1068°C and time of annealing (3.3–11.7 h and the Al/Si ratio (4–14 in the slurry. The rotatable design was used to evaluate the effect of the production parameters on the coatings thickness. The correlation between the technological parameters and the coating structure was determined.

  3. Development of Cast Alumina-forming Austenitic Stainless Steel Alloys for use in High Temperature Process Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Pankiw, Roman [Duraloy Technologies Inc; Voke, Don [Duraloy Technologies Inc

    2015-01-01

    There is significant interest in the development of alumina-forming, creep resistant alloys for use in various industrial process environments. It is expected that these alloys can be fabricated into components for use in these environments through centrifugal casting and welding. Based on the successful earlier studies on the development of wrought versions of Alumina-Forming Austenitic (AFA) alloys, new alloy compositions have been developed for cast products. These alloys achieve good high-temperature oxidation resistance due to the formation of protective Al2O3 scales while multiple second-phase precipitation strengthening contributes to excellent creep resistance. This work will summarize the results on the development and properties of a centrifugally cast AFA alloy. This paper highlights the strength, oxidation resistance in air and water vapor containing environments, and creep properties in the as-cast condition over the temperature range of 750°C to 900°C in a centrifugally cast heat. Preliminary results for a laboratory cast AFA composition with good oxidation resistance at 1100°C are also presented.

  4. Urinary casts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the urine; Fatty casts; Red blood cell casts; White blood cell casts Images ... Clinical Nephrology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 4. Gerber GS, Brendler CB. Evaluation ...

  5. Interlocking multi-material components made of structured steel sheets and high-pressure die cast aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senge, S.; Brachmann, J.; Hirt, G.; Bührig-Polaczek, A.

    2017-10-01

    Lightweight design is a major driving force of innovation, especially in the automotive industry. Using hybrid components made of two or more different materials is one approach to reduce the vehicles weight and decrease fuel consumption. As a possible way to increase the stiffness of multi-material components, this paper presents a process chain to produce such components made of steel sheets and high-pressure die cast aluminium. Prior to the casting sequence the steel sheets are structured in a modified rolling process which enables continuous interlocking with the aluminium. Two structures manufactured by this rolling process are tested. The first one is a channel like structure and the second one is a channel like structure with undercuts. These undercuts enable the formation of small anchors when the molten aluminium fills them. The correlation between thickness reduction during rolling and the shape of the resulting structure was evaluated for both structures. It can be stated that channels with a depth of up to 0.5 mm and a width of 1 mm could be created. Undercuts with different size depending on the thickness reduction could be realised. Subsequent aluminium high-pressure die casting experiments were performed to determine if the surface structure can be filled gap-free with molten aluminium during the casting sequence and if a gap-free connection can be achieved after contraction of the aluminium. The casting experiments showed that both structures could be filled during the high-pressure die casting. The channel like structure results in a gap between steel and aluminium after contraction of the cast metal whereas the structure with undercuts leads to a good interlocking resulting in a gap-free connection.

  6. FEATURES OF SPHEROIDIZING MODIFICATION OF HIGH-STRENGTH CAST IRON WITH MASTER ALLOYS BASED ON COPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of efficiency of modification process for ductile iron is topically, thereby increasing its mechanical and operational properties. For these purposes, in practice, various magnesium containing alloys are used, including «heavy» ones on the basis of Copper and Nickel. The analysis has shown that the application of bulk inoculating alloys based on copper basis were not effectively due to long dissolution period. From this point of view, the interest is high-speed casting, allowing the production of inoculating alloys in the form of strips – chips that are characterized by a low dissolution time and low piroeffekt. The aim of this work is to study the features of structure formation in nodular cast iron using different spheroidizing alloys based on copper. Studies have shown that the transition from the use of briquetted form alloys based on copper and magnesium to the «chips-inoculating alloys» allowed increasing the efficiency of the spheroidizing process. Further improvement in the quality of ductile iron can be achieved by the use in «chip-inoculating alloys» additives of nanosized yttrium oxide powder. 

  7. Failure behavior of high pressure die casting AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.; Xiong, S.M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Guo, Z., E-mail: zhipeng_guo@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-08-30

    The failure behavior of high pressure die casting AZ91D magnesium alloy during both tensile and fatigue tests was studied in situ by using scanning electron microscope. Attention was focused on the role of microstructure played in crack initiation and propagation. Results showed that the defects in castings, including gas pore, shrinkage pore and defect band, were the crack initiation sources. In tensile test, the crack propagated in a combination of intergranular and transgranular modes, and the specimen fractured by connecting defects at the section with minimum effective force bearing area. In fatigue test, the crack propagated in a transgranular mode at specific crystalline planes. When the crack was in contact with the β-phase, the crack would pass through, and fracture the network β-phase, whereas bypass the island β-phase by detaching it from the surrounding α-Mg grains. Besides, defects in front of the crack would act as the secondary crack initiation sources, from which new cracks would initiate and propagate. With the propagation of the fatigue crack, the actual maximum cyclic stress would increase to the fracture stress of the left cross section and lead to the final fracture of the specimen.

  8. Effect of prior deformation on microstructural development and Laves phase precipitation in high-chromium stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Z-W; Chen, D; Kuo, J-C; Lin, D-Y

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the influence of deformation on precipitation behaviour and microstructure change during annealing. Here, the prior deformation of high-chromium stainless steel was tensile deformation of 3%, 6% and 10%, and the specimens were then annealed at 700˚C for 10 h. The specimens were subsequently analyzed using backscattered electron image and electron backscattering diffraction measurements with SEM. Compared with the deformation microstructure, the grains revealed no preferred orientation. The precipitates of TiN and NbC were formed homogenously in the grain interior and at grain boundaries after annealing. Fine Laves phase precipitates were observed in grains and along subgrain boundaries as the deformation increased. Furthermore, the volume fraction of Laves phase increased, but the average particle diameter of precipitate was reduced as the deformation increased. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  9. Gamma ray heating rates due to chromium isotopes in stellar core during late stages of high mass stars (>10M⊙

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi Jameel-Un

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma ray heating rates are thought to play a crucial role during the pre-supernova stage of high mass stars. Gamma ray heating rates, due to β±-decay and electron (positron capture on chromium isotopes, are calculated using proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation theory. The electron capture significantly affects the lepton fraction (Ye and accelerates the core contraction. The gamma rays emitted as a result of weak processes heat the core and tend to hinder the cooling and contraction due to electron capture and neutrino emission. The emitted gamma rays tend to produce enormous entropy and set the convection to play its role at this stage. The gamma heating rates, on 50-60Cr, are calculated for the density range 10 < ρ (g.cm-3 < 1011 and temperature range 107 < T (K < 3.0×1010.

  10. Solidification behaviour of an AA5754 Al alloy ingot cast with high impurity content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sundaram; Hari Babu, Nadendla; Scamans, Geoff M.; Eskin, Dmitry G.; Fan, Zhongyun [Brunel Univ., Uxbridge (United Kingdom). EPSRC Centre - LiME, BCAST

    2012-10-15

    In view of the recycling of aluminium scrap for automotive sheet application, we have investigated the solidification behaviour of AA5754 alloy containing additional amounts of impurity elements such as Si, Fe, and Cu. Ingot casts with a high impurity content resulted in coarse {alpha}-Al dendrites and complex-shaped secondary phases. A large volume of coarse Chinese script and needle-type Fe-bearing intermetallic phases were observed to form at the centre of an ingot. In addition to the grain-boundary eutectic, spherically shaped rosette-type eutectic phases were observed within the Al grain in the high-impurity alloy. The more uniform size distribution of the Fe-bearing intermetallics observed in the Al-Ti-B grain refined alloy is attributed to the presence of a large fraction of {alpha}-Al grain boundaries which distributes the eutectic liquid where the Fe-bearing intermetallic forced to nucleate and grow. (orig.)

  11. A Numerical and Experimental Study of Flow Behavior in High Pressure Die Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedipour, Mahdi; Schneiderbauer, Simon; Pirker, Stefan; Bozorgi, Salar

    High pressure die casting (HPDC) is one of the most important and yet little known manufacturing methods especially during liquid metal injection and filling phase. During its application different problems can arise: on the one hand, wavy disintegration of the jet might result in cold shut defect in the final product, on the other hand a high degree of atomization may strongly increase the porosity defect. A numerical simulation using volume of fluid approach (VOF), is carried out to model the global spreading of liquid metal jet. The formation of droplets, which are usually smaller than the grid spacing in computational domain, is determined by a surface energy-based criterion. An Eulerian-Lagrangian framework is introduced to track and model the droplets after formation. Since liquid metal is hardly to access, we performed experiments based on water analogy to capture the flow regime changes and drop formation. The comparison between numerical results and experiments shows a very good agreement.

  12. Simulation for grinding balls production using sand mold-gravity casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjaman, F.; Shofi, A.; Herlina, U.; Prilitasari, N. M.; Triapriani, Y.

    2018-01-01

    In this present work, the grinding balls from high chromium white cast iron (ASTM A-532) were produced by using sand mold-gravity casting. The simulation casting process was conducted before making these grinding balls by using SOLIDCast™ version 8.2.0. The gating system design and the pouring temperature of hot metal were investigated clearly to obtain grinding balls with no-defect. The sound casting of grinding balls was resulted by using the proper gating system with the addition of vent air on the top of each grinding ball’s mold. The dimension of vent air was reduced by the increasing of pouring temperature, thus it resulted on the increasing of the yield production of grinding balls.

  13. High-Throughput Study of Diffusion and Phase Transformation Kinetics of Magnesium-Based Systems for Automotive Cast Magnesium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Alan A [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Zhao, Ji-Cheng [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Riggi, Adrienne [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Joost, William [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-10-02

    The objective of the proposed study is to establish a scientific foundation on kinetic modeling of diffusion, phase precipitation, and casting/solidification, in order to accelerate the design and optimization of cast magnesium (Mg) alloys for weight reduction of U.S. automotive fleet. The team has performed the following tasks: 1) study diffusion kinetics of various Mg-containing binary systems using high-throughput diffusion multiples to establish reliable diffusivity and mobility databases for the Mg-aluminum (Al)-zinc (Zn)-tin (Sn)-calcium (Ca)-strontium (Sr)-manganese (Mn) systems; 2) study the precipitation kinetics (nucleation, growth and coarsening) using both innovative dual-anneal diffusion multiples and cast model alloys to provide large amounts of kinetic data (including interfacial energy) and microstructure atlases to enable implementation of the Kampmann-Wagner numerical model to simulate phase transformation kinetics of non-spherical/non-cuboidal precipitates in Mg alloys; 3) implement a micromodel to take into account back diffusion in the solid phase in order to predict microstructure and microsegregation in multicomponent Mg alloys during dendritic solidification especially under high pressure die-casting (HPDC) conditions; and, 4) widely disseminate the data, knowledge and information using the Materials Genome Initiative infrastructure (http://www.mgidata.org) as well as publications and digital data sharing to enable researchers to identify new pathways/routes to better cast Mg alloys.

  14. Evaluation of marginal gap of Ni-Cr copings made with conventional and accelerated casting techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannamala, Pavan Kumar; Azhagarasan, Nagarasampatti Sivaprakasam; Shankar, K Chitra

    2013-01-01

    Conventional casting techniques following the manufacturers' recommendations are time consuming. Accelerated casting techniques have been reported, but their accuracy with base metal alloys has not been adequately studied. We measured the vertical marginal gap of nickel-chromium copings made by conventional and accelerated casting techniques and determined the clinical acceptability of the cast copings in this study. Experimental design, in vitro study, lab settings. Ten copings each were cast by conventional and accelerated casting techniques. All copings were identical, only their mold preparation schedules differed. Microscopic measurements were recorded at ×80 magnification on the perpendicular to the axial wall at four predetermined sites. The marginal gap values were evaluated by paired t test. The mean marginal gap by conventional technique (34.02 μm) is approximately 10 μm lesser than that of accelerated casting technique (44.62 μm). As the P value is less than 0.0001, there is highly significant difference between the two techniques with regard to vertical marginal gap. The accelerated casting technique is time saving and the marginal gap measured was within the clinically acceptable limits and could be an alternative to time-consuming conventional techniques.

  15. Evaluation of marginal gap of Ni-Cr copings made with conventional and accelerated casting techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan Kumar Tannamala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Conventional casting techniques following the manufacturers′ recommendations are time consuming. Accelerated casting techniques have been reported, but their accuracy with base metal alloys has not been adequately studied. Aim: We measured the vertical marginal gap of nickel-chromium copings made by conventional and accelerated casting techniques and determined the clinical acceptability of the cast copings in this study. Settings and Design: Experimental design, in vitro study, lab settings. Materials and Methods: Ten copings each were cast by conventional and accelerated casting techniques. All copings were identical, only their mold preparation schedules differed. Microscopic measurements were recorded at ×80 magnification on the perpendicular to the axial wall at four predetermined sites. The marginal gap values were evaluated by paired t test. Results: The mean marginal gap by conventional technique (34.02 μm is approximately 10 μm lesser than that of accelerated casting technique (44.62 μm. As the P value is less than 0.0001, there is highly significant difference between the two techniques with regard to vertical marginal gap. Conclusion: The accelerated casting technique is time saving and the marginal gap measured was within the clinically acceptable limits and could be an alternative to time-consuming conventional techniques.

  16. Casting in Sport

    OpenAIRE

    DeCarlo, Mark; Malone, Kathy; Darmelio, John; Rettig, Arthur

    1994-01-01

    Attempts by sports medicine professionals to return high school athletes with hand and wrist injuries to competition quickly and safely have been the source of confusion and debate on many playing fields around the country. In addition to the differing views regarding the appropriateness of playing cast usage in high school football, a debate exists among sports medicine professionals as to which material is best suited for playing cast construction. Materials used in playing cast constructio...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY OF THE HIGH-QUALITY CAST IRONS PRODUCTION BY MEANS OF GRAPHITIZING MODIFICATION BY THE HIGH-POLYMERIC AMALGAMATION WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Garost

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The variant of graphitizing modification of gray cast irons by means of application of non-classic methods of processing, when unusable for regeneration high-polymeric compounds are uses as additives. There is noted the improvement of the cast iron structure: form of graphite impurities is varying from PGd 180 up to PGD 45, the character of graphite impurities from PGr up to PGr 3, perlitization of metallic base is observed.

  18. Ejection Performance of Coated Core Pins Intended for Application on High Pressure Die Casting Tools for Aluminium Alloys Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Terek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In high pressure die casting (HPDC process of aluminium alloys cast alloy soldering severely damages tool surfaces. It hampers casting ejection, reduces the casting quality and decreases the overall production efficiency. Thin ceramic PVD (physical vapor deposition coatings applied on tool surfaces successfully reduce these effects. However, their performance is still not recognised for surfaces with various topographies. In this investigation, soldering tendency of Al-Si-Cu alloy toward EN X27CrMoV51 steel, plasma nitrided steel, CrN and TiAlN duplex PVD coatings is evaluated using ejection test. The coatings were prepared to a range of surface roughness and topographies. After the tests sample surfaces were analysed by different microscopy techniques and profilometry. It was found that the ejection performance is independent of the chemical composition of investigated materials. After the ejection, the cast alloy soldering layer was found on surfaces of all tested materials. This built-up layer formed by effects of mechanical soldering, without corrosion reactions. Coated samples displayed a pronounced dependence of ejection force on surface roughness and topography. By decreasing roughness, ejection force increased, which is a consequence of intensified adhesion effects. Presented findings are a novel information important for efficient application of PVD coatings intendent for protection of HPDC tools.

  19. Comparative study on laser welding and TIG welding of semi-solid high pressure die cast A356 aluminium alloy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available components. The low porosity levels in SSM high pressure die castings (HPDC) improves the weldability of these components. The aim of the current research was to perform a comparative study of laser and TIG welding of SSM HPDC aluminium alloy A356. SSM...

  20. Structure and phases in nickel-base self-fluxing alloy coating containing high chromium and boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsubo, F.; Era, H.; Kishitake, K.

    2000-03-01

    The structure of a nickel-base, self-fluxing alloy coating, containing chromium and boron thermal sprayed and fused, was investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A lumpy M6C carbide, a rodlike M3B2 boride of tetragonal structure, a rodlike M7C3 carbide of hexagonal structure, and a Ni-Ni3B eutectic phase formed in the coating after fusing. Metals of M6C, M3B2, and M7C3 phases are composed of chromium, molybdenum, and nickel; chromium and molybdenum; and mainly chromium, respectively. The nickel phase in the coating has the L12 type superlattice structure.

  1. An Investigation into the Accuracy of Two Currently Available Dental Impression Materials in the Construction of Cobalt-Chromium Frameworks for Removable Partial Dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubal, Rajesh Kumar; Friel, Tim; Taylor, Philip D

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the suitability of irreversible hydrocolloid as an impression material for cobalt-chromium framework construction. Scans of casts derived from (1) alginate and (2) addition-cured polyvinylsiloxane impressions were superposed on to a control. The differences within and between groups were compared at fixed landmarks. The investigation revealed a high degree of scan coincidence within and between groups. However, certain features, such as undercuts, resulted in a lower degree of scan coincidence. Irreversible hydrocolloid appears to be a viable alternative to addition-cured polyvinyl-siloxane as an impression material for cobalt-chromium framework construction.

  2. Systematic Microstructural and Corrosion Performance Evaluation of CK-3MCuN and CN-3MN High Molybdenum Stainless Steel Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.D. Lundin; S. Wen; W. Liu; G. Zhou

    2001-10-01

    High molybdenum austenitic stainless steel castings are widely accepted for their high strength, excellent weldability, and good corrosion resistance over a wide range of temperatures in highly oxidizing aqueous and gaseous media in chemical processing and other environments. With their desirable performance, high molybdenum austenitic stainless steel castings are increasingly applied in industry in a similar manner as wrought materials. In general, cast and wrought stainless and high alloy steels are anticipated to possess equivalent resistance to corrosive media, and they are frequently used in conjunction with each other. However, alloying element segregation usually is more evident in castings than in wrought counterparts. Segregation of alloying elements can lead to the formation of secondary phases, such as sigma. Mechanical properties and especially the corrosion resistance of castings may be affected by the secondary phases. In addition, improper heat treatment procedures c an also lead to the formation of carbides and secondary phases in high alloy and austenitic stainless steels.

  3. Heterogeneous chromium catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a heterogeneous chromium catalyst system for the polymerisation of ethylene and/or alpha olefins prepared by the steps of: (a) providing a silica-containing support, (b) treating the silica-containing support with a chromium compound to form a chromium-based silica-containing support, (c) activating the chromium-based silica-containing support, (d) chemically reducing the activated chromium-based silica-containing support to produce a precursor catalyst, (e) r...

  4. High-Throughput Screening in ToxCast/Tox21 (FutureToxII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addressing safety aspects of drugs and environmental chemicals relies extensively on animal testing. However, the quantity of chemicals needing assessment and challenges of species extrapolation require development of alternative approaches. The EPA’s ToxCast program addresses th...

  5. Semi-solid high pressure die casting of metal matrix composites produced by liquid state processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ivanchev, L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There are two main technologies for manufacturing of particulate reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC), solid state and liquid state processing. The great challenge of producing cast metal matrix composites is to prevent agglomeration...

  6. Solvent-Assisted Metal Metathesis: A Highly Efficient and Versatile Route towards Synthetically Demanding Chromium Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Hao; Zhang, Ying; Li, Mian; Yan, Shu; Li, Dan; Zhang, Xian-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Chromium(III)-based metal-organic frameworks (Cr-MOFs) are very attractive in a wide range of investigations because of their robustness and high porosity. However, reports on Cr-MOFs are scarce owing to the difficulties in their direct synthesis. Recently developed postsynthetic routes to obtain Cr-MOFs suffered from complicated procedures and a lack of general applicability. Herein, we report a highly efficient and versatile strategy, namely solvent-assisted metal metathesis, to obtain Cr-MOFs from a variety of Fe(III) -MOFs, including several well-known MOFs and a newly synthesized one, through judicious selection of a coordinating solvent. The versatility of this strategy was demonstrated by producing Cr-MIL-100, Cr-MIL-142A/C, Cr-PCN-333, and Cr-PCN-600 from their Fe(III) analogues and Cr-SXU-1 from a newly synthesized MOF precursor, Fe-SXU-1, in acetone as the solvent under very mild conditions. We have thus developed a general approach for the preparation of robust Cr-MOFs, which are difficult to synthesize by direct methods. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Shaping the Microstructure of Cast Iron Automobile Cylinder Liners Aimed at Providing High Service Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orłowicz A.W.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of factors affecting the wear of cylinder liners. The effect of the graphite precipitation morphology on the cylinder liner wear mechanism is presented. Materials used to cast cylinder liners mounted in a number of engines have been examined for their conformity with requirements set out in applicable Polish industrial standard. A casting for a prototype cylinder liner has been made with a microstructure guaranteeing good service properties of the part.

  8. Chromium Ions Improve Moisure Resistance of Epoxy Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair, A. K.; St. Clair, T. L.; Stoakley, D. M.; Singh, J. J.; Sprinkle, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    Broad spectrum of thermosetting epoxy resins used on commercial and military aircraft, primarily as composite matrices and adhesives. In new technique, chromium-ion containing epoxy with improved resistance to moisture produced where chromium ions believed to prevent absorption of water molecules by coordinating themselves to hydroxyl groups on epoxy chain. Anticipated that improved epoxy formulation useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft. Improvement made without sacrifice in mechanical properties of polymer.

  9. Investigation on Microstructure of Heat Treated High Manganese Austenitic Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzafar A.K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of manganese addition and annealing heat treatment on microstructure of austenitic cast irons with high manganese content (Mn-Ni-resist were investigated. The complex relationship between the development of the solidification microstructures and buildup of microsegregation in Mn-Ni-resist was obtained by using microstructure analysis and EDS analysis. The annealing heat treatment was applied at 700°C up to 1000°C to investigate the effect of the annealing temperature on the microstructure. This experiment describes the characterization of microsegregation in Mn-Ni-reist was made by means of point counting microanalysis along the microstructure. With this method, the differences of silicon, manganese and nickel distribution in alloys solidified in the microstructure were clearly evidenced. The results show microstructure consists of flake graphite embedded in austenitic matrix and carbides. There is segregation of elements in the Late To Freeze (LTF region after solidification from melting. Manganese positively with high concentration detected in the LTF region. As for heat treatment, higher annealing temperature on the Mn-Ni-resist was reduced carbide formation. The higher annealing temperature shows carbide transformed into a smaller size and disperses through the austenitic matrix structure. The size of carbide decreased with increasing annealing temperature as observed in the microstructure.

  10. Highly porous polytriazole ion exchange membranes cast from solutions in non-toxic cosolvents

    KAUST Repository

    Chisca, Stefan

    2017-04-04

    The development of highly functionalized porous materials for protein separation is important for biotech processes. We report the preparation of highly porous polytriazole with sulfonic acid functionalization. The resulting ion exchange membranes are selective for protein adsorption. The starting material was a hydroxyl-functionalized polytriazole, which is an advantageous platform for further modification. The polymer was dissolved in a mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim]OAc) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC), which can be both considered green solvents. The polymer solubilization was only possible due to an interesting effect of cosolvency, which is discussed, based in phase diagrams. Membranes were prepared by solution casting, followed by immersion in a non-solvent bath. We then grafted sulfone groups on the membranes, by reacting the hydroxyl groups with 1,3-propane sultone and 1,4-butane sultone. Lysozyme adsorption was successfully evaluated. Membranes modified with 1,4-butane sultone adsorbed more protein than those with 1,3-propane sultone.

  11. Effect of mold designs on molten metal behaviour in high-pressure die casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M. D.; Rahman, M. R. A.; Khan, A. A.; Mohamad, M. R.; Suffian, M. S. Z. M.; Yunos, Y. S.; Wong, L. K.; Mohtar, M. Z.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a research study conducted in a local automotive component manufacturer that produces aluminium alloy steering housing local and global markets. This study is to investigate the effect of design modification of mold in die casting as to improve the production rate. Design modification is carried out on the casting shot of the mold. Computer flow simulation was carried out to study the flow of molten metal in the mold with respect to the mold design modification. The design parameters of injection speed, die temperature and clamping force has been included in the study. The result of the simulation showed that modifications of casting shot give significant impact towards the molten flow behaviour in casting process. The capabilities and limitations of die casting process simulation to conduct defect analysis had been optimized. This research will enhance the efficiency of the mass production of the industry of die casting with the understanding of defect analysis, which lies on the modification of the mold design, a way early in its stages of production.

  12. Chromium-induced skin damage among Taiwanese cement workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Wang, Po-Chih; Wu, Jyun-De; Sheu, Shiann-Cherng

    2016-10-01

    Little research has been done on the relationships between chromium exposure, skin barrier function, and other hygienic habits in cement workers. Our purpose was to investigate chromium-induced skin barrier disruption due to cement exposure among cement workers. One hundred and eight cement workers were recruited in this study. Urinary chromium concentration was used to characterize exposure levels. The biological exposure index was used to separate high and low chromium exposure. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was used to assess the skin barrier function. TEWL was significantly increased in workers with high chromium exposure levels than those with low chromium exposure levels (p = 0.048). A positive correlation was also found between urinary chromium concentration and TEWL (R = 0.28, p = 0.004). After adjusting for smoking status and glove use, a significant correlation between urinary chromium concentrations and TEWL remained. Moreover, workers who smoked and had a high chromium exposure had significantly increased TEWL compared to nonsmokers with low chromium exposure (p = 0.01). Skin barrier function of cement workers may have been disrupted by chromium in cement, and smoking might significantly enhance such skin barrier perturbation with chromium exposure. Decreased chromium skin exposure and smoking cessation should be encouraged at work. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Chromium-based metal-organic framework MIL-101 as a highly effective catalyst in plasma for toluene removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junliang; Xia, Qibin; Xiao, Jing; Li, Zhong

    2017-11-01

    Catalytic performance of MIL-101—a type of chromium-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)—in a plasma catalysis system for toluene removal was experimentally studied. The MIL-101 was synthesized using a hydrothermal method, and its catalytic performance was compared to two other catalysts, Cr2O3/γ-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3, in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. Results showed that the presence of a catalyst in plasma changed the voltage and current characteristic substantially, and promoted the performance of the plasma reactor. Among the catalysts, the MIL-101 exhibited a significantly high toluene conversion, which was 20% and 35% higher than Cr2O3/γ-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3, respectively, under the same testing conditions, as well as higher carbon balance and CO2 selectivity. The analysis of by-products on the surfaces of the catalysts before and after reaction demonstrated that MIL-101 had better resistance towards by-products accumulation compared to Cr2O3/γ-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3. The loading of MnO x on MIL-101 further promoted its catalytic performance. MIL-101 exhibits attractive catalytic properties as a catalyst in a plasma catalysis system for the decomposition of volatile organic compounds.

  14. Swelling Behavior of High-Chromium, Vanadium-Bearing Titanomagnetite Pellets in H2-CO-CO2 Gas Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Chu, M. S.; Tang, J.; Liu, Z. G.; Feng, C.; Tang, Y. T.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the effects of temperature, gas composition and reduction degree on the reduction swelling index (RSI) of high-chromium vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite (HCVT) pellets during reduction with H2-CO-CO2 gas mixtures are investigated. The results show that the formation of massive wüstite causes most of the volume expansion of the pellets. The swelling of HCVT pellets is intensified with the temperature and content of CO, and the RSI reaches a maximum at the reduction degree of 35-50%. In H2/CO = 5/2 (volume ratio) with a temperature range from 1223 K to 1373 K, the maximum RSI increases from 14.68% to 22.54%. Nevertheless, when the ratio of H2/CO increases from 2/5 to 5/2 at 1223 K, the maximum RSI of the pellets decreases from 21.25% to 19.55%. Meanwhile, the shrinking rate of the pellets also decreases from 33.20% to 27.26%.

  15. Suppressing the chromium disproportionation reaction in O3-type layered cathode materials for high capacity sodium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ming-Hui; Wang, Yong; Shadike, Zulipiya; Yue, Ji-Li; Hu, Enyuan; Bak, Seong-Min; Zhou, Yong-Ning; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Fu, Zheng-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Chromium-based layered cathode materials suffer from the irreversible disproportionation reaction of Cr4+ to Cr3+ and Cr6+, which hinders the reversible multi-electron redox of Cr ions in layered cathodes, and limits their capacity and reversibility. To address this problem, a novel O3-type layer-structured transition metal oxide of NaCr1/3Fe1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCFM) was designed and studied as a cathode material. A high reversible capacity of 186 mA h g-1 was achieved at a current rate of 0.05C in a voltage range of 1.5 to 4.2 V. X-ray diffraction revealed an O3 → (O3 + P3) → (P3 + O3'') → O3'' phase-transition pathway for NCFM during charge. X-ray absorption, X-ray photoelectron and electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurements revealed the electronic structure changes of NCFM during Na+ deintercalation/intercalation processes. It is confirmed that the disproportionation reaction of Cr4+ to Cr3+ and Cr6+ can be effectively suppressed by Fe3+ and Mn4+ substitution. These results demonstrated that the reversible multi-electron oxidation/reduction of Cr ions can be achieved in NCFM during charge and discharge accompanied by CrO6 octahedral distortion and recovery.

  16. Combined oral supplementation of chromium picolinate, docosahexaenoic acid, and boron enhances neuroprotection in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Cemal; Şahin, Nurhan; Tuzcu, Zeynep; Komorowski, James R.; Şahin, Kazım

    2017-11-13

    Background/aim: A novel complex of a nutritional supplement (CDB) contains chromium picolinate (CrPic), phosphatidylserine (PS), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and boron (B). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of CDB on the metabolic profile and memory acquisition in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Materials and methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups and received either a regular diet or HFD supplemented with or without different levels of CDB (0, 11, or 22 mg/kg BW). Results: Rats fed the HFD had greater glucose, insulin, lipid profile, and serum malondialdehyde concentrations, but lower serotonin and tryptophan in the serum and brain and lower Cr concentrations in serum, kidney, brain, and liver (P < 0.0001). CDB complex supplementation reversed all the effects, and the reversal effect was more pronounced with HFD for some parameters. Latency was less (P < 0.05) but probe was greater (P < 0.0001) for rats fed a regular diet. Increasing CDB complex levels in the diets resulted in a linear decrease in latency (P < 0.0002) but a linear increase in probe (P < 0.0002). Conclusion: Findings of the present work indicate that the CDB complex could be considered as an alternative treatment for preventing certain metabolic diseases and improving neurological functions, such as learning and memory.

  17. Non-isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Mold Fluxes for Casting High-Aluminum Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lejun; Li, Huan; Wang, Wanlin; Wu, Zhaoyang; Yu, Jie; Xie, Senlin

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the crystallization behavior of CaO-SiO2- and CaO-Al2O3-based mold fluxes for casting high-aluminum steels using single hot thermocouple technology, developed kinetic models, and scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the crystallization ability of the typical CaO-SiO2-based Flux A (CaO/SiO2 0.62, Al2O3 2 mass pct) is weaker than that of CaO-Al2O3-based Flux B (CaO/SiO2 4.11, Al2O3 31.9 mass pct) because of its higher initial crystallization temperature. The crystallization kinetics of Flux A was "surface nucleation and growth, interface reaction control" in the overall non-isothermal crystallization process, whereas that of Flux B was "constant nucleation rate, 1-dimensional growth, diffusion control, in the primary crystallization stage, and then transformed into constant nucleation rate, 3-dimensional growth, interface reaction control in the secondary crystallization stage." The energy dispersive spectroscopy results for Flux B suggested that the variations in the crystallization kinetics for Flux B are due to different crystals precipitating in the primary (BaCa2Al8O15) and secondary (CaAl2O4) crystallization periods during the non-isothermal crystallization process.

  18. Non-isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Mold Fluxes for Casting High-Aluminum Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lejun; Li, Huan; Wang, Wanlin; Wu, Zhaoyang; Yu, Jie; Xie, Senlin

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the crystallization behavior of CaO-SiO2- and CaO-Al2O3-based mold fluxes for casting high-aluminum steels using single hot thermocouple technology, developed kinetic models, and scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the crystallization ability of the typical CaO-SiO2-based Flux A (CaO/SiO2 0.62, Al2O3 2 mass pct) is weaker than that of CaO-Al2O3-based Flux B (CaO/SiO2 4.11, Al2O3 31.9 mass pct) because of its higher initial crystallization temperature. The crystallization kinetics of Flux A was "surface nucleation and growth, interface reaction control" in the overall non-isothermal crystallization process, whereas that of Flux B was "constant nucleation rate, 1-dimensional growth, diffusion control, in the primary crystallization stage, and then transformed into constant nucleation rate, 3-dimensional growth, interface reaction control in the secondary crystallization stage." The energy dispersive spectroscopy results for Flux B suggested that the variations in the crystallization kinetics for Flux B are due to different crystals precipitating in the primary (BaCa2Al8O15) and secondary (CaAl2O4) crystallization periods during the non-isothermal crystallization process.

  19. Dense and Cellular Zirconia Produced by Gel Casting with Agar: Preparation and High Temperature Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Tulliani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified gel-casting process was developed to produce both dense and highly porous (40% volume yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP using agar, a natural polysaccharide, as gelling agent. A fugitive phase, made of commercial polyethylene spheres, was added to the ceramic suspension before gelling to produce cellular ceramic structures. The characterization of the microstructural features of both dense and cellular ceramics was carried out by FEG SEM analysis of cross-sections produced by focused ion beam. The mechanical properties of the components were characterized at room temperature by nanoindentation tests in continuous stiffness measurement mode, by investigating the direct effect of the presence of residual microporosity. The presence of a diffuse residual microporosity from incomplete gel deaeration resulted in a decay of the bending strength and of the elastic modulus. The mechanical behavior of both dense and cellular zirconia (in terms of elastic modulus, flexural strength, and deformation at rupture was investigated by performing four-point bending tests at the temperature of 1500°C.

  20. Fabrication and Piezoelectric Property of Highly Textured CaBi2Nb2O9 Ceramics by Tape Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huanbei; Fu, Fang; Zhai, Jiwei

    2011-05-01

    Textured high-Curie-point lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, CaBi2Nb2O9 (CBN), were prepared by the tape casting method. Highly textured ceramics with a single phase and 95% Lotgering factor were obtained by the templated grain growth (TGG) technique. The textured CBN ceramics had a higher piezoelectric constant (d33 = 17.8 pC/N) than their non textured counterparts (d33 = 6.2 pC/N) prepared by a conventional solid-state sintering process. Furthermore, they had excellent thermostable of piezoelectric properties from room temperature to near Curie temperature. This type of textured CBN ceramic that can be prepared using the low-cost and scalable tape casting technique should be a promising candidate for high-temperature piezoelectric applications.

  1. Properties shaping and repair of selected types of cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of twofold use of TIG - Tungsten Inert Gas also known as GTA - Gas Tungsten Arc. First is surfacing by welding on cold and hot-cold to repair chromium cast iron with chromium content about 15%. Second is remelting with electric arc of selected gray (with pearlitic matrix and ductile (with ferritic-pearlitic matrix cast iron. Repair of cast iron elements was realized in order to cut out a casting defects. Defects decrease a usability of castings for constructional application and increase a manufacturing costs. Application of surface heat treatment guarantees mechanical properties i.e. hardness and wear resistance improvement. The result of investigations show possibility of castings repair by put on defects a good quality padding welds, which have comparable properties with base material. Use of electric arc surface heat treatment resulted in increase of hardness and wear resistance, which was measured on the basis of ASTM G 65 - 00 standard.

  2. Contribution to the Identification of Porosity Type in AlSiCu High-Pressure-Die-Castings by Experimental and Virtual Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaszak Z.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the problem of discontinuity in high pressure die castings (HPDC. The compactness of their structure is not perfect, as it is sometimes believed. The discontinuities present in these castings are the porosity as follow: shrinkage and gas (hydrogen and gas-air occlusions origin. The mixed gas and shrinkage nature of porosity makes it difficult to identify and indicate the dominant source. The selected parameters of metallurgical quality of AlSi9Cu3 alloy before and after refining and the gravity castings samples (as DI - density index method, were tested and evaluated. This alloy was served to cast the test casting by HPDC method. The penetrating testing (PT and metallographic study of both kinds of castings were realized. The application of the NF&S simulation system allowed virtually to indicate the porosity zones at risk of a particular type in gravity and high-pressure-die-castings. The comparing of these results with the experiment allowed to conclude about NF&S models validation. The validity of hypotheses concerning the mechanisms of formation and development of porosity in HPDC casting were also analyzed.

  3. Chromium tolerance and reduction potential of Staphylococci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the microbiology of chromium tolerance and reduction at a fly ash dumping site in South Africa, 15 core samples were investigated. It was shown that the 30 year old dumping site exhibited high concentrations of Cr (VI) ranging from 1.6 to 9.6 mg/g. From this contaminated fly ash dumping site, 67 chromium ...

  4. [Effect of fluoride concentration on the corrosion behavior of cobalt-chromium alloy fabricated by two different technology processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiuxia, Yang; Ying, Yang; Han, Xu; Di, Wu; Ke, Guo

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of fluoride concentration on the corrosion behavior of cobalt-chromium alloy fabricated by two different technology processes in a simulated oral environment. A total of 15 specimens were employed with selective laser melting (SLM) and another 15 for traditional casting (Cast) in cobalt-chromium alloy powders and blocks with the same material composition. The corrosion behavior of the specimens was studied by potentiodynamic polarization test under different oral environments with varying solubilities of fluorine (0, 0.05%, and 0.20% for each) in acid artificial saliva (pH = 5.0). The specimens were soaked in fluorine for 24 h, and the surface microstructure was observed under a field emission scanning electron microscope after immersing the specimens in the test solution at constant temperature. The corrosion potential (Ecorr) value of the cobalt-chromium alloy cast decreased with increasing fluoride concentration in acidic artificial saliva. The Ecorr, Icorr, and Rp values of the cobalt-chromium alloy fabricated by two different technology processes changed significantly when the fluoride concentration was 0.20% (P cobalt-chromium alloy fabricated by two different technology processes exhibited a statistically significant difference. The Icorr value of the cobalt-chromium alloy cast was higher than that in the SLM group cobalt-chromium alloy when the fluoride concentration was 0.20% (P cobalt-chromium alloy cast were lower htan those of the SLM group cobalt-chromium alloy when the fluoride concentration was 0.20% (Pcobalt-chromium alloy fabricated by two different technology processes. The corrosion resistance of the cobalt-chromium alloy cast was worse than that of the SLM group cobalt-chromium alloy when the fluoride concentration was 0.20%.

  5. Chromium picolinate and chromium histidinate protects against renal dysfunction by modulation of NF-κB pathway in high-fat diet fed and Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Mustafa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic nephropathy is one of major complications of diabetes mellitus. Although chromium is an essential element for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, its effects on diabetic nephropathy are not well understood. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic and chromium histidinate (CrHis on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2 pathway in the rat kidney. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. Group I received a standard diet (8% fat and served as a control; Group II was fed with a standard diet and received CrPic; Group III was fed with a standard diet and received CrHis; Group IV received a high fat diet (HFD, 40% fat for 2 weeks and then were injected with streptozotocin (STZ (HFD/STZ; Group V was treated as group IV (HFD/STZ but supplemented with CrPic for 12 weeks. Group VI was treated as group IV (HFD/STZ but supplemented with CrHis. Results The increased NF-κβ p65 in the HFD/STZ group was inhibited by CrPic and CrHis supplementation (P P P Conclusion Our result show that in kidney tissue CrHis/CrPic increases Nrf2 level, parallelly decreases NF-κB and partially restores IκBα levels in HFD/STZ group, suggesting that CrPic and CrHis may play a role in antioxidant defense system via the Nrf2 pathway by reducing inflammation through NF-κβ p65 inhibition. Moreover, a greater reduction in NF-κB expression and greater increases in expressions of IκBα and Nrf2 in diabetic rats supplemented with CrHis than rats supplemented with CrPic suggest that CrHis has more favorable effects than CrPic.

  6. Abrasive Wear of Alloyed Cast Steels Applied for Heavy Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studnicki A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the results and analysis of abrasive wear studies were shown for two grades of cast steels: low-alloyed cast steel applied for heavy machinery parts such as housing, covers etc. and chromium cast steels applied for kinetic nodes of pin-sleeve type. Studies were performed using the modified in Department of Foundry pin-on-disc method.

  7. Heavy steel casting components for power plants 'mega-components' made of high Cr-steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanus, Reinhold [voestalpine Giesserei Linz GmbH, Linz (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    Steel castings of creep resistant steels play a key role in fossil fuel fired power plants for highly loaded components in the high and intermediate pressure section of the turbines. Inner and outer casings, valve casings, inlet connections and elbows are examples of such critical components. The most important characteristic in a power plant is the efficiency, which mainly drives the CO2-emission. As a consequence of steadily improving power plant efficiencies and ever stricter emission standards, steam parameters become more critical and the creep resistance of the cast materials must also be constantly improved. The foundries voestalpine Giesserei Linz and voestalpine Giesserei Traisen participated in the development of the new 9-10% Cr-steels for application up to 625 C/650 C and in the THERMIE project where Ni-base alloys for 700 C-power plants were developed. Beside the material development in the European research projects the commercial production had to be established for industrial processes and the newly developed materials have to be transferred from research into the commercial production of heavy cast components. After selecting the most promising alloy from the laboratory melts, welding tests were performed - mostly with matching electrodes also produced within COST/THERMIE. Base material and welds were investigated in respect of microstructure, creep resistance, mechanical properties and weldability. Heat treatment investigations were also necessary for optimization of the mechanical properties. Based on the results of these studies, pilot components and plates for testing welding processes were cast in order to verify the castability and weldability of larger parts and to make any necessary adjustments to chemical composition, heat treatment or welding parameters. Parallel to the ongoing creep tests within COST/THERMIE-program, the newly developed steel grades were introduced into the commercial production of large components. This involved finding

  8. Conventionally cast and forged copper alloy for high-heat-flux thrust chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazaroff, John M.; Repas, George A.

    1987-01-01

    The combustion chamber liner of the space shuttle main engine is made of NARloy-Z, a copper-silver-zirconium alloy. This alloy was produced by vacuum melting and vacuum centrifugal casting; a production method that is currently now available. Using conventional melting, casting, and forging methods, NASA has produced an alloy of the same composition called NASA-Z. This report compares the composition, microstructure, tensile properties, low-cycle fatigue life, and hot-firing life of these two materials. The results show that the materials have similar characteristics.

  9. Development of a New Tool Material for High Pressure Die Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes existing requirements for tool materials. In the light of experience with these supplied materials, we have demonstrated their considerable influence on the life of molds for die casting technology. From this research came the evaluation methodology of these tool materials which has been used for directing the development of a new material. Based on the new regulation of the chemical composition a sample was casted and forged after that. Then was determined the process of heat treatment and from a block of this material a mold insert was produced. This insert is now being tested in production.

  10. Evaluate of Chill Vent Performance for High Pressure Die-Casting Production and Simulation of Motorcycle Fuel Caps

    OpenAIRE

    Meethum Piyanut; Suvanjumrat Chakrit

    2017-01-01

    Inappropriate air vent design always induced porosities in thin and complex shape of high pressure die-casting (HPDC) products. Chill block installation was preferred to improve permanent molds for reducing porosities. There were not regular to obtain an appropriated chill vent from this method unless an experience of mold makers. This research was performed to investigate and evaluate the chill block performance in the HPDC mold of motorcycle fuel caps. The HPDC mold of the thin and complex ...

  11. Successful use of combined high cut-off haemodialysis and bortezomib for acute kidney injury associated with myeloma cast nephropathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, F

    2012-05-01

    We present the case of a 58-year old female with de novo dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to myeloma cast nephropathy. The patient underwent extended high cut-off haemodialysis (HCO-HD), in conjunction with bortezomib-based chemotherapy, and soon became dialysis independent with normal renal function. To our knowledge, this is the first time this treatment strategy has been employed successfully in an Irish centre.

  12. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  13. The present status of development of high chromium steel for FBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakai, T.; Aoto, K. [O-arai Engineering Center, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst. (Japan); Sukekawa, M. [Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan); Date, S. [Takasago Lab., Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Japan); Inoue, K. [The Japan Atomic Power Co. (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Authors perform a series of material tests for some high Cr steels to propose the most suitable high Cr steel specification for FBR pipes. Firstly, thermal expansion and heat conductivity of several high Cr steels are measured to predict optimum Cr content for FBR structural material. Secondly, influence of heat treatment conditions on long term ductility and toughness is studied to obtain the suitable properties for FBR components. Thirdly, focusing on tungsten (W) and molybdenum (Mo) which may form Laves phase, the most optimum balance of these elements is investigated based on long-term material tests and metallurgical examination results. Considering the results of the studies, a provisional specification of high Cr steel for FBR pipes is proposed. (orig.)

  14. Heterogeneous chromium catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a heterogeneous chromium catalyst system for the polymerisation of ethylene and/or alpha olefins prepared by the steps of: (a) providing a silica-containing support, (b) treating the silica-containing support with a chromium compound to form a chromium-based

  15. A Highly Crystalline Wide-Band-Gap Conjugated Polymer toward High-Performance As-Cast Nonfullerene Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haiying; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Lianjie; Zhong, Anxing; Liu, Xuncheng; Pan, Feilong; Cai, Wanzhu; Inganäs, Olle; Liu, Yi; Chen, Junwu; Cao, Yong

    2017-10-18

    A new wide-band-gap conjugated polymer PBODT was successfully synthesized that showed high crystallinity and was utilized as the active material in nonfullerene bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs). The photovoltaic devices based on the as-cast blend films of PBODT with ITIC and IDIC acceptors showed notable power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 7.06% and 9.09%, with high open-circuit voltages of 1.00 and 0.93 V that correspond to low energy losses of 0.59 and 0.69 eV, respectively. In the case of PBODT:ITIC, lower exciton quenching efficiency and monomolecular recombination are found for devices with small driving force. On the other hand, the relatively higher driving force and suppressed monomolecular recombination for PBODT:IDIC devices are identified to be the reason for their higher short-circuit current density (Jsc) and higher PCEs. In addition, when processed with the nonchlorinated solvent 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, a good PCE of 8.19% was still achieved for the IDIC-based device. Our work shows that such wide-band-gap polymers have great potential for the environmentally friendly fabrication of highly efficient PSCs.

  16. Detection of highly toxic elements (lead and chromium) in commercially available eyeliner (kohl) using laser induced break down spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondal, M. A.; Dastageer, M. A.; Al-Adel, F. F.; Naqvi, A. A.; Habibullah, Y. B.

    2015-12-01

    A sensitive laser induced breakdown spectroscopic system was developed and optimized for using it as a sensor for the detection of trace levels of lead and chromium present in the cosmetic eyeliner (kohl) of different price ranges (brands) available in the local market. Kohl is widely used in developing countries for babies as well adults for beautification as well eyes protection. The atomic transition lines at 405.7 nm and 425.4 nm were used as the marker lines for the detection of lead and chromium respectively. The detection system was optimized by finding the appropriate gate delay between the laser excitation and the data acquisition system and also by achieving optically thin plasma near the target by establishing the local thermodynamic equilibrium condition. The detection system was calibrated for these two hazardous elements and the kohl samples under investigation showed 8-15 ppm by mass of lead and 4-9 ppm by mass of Chromium, which are higher than the safe permissible levels of these elements. The limits of detection of the LIBS system for lead and chromium were found to be 1 and 2 ppm respectively.

  17. Chromium regulation of multiple gene expression in rats with high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromium (Cr) supplementation alleviates the metabolic syndrome, glucose intolerance, depression, excess body fat, and type 2 diabetes. However, not all studies have reported beneficial effects of Cr. Molecular evidence is lacking on the effects of Cr. The objective of this study was to investigate ...

  18. COMPARATIVE RESEARCHES OF THE HIGH-STRENGTH CAST IRON MICROSTRUCTURE OF AFTER LASER AND PLASMA PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Gurinovich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative researches of microstructure of highstrength cast iron after laser and plasma processing are carried out. It is shown that the peculiarity of plasma processing is formation of deeper layers with hardness 950010000 MPa. At laser processing the depth of the strengthened layers is less (about 0,5-0,8 mm, and their hardness is higher (to 11000 MPa.

  19. High efficient removal of chromium (VI) using glycine doped polypyrrole adsorbent from aqueous solution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ballav, N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available confirmed by ATR-FTIR and XRD, respectively. Field emission scanning electron microscopic imaging of PPy-gly revealed the formation of nearly spherical agglomerated particles. The adsorption of Cr(VI) onto the PPy-gly adsorbent was highly pH dependent...

  20. Chromium in leather footwear-risk assessment of chromium allergy and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Strandesen, Maria; Poulsen, Pia B

    2012-01-01

    Background. Chromium-tanned leather footwear, which releases >3 ppm hexavalent Cr(VI), may pose a risk of sensitizing and eliciting allergic dermatitis. Objectives. To determine the content and potential release of chromium in leather footwear and to discuss the prevention of chromium contact...... allergy and dermatitis. Methods. Sixty pairs of leather shoes, sandals and boots (20 children's, 20 men's, and 20 women's) were purchased in Copenhagen and examined with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Chromium was extracted according to the International Standard, ISO 17075. The detection level for Cr......(VI) was 3 ppm. Results. Chromium was identified in 95% of leather footwear products, the median content being 1.7% (range 0-3.3%). No association with store category or footwear category was found. A tendency for there to be a higher chromium content in footwear with high prices was shown (p(trend) = 0...

  1. Development of Low-Noise High Value Chromium Silicide Resistors for Cryogenic Detector Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhabvala, Murzy; Babu, Sachi; Monroy, Carlos; Darren, C.; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Extremely high sensitivity detectors, such as silicon bolometers are required in many NASA missions for detection of photons from the x-ray to the far infrared regions. Typically, these detectors are cooled to well below the liquid helium (LHe) temperature (4.2 K) to achieve the maximum detection performance. As photoconductors, they are generally operated with a load resistor and a pre-set bias voltage, which is then coupled to the input gate of a source-follower Field Effect Transistor (FET) circuit. It is imperative that the detector system signal to noise performance be limited by the noise of the detector and not by the noise of the external components. The load resistor value is selected to optimize the detector performance. These two criteria tend to be contradictory in that these detectors require load resistors in the hundreds of megaohms, which leads to a higher Johnson noise. Additionally, the physical size of the resistor must be small for device integration as required by such missions as the NASA High Resolution Airborne Wide-Band Camera (HAWC) instrument and the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera (SHARC) for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We have designed, fabricated and characterized thin film resistors using a CrSi/TiW/Al metal system on optical quality quartz substrates. The resistor values range from 100 megaohms to over 650 megaohms and are Johnson noise limited at LHe temperatures. The resistor film is sputtered with a sheet resistance ranging from 300 ohms to 1600 ohms and the processing sequence developed for these devices allows for chemically fine tuning the sheet resistance in-situ. The wafer fabrication process was of sufficiently high yield (>80%) providing clusters of good resistors for integrated multiple detector channels, a very important feature in the assembly of these two instruments.

  2. Precipitation of TCP. Phases in Ni-base alloys with high chromium content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigrova, G.D. [Central Boiler and Turbine Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    The method of physical-chemical phase analysis has been used to investigate the structure, composition and amount of different phases for several commercial alloyed materials. Phase diagram in the temperature range 750-1100 C for high-temperature Ni-base alloy has been achieved. The main phase reactions during long-time ageing are carbide reaction MC{yields}M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and {sigma}-phase formation. The {sigma}-phase formation mechanism established shows that the process kinetics are also approximated by Johnson-Mell equation as it is in case of {sigma}-phase formation in stainless steels. (orig.)

  3. THE MODERN APPROACH TO THE QUALITY INCREASE OF CASTING BLOCKS AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPOUNDS FOR PROCESSING OF MELTS ON THE BASIS OF ALUMINUIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Zadrutski

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article there is given the group of measures, aimed at increase of quality of cast ingots and of high-performance compounds for processing of melts on the basis of aluminium.

  4. Chromium(II) Metal–Organic Polyhedra as Highly Porous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinhee; Perry, Zachary; Chen, Ying-Pin; Bae, Jaeyeon; Zhou, Hong-Cai (DGIST); (TAM)

    2017-08-10

    Herein we report for the first time the synthesis of Cr(II)-based metal–organic polyhedra (MOPs) and the characterization of their porosities. Unlike the isostructural Cu(II)- or Mo(II)-based MOPs, Cr(II)-based MOPs show unusually high gas uptakes and surface areas. The combination of comparatively robust dichromium paddlewheel units (Cr2 units), cage symmetries, and packing motifs enable these materials to achieve Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface areas of up to 1000 m2/g. Reducing the aggregation of the Cr(II)-based MOPs upon activation makes their pores more accessible than their Cu(II) or Mo(II) counterparts. Further comparisons of surface areas on a molar (m2/mol cage) rather than gravimetric (m2/g) basis is proposed as a rational method of comparing members of a family of related molecular materials.

  5. High carbon ferro-chromium by self-reducing process: Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Pillihuaman Zambrano

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Cr-C production is a very high electrical energy consuming process. When self-reducing agglomerates are used,it is expected to reduce up to 10% of this electrical energy. This paper presents the fundamental aspects of the reactions involved for reduction of chromites from self-reducing agglomerates. Brazilian chromite containing 41.2%Cr2O3 was mixed with petroleum coke and agglomerated with cement as the binder. The concept of “initial slag” was introduced and it was assumed that this “initial slag” is formed by fluxing agents, coke ash, silica, binder and only dissolution of 5% of the gangue from the chromite. This concept is important since the gangue of chromite is composed mainly of refractory oxides (MgO+Al2O3, which are difficult to dissolve into slag. The effects of “initial slag” composition, one with low liquidus temperature(~1700K and other with high liquidus temperature (~1750K were investigated. The mixture was pelletized, dried and submitted to a temperature of 1773K until completion of the reaction. The reaction fraction as a function of time was determined. The results show that pellets containing components with liquid slag phase formed at higher temperature presented significant better reduction behavior than pellet with the liquid slag phase formed at lower temperature. The scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that a liquid phase was formed but the pellet did not collapse and indicated that thecoalescence of the metallic phase depends on the dissolution of the pre-reduced particles of the chromite into slag.

  6. Casting in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decarlo, M; Malone, K; Darmelio, J; Rettig, A

    1994-03-01

    Attempts by sports medicine professionals to return high school athletes with hand and wrist injuries to competition quickly and safely have been the source of confusion and debate on many playing fields around the country. In addition to the differing views regarding the appropriateness of playing cast usage in high school football, a debate exists among sports medicine professionals as to which material is best suited for playing cast construction. Materials used in playing cast construction should be hard enough to provide sufficient stabilization to the injured area and include adequate padding to absorb blunt impact forces. The purpose of the biomechanical portion of this investigation was to attempt to determine the most appropriate materials for use in constructing playing casts for the hand and wrist by assessing different materials for: 1) hardness using a Shore durometer, and 2) ability to absorb impact using a force platform. Results revealed that RTV11 and Scotchcast were the "least hard" of the underlying casting materials and that Temper Stick foam greatly increased the ability of RTV11 to absorb impact. Assessment of the mechanical properties of playing cast materials and review of current developments in high school football rules are used to aid practitioners in choosing the most appropriate materials for playing cast construction.

  7. Surface-Casting Synthesis of Mesoporous Zirconia with a CMK-5-Like Structure and High Surface Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dong; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Pichler, Christian M; Bongard, Hans-Josef; Spliethoff, Bernd; Asahina, Shunsuke; Cao, Zhengwen; Terasaki, Osamu; Schüth, Ferdi

    2017-09-04

    About 15 years ago, the Ryoo group described the synthesis of CMK-5, a material consisting of a hexagonal arrangement of carbon nanotubes. Extension of the surface casting synthesis to oxide compositions, however, was not possible so far, in spite of many attempts. Here it is demonstrated, that crystalline mesoporous hollow zirconia materials with very high surface areas up to 400 m2  g-1 , and in selected cases in the form of CMK-5-like, are indeed accessible via such a surface casting process. The key for the successful synthesis is an increased interaction between the silica hard template surface and the zirconia precursor species by using silanol group-rich mesoporous silica as a hard template. The surface areas of the obtained zirconias exceed those of conventionally hard-templated ones by a factor of two to three. The surface casting process seems to be applicable also to other oxide materials. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Predicting Stress vs. Strain Behaviors of Thin-Walled High Pressure Die Cast Magnesium Alloy with Actual Pore Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoo Sil; Barker, Erin; Cheng, Guang; Sun, Xin; Forsmark, Joy; Li, Mei

    2016-01-06

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) microstructure-based finite element modeling method (i.e., extrinsic modeling method) is developed, which can be used in examining the effects of porosity on the ductility/fracture of Mg castings. For this purpose, AM60 Mg tensile samples were generated under high-pressure die-casting in a specially-designed mold. Before the tensile test, the samples were CT-scanned to obtain the pore distributions within the samples. 3D microstructure-based finite element models were then developed based on the obtained actual pore distributions of the gauge area. The input properties for the matrix material were determined by fitting the simulation result to the experimental result of a selected sample, and then used for all the other samples’ simulation. The results show that the ductility and fracture locations predicted from simulations agree well with the experimental results. This indicates that the developed 3D extrinsic modeling method may be used to examine the influence of various aspects of pore sizes/distributions as well as intrinsic properties (i.e., matrix properties) on the ductility/fracture of Mg castings.

  9. Chromium speciation and mobility in a high level nuclear waste vadose zone plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachara, John M.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Brown, Gordon E.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.; McKinley, James P.; Qafoku, Odeta; Smith, Steven C.; Szecsody, James E.; Traina, Sam J.; Warner, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive core samples containing elevated concentrations of Cr from a high level nuclear waste plume in the Hanford vadose zone were studied to asses the future mobility of Cr. Cr(VI) is an important subsurface contaminant at the Hanford Site. The plume originated in 1969 by leakage of self-boiling supernate from a tank containing REDOX process waste. The supernate contained high concentrations of alkali (NaOH ≈ 5.25 mol/L), salt (NaNO 3/NaNO 2 >10 mol/L), aluminate [Al(OH) 4- = 3.36 mol/L], Cr(VI) (0.413 mol/L), and 137Cs + (6.51 × 10 -5 mol/L). Water and acid extraction of the oxidized subsurface sediments indicated that a significant portion of the total Cr was associated with the solid phase. Mineralogic analyses, Cr valence speciation measurements by X-ray adsorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and small column leaching studies were performed to identify the chemical retardation mechanism and leachability of Cr. While X-ray diffraction detected little mineralogic change to the sediments from waste reaction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that mineral particles within 5 m of the point of tank failure were coated with secondary, sodium aluminosilicate precipitates. The density of these precipitates decreased with distance from the source (e.g., beyond 10 m). The XANES and column studies demonstrated the reduction of 29-75% of the total Cr to insoluble Cr(III), and the apparent precipitation of up to 43% of the Cr(VI) as an unidentified, non-leachable phase. Both Cr(VI) reduction and Cr(VI) precipitation were greater in sediments closer to the leak source where significant mineral alteration was noted by SEM. These and other observations imply that basic mineral hydrolysis driven by large concentrations of OH - in the waste stream liberated Fe(II) from the otherwise oxidizing sediments that served as a reductant for CrO 42-. The coarse-textured Hanford sediments contain silt-sized mineral phases (biotite, clinochlore, magnetite, and

  10. Microstructure Formation in AlSi4MgMn and AlMg5Si2Mn High-Pressure Die Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otarawanna, S.; Gourlay, C. M.; Laukli, H. I.; Dahle, A. K.

    2009-07-01

    Understanding microstructure formation during high-pressure die casting (HPDC) is important for the effective quality control of high-pressure diecast aluminum-alloy components for high-integrity applications. In this study, two HPDC-specific aluminum alloys, AlSi4MgMn and AlMg5Si2Mn, were cast into tensile test bars by cold-chamber (CC) HPDC. The microstructures of the tensile bar specimens were characterized at different length scales, from the scale of the casting to the scale of the eutectic interlamellar spacing. The results show that the salient as-cast microstructural features, e.g., externally solidified crystals (ESCs), defect bands, the surface layer, grain size distribution, porosity, and hot tears were similar for both alloys. The formation of these features can be understood by considering the influence of flow and solidification during each stage of the HPDC process.

  11. Sigma-phase formation in high chromium ferritic steels at 650 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niewolak, L., E-mail: l.niewolak@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, IEF-2, 52428 Jülich (Germany); Garcia-Fresnillo, L.; Meier, G.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Quadakkers, W.J. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, IEF-2, 52428 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-07-25

    Highlights: • Formation of σ-FeCr phase at 650 °C in alloys Fe–30%Cr–2%(Mn,Mo,W) was investigated. • Formation of σ-FeCr phase was accelerated by interdiffusion with Ni-coating. • Mechanism of heterogeneous nucleation of σ-FeCr at BCC/FCC interface was discussed. • Mechanisms of homogenous and heterogeneous nucleation were discussed. • Improvement of isothermal section of Fe–Cr–Ni phase diagram at 650 °C was proposed. - Abstract: A binary Fe–30 wt.%Cr alloy and corresponding ternary alloys containing manganese, molybdenum or tungsten were studied with respect to σ-phase formation at 650 °C. Although even after 3000 h exposure complete equilibration was not attained, the presence of tungsten and especially molybdenum was found to promote σ-phase formation. More extensive σ-phase formation was observed in the tungsten and especially in the molybdenum-containing alloys than in the binary and manganese-containing alloy. Apparently the bulk free energy decrease driving the nucleation of σ-phase is substantially larger when tungsten or molybdenum are present in the alloy. The presence of a nickel layer, to simulate the contact between ferritic steel interconnects and nickel mesh in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) results in the formation of an austenitic zone and in accelerated formation of a σ-phase rich layer at the ferrite/austenite interface, due to interdiffusion processes. This interface acts as a highly efficient heterogeneity for the nucleation of σ-phase. The nucleation is enhanced by an increased Cr/Fe-ratio at that interface. Several possible modes for the growth of the σ layer were identified but the available experimental data were not sufficient to distinguish among these. The σ-rich layer, which appears to act as an interdiffusion barrier, is thicker in the case of the binary Fe–Cr and the Fe–Cr–Mn alloy than for the molybdenum- or tungsten-rich alloys. The results show that the stability range of σ-phase is larger

  12. Nitride precipitation during high temperature corrosion of ductile cast irons in synthetic exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholence, F.; Norell, M.

    2005-02-01

    Internal nitrides form in two ductile cast irons (SiMo and Ni-Resist) intended for exhaust systems in vehicles. Samples oxidised at 650 1050 °C for 50 h in modified synthetic exhaust gases were analysed by using AES and FEG-SEM. No nitrides formed in absence of NOx. In dry petrol gas coarse nitrides (Ni-Resist in both dry and normal petrol whereas no nitrides were observed in Ni-Resist exposed to diesel gases.

  13. Supercritical CO2 Assisted Synthesis of EDTA-Fe3O4 Nanocomposite with High Adsorption Capacity for Hexavalent Chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Bisht

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of EDTA functionalized nanoparticles in adsorption of chromium (VI from water was investigated in this study. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs were synthesized by a simple chemical coprecipitation route and EDTA coating onto IONPs was attained via supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc CO2, a technology with green sustainable properties. The obtained nanoparticles were then characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and vibrating magnetometric analysis (VSM. The synthesized nanoparticle and its modified variant were evaluated as adsorbent for chromium (VI removal from water through batch adsorption technique and the effect of analytic concentration; contact time and adsorbent concentration were studied at pH 2. The results showed higher removal efficiency for modified magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONPs (i.e., 99.9% than their nonmodified variant IONPs, that is, 34.06% for the same concentration after 18 hours of incubation. Also maximum adsorption capacity (qe = 452.26 mg/g of MIONPs attained can be related to their preparation in Sc CO2 as qe calculated from IONPs, that is, 170.33 mg/g, is lower than that of MIONPs. The adsorption data fit well with Freundlich isotherm equation while kinetic adsorption studies of chromium (VI were modeled by pseudo-second-order model.

  14. Study on interfacial heat transfer coefficient at metal/die interface during high pressure die casting process of AZ91D alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Zhi-peng

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The high pressure die casting (HPDC process is one of the fastest growing and most efficient methods for the production of complex shape castings of magnesium and aluminum alloys in today’s manufacturing industry.In this study, a high pressure die casting experiment using AZ91D magnesium alloy was conducted, and the temperature profiles inside the die were Measured. By using a computer program based on solving the inverse heat problem, the metal/die interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC was calculated and studied. The results show that the IHTC between the metal and die increases right after the liquid metal is brought into the cavity by the plunger,and decreases as the solidification process of the liquid metal proceeds until the liquid metal is completely solidified,when the IHTC tends to be stable. The interfacial heat transfer coefficient shows different characteristics under different casting wall thicknesses and varies with the change of solidification behavior.

  15. Effects of shot peening on fatigue behavior in high speed steel and cast iron with spheroidal vanadium carbides dispersed within martensitic-matrix microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, Y., E-mail: yuematsu@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Kakiuchi, T.; Tokaji, K. [Department of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Nishigaki, K. [Okamoto Co. Ltd., 5 Nawate-cho, Gifu 500-8743 (Japan); Ogasawara, M. [MEIRA Co. Ltd., 17-15 Tsubaki-cho, Nakamura-ku, Nagoya City, Aichi 453-0015 (Japan)

    2013-01-20

    Four-point bending fatigue tests had been performed using high speed steel and cast iron with vanadium carbides (VCs) dispersed within the martensitic-matrix microstructure. Shot peening or shot blast was applied to both the materials and the effect of surface treatments on fatigue behavior was investigated. The fatigue strengths of the high speed steel were improved by both shot peening and shot blast processes due to the high hardness near the specimen surface and residual compressive stress. Although the hardness of cast iron was enhanced by both treatments, the fatigue strengths were not improved by the shot blast because of the existence of large casting defects. Shot peening with higher shot energy could induce the transition of crack initiation mechanism of cast iron, where crack initiated from the cluster of VCs. However the shot peening had small effect on the fatigue strengths of the cast iron because large casting defects were not removed by the shot peening due to the high hardness of the martensitic matrix.

  16. Evaluation of marginal gap of Ni-Cr copings made with conventional and accelerated casting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Pavan Kumar Tannamala; Nagarasampatti Sivaprakasam Azhagarasan; K Chitra Shankar

    2013-01-01

    Context: Conventional casting techniques following the manufacturers′ recommendations are time consuming. Accelerated casting techniques have been reported, but their accuracy with base metal alloys has not been adequately studied. Aim: We measured the vertical marginal gap of nickel-chromium copings made by conventional and accelerated casting techniques and determined the clinical acceptability of the cast copings in this study. Settings and Design: Experimental design, in vitro stu...

  17. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  18. Resistance to High-Temperature Oxidation and Wear of Various Ferrous Alloys Used in Rolling Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaunois, Fabienne; Stanciu, Victor Ioan; Sinnaeve, Mario

    2018-01-01

    Various materials are commonly used to manufacture work rolls for hot rolling mills, such as ICDP (Indefinite Chill Double Pour) cast irons, high-chromium white cast irons, and high speed steels (HSS). Various chemical compositions and microstructures are studied in order to optimize the in-use behavior of those grades of rolls. In this paper, six grades of ferrous alloys (an ICDP cast iron; an ICDP cast iron enriched in vanadium, niobium, and molybdenum; a HSS; a graphitic HSS; a high-chromium white cast iron (Hi-Cr); and a niobium-molybdenum-doped high-chromium white cast iron) were investigated. High-temperature oxidation tests with gravimetric means at 575 °C in water vapor atmosphere and sliding wear tests were carried out. The oxidation kinetics was followed during oxidation test. The microstructure was observed by optical and scanning electron microscopies. The oxides formed on the surface of the samples were analyzed by XRD and EDS. The thickness of the oxide scales and the mass gain were measured after oxidation test. The results showed that the behavior of all the grades differed. The oxide scale of HSS and HSS-G grades was fine and their friction coefficient was low. The weight gain after oxidation test of HSS was high. Hi-Cr and M-Hi-Cr grades presented highly porous oxide layer and an important increase of the friction coefficient during wear test. ICDP and M-ICDP had intermediate behavior.

  19. The Effect of Cooling Rate on the Microstructure of High Pressure Die Casting Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Ian R.

    The current research project explored the effect that heat extraction has on the micro-constituents of the A380 and Silafont 36 high pressure die casting (HPDC) alloys. Phase evolution and distribution, SDAS measurements, and the alpha and beta iron-bearing phases were all examined as a function of heat extraction. Literature was found to be limited on the quantification of the micro-constituents of these two alloys as a function of cooling rate. Different cooling rate apparatuses were used to manipulate the alloys via heat extraction. Magma simulations of the mold were run and Pandat thermodynamic calculations determined the solidus and liquidus of the alloys based on composition. Statistical testing was done on the SDAS measurements. The A380 alpha and beta phase were measured along with the SDAS to create quantitative correlation. Beginning with the A380 microstructure, the FCC-Al, beta/alpha phase, and the Al-Cu phases appeared in the slow and fast cooled sample confirmed by visual and EDS analysis. Cooling rate has the ability to refine microstructure and distribute phases more effectively at higher heat extraction rates but heat extraction rates cannot eliminate the type of phases formed and their specific morphology within the A380 alloy seen at lower cooling rates. The reason is due to the similar phases in fast and slow cooled samples. Higher heat extraction rates can however form unpredicted phase with chemical compositions not usually seen. The reason is due to unique phases with Cu/Zn/Mg found in the A380. The beta phase composition contains Al-Si-Fe and the alpha phase composition contained Al-Si-Fe-Mn. Manganese was also seen to substitute for the Fe to create the Mn-alpha phase with the A380 alloy. The Al-Cu phase appears to have used the iron-bearing phases as nucleation spot thus confirming its phase order to be after that of the FCC, Al-Si eutectic, and iron bearing phases. All confirmed by EDS and visual analysis. The Al-FCC, Alpha-Mn, Al

  20. Resistance to Abrasive Wear and Volume Fraction of Carbides in Cast High-manganese Austenitic Steel with Composite Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tęcza G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cast Hadfield steel is characterised by high abrasion resistance, provided, however, that it is exposed to the effect of dynamic loads. During abrasion without loading, e.g. under the impact of loose sand jet, its wear resistance drops very drastically. To increase the abrasion resistance of this alloy under the conditions where no pressure is acting, primary vanadium carbides are formed in the metallurgical process, to obtain a composite structure after the melt solidification. The primary, very hard, carbides uniformly distributed in the austenitic matrix are reported to double the wear resistance of samples subjected to the effect of a silicon carbide-water mixture.

  1. A facile and simple high-performance polydimethylsiloxane casting based on self-polymerization dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Zhang, Lu-lu; Sun, Jian-hai; Li, Hui; Cui, Da-fu

    2014-09-01

    We present a new and facile method for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) casting by dip-coating the master molds in an aqueous solution of dopamine. A poly(dopamine) film formed by self-polymerization of dopamine is used as the surface anti-adhesion coating for PDMS de-molding. Different master molds, such as metal, silicon and PDMS replica, were used to verify the feasibility of this proposed PDMS casting method. The poly(dopamine) coatings at various fabrication conditions were studied by using surface plasmon resonance technology. We found that it is very easy to form repeated poly(dopamine) coatings with similar thicknesses and density at fairly flexible conditions of self-polymerization. The water contact angles of the PDMS master molds and the positive PDMS replicas were studied after the PDMS master molds were immersed in the dopamine coating solution for different times. The de-molding process was then measured by surface plasmon resonance technology. The surface morphology of the master molds and the PDMS replicas were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Results demonstrate that the poly(dopamine) coating exhibits a strong release property in the PDMS de-molding process and has good stickiness after PDMS de-molding a dozen times. The package performances of the PDMS replicas were detected and compared by bonding experiments. PDMS replicas after a second round of de-molding present a little higher package performance than that of the PDMS replicas with an anti-sticking agent of silane. The biochemical properties of PDMS replicas were studied through fluorescence immunoassay experiments. The PDMS replicas present similar biochemical properties to the bare PDMS. This biomimetic surface modification method of dopamine for PDMS casting has a great potential for preparing microdevices for various biological and clinical applications.

  2. MOLDS FOR CASTING PLUTONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.W.; Miley, F.; Pritchard, W.C.

    1962-02-27

    A coated mold for casting plutonium comprises a mold base portion of a material which remains solid and stable at temperatures as high as the pouring temperature of the metal to be cast and having a thin coating of the order of 0.005 inch thick on the interior thereof. The coating is composed of finely divided calcium fluoride having a particle size of about 149 microns. (AEC)

  3. Graphitized Cast Irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silman, G. I.; Makarenko, K. V.

    2014-05-01

    An analytical review of data on general-purpose grayed cast iron with different forms of graphite (lamellar, vermicular, globular, flaked) is presented. Grades of cast iron, their compositions, special features of structure of the graphite, and properties of gray, high-strength and malleable irons are described. The data on the kinds of iron considered are compared with those stipulated in international and some national standards.

  4. Effect of alloying elements on the composition of carbide phases and mechanical properties of the matrix of high-carbon chromium-vanadium steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V. I.; Tarasenko, L. V.; Utkina, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the results of phase physicochemical analysis of high-carbon chromium-vanadium steel, the predominant type of carbide that provides high wear resistance has been established, and its amount and amount of carbon in martensite have been determined. Data on the composition and the amount of carbide phase and on the chemical composition of the martensite of high-carbon steel have been obtained, which allows determination of the alloying-element concentration limits. The mechanical testing of heats of a chosen chemical composition has been carried out after quenching and low-temperature tempering. The tests have demonstrated benefits of new steel in wear resistance and bending strength with the fatigue strength being retained, compared to steels subjected to cementation. The mechanism of secondary strengthening of the steel upon high-temperature tempering has been revealed. High-temperature tempering can be applied to articles that are required to possess both high wear resistance and heat resistance.

  5. Cast iron - a predictable material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg C. Sturm

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available High strength compacted graphite iron (CGI or alloyed cast iron components are substituting previously used non-ferrous castings in automotive power train applications. The mechanical engineering industry has recognized the value in substituting forged or welded structures with stiff and light-weight cast iron castings. New products such as wind turbines have opened new markets for an entire suite of highly reliable ductile iron cast components. During the last 20 years, casting process simulation has developed from predicting hot spots and solidification to an integral assessment tool for foundries for the entire manufacturing route of castings. The support of the feeding related layout of the casting is still one of the most important duties for casting process simulation. Depending on the alloy poured, different feeding behaviors and self-feeding capabilities need to be considered to provide a defect free casting. Therefore, it is not enough to base the prediction of shrinkage defects solely on hot spots derived from temperature fields. To be able to quantitatively predict these defects, solidification simulation had to be combined with density and mass transport calculations, in order to evaluate the impact of the solidification morphology on the feeding behavior as well as to consider alloy dependent feeding ranges. For cast iron foundries, the use of casting process simulation has become an important instrument to predict the robustness and reliability of their processes, especially since the influence of alloying elements, melting practice and metallurgy need to be considered to quantify the special shrinkage and solidification behavior of cast iron. This allows the prediction of local structures, phases and ultimately the local mechanical properties of cast irons, to asses casting quality in the foundry but also to make use of this quantitative information during design of the casting. Casting quality issues related to thermally driven

  6. Application of laser additive manufacturing to produce dies for aluminium high pressure die casting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFVT

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available . Washout damages are a direct result of the flow of the aluminium melt impinging on and rubbing against the die cavity surfaces. Corrosion is attributed to friction wear caused when the melt solidifies around core surfaces and when the casting is ejected... Process Time (h) Process Time (h) Process Time (h) Process Time (h) Milling 2.5 Laser sinter 10.5 Laser weld 2.5 Laser weld 12 Grinding 1 Grinding 1 Grinding 4 Grinding 1 Jig bore Jig bore Jig bore Jig bore Heat Treatment 4...

  7. Molecular determinants of caste differentiation in the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões Zilá LP

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In honeybees, differential feeding of female larvae promotes the occurrence of two different phenotypes, a queen and a worker, from identical genotypes, through incremental alterations, which affect general growth, and character state alterations that result in the presence or absence of specific structures. Although previous studies revealed a link between incremental alterations and differential expression of physiometabolic genes, the molecular changes accompanying character state alterations remain unknown. Results By using cDNA microarray analyses of >6,000 Apis mellifera ESTs, we found 240 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between developing queens and workers. Many genes recorded as up-regulated in prospective workers appear to be unique to A. mellifera, suggesting that the workers' developmental pathway involves the participation of novel genes. Workers up-regulate more developmental genes than queens, whereas queens up-regulate a greater proportion of physiometabolic genes, including genes coding for metabolic enzymes and genes whose products are known to regulate the rate of mass-transforming processes and the general growth of the organism (e.g., tor. Many DEGs are likely to be involved in processes favoring the development of caste-biased structures, like brain, legs and ovaries, as well as genes that code for cytoskeleton constituents. Treatment of developing worker larvae with juvenile hormone (JH revealed 52 JH responsive genes, specifically during the critical period of caste development. Using Gibbs sampling and Expectation Maximization algorithms, we discovered eight overrepresented cis-elements from four gene groups. Graph theory and complex networks concepts were adopted to attain powerful graphical representations of the interrelation between cis-elements and genes and objectively quantify the degree of relationship between these entities. Conclusion We suggest that clusters of functionally related

  8. Inter-Batch Variation and the Effect of Casting Vacuum on Ballistic and Mechanical Properties of a High Performing Cast Composite Rocket Propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Tensile testing of propellant in the form of ‘ dog bones’ or uniaxial tensile test pieces cut from cast slabs of propellant was performed to assess inter... dog bones were cut from the top of the mould. It is possible that the strands for both partial and full vacuum had a slightly higher solids content... Behaviour of AP/HTPB Propellant Using Coarse and Fine AP Particles. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics, 2011. 36: p. 57-64. 9. Smith, P.C

  9. APPLICATION OF LASER ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TO PRODUCE DIES FOR ALUMINIUM HIGH PRESSURE DIE-CASTING#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.V.T. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A number of laser additive manufacturing (LAM technologies can produce fully-dense metal components that potentially offer opportunities to apply the technology in die or mould making (known as rapid tooling. From these LAM technologies, three were selected for evaluation of their suitability as die cavity inserts in the manufacture of high pressure die-casting (HPDC dies. Apart from comparing the different LAM inserts with one another, their performance was also compared with components manufactured in a standard hot work steel. In the HPDC process, the die is unique to each component to be produced. Die cavities in particular are subjected to demanding conditions, such as cyclic heating caused by the introduction of molten aluminium at over 650°C, followed by cooling in water-based die release medium at temperatures around 25°C. Besides cyclic heating, the die cavities are also exposed to pressures exceeding 1500 MPa during the injection of molten aluminium into the cavities. This application of LAM, therefore, poses extreme challenges to the technology. The results of this study confirmed that the metals used in some of the LAM technologies did indeed meet the demanding requirements of the current application, and can lead to significant time- and cost-saving during product or process developments. Based on these findings, a number of recommendations are made for users interested in the application of LAM to produce die cavities.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ’n Aantal laser laagvervaardigingstegnologieë (LLV tegnolgieë is in staat om volledig digte metaalkomponente te lewer, wat tot gevolg het dat hierdie tegnologie potensieel vir vormingsmatrys- of gietmatrysvervaardiging gebruik kan word (bekend as snelgereedskap. Drie van hierdie LLV tegnologieë is gekies vir evaluasie van hulle geskiktheid as gietvorminsetsels tydens die vervaardiging van gietmatryse vir hoë druk matrysgiet (HDMG. Benewens die onderlinge

  10. HFIR Fuel Casting Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, Seth D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gibbs, Paul Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Solis, Eunice Martinez [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Process exploration for fuel production for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) using cast LEU-10wt.%Mo as an initial processing step has just begun. This project represents the first trials concerned with casting design and quality. The studies carried out over the course of this year and information contained in this report address the initial mold development to be used as a starting point for future operations. In broad terms, the final billet design is that of a solid rolling blank with an irregular octagonal cross section. The work covered here is a comprehensive view of the initial attempts to produce a sound casting. This report covers the efforts to simulate, predict, cast, inspect, and revise the initial mold design.

  11. Compound-specific hydrogen isotope analysis of heteroatom-bearing compounds via gas chromatography-chromium-based high-temperature conversion (Cr/HTC)-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renpenning, Julian; Kümmel, Steffen; Hitzfeld, Kristina L; Schimmelmann, Arndt; Gehre, Matthias

    2015-09-15

    The traditional high-temperature conversion (HTC) approach toward compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) of hydrogen for heteroatom-bearing (i.e., N, Cl, S) compounds has been afflicted by fractionation bias due to formation of byproducts HCN, HCl, and H2S. This study presents a chromium-based high-temperature conversion (Cr/HTC) approach for organic compounds containing nitrogen, chlorine, and sulfur. Following peak separation along a gas chromatographic (GC) column, the use of thermally stable ceramic Cr/HTC reactors at 1100-1500 °C and chemical sequestration of N, Cl, and S by chromium result in quantitative conversion of compound-specific organic hydrogen to H2 analyte gas. The overall hydrogen isotope analysis via GC-Cr/HTC-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) achieved a precision of better than ± 5 mUr along the VSMOW-SLAP scale. The accuracy of GC-Cr/HTC-IRMS was validated with organic reference materials (RM) in comparison with online EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS and offline dual-inlet IRMS. The utility and reliability of the GC-Cr/HTC-IRMS system were documented during the routine measurement of more than 500 heteroatom-bearing organic samples spanning a δ(2)H range of -181 mUr to 629 mUr.

  12. Castings Airworthiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    coulec ci de meitre en cause i continuation de lutilisation d’un facteur de fonderie . a-i sssiiin fiiiale at Servi I e fiirum pour lcs tettants des...PAR LA REGLEMENTATION FRANCAISE POUR LES PIECES DE FONDERIE UTILISEES DANS LES AVIONS MILITAIRES par M.Robert 2 CASTING AIRWORTHINESS: JOINT EIROPEAN...FROM THEORY TO PRACTICAL APPLICATION by R.Genoux 5 EVALUATION OF TITANIUM CASTINGS FOR AEROSPACE COMPONENTS by G.Arsento 6 LE FACTEUR DE FONDERIE EN

  13. Hair casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta S Parmar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions,which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  14. APPLICATION OF MODIFYING ALLOYING ALLOY CONTAINING NANOSIZED POWDERS OF ACTIVE ELEMENTS IN PRODUCTION OF HIGH-STRENGTH CAST IRON WITH GLOBULAR GRAPHITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and practical interest is the application of alloying alloy-modifiers for secondary treatment of high-strength cast iron to stabilize the process of spheroidization graphite and achieving higher physical-mechanical properties of castings. The peculiarity of the high-strength cast irons manufacturing technology is their tendency to supercooling during solidification in the mold. This leads to the formation of shrinkage defects and structurally free cementite, especially in thin-walled sections of the finished castings. To minimize these effects in foundry practice during production of ductile iron the secondary inoculation is widely used. In this regard, the question of the choice of the additives with effective impact not only on the graphitization process but also on the formation of the metallic base of ductile iron is relevant. The aim of the present work is to study the peculiarities of structure formation in cast iron with nodular graphite when alloying alloy-modifier based on tin with additions of nanoparticles of titanium carbide, yttrium oxide and graphite nano-pipes is used for secondary treatment. Melting of iron in laboratory conditions was performed in crucible induction furnace IST-006 with an acid lining held. Spheroidizing treatment of melt was realized with magnesium containing alloying alloy FeSiMg7 by means of ladle method. Secondary treatment of high strength cast iron was carried out by addition of alloying alloy-modifier in an amount of 0.1% to the bottom of the pouring ladle. Cast samples for chemical composition analysis, study of microstructure, technological and mechanical properties of the resultant alloy were made. Studies have shown that the secondary treatment of high strength cast iron with developed modifier-alloying alloy results in formation of the perlite metallic base due to the tin impact and nodular graphite with regular shape under the influence of titanium carbide, yttrium oxide and graphite nano

  15. Aluminium castings with high particle volume fraction by reactive infiltration; Hanno yoshin ni yoru kotaisekiritsu no ryushi fukugo aluminium imono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujikawa, M.; Ayukawa, S.; Kawamoto, M. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hino, M. [Okayama Prefectural Industrial Technology Center, Okayama (Japan)

    1998-03-25

    Study was made on reactive infiltration for improving a wear resistance by forming a high-density Al2O3 layer on Al alloy surface. Heating of a mixture of SiO2 and Al over activation energy produces Al2O3 and Si by thermit type exothermic reaction. In experiment, a proper mixture of Al powder of 10{mu}m in mean size and 99.9% in purity, and amorphous SiO2 particles of 150{mu}m in mean size was used together with zinc stearate of 2mass%. A green compact of 10mm diameter and 12mm high was prepared by compressing the above mixed powder, and placed at a position in a mold corresponding to concerned casting surface. Molten Al-12%Si alloy was poured into the mold at a proper temperature after preheating, and held in a furnace at a fixed temperature before air cooling. Al casting with Al2O3 particles of net 44vol% in its surface layer was thus obtained by using the compact of 70vol%SiO2 particles. Compressed thermit powder of 50vol%SiO2 could reduce a porosity to 6.2% under the atmospheric pressure. The dispersion tendency of fine Al2O3 particles was observed by holding molten alloy. 8 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilkening, D. [Columbia Falls Aluminum Co., Columbia Falls, MT (United States); Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B. [AFFCO, L.L.C., Anaconda, MT (United States)

    1998-11-01

    The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast.

  17. Development of a High Chromium Ni-Base Filler Metal Resistant to Ductility Dip Cracking and Solidification Cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Adam T.

    Many nuclear reactor components previously constructed with Ni-based alloys containing 20 wt% Cr have been found to be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. The nuclear power industry now uses high chromium (˜30wt%) Ni-based filler metals to mitigate stress corrosion cracking. Current alloys are plagued with weldability issues, either solidification cracking or ductility dip cracking (DDC). Solidification cracking is related to solidification temperature range and the DDC is related to the fraction eutectic present in the microstructure. It was determined that an optimal alloy should have a solidification temperature range less than 150°C and at least 2% volume fraction eutectic. Due to the nature of the Nb rich eutectic that forms, it is difficult to avoid both cracking types simultaneously. Through computational modeling, alternative eutectic forming elements, Hf and Ta, have been identified as replacements for Nb in such alloys. Compositions have been optimized through a combination of computational and experimental techniques combined with a design of experiment methodology. Small buttons were melted using commercially pure materials in a copper hearth to obtain the desired compositions. These buttons were then subjected to a gas tungsten arc spot weld. A type C thermocouple was used to acquire the cooling history during the solidification process. The cooling curves were processed using Single Sensor Differential Thermal Analysis to determine the solidification temperature range, and indicator of solidification cracking susceptibility. Metallography was performed to determine the fraction eutectic present, an indicator of DDC resistance. The optimal level of Hf to resist cracking was found to be 0.25 wt%. The optimal level of Ta was found to be 4 wt%. gamma/MC type eutectics were found to form first in all Nb, Ta, and Hf-bearing compositions. Depending on Fe and Cr content, gamma/Laves eutectic was sometimes found in Nb and Ta-bearing compositions, while

  18. High-Strength Aluminum Casting Alloy for High-Temperature Applications (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Final Project No. 97-10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    A new aluminum-silicon alloy has been successfully developed at Marshall Space Flight Center that has a significant improvement in tensile strength at elevated temperatures (550 to 700 F). For instance, the new alloy shows in average tensile strength of at least 90 percent higher than the current 390 aluminum piston alloy tested at 500 F. Compared to conventional aluminum alloys, automotive engines using the new piston alloy will have improved gas mileage, and may produce less air pollution in order to meet the future U.S. automotive legislative requirements for low hydrocarbon emissions. The projected cost for this alloy is less than $0.95/lb, and it readily allows the automotive components to be cast at a high production volume with a low, fully accounted cost. It is economically produced by pouring molten metal directly into conventional permanent steel molds or die casting.

  19. Optimization of on-line hydrogen stable isotope ratio measurements of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organic compounds using elemental analyzer–chromium/high-temperature conversion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Geilmann, Heike; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Kümmel, Steffen; Ivdra, Natalija; Brand, Willi A.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Accurate hydrogen isotopic analysis of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organics has not been possible with traditional high-temperature conversion (HTC) because the formation of hydrogen-bearing reaction products other than molecular hydrogen (H2) is responsible for non-quantitative H2 yields and possible hydrogen isotopic fractionation. Our previously introduced, new chromium-based EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS (Elemental Analyzer–Chromium/High-Temperature Conversion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) technique focused primarily on nitrogen-bearing compounds. Several technical and analytical issues concerning halogen- and sulfur-bearing samples, however, remained unresolved and required further refinement of the reactor systems.

  20. Development of Advanced High Strength Cast Alloys for Heavy Duty Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, James [Caterpillar Inc., Mossville, IL (United States)

    2017-06-13

    Gray iron has been the primary alloy for heavy duty diesel engine core castings for decades. During recent decades the limitations of gray iron have been reached in some applications, leading to the use of compacted graphite iron in engine blocks and heads. Caterpillar has had compacted graphite designs in continuous production since the late 1980’s. Due to the drive for higher power density, decreased emissions and increased fuel economy, cylinder pressures and temperatures continue to increase. Currently no viable replacement for today’s compacted graphite irons exist at an acceptable cost level. This project explored methods to develop the next generation of heavy duty diesel engine materials as well as demonstrated some results on new alloy designs although cost targets will likely not be met.

  1. High cycle fatigue of weld repaired cast Ti-6AI-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. B.; Hodi, F. S.; Eagar, T. W.

    1982-09-01

    In order to determine the effects of weld repair on fatigue life of titanium-6Al-4V castings, a series of specimens was exposed to variations in heat treatment, weld procedure, HIP cycle, cooling rate, and surface finish. The results indicate that weld repair is not detrimental to HCF properties as fatigue cracks were located primarily in the base metal. Fine surface finish and large colony size are the primary variables improving the fatigue life. The fusion zone resisted fatigue crack initiation due to a basketweave morphology and thin grain boundary alpha. Multipass welds were shown not to affect fatigue life when compared with single pass welds. A secondary HIP treatment was not detrimental to fatigue properties, but was found to be unnecessary.

  2. Solidification and casting

    CERN Document Server

    Cantor, Brian

    2002-01-01

    INDUSTRIAL PERSPECTIVEDirect chillcasting of aluminium alloysContinuous casting of aluminium alloysContinuous casting of steelsCastings in the automotive industryCast aluminium-silicon piston alloysMODELLING AND SIMULATIONModelling direct chill castingMold filling simulation of die castingThe ten casting rulesGrain selection in single crystal superalloy castingsDefects in aluminium shape castingPattern formation during solidificationPeritectic solidificationSTRUCTURE AND DEFECTSHetergeneous nucleation in aluminium alloysCo

  3. Fracture Mechanisms in Steel Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stradomski Z.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion - the intergranular one - occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.

  4. Preferential dissolution behaviour in Ni–Cr dental cast alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ni–Cr–Mo dental alloy was fabricated by three different casting methods, viz. centrifugal casting, high frequency induction casting and vacuum pressure casting. The dependence of cast microstructure on the electrochemical corrosion behaviour was investigated using potentiodynamic cyclic and potentiostatic polarization ...

  5. Sodium sulfur container with chromium/chromium oxide coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Frank A.; Higley, Lin R.

    1981-01-01

    A coating of chromium/chromium oxide is disclosed for coating the surfaces of electrically conducting components of a sodium sulfur battery. This chromium/chromium oxide coating is placed on the surfaces of the electrically conducting components of the battery which are in contact with molten polysulfide and sulfur reactants during battery operation.

  6. Interfacial characteristics of diamond/aluminum composites with high thermal conductivity fabricated by squeeze-casting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Longtao, E-mail: longtaojiang@163.com [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Pingping [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Xiu, Ziyang [Skate Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Chen, Guoqin [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Lin, Xiu [Heilongjiang Academy of Industrial Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Dai, Chen; Wu, Gaohui [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-08-15

    In this work, aluminum matrix composites reinforced with diamond particles (diamond/aluminum composites) were fabricated by squeeze casting method. The material exhibited a thermal conductivity as high as 613 W / (m · K). The obtained composites were investigated by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope in terms of the (100) and (111) facets of diamond particles. The diamond particles were observed to be homogeneously distributed in the aluminum matrix. The diamond{sub (111)}/Al interface was found to be devoid of reaction products. While at the diamond{sub (100)}/Al interface, large-sized aluminum carbides (Al{sub 4}C{sub 3}) with twin-crystal structure were identified. The interfacial characteristics were believed to be responsible for the excellent thermal conductivity of the material. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Squeeze casting method was introduced to fabricate diamond/Al composite. • Sound interfacial bonding with excellent thermal conductivity was produced. • Diamond{sub (111)}/ aluminum interface was firstly characterized by TEM/HRTEM. • Physical combination was the controlling bonding for diamond{sub (111)}/aluminum. • The growth mechanism of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} was analyzed by crystallography theory.

  7. Deformation and Recrystallization Behavior of the Cast Structure in Large Size, High Strength Steel Ingots: Experimentation and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, K.; Shahriari, D.; Tremblay, R.; Bhattacharjee, P. P.; Jahazi, M.

    2017-09-01

    Constitutive modeling of the ingot breakdown process of large size ingots of high strength steel was carried out through comprehensive thermomechanical processing using Gleeble 3800® thermomechanical simulator, finite element modeling (FEM), optical and electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD). For this purpose, hot compression tests in the range of 1473 K to 1323 K (1200 °C to 1050 °C) and strain rates of 0.25 to 2 s-1 were carried out. The stress-strain curves describing the deformation behavior of the dendritic microstructure of the cast ingot were analyzed in terms of the Arrhenius and Hansel-Spittel models which were implemented in Forge NxT 1.0® FEM software. The results indicated that the Arrhenius model was more reliable in predicting microstructure evolution of the as-cast structure during ingot breakdown, particularly the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) process which was a vital parameter in estimating the optimum loads for forming of large size components. The accuracy and reliability of both models were compared in terms of correlation coefficient (R) and the average absolute relative error (ARRE).

  8. The thermal fatigue behaviour of creep-resistant Ni-Cr cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Piekarski

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study gives a summary of the results of industrial and laboratory investigations regarding an assessment of the thermal fatigue behaviour of creep-resistant austenitic cast steel. The first part of the study was devoted to the problem of textural stresses forming in castings during service, indicating them as a cause of crack formation and propagation. Stresses are forming in carbides and in matrix surrounding these carbides due to considerable differences in the values of the coefficients of thermal expansion of these phases. The second part of the study shows the results of investigations carried out to assess the effect of carbon, chromium and nickel on crack resistance of austenitic cast steel. As a criterion of assessment the amount and propagation rate of cracks forming in the specimens as a result of rapid heating followed by cooling in running water was adopted. Tests were carried out on specimens made from 11 alloys. The chemical composition of these alloys was comprised in a range of the following values: (wt-%: 18-40 %Ni, 17-30 %Cr, 1.2-1.6%Si and 0.05-0.6 %C. The specimens were subjected to 75 cycles of heating to a temperature of 900oC followed by cooling in running water. After every 15 cycles the number of the cracks was counted and their length was measured. The results of the measurements were mathematically processed. It has been proved that the main factor responsible for an increase in the number of cracks is carbon content in the alloy. In general assessment of the results of investigations, the predominant role of carbon and of chromium in the next place in shaping the crack behaviour of creep-resistant austenitic cast steel should be stressed. Attention was also drawn to the effect of high-temperature corrosion as a factor definitely deteriorating the cast steel resistance to thermal fatigue.

  9. Casting larger polycrystalline silicon ingots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Tomlinson, T.; Cliber, J.; Shea, S.; Narayanan, M.

    1995-08-01

    Solarex has developed and patented a directional solidification casting process specifically designed for photovoltaics. In this process, silicon feedstock is melted in a ceramic crucible and solidified into a large grained semicrystalline silicon ingot. In-house manufacture of low cost, high purity ceramics is a key to the low cost fabrication of Solarex polycrystalline wafers. The casting process is performed in Solarex designed casting stations. The casting operation is computer controlled. There are no moving parts (except for the loading and unloading) so the growth process proceeds with virtually no operator intervention Today Solarex casting stations are used to produce ingots from which 4 bricks, each 11.4 cm by 11.4 cm in cross section, are cut. The stations themselves are physically capable of holding larger ingots, that would yield either: 4 bricks, 15 cm by 15 an; or 9 bricks, 11.4 cm by 11.4 an in cross-section. One of the tasks in the Solarex Cast Polycrystalline Silicon PVMaT Program is to design and modify one of the castings stations to cast these larger ingots. If successful, this effort will increase the production capacity of Solarex`s casting stations by 73% and reduce the labor content for casting by an equivalent percentage.

  10. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David M [Livermore, CA; Sampayan, Stephen [Manteca, CA; Slenes, Kirk [Albuquerque, NM; Stoller, H M [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-10

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  11. Improved Casting Furnace Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tolman, David Donald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In an attempt to ensure more consistent casting results and remove some schedule variance associated with casting, an improved casting furnace concept has been developed. The improved furnace uses the existing arc melter hardware and glovebox utilities. The furnace concept was designed around physical and operational requirements such as; a charge sized of less than 30 grams, high heating rates and minimal additional footprint. The conceptual model is shown in the report as well as a summary of how the requirements were met.

  12. Fiber-Reinforced Slip Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, J. C.; Drennan, D. N.; Keeser, H. M.

    1982-01-01

    Addition of silica fibers greatly reduces shrinkage and cracking during casting of ceramics. Fiber-reinforced slip-cast silica ceramics are also tougher and have lower dielectric loss. Silica fibers are hyperpure material containing only 1 part per million total metal-ion impurities. Hyperpure fibers ensure high reflectance and allow casting to be fired at temperature greater than 2,200 degrees F without loss of strength from devitrification.

  13. INFLUENCE OF HIGH-STRENGTH REINFORCEMENT WITHOUT ADHESION TO CONCRETE ON STRENGTH OF CAST-IN-SITU BEAMLESS FLOORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osipenko Yuri Grigoryevich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence and location of prestressed high-strength reinforcement without adhesion to concrete on the strength of a beamless floor panel is considered. The work is aimed at clarifying the methodology for calculating the strength of cast-in-situ beamless floor with mixed reinforcement, where reinforcement is used in a plastic shell of monostrend type without adhesion to concrete for the most complete use of the strength characteristics of the panel material. The aim of the study is to determine the level of influence and location of prestressed reinforcement without adhesion to concrete on the strength of a panel of cast-in-situ beamless floor, as well as comparison of the results obtained for the stresses of ropes in panels with contour and diagonal arrangement of prestressed reinforcement. The shape of the rope position is represented by a part of the parabola passing through the points of the rope support. On the support, the vertical and horizontal components of the reaction are determined by the longitudinal force in the rope and the exit angle of the guy rope. 9х9m cast-in-situ beamless floor panels in two variants were investigated: with diagonal and contour stressing steel. The values of increment in stresses in the ropes and the resulting values at various prestress and deflection levels, presented in the form of tables and graphs, have been calculated. According to the results of the study, the use of high-strength prestressed ropes without adhesion to concrete, as an additional working reinforcement, reduces deflections of the panels and lowers consumption of common reinforcement. The results indicate a relative decrease in efficiency of using rope strength along with an increase in the initial prestress level. From the point of ensuring load-bearing capacity, the contour positioning of ropes is preferable, due to more complete use of strength of high-tensile reinforcement. To meet the requirements of ultimate limit states, the

  14. Analysis of Defects in Castings Cast by Rheocasting Method SEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryksi Stunova B.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses specific defects of castings produced by semi-solid casting process, especially rheocasting method SEED, which uses mechanical swirling for reaching proper structure in semisolid state with high content of solid fraction. Heat treated alloy AlSi7Mg0.3 was applied for producing an Engine Bracket casting part. For observing structure, metallographic observation by light and SEM microscopy was used. To analyse the process, software ProCAST was used to simulate the movements in shot chamber and filling of the mold.

  15. Microstructural stability of heat-resistant high-pressure die-cast Mg-4Al-4Ce alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jinghuai; Li, Guoqiang; Feng, Yan; Su, Minliang; Wu, Ruizhi; Zhang, Zhongwu [Harbin Engineering Univ. (China). Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology; Jiao, Yufeng [Jiamusi Univ. (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-05-15

    The thermal stability of Al-RE (rare earth) intermetallic phases with individual RE for heat-resistant high-pressure die-casting Mg-Al-RE alloys is investigated. The results of this study show that the main strengthening phase of Mg-4Al-4Ce alloy is Al{sub 11}Ce{sub 3}, whose content is about 5 wt.% according to quantitative X-ray diffraction phase analysis. The Al{sub 11}Ce{sub 3} phase appears to have high thermal stability at 200 C and 300 C, while phase morphology change with no phase structure transition could occur for Al{sub 11}Ce{sub 3} when the temperature reaches 400 C. Furthermore, besides the kinds of rare earths and temperature, stress is also an influencing factor in the microstructural stability of Mg-4Al-4Ce alloy.

  16. Breakdown voltage enhancement of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by polyimide/chromium composite thin film passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futong, Chu; Chao, Chen; Xingzhao, Liu

    2014-03-01

    A novel AlGaN/GaN high electric mobility transistor (HEMT) with polyimide (PI)/chromium (Cr) as the passivation layer is proposed for enhancing breakdown voltage and its DC performance is also investigated. The Cr nanoparticles firstly introduced in PI thin films by the co-evaporation can be used to increase the permittivity of PI film. The high-permittivity PI/Cr passivation acting as field plate can suppress the fringing electric field peak at the drain-side edge of the gate electrode. This mechanism is demonstrated in accord with measured results. The experimental results show that in comparison with the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs without passivation, the breakdown voltage of HEMTs with the PI/Cr composite thin films can be significantly improved, from 122 to 248 V.

  17. Fractal model for evaluating heat transfer of high temperature porous corundum shell in vacuum investment casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAN Xin

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Under vacuum, heat transfer in porous corundum shell of investment casting depends on the characteristics of the solid materials and the spatial arrangement of solids and pores. In this study, we present a modified fractal approach to model the pore structure of corundum shell and to describe its influence on the thermal conductivity. We assumed that there is no heat convection in the shell. A sectioned view of porous corundum shell was studied and used to describe the geometric structure and to calculate the fractal dimension d. Based on the fractal dimension d, we obtained the relationship between volumetric solid content and pore arrangement in different measure scales. A heat transfer model was thus established using a network of resistors in which we applied an equivalent approach to calculate the effective thermal conductivity of real porous corundum shell that include the effects of heat conduction and heat radiation of solid. From the obtained results we discuss these effects on the effective thermal conductivity including the scale of measurement, the structure of pore and the temperature. At last these results were compared with other empirical model, which computed by assuming even porosity in which effect of pore structure was not being considered. Though the thermal conductivity calculated essentially in agreement with that obtained from empirical model, model used in this study is more close to the real heat transfer process.

  18. [Determination of high temperature compressive strength and refractory degree of die material compatible with slip casting core of sintered titanium powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, X; Liao, Y; Chao, Y; Meng, Y

    1999-05-01

    The refractory die is the precondition for developing slip casting core of sintered powder. This study is to determine the high temperature properties of the refractory die material compatible with slip casting core. To prepare three cylindrical specimens (phi 10 x 15 mm) and determine their compressive strength at 1000 degrees C: to make four specimens in flat-topped cone for determining the practical refractory degree by decreasing the pressing temperatures in a sequence of 1420, 1400, 1350 and 1100 degrees C. The compressive strength of this material was 17.8 MPa at 1000 degrees C. Its practical refractory degree was higher than 1100 degrees C. The high temperature properties of the refractory die material that we developed meet the demand of slip casting core of sintered powder.

  19. Development of vacuum die-casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Uchida

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The vacuum die-casting process, started 25 years ago in Japan, has been widely applied. This technology contributes very much to improvement of castings quality. The main factor causing the defects of die castings is the trapped air in the mold cavity, while the key technology of vacuum die-casting process is to avoid the trapped air effectively by evacuating the cavity before casting. At the same time, due to the shot speed and the casting pressure reduced in half, the service life of the die is prolonged and the productivity is enhanced, as well. Vacuum die-casting process is of great signifi cance in improving the die castings quality and making up the shortcomings of super-high-speed shot casting.

  20. Microstructural characterisation of chromium slags

    OpenAIRE

    J. Burja; F. Tehovnik; Vode, F.; B. Arh

    2015-01-01

    In this chromium slags that form during melting of chromium alloyed steels are examined. During melting and oxidation of these steel grades a considerable amount of chromium is lost, and gained back with slag reduction. Laboratory experiments were performed to study the mechanism of chromium oxide reduction by silicon. Slags chemistry and phase composition have a strong effect on the steelmaking process. Phase analysis revealed two types of chromium oxides, calcium chromites and chromite spin...

  1. Chromium in leather footwear - risk assessment of chromium allergy and dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Strandesen, Maria; Poulsen, Pia B; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2012-05-01

    Chromium-tanned leather footwear, which releases >3 ppm hexavalent Cr(VI), may pose a risk of sensitizing and eliciting allergic dermatitis. To determine the content and potential release of chromium in leather footwear and to discuss the prevention of chromium contact allergy and dermatitis. Sixty pairs of leather shoes, sandals and boots (20 children's, 20 men's, and 20 women's) were purchased in Copenhagen and examined with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Chromium was extracted according to the International Standard, ISO 17075. The detection level for Cr(VI) was 3 ppm. Chromium was identified in 95% of leather footwear products, the median content being 1.7% (range 0-3.3%). No association with store category or footwear category was found. A tendency for there to be a higher chromium content in footwear with high prices was shown (p(trend) = 0.001). Cr(VI) was extracted from 44% of 18 footwear products, and, in three items, more than 10 ppm was extracted. One shoe had 62 ppm Cr(VI) extracted. Sandals seemed to be over-represented among footwear with detectable Cr(VI). Cr(III) extraction reached a median value of 152 ppm. Most leather footwear contained chromium. Cr(VI) was extracted from a high proportion of leather footwear; this poses a risk of sensitization. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. An improved mathematical model to simulate mold filling process in high pressure die casting using CLSVOF method and CSF model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Bi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 3D mathematical model was proposed to simulate the mold filling process in high-pressure die casting (HPDC to improve accuracy considering the surface tension. Piecewise liner interface calculation (PLIC and volume of fluid (VOF methods were used to construct the pattern of the liquid interface. A coupled level-set and VOF method (CLSVOF was proposed to capture the interface pattern and obtain its normal vector. A continuum surface force (CSF model was used to consider the surface tension. Two water analogy experiments were carried out using the proposed model. Simulation and experimental results were analyzed and compared; and the effects of surface tension were also discussed. The simulation results agreed well with the experiments and the simulation accuracy was an improvement on interface geometries, liquid flows, and gas entrapments.

  3. Effect of Gas Pores on Mechanical Properties of High-Pressure Die-Casting AM50 Magnesium Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Cao, Zhanyi; Liu, Liping; Jiang, Bo

    2016-08-01

    High-pressure die-casting (HPDC) AM50 tensile specimens were used to investigate characteristics of gas pores and its effect on mechanical properties of HPDC AM50 magnesium alloy. Combining microstructure morphology gained from optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction with the experimental data from uniaxial tensile testing, we pursued the relationship between gas pores and the mechanical properties of HPDC AM50 Mg alloy. Results indicate that comparing with 3D reconstruction models, 2D images like optical metallography images and SEM images have one-sidedness. Furthermore, the size and maximum areal fraction of gas pores have negative effects on the mechanical properties of HPDC AM50 Mg alloy. With increase of the maximum size of gas pores in the specimen, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation decrease. In addition, with the maximum areal fraction becoming larger, both the UTS and elongation decrease linearly.

  4. Surface morphology, microstructure and properties of as-cast AZ31 magnesium alloy irradiated by high intensity pulsed ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuesong; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Guotian; Zhu, Guoliang; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Jun; Sun, Baode

    2014-08-01

    High intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) irradiation was performed as surface modification to improve the properties of as-cast AZ31 magnesium (Mg) alloys. The surface morphology and microstructure of the irradiated Mg alloys were characterized and their microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance before and after HIPIB irradiation were measured. The results show that the formation of crater on the surface was attributed to the particles impacted from the irradiated cathode material. HIPIB irradiation resulted in more vacancy defects on the surface of the material. Moreover, new dislocations were generated by the reaction between vacancies, and the dislocation configuration was also changed. These variations caused by the HIPIB are beneficial for improving the material properties. After 10 shots of irradiation, the average microhardness increased by 27.1% but the wear rate decreased by 38.5%. The corrosion rate was reduced by 24.8% according to the salt spray corrosion experiment.

  5. Evidence for a Cr metastable phase as a tracer in DLI-MOCVD chromium hard coatings usable in high temperature environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michau, Alexandre; Maury, Francis; Schuster, Frederic; Boichot, Raphael; Pons, Michel

    2017-11-01

    Cr deposits are widely used as protective coatings but multifunctional performances are required in harsh environments motivating research on new processes. MOCVD of Cr metal coatings was carried out by direct liquid injection (DLI) of a unique solution containing bis(ethylbenzene)chromium as metal source and thiophenol as inhibitor of carbide formation. A low amount (affected by the structural transformation because of the similarity of their crystallographic structures (both cubic), their density very close (a volume contraction of only 0.4% during the transformation) and its low content. This metastable phase is a signature of the DLI-MOCVD process and it can be used as a tracer for Cr coatings operating in high temperature environment without loss of the basic properties.

  6. CASTING FURNACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, R.H.; Winters, C.E.

    1961-01-01

    A device is described for casting uranium which comprises a crucible, a rotatable table holding a plurality of molds, and a shell around both the crucible and the table. The bottom of the crucible has an eccentrically arranged pouring hole aligned with one of the molds at a time. The shell can be connected with a vacuum.

  7. Cobalt, nickel and chromium release from dental tools and alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettelarij, Jolinde A B; Lidén, Carola; Axén, Emmy; Julander, Anneli

    2014-01-01

    Cobalt-chromium alloys are used as casting alloys by dental technicians when producing dental prostheses and implants. Skin exposure and metal release from alloys and tools used by the dental technicians have not been studied previously. To study the release of cobalt, nickel and chromium from alloys and tools that come into contact with the skin of dental technicians. Cobalt and nickel release from tools and alloys was tested with the cobalt spot test and the dimethylglyoxime test for nickel. Also, the release of cobalt, nickel and chromium in artificial sweat (EN1811) at different time-points was assessed. Analysis was performed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Sixty-one tools were spot tested; 20% released nickel and 23% released cobalt. Twenty-one tools and five dental alloys were immersed in artificial sweat. All tools released cobalt, nickel and chromium. The ranges were 0.0047-820, 0.0051-10 and 0.010-160 µg/cm(2) /week for cobalt, nickel and chromium, respectively. All dental alloys released cobalt in artificial sweat, with a range of 0.0010-17 µg/cm(2) /week, and they also released nickel and chromium at low concentrations. Sensitizing metals are released from tools and alloys used by dental technicians. This may cause contact allergy and hand eczema. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. REMOVAL OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM FROM DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Asgari ، F. Vaezi ، S. Nasseri ، O. Dördelmann ، A. H. Mahvi ، E. Dehghani Fard

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Removal of chromium can be accomplished by various methods but none of them is cost-effective in meeting drinking water standards. For this study, granular ferric hydroxide was used as adsorbent for removal of hexavalent chromium. Besides, the effects of changing contact time, pH and concentrations of competitive anions were determined for different amounts of granular ferric hydroxide. It was found that granular ferric hydroxide has a high capacity for adsorption of hexavalent chromium from water at pH≤7 and in 90 min contact time. Maximum adsorption capacity was determined to be 0.788 mg Cr+6/g granular ferric hydroxide. Although relatively good adsorption of sulfate and chloride had been specified in this study, the interfering effects of these two anions had not been detected in concentrations of 200 and 400 mg/L. The absorbability of hexavalent chromium by granular ferric hydroxide could be expressed by Freundlich isotherm with R2>0.968. However, the disadvantage was that the iron concentration in water was increased by the granular ferric hydroxide. Nevertheless, granular ferric hydroxide is a promising adsorbent for chromium removal, even in the presence of other interfering compounds, because granular ferric hydroxide treatment can easily be accomplished and removal of excess iron is a simple practice for conventional water treatment plants. Thus, this method could be regarded as a safe and convenient solution to the problem of chromium-polluted water resources.

  9. Effects of combined dietary chromium(III) propionate complex and thiamine supplementation on insulin sensitivity, blood biochemical indices, and mineral levels in high-fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Ewelina; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Michalak, Sławomir; Wójciak, Rafał W; Bogdański, Paweł

    2012-12-01

    Insulin resistance is the first step in glucose intolerance and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, thus effective prevention strategies should also include dietary interventions to enhance insulin sensitivity. Nutrients, such as microelement chromium(III) and thiamine, play regulatory roles in carbohydrate metabolism. The objective of this study was to evaluate the insulin-sensitizing potential of the combined supplementary chromium(III) propionate complex (CrProp) and thiamine in insulin resistance animal model (rats fed a high-fructose diet). The experiment was carried out on 40 nine-week-old male Wistar rats divided into five groups (eight animals each). Animals were fed ad libitum: the control diet (AIN-93 M) and high-fructose diets with and without a combination of two levels of CrProp (0.1 and 1 mg Cr/kg body mass/day) and two levels of thiamine (0.5 and 10 mg/kg body mass/day) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment rats were sacrificed to collect blood and internal organs for analyses of blood biochemical and hematologic indices as well as tissular microelement levels that were measured using appropriate methods. It was found that both supplementary CrProp and thiamine (given alone) have significant insulin-sensitizing and moderate blood-lipid-lowering properties, while the combined supplementation with these agents does not give synergistic effects in insulin-resistant rats. CrProp given separately increased kidney Cu and Cr levels, while thiamine alone increased hepatic Cu contents and decreased renal Zn and Cu contents.

  10. Chromium and exercise training: effect on obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K E; Chandler, R M; Castle, A L; Ivy, J L

    1997-08-01

    Chromium supplementation may affect various risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), including body weight and composition, basal plasma hormone and substrate levels, and response to an oral glucose load. This study examined the effects of chromium supplementation (400 micrograms.d-1), with or without exercise training, on these risk factors in young, obese women. Chromium picolinate supplementation resulted in significant weight gain in this population, while exercise training combined with chromium nicotinate supplementation resulted in significant weight loss and lowered the insulin response to an oral glucose load. We conclude that high levels of chromium picolinate supplementation are contraindicated for weight loss in young, obese women. Moreover, our results suggest that exercise training combined with chromium nicotinate supplementation may be more beneficial than exercise training alone for modification of certain CAD and NIDDM risk factors.

  11. Chromium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is important in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates . It stimulates fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis, which are important for brain function and other body processes. Chromium also aids in insulin action and glucose metabolism.

  12. Integrated Criteria Document Chromium

    OpenAIRE

    Slooff W; Cleven RFMJ; Janus JA; van der Poel P; van Beelen P; Boumans LJM; Canton JH; Eerens HC; Krajnc EI; de Leeuw FAAM; Matthijsen AJCM; van de Meent D; van der Meulen A; Mohn GR; Wijland GC

    1990-01-01

    Betreft de engelse versie van rapport 758701001
    Bij dit rapport behoort een appendix onder hetzelfde nummer getiteld: "Integrated Criteria Document Chromium: Effects" Auteurs: Janus JA; Krajnc EI
    (appendix: see 710401002A)

  13. Temperature field in the hot-top during casting a new super-high strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy by low frequency electromagnetic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubo ZUO

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The billets of a new super-high strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy in 200 mm diameter were produced by the processed of low frequency electromagnetic casting (LFEC and conventional direct chill(DCcasting, respectively. The effects of low frequency electromagnetic field on temperature field of the melt in the hot-top were investigated by temperature thermocouples into the casting during the processes. The results show that during LFEC process the temperature field in the melt applying the hot-top is very uniform, which is helpful to reduce the difference of thermal gradients between the surface and the center, and then to reduce the thermal stress and to eliminate casting crack.

  14. [Effect of recasting on the thickness of metal-ceramic interface of nickel-chromium and cobalt-chromium alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    This research was done to establish recasting effects of nickel-chromium and cobalt-chromium alloys on the thickness of their metal-ceramic interface in making fixed partial dentures. Metal-ceramic interface determines their functional integrity and prevents damages on ceramics during mastication. Investigation of metal-ceramic samples is supposed to show if base metal alloys for metal-ceramics are successfully recycled without any risk of reduction of metal-ceramic interface thickness. The research was performed as an experimental study. Per six metal-ceramic samples of nickel-chromium alloy (Wiron99) and cobalt-chromium alloy (Wirobond C) were made each. Alloy residues were recycled through twelve casting generations with the addition of 50% of new alloy on the occasion of every recasting. Analysis Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) (Oxford Instruments) and Scanning Electon Microscop (SEM) analysis (JEOL) were used to determine thickness of metal-ceramic interface together with PC Software for quantification of visual informations (KVI POPOVAC). Results of this research introduced significant differences between thickness of metal-ceramic interface in every examined recycle generation. Recasting had negative effect on thickness of metal-ceramic interface of the examined alloys. This research showed almost linear reduction of elastic modulus up to the 12th generation of recycling. Recasting of nickel-chromium and cobalt-chromium alloys is not recommended because of reduced thickness of metal-ceramic interface of these alloys. Instead of recycling, the alloy residues should be returned to the manufacturers.

  15. The carcinogenicity of chromium

    OpenAIRE

    Norseth, Tor

    1981-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of chromium compounds is reviewed with specific attention to the gaps in knowledge for risk estimation and research needs. The most important problems at present are whether trivalent chromium compounds cause cancer, and whether there is a difference in cancer causing effects between the soluble and the slightly soluble hexavalent compounds in the practical exposure situation. Dose estimates for risk estimation based on epidemiological investigations are also lacking. Pres...

  16. Hydrophobic Poly(ionic liquid for Highly Effective Separation of Methyl Blue and Chromium Ions from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Kong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The hydrophobic poly(ionic liquid of poly(3-ethyl-1-vinylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylimide (PVI-TFSI containing imidazolium cations and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylimide anions was synthesized for the separation of methyl blue and chromium ions [Cr(VI] from water. The adsorption of methyl blue and Cr(VI in PVI-TSFI/water system reached equilibrium stage within 60 min and 12 h, and the maximum adsorbed percentage for methyl blue and Cr(VI was 97.6% and 98.0%, respectively. The adsorption regi me of either methyl blue or Cr(VI for PVI-TFSI was in correspondence with the Langmuir adsorption model. The maximum adsorption capacity of PVI-TFSI for methyl blue and Cr(VI was determined as 476.2 and 17.9 mg/g, respectively. The hydrophobic poly(ionic liquid with a remarkable adsorbent capacity of methyl blue and Cr(VI can be conveniently synthesized and shows potential in water treatment for the effective separation of organic dyes or heavy metal ions.

  17. Determination of Pb (Lead), Cd (Cadmium), Cr (Chromium), Cu (Copper), and Ni (Nickel) in Chinese tea with high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wen-Si; Ren, Ting; Zhao, Li-Jiao

    2016-01-01

    The contents of lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, and nickel were determined in 25 tea samples from China, including green, yellow, white, oolong, black, Pu'er, and jasmine tea products, using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The methods used for sample preparation, digestion, and quantificational analysis were established, generating satisfactory analytical precisions (represented by relative standard deviations ranging from 0.6% to 2.5%) and recoveries (98.91-101.32%). The lead contents in tea leaves were 0.48-10.57 mg/kg, and 80% of these values were below the maximum values stated by the guidelines in China. The contents of cadmium and chromium ranged from 0.01 mg/kg to 0.39 mg/kg and from 0.27 mg/kg to 2.45 mg/kg, respectively, remaining in compliance with the limits stipulated by China's Ministry of Agriculture. The copper contents were 7.73-63.71 mg/kg; only 64% of these values complied with the standards stipulated by the Ministry of Agriculture. The nickel contents ranged from 2.70 mg/kg to 13.41 mg/kg. Consequently, more attention must be paid to the risks of heavy metal contamination in tea. The quantitative method established in this work lays a foundation for preventing heavy metal toxicity in human from drinking tea and will help establish regulations to control the contents of heavy metals in tea. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Determination of Pb (Lead, Cd (Cadmium, Cr (Chromium, Cu (Copper, and Ni (Nickel in Chinese tea with high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Si Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The contents of lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, and nickel were determined in 25 tea samples from China, including green, yellow, white, oolong, black, Pu'er, and jasmine tea products, using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The methods used for sample preparation, digestion, and quantificational analysis were established, generating satisfactory analytical precisions (represented by relative standard deviations ranging from 0.6% to 2.5% and recoveries (98.91–101.32%. The lead contents in tea leaves were 0.48–10.57 mg/kg, and 80% of these values were below the maximum values stated by the guidelines in China. The contents of cadmium and chromium ranged from 0.01 mg/kg to 0.39 mg/kg and from 0.27 mg/kg to 2.45 mg/kg, respectively, remaining in compliance with the limits stipulated by China's Ministry of Agriculture. The copper contents were 7.73–63.71 mg/kg; only 64% of these values complied with the standards stipulated by the Ministry of Agriculture. The nickel contents ranged from 2.70 mg/kg to 13.41 mg/kg. Consequently, more attention must be paid to the risks of heavy metal contamination in tea. The quantitative method established in this work lays a foundation for preventing heavy metal toxicity in human from drinking tea and will help establish regulations to control the contents of heavy metals in tea.

  19. Cast and splint immobilization: complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halanski, Matthew; Noonan, Kenneth J

    2008-01-01

    During the past three decades, internal fixation has become increasingly popular for fracture management and limb reconstruction. As a result, during their training, orthopaedic surgeons receive less formal instruction in the art of extremity immobilization and cast application and removal. Casting is not without risks and complications (eg, stiffness, pressure sores, compartment syndrome); the risk of morbidity is higher when casts are applied by less experienced practitioners. Certain materials and methods of ideal cast and splint application are recommended to prevent morbidity in the patient who is at high risk for complications with casting and splinting. Those at high risk include the obtunded or comatose multitrauma patient, the patient under anesthesia, the very young patient, the developmentally delayed patient, and the patient with spasticity.

  20. Nodular cast iron and casting monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper quality monitoring of nodular cast iron and casting made of it is presented. A control system of initial liquid cast iron to spheroidization, after spheroidization and inoculation with using of TDA method was shown. An application of an ultrasonic method to assessment of the graphite form and the metal matrix microstructure of castings was investigated.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF EROSIVE WEAR ON THE HIGH CHROME CAST IRON IMPELLER OF SLURRY DISPOSAL PUMP USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasbir Singh Ratol

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Erosive wear occurs on the impeller and volute casing of the slurry disposal pump due to the impact of the ash particles on the impeller with a high velocity. Due to erosive wear, pump life become very short. The service life of centrifugal pump, handling slurry can be increased by reducing the erosive wear. In the present work, the experimental investigation of erosive wear has been carried out on the high speed slurry erosion tester to understand the effects of the ash concentration in slurry, rotational speed of the pump impeller and ash particle size on erosive wear. The erosive wear behaviour of high chrome cast iron was investigated by Response surface methodology (RSM. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analysis and the modeled values for the response were obtained with the help of modeled equation. The result shows that the ash concentration in slurry and kinetic energy of the moving particles highly contributes to erosive wear of pump impeller as compared to the ash particle size.

  2. Experimental Investigation of Erosive Wear on the High Chrome Cast Iron Impeller of Slurry Disposal Pump Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Erosive wear occurs on the impeller and volute casing of the slurry disposal pump due to the impact of the ash particles on the impeller with a high velocity. Due to erosive wear, pump life become very short. The service life of centrifugal pump, handling slurry can be increased by reducing the erosive wear. In the present work, the experimental investigation of erosive wear has been carried out on the high speed slurry erosion tester to understand the effects of the ash concentration in slurry, rotational speed of the pump impeller and ash particle size on erosive wear. The erosive wear behavior of high chrome cast iron was investigated by Response surface methodology (RSM. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analysis and the modeled values for the response were obtained with the help of modeled equation. The result shows that the ash concentration in slurry and kinetic energy of the moving particles highly contributes to erosive wear of pump impeller as compared to the ash particle size.

  3. Casting methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

    2012-12-18

    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  4. CASTING APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-09-23

    An apparatus is described for casting small quantities of uranlum. It consists of a crucible having a hole in the bottom with a mold positioned below. A vertical rcd passes through the hole in the crucible and has at its upper end a piercing head adapted to break the oxide skin encasing a molten uranium body. An air tight cylinder surrounds the crucible and mold, and is arranged to be evacuated.

  5. Effect of cast steel production metallurgy on the emergence of casting defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Čamek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper documents metallurgical possibilities of high alloy cast steel production in open induction medium frequency furnaces and an electric arc furnace in a gravity die casting foundry. The observation was focused on the emergence of gas defects in steel castings. The content of gases achieved during the metallurgical processes was evaluated for every unit of the production equipment and the casting ladle before casting into disposable sand moulds. The sand mould area was considered to be constant. The aim was to evaluate the current metallurgical possibilities of affecting the content of gases in high alloy cast steel in the current technical conditions of the foundry.

  6. The Effect of Aluminum Content and Processing on the Tensile Behavior of High Pressure Die Cast Mg Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deda, Erin M.

    Due to their high specific strength and good castability, magnesium alloys are desirable for use in weight reduction strategies in automotive applications. However, the mechanical properties of high pressure die cast (HPDC) magnesium can be highly variable and dependent on location in the casting. To better understand the relationship between microstructure and tensile properties, the influence of alloying and section thickness on the microstructural features and tensile properties of Mg-Al and Mg-Al-Mn alloys is quantified. This investigation provides experimental input to modeling activities for the development of an Integrated Computational Materials Engineering capability, to assess and quantify the impact of microstructure on the tensile behavior of HPDC Mg AM series (magnesium-aluminum-manganese) alloys. As a result of this work, it is found that with increasing aluminum content, the yield strength increases and the ductility decreases. Increasing the plate thickness results in a decrease in both the yield strength and ductility. HPDC components have varying microstructural features through the plate thickness, developing a "skin" and "core". The grain size, beta-Mg 17Al12 phase, and solute content are all quantified through the thickness of the plates. By quantifying microstructural variations, a physics-based model has been developed which is able to predict the effects of alloying and plate thickness on yield strength. The primary factors affecting strengthening are accounted for using a linear superposition model of solid solution, grain size, and dispersion hardening. This model takes into account through-thickness microstructure gradients that exist in HPDC components by using a composite model to incorporate the skin and core changes. The yield strength in these alloys is dominated by grain boundary strengthening and solute hardening effects. In order to isolate the effects of eutectic phases, shrinkage porosity and oxide films on strength and

  7. Hardness and Wear Resistance of TiC-Fe-Cr Locally Reinforcement Produced in Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olejnik E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase wear resistance cast steel casting the TiC-Fe-Cr type composite zones were fabricated. These zones were obtained by means of in situ synthesis of substrates of the reaction TiC with a moderator of a chemical composition of white cast iron with nickel of the Ni-Hard type 4. The synthesis was carried out directly in the mould cavity. The moderator was applied to control the reactive infiltration occurring during the TiC synthesis. The microstructure of composite zones was investigated by electron scanning microscopy, using the backscattered electron mode. The structure of composite zones was verified by the X-ray diffraction method. The hardness of composite zones, cast steel base alloy and the reference samples such as white chromium cast iron with 14 % Cr and 20 % Cr, manganese cast steel 18 % Mn was measured by Vickers test. The wear resistance of the composite zone and the reference samples examined by ball-on-disc wear test. Dimensionally stable composite zones were obtained containing submicron sizes TiC particles uniformly distributed in the matrix. The macro and microstructure of the composite zone ensured three times hardness increase in comparison to the cast steel base alloy and one and a half times increase in comparison to the white chromium cast iron 20 % Cr. Finally ball-on-disc wear rate of the composite zone was five times lower than chromium white cast iron containing 20 % Cr.

  8. A combined arc-melting and tilt-casting furnace for the manufacture of high-purity bulk metallic glass materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soinila, E.; Pihlajamäki, T.; Bossuyt, S.; Hänninen, H.

    2011-07-01

    An arc-melting furnace which includes a tilt-casting facility was designed and built, for the purpose of producing bulk metallic glass specimens. Tilt-casting was chosen because reportedly, in combination with high-purity processing, it produces the best fatigue endurance in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses. Incorporating the alloying and casting facilities in a single piece of equipment reduces the amount of laboratory space and capital investment needed. Eliminating the sample transfer step from the production process also saves time and reduces sample contamination. This is important because the glass forming ability in many alloy systems, such as Zr-based glass-forming alloys, deteriorates rapidly with increasing oxygen content of the specimen. The challenge was to create a versatile instrument, in which high purity conditions can be maintained throughout the process, even when melting alloys with high affinity for oxygen. Therefore, the design provides a high-vacuum chamber to be filled with a low-oxygen inert atmosphere, and takes special care to keep the system hermetically sealed throughout the process. In particular, movements of the arc-melting electrode and sample manipulator arm are accommodated by deformable metal bellows, rather than sliding O-ring seals, and the whole furnace is tilted for tilt-casting. This performance of the furnace is demonstrated by alloying and casting Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 directly into rods up to ø 10 mm which are verified to be amorphous by x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, and to exhibit locally ductile fracture at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  9. Effect of high-manganese cast steel strain hardening on the abrasion wear resistance in a mixture of SiC and water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalandyk B.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to determine the impact of the high-manganese cast steel strain hardening on its abrasion wear resistance in a mixture of SiC and water prepared in accordance with ASTM G75. For tests, the high-manganese cast steel containing 10.7, 17.9 and 20.02% Mn was selected. The results of microstructure examinations and abrasion wear resistance tests carried out on the material in non-hardened condition and after strain hardening with a force of 539.55kN were disclosed. Additionally, the surface of samples after a 16-hour cycle of abrasion tests was examined. Moreover, based on the obtained results, the effect of different contents of Mn in cast steel was studied, mainly in terms of its impact on the abrasion wear resistance. The results obtained on the tested materials were compared with the results obtained on the low-alloyed abrasion wear-resistant cast steel L35GSM.

  10. Serum chromium concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A highly refined diet that contains too few micronutrients has been recognized as the dominant factor in the rising incidence of diabetes and other insulin related conditions. Among the missing micronutrients, chromium has the greatest impact on insulin response. The objective of this study was to determine serum chromium ...

  11. Slurry Erosion Behavior of Destabilized and Deep Cryogenically Treated Cr-Mn-Cu White Cast Irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gupta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of destabilization treatment and destabilization followed by cryogenic treatment have been evaluated on the microstructural evolution and sand-water slurry erosion behavior of Cr-Mn-Cu white cast irons. The phase transformations after the destabilization and cryotreatment have been characterized by bulk hardness measurement, optical and scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis. The static corrosion rate has been measured in tap water (with pH=7 and the erosion-corrosion behavior has been studied by slurry pot tester using sand-water slurry. The test results indicate that the cryogenic treatment has a significant effect in minimizing the as-cast retained austenite content and transforming into martensitic and bainitic matrix embedded with ultra-fine M7C3 alloy carbides. In contrast, by conventional destabilization treatment retained austenite in the matrix are not fully eliminated. The slurry erosive wear resistance has been compared with reference to destabilized and cryotreated high chromium iron samples which are commonly employed for such applications. The cryotreated Cr-Mn-Cu irons have exhibited a comparable erosive wear performance to those of high chromium irons. Higher hardness combined with improved corrosion resistance result in better slurry erosion resistance.

  12. Comparison of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ91D Alloy Formed by Rheomolding and High-Pressure Die Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, M. F.; Kang, Y. L.; Yan, Y.; Zhu, G. M.; Liao, W. N.

    2015-10-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91D alloy thin-wall parts produced by the rheomolding (RM) process were investigated and compared with the same alloy formed by conventional high-pressure die casting (HPDC). The results indicate that the RM process is able to get such AZ91D parts in which α 1 -Mg with average size of 27.36 μm are spherical and uniformly distributed in the matrix, and the matrix is a mixture of numerous fine α 2 -Mg and intermetallic β-Mg17Al12. High mechanical properties including ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 270 MPa, yield strength (YS) of 169 MPa, elongation of 7.1%, and Vickers hardness of 102 are obtained in parts formed by RM due to the fine and uniform microstructure and less porosities. Compared with HPDC, the UTS, YS, elongation, and hardness of RM AZ91D are increased by 14.4, 9.7, 86.8, and 21.4%, respectively. The solidified grains in RM AZ91D alloy show a smaller aluminum gradient than that in HPDC. This indicates that the solidification of the RM AZ91D is closer to equilibrium.

  13. Type 2 Diabetic Rats on Diet Supplemented With Chromium Malate Show Improved Glycometabolism, Glycometabolism-Related Enzyme Levels and Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiwei; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Wang, Wei; Feng, Yun; Li, Fang; Zheng, Daheng; Wu, Huiyu; Jin, Dun; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Our results showed that fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, insulin resistance index and C-peptide level in the high dose group had a significant downward trend when compared with the model group, chromium picolinate group and chromium trichloride group. The hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, Glut4, phosphor-AMPKβ1 and Akt levels in the high dose group were significantly higher than those of the model, chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride groups. Chromium malate in a high dose group can significantly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol level while decreasing the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels when compared with chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. The serum chromium content in chromium malate and chromium picolinate group is significantly higher than that of the chromium trichloride group. The results indicated that the curative effects of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism changes are better than those of chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. Chromium malate contributes to glucose uptake and transport in order to improved glycometabolism and glycometabolism-related enzymes. PMID:25942313

  14. Type 2 diabetic rats on diet supplemented with chromium malate show improved glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzyme levels and lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Feng

    Full Text Available Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Our results showed that fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, insulin resistance index and C-peptide level in the high dose group had a significant downward trend when compared with the model group, chromium picolinate group and chromium trichloride group. The hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, Glut4, phosphor-AMPKβ1 and Akt levels in the high dose group were significantly higher than those of the model, chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride groups. Chromium malate in a high dose group can significantly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol level while decreasing the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels when compared with chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. The serum chromium content in chromium malate and chromium picolinate group is significantly higher than that of the chromium trichloride group. The results indicated that the curative effects of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism changes are better than those of chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. Chromium malate contributes to glucose uptake and transport in order to improved glycometabolism and glycometabolism-related enzymes.

  15. Casting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R [Xenia, OH; Dzugan, Robert [Cincinnati, OH; Harrington, Richard M [Cincinnati, OH; Neece, Faurice D [Lyndurst, OH; Singh, Nipendra P [Pepper Pike, OH

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  16. Mechanism and application of a newly developed pressure casting process: horizontal squeeze casting

    OpenAIRE

    Li Peijie; Huang Xiusong; He Liangju

    2014-01-01

    Compared to traditional high-pressure die casting (HPDC), horizontal squeeze casting (HSC) is a more promising way to fabricate high-integrity castings, owing to a reduced number of gas and shrinkage porosities produced in the casting. In this paper, the differences between HSC and HPDC are assessed, through which it is shown that the cavity filling velocity and the size of the gating system to be the most notable differences. Equipment development and related applications are also reviewed. ...

  17. On-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples using elemental chromium: an extension for high temperature elemental-analyzer techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Gilevska, Tetyana; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B; Meijer, Harro A J; Brand, Willi A; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature conversion (HTC) technique using an elemental analyzer with a glassy carbon tube and filling (temperature conversion/elemental analysis, TC/EA) is a widely used method for hydrogen isotopic analysis of water and many solid and liquid organic samples with analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). However, the TC/EA IRMS method may produce inaccurate δ(2)H results, with values deviating by more than 20 mUr (milliurey = 0.001 = 1‰) from the true value for some materials. We show that a single-oven, chromium-filled elemental analyzer coupled to an IRMS substantially improves the measurement quality and reliability for hydrogen isotopic compositions of organic substances (Cr-EA method). Hot chromium maximizes the yield of molecular hydrogen in a helium carrier gas by irreversibly and quantitatively scavenging all reactive elements except hydrogen. In contrast, under TC/EA conditions, heteroelements like nitrogen or chlorine (and other halogens) can form hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or hydrogen chloride (HCl) and this can cause isotopic fractionation. The Cr-EA technique thus expands the analytical possibilities for on-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples significantly. This method yielded reproducibility values (1-sigma) for δ(2)H measurements on water and caffeine samples of better than 1.0 and 0.5 mUr, respectively. To overcome handling problems with water as the principal calibration anchor for hydrogen isotopic measurements, we have employed an effective and simple strategy using reference waters or other liquids sealed in silver-tube segments. These crimped silver tubes can be employed in both the Cr-EA and TC/EA techniques. They simplify considerably the normalization of hydrogen-isotope measurement data to the VSMOW-SLAP (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water-Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) scale, and their use improves accuracy of the data by eliminating evaporative loss and associated isotopic fractionation while

  18. On-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples using elemental chromium: An extension for high temperature elemental-analyzer techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Gilevska, Tetyana; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Meijer, Harro A.J.; Brand, Willi A.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature conversion (HTC) technique using an elemental analyzer with a glassy carbon tube and filling (temperature conversion/elemental analysis, TC/EA) is a widely used method for hydrogen isotopic analysis of water and many solid and liquid organic samples with analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). However, the TC/EA IRMS method may produce inaccurate δ2H results, with values deviating by more than 20 mUr (milliurey = 0.001 = 1‰) from the true value for some materials. We show that a single-oven, chromium-filled elemental analyzer coupled to an IRMS substantially improves the measurement quality and reliability for hydrogen isotopic compositions of organic substances (Cr-EA method). Hot chromium maximizes the yield of molecular hydrogen in a helium carrier gas by irreversibly and quantitatively scavenging all reactive elements except hydrogen. In contrast, under TC/EA conditions, heteroelements like nitrogen or chlorine (and other halogens) can form hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or hydrogen chloride (HCl) and this can cause isotopic fractionation. The Cr-EA technique thus expands the analytical possibilities for on-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples significantly. This method yielded reproducibility values (1-sigma) for δ2H measurements on water and caffeine samples of better than 1.0 and 0.5 mUr, respectively. To overcome handling problems with water as the principal calibration anchor for hydrogen isotopic measurements, we have employed an effective and simple strategy using reference waters or other liquids sealed in silver-tube segments. These crimped silver tubes can be employed in both the Cr-EA and TC/EA techniques. They simplify considerably the normalization of hydrogen-isotope measurement data to the VSMOW-SLAP (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water-Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) scale, and their use improves accuracy of the data by eliminating evaporative loss and associated isotopic fractionation while

  19. High spatial dynamics-photoluminescence imaging reveals the metallurgy of the earliest lost-wax cast object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoury, M.; Mille, B.; Séverin-Fabiani, T.; Robbiola, L.; Réfrégiers, M.; Jarrige, J.-F.; Bertrand, L.

    2016-11-01

    Photoluminescence spectroscopy is a key method to monitor defects in semiconductors from nanophotonics to solar cell systems. Paradoxically, its great sensitivity to small variations of local environment becomes a handicap for heterogeneous systems, such as are encountered in environmental, medical, ancient materials sciences and engineering. Here we demonstrate that a novel full-field photoluminescence imaging approach allows accessing the spatial distribution of crystal defect fluctuations at the crystallite level across centimetre-wide fields of view. This capacity is illustrated in archaeology and material sciences. The coexistence of two hitherto indistinguishable non-stoichiometric cuprous oxide phases is revealed in a 6,000-year-old amulet from Mehrgarh (Baluchistan, Pakistan), identified as the oldest known artefact made by lost-wax casting and providing a better understanding of this fundamental invention. Low-concentration crystal defect fluctuations are readily mapped within ZnO nanowires. High spatial dynamics-photoluminescence imaging holds great promise for the characterization of bulk heterogeneous systems across multiple disciplines.

  20. Evaluate of Chill Vent Performance for High Pressure Die-Casting Production and Simulation of Motorcycle Fuel Caps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meethum Piyanut

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate air vent design always induced porosities in thin and complex shape of high pressure die-casting (HPDC products. Chill block installation was preferred to improve permanent molds for reducing porosities. There were not regular to obtain an appropriated chill vent from this method unless an experience of mold makers. This research was performed to investigate and evaluate the chill block performance in the HPDC mold of motorcycle fuel caps. The HPDC mold of the thin and complex shape product without chill vents was improved by inserting of chill blocks. The motorcycle fuel caps of molds with and without chill vents were compared to verify size and position of porosity defects. Furthermore the HPDC simulation using the finite element analysis (FEA had been performed according to the physical experiment. The FEA results were compared and in agreement with the experimental data. Therefore an improvement of the HPDC mold should be used FEA to obtain the best way of the air vent design.

  1. High spatial dynamics-photoluminescence imaging reveals the metallurgy of the earliest lost-wax cast object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoury, M; Mille, B; Séverin-Fabiani, T; Robbiola, L; Réfrégiers, M; Jarrige, J-F; Bertrand, L

    2016-11-15

    Photoluminescence spectroscopy is a key method to monitor defects in semiconductors from nanophotonics to solar cell systems. Paradoxically, its great sensitivity to small variations of local environment becomes a handicap for heterogeneous systems, such as are encountered in environmental, medical, ancient materials sciences and engineering. Here we demonstrate that a novel full-field photoluminescence imaging approach allows accessing the spatial distribution of crystal defect fluctuations at the crystallite level across centimetre-wide fields of view. This capacity is illustrated in archaeology and material sciences. The coexistence of two hitherto indistinguishable non-stoichiometric cuprous oxide phases is revealed in a 6,000-year-old amulet from Mehrgarh (Baluchistan, Pakistan), identified as the oldest known artefact made by lost-wax casting and providing a better understanding of this fundamental invention. Low-concentration crystal defect fluctuations are readily mapped within ZnO nanowires. High spatial dynamics-photoluminescence imaging holds great promise for the characterization of bulk heterogeneous systems across multiple disciplines.

  2. tcpl: the ToxCast pipeline for high-throughput screening data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filer, Dayne L; Kothiya, Parth; Setzer, R Woodrow; Judson, Richard S; Martin, Matthew T

    2017-02-15

    Large high-throughput screening (HTS) efforts are widely used in drug development and chemical toxicity screening. Wide use and integration of these data can benefit from an efficient, transparent and reproducible data pipeline. Summary: The tcpl R package and its associated MySQL database provide a generalized platform for efficiently storing, normalizing and dose-response modeling of large high-throughput and high-content chemical screening data. The novel dose-response modeling algorithm has been tested against millions of diverse dose-response series, and robustly fits data with outliers and cytotoxicity-related signal loss. tcpl is freely available on the Comprehensive R Archive Network under the GPL-2 license. martin.matt@epa.gov.

  3. Microstructure and abrasive wear properties of M(Cr,Fe7C3 carbides reinforced high-chromium carbon coating produced by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner BUYTOZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, high-chromium ferrochromium carbon hypereutectic alloy powder was coated on AISI 4340 steel by the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW process. The coating layers were analyzed by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Depending on the gas tungsten arc welding pa-rameters, either hypoeutectic or hypereutectic microstructures were produced. Wear tests of the coatings were carried out on a pin-on-disc apparatus as function of contact load. Wear rates of the all coating layers were decreased as a function of the loading. The improvement of abrasive wear resistance of the coating layer could be attributed to the high hardness of the hypereutectic M7C3 carbides in the microstruc-ture. As a result, the microstructure of surface layers, hardness and abrasive wear behaviours showed different characteristics due to the gas tungsten arc welding parameters.

  4. Latest advances and developments in aluminum shape casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qigui Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing use of aluminum shape castings in structural applications in the automotive and aerospace industries, assurance of cast product integrity and performance has become critical in both design and manufacturing. In this paper, the latest understanding of the relationship between casting quality and mechanical properties of aluminum castings is summarized. Newly developed technologies for alloy design, melting and melt treatment, casting and heat treatment processes in aluminum casting are reviewed. The mechanical properties of aluminum castings strongly depend upon their microstructure constituents and particularly cast defect population and distribution. To produce quality castings with quantifiable properties, the key is to control multi-scale defects and microstructure in the casting. Robust design and development of high integrity aluminum castings through Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME approach is also discussed. The most effective way to optimize the processes and achieve the desirable mechanical properties is through the development and exploitation of robust and accurate multi-scale computational models.

  5. Casting epPCR (cepPCR): A simple random mutagenesis method to generate high quality mutant libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianhua; Ruff, Anna J; Arlt, Marcus; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    During the last decade, directed evolution has become a standard protein engineering strategy to reengineer proteins for industrial applications under high stress conditions (e.g., high temperature, extreme pH, ionic liquids, or organic solvents). The most commonly employed method for diversity generation to improve biocatalysts for these properties is random mutagenesis by error-prone polymerase chain reaction (epPCR). However, recent reports show that epPCR often fails to produce >70% of beneficial positions/amino acid exchanges which improve enzyme properties such as organic solvent or ionic liquid resistance. In this report, bsla (543 bp, small lipase gene from Bacillus subtilis) was divided into three fragments (147, 192, 204 bp). Each fragment was subjected to an epPCR with a high mutation load (22, 31, and 33 mutations per kb) in order to increase the number of identified beneficial positions while maintaining a fraction of active population which can efficiently be screened in agar plate or microtiter plate format. The use of this "casting epPCR" process termed as (cepPCR), doubles the number of identified beneficial positions (from 14% to 29%), when compared to standard epPCR for the BSLA enzyme model. A further increase to 39% of beneficial positions is obtainable through combination of cepPCR with the transversion biased sequence saturation mutagenesis (SeSaM) method. Furthermore, sequencing of up to 600 mutations per fragment provided valuable insights into the correlation of total throughput and number of identified beneficial positions as well as how an efficient balance of screening efforts to obtainable results can be achieved in directed evolution campaigns. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1921-1927. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cast Aluminum Alloys for High Temperature Applications Using Nanoparticles Al2O3 and Al3-X Compounds (X = Ti, V, Zr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of nanoparticles Al2O3 and Al3-X compounds (X = Ti, V, Zr) on the improvement of mechanical properties of aluminum alloys for elevated temperature applications is presented. These nanoparticles were selected based on their low cost, chemical stability and low diffusions rates in aluminum at high temperatures. The strengthening mechanism at high temperature for aluminum alloy is based on the mechanical blocking of dislocation movements by these nanoparticles. For Al2O3 nanoparticles, the test samples were prepared from special Al2O3 preforms, which were produced using ceramic injection molding process and then pressure infiltrated by molten aluminum. In another method, Al2O3 nanoparticles can also be homogeneously mixed with fine aluminum powder and consolidated into test samples through hot pressing and sintering. With the Al3-X nanoparticles, the test samples are produced as precipitates from in-situ reactions with molten aluminum using conventional permanent mold or die casting techniques. It is found that cast aluminum alloy using nanoparticles Al3-X is the most cost effective method to produce high strength aluminum alloys for high temperature applications in comparison to nanoparticles Al2O3. Furthermore, significant mechanical properties retention in high temperature environment could be achieved with Al3-X nanoparticles, resulting in tensile strength of nearly 3 times higher than most 300- series conventional cast aluminum alloys tested at 600 F.

  7. Characteristic of intermetallic phases in cast dental CoCrMo alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Podrez-Radziszewska

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Apart from chromium and molybdenum, casting alloys of cobalt usually contain also up to 0.35 % of carbon. With significant content ofcarbon, presence of carbide-forming alloying elements results in creating carbide phases. These alloys are characterised by dendriticstructure of solid solution of chromium and molybdenum in cobalt with interdendritically precipitated carbides. Because of high chromiumcontent, dominating are M23C6-type carbides, but chromium-rich carbides can be also of M7C3 and M3C2-types. The other elements inthe alloy result in creating M6C and MC-type carbides. In the case of low carbon content, creating carbides and forming intermetallicphases based on the alloying elements and cobalt become limited.The presented research was aimed at characterising structure of the cobalt-based dental alloy containing trace quantity of carbon.Characterised were intermetallic phases hardening the alloy. Microscopic examinations using light microscopy, SEM and TEM werecarried out. Chemical microanalysis of the precipitates using X-ray analyser EDS was performed, as well as phase analysis using selectedarea electron diffraction.

  8. Microstructural characterisation of chromium slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Burja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this chromium slags that form during melting of chromium alloyed steels are examined. During melting and oxidation of these steel grades a considerable amount of chromium is lost, and gained back with slag reduction. Laboratory experiments were performed to study the mechanism of chromium oxide reduction by silicon. Slags chemistry and phase composition have a strong effect on the steelmaking process. Phase analysis revealed two types of chromium oxides, calcium chromites and chromite spinels dependent on chemistry and basicity of the slag.

  9. Final Report - Effects of High Spinel and Chromium Oxide Crystal Contents on Simulated HLW Vitrification in DM100 Melter Tests, VSL-09R1520-1, Rev. 0, dated 6/22/09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Matlack, K. S.; Kot, W.; Pegg, I. L.; Chaudhuri, M.; Lutze, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of the work was to evaluate the effects of spinel and chromium oxide particles on WTP HLW melter operations and potential impacts on melter life. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests, settling and rheological tests, and tests on the DM100 melter system. Crucible testing was designed to develop and identify HLW glass compositions with high waste loadings that exhibit formation of crystalline spinel and/or chromium oxide phases up to relatively high crystal contents (i.e., > 1 vol%). Characterization of crystal settling and the effects on melt rheology was performed on the HLW glass formulations. Appropriate candidate HLW glass formulations were selected, based on characterization results, to support subsequent melter tests. In the present work, crucible melts were formulated that exhibit up to about 4.4 vol% crystallization.

  10. Influence of carbon content on the segregation processes in duplex cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyja D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed at determination of increased carbon content influence on segregation processes in a duplex ferritic-austenitic cast steel. The analysis of raw cast steel structure was carried out using a Zeiss Axiovert 25 optical microscope. The chemical composition of selected areas was examined using a JEOL JSM 5400 scanning microscope equipped with an EDX microanalyser and the obtained results were verified using the Thermo-Calc software. The investigations carried out have shown that the lower carbon content causes the smaller amount of the intermetallic phases precipitates undesirable in the manufacturing process, which – affecting a clear deterioration in raw cast steel impact strength – promote origination of cracks in the castings. The increased, due to segregation processes, content of carbon, chromium and molybdenum within the solidification grain boundaries promotes precipitation of carbides already in the liquid state, what increases the propensity for hot cracking. The molybdenum content, in a cast steel of increased carbon content, varies from ~4% in the centre of solidification grain to ~6.5% in its boundary areas, and the chromium content from ~28% to 32%, respectively. Small enrichment of ferrite with molybdenum and chromium in boundary areas of cast steel solidification grains containing 0.02% carbon causes higher ferrite stability and prevents its decomposition in the temperature range from 600 to 900°C, what makes that the cast steel of lower carbon content features uniform ferritic-austenitic structure in as cast state.

  11. Fan Fuel Casting Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, Seth D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-28

    LANL was approached to provide material and design guidance for a fan-shaped fuel element. A total of at least three castings were planned. The first casting is a simple billet mold to be made from high carbon DU-10Mo charge material. The second and third castings are for optimization of the actual fuel plate mold. The experimental scope for optimization is only broad enough for a second iteration of the mold design. It is important to note that partway through FY17, this project was cancelled by the sponsor. This report is being written in order to capture the knowledge gained should this project resume at a later date.

  12. Slip-Cast Superconductive Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Buckley, John D.; Vasquez, Peter; Buck, Gregory M.; Hicks, Lana P.; Hooker, Matthew W.; Taylor, Theodore D.

    1993-01-01

    Complex shapes fabricated without machining. Nonaqueous slip-casting technique used to form complexly shaped parts from high-temperature superconductive materials like YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-delta). Such parts useful in motors, vibration dampers, and bearings. In process, organic solvent used as liquid medium. Ceramic molds made by lost-wax process used instead of plaster-of-paris molds, used in aqueous slip-casting but impervious to organic solvents and cannot drain away liquid medium. Organic-solvent-based castings do not stick to ceramic molds as they do to plaster molds.

  13. Biosorption of chromium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathiresan

    metal accumulation in the biomass was determined by using an inductively coupled plasma system. (ICP- Optical ... processing time with 30 batch experimental plan derived from the centre composite design (CCD) of .... Central composite design matrix for the experimental design and predicted responses for chromium.

  14. Chromium and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging is associated with increased blood glucose, insulin, blood lipids, and fat mass, and decreased lean body mass leading to increased incidences of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Improved chromium nutrition is associated with improvements in all of these variables. Insulin sensitivity de...

  15. High Voltage Resistive Divider Based on Cast Microwire in Glass Insulation on 6–24 kV Alternating Current of Commercial Frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravleov A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It is presented the analysis and description of the construction of the high voltage resistive divider on the base of cast microwire in glass insulation on 6–24 kV alternating current of commercial frequency. It is presented the procedure of compensation of frequency error during the process of fabrication of divides and results of tests of the sample model of the divider as well.

  16. APPLICATION OF SPHEROIDIZING «CHIPS»-MASTER ALLOY ON COPPER BASE CONTAINING NANOSCALE PARTICLES OF YTTRIUM OXIDE FOR HIGH-STRENGTH CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarity of the technology of obtaining high-strength cast iron is application in out-furnace treatment various inoculants containing magnesium. In practice of foundry production spheroidizing master alloys based on ferrosilicon (Fe-Si-Mg type and «heavy» alloying alloys on copper and nickel base are widespread. The urgent issue is to improve their efficiency by increasing the degree of magnesium assimilation, reduction of specific consumption of additives, and minimizing dust and gas emissions during the process of spheroidizing treatment of liquid iron. One method of solving this problem is the use of inoculants in a compact form in which the process of dissolution proceeds more efficiently. For example, rapidly quenched granules or «chip»-inoculants are interesting to apply.The aim of present work was to study the peculiarities of production and application of «Chips»-inoculants on copper and magnesium base with additions of yttrium oxide. The principle of mechatronics was used, including the briquetting inoculants’ components after their mixing with the subsequent high-speed mechanical impact and obtaining plates with a thickness of 1–2 mm.Spheroidizing treatment of molten metal has been produced by ladle method using «Chips»-inoculants in the amount of 0.8%. Secondary graphitization inoculation was not performed. Studies have shown that when the spheroidizing treatment of ductile iron was performed with inoculants developed, the process of interaction of magnesium with the liquid melt runs steadily without significant pyroeffect and emissions of metal outside of the ladle.This generates a structure of spheroidal graphite of regular shape (SGf5. The presence in the inoculant of yttrium oxide has a positive impact on the spheroidal graphite counts and the tendency of high-strength cast iron to form «white» cast iron structure. Mechanical properties of the obtained alloy correspond to high-strength cast iron HSCI60.

  17. Phosphate solubilization and chromium (VI) remediation potential of Klebsiella sp. strain CPSB4 isolated from the chromium contaminated agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratishtha; Kumar, Vipin; Usmani, Zeba; Rani, Rupa; Chandra, Avantika

    2018-02-01

    In this study, an effort was made to identify an efficient phosphate solubilizing bacterial strain from chromium contaminated agricultural soils. Based on the formation of a solubilized halo around the colonies on Pikovskaya's agar amended with chromium (VI), 10 strains were initially screened out. Out of 10, strain CPSB4, which showed significantly high solubilization zone at different chromium concentrations, was selected for further study. The strain CPSB4 showed significant plant growth promotion traits with chromium (VI) stress under in-vitro conditions in broth. The plant growth promotion activities of the strain decreased regularly, but were not completely lost with the increase in concentration of chromium up to 200 mg L(-1). On subjected to FT-IR analysis, the presence of the functional group, indicating the organic acid aiding in phosphate solubilization was identified. At an optimal temperature of 30 (°)C and pH 7.0, the strain showed around 93% chromium (VI) reduction under in-vitro conditions in broth study. In soil condition, the maximum chromium (VI) reduction obtained was 95% under in-vitro conditions. The strain CPSB4 was identified as Klebsiella sp. on the basis of morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This study shows that the diverse role of the bacterial strain CPSB4 would be useful in the chromium contaminated soil as a good bioremediation and plant growth promoting agent as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  19. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Derui; Lian Haiping

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  20. Monel Metal Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1935-07-17

    foot is adequate. A refractory , open sand should be used. Melting and Casting: The alloys are successfully produced from electro-nickel and copper...desirable if the charge is not chiefly Monel Metal scrap. About 0.1% magnesium should be ;ell stirred into the melt in the ladle before pouring. The addition...such as is used for the more refractory valve trim alloys. Carboloy tools probably can be used to advantage for the high silicon Monel Metal alloys

  1. Electrical and mechanical properties of some high-alumina compositions obtained by the casting process of aqueous suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spataru M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the choosen material compositions, the manner of preparing and shaping of composites are presented. Measurements of the mechanical resistance and electrical resistivities of cast samples obtained by pouring in plaster moulds are presented comparatively with the same properties obtained on mould samples by other processes.

  2. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Allen Miller

    2005-03-30

    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  3. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on the Effect of Die Temperature on the Quality of the Products in High-Pressure Die-Casting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadeghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Die temperature in high-pressure die casting of A380 alloy is optimized by experimental observation and numerical simulation. Ladder frame (one part of the new motor EF7 with a very complicated geometry was chosen as an experimental sample. Die temperature and melt temperature were examined to produce a sound part. Die temperatures at the initial step and the final filling positions were measured and the difference between these values was calculated. ProCAST software was used to simulate the fluid flow and solidification step of the part, and the results were verified by experimental measurements. It is shown that the proper die temperature for this alloy is above 200°C.

  4. Development of a Fluid-Particle Model in Simulating the Motion of External Solidified Crystals and the Evolution of Defect Bands in High-Pressure Die Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Cheng; Xiong, Shoumei; Li, Xiaobo; Guo, Zhipeng

    2016-04-01

    A numerical fluid-particle model was developed to simulate the motion of external solidified crystals (ESCs) in the melt during the filling process of high-pressure die casting (HPDC). Simulation results on a tensile bar casting with two types of ingates (semi-circle and circle) revealed that for a long time scale the ESCs tended to distribute in a ring pattern around the specimen center, whereas for a short time scale the ESC distribution changed constantly from the ring pattern to either the center pattern or the ring-center pattern. It was proposed that the defect bands would form at these areas where two solidification fronts met (where solidification shrinkage occurred), including one originating from the skin layer of the specimen and the other from the ESC region. Accordingly, three types of defect band patterns, which were commonly observed in HPDC experiment, could be successfully simulated and explained using this model.

  5. The fatigue life of a cobalt-chromium alloy after laser welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bayaa, Nabil Jalal Ahmad; Clark, Robert K F; Juszczyk, Andrzej S; Radford, David R

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the fatigue life of laser welded joints in a commercially available cast cobalt-chromium alloy. Twenty rod shaped specimens (40 mm x 1.5 mm) were cast and sand blasted. Ten specimens were used as controls and the remaining ten were sectioned and repaired using a pulsed Nd: YAG laser welder. All specimens were subjected to fatigue testing (30N - 2Hz) in a controlled environment. A statistically significant difference in median fatigue life was found between as-cast and laser welded specimens (p cracks, pores and constriction of the outer surface in the welded specimens despite 70% penetration of the weld.

  6. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  7. Effect of Calcium Oxide on the Crushing Strength, Reduction, and Smelting Performance of High-Chromium Vanadium–Titanium Magnetite Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongjin Cheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of calcium oxide on the crushing strength, reduction, and smelting performance of high-chromium vanadium–titanium magnetite pellets (HCVTMP was studied in this work. The main characterization methods of an electronic universal testing machine (EUTM, X-ray fluorescent (XRF, inductively-coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscope-energy disperse spectroscopy (SEM-EDS were employed. The crushing strength was affected by the mineral phases generated during oxidative baking and the subsequently-formed pellet microstructures owing to CaO addition. The reduction and smelting properties of HCVTMP with different CaO additives were measured and characterized with different softening-melting-dripping indices. Although HCVTMP showed the highest crushing strength with CaO addition of ca. 2 wt %, more CaO addition may be needed to achieve high permeability of the furnace burdens and a good separation condition of the slag and melted iron. In the formation process of the slag and melted iron, it can be determined that CaO could have a relationship with the transformation behavior of Cr, V, and Ti to some extent, with respect to the predominant chemical composition analysis of ICP-AES and XRF. With the microscopic examination, the restraining formation of Ti(C,N and the promoting formation of CaTiO3 are in accordance with the improved melting-dripping indices, including the decrease of the maximum external static load and gas permeability, and the increase of the melting-dripping zone and dripping difficulty.

  8. Studying the causes of high chromium concentration in the leather production process at Tehran Charmshahr industrial complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahdiabadi

    2016-04-01

      Results: The results indicated the existence of toxic pollutants such as Cr+3 and Cr+6 in leather wastewater, the relatively high level of organic loads with low biodegradability, high levels of COD, BOD, TDS and finally the complexity of the treatment of wastewater.

  9. The CAST Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Autiero, D.; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; Chesi, E.; Davenport, M.; Delattre, M.; Di Lella, L.; Formenti, F.; Irastorza, I.G.; Gomez, H.; Hasinoff, M.; Lakic, B.; Luzon, G.; Morales, J.; Musa, L.; Ortiz, A.; Placci, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Villar, J.A.; Zioutas, K.

    2007-01-01

    One of the three X-ray detectors of the CAST experiment searching for solar axions is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with a multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) as a readout structure. Its design has been optimized to provide high sensitivity to the detection of the low intensity X-ray signal expected in the CAST experiment. A low hardware threshold of 0.8 keV is safely set during normal data taking periods, and the overall efficiency for the detection of photons coming from conversion of solar axions is 62 %. Shielding has been installed around the detector, lowering the background level to 4.10 x 10^-5 counts/cm^2/s/keV between 1 and 10 keV. During phase I of the CAST experiment the TPC has provided robust and stable operation, thus contributing with a competitive result to the overall CAST limit on axion-photon coupling and mass.

  10. High Integrity Castings: Proceedings of the Conference on Advances in High Integrity Castings Held in Conjunction with the 1988 World Materials Congress, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 24-30 September 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    aluminum since pure alumina does not occur in most refractory products which are normally a mullite composi- Fig. 2 - Bottom-pour ladle as used in steel...some cobaltalloys, titanium, and the refractory metals. After drying, the process is repeated again and Centrifugal casting uses the centrifugal forces...made sure no stirring with many refractories , but has little took place at the top of the melt. This affect on ferrous materials, was accomplished by

  11. The Role of Indian Caste Identity and Caste Inconsistent Norms on Status Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Sekerdej, Maciek; von Hecker, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The Indian caste system is a complex social structure wherein social roles like one’s profession became ‘hereditary,’ resulting in restricted social mobility and fixed status hierarchies. Furthermore, we argue that the inherent property of caste heightens group identification with one’s caste. Highly identified group members would protect the identity of the group in situations when group norms are violated. In this paper, we were interested in examining the consequence of caste norm violation and how an individual’s status is mentally represented. High caste norms are associated with moral values while the lower caste norms are associated with immorality. We predicted a ‘black sheep effect,’ that is, when high caste individuals’ group identity (caste norm violation condition) is threatened their salient high caste identity would increase, thereby resulting in devaluing the status of their fellow in-group member if the latter is perceived as perpetrator. We presented participants with a social conflict situation of a victim and a perpetrator that is ‘Caste norm consistent’ (Lower caste individual as a perpetrator and higher caste individual as a victim) and vice versa ‘Caste norm inconsistent’ condition (higher caste individual as perpetrator and lower caste individual as a victim). Then, participants had to choose from nine pictorial depictions representing the protagonists in the story on a vertical line, with varying degrees of status distance. Results showed evidence for the black sheep effect and, furthermore, revealed that no other identity (religious, national, and regional) resulted in devaluing the status of fellow in-group member. These results help us understand the ‘black sheep’ effect in the context of moral norms and status representation and are discussed in the framework of the Indian society. PMID:28408896

  12. Chromium uptake by Fenugreek

    OpenAIRE

    Xanthate D S; Murthy Ch V R; Rajan S C S; Sekhar D M R

    2012-01-01

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum- graecum) is both herb (leaves) and a spice (seed) belonging to the family Fabaceae. Fenugreek leaves and seeds are used in the cuisine of India. Fenugreek also has medicinal value. Fenugreek seeds are known to reduce serum glucose and improve glucose tolerance and hence are prescribed to diabetic patients. In the recent past supplemental Chromium is being prescribed to diabetic patients to activate (increased- insulin binding, insulin receptor number, insulin rec...

  13. ON THE SOLIDIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ALUMINUM ALLOY AA 6061/Al2O3-SiCP COMPOSITE PRODUCED BY HIGH PRESSURE DIE CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BABAFEMI MALOMO

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the high pressure die casting (HPDC process in facilitating a controlled solidification mechanism during the fabrication of hybrid (Al2O3-SiCp reinforced aluminum alloy composite is investigated. The aluminum matrix composite was synthesized with 5%, 10% and 20% volume fraction of reinforcements by infiltrating molten aluminum AA 6061 via squeeze casting into prefabricated ceramic preforms. The parameters for experimentation are the casting pressure (80MPa, pouring temperature (740 degree C, die preheat temperature (300 degree C, pressure holding time (15 s and die cooling rate of 0.2 kg/s water flow rate. The composites were examined by optical microscopy, mechanical properties determined by tensile testing and fractured specimens analyzed by SEM fractography. The results indicate that the sample with 5% volume fraction of reinforcements showed significant variations in temperature profile and intensities of phase transformation at the beginning and the end of solidification, while for samples with 10% and 20% volume fractions, this process occurred at fairly constant temperatures with minimal inflexions in phase characteristics. The solidification time increased progressively with increasing volume fraction of reinforcements as the cooling rates reduce, and the mechanical properties with the exception of percent elongation were enhanced with increasing volume fractions of reinforcements.

  14. Relationship Between the 3D Porosity and β-Phase Distributions and the Mechanical Properties of a High Pressure Die Cast AZ91 Mg Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Somjeet; Sket, Federico; Chiumenti, Michele; Gutiérrez-Urrutia, Iván; Molina-Aldareguía, Jon M.; Pérez-Prado, Maria Teresa

    2013-09-01

    Currently, most magnesium lightweight components are fabricated by casting as this process is cost effective and allows forming parts with complex geometries and weak textures. However, cast microstructures are known to be heterogeneous and contain unpredictable porosity distributions, which give rise to a large variability in the mechanical properties. This work constitutes an attempt to correlate the microstructure and the mechanical behavior of a high pressure die cast (HPDC) Mg AZ91 alloy, aimed at facilitating process optimization. We have built a stairway-shaped die to fabricate alloy sections with different thicknesses and, thus, with a range of microstructures. The grain size distributions and the content of β-phase (Mg17Al12) were characterized by optical and electron microscopy techniques as well as by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The bulk porosity distribution was measured by 3D computed X-ray microtomography. It was found that the through-thickness microhardness distribution is mostly related to the local area fraction of the β-phase and to the local area fraction of the pores. We correlate the tensile yield strength to the average pore size and the fracture strength and elongation to the bulk porosity volume fraction. We propose that this empirical approach might be extended to the estimation of mechanical properties in other HPDC Mg alloys.

  15. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of a novel FeCrNiBSi advanced high-strength steel: Slow, accelerated and fast casting cooling rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askari-Paykani, Mohsen; Shahverdi, Hamid Reza, E-mail: shahverdi@modares.ac.ir; Miresmaeili, Reza

    2016-06-21

    In the current work, three different solidification routes and a two-step heat treatment process were applied to a novel FeCrNiBSi alloy system to introduce a new candidate for advanced high-strength steels. The evolution of the microstructure after solidification, heat treatment, and tensile deformation was characterized using optical and electron microscopy techniques, as well as hardness and room temperature uniaxial tensile tests. The effects of the different solidification routes and heat treatment parameters on the deformation and fracture mechanisms of this steel are discussed. Grain refinement, precipitation hardening, and solid solution as a result of the fast casting cooling rate led to an increase in strength at improved ductility. This result can be explained partly by the less severe stress/strain partitioning at the matrix grain/M{sub 2}B interfaces and better interface cohesion. Moreover, the stress/strain partitioning characteristics between the matrix grains and M{sub 2}B led to a higher initial strain hardening rate. The fast casting cooling rate further promoted ductile fracture mechanisms, which is a result of increased cleavage fracture stress. The higher casting cooling rate and two-step heat treatment resulted in a strong increase in formability index, from 8 GPa% to 24 GPa%, at which the mechanical properties occupy the TRIP envelope. Heat treatment of the fast-cooling specimens led to a small reduction in yield and tensile strength and 22% total elongation percentage improvement (from 10% to 32%).

  16. Development and application of inverse heat transfer model between liquid metal and shot sleeve in high pressure die casting process under non-shooting condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-bo Yu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To predict the heat transfer behavior of A380 alloy in a shot sleeve, a numerical approach (inverse method is used and validated by high pressure die casting (HPDC experiment under non-shooting condition. The maximum difference between the measured and calculated temperature profiles is smaller than 3 ℃, which suggests that the inverse method can be used to predict the heat transfer behavior of alloys in a shot sleeve. Furthermore, the results indicate an increase in maximum interfacial heat flux density (qmax and heat transfer coefficient (hmax with an increase in sleeve filling ratio, especially at the pouring zone (S2 zone. In addition, the values of initial temperature (TIDS and maximum shot sleeve surface temperature (Tsimax at the two end zones (S2 and S10 are higher than those at the middle zone (S5. Moreover, in comparison with fluctuations in heat transfer coefficient (h with time at the two end zones (S2 and S10, 2.4-6.5 kW·m-2·K-1, 3.5-12.5 kW·m-2·K-1, respectively, more fluctuations are found at S5 zone, 2.1-14.7 kW·m-2·K-1. These differences could theoretically explain the formation of the three zones: smooth pouring zone, un-smooth middle zone and smooth zone, with different morphologies in the metal log under the non-shot casting condition. Finally, our calculations also reveal that the values of qmax and hmax cast at 680 ℃ are smaller than those cast at 660 ℃ and at 700 ℃.

  17. [Metallurgical differentiation of cobalt-chromium alloys for implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzwarth, U; Thomas, P; Kachler, W; Göske, J; Schuh, A

    2005-10-01

    Cobalt Chromium alloys are used in cemented total hip or knee arthroplasty as well as in metal-on-metal bearings in total hip arthroplasty. An increasing number of publications report about (allergic) reactions to wear particles of Cobalt Chromium alloys. Reactions to nickel are more frequent in comparison to Cobalt or Chromium particles. It is well known that different kinds of Cobalt Chromium alloys contain different amounts of alloying elements; nevertheless. The aim of the current work was to compare the different Cobalt Chromium alloys according to ASTM F or ISO standards in respect to the different alloying elements. Co28Cr6Mo casting alloys according to ASTM F 75 or ISO 5832-4 as well as forging alloy types according to ASTM F 799 and ISO 5832 such as Co20Cr15W10Ni, Co35Ni20Cr, Fe40Co20Cr10Ni, Co20Cr20Ni, and Co28Cr6Mo were analyzed in respect to their element content of Co, Cr, Ni, Mo, Fe, W, and Mn. In 1935 the Cobalt based alloy "Vitallium" Co30Cr5Mo basically used in the aircraft industry was introduced into medicine. The chemical composition of this alloy based on Cobalt showed 30 wt.% Chromium and 5 wt.% Molybdenum. The differentiation using alloy names showed no Nickel information in single alloy names. The information given about different alloys can lead to an unprecise evaluation of histopathological findings in respect to alloys or alloying constituents. Therefore, implant manufacturers should give the exact information about the alloys used and adhere to European law, Euronorm 93/42/EWG.

  18. Anodization of cast aluminium alloys produced by different casting methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Labisz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the usability of two casting methods, of sand and high pressure cast for the anodization of AlSi12 and AlSi9Cu3 aluminium cast alloys was investigated. With defined anodization parameters like electrolyte composition and temperature, current type and value a anodic alumina surface layer was produced. The quality, size and properties of the anodic layer was investigated after the anodization of the chosen aluminium cast alloys. The Alumina layer was observed used light microscope, also the mechanical properties were measured as well the abrasive wear test was made with using ABR-8251 equipment. The researches included analyze of the influence of chemical composition, geometry and roughness of anodic layer obtained on aluminum casts. Conducted investigations shows the areas of later researches, especially in the direction of the possible, next optimization anodization process of aluminum casting alloys, for example in the range of raising resistance on corrosion to achieve a suitable anodic surface layer on elements for increasing applications in the aggressive environment for example as materials on working building constructions, elements in electronics and construction parts in air and automotive industry.

  19. [Comparison of the clinical effects of selective laser melting deposition basal crowns and cobalt chromium alloy base crowns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-min; Wang, Wei-qian; Ma, Jing-yuan

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical effects of selective laser melting (SLM) deposition basal crowns and cobalt chromium alloy casting base crowns. One hundred and sixty eight patients treated with either SLM deposition basal crowns (110 teeth) or cobalt chromium alloy casting basal crowns (110 teeth) were followed-up for 1 month, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months. The revised standard of American Public Health Association was used to evaluate the clinical effect of restoration, including the color of porcelain crowns, gingival inflammation, gingival margin discoloration, and crack or fracture. Data analysis was conducted with SPSS 20 software package for Student's t test and Chi-square test. Six cases were lost to follow-up. The patients who were treated with SLM deposition basal crowns (104 teeth) and cobalt chromium alloy casting base crowns (101 teeth) completed the study. Patients were more satisfied with SLM deposition cobalt chromium alloy porcelain crowns. There was 1 prosthesis with poor marginal fit after 24 months of restoration in SLM crowns. There were 6 prostheses with edge coloring and 8 with poor marginal fit in cobalt chromium alloy casting base crowns, which was significantly different between the 2 groups(P<0.05). The SLM deposition copings results in smaller edge coloring and better marginal fit than those of cobalt-chrome copings. Patients are pleased with short-term clinical results.

  20. Titanium, vanadium and chromium valences in silicates of ungrouped achondrite NWA 7325 and ureilite Y-791538 record highly-reduced origins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, S. R.; Goodrich, C. A.; Wirick, S.

    2017-05-01

    Titanium, Cr, and V valences were determined by applying micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (micro-XANES) spectroscopy methods to individual grains of olivine and pyroxene in the ungrouped achondrite NWA 7325 and ureilite Y-791538, as well as to plagioclase in NWA 7325. The advantages of applying multiple, multivalent-element-based oxybarometers to individual grains are (1) the ability to cover the entire oxygen fugacity (fO2) range encountered in nature, and (2) the increased reliability from consistent results for semi-independent fO2 proxies. fO2 values were inferred from each mineral valence determination after correcting with available laboratory-experiment-derived, valence-specific partition coefficients to obtain melt valences and then calibrating with the fO2 values of the relevant equal species proportions points suggested for igneous (primarily basaltic) systems. The resulting olivine and pyroxene valences are highly reduced and similar in the two meteorites with substantial fractions of Cr2+, Ti3+ and V2+. The exception is Cr in NWA 7325 pyroxene which is much more oxidized than the Cr in its olivine. Chromium and Ti in plagioclase in NWA 7325 is relatively oxidized (V valence not determined). The anomalously oxidized Cr in NWA 7325 pyroxene may be due to a secondary reheating event that oxidized Cr in the pyroxene without similarly oxidizing Ti and V. Such a separation of the redox couples may be an effect of re-equilibration kinetics, where the valence of Cr would be more rapidly modified. These valences yielded similar mean fO2s for the two meteorites; IW-3.1 ± 0.2 for NWA 7325 and IW-2.8 ± 0.2 for Y-791538, consistent with an origin of NWA 7325 in either Mercury or an asteroid that experienced redox conditions similar to those on the ureilite parent body.

  1. Chromium Exposure and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in High Cardiovascular Risk Subjects - Nested Case-Control Study in the Prevention With Mediterranean Diet (PREDIMED) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Mario; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Muñoz-Bravo, Carlos; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Mariscal, Alberto; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Estruch, Ramón; Corella, Dolores; Arós, Fernando; Fito, Monserrat; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Alonso-Gómez, Ángel; Portoles, Olga; Fiol, Miquel; Bulló, Mónica; Castañer, Olga; Ros, Emilio; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique

    2017-07-25

    Epidemiological data on chromium (Cr) exposure and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are still limited. Toenail Cr level (TCL) provides a time-integrated measure reflecting long-term Cr exposure. We measured TCL to assess the hypothesis that long-term Cr exposure was inversely associated with incident CVD in a population at high risk for CVD.Methods and Results:The associations between TCL and CVD were evaluated in a case-control study nested within the "PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea" (PREDIMED) trial. We randomly selected 147 of the 288 patients diagnosed with CVD during follow-up and matched them on age and sex to 271 controls. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to assess TCL. In-person interviews, medical record reviews, and validated questionnaires were used to assess covariates. The fully adjusted OR for the highest vs. lowest quartile of toenail Cr was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.26-1.14; Ptrend=0.189) for the nested case-control study. On stratification for diabetes mellitus (DM), OR was 1.37 (95% CI: 0.54-3.46; Ptrend=0.364) for the DM group, and 0.25 (95% CI: 0.08-0.80; Ptrend=0.030) for the non-DM group (P for interaction=0.078). The present findings, although not statistically significant, are consistent with previously reported inverse associations between TCL and CVD. These results, especially for non-DM patients, increase the limited epidemiological knowledge about the possible protective role of Cr against CVD. (Trial registration: www.controlled-trials.com; ISRCTN35739639.).

  2. INCONEL 690 CORROSION IN WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT) HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE) GLASS MELTS RICH IN ALUMINUM & BISMUTH & CHROMIUM OR ALUMINUM/SODIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; FENG Z; GAN H; PEGG IL

    2009-11-05

    Metal corrosion tests were conducted with four high waste loading non-Fe-limited HLW glass compositions. The results at 1150 C (the WTP nominal melter operating temperature) show corrosion performance for all four glasses that is comparable to that of other typical borosilicate waste glasses, including HLW glass compositions that have been developed for iron-limited WTP streams. Of the four glasses tested, the Bi-limited composition shows the greatest extent of corrosion, which may be related to its higher phosphorus content. Tests at higher suggest that a moderate elevation of the melter operating temperature (up to 1200 C) should not result in any significant increase in Inconel corrosion. However, corrosion rates did increase significantly at yet higher temperatures (1230 C). Very little difference was observed with and without the presence of an electric current density of 6 A/inch{sup 2}, which is the typical upper design limit for Inconel electrodes. The data show a roughly linear relationship between the thickness of the oxide scale on the coupon and the Cr-depletion depth, which is consistent with the chromium depletion providing the material source for scale growth. Analysis of the time dependence of the Cr depletion profiles measured at 1200 C suggests that diffusion of Cr in the Ni-based Inconel alloy controls the depletion depth of Cr inside the alloy. The diffusion coefficient derived from the experimental data agrees within one order of magnitude with the published diffusion coefficient data for Cr in Ni matrices; the difference is likely due to the contribution from faster grain boundary diffusion in the tested Inconel alloy. A simple diffusion model based on these data predicts that Inconel 690 alloy will suffer Cr depletion damage to a depth of about 1 cm over a five year service life at 1200 C in these glasses.

  3. Influence of Crucible Materials on High-temperature Properties of Vacuum-melted Nickel-chromium-cobalt Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, R F; Rowe, John P; Freeman, J W

    1957-01-01

    A study of the effect of induction-vacuum-melting procedure on the high-temperature properties of a titanium-and-aluminum-hardened nickel-base alloy revealed that a major variable was the type of ceramic used as a crucible. Reactions between the melt and magnesia or zirconia crucibles apparently increased high-temperature properties by introducing small amounts of boron or zirconium into the melts. Heats melted in alumina crucibles had relatively low rupture life and ductility at 1,600 F and cracked during hot-working as a result of deriving no boron or zirconium from the crucible.

  4. Squeeze-casting of magnesium alloys; Pressgiessen (Squeeze-Casting) von Magnesium-Legierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kainer, K.U. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde und Werkstofftechnik; Boehm, E.

    1995-12-31

    The mechanical properties of squeeze castings are superior to other castings. Usually the properties are isotropic due to the homogenity of the microstructure. For these reasons squeeze castings are wellsuited for safety parts. It is possible to use conventional casting alloys, with limited improvements compared to other casting techniques, as well as conventional wrought or newly developed alloys, which are usually not castable, for squeeze-casting. The production of composite materials by infiltration of porous preforms of fibres or particles is possible. The properties of a casting can be locally improved using this technique. Squeeze-casting needs more machinery than sand- or diecasting. Compared to high pressure diecasting, the machinery is compareable, but the effort depends on the geometrie of the cast part. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Squeeze-Cast-Verfahren hergestellte Leichtmetallbauteile zeichnen sich durch verbesserte mechanische Eigenschaften gegenueber durch andere Giessverfahren hergestellte Bauteile aus. Insbesondere die Ermuedungsfestigkeit wird durch den homogenen, isotropen, nahezu fehlerfreien Gefuegeaufbau verbessert. Aus diesen Gruenden sind Squeeze-Cast-Teile besonders fuer Sicherheitsanwendungen geeignet. Es koennen sowohl konventionelle Gusslegierungen, mit begrenzten Verbesserungen gegenueber anderen Giessverfahren, als auch klassische Knet- sowie neu entwickelte Legierungen vergossen werden, welche mit Hilfe anderer Giessverfahren nur eingeschraenkt verarbeitbar sind. Die Herstellung von Verbundwerkstoffen durch Infiltration poroeser Faser- oder Partikelformkoerper, sogenannter Preforms, ist moeglich. Hierdurch koennen die Eigenschaften eines Bauteils lokal erheblich verbessert werden. Das Squeeze-Cast-Verfahren benoetigt gegenueber Sand- und Kokillenguss einen groesseren maschinellen Aufwand. Im Vergleich zum Druckguss ist der Aufwand etwa gleich, jedoch von der Geometrie des Gussstueckes abhaengig. (orig.)

  5. Effects of composition and testing conditions on oxidation behavior of four cast commercial nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, C. E.; Probst, H. B.

    1974-01-01

    Four cast nickel-base superalloys were oxidized at 1000 and 1100 C for times up to 100 hr in static air and a Mach 1 gas stream. The oxidation resistance was judged by weight change, metal thickness loss, depletion-zone formation, and oxide formation and morphology. The alloys which formed mostly nickel aluminate (NiAl2O4) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) (B-1900, VIA, and to a lesser extent 713C) were more oxidation resistant. Poorer oxidation resistance was associated with the appearance of chromium sesquioxide (Cr2O3) and chromite spinel (738X). Refractory metal content had little effect on oxidation resistance. Refractory metals appeared in the scale as tapiolite (NiM2O6, where M represents the refractory metal). Thermal cycling in static air appeared to supply sufficient data for the evaluation of oxidation resistance, especially for alloys which form oxides of low volatility. For alloys of higher chromium levels with high propensities toward forming a chromium-bearing scale of higher volatility, testing under conditions of high gas velocity is necessary to assess fully the behavior of the alloy.

  6. Simulated spatial and temporal dependence of chromium concentration in pure Fe and Fe−14%Cr under high dpa ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vörtler, K.; Mamivand, M.; Barnard, L.; Szlufarska, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Garner, F.A. [Radiation Effects Consulting, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Morgan, D., E-mail: ddmorgan@wisc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    In this work we develop an ab initio informed rate theory model to track the spatial and temporal evolution of implanted ions (Cr{sup +}) in Fe and Fe−14%Cr during high dose irradiation. We focus on the influence of the specimen surface, the depth dependence of ion-induced damage, the damage rate, and the consequences of ion implantation, all of which influence the depth dependence of alloy composition evolving with continued irradiation. We investigate chemical segregation effects in the material by considering the diffusion of the irradiation-induced defects. Moreover, we explore how temperature, grain size, grain boundary sink strength, and defect production bias modify the resulting distribution of alloy composition. Our results show that the implanted ion profile can be quite different than the predicted SRIM implantation profile due to radiation enhanced transport and segregation.

  7. Implications of total content of silicon, aluminium, chromium and formation of thin ferrite films on low ductility at high temperature in non oriented electrical steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Equihua-Guillén, F.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work shows evidence of the implications of total additions of silicon, aluminium and chromium on low ductility during hot rolling in non-oriented electrical steels. This paper explains the reason of ductility loss at temperatures between 950 - 1000°C in electrical steels which exhibit higher Ar3 transformation temperature than C-Mn and microalloyed steels. The empirical equations to determine Ar3 temperature do not consider silicon and aluminium elements. The results show that high content of silicon, aluminium and residual concentration of chromiun considerably increases Ar3 transformation temperature in non-oriented electrical steels. The low ductility at high temperature occurs between Ae3 and Ar3 transformation temperatures. In addition, the results of this work show evidence of thin ferrite films formed near Ar3 temperature and their implications on ductility loss at high temperature.

    Este trabajo muestra evidencia de las implicaciones de la cantidad total de silicio, aluminio y cromo sobre la baja ductilidad en aceros eléctricos durante la laminación en caliente. Este artículo explica la razón de la pérdida de ductilidad a temperaturas entre 950 y 1.000°C en aceros eléctricos. Las ecuaciones empíricas para determinar la temperatura Ar3 no consideran los elementos aluminio y silicio. Los resultados muestran que altos contenidos de silicio, aluminio y la concentración residual de cromo incrementan considerablemente la temperatura de transformación Ar3 en aceros eléctricos de grano no orientado. La baja ductilidad a elevada temperatura ocurre entre las temperaturas de transformación Ae3 y Ar3. Adicionalmente, los resultados de este trabajo muestran evidencia de películas delgadas de ferrita formadas a temperaturas cercanas a Ar3 y sus implicaciones sobre la pérdida de

  8. Vacuum-arc chromium-based coatings for protection of zirconium alloys from the high-temperature oxidation in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuprin, A.S.; Belous, V.A.; Voyevodin, V.N., E-mail: voyev@kipt.kharkov.ua; Bryk, V.V.; Vasilenko, R.L.; Ovcharenko, V.D.; Reshetnyak, E.N.; Tolmachova, G.N.; V' yugov, P.N.

    2015-10-15

    Multilayer Cr–Zr/Cr/Cr–N coatings for protection of zirconium alloys from the high-temperature oxidation in air have been obtained by the vacuum-arc evaporation technique with application of filters for plasma cleaning from macroparticles. The effect of the coatings on the corrosion resistance of zirconium alloys at test temperatures between 660 and 1100 °C for 3600 s has been investigated. The thickness, structure, phase composition, mechanical properties of the coatings and oxide layers before and after oxidation tests were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and nanoindentation technique. It is shown that the hard multilayer coating effectively protects zirconium from the oxidation in air for 1 h at test temperatures. As a result of the oxidation in the coating the CrO and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides are formed which reduce the oxygen penetration through the coating. At maximum test temperature of 1100 °C the oxide layer thickness in the coating is about 5 μm. The tube shape remains unchanged independent of alloy type. It has been found that uncoated zirconium oxidizes rapidly throughout the temperature range under study. At 1100 °C a porous monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} oxide layer of ≥120 μm is formed that leads to the deformation of the samples, cracking and spalling of the oxide layer.

  9. Hybrid framework with cobalt-chromium alloy and gold cylinder for implant superstructure: Bond strength and corrosion resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinari, Masao; Uzawa, Shinobu; Komiyama, Yataro

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate tensile bond strengths and corrosion resistance of CoCr alloys joined with gold cylinder by a soldering system in comparison with the conventional cast-joining system. CoCr alloys joined with gold cylinder by a soldering system using a high-fusing gold solder (CoCr/Solder/Gold cylinder), gold alloy joined with gold cylinder by a cast joining system (Gold alloy/Gold cylinder) and CoCr castings were fabricated. The tensile bond strength and corrosion resistance in 0.9% NaCl solution (pH 7.4 and pH 2.3) were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the fractured surface and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of the joined interfaces were also performed. The tensile bond strengths of the CoCr/Solder/Gold cylinder specimens showed similar values as the Gold alloy/Gold cylinder specimens. SEM observation and EPMA analyses suggested firm bonding between the CoCr alloy and gold cylinder. The released elements from the CoCr/Solder/Gold cylinder specimens were similar to ones from CoCr castings. Results showed that superstructures made of CoCr alloys joined with the gold cylinder using a high-fusing gold solder had sufficient bond strength and high corrosion resistance. These hybrid frameworks with cobalt-chromium alloy and gold cylinder are promising prosthesis for implant superstructures with the low cost and favorable mechanical properties instead of conventional high-gold alloys. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of scale formed on Cr-Ni cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kalandyk

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to identify the scale formed on austenitic chromium-nickel cast steel with additions of Ti and Zr duringoxidising at temperatures of 820 and 1000 °C. The scale identification was done by the technique of scanning microscopy, by X-raydiffraction phase analysis in Bragg-Brentano geometry with constant angle of incidence, and by scratch test.

  11. Composition and optical microstructure of good gray cast iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraisamy, Nithyadevi; Veeravazhuthi, V.

    2013-02-01

    In this Project work, the microstructure and percentage composition of gray cast iron were studied for the given specimen. In microstructure analysis, the formations of structure after and before etching were analyzed and with the use of Optical emission spectrometer, the percentage of carbon, silicon, manganese, phosphorous, sulphur, chromium, copper and titanium are about 3.55%,2.17%,0.097%,0.085%,0.15%,0.462% and 0.021%.

  12. Groundwater contaminant by hexavalent chromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, C. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Oxidation of trivalent chromium to hexavalent chromium has been investigated as a function of total manganese in soils as well as various incubation conditions. Chromium and manganese contents were analyzed by atomic absorption (graphite furnace and flame emission respectively) following acid digestion. Total hexavalent chromium generation capacity was determined by addition of 0.001 M CrCL3, incubation, and analysis by s-diphenyl carbazide. Samples were then leached with CaSO{sub 4} and MgSO{sub 4} and incubated in various environments (oven, freeze-drier, field moist, ultrafreeze) to test for geogenic generation of Cr(IV). The degree of geogenic generation of hexavalent chromium was compared with total Mn and Cr content as well as hexavalent generational capacity.

  13. Highly integrated flow assembly for automated dynamic extraction and determination of readily bioaccessible chromium(VI) in soils exploiting carbon nanoparticle-based solid-phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosende, Maria; Miro, Manuel; Cerda, Victor [University of the Balearic Islands, Department of Chemistry, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Segundo, Marcela A.; Lima, Jose L.F.C. [University of Porto, REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Porto (Portugal)

    2011-06-15

    An automated dynamic leaching test integrated in a portable flow-based setup is herein proposed for reliable determination of readily bioaccessible Cr(VI) under worst-case scenarios in soils containing varying levels of contamination. The manifold is devised to accommodate bi-directional flow extraction followed by processing of extracts via either in-line clean-up/preconcentration using multi-walled carbon nanotubes or automatic dilution at will, along with Cr(VI) derivatization and flow-through spectrophotometric detection. The magnitude of readily mobilizable Cr(VI) pools was ascertained by resorting to water extraction as promulgated by current standard leaching tests. The role of carbon nanomaterials for the uptake of Cr(VI) in soil leachates and the configuration of the packed column integrated in the flow manifold were investigated in detail. The analytical performance of the proposed system for in vitro bioaccessibility tests was evaluated in chromium-enriched soils at environmentally relevant levels and in a standard reference soil material (SRM 2701) with a certified value of total hexavalent chromium. The automated method was proven to afford unbiased assessment of water-soluble Cr(VI) in soils as a result of the minimization of the chromium species transformation. By combination of the kinetic leaching profile and a first-order leaching model, the water-soluble Cr(VI) fraction in soils was determined in merely 6 h against >24 h taken in batchwise steady-state standard methods. (orig.)

  14. Segregation in cast products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    equiaxed transition ..... solute in a cast product, important ones being: size of casting, rate of solidification, mode of heat extraction ..... the segregated region. A principal breakthrough in quantitative evaluation of segregation distribution has come.

  15. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  16. Analyzing the Dynamics and Morphology of Cast-off Pattern at Different Speed Levels Using High-speed Digital Video Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Adamec, Jiri; Grove, Christina

    2017-03-01

    During a bloodstain pattern analysis, one of the essential tasks is to distinguish between different kinds of applied forces as well as to estimate their level of intensity. In this study, high-speed digital imaging has been used to analyze the formation of cast-off patterns generated by a simulated backswing with a blood-bearing object. For this purpose, 0.5 mL blood was applied evenly over the last 5 cm of a blade simulant. Bloodstains were created through the controlled acceleration of a backswing at different speed levels between 1.1 m/sec and 3.8 m/sec. The flight dynamics of blood droplets were captured with an Olympus® i-Speed 3 high-speed digital camera with a Nikon® AF Nikkor 50 mm f/1.8 D lens and analyzed using the Olympus i-Speed 3 Viewer software. The video analysis showed that, during the backswing, blood droplets would move toward the lower end of the knifepoint and would be tangentially thrown off. These droplets impacted on the horizontal surface according to the arc of the swing. An increase in velocity led to longer cast-off patterns with distinct morphological characteristics. Under laboratory conditions, bloodstain pattern analysis allows certain conclusions about the intensity of a backswing and provides instructions on the position of the offender. However, due to the number of unknown variables at a crime scene, such interpretation of cast-off patterns is extremely limited and should be performed with extreme caution. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Role of paramagnetic chromium in chromium(VI)-induced damage in cultured mammalian cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, M

    1994-01-01

    Chromium(VI) compounds are known to be potent toxic and carcinogenic agents. Because chromium(VI) is easily taken up by cells and is subsequently reduced to chromium(III), the formation of paramagnetic chromium such as chromium(V) and chromium(III) is believed to play a role in the adverse biological effects of chromium(VI) compounds. The present report, uses electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy; the importance of the role of paramagnetic chromium in chromium(VI)-induced damage in intac...

  18. High-Temperature Oxidation and Decarburization of 14.55 wt pct Cr-Cast Iron in Dry Air Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremenko, V. G.; Chabak, Yu. G.; Lekatou, A.; Karantzalis, A. E.; Efremenko, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    The oxidation and decarburization behavior of 14.55 wt pct Cr-cast iron at 1273 K to 1423 K (1000 °C to 1150 °C) in a dry air atmosphere was studied. A gravimetric investigation showed that intensive oxidation of cast iron takes place at temperatures above 1273 K (1000 °C). It is found that oxidizing heating is accompanied by decarburization, which manifests itself in secondary and eutectic carbide dissolution. The volume fraction of carbides decreases with temperature and holding duration increasing. Decarburization results in the formation of a decarburized layer up to 4 mm in depth. A carbide-free layer in depth up to 100 μm appears in the free surface after 6 to 8 hours holding at 1373 K to 1423 K (1100 °C to 1150 °C). Preliminary activation energy calculations suggested that the eutectic carbide dissolution at the depths of 50 to 400 μm is controlled by carbon diffusion in austenite. The dissolution of eutectic carbides involves a capillarity-induced mechanism, which consists of formation and growth of capillary cavities inside carbides.

  19. Effect of alloy type and casting technique on the fracture strength of implant-cemented structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-de Oyagüe, Raquel; Osorio, Raquel; Lynch, Christopher; Gilmour, Alan; Toledano, Manuel

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the influence of alloy type and casting procedure on the fracture strength (FS) of metallic frameworks for implant-supported fixed prostheses. Thirty three-unit structures for lower posterior bridges were waxed-up and randomly assigned to two groups (n=15) according to alloy type and casting technique: Group 1 (C): cobalt-chromium cast in a centrifugal machine (TS1, Degussa-Hüls); Group 2 (T): titanium cast in a pressure-differential device (Cyclarc II, Morita). Each structure was cemented onto two prefabricated abutments under a constant seating pressure. After 6 months of water aging, samples were loaded in a static universal testing machine (EFH/5/FR, Microtest) until fracture. Axial compressive loads were applied at the central fossa of the pontics. FS data were recorded and surface topography of the fractured connectors was SEM-analyzed. A Chi-Square test was performed to assess the dependence of pores on the alloy type and casting procedure. ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) tests were run for FS comparisons (p casting procedure. Cobalt-chromium casts often registered pores inside the connectors, which strongly decreased the fracture resistance. An accurate casting of titanium with a pressure-differential system may result in the most predictable technique under the tested experimental conditions.

  20. Study on liquid-liquid bimetal composite casting hammers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Shoufan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Crusher hammers for the mineral processing industry must meet the demands of both high wear resistance at the hammer head and high impact toughness at the hammer handle. The crusher hammers made of Hadfield steel have typically low service life of less than 40 hours. To solve the problem, a kind of bimetal crusher hammers made of high chromium cast iron (HCCI and low alloy steel (LAS has been successfully developed by using liquid-liquid composite casting. The microstructure and composite interface bonding was analyzed using optical microscope, SEM, EDX and XRD. Micrographs indicate that the composite interface is metallurgically bonded with a zigzag shape across the boundary and without unbound region or void. After heat treatment, the composite hammers have shown excellent properties. The hardness of HCCI is at least 63 HRC and its ak is greater than 3.5 J.cm-2/FONT>cm-2; the hardness of LAS is greater than 35 HRC and its ak is no less than 80 J.cm-2/FONT>cm-2. Diffusion of elements takes place at the interface and forms a transition region. The micro hardness increases from LAS to the interface and then to HCCI. Wear comparison was made separately between the bimetal composite hammer and a Hadfield steel hammer in two quarries of Jilin province and Liaoning province. The results showed that the liquid-liquid bimetal composite hammers did not have the falling off of hammer head or impact fracture phenomenon, and their service life was 3.75 times as long as that of the Hadfield steel hammers.

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1126 - Chromium (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chromium (VI). 1926.1126 Section 1926.1126 Labor... Chromium (VI). (a) Scope. (1) This standard applies to occupational exposures to chromium (VI) in all forms... objective data demonstrating that a material containing chromium or a specific process, operation, or...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chromium (VI). 1915.1026 Section 1915.1026 Labor... § 1915.1026 Chromium (VI). (a) Scope. (1) This standard applies to occupational exposures to chromium (VI... cement; or (4) Where the employer has objective data demonstrating that a material containing chromium or...

  3. Comparative study of two commercially pure titanium casting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Faria, Adriana Claudia Lapria; Orsi, Iara Augusta; Mattos, Maria da Gloria Chiarello de; Macedo, Ana Paula; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria

    2010-01-01

    The interest in using titanium to fabricate removable partial denture (RPD) frameworks has increased, but there are few studies evaluating the effects of casting methods on clasp behavior. This study compared the occurrence of porosities and the retentive force of commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) and cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) removable partial denture circumferential clasps cast by induction/centrifugation and plasma/vacuum-pressure. 72 frameworks were cast from CP Ti (n=36) and Co-Cr alloy (n=36; control group). For each material, 18 frameworks were casted by electromagnetic induction and injected by centrifugation, whereas the other 18 were casted by plasma and injected by vacuum-pressure. For each casting method, three subgroups (n=6) were formed: 0.25 mm, 0.50 mm, and 0.75 mm undercuts. The specimens were radiographed and subjected to an insertion/removal test simulating 5 years of framework use. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's to compare materials and cast methods (α=0.05). Three of 18 specimens of the induction/centrifugation group and 9 of 18 specimens of plasma/vacuum-pressure cast presented porosities, but only 1 and 7 specimens, respectively, were rejected for simulation test. For Co-Cr alloy, no defects were found. Comparing the casting methods, statistically significant differences (pcasted. Although both casting methods produced satisfactory CP Ti RPD frameworks, the occurrence of porosities was greater in the plasma/vacuum-pressure than in the induction/centrifugation method, the latter resulting in higher clasp rigidity, generating higher retention force values.

  4. Microstructure and High Temperature Plastic Deformation Behavior of Al-12Si Based Alloy Fabricated by an Electromagnetic Casting and Stirring Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Kyung-Soo; Roh, Heung-Ryeol; Kim, Mok-Soon [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Ho; Park, Joon-Pyo [Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    An as-received EMC/S (electromagnetic casting and stirring)-processed Al-12Si based alloy billet was homogenized to examine its microstructure and high temperature plastic deformation behavior, using compressive tests over the temperature range from 623 to 743 K and a strain rate range from 1.0×10{sup -3} to 1.0×10{sup 0}s{sup -1}. The results were compared with samples processed by the direct chill casting (DC) method. The fraction of equiaxed structure for the as-received EMC/S billet(41%) was much higher than that of the as-received DC billet(6 %). All true stress – true strain curves acquired from the compressive tests exhibited a peak stress at the initial stage of plastic deformation. Flow stress showed a steady state region after the appearance of peak stress with increasing strain. The peak stress decreased with increasing temperature at a given strain rate and a decreasing strain rate at a given temperature. A constitutive equation was made for each alloy, which could be used to predict the peak stress. A recrystallized grain structure was observed in all the deformed specimens, indicating that dynamic recrystallization is the predominant mechanism during high temperature plastic deformation of both the homogenized EMC/S and DC-processed Al-12Si based alloys.

  5. Effects of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzyme levels and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats: A dose–response and curative effects study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiwei; Mao, Guanghua; Li, Qian; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Ting; Li, Fang; Zou, Ye; Wu, Huiyu; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzyme levels and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats, and dose–response and curative effects. Materials and Methods The model of type 2 diabetes rats was developed, and daily treatment with chromium malate was given for 4 weeks. A rat enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit was used to assay glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzyme levels and lipid metabolism changes. Results The results showed that the antihyperglycemic activity increased with administration of chromium malate in a dose–dependent manner. The serum insulin level, insulin resistance index and C-peptide level of the chromium malate groups at a dose of 17.5, 20.0 and 20.8 μg chromium/kg bodyweight were significantly lower than that of the model, chromium trichloride and chromium picolinate groups. The hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucokinase levels of the chromium malate groups at a dose of 17.5, 20.0 and 20.8 μg chromium/kg bodyweight were significantly higher than that of the model, chromium trichloride and chromium picolinate groups. Chromium malate at a dose of 20.0 and 20.8 μg chromium/kg bodyweight significantly changed the total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides levels compared with the chromium trichloride and chromium picolinate groups. Conclusions The results showed that chromium malate exhibits greater benefits in treating type 2 diabetes, and the curative effect of chromium malate is superior to chromium trichloride and chromium picolinate. PMID:26221518

  6. Electrothermal Vaporization-QQQ-ICP-MS for Determination of Chromium in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Particulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresquez, Mark R; Gonzalez-Jimenez, Nathalie; Gray, Naudia; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Watson, Clifford H; Pappas, R Steven

    2017-05-01

    Chromium is transported in mainstream tobacco smoke at very low concentrations. However, when chromium is deposited too deeply in the lungs for mucociliary clearance, or is in a particle that is too large to pass directly through tissues, it bioaccumulates in the lungs of smokers. It is important to determine the concentrations of chromium that are transported in mainstream smoke. Several reliable studies have resulted in reports of chromium concentrations in smoke particulate that were below limits of detection (LODs) for the instruments and methods employed. In this study, electrothermal vaporization-triple quad-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ETV-QQQ-ICP-MS) was chosen for determination of chromium concentrations in mainstream smoke because of the high sensitivity of ETV combined with QQQ-ICP-MS. The smoke from five reference, quality control, and commercial cigarettes was analyzed using ETV-QQQ-ICP-MS with isotope dilution for quantitative determination of chromium. The method LOD was sufficiently low that chromium concentrations in mainstream smoke could indeed be determined. The chromium concentrations in the smoke particulate were between 0.60 and 1.03 ng/cigarette. The range of chromium concentrations was at or below previously reported LODs. Determination of the oxidation state of the chromium transported in mainstream smoke would also be important, in consideration of the fact that both chromium(III) and chromium(VI) oxidation states cause inhalation toxicity, but chromium(VI) is also a carcinogen. It was possible to separate the oxidation states using ETV-QQQ-ICP-MS. However, determination of individual species at the levels found in mainstream smoke particulate matter was not possible with the present method. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Effect of compost and humic acid in mobility and concentration of cadmium and chromium in soil and plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chaab

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of compost and humic acid in mobility and concentration of cadmium and chromium in contaminated soil were investigated. Experiment was carried out with three levels of soil cadmium and chromium and two organic matters (compost and humic acid. The study was performed in a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates. Results indicated that application of organic substances enhanced movement of cadmium and chromium in soil column. Humic acid is more effective than compost on the mobility of cadmium and chromium in soil. Mobility of cadmium and chromium in the lower depths of soil column were increased. Cadmium and chromium concentration in shoots and roots enhanced due to increasing those concentration in soil and application of organic substances. Increase in cadmium in shoots can be attributed to the high mobility of this element in maize plant. Maize root chromium concentration was greater than shoot chromium concentration. Humic acid was more effective than compost as cadmium and chromium concentration in root and shoot was concerned. Low mobility of chromium in plant and accumulation of chromium in roots can be reasons of decreasing of chromium concentration in shoot of plant and its bioaccumulation.

  8. Effect of recasting on the thickness of metal-ceramic interface of nickel-chromium and cobalt-chromium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Nemanja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim. This research was done to establish recasting effects of nickel-chromium and cobalt-chromium alloys on the thickness of their metal-ceramic interface in making fixed partial dentures. Metal-ceramic interface determines their functional integrity and prevents damages on ceramics during mastication. Investigation of metal-ceramic samples is supposed to show if base metal alloys for metalceramics are successfully recycled without any risk of reduction of metal-ceramic interface thickness. Methods. The research was performed as an experimental study. Per six metal-ceramic samples of nickel-chromium alloy (Wiron99 and cobalt-chromium alloy (Wirobond C were made each. Alloy residues were recycled through twelve casting generations with the addition of 50% of new alloy on the occasion of every recasting. Analysis Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX (Oxford Instruments and Scanning Electon Microscop (SEM analysis (JEOL were used to determine thickness of metal-ceramic interface together with PC Software for quantification of visual information's (KVI POPOVAC. Results. Results of this research introduced significant differences between thickness of metal-ceramic interface in every examined recycle generation. Recasting had negative effect on thickness of metal-ceramic interface of the examined alloys. This research showed almost linear reduction of elastic modulus up to the 12th generation of recycling. Conclusion. Recasting of nickel-chromium and cobaltchromium alloys is not recommended because of reduced thickness of metal-ceramic interface of these alloys. Instead of recycling, the alloy residues should be returned to the manufacturers.

  9. Release of Chromium from Orthopaedic Arthroplasties

    OpenAIRE

    Afolaranmi, G.A.; Tettey, J; Meek, R. M. D; Grant, M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Many orthopaedic implants are composed of alloys containing chromium. Of particular relevance is the increasing number of Cobalt Chromium bearing arthroplasies being inserted into young patients with osteoarthritis. Such implants will release chromium ions. These patients will be exposed to the released chromium for over 50 years in some cases. The subsequent chromium ion metabolism and redistribution in fluid and tissue compartments is complex. In addition, the potential biological effects o...

  10. Biological groundwater treatment for hexavalent chromium removal at low chromium concentrations under anoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panousi, E; Mamais, D; Noutsopoulos, C; Mpertoli, K; Kantzavelou, C; Nyktari, E; Kavallari, I; Nasioka, M; Kaldis, A

    2017-10-31

    The objective of this work is to evaluate biological groundwater treatment systems that will achieve hexavalent chromium removal from groundwater at hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) groundwater concentrations in the 0-200 μg/L range under anoxic conditions. The effect of type of organic substrate added as feed to the groundwater treatment system (milk, sugar and cheese whey), the effect of different concentrations of chemical oxygen demand added in the feed (100, 150 and 200 mg/L) and the effect of different hydraulic residence time (1.7, 0.9 and 0.7 d) on process performance were evaluated through the operation of a series of sequential batch reactors under anoxic conditions. Biomass receiving Cr(VI) contaminated groundwater with a low nitrates content exhibited similar Cr(VI) removal efficiency under reductive conditions, with biomass receiving Cr(VI) contaminated groundwater with a high nitrates content. The concentration of organic substrate was crucial for the microbial reduction of Cr(VI). The different hydraulic residence time of the reactors and the different types of organic substrates added did not affect the efficiency of hexavalent chromium removal which was complete. This study demonstrates that biological systems operating under reductive conditions can efficiently treat groundwater containing low or high nitrates concentration and can provide complete hexavalent chromium removal at initial Cr(VI) concentrations of 200 μg/L.

  11. Precipitation kinetics in austenitic 18Cr-30Ni-Nb cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garbiak

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the results of investigations on the precipitation kinetics in austenitic 18%Cr-30%Ni cast steel stabilised with an addition of 1.84 wt% niobium. Phase analysis of isolates extracted from the alloy subjected to annealing within the temperature range of 600–1000oC during 10–1000 h was made. The phase constitution of the isolates mainly comprised niobium carbides of the NbC type and complex chromium carbides of the Cr23C6 type. In specimens annealed within the temperature range of 700–900oC, a high-silicon G phase was additionally identified. The highest kinetics of the precipitation process was recorded after annealing at the temperatures of 800 and 900oC.

  12. Magnesium-lithium casting alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latenko, V. P.; Silchenko, T. V.; Tikhonov, V. A.; Maltsev, V. P.; Korablin, V. P.

    1974-01-01

    The strength properties of magnesium-lithium alloys at room, low, and high temperatures are investigated. It is found that the alloys may have practical application at ambient temperatures up to 100 C, that negative temperatures have a favorable influence on the alloy strength, and that cyclic temperature variations have practically no effect on the strength characteristics. The influence of chemical coatings on corrosion resistance of the MgLi alloys is examined. Several facilities based on pressure casting machines, low-pressure casting machines, and magnetodynamic pumps were designed for producing MgLi alloy castings. Results were obtained for MgLi alloys reinforced with fibers having a volumetric content of 15%.

  13. Examination and Elimination of Defects in Cone Casting Made of Ductile Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzik E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the scope of existing cooperation with the Foundry of Cast Iron ZM “WSK Rzeszów” Ltd. there was carried out research work of microstructure and mechanical properties in the walls of a cone casting made of ductile cast iron. The particular attention was being put to the search of the potential brittle phases which have deleterious effect on ductility and dynamic properties of highly strained use of the casting prone to the potential risk of cracks during the highly strained use.

  14. Crystallization of Low-alloyed Construction Cast Steel Modified with V and Ti

    OpenAIRE

    Studnicki A.; Kondracki M.; Szajnar J.; Wróbel T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper crystallization studies of low-alloyed construction cast steel were presented for different additions of chromium, nickel and molybdenum modified with vanadium and titanium. Studies were conducted using developed TDA stand, which additionally enabled evaluation of cooling rate influence on crystallization process of investigated alloys.

  15. Crystallization of Low-alloyed Construction Cast Steel Modified with V and Ti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studnicki A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper crystallization studies of low-alloyed construction cast steel were presented for different additions of chromium, nickel and molybdenum modified with vanadium and titanium. Studies were conducted using developed TDA stand, which additionally enabled evaluation of cooling rate influence on crystallization process of investigated alloys.

  16. Chromium isotope variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Arcy, Joan Mary

    Chromium (Cr) stable isotopes are a useful tracer of changes in redox conditions because changes in its oxidation state are accompanied by an isotopic fractionation. For this reason the Cr isotope system is being developed as a potential tool for paleo-redox reconstruction. Dissolved Cr in seawater...... is incorporated into carbonates. Hence, ancient carbonates can potentially record the Cr isotopic composition (δ53Cr ‰) of seawater in the geological past. Reliable application and interpretation of this proxy requires a detailed knowledge about processes that fractionate Cr on the Earth’s surface......, and the quantification the Cr isotope composition of major Cr fluxes into and out of ocean. This thesis adds to the current knowledge of the Cr isotope system and is divided into two studies. The focus of the first study was to determine what processes control the Cr isotopic compositionof river water and to quantify...

  17. Mathematical Modeling of High-Temperature Constitutive Equations and Hot Processing Maps for As-Cast SA508-3 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Dashan; Wang, Tao; Zhu, Lingling; Gao, Liang; Cui, Zhenshan

    2016-11-01

    The hot deformation behavior and hot workability characteristics of as-cast SA508-3 steel were studied by modeling the constitutive equations and developing hot processing maps. The isothermal compression experiments were carried out at temperatures of 950°C, 1050°C, 1150°C, and 1250°C and strain rates of 0.001 s-1, 0.01 s-1, 0.1 s-1, and 1 s-1 respectively. The two-stage flow stress models were established through the classical theories on work hardening and softening, and the solution of activation energy for hot deformation was 355.0 kJ mol-1 K-1. Based on the dynamic material model, the power dissipation and instability maps were developed separately at strains of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8. The power dissipation rate increases with both the increase of temperature and the decrease of strain rate, and the instable region mainly appears on the conditions of low temperature and high strain rate. The optimal hot working parameters for as-cast SA508-3 steel are 1050-1200°C/0.001-0.1 s-1, with about 25-40% peak efficiency of power dissipation.

  18. Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure on the 3D Porosity Distribution and Mechanical Behavior of a High Pressure Die Cast Mg AZ91 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sket, Federico; Fernández, Ana; Jérusalem, Antoine; Molina-Aldareguía, Jon M.; Pérez-Prado, María Teresa

    2015-09-01

    A limiting factor of high pressure die cast (HPDC) Mg alloys is the presence of porosity, which has a detrimental effect on the mechanical strength and gives rise to a large variability in the ductility. The application of hydrostatic pressure after casting is known to be beneficial to improve the mechanical response of HPDC Mg alloys. In this study, a combined experimental and simulation approach has been developed in order to investigate the influence of pressurization on the 3D porosity distribution and on the mechanical behavior of an HPDC Mg AZ91 alloy. Examination of about 10,000 pores by X-ray computed microtomography allowed determining the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the bulk porosity volume fraction, as well as the change in volume and geometry of each individual pore. The evolution of the 3D porosity distribution and mechanical behavior of a sub-volume containing 200 pores was also simulated by finite element analysis. Both experiments and simulations consistently revealed a decrease in the bulk porosity fraction and a bimodal distribution of the individual volume changes after the application of the pressure. This observation is associated with pores containing internal pressure as a result of the HPDC process. Furthermore, a decrease in the complexity factor with increasing volume change is observed experimentally and predicted by simulations. The pressure-treated samples have consistently higher plastic flow strengths.

  19. Casting directly from a computer model by using advanced simulation software FLOW-3D Cast ®

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sirviö; M. Woś

    2009-01-01

    ConiferRob - A patternless casting technique, originally conceived at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and furtherdeveloped at its spin-off company, Simtech Systems, offers up to 40% savings in product development costs, and up to two months shorterdevelopment times compared to conventional techniques. Savings of this order can be very valuable on today's highly competitivemarkets. Casting simulation is commonly used for designing of casting systems. However, most of the software are ...

  20. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garza, J G; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.

    2014-01-01

    of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led...

  1. Glovebox Advanced Casting System Casting Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Casting optimization in the GACS included three broad areas; casting of U-10Zr pins, incorporation of an integral FCCI barrier, and development of a permanent crucible coating. U-10Zr casting was improved over last year’s results by modifying the crucible design to minimize contact with the colder mold. Through these modifications casting of a three pin batch was successful. Incorporation of an integral FCCI barrier also was optimized through furnace chamber pressure changes during the casting cycle to reduce gas pressures in the mold cavities which led to three full length pins being cast which incorporated FCCI barriers of three different thicknesses. Permanent crucible coatings were tested against a base case; 1500°C for 10 minutes in a U-20Pu-10Zr molten alloy. None of the candidate coating materials showed evidence of failure upon initial visual examination. In all areas of work a large amount of characterization will be needed to fully determine the effects of the optimization activities. The characterization activities and future work will occur next year.

  2. Chromium-induced kidney disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Wedeen, R P; Qian, L F

    1991-01-01

    Kidney disease is often cited as one of the adverse effects of chromium, yet chronic renal disease due to occupational or environmental exposure to chromium has not yet been reported. Occasional cases of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) following massive absorption of chromate have been described. Chromate-induced ATN has been extensively studied in experimental animals following parenteral administration of large doses of potassium chromate (hexavalent) (15 mg/kg body weight). The chromate is se...

  3. Studies on copper alloys containing chromium on the copper side phase diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, T.

    1984-01-01

    Specimens were prepared from vacuum melted alloys of high purity vacuum melted copper and electrolytic chromium. The liquidus and eutectic point were determined by thermal analysis. The eutectic temperature is 1974.8 F and its composition is 1.28 wt% of chromium. The determination of solid solubility of chromium in copper was made by microscopic observation and electrical resistivity measurement. The solubility of chromium in solid copper is 0.6 wt% at 1050 F, 0.4 wt% at 1000 F, 0.25 wt% at 950 F, 0.17 wt% at 900 F, and 0.30 wt% at 840 F.

  4. Improved Slip Casting Of Ceramic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Gregory M.; Vasquez, Peter; Hicks, Lana P.

    1994-01-01

    Improved technique of investment slip casting developed for making precise ceramic wind-tunnel models. Needed in wind-tunnel experiments to verify predictions of aerothermodynamical computer codes. Ceramic materials used because of their low heat conductivities and ability to survive high temperatures. Present improved slip-casting technique enables casting of highly detailed models from aqueous or nonaqueous solutions. Wet shell molds peeled off models to ensure precise and undamaged details. Used at NASA Langley Research Center to form superconducting ceramic components from nonaqueous slip solutions. Technique has many more applications when ceramic materials developed further for such high-strength/ temperature components as engine parts.

  5. Identification of a cast iron alloy containing nonstrategic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C. V.; Anton, D. L.; Lemkey, F. D.; Nowotny, H.; Bailey, R. S.; Favrow, L. H.; Smeggil, J. G.; Snow, D. B.

    1989-01-01

    A program was performed to address the mechanical and environmental needs of Stirling engine heater head and regenerator housing components, while reducing the dependence on strategic materials. An alloy was developed which contained no strategic elemental additions per se. The base is iron with additions of manganese, molybdenum, carbon, silicon, niobium, and ferro-chromium. Such an alloy should be producible on a large scale at very low cost. The resulting alloy, designated as NASAUT 4G-Al, contained 15 Mn, 15 Cr, 2 Mo, 1.5 C, 1.0 Si, 1.0 Nb (in weight percent) with a balance of Fe. This alloy was optimized for chemistry, based upon tensile strength, creep-rupture strength, fracture behavior, and fatigue resistance up to 800 C. Alloys were also tested for environmental compatibility. The microstructure and mechanic properties (including hardness) were assessed in the as-cast condition and following several heat treatments, including one designed to simulate a required braze cycle. The alloy was fabricated and characterized in the form of both equiaxed and columnar-grained castings. The columnar grains were produced by directional solidification, and the properties were characterized in both the longitudinal and transverse orientations. The NASAUT 4G-Al alloy was found to be good in cyclic-oxidation resistance and excellent in both hydrogen and hot-corrosion resistance, especially in comparison to the baseline XF-818 alloy. The mechanical properties of yield strength, stress-rupture life, high-cycle-fatigue resistance, and low-cycle-fatigue resistance were good to excellent in comparison to the current alloy for this application, HS-31 (X-40), with precise results depending in a complex manner on grain orientation and temperature. If required, the ductility could be improved by lowering the carbon content.

  6. Development of vacuum continuous casting technology for uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.S.; Kim, C. K.; Kim, K. H.; Lee, D. B.; Kim, J. D.; Jang, S. J.; Ahn, H. S.; Shin, Y. J

    2001-02-01

    The spent fuel disposal process of new dry storage concept has been developed in KAERI, in which the uranium metal abstracted by Li-reduction of spent fuel will be formed to long rods and then the rods will be arranged uniformly in canister. The objective of this study is to review the feasibility of applying the continuous casting method to cast a long rod with modifying the vacuum high-frequency induction furnace to vacuum continuous casting system, which was normally used to cast the uranium. The results are as follows. With the nozzle size of 3mm and the withdrawal speed of 3.5 mm/sec, the length of 160mm, diameter of 30 mm continuous casting uranium bar was successfully cast. This result shows there might be a possibility of continuous casting of uranium and helps the design and fabrication of new continuous casting equipment.

  7. COMPLEX MODIFICATION OF GRAY CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the complex modifier by chemical – active and surface-active additives of gray cast iron on the size of chill and on the width of molted iron zone was researched. The width of a chill zone and molted iron zones were measured at chank ends of various diameter cores. The cores were casted on a massive steel plate and also in standard chill tests. It was established that additional adding of surface-active bismuth in structure of various graphitizing modifiers promoted to reduce the width a chill zone and molted iron zones. It was established that the complex modifiers consisting of chemical – active and surfaceactive components are effective in fight with chill in cast iron castings and can be recommended for application in foundry shops of the entities of a machine-building profile for production of high-quality castings

  8. Effect of Casting Material on the Cast Pressure After Sequential Cast Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Aaron; Shaw, K Aaron; Boomsma, Shawn E; Cameron, Craig D

    2017-01-01

    Circumferential casting is a vital component of nonoperative fracture management. These casts are commonly valved to release pressure and decrease the risk of complications from swelling. However, little information exists regarding the effect of different casting supplies on the pressure within the cast. Seventy-five long-arm casts were performed on human volunteers, divided between 5 experimental groups with 15 casts in each groups. Testing groups consisted of 2 groups with a plaster short-arm cast overwrapped with fiberglass to a long arm with either cotton or synthetic cast padding. The 3 remaining groups included fiberglass long-arm casts with cotton, synthetic, or waterproof cast padding. A pediatric blood pressure cuff bladder was placed within the cast and inflated to 100 mm Hg. After inflation, the cast was sequentially released with pressure reading preformed after each stage. Order of release consisted of cast bivalve, cast padding release, and cotton stockinet release. After release, the cast was overwrapped with a loose elastic bandage. Difference in pressure readings were compared based upon the cast material. Pressures within the cast were found to decrease with sequential release of cast. The cast type had no effect of change in pressure. Post hoc testing demonstrated that the type of cast padding significantly affected the cast pressures with waterproof padding demonstrating the highest pressure readings at all time-points in the study, followed by synthetic padding. Cotton padding had the lowest pressure readings at all time-points. Type of cast padding significantly influences the amount of pressure within a long-arm cast, even after bivalving the cast and cutting the cast padding. Cotton cast padding allows for the greatest change in pressure. Cotton padding demonstrates the greatest change in pressure within a long-arm cast after undergoing bivalve. Synthetic and waterproof cast padding should not be used in the setting of an acute fracture to

  9. Dimensionally Controlled Lithiation of Chromium Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fister, Tim T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hu, Xianyi [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Esbenshade, Jennifer [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Chen, Xiao [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Wu, Jinsong [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Dravid, Vinayak [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Bedzyk, Michael [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Long, Brandon [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gewirth, Andrew A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Shi, Bing [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schlepütz, Christian M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fenter, Paul [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-12

    Oxide conversion reactions are an alternative approach for high capacity lithium ion batteries but are known to suffer from structural irreversibility associated with the phase separation and reconstitution of reduced metal species and Li2O. In particular, the morphology of the reduced metal species is thought to play a critical role in the electrochemical properties of a conversion material. Here we use a model electrode with alternating layers of chromium and chromium oxide to better understand and control these phase changes in real-time and at molecular length scales. Despite lacking crystallinity at the atomic scale, this superstructure is observed (with X-ray reflectivity, XR) to lithiate and delithiate in a purely one-dimensional manner, preserving the layered structure. The XR data show that the metal layers act as nucleation sites for the reduction of chromium in the conversion reaction. Irreversibility during delithiation is due to the formation of a ternary phase, LiCrO2, which can be further delithiated at higher potentials. The results reveal that the combination of confining lithiation to nanoscale sheets of Li2O and the availability of reaction sites in the metal layers in the layered structure is a strategy for improving the reversibility and mass transport properties that can be used in a wide range of conversion materials.

  10. Investigation of CAST-10-2/DOA 2 airfoil in NAE high Reynolds number two-dimensional test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y. Y.

    1989-01-01

    A common airfoil model with the CAST 10-2/DOA-2 profile and 228 mm (9 inches) chord length was tested. The tests performed in NAE covered the Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.8 and Reynolds numbers from 10 to 30 million. The model was tested with transition free and with transition fixed at 5 percent chord for both the upper and the lower surfaces. The data obtained were analyzed for the effects of Reynolds number, transition fixing and Mach number. The role of the boundary layer on the displacement effect, the interaction with the shock wave and the trailing edge separation are examined. The results are summarized as follows: (1) the airfoil performance depends strongly on Reynolds number and transition fixing; (2) with transition fixed, the aerodynamic quantities such as lift, pitching moment and drag show a monotonic variation with Reynolds number; (3) with transition free, the aerodynamic quantities vary less regularly with Reynolds number and a slight parametric dependency is shown. The weak dependency is due to the compensatory effect of the forward shift of the transition position and the thinning of the turbulent boundary layer as Reynolds number increases; (4) the shock Mach number and the shock position are weakly dependent on Reynolds number; and (5) the long extent of the laminar boundary layer at transonic speeds reduces the drag appreciably at low Reynolds numbers. The drag bucket around the design Mach number can be observed below Reynolds number 15 million.

  11. A high precision instrument to measure angular and binocular deviation introduced by aircraft windscreens by using a shadow casting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivananju, B. N.; Yamdagni, S.; Vasu, R. M.; Asokan, S.

    2012-12-01

    Objects viewed through transparent sheets with residual non-parallelism and irregularity appear shifted and distorted. This distortion is measured in terms of angular and binocular deviation of an object viewed through the transparent sheet. The angular and binocular deviations introduced are particularly important in the context of aircraft windscreens and canopies as they can interfere with decision making of pilots especially while landing, leading to accidents. In this work, we have developed an instrument to measure both the angular and binocular deviations introduced by transparent sheets. This instrument is especially useful in the qualification of aircraft windscreens and canopies. It measures the deviation in the geometrical shadow cast by a periodic dot pattern trans-illuminated by the distorted light beam from the transparent test specimen compared to the reference pattern. Accurate quantification of the shift in the pattern is obtained by cross-correlating the reference shadow pattern with the specimen shadow pattern and measuring the location of the correlation peak. The developed instrument is handy to use and computes both angular and binocular deviation with an accuracy of less than ±0.1 mrad (≈0.036 mrad) and has an excellent repeatability with an error of less than 2%.

  12. Influence of die lubricants on pickling and conversion treatment of high-pressure die-cast AM30 magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blawert, Carsten; Da Conceicao, Thiago Ferreira; Kainer, Karl Ulrich; Hoeche, Daniel [Corrosion and Magnesium Surface Technology, Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht - HZG, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Izquierdo, Patrick; Klose, Stephan G. [Daimler AG, 71059 Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    The pre-treatment of magnesium-based components plays an important role in surface engineering technology to guarantee good adhesion of the final coating system to the magnesium substrate in order to achieve good corrosion resistance. This paper focuses on the influence of two different die lubricants - one based on mineral oil, the other on siloxane - on the pickling and conversion treatment of an AM30 alloy. The surface conditions after casting, pickling, and conversion treatment were determined by X-ray-induced photoelectron spectroscopy, spark erosion, optical emission spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (including EDX). The influence of the different die lubricants on the result of the pickling treatment in terms of surface morphology and composition was significant. The mineral-oil-based lubricant was found to be removed more easily and uniformly from the surface. Only sufficient removal of the die lubricants can guarantee homogeneous and uniform formation of the conversion coating. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Chromium related degradation of solid oxide fuel cells; Chrom-bezogene Degradation von Festoxid-Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Anita

    2011-05-04

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) offer a high potential for application as an auxiliary power unit (APU) for heavy goods vehicles as well as combined heat and power (CHP) systems. SOFCs are especially attractive due to their high efficiencies and the use of different fuel types. However, optimization in terms of long term stability and costs are still necessary. This work characterized the degradation of SOFCs with lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathodes under chromium influence. Galvanostatic cell tests were carried out at 800 C with operation times from 250 - 3000 h and variation of the chromium source and current density. The current densities of j = 0 (A)/(cm{sup 2}), j = 0,3 (A)/(cm{sup 2}) and j = 0,5 (A)/(cm{sup 2}) were applied. The high temperature ferritic alloy Crofer22APU was used as a chromium source. Variation of the chromium source was realized by coating the Crofer22APU insert with the chromium retention layer Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the cathode contact layer LCC10. Cell degradation was analyzed with regard to cell voltage, current density and area specific resistance (ASR). Microstructural alterations of the cathode as well as chromium content and distribution across the cell were investigated after completion of the cell tests. For cells with a chromium source present and operation with a nonzero current density, the course of cell degradation was divided into three phases: a run-in, weak linear degradation and strong linear degradation. A decrease of the chromium release rate by means of different coatings stretched the course of degradation along the timescale. Strong degradation, which is characterized by a significant increase in ASR as well as a decrease of current density at the operating point, was only observed when a chromium source in the setup was comb ined with operation of the cell with a non-zero current density. Operation of the cell with a chromium source but no current density caused a degradation of current density at the

  14. SLIP CASTING METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, A.G.

    1959-09-01

    S>A process is described for preparing a magnesium oxide slip casting slurry which when used in conjunction with standard casting techniques results in a very strong "green" slip casting and a fired piece of very close dimensional tolerance. The process involves aging an aqueous magnestum oxide slurry, having a basic pH value, until it attains a specified critical viscosity at which time a deflocculating agent is added without upsetting the basic pH value.

  15. Investigation of Total and Hexavalent Chromium in Filtered and Unfiltered Groundwater Samples at the Tucson International Airport Superfund Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D; McCleskey, R Blaine; Hermosillo, Edyth

    2016-10-01

    Potential health effects from hexavalent chromium in groundwater have recently become a concern to regulators at the Tucson International Airport Area Superfund site. In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled 46 wells in the area to characterize the nature and extent of chromium in groundwater, to understand what proportion of total chromium is in the hexavalent state, and to determine if substantial differences are present between filtered and unfiltered chromium concentrations. Results indicate detectable chromium concentrations in all wells, over 75 % of total chromium is in the hexavalent state in a majority of wells, and filtered and unfiltered results differ substantially in only a few high-turbidity total chromium samples.

  16. Optimization of heat transfer by adjusting power ratios between top and side heaters for casting high-performance multi-crystalline silicon ingots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenliang; Wu, Zhiyong; Zhong, Genxiang; Ding, Junjing; Yu, Yunyang; Zhou, Xucheng; Huang, Xinming

    2016-10-01

    Numerical simulations were applied to analyze the effects of the power ratios between top and side heaters on the crystal-melt (c-m) interface and the thermal stress distribution during the solidification process. The simulation results showed that among the different increase velocities of the power ratio, increasing the power ratio uniformly provided a most favorable solidification process: a slightly convex c-m interface shape and low thermal stress were obtained. The optimized design was implemented in casting experiments, which showed that the high-performance multi-crystalline silicon ingot had a vertical columnar structure and a lower dislocation density. The average conversion efficiency of solar cells was about 0.08% higher with this design (18.24%) than with the original design (18.16%).

  17. Determination of total chromium in tanned leather samples used in car industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Michaela; Rezić, Iva; Ujević, Darko; Steffan, Ilse

    2011-03-01

    Despite the high competition of synthetic fibers leather is nowadays still widely used for many applications. In order to ensure a sufficient stability of the skin matrix against many factors, such as microbial degradation, heat and sweat, a tanning process is indispensable. Using chromium (III) for this purpose offers a multitude of advantages, thus this way of tanning is widely applied. During the use of chromium tanned leather as clothing material as well as for decoration/covering purposes, chromium is extracted from the leather and may then cause nocuous effects to human skin, e.g. allergic reactions. Thus the knowledge of the total chromium content of leather samples expected to come into prolonged touch with human skin is very important. In car industry leather is used as cover for seats, steering wheel and gearshift lever The chromium contents often chromium tanned leather samples used in car industry were determined. First all samples were dried at 65 degrees C overnight and then cut in small pieces using a ceramic knife, weighed and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma--optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after acidic microwave assisted digestion. The total chromium amounts found were in the range from 19 mg/g up to 32 mg/g. The extraction yield of chromium from leather samples in sweat is approximately 2-7%. Thus especially during long journeys in summer chromium can be extracted in amounts which may cause nocuous effects for example on the palm of the hands or on the back.

  18. Activated carbons and low cost adsorbents for remediation of tri- and hexavalent chromium from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Dinesh; Pittman, Charles U

    2006-09-21

    Hexavalent chromium is a well-known highly toxic metal, considered a priority pollutant. Industrial sources of Cr(VI) include leather tanning, cooling tower blowdown, plating, electroplating, anodizing baths, rinse waters, etc. The most common method applied for chromate control is reduction of Cr(VI) to its trivalent form in acid (pH approximately 2.0) and subsequent hydroxide precipitation of Cr(III) by increasing the pH to approximately 9.0-10.0 using lime. Existing overviews of chromium removal only cover selected technologies that have traditionally been used in chromium removal. Far less attention has been paid to adsorption. Herein, we provide the first review article that provides readers an overview of the sorption capacities of commercial developed carbons and other low cost sorbents for chromium remediation. After an overview of chromium contamination is provided, more than 300 papers on chromium remediation using adsorption are discussed to provide recent information about the most widely used adsorbents applied for chromium remediation. Efforts to establish the adsorption mechanisms of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on various adsorbents are reviewed. Chromium's impact environmental quality, sources of chromium pollution and toxicological/health effects is also briefly introduced. Interpretations of the surface interactions are offered. Particular attention is paid to comparing the sorption efficiency and capacities of commercially available activated carbons to other low cost alternatives, including an extensive table.

  19. High Temperature Strength and Hot Working Technology for As-Cast Mg–1Zn–1Ca (ZX11 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamineni Pitcheswara Rao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cast Mg–1Zn–1Ca alloy (ZX11 has been tested to evaluate its compressive strength between 25 °C and 250 °C, and workability in the range of 260–500 °C. The ultimate compressive strength of this alloy is about 30% higher than that of creep-resistant alloy Mg–3Sn–2Ca (TX32 between 25 °C and 200 °C, and exhibits a plateau between 100 °C and 175 °C, similar to TX32. This is attributed to Mg2Ca particles present at grain boundaries that reduce their sliding. The processing map, developed between 260 and 420 °C in the strain rate limits of 0.0003 s−1 to 1 s−1, exhibited two domains in the ranges: (1 280–330 °C and 0.0003–0.01 s−1 and (2 330–400 °C and 0.0003–0.1 s−1. In these domains, dynamic recrystallization occurs, with basal slip dominating in the first domain and prismatic slip in the second, while the recovery mechanism being climb of edge dislocations in both. The activation energy estimated using standard kinetic rate equation is 191 kJ/mol, which is higher than the value for lattice self-diffusion in magnesium indicating that a large back stress is created by the presence of Ca2Mg6Zn3 intermetallic particles in the matrix. It is recommended that the alloy be best processed at 380 °C and 0.1 s−1 at which prismatic slip is favored due to Zn addition. At higher strain rates, the alloy exhibits flow instability and adiabatic shear band formation at <340 °C while flow localization and cracking at grain boundaries occurs at temperatures >400 °C.

  20. The effect of natural pre-ageing on the mechanical properties of Rheo-High pressure die cast aluminium alloy 2139

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chauke, L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Near-net shape casting of wrought aluminium alloys has proven to be difficult due to hot tearing. The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has successfully processed wrought aluminium alloy 2139 into plate castings using the Rheo...