WorldWideScience

Sample records for high caloric food

  1. Calorie anticipation alters food intake after low-caloric not high-caloric preloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S; Cedernaes, J; Chapman, C D; Vogel, H; Hjorth, O C; Zarei, S; Lundberg, L S; Brooks, S J; Dickson, S L; Benedict, C; Schiöth, H B

    2013-08-01

    Cognitive factors and anticipation are known to influence food intake. The current study examined the effect of anticipation and actual consumption of food on hormone (ghrelin, cortisol, and insulin) and glucose levels, appetite and ad libitum intake, to assess whether changes in hormone levels might explain the predicted differences in subsequent food intake. During four breakfast sessions, participants consumed a yogurt preload that was either low caloric (LC: 180 kcal/300 g) or high caloric (HC: 530 kcal/300 g) and was provided with either consistent or inconsistent calorie information (i.e., stating the caloric content of the preload was low or high). Appetite ratings and hormone and glucose levels were measured at baseline (t = 0), after providing the calorie information about the preload (t = 20), after consumption of the preload (t = 40), and just before ad libitum intake (t = 60). Ad libitum intake was lower after HC preloads (as compared to LC preloads; P Intake after LC preloads was higher when provided with (consistent) LC information (467±254 kcal) as compared to (inconsistent) HC information (346±210 kcal), but intake after the HC preloads did not depend on the information provided (LC information: 290±178 kcal, HC information: 333±179 kcal; caloric load*information P = 0.03). Hormone levels did not respond in an anticipatory manner, and the post-prandial responses depended on actual calories consumed. These results suggest that both cognitive and physiological information determine food intake. When actual caloric intake was sufficient to produce physiological satiety, cognitive factors played no role; however, when physiological satiety was limited, cognitively induced satiety reduced intake to comparable levels. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  2. Calorie Anticipation Alters Food Intake After Low-Caloric but Not High-Caloric Preloads

    OpenAIRE

    Hogenkamp, Pleunie; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Chapman, Colin; Vogel, Heike; Hjorth, Olof; Zarei, Sanaz; Lundberg, Lina; Brooks, Samantha; Dickson, Suzanne; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cognitive factors and anticipation are known to influence food intake. The current study examined the effect of anticipation and actual consumption of food on hormone (ghrelin, cortisol, and insulin) and glucose levels, appetite and ad libitum intake, to assess whether changes in hormone levels might explain the predicted differences in subsequent food intake. Design and Methods During four breakfast sessions, participants consumed a yogurt preload that was either low caloric (LC: 1...

  3. Parental attachment insecurity predicts child and adult high-caloric food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Aida; Dubé, Laurette

    2015-05-01

    Eating habits are established early and are difficult to change once formed. This study investigated the role of caregiver-child attachment quality and its associations with high-caloric food consumption in a sample of middle socio-economic status children and adults, respectively. Survey data were collected from an online questionnaire administered separately to 213 (143 girls) children and 216 parents (adult sample; 180 women). Two studies showed that an insecure parental attachment, whether actual (Study 1; children) or recalled (Study 2; adults), significantly and positively predicted high-caloric food consumption in both samples. The present findings highlight the importance of parental attachment and its association with unhealthy eating patterns in children and adults.

  4. Intragastric pH and pressure profiles after intake of the high-caloric, high-fat meal as used for food effect studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziolek, M; Schneider, F; Grimm, M; Modeβ, Chr; Seekamp, A; Roustom, T; Siegmund, W; Weitschies, W

    2015-12-28

    The intraluminal conditions of the fed stomach are critical for drug release from solid oral dosage forms and thus, often associated with the occurrence of food effects on oral bioavailability. In this study, intragastric pH and pressure profiles present after the ingestion of the high-caloric, high-fat (964 kcal) FDA standard breakfast were investigated in 19 healthy human subjects by using the telemetric SmartPill® capsule system (26 × 13 mm). Since the gastric emptying of such large non-digestible objects is typically accomplished by the migrating motor complex phase III activity, the time required for recurrence of fasted state motility determined the gastric emptying time (GET). Following the diet recommendations of the FDA guidance on food effect studies, the mean GET of the telemetric motility capsule was 15.3 ± 4.7 h. Thus, the high caloric value of the standard breakfast impeded gastric emptying before lunch in 18 out of 19 subjects. During its gastric transit, the capsule was exposed to highly dynamic conditions in terms of pH and pressure, which were mainly dependent on further meal and liquid intake, as well as the intragastric capsule deposition behavior. Maximum pH values in the stomach were measured immediately after capsule intake. The median pH value of the 5 min period after capsule ingestion ranged between pH 3.3 and 5.3. Subsequently, the pH decreased relatively constantly and reached minimum values of pH 0-1 after approximately 4 h. The maximum pressure within the stomach amounted to 293 ± 109 mbar and was clearly higher than the maximum pressure measured at the ileocaecal junction (60 ± 35 mbar). The physiological data on the intraluminal conditions within the fed stomach generated in this study will hopefully contribute to a better understanding of food effects on oral drug product performance.

  5. Is contextual-potentiated eating dependent on caloric density of food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fernández-Aranda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One experiment tested whether a specific context could elicit eating in rats as a result of Pavlovian conditioning and whether this effect depended on the caloric density of food. Thirty two deprived rats experienced two contexts. They had access to food in context A, but no food was available in context B. During conditioning, half of the animals received high density caloric food (HD groups whereas the other half, low density caloric food (LD groups. Then, half of the rats in each type of food group was tested in context A and the other half in context B. The results demonstrated an effect of context conditioning only in HD groups. These findings suggest the relevance of both contextual conditioning and caloric density of food in eating behaviour. Implications for the aetiology of binge eating will be discussed.

  6. Use of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners in US consumer packaged foods, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

    2012-11-01

    Our understanding of the use of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners in the US food supply is limited. This study uses full ingredient list and Nutrition Facts label data from Gladson Nutrition Database and nationally representative purchases of consumer packaged foods from Nielsen Homescan in 2005 through 2009 to understand the use of caloric sweeteners (including fruit juice concentrate) and noncaloric sweeteners in consumer packaged foods. Of the 85,451 uniquely formulated foods purchased during 2005 through 2009, 75% contain sweeteners (68% with caloric sweetener only, 1% with noncaloric sweetener only, 6% with both caloric and noncaloric sweeteners). Caloric sweetener are in >95% of cakes/cookies/pies, granola/protein/energy bars, ready-to-eat cereals, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Noncaloric sweetener are in >33% of yogurts and sport/energy drinks, 42% of waters (plain or flavored), and most dietetic sweetened beverages. Across unique products, corn syrup is the most commonly listed sweetener, followed by sorghum, cane sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, and fruit juice concentrate. Also, 77% of all calories purchased in the United States in 2005-2009 contained caloric sweeteners and 3% contained noncaloric sweeteners, and 73% of the volume of foods purchased contained caloric sweetener and 15% contained noncaloric sweetener. Trends during this period suggest a shift toward the purchase of noncaloric sweetener-containing products. Our study poses a challenge toward monitoring sweetener consumption in the United States by discussing the need and options available to improve measures of caloric sweetener and noncaloric sweetener and additional requirements on Nutrition Facts labels on consumer packaged foods.

  7. Household Food Consumption, Individual Caloric Intake and Obesity in France

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet, Céline; Dubois, Pierre; Orozco, Valérie

    2009-01-01

    We show how to use a long period of observation of all food purchases at the household level to infer the profile of average individual caloric intakes according to the gender, age and the body mass index of household members. Using data from France, we apply this method to analyze the relationship between obesity and individual food consumption. The results show that obese or overweight individuals do absorb more calories at all ages but with differences that vary across gender and ages and ...

  8. Palatable Hyper-Caloric Foods Impact on Neuronal Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jean-Pascal; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Guzmán-Ramos, Kioko; Perez-Cruz, Claudia; Ferreira, Guillaume; Diaz-Cintra, Sofia; Pacheco-López, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Neural plasticity is an intrinsic and essential characteristic of the nervous system that allows animals "self-tuning" to adapt to their environment over their lifetime. Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system is a form of neural plasticity that underlies learning and memory formation, as well as long-lasting, environmentally-induced maladaptive behaviors, such as drug addiction and overeating of palatable hyper-caloric (PHc) food. In western societies, the abundance of PHc foods has caused a dramatic increase in the incidence of overweight/obesity and related disorders. To this regard, it has been suggested that increased adiposity may be caused at least in part by behavioral changes in the affected individuals that are induced by the chronic consumption of PHc foods; some authors have even drawn attention to the similarity that exists between over-indulgent eating and drug addiction. Long-term misuse of certain dietary components has also been linked to chronic neuroimmune maladaptation that may predispose individuals to neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. In this review article, we discuss recent evidence that shows how consumption of PHc food can cause maladaptive neural plasticity that converts short-term ingestive drives into compulsive behaviors. We also discuss the neural mechanisms of how chronic consumption of PHc foods may alter brain function and lead to cognitive impairments, focusing on prenatal, childhood and adolescence as vulnerable neurodevelopmental stages to dietary environmental insults. Finally, we outline a societal agenda for harnessing permissive obesogenic environments.

  9. Peripheral ghrelin enhances sweet taste food consumption and preference, regardless of its caloric content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disse, Emmanuel; Bussier, Anne-Lise; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Deblon, Nicolas; Pfluger, Paul T; Tschöp, Matthias H; Laville, Martine; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise

    2010-09-01

    Ghrelin is one of the most potent orexigens known to date. While the prevailing view is that ghrelin participates in the homeostatic control of feeding, the question arose as to whether consummatory responses evoked by this compound could be related to search for reward. We therefore attempted to delineate the involvement of ghrelin in the modulation of non-caloric but highly rewarding consumption. We tested the effect of intraperitoneally injected ghrelin on the acceptance and preference for a 0.3% saccharin solution using single bottle tests and free-choice preference test procedures in C57BL6/J mice, as well as in mice lacking the ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a -/-) and their wild-type (WT) littermates. In the single bottle tests, peripheral ghrelin consistently increased the consumption of saccharin, independently of availability of caloric food. In the free-choice preference test procedures, ghrelin increased the preference for saccharin in WT mice, while it did had not effect in GHSR1a -/-animals, indicating that the ghrelin receptor pathway is necessary to mediate this parameter. Peripheral ghrelin enhances intake and preference for a sweet food, regardless of whether the food has caloric content. This effect, mediated through the ghrelin receptor pathway, may serve as additional enhancers of energy intake. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Palatable Hyper-Caloric Foods Impact on Neuronal Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jean-Pascal; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F.; Guzmán-Ramos, Kioko; Perez-Cruz, Claudia; Ferreira, Guillaume; Diaz-Cintra, Sofia; Pacheco-López, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Neural plasticity is an intrinsic and essential characteristic of the nervous system that allows animals “self-tuning” to adapt to their environment over their lifetime. Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system is a form of neural plasticity that underlies learning and memory formation, as well as long-lasting, environmentally-induced maladaptive behaviors, such as drug addiction and overeating of palatable hyper-caloric (PHc) food. In western societies, the abundance of PHc foods has caused a dramatic increase in the incidence of overweight/obesity and related disorders. To this regard, it has been suggested that increased adiposity may be caused at least in part by behavioral changes in the affected individuals that are induced by the chronic consumption of PHc foods; some authors have even drawn attention to the similarity that exists between over-indulgent eating and drug addiction. Long-term misuse of certain dietary components has also been linked to chronic neuroimmune maladaptation that may predispose individuals to neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease. In this review article, we discuss recent evidence that shows how consumption of PHc food can cause maladaptive neural plasticity that converts short-term ingestive drives into compulsive behaviors. We also discuss the neural mechanisms of how chronic consumption of PHc foods may alter brain function and lead to cognitive impairments, focusing on prenatal, childhood and adolescence as vulnerable neurodevelopmental stages to dietary environmental insults. Finally, we outline a societal agenda for harnessing permissive obesogenic environments. PMID:28261067

  11. Cooking, industrial processing and caloric density of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    During human evolution, the development of a wide range of cooking processing techniques enabled humans to provide their social group with maximum benefits from limited food resources. Industrial processing and mass market distribution made available high food calorie density foods to the world

  12. Caloric Intake From Fast Food Among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikraman, Sundeep; Fryar, Cheryl D; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2015-09-01

    Consumption of fast food has been linked to weight gain in adults (1). Fast food has also been associated with higher caloric intake and poorer diet quality in children and adolescents (2). From 1994 through 2006, caloric intake from fast food increased from 10% to 13% among children aged 2-18 years (3). This report presents the most recent data on the percentage of calories consumed from fast food among U.S. children by sex, age group, race and Hispanic origin, poverty status, and weight status.

  13. Life-history strategy, food choice, and caloric consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laran, Juliano; Salerno, Anthony

    2013-02-01

    Do people's perceptions that they live in a harsh environment influence their food choices? Drawing on life-history theory, we propose that cues indicating that the current environment is harsh (e.g., news about an economic crisis, the sight of people facing adversity in life) lead people to perceive that resources in the world are scarce. As a consequence, people seek and consume more filling and high-calorie foods, which they believe will sustain them for longer periods of time. Although perceptions of harshness can promote unhealthy eating, we show how this effect can be attenuated and redirected to promote healthier food choices.

  14. Lost in processing? Perceived healthfulness, taste and caloric content of whole and processed organic food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Marília; Garrido, Margarida V; Rodrigues, David

    2017-03-23

    The "organic" claim explicitly informs consumers about the food production method. Yet, based on this claim, people often infer unrelated food attributes. The current research examined whether the perceived advantage of organic over conventional food generalizes across different organic food types. Compared to whole organic foods, processed organic foods are less available, familiar and prototypical of the organic food category. In two studies (combined N = 258) we investigated how both organic foods types were perceived in healthfulness, taste and caloric content when compared to their conventional alternatives. Participants evaluated images of both whole (e.g., lettuce) and processed organic food exemplars (e.g., pizza), and reported general evaluations of these food types. The association of these evaluations with individual difference variables - self-reported knowledge and consumption of organic food, and environmental concerns - was also examined. Results showed that organically produced whole foods were perceived as more healthful, tastier and less caloric than those produced conventionally, thus replicating the well-established halo effect of the organic claim in food evaluation. The organic advantage was more pronounced among individuals who reported being more knowledgeable about organic food, consumed it more frequently, and were more environmentally concerned. The advantage of the organic claim for processed foods was less clear. Overall, processed organic (vs. conventional) foods were perceived as tastier, more healthful (Study 1) or equally healthful (Study 2), but also as more caloric. We argue that the features of processed food may modulate the impact of the organic claim, and outline possible research directions to test this assumption. Uncovering the specific conditions in which food claims bias consumer's perceptions and behavior may have important implications for marketing, health and public-policy related fields.

  15. High Caloric Diet for ALS Patients: High Fat, High Carbohydrate or High Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvin Sanaie

    2015-01-01

    . They showed that patients in the highcarbohydrate/high-calorie groups gained 0.39 kg more weight per month, compared with 0.11kg per month in the control group, and there was an average weight loss of 0.46 kg per month in the high-fat/high-calorie group. However, there are some concerns that highcarbohydrate low-fat diets might increase the risk of ALS and these findings should be interpreted with caution (4. Furthermore, according to Wills et al. high fat-high caloric diets could not be ideal regimens for these patients due to the associated gastrointestinal complications (3. Dorst and associates, in their study, showed that high caloric food supplement with high fat is suitable to establish body weight compared to high carbohydrate formula. Hence, it seems that high protein-high caloric diets could be more appropriate options for both improving negative nitrogen balance and decreasing muscle atrophy in patients with ALS based on the pathophysiology of proteinenergy malnutrition and hypermetabolism which is thought to be due to mitochondria problem. The multifactorial pathophysiology of ALS has resulted in hypotheses that there may be subgroups of patients, eventually defined by a specific underlying etiology or clinical presentation, which selectively respond to a particular regimen. Consequently, further RCTs with larger sample size are required to clarify the best regimen for weight gain and improved survival in ALS patients and it seems that personalized nutritional support or combined regimens might be the best way and could improve the quality of life considering the complex pathophysiology of malnutrition.

  16. The effect of brand and caloric information on flavor perception and food consumption in restrained and unrestrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Kevin V; Kruja, Blina; Forestell, Catherine A

    2014-11-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine whether provision of brand and caloric information affects sensory perception and consumption of a food in restrained (n=84) and unrestrained eaters (n=104). Using a between-subjects 2 × 2 × 3 design, female restrained and unrestrained eaters were asked to taste and rate a cookie that was labeled with a brand associated with healthful eating (Kashi(®)) or one associated with unhealthful eating (Nabisco(®)). Additionally, some participants were presented with a nutrition label alongside the brand name indicating that one serving contained 130 calories (Low-Calorie Condition), or 260 calories (High-Calorie Condition). The remaining participants were not shown a nutrition label (No Label Condition). Results indicated that those in the No Label or the High-Calorie Condition perceived the healthful branded cookie to have a better flavor than those who received the unhealthful branded cookie regardless of their restraint status. However, restrained eaters in the No Label Condition consumed more of the healthful than the unhealthful branded cookie, whereas those in the Low-Calorie Condition consumed more of the unhealthful than the healthful branded cookie. In contrast, unrestrained eaters ate more of the healthful branded cookie regardless of the caloric information provided. Thus, although restrained and unrestrained eaters' perceptions are similarly affected by branding and caloric information, brands and caloric information interact to affect restrained eaters' consumption. This study reveals that labeling foods as low calorie may create a halo effect which may lead to over-consumption of these foods in restrained eaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Caloric restriction, caloric restriction mimetics, and healthy aging in Okinawa: controversies and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Bradley J; Willcox, Donald C

    2014-01-01

    To examine the role of two nutritional factors implicated in the healthy aging of the Okinawans: caloric restriction; and traditional foods with potential caloric restriction-mimetic properties. Caloric restriction is a research priority for the US National Institute on Aging. However, little is known regarding health effects in humans. Some caloric restriction-related outcomes, such as cause-specific mortality and lifespan, are not practical for human clinical trials. Therefore, epidemiological data on older Okinawans, who experienced a caloric restriction-like diet for close to half their lives, are of special interest. The nutritional data support mild caloric restriction (10-15%) and high consumption of foods that may mimic the biological effects of caloric restriction, including sweet potatoes, marine-based carotenoid-rich foods, and turmeric. Phenotypic evidence is consistent with caloric restriction (including short stature, low body weight, and lean BMI), less age-related chronic disease (including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and dementia), and longer lifespan (mean and maximum). Both caloric restriction and traditional Okinawan functional foods with caloric restriction-mimetic properties likely had roles in the extended healthspan and lifespan of the Okinawans. More research is needed on health consequences of caloric restriction and foods with caloric restriction-mimetic properties to identify possible nutritional interventions for healthy aging.

  18. Endocrine links between food reward and caloric homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattemann, Dianne Figlewicz

    2008-11-01

    Both intrinsic and extrinsic (endocrine) inputs to the central nervous system (CNS) modulate motivation for feeding. Endocrine inputs such as insulin and leptin can have very rapid effects, but also the potential for chronic actions to decrease rewarding attributes of food. Future studies should elucidate the neural and cellular mechanisms which underlie these endocrine actions in the CNS.

  19. Perspective food addiction, caloric restriction, and dopaminergic neurotransmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stankowska, Arwen Urrsula Malgorzata; Gjedde, Albert

    2013-01-01

    eating behaviour, with particular emphasis on the role of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Severely obese individuals have specific neurobiological characteristics in common with drug abusers, including low availability of dopamine receptors in the striatum, impaired neuronal responses to dopamine......, and reduced activity in prefrontal regions of the cerebral cortex. The neurobiological characteristics suggest that obese people also have a pathological dependence in common with addicts, in the form of food addiction. Malnutrition and dieting both relate to binge eating, possibly as a compensation...... of uncontrolled eating increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. This and other evidence suggests that abuse of food is a habit learned by means of mechanisms centred in the basal ganglia, with an increased risk of relapse in the presence of associative amplifiers. This risk is predicted...

  20. High monetary reward rates and caloric rewards decrease temporal persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Stefan; Murawski, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Temporal persistence refers to an individual's capacity to wait for future rewards, while forgoing possible alternatives. This requires a trade-off between the potential value of delayed rewards and opportunity costs, and is relevant to many real-world decisions, such as dieting. Theoretical models have previously suggested that high monetary reward rates, or positive energy balance, may result in decreased temporal persistence. In our study, 50 fasted participants engaged in a temporal persistence task, incentivised with monetary rewards. In alternating blocks of this task, rewards were delivered at delays drawn randomly from distributions with either a lower or higher maximum reward rate. During some blocks participants received either a caloric drink or water. We used survival analysis to estimate participants' probability of quitting conditional on the delay distribution and the consumed liquid. Participants had a higher probability of quitting in blocks with the higher reward rate. Furthermore, participants who consumed the caloric drink had a higher probability of quitting than those who consumed water. Our results support the predictions from the theoretical models, and importantly, suggest that both higher monetary reward rates and physiologically relevant rewards can decrease temporal persistence, which is a crucial determinant for survival in many species. PMID:28228517

  1. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie H Larsson

    Full Text Available The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5 is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance.

  2. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Marie H; Håkansson, Pernilla; Jansen, Frank P; Magnell, Kerstin; Brodin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5) is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD) and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance.

  3. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Marie H.; Håkansson, Pernilla; Jansen, Frank P.; Magnell, Kerstin; Brodin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5) is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD) and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance. PMID:26397098

  4. Caloric Intake from Fast Food among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2011-2012. NCHS Data Brief. Number 213

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikraman, Sundeep; Fryar, Cheryl D.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of fast food has been linked to weight gain in adults. Fast food has also been associated with higher caloric intake and poorer diet quality in children and adolescents. From 1994 through 2006, caloric intake from fast food increased from 10% to 13% among children aged 2-18 years. This report presents the most recent data on the…

  5. Liraglutide suppression of caloric intake competes with the intake-promoting effects of a palatable cafeteria diet, but does not impact food or macronutrient selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Kellie M; Blonde, Ginger D; le Roux, Carel W; Spector, Alan C

    2017-08-01

    Liraglutide, a Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is used as a treatment for Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity because it improves glycemia and decreases food intake. Here, we tested whether chronic activation of the GLP-1 receptor system with liraglutide would induce decreases in intake accompanied by changes in proportional food or macronutrient intake similar to those seen following RYGB in rats when a variety of palatable food options are available. A "cafeteria diet" was used that included: laboratory rodent chow, refried beans (low-fat/low-sugar), low-fat yogurt (low-fat/high-sugar), peanut butter (high-fat/low-sugar) and sugar-fat whip (high-fat/high-sugar). Liraglutide (1mg/kg daily, sc, n=6) induced significant reductions in body weight and total caloric intake compared to saline-injected control rats (n=6). Although access to a cafeteria diet induced increases in caloric intake in both groups relative to chow alone, liraglutide still effectively decreased intake compared with saline-injected rats suggesting that chronic GLP-1 activation competes with the energy density and palatability of available food options in modulating ingestive behavior. Even with the substantial effects on overall intake, liraglutide did not change food choice or relative macronutrient intake when compared to pre-treatment baseline. When drug treatment was discontinued, the liraglutide group increased caloric intake and rapidly gained body weight to match that of the saline group. These results demonstrate that, while liraglutide effectively decreases caloric intake and body weight in rats, it does not cause adjustments in relative macronutrient consumption. Our data also show that drug-induced decreases in intake and body weight are not maintained following termination of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Watching a food-related television show and caloric intake. A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenlos, Jamie S; Wormuth, Bernadette M

    2013-02-01

    Television watching has been positively associated with overeating and obesity. How popular food-related television shows affects eating behavior has not been examined. An experimental study was conducted to examine how exposure to a food-related television program affects amount and type of food consumed in adults (N=80). Participants were randomized to watch a cooking or nature television program and were then presented with 800 total calories of chocolate covered candies, cheese curls, and carrots. Food was weighed before and after the ad libitum eating session to determine amount consumed. After controlling for dietary restraint, hunger and food preference, significantly more chocolate covered candies were consumed among individuals who watched the cooking program compared to the nature program. No significant differences between conditions were found for overall caloric intake or for cheese curl or carrot consumption. Findings suggest that watching food-related television programs may affect eating behavior and has implications for obesity prevention and intervention efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Impact of Caloric Information on College Students' Fast Food Purchasing Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigmont, Victoria; Bulmer, Sandra Minor

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fast food establishments are available on many college campuses and, as a result, many students consume foods that are high in calories and contribute to unhealthy weight gain. Purpose: This study measured college students' knowledge of the calorie content for fast food items and whether the provision of calorie information for those…

  8. The Impact of Caloric Information on College Students' Fast Food Purchasing Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigmont, Victoria; Bulmer, Sandra Minor

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fast food establishments are available on many college campuses and, as a result, many students consume foods that are high in calories and contribute to unhealthy weight gain. Purpose: This study measured college students' knowledge of the calorie content for fast food items and whether the provision of calorie information for those…

  9. High-Caloric and Chocolate Stimuli Processing in Healthy Humans: An Integration of Functional Imaging and Electrophysiological Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmaro, Deyar; Liotti, Mario

    2014-01-01

    There has been a great deal of interest in understanding how the human brain processes appetitive food cues, and knowing how such cues elicit craving responses is particularly relevant when current eating behavior trends within Westernized societies are considered. One substance that holds a special place with regard to food preference is chocolate, and studies that used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potentials (ERPs) have identified neural regions and electrical signatures that are elicited by chocolate cue presentations. This review will examine fMRI and ERP findings from studies that used high-caloric food and chocolate cues as stimuli, with a focus on responses observed in samples of healthy participants, as opposed to those with eating-related pathology. The utility of using high-caloric and chocolate stimuli as a means of understanding the human reward system will also be highlighted, as these findings may be particularly important for understanding processes related to pathological overeating and addiction to illicit substances. Finally, research from our own lab that focused on chocolate stimulus processing in chocolate cravers and non-cravers will be discussed, as the approach used may help bridge fMRI and ERP findings so that a more complete understanding of appetitive stimulus processing in the temporal and spatial domains may be established. PMID:24434747

  10. High-Caloric and Chocolate Stimuli Processing in Healthy Humans: An Integration of Functional Imaging and Electrophysiological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyar Asmaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great deal of interest in understanding how the human brain processes appetitive food cues, and knowing how such cues elicit craving responses is particularly relevant when current eating behavior trends within Westernized societies are considered. One substance that holds a special place with regard to food preference is chocolate, and studies that used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and event-related potentials (ERPs have identified neural regions and electrical signatures that are elicited by chocolate cue presentations. This review will examine fMRI and ERP findings from studies that used high-caloric food and chocolate cues as stimuli, with a focus on responses observed in samples of healthy participants, as opposed to those with eating-related pathology. The utility of using high-caloric and chocolate stimuli as a means of understanding the human reward system will also be highlighted, as these findings may be particularly important for understanding processes related to pathological overeating and addiction to illicit substances. Finally, research from our own lab that focused on chocolate stimulus processing in chocolate cravers and non-cravers will be discussed, as the approach used may help bridge fMRI and ERP findings so that a more complete understanding of appetitive stimulus processing in the temporal and spatial domains may be established.

  11. High-caloric and chocolate stimuli processing in healthy humans: an integration of functional imaging and electrophysiological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmaro, Deyar; Liotti, Mario

    2014-01-10

    There has been a great deal of interest in understanding how the human brain processes appetitive food cues, and knowing how such cues elicit craving responses is particularly relevant when current eating behavior trends within Westernized societies are considered. One substance that holds a special place with regard to food preference is chocolate, and studies that used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potentials (ERPs) have identified neural regions and electrical signatures that are elicited by chocolate cue presentations. This review will examine fMRI and ERP findings from studies that used high-caloric food and chocolate cues as stimuli, with a focus on responses observed in samples of healthy participants, as opposed to those with eating-related pathology. The utility of using high-caloric and chocolate stimuli as a means of understanding the human reward system will also be highlighted, as these findings may be particularly important for understanding processes related to pathological overeating and addiction to illicit substances. Finally, research from our own lab that focused on chocolate stimulus processing in chocolate cravers and non-cravers will be discussed, as the approach used may help bridge fMRI and ERP findings so that a more complete understanding of appetitive stimulus processing in the temporal and spatial domains may be established.

  12. Nonnutritive, Low Caloric Substitutes for Food Sugars: Clinical Implications for Addressing the Incidence of Dental Caries and Overweight/Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Roberts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries and obesity are two common conditions affecting children in the United States and other developed countries. Caries in the teeth of susceptible children have often been associated with frequent ingestion of fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. Increased calorie intake associated with sugars and carbohydrates, especially when associated with physical inactivity, has been implicated in childhood obesity. Fortunately, nonnutritive artificial alternatives and non-/low-caloric natural sugars have been developed as alternatives to fermentable sugars and have shown promise in partially addressing these health issues. Diet counseling is an important adjunct to oral health instruction. Although there are only five artificial sweeteners that have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, there are additional five non-/low caloric sweeteners that have FDA GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe designation. Given the health impact of sugars and other carbohydrates, dental professionals should be aware of the nonnutritive non-/low caloric sweeteners available on the market and both their benefits and potential risks. Dental health professionals should also be proactive in helping identify patients at risk for obesity and provide counseling and referral when appropriate.

  13. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L Adam

    Full Text Available Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin. In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat, HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P, or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment. Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging, plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity.

  14. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Williams, Patricia A.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity. PMID:26447990

  15. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L; Thomson, Lynn M; Williams, Patricia A; Ross, Alexander W

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity.

  16. Inaccessible food cues affect stress and weight gain in calorically-restricted and ad lib fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Jennifer S; Polivy, Janet; Fleming, Alison; Hargreaves, Duane; Herman, C Peter; Lao, Grace

    2010-02-01

    Research suggests that caloric restriction (CR) is beneficial; however, the effects of CR in the context of food cues are unclear. A 2 (food cue vs. no cue)x2 (CR vs. ad lib) between-subjects design was employed to test these effects in 40 rats. It was predicted that cue exposure and CR would induce stress, and that these factors might interact synergistically. The results demonstrated that cue-exposed CR rats weighed less than did non-exposed CR rats. A blunted stress response was evident in CR rats relative to ad lib rats. Finally, cue-exposed rats had higher corticosterone levels and body weight during ad lib feeding than did non-cued rats. These results suggest that both CR and chronic food-cue exposure can be stressful, and the implications of this research are discussed in the context of humans' 'obesigenic' environment. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. CALOR2012 XVth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akchurin, Nural .

    2015-05-04

    The International Conferences on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics, or the CALOR series, have always been where the calorimeter experts come together to review the state of calorimetry and bring forth new ideas every two years. The fteenth conference, CALOR2012, in Santa Fe was no exception. Although they were built roughly a decade ago, we are now witnessing the exceptional power of the LHC calorimeters and the crucial role they have been playing in the discovery of the 125 GeV Higgs-like boson. As we ruminate on the coming generation of experiments at the next (linear) collider and on the upgrades at the LHC, we are heartened by the substantial advances we made in calorimetry in the last decade. These advances will certainly help uncover new physics in the years to come, not only at colliders but also in astroparticle experiments that take advantage of natural elements such as air, water, and ice. The proceedings were published by the IOP in Journal of Physics, Vol 404 2011. The conference web site is calor2012.ttu.edu.

  18. Effects of emodin on treating murine nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by high caloric laboratory chaw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Dong; Fu-Er Lu; Zhi-Qiang Gao; Li-Jun Xu; Kai-Fu Wang; Xin Zou

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of emodin on the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver in rats induced by high caloric laboratory chaw.METHODS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver model was successfully established by feeding with high caloric laboratory chaw for 12 wk. Then the model rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, namely model control group, emodin group and dietary treatment group. The rats in emodin group in othergroups were given distilled water of the same volume. The rats in model control group were fed with high caloric laboratory chaw while animals in other groups were fed with normal diet. Four weeks later, liver index (liver/body weight ratio), serum activities of liver-associated enzymes, blood lipid, fasting blood glucose, fasting plasma insulin, HOMA insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), hepatic triglyceride content and histology features of all groups were assayed. The expression of hepatic peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) gamma was determined by RT-PCR.RESULTS: The body weight, liver index, serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood lipid, hepatic triglyceride content of model control group were significantly elevated, with moderate to severe hepatocyte steatosis.The expression of hepatic PPAR gamma mRNA was obviously reduced in model control group. Compared with model control group, the body weight, liver index, serum activities of ALT, blood lipids and hepatic triglyceride of emodin group significantly decreased and hepatic histology display was also greatly improved. Meanwhile, the expression of hepatic PPAR gamma mRNA was elevated.However, high serum activities of ALT and hyperlipidemia were persisted in dietary treatment group although liver index was decreased and liver histology was somewhat improved.CONCLUSION: It is suggested that emodin might be effective in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver in rats. Its therapeutic mechanism could be associated with increasing the expression of hepatic PPAR gamma mRNA.

  19. Normal physical activity obliterates the deleterious effects of high-caloric intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Pedersen, Maria; Solomon, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- scans, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) with stable isotopes were performed before and after the intervention. Both study groups gained the same amount of body weight. However, the inactive group accumulated significantly more....... Therefore, healthy individuals on a high caloric intake were randomized to either 10,000 or 1,500 steps per day for 14 days. Step-number, total energy expenditure, dietary records, neuropsychological tests, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)- and abdominal...

  20. Caloric densities of ingested food of Etroplus suratensis (Bloch) grown in a culture pond

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Krishnakumari, L.; Dhawan, R.M.; Royan, J.P.

    Analyses of stomach contents of E.suratensis indicated that it is principally a phytoplankton-detritus feeder. Biochemical analyses of the ingested food showed that of the total consumed food, 44% was contributed by ash content, while 56...

  1. Is less always more? The effects of low-fat labeling and caloric information on food intake, calorie estimates, taste preference, and health attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebneter, Daria S; Latner, Janet D; Nigg, Claudio R

    2013-09-01

    The present study examined whether low-fat labeling and caloric information affect food intake, calorie estimates, taste preference, and health perceptions. Participants included 175 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions. A 2×2 between subjects factorial design was used in which the fat content label and caloric information of chocolate candy was manipulated. The differences in food intake across conditions did not reach statistical significance. However, participants significantly underestimated the calorie content of low-fat-labeled candy. Participants also rated low-fat-labeled candy as significantly better tasting when they had caloric information available. Participants endorsed more positive health attributions for low-fat-labeled candy than for regular-labeled candy, independent of caloric information. The inclusion of eating attitudes and behaviors as covariates did not alter the results. The study findings may be related to the "health halo" associated with low-fat foods and add to the research base by examining the interaction between low-fat and calorie labeling.

  2. Composição centesimal e valor calórico de alimentos de origem animal Proximate food composition and caloric value of foods from animal origen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A.F.S TORRES

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Dados sobre composição de alimentos são importantes para inúmeras atividades, porém são escassos ou inexistentes em nosso país. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o valor calórico dos alimentos de origem animal comumente usados na dieta: carne, leite e ovos a fim de compará-los com os dados das tabelas de composição centesimal mais utilizadas por profissionais da área. Observou-se que de um modo geral, ocorrem variações entre os valores das tabelas consultadas e os analisados, sendo estes menores para ovos, seguidos de laticínios, carnes suínas, carnes bovinas e aves. Salientamos portanto, a importãncia de obtenção dados sobre a composição de alimentos condizentes com diferenças regionais do Brasil, visto que a maioria das tabelas disponíveis são compilações de dados internacionais.Proximate food composition data are very important to any professionals of food science and human nutrition area. In Brazil they are rare or do not exist. The food composition of items, of animal origin, usually consumed in the diet: meat, milk e eggs, were analyzed in order to determine their caloric value. After that they were compared with the data in the Tables of Food Composition (TFC commonly used to our professionals. It was observed that there are smaller differences in the values obtained for eggs, than milk, pork, beef, chicken. Although significant difference was not detected between determined caloric values and the ones from TFC, these report should be considered to professionals that use the TFC.

  3. The impact of food price increases on caloric intake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Robert T; Miller, Nolan H

    2008-12-08

    World food prices have increased dramatically in recent years. We use panel data from 2006 to examine the impact of these increases on the consumption and nutrition of poor households in two Chinese provinces. We find that households in Hunan suffered no nutrition declines. Households in Gansu experienced a small decline in calories, though the decline is on par with usual seasonal effects. The overall nutritional impact of the world price increase was small because households were able to substitute to cheaper foods and because the domestic prices of staple foods remained low due to government intervention in grain markets.

  4. Amorphization Induced High Magneto-Caloric Effect of Gd55A120Ni25 Ternary Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Ding; XIA Lei; YU Zhong-Hua; DONG Yuan-Da

    2008-01-01

    We report the amorphization induced high magneto-caloric effect (MCE) of recently developed Gd55Al15Ni30 bulk metallic glass (BMG). The magnetic properties of the Gd55Al15Ni30 BMG are investigated in comparison with that of its crystalline counterpart. It is found that amorphization can increase the saturation magnetization and decrease the hysteresis of Gd55Al15Ni30 alloys, which indicate the possible enhancement of MCE. The magnetic entropy changes and the refrigerant capacity of the BMG as well as the crystalline samples is calculated directly from isothermal magnetic measurements. The results show the amorphization induced high MCE of the alloy and the excellent refrigerant efficiency of Gd55A115Ni30 bulk metallic glass.

  5. Exercise and Caloric Restriction Alter the Immune System of Mice Submitted to a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Wasinski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As the size of adipocytes increases during obesity, the establishment of resident immune cells in adipose tissue becomes an important source of proinflammatory mediators. Exercise and caloric restriction are two important, nonpharmacological tools against body mass increase. To date, their effects on the immune cells of adipose tissue in obese organisms, specifically when a high-fat diet is consumed, have been poorly investigated. Thus, after consuming a high-fat diet, mice were submitted to chronic swimming training or a 30% caloric restriction in order to investigate the effects of both interventions on resident immune cells in adipose tissue. These strategies were able to reduce body mass and resulted in changes in the number of resident immune cells in the adipose tissue and levels of cytokines/chemokines in serum. While exercise increased the number of NK cells in adipose tissue and serum levels of IL-6 and RANTES, caloric restriction increased the CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and MCP-1 levels. Together, these data demonstrated that exercise and caloric restriction modulate resident immune cells in adipose tissues differently in spite of an equivalent body weight reduction. Additionally, the results also reinforce the idea that a combination of both strategies is better than either individually for combating obesity.

  6. Beyond-brand effect of television (TV) food advertisements/commercials on caloric intake and food choice of 5-7-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Hughes, Georgina; Oliveira, Lorraine P; Dovey, Terence M

    2007-07-01

    Food advert exposure has been shown to influence calorie intake and food choice in 9-11 year olds. However, little is known about the effect of food advertisements on feeding behaviour in younger children. Therefore, we conducted a study with 93 children aged 5-7 years, 28 of whom were over weight or obese. The children were exposed to 10 non-food adverts and 10 food adverts in a repeated measures design. Their consumption of sweet and savoury, high and low fat snack foods, and fruit were measured following both sessions. Food advert exposure produced a significant increase in total food intake in young children. The collection of recognition data was incomplete. These data replicate previous findings in that exposure to food adverts increases food intake in all children, but recognition of food adverts is related to body mass index (BMI). Beyond their effects on brand choice, exposure to food advertisements (commercials) promotes over-consumption in younger children.

  7. Safety assessment and caloric value of partially hydrolyzed guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, John W; Soto-Vaca, Adriana; Heimbach, James; Rao, T P; Juneja, Lekh Raj; Slavin, Joanne; Fahey, George C

    2013-02-27

    Guar gum and partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) are food ingredients that have been available for many years. PHGG is the partially hydrolyzed product from guar gum obtained from the Indian cluster bean (Cyanopsis tetragonolopus). The gum (CAS Registry No. 9000-30-0) is composed of galactomannan, a gel-forming polysaccharide with a molecular weight ranging from 200 to 300 kDa. The intact and partially hydrolyzed forms have multiple food applications. The intact material can be used to control the viscosity, stability, and texture of foods. PHGG is highly soluble and has little physical impact on foods. Both forms are indigestible but are excellent sources of fermentable dietary fiber. The caloric value of intact guar gum is accepted as 2.0, whereas the caloric value of PHGG has not been firmly established. It is the goal of this paper to review the chemistry, safety, in vivo effects, and caloric value of PHGG.

  8. Low-versus high-glycemic index diets in women: effects on caloric requirement, substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, James F; Lopez, Beth

    2007-09-01

    Lowering dietary glycemic index appears to have positive health effects in obese and/or insulin resistant individuals. However, detailed studies in lean young men show no effect. This study was designed to test the null hypothesis that a diet rich in low-glycemic carbohydrate has no effect on lipid profile, caloric requirements, fat oxidation, or insulin sensitivity in adult women when compared to one rich in high-glycemic carbohydrate. The metabolic feeding protocol used was conducted in both a free-living and in-patient setting using a randomized crossover design. Seven women were studied on each of 2 diets in which 60% of the calories were from either high- or low-glycemic carbohydrate sources. Each diet lasted 20 days with measurements of caloric requirement, resting metabolic rate, glucose and insulin responses to diet and activity, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profile over the last 7 days. Caloric requirement was determined by bomb calorimetry. Other techniques included indirect calorimetry, hydrodensitometry, stable isotope tracers, and the euglycemic clamp. On the low-glycemic index diet the women's caloric requirements were 11% +/- 1% higher, fat oxidation at fasted rest supplied an average of 45% +/- 4% versus 28% +/- 5% of oxidative requirements, average glucose and insulin levels were approximately 40% lower, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and leptin concentrations were lower, and various indices of insulin sensitivity were > 20% higher. In this group of adult women, a diet that lowered glycemic index well below that typically found in western diets increased both daily caloric requirement and fat oxidation, decreased insulin and glucose concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity.

  9. Uso de transdutores de fluxo de calor no estudo da transferência de calor em alimentos embalados The use of heat flux transducers to study heat transfer in canned foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Carciofi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A densidade de fluxo de calor que atravessa uma superfície é classicamente determinada mediante a medição das temperaturas apropriadas e da aplicação da Lei de Fourier. Uma alternativa a esse procedimento é a utilização de transdutores de fluxo de calor, os quais geram um sinal elétrico proporcional ao fluxo térmico que os atravessa. Neste trabalho, processos de aquecimento e de resfriamento de alimentos foram estudados em laboratório, utilizando-se um recipiente de vidro cilíndrico para simular uma embalagem. Dois transdutores de fluxo de calor a gradiente tangencial foram previamente instalados no recipiente, revestindo completamente a superfície lateral do mesmo. O recipiente contendo a amostra foi inserido em banho de água circulante à temperatura constante. Os sinais fornecidos pelos transdutores e por termopares inseridos no interior do recipiente foram registrados por um sistema de aquisição de dados computadorizado. Os resultados obtidos com o uso dos transdutores foram comparados com aqueles obtidos através de balanços de energia realizados a partir dos dados experimentais de evolução temporal das temperaturas da amostra junto à superfície interna da embalagem e no centro da mesma. A comparação mostrou que os transdutores de fluxo de calor a gradiente tangencial puderam determinar os fluxos de calor, com tempo de resposta característico dos termopares. Os resultados apresentados mostraram a viabilidade de utilização desses fluxímetros no estudo não destrutivo e não invasivo dos processos de aquecimento e de resfriamento de alimentos, fornecendo informações complementares àquelas obtidas pelo uso de termopares instalados no interior da embalagem.Heat flux determination in thermal processes is classically carried out by appropriate temperature measurements and the application of the Fourier Law. An alternative to this procedure is to determine the heat flux that crosses a surface using heat flux

  10. PREFACE: 16th International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (CALOR 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Rainer W.

    2015-02-01

    The XVIth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics - CALOR 2014 - was held in Giessen, Germany from 6-11 April 2014 at the Science Campus of the University. It was hosted by the Justus-Liebig-University and the HIC for FAIR Helmholtz International Center. The series of conferences on calorimetry were started in 1990 at Fermilab and are focusing primarily on operating and future calorimeter systems within the Hadron and High-Energy Physics community without neglecting the impact on other fields such as Astrophysics or Medical Imaging. Confirmed by the impressive list of over 70 oral presentations, 5 posters and over 100 attendees, the field of calorimetry appears alive and attractive. The present volume contains the written contributions of almost all presentations which can be found at http://calor2014.de. Time slots of 15 or 30 minutes including discussion were allocated. The conference was accompanied by a small exhibition of several industrial companies related to the field. The day before the opening of the scientific program, Richard Wigmans gave an excellent and vivid tutorial on basic aspects on calorimetry meant as an introduction for students and conference attendees new in the field. The opening ceremony was used to give an impression of the present and future status and the scientific program of the new FAIR facility nearby at Darmstadt presented by Klaus Peters from GSI. The conference program of the first day was dedicated to the performance and required future upgrade of the LHC experiments, dominated by ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. The program of the next day contained specific aspects on electronics and readout as well as calorimetry in outer space. Several contributions discussed in detail new concepts for hadron calorimeters within the CALICE collaboration completed by a session on sampling calorimeters. The next sections were dedicated to operating and future calorimeters at various laboratories and covering a wide range of

  11. General and persistent effects of high-intensity sweeteners on body weight gain and caloric compensation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, Susan E; Baker, Chelsea R; Davidson, T L

    2009-08-01

    In an earlier work (S. E. Swithers & T. L. Davidson, 2008), rats provided with a fixed amount of a yogurt diet mixed with saccharin gained more weight and showed impaired caloric compensation relative to rats given the same amount of yogurt mixed with glucose. The present 4 experiments examined the generality of these findings and demonstrated that increased body weight gain was also demonstrated when animals consumed a yogurt diet sweetened with an alternative high-intensity sweetener (acesulfame potassium; AceK) as well as in animals given a saccharin-sweetened base diet (refried beans) that was calorically similar but nutritionally distinct from low-fat yogurt. These studies also extended earlier findings by showing that body weight differences persist after saccharin-sweetened diets are discontinued and following a shift to a diet sweetened with glucose. In addition, rats first exposed to a diet sweetened with glucose still gain additional weight when subsequently exposed to a saccharin-sweetened diet. The results of these experiments add support to the hypothesis that exposure to weak or nonpredictive relationships between sweet tastes and caloric consequences may lead to positive energy balance.

  12. The influence of caloric deprivation and food composition on TSH, thyroid hormones and nuclear binding of T3 in mononuclear blood cells in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, L E; Kvetny, J

    1989-01-01

    In vivo changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxin (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and nuclear binding of T3 (NBT3) in mononuclear blood cells were studied in obese women during seven days of caloric deprivation (maximum 1,100 kcal/d). In seven women given a high protein diet (80% protein......4 changed from 20.4 +/- 5.1 pmol/L to 20.6 +/- 3.1 pmol/L (NS). The caloric intake and the weight reduction was the same in the two groups. Basal TSH and TSH after thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) (TSH+30min) declined in both groups. In group 1, basal TSH declined from 1.88 +/- 1.07 microU/mL (P...

  13. Time restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A.; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A. J.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-01-01

    While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed high fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 h/day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access, ye...

  14. The role of a pre-load beverage on gastric volume and food intake: comparison between non-caloric carbonated and non-carbonated beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Rosario; Savarese, Maria Flavia; Sarnelli, Giovanni; Nicolai, Emanuele; Aragri, Adriana; Cirillo, Carla; Vozzella, Letizia; Zito, Francesco Paolo; Verlezza, Viviana; Efficie, Eleonora; Buyckx, Maxime

    2011-10-14

    There is conflicting data on the effects of carbon dioxide contained in beverages on stomach functions. We aimed to verify the effect of a pre-meal administration of a 300 ml non-caloric carbonated beverage (B+CO2) compared to water or a beverage without CO2 (B-CO2), during a solid (SM) and a liquid meal (LM) on: a) gastric volume, b) caloric intake, c) ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK) release in healthy subjects. After drinking the beverages (Water, B-CO2, B+CO2), ten healthy subjects (4 women, aged 22-30 years; BMI 23 ± 1) were asked to consume either an SM or an LM, at a constant rate (110 kcal/5 min). Total gastric volumes (TGV) were evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging after drinking the beverage and at maximum satiety (MS). Total kcal intake at MS was evaluated. Ghrelin and CCK were measured by enzyme immunoassay until 120 min after the meal. Statistical calculations were carried out by paired T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The data is expressed as mean ± SEM. TGV after B+CO2 consumption was significantly higher than after B-CO2 or water (p beverages tested, with either the SM (Water: 783 ± 77 kcals; B-CO2: 837 ± 66; B+CO2: 774 ± 66) or the LM (630 ± 111; 585 ± 88; 588 ± 95). Area under curve of ghrelin was significantly (p beverages. The increase in gastric volume following a 300 ml pre-meal carbonated beverage did not affect food intake whether a solid or liquid meal was given. The consistency of the meal and the carbonated beverage seemed to influence ghrelin release, but were unable, under our experimental conditions, to modify food intake in terms of quantity. Further studies are needed to verify if other food and beverage combinations are able to modify satiation.

  15. PREFACE: XVth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (CALOR2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akchurin, Nural

    2012-12-01

    The XVth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics, CALOR2012, was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico from 4-8 June 2012. The series of conferences on calorimetry started in 1990 at Fermilab, and they have been the premier event for calorimeter aficionados, a trend that CALOR2012 upheld. This year, several presentations focused on the status of the major calorimeter systems, especially at the LHC. Discussions on new and developing techniques in calorimetry took a full day. Excellent updates on uses of calorimeters or about ideas that are deeply rooted in particle physics calorimetry in astrophysics and neutrino physics were followed by talks on algorithms and special triggers that rely on calorimeters. Finally, discussions of promising current developments and ongoing R&D work for future calorimeters capped the conference. The field of calorimetry is alive and well, as evidenced by the more than 100 attendees and the excellent quality of over 80 presentations. You will find the written contributions in this volume. The presentations can be found at calor2012.ttu.edu. The first day of the conference was dedicated to the LHC. In two invited talks, Guillaume Unal (CERN) and Tommaso Tabarelli de Fatis (Universita' & INFN Milano Bicocca) discussed the critical role electromagnetic calorimeters play in the hunt for the Standard Model Higgs boson in ATLAS and CMS, respectively. The enhanced sensitivity for light Higgs in the two-gamma decay channel renders electromagnetic calorimeters indispensible. Much of the higher mass region was already excluded for the SM Higgs by the time of this conference, and after less than a month, on 4 July, CERN announced the discovery of a new boson at 125 GeV, a particle that seems consistent with the Higgs particle so far. Once again, without the electromagnetic calorimeters, this would not have been possible. Professor Geoffrey West from the Santa Fe Institute gave the keynote address. His talk, 'Universal Scaling Laws

  16. Effect of feeding a weight loss food beyond a caloric restriction period on body composition and resistance to weight gain in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerchinger, Amanda M; Jackson, Matthew I; Jewell, Dennis E; MacLeay, Jennifer M; Hahn, Kevin A; Paetau-Robinson, Inke

    2015-08-15

    To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental L-carnitine, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in cats. Prospective clinical study. 50 overweight cats. The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 cats were allocated to 3 groups (10 cats/group) to be fed a dry maintenance cat food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 cats was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each cat was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Cats were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase. During trial 1, cats in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, cats lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body weight and fat mass but gained lean body mass during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism was improved from baseline for cats fed the test food. Results suggested that feeding overweight cats the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.

  17. Effect of feeding a weight loss food beyond a caloric restriction period on body composition and resistance to weight gain in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerchinger, Amanda M; Jackson, Matthew I; Jewell, Dennis E; MacLeay, Jennifer M; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Hahn, Kevin A

    2015-08-15

    To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental L-carnitine, lipoic acid, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in dogs. Prospective clinical study. 50 overweight dogs. The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 dogs were allocated to 3 groups (10 dogs/group) to be fed a dry maintenance dog food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 dogs was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1% to 2%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each dog was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Dogs were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase. During trial 1, dogs in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, dogs lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass (LBM) during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body fat but gained LBM during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism and LBM retention were improved from baseline for dogs fed the test food. Results suggested that feeding overweight dogs the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight-maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.

  18. PREFACE: XIII International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (CALOR 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livan, Michele

    2009-07-01

    The XIII International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics was held in Pavia, Italy, 26-30 May 2008, picking up the baton from the 2006 Conference in Chicago. The Conference took place in the unique environment of the Theresian Room of the University Library. The attendees were surrounded by over 40 000 books of general interest and culture, and had the opportunity to see precious volumes written by such people as Galileo, Volta and Faraday. The Workshop brought together more than 120 participants, including senior scientists as well as young physicists, confirming the central and ever-growing role of calorimeters in modern particle physics. The development of these detectors, as stressed by Professor Klaus Pretzl in his lectio magistralis, has made it possible to explore new frontiers in physics, and the present scenario is no exception to this rule. With the LHC experiments almost completely installed and ready to take data, the Conference was an ideal chance to review the status of the different projects, whose development has been followed and discussed throughout the entire Calor series, and to show that they are capable of meeting the design specifications. Other highlights were the performance and physics results of calorimeters installed in currently operating experiments. In the session on astrophysics and neutrinos, the contributions confirmed the key role of calorimeters in this sector and demonstrated their growing application even beyond the field of accelerator physics. Considerable time was devoted to the state-of-the-art techniques in the design and operation of the detectors, while the session on simulation addressed the importance of a thorough understanding of the shower development to meet the demanding requirements of present experiments. Finally, on the R&D side, the particle flow and dual read-out concepts confronted the challenges issued by the next generation of experiments. This complex material was reviewed in 83

  19. Small changes in meal patterns lead to significant changes in total caloric intake. Effects of diet and social status on food intake in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carla J; Lowe, Jonathan; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Ulam, Patrick; Toufexis, Donna; Wilson, Mark E; Johnson, Zachary

    2013-03-01

    Social subordination in macaques is a well-established model to study the adverse effects of psychosocial stress on a number of health outcomes, including stress-induced eating. The present analysis was conducted to empirically define a meal among free-feeding female rhesus monkeys and to examine the roles of meal patterning (e.g., meal size, meal frequency, and snacking patterns) in findings from a previous study demonstrating that psychosocial stress increases overall caloric intake among subordinate animals with access to a highly palatable diet. Results indicate that all animals, regardless of social status, consumed more frequent meals, larger meals, and more calories in the form of snacks when a highly palatable diet was available. Additional findings suggest that subordinate animals consumed significantly larger meals compared to their dominant counterparts regardless of the dietary environment. Additionally, subordinate females with a history of exposure to the palatable diet consumed significantly more snack calories than both dominant and subordinate animals without previous exposure to the palatable diet when these females were returned to a standard laboratory diet. These findings illustrate how small changes in meal patterns can lead to significant increases in total caloric intake, which if prolonged, could promote the emergence of an obese phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mathematical modeling of the hormonal regulation of food intake and body weight : applications to caloric restriction and leptin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquier, Marine

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of food intake and energy expenditure usually limits important loss or gain of body weight. Hormones (leptin, ghrelin, insulin) and nutrients (glucose, triglycerides) are among the main regulators of food intake. Leptin is also involved in leptin resistance, often associated with obesity and characterized by a reduced efficacy to regulate food intake. Mathematical models describing the dynamics of body weight have been used to assist clinical weight loss interventions or to stu...

  1. Caloric expenditure of aerobic, resistance, or combined high-intensity interval training using a hydraulic resistance system in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Paul H; Tai, Chih-Yin; Carson, Laura R; Joy, Jordan M; Mosman, Matt M; McCann, Tyler R; Crona, Kevin P; Kim, Michael P; Moon, Jordan R

    2015-03-01

    Although exercise regimens vary in content and duration, few studies have compared the caloric expenditure of multiple exercise modalities with the same duration. The purpose of this study was to compare the energy expenditure of single sessions of resistance, aerobic, and combined exercise with the same duration. Nine recreationally active men (age: 25 ± 7 years; height: 181.6 ± 7.6 cm; weight: 86.6 ± 7.5 kg) performed the following 4 exercises for 30 minutes: a resistance training session using 75% of their 1-repetition maximum (1RM), an endurance cycling session at 70% maximum heart rate (HRmax), an endurance treadmill session at 70% HRmax, and a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session on a hydraulic resistance system (HRS) that included repeating intervals of 20 seconds at maximum effort followed by 40 seconds of rest. Total caloric expenditure, substrate use, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Caloric expenditure was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater when exercising with the HRS (12.62 ± 2.36 kcal·min), compared with when exercising with weights (8.83 ± 1.55 kcal·min), treadmill (9.48 ± 1.30 kcal·min), and cycling (9.23 ± 1.25 kcal·min). The average HR was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater with the HRS (156 ± 9 b·min), compared with that using weights (138 ± 16 b·min), treadmill (137 ± 5 b·min), and cycle (138 ± 6 b·min). Similarly, the average RPE was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher with the HRS (16 ± 2), compared with that using weights (13 ± 2), treadmill (10 ± 2), and cycle (11 ± 1). These data suggest that individuals can burn more calories performing an HIIT session with an HRS than spending the same amount of time performing a steady-state exercise session. This form of exercise intervention may be beneficial to individuals who want to gain the benefits of both resistance and cardiovascular training but have limited time to dedicate to exercise.

  2. The role of a pre-load beverage on gastric volume and food intake: comparison between non-caloric carbonated and non-carbonated beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zito Francesco

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is conflicting data on the effects of carbon dioxide contained in beverages on stomach functions. We aimed to verify the effect of a pre-meal administration of a 300 ml non-caloric carbonated beverage (B+CO2 compared to water or a beverage without CO2 (B-CO2, during a solid (SM and a liquid meal (LM on: a gastric volume, b caloric intake, c ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK release in healthy subjects. Methods After drinking the beverages (Water, B-CO2, B+CO2, ten healthy subjects (4 women, aged 22-30 years; BMI 23 ± 1 were asked to consume either an SM or an LM, at a constant rate (110 kcal/5 min. Total gastric volumes (TGV were evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging after drinking the beverage and at maximum satiety (MS. Total kcal intake at MS was evaluated. Ghrelin and CCK were measured by enzyme immunoassay until 120 min after the meal. Statistical calculations were carried out by paired T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA. The data is expressed as mean ± SEM. Results TGV after B+CO2 consumption was significantly higher than after B-CO2 or water (p 2: 837 ± 66; B+CO2: 774 ± 66 or the LM (630 ± 111; 585 ± 88; 588 ± 95. Area under curve of ghrelin was significantly (p 2 compared to B+CO2 and water (26.2 ± 4.5; 27.1 ± 5.1. No significant differences were found for ghrelin during LM, and for CCK during both SM and LM after all beverages. Conclusions The increase in gastric volume following a 300 ml pre-meal carbonated beverage did not affect food intake whether a solid or liquid meal was given. The consistency of the meal and the carbonated beverage seemed to influence ghrelin release, but were unable, under our experimental conditions, to modify food intake in terms of quantity. Further studies are needed to verify if other food and beverage combinations are able to modify satiation.

  3. The influence of caloric deprivation and food composition on TSH, thyroid hormones and nuclear binding of T3 in mononuclear blood cells in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, L E; Kvetny, J

    1989-01-01

    In vivo changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxin (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and nuclear binding of T3 (NBT3) in mononuclear blood cells were studied in obese women during seven days of caloric deprivation (maximum 1,100 kcal/d). In seven women given a high protein diet (80% protein......, 7% carbohydrates, 7% fat) and in two women who fasted (group 1), total T3 (TT3) decreased from 1.66 +/- 0.43 nmol/L to 1.11 +/- 0.32 nmol/L (P less than .01), free T3 (FT3) decreased from 5.7 +/- 1.1 pmol/L to 4.3 +/- 1.6 pmol/L (P less than .01), and free T4 (FT4) increased from 17.8 +/- 2.3 pmol...

  4. Exercise training improves relaxation response and SOD-1 expression in aortic and mesenteric rings from high caloric diet-fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Edson

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has been associated with a variety of disease such as type II diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis. Evidences have shown that exercise training promotes beneficial effects on these disorders, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical preconditioning prevents the deleterious effect of high caloric diet in vascular reactivity of rat aortic and mesenteric rings. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (SD; trained (TR; sedentary diet (SDD and trained diet (TRD groups. Run training (RT was performed in sessions of 60 min, 5 days/week for 12 weeks (70–80% VO2max. Triglycerides, glucose, insulin and nitrite/nitrate concentrations (NOx- were measured. Concentration-response curves to acetylcholine (ACh and sodium nitroprusside (SNP were obtained. Expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD-1 was assessed by Western blotting. Results High caloric diet increased triglycerides concentration (SDD: 216 ± 25 mg/dl and exercise training restored to the baseline value (TRD: 89 ± 9 mg/dl. Physical preconditioning significantly reduced insulin levels in both groups (TR: 0.54 ± 0.1 and TRD: 1.24 ± 0.3 ng/ml as compared to sedentary animals (SD: 0.87 ± 0.1 and SDD: 2.57 ± 0.3 ng/ml. On the other hand, glucose concentration was slightly increased by high caloric diet, and RT did not modify this parameter (SD: 126 ± 6; TR: 140 ± 8; SDD: 156 ± 8 and TRD 153 ± 9 mg/dl. Neither high caloric diet nor RT modified NOx- levels (SD: 27 ± 4; TR: 28 ± 6; SDD: 27 ± 3 and TRD: 30 ± 2 μM. Functional assays showed that high caloric diet impaired the relaxing response to ACh in mesenteric (about 13%, but not in aortic rings. RT improved the relaxing responses to ACh either in aortic (28%, for TR and 16%, to TRD groups or mesenteric rings (10%, for TR and 17%, to TRD groups that was accompanied by up-regulation of SOD-1

  5. Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A J; Ellisman, Mark H; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-06-06

    While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night, disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time-restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 hr per day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access yet are protected against obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation and have improved motor coordination. The tRF regimen improved CREB, mTOR, and AMPK pathway function and oscillations of the circadian clock and their target genes' expression. These changes in catabolic and anabolic pathways altered liver metabolome and improved nutrient utilization and energy expenditure. We demonstrate in mice that tRF regimen is a nonpharmacological strategy against obesity and associated diseases.

  6. Time restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A.; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A. J.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed high fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 h/day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access, yet are protected against obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and have improved motor coordination. The tRF regimen improved CREB, mTOR and AMPK pathway function and oscillations of the circadian clock and their target genes' expression. These changes in catabolic and anabolic pathways altered liver metabolome, improved nutrient utilization and energy expenditure. We demonstrate in mice that tRF regimen is a non-pharmacological strategy against obesity and associated diseases. PMID:22608008

  7. High Pressure Treatment in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Edwin Fabian Torres; Martínez, Gerardo González; Ceberio, Bernadette F Klotz; Rodrigo, Dolores; López, Antonio Martínez

    2014-08-19

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP), a non-thermal technology, which typically uses water as a pressure transfer medium, is characterized by a minimal impact on food characteristics (sensory, nutritional, and functional). Today, this technology, present in many food companies, can effectively inactivate bacterial cells and many enzymes. All this makes HHP very attractive, with very good acceptance by consumers, who value the organoleptic characteristics of products processed by this non-thermal food preservation technology because they associate these products with fresh-like. On the other hand, this technology reduces the need for non-natural synthetic additives of low consumer acceptance.

  8. High Pressure Treatment in Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Fabian Torres Bello

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure (HHP, a non-thermal technology, which typically uses water as a pressure transfer medium, is characterized by a minimal impact on food characteristics (sensory, nutritional, and functional. Today, this technology, present in many food companies, can effectively inactivate bacterial cells and many enzymes. All this makes HHP very attractive, with very good acceptance by consumers, who value the organoleptic characteristics of products processed by this non-thermal food preservation technology because they associate these products with fresh-like. On the other hand, this technology reduces the need for non-natural synthetic additives of low consumer acceptance.

  9. [Perioperative high-caloric alimentation with the central venous catheter. Prospective study in 404 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, W; Weber, M; Doht, R

    1985-06-14

    Peri-operative high-calorie nutrition was administered, through a total of 500 catheters introduced into the superior vena cava via the subclavian vein, to 404 patients admitted to hospital for gastro-intestinal cancer resection or other major abdominal operations, some of them taking a complicated course. Most of the catheters remained in situ for 6-20 days; the longest period was 44 days. Catheter insertion was successful in 97.8%. Faulty position of the catheter occurred in 4.4%; in 2.8% it was rectified under fluoroscopic control. In 92.2% there were no complications ascribable to the catheter. A pneumothorax resulted in 1.4% of patients, central thrombosis in 0.4%. Catheter-related sepsis was noted in 6.2%.

  10. Differential activation of the dorsal striatum by high-calorie visual food stimuli in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothemund, Yvonne; Preuschhof, Claudia; Bohner, Georg; Bauknecht, Hans-Christian; Klingebiel, Randolf; Flor, Herta; Klapp, Burghard F

    2007-08-15

    The neural systems regulating food intake in obese individuals remain poorly understood. Previous studies applied positron emission tomography and manipulated hunger and satiety to investigate differences in appetitive processing between obese and normal-weight individuals. However, it is not known whether manipulation of stimulus value may yield different neural activity in obese as compared to control subjects when intrinsic physiological states are kept constant. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate 13 obese and 13 normal-weight subjects and manipulated food motivation by presenting visual food stimuli differing in their caloric content and energy density. In contrast to controls, obese women selectively activated the dorsal striatum while viewing high-caloric foods. Moreover, in the high-calorie condition body mass index (BMI) predicted activation in the dorsal striatum, anterior insula, claustrum, posterior cingulate, postcentral and lateral orbitofrontal cortex. The results indicate that in obese individuals simple visual stimulation with food stimuli activates regions related to reward anticipation and habit learning (dorsal striatum). Additionally, high-calorie food images yielded BMI-dependent activations in regions associated with taste information processing (anterior insula and lateral orbitofrontal cortex), motivation (orbitofrontal cortex), emotion as well as memory functions (posterior cingulate). Collectively, the results suggest that the observed activation is independent of the physiological states of hunger and satiation, and thus may contribute to pathological overeating and obesity. Some of the observed activations (dorsal striatum, orbitofrontal cortex) are likely to be dopamine-mediated.

  11. Functional MRI of Challenging Food Choices: Forced Choice between Equally Liked High- and Low-Calorie Foods in the Absence of Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Lisette; van der Laan, Laura N; Viergever, Max A; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI) studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low). Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (pre)cuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject's low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS) was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food's biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance.

  12. Functional MRI of Challenging Food Choices: Forced Choice between Equally Liked High- and Low-Calorie Foods in the Absence of Hunger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Charbonnier

    Full Text Available We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low. Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (precuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject's low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food's biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance.

  13. Structuring high-protein foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purwanti, N.

    2012-01-01

    Increased protein consumption gives rise to various health benefits. High-protein intake can lead to muscle development, body weight control and suppression of sarcopenia progression. However, increasing the protein content in food products leads to textural changes over time. These changes result i

  14. Caloric beverage consumption patterns in Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Juan A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico has seen a very steep increase in child obesity level. Little is known about caloric beverage intake in this country as well as all other countries outside a few high income countries. This study examines overall patterns and trends in all caloric beverages from two nationally representative surveys from Mexico. Methods The two nationally representative dietary intake surveys (1999 and 2006 from Mexico are used to study caloric beverage intake in 17, 215 children. The volume (ml and caloric energy (kcal contributed by all beverages consumed by the sample subjects were measured. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. Results The trends from the dietary intake surveys showed very large increases in caloric beverages among pre-school and school children. The contribution of whole milk and sugar-sweetened juices was an important finding. Mexican pre-school children consumed 27.8% of their energy from caloric beverages in 2006 and school children consumed 20.7% of their energy from caloric beverages during the same time. The three major categories of beverage intake are whole milk, fruit juice with various sugar and water combinations and carbonated and noncarbonated sugared-beverages. Conclusion The Mexican government, greatly concerned about obesity, has identified the large increase in caloric beverages from whole milk, juices and soft drinks as a key target and is initiating major changes to address this problem. They have already used the data to shift 20 million persons in their welfare and feeding programs from whole to 1.5% fat milk and in a year will shift to nonfat milk. They are using these data to revise school beverage policies and national regulations and taxation policies related to an array of less healthful caloric beverages.

  15. Caloric versus low-caloric sweeteners: Can the body be fooled?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Low-caloric artificial sweeteners have been around for several decades now. Still, the debate over their usefulness in decreasing energy intake is ongoing. In principle, replacing sugar-containing foods with 'light' versions will lead to decreased energy intake. However, the reality of food intake b

  16. Intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N J; Heitmann, B L

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased in the past 30 years, and at the same time a steep increase in consumption of soft drinks has been seen. This paper reviews the literature for studies on associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity, relative to adjustment...... studies were identified. The majority of the prospective studies found positive associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity. Three experimental studies found positive effects of calorically sweetened beverages and subsequent changes in body fat. Two experimental studies did...... not find effects. Eight prospective studies adjusted for energy intake. Seven of these studies reported associations that were essentially similar before and after energy adjustment. In conclusion, a high intake of calorically sweetened beverages can be regarded as a determinant for obesity. However...

  17. High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... 286) Actions ${title} Loading... High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety What is considered a high altitude? How is ...

  18. Dietary restraint moderates the effects of food exposure on women's body and weight satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geschwind, Nicole; Roefs, Anne; Lattimore, Paul; Fett, Anne-Kathrin; Jansen, Anita

    2008-11-01

    The influence of dietary restraint and food exposure on body satisfaction was tested. Body and weight satisfaction were measured before and after exposure to either high- or low-caloric food, without actual eating. Independent of caloric condition, higher dietary restraint was associated with a decrease in body satisfaction after food exposure. With regard to weight satisfaction, however, the association between higher dietary restraint and decreased weight satisfaction was specific for the high-caloric condition. Thus, the actual eating of food is not necessary for decreased body and weight satisfaction to occur, suggesting an exposure-induced activation of dysfunctional cognitions in restrained eaters.

  19. Calore e termodinamica

    CERN Document Server

    Zemansky, Mark W

    1970-01-01

    Temperatura ; sistemi termodinamici semplici ; lavoro ; il calore e il primo principio ; gas ideali ; teoria cinetica dei gas ideali ; il secondo principio della termodinamica ; reversibilità e temperatura Kelvin ; entropia ; meccanica statistica sostanze pure ; transizioni di fase, elio liquido ed elio solido ; sistemi particolari ; paramagnetismo, fisica delle basse temperature, temperature negative e terzo principio ; superfluidità e superconduttività ; equilibrio chimico ; reazioni con gas ideali ; sistemi eterogenei.

  20. Effects of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet, exercise, and caloric restriction on neurocognition in overweight adults with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick J; Blumenthal, James A; Babyak, Michael A; Craighead, Linda; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A; Browndyke, Jeffrey N; Strauman, Timothy A; Sherwood, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    High blood pressure increases the risks of stroke, dementia, and neurocognitive dysfunction. Although aerobic exercise and dietary modifications have been shown to reduce blood pressure, no randomized trials have examined the effects of aerobic exercise combined with dietary modification on neurocognitive functioning in individuals with high blood pressure (ie, prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension). As part of a larger investigation, 124 participants with elevated blood pressure (systolic blood pressure 130 to 159 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure 85 to 99 mm Hg) who were sedentary and overweight or obese (body mass index: 25 to 40 kg/m(2)) were randomized to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet alone, DASH combined with a behavioral weight management program including exercise and caloric restriction, or a usual diet control group. Participants completed a battery of neurocognitive tests of executive function-memory-learning and psychomotor speed at baseline and again after the 4-month intervention. Participants on the DASH diet combined with a behavioral weight management program exhibited greater improvements in executive function-memory-learning (Cohen's D=0.562; P=0.008) and psychomotor speed (Cohen's D=0.480; P=0.023), and DASH diet alone participants exhibited better psychomotor speed (Cohen's D=0.440; P=0.036) compared with the usual diet control. Neurocognitive improvements appeared to be mediated by increased aerobic fitness and weight loss. Also, participants with greater intima-medial thickness and higher systolic blood pressure showed greater improvements in executive function-memory-learning in the group on the DASH diet combined with a behavioral weight management program. In conclusion, combining aerobic exercise with the DASH diet and caloric restriction improves neurocognitive function among sedentary and overweight/obese individuals with prehypertension and hypertension.

  1. High-Caloric and Chocolate Stimuli Processing in Healthy Humans: An Integration of Functional Imaging and Electrophysiological Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Deyar Asmaro; Mario Liotti

    2014-01-01

    There has been a great deal of interest in understanding how the human brain processes appetitive food cues, and knowing how such cues elicit craving responses is particularly relevant when current eating behavior trends within Westernized societies are considered. One substance that holds a special place with regard to food preference is chocolate, and studies that used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potentials (ERPs) have identified neural regions and electr...

  2. Feelings about food: the ventral tegmental area in food reward and emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meye, Frank J; Adan, Roger A H

    2014-01-01

    Overconsumption of high caloric food plays an important role in the etiology of obesity. Several factors drive such hedonic feeding. High caloric food is often palatable. In addition, when an individual is sated, stress and food-related cues can serve as potent feeding triggers. A better understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of food palatability and environmentally triggered overconsumption would aid the development of new treatment strategies. In the current review we address the pivotal role of the mesolimbic dopamine reward system in the drive towards high caloric palatable food and its relation to stress- and cue-induced feeding. We also discuss how this system may be affected by both established and potential anti-obesity drug targets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Low Caloric Sweeteners for Diabetes and Obesity Care and Their

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asif

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and obesity are two common human disorders that affecting human health and invite various diseases and disorders in normal body functions. These diseases are very common worldwide. Diabetes occurs when high blood sugar levels develop. This happens when body can’t make and use all of the insulin it needs to blood sugar normally to keep blood sugar levels as normal as possible to control diabetes. Diabetic patients will need to follow a diet plan, do exercise and possibly take insulin injections. As part of eating plan, health care provider, and dietitian may ask to limit the amount of carbohydrates eat each day. Low-calorie sweeteners are one easy tool to help for follow eating plan. Obesity is more susceptible and often been associated with frequent ingestion of high energy food in high amount and high intake of sugars such as fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. Both diseases are may be genetically or due to hormonal imbalances. High energy sweeteners may causes caries in the teeth particularly susceptible to the children. Increased calorie intake associated with sugars and carbohydrates, especially when associated with physical inactivity, has been implicated in obesity. Fortunately, low calorie artificial and natural alternatives of sugars have been developed as alternatives to fermentable sugars and have shown promise in these health issues. Although there are only few artificial sweeteners (saccharin, aspartame, acesulfam potassium, sucralose, cyclamate that have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration and additional other low-caloric sweeteners (sugar alcohols, neotame, stevia, erythritol, xylitol, tagatose that have FDA-generally recognized as safe. Given the health impact of sugars and other carbohydrates, professionals should be aware of the marketed available low caloric sweeteners and both their benefits and potential risks.

  4. Food processing by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2017-04-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) process, as a nonthermal process, can be used to inactivate microbes while minimizing chemical reactions in food. In this regard, a HHP level of 100 MPa (986.9 atm/1019.7 kgf/cm(2)) and more is applied to food. Conventional thermal process damages food components relating color, flavor, and nutrition via enhanced chemical reactions. However, HHP process minimizes the damages and inactivates microbes toward processing high quality safe foods. The first commercial HHP-processed foods were launched in 1990 as fruit products such as jams, and then some other products have been commercialized: retort rice products (enhanced water impregnation), cooked hams and sausages (shelf life extension), soy sauce with minimized salt (short-time fermentation owing to enhanced enzymatic reactions), and beverages (shelf life extension). The characteristics of HHP food processing are reviewed from viewpoints of nonthermal process, history, research and development, physical and biochemical changes, and processing equipment.

  5. Effects of a high-caloric diet and physical exercise on brain metabolite levels: a combined proton MRS and histologic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Matthias K; Sack, Markus; Lenz, Jenny N; Jakovcevski, Mira; Biedermann, Sarah V; Falfán-Melgoza, Claudia; Deussing, Jan; Steinle, Jörg; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Pfister, Frederik; Stalla, Günter K; Ende, Gabriele; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Fuss, Johannes; Gass, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Excessive intake of high-caloric diets as well as subsequent development of obesity and diabetes mellitus may exert a wide range of unfavorable effects on the central nervous system (CNS). It has been suggested that one mechanism in this context is the promotion of neuroinflammation. The potentially harmful effects of such diets were suggested to be mitigated by physical exercise. Here, we conducted a study investigating the effects of physical exercise in a cafeteria-diet mouse model on CNS metabolites by means of in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS). In addition postmortem histologic and real-time (RT)-PCR analyses for inflammatory markers were performed. Cafeteria diet induced obesity and hyperglycemia, which was only partially moderated by exercise. It also induced several changes in CNS metabolites such as reduced hippocampal glutamate (Glu), choline-containing compounds (tCho) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA)+N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamic acid (NAAG) (tNAA) levels, whereas opposite effects were seen for running. No association of these effects with markers of central inflammation could be observed. These findings suggest that while voluntary wheel running alone is insufficient to prevent the unfavorable peripheral sequelae of the diet, it counteracted many changes in brain metabolites. The observed effects seem to be independent of neuroinflammation. PMID:25564238

  6. Green tea supplementation benefits body composition and improves bone properties in obese female rats fed with high-fat diet and caloric restricted diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Han, Jia; Wang, Shu; Chung, Eunhee; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplementation on body composition, bone properties, and serum markers in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a caloric restricted diet (CRD). Forty-eight female rats were fed an HFD ad libitum for 4 months, and then either continued on the HFD or the CRD with or without 0.5% GTP in water. Body composition, bone efficacy, and serum markers were measured. We hypothesized that GTP supplementation would improve body composition, mitigate bone loss, and restore bone microstructure in obese animals fed either HFD or CRD. CRD lowered percent fat mass; bone mass and trabecular number of tibia, femur and lumbar vertebrae; femoral strength; trabecular and cortical thickness of tibia; insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. CRD also increased percent fat-free mass; trabecular separation of tibia and femur; eroded surface of tibia; bone formation rate and erosion rate at tibia shaft; and adiponectin. GTP supplementation increased femoral mass and strength (P = .026), trabecular thickness (P = .012) and number (P = .019), and cortical thickness of tibia (P diet type × GTP) on osteoblast surface/bone surface, mineral apposition rate at periosteal and endocortical bones, periosteal bone formation rate, and trabecular thickness at femur and lumbar vertebrate (P composition and improved bone microstructure and strength in obese rats fed with HFD or HFD followed by CRD diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of food craving and calorie intake on body mass index (BMI) changes during an 18-month behavioral weight loss trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Joanna; Rybak, Tiffany M; Berlin, Kristoffer S; Murphy, James G; Raynor, Hollie A

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relations between food craving, caloric intake, and body mass index (BMI) changes over the course of an 18-month weight loss trial. Two-hundred two obese adults (mean BMI = 34.9 kg/m(2); mean age = 51.30 years, 92.2% White; 57.8% female) who participated in a behavioral weight loss trial completed measures of food craving, caloric intake, and BMI at baseline, 6 and 18 months. From baseline to 6 months, higher initial food cravings were associated with more gradual and less steep reductions in BMI. Additionally, the relation between changes in food craving and BMI changes varied by levels of change in caloric intake, such that BMI change and change in food cravings were positively associated at low levels of change in caloric intake, but were unrelated at average and high levels of change in caloric intake. Similarly, from baseline to 6 months and from 6 to 18 months, the relation between changes in food craving and BMI changes also varied by initial levels of caloric intake. Explicit clinical targeting of food craving management may be beneficial for individuals beginning weight loss programs, especially for those who report higher levels of food craving at baseline. Baseline caloric intake and change in calorie intake over time may serve as moderators of the relation between food cravings and BMI.

  8. Caloric curve of star clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casetti, Lapo; Nardini, Cesare

    2012-06-01

    Self-gravitating systems, such as globular clusters or elliptical galaxies, are the prototypes of many-body systems with long-range interactions, and should be the natural arena in which to test theoretical predictions on the statistical behavior of long-range-interacting systems. Systems of classical self-gravitating particles can be studied with the standard tools of equilibrium statistical mechanics, provided the potential is regularized at small length scales and the system is confined in a box. The confinement condition looks rather unphysical in general, so that it is natural to ask whether what we learn with these studies is relevant to real self-gravitating systems. In order to provide an answer to this question, we consider a basic, simple, yet effective model of globular clusters: the King model. This model describes a self-consistently confined system, without the need of any external box, but the stationary state is a nonthermal one. In particular, we consider the King model with a short-distance cutoff on the interactions, and we discuss how such a cutoff affects the caloric curve, i.e., the relation between temperature and energy. We find that the cutoff stabilizes a low-energy phase, which is absent in the King model without cutoff; the caloric curve of the model with cutoff turns out to be very similar to that of previously studied confined and regularized models, but for the absence of a high-energy gaslike phase. We briefly discuss the possible phenomenological as well as theoretical implications of these results.

  9. Food Web Topology in High Mountain Lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez-Hernández

    Full Text Available Although diversity and limnology of alpine lake systems are well studied, their food web structure and properties have rarely been addressed. Here, the topological food webs of three high mountain lakes in Central Spain were examined. We first addressed the pelagic networks of the lakes, and then we explored how food web topology changed when benthic biota was included to establish complete trophic networks. We conducted a literature search to compare our alpine lacustrine food webs and their structural metrics with those of 18 published lentic webs using a meta-analytic approach. The comparison revealed that the food webs in alpine lakes are relatively simple, in terms of structural network properties (linkage density and connectance, in comparison with lowland lakes, but no great differences were found among pelagic networks. The studied high mountain food webs were dominated by a high proportion of omnivores and species at intermediate trophic levels. Omnivores can exploit resources at multiple trophic levels, and this characteristic might reduce competition among interacting species. Accordingly, the trophic overlap, measured as trophic similarity, was very low in all three systems. Thus, these alpine networks are characterized by many omnivorous consumers with numerous prey species and few consumers with a single or few prey and with low competitive interactions among species. The present study emphasizes the ecological significance of omnivores in high mountain lakes as promoters of network stability and as central players in energy flow pathways via food partitioning and enabling energy mobility among trophic levels.

  10. Brain Food at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Scenic view at high altitude is a pleasure to the eyes, but it has some shortcoming effects as well. High altitude can be divided into different categories, i.e., high altitude (3000-5000 ft), very high altitude (5000-8000 ft), and extreme altitude (above 8000 ft). Much of the population resides at high altitude, and others go there for tourism. Military personnel are also posted there to defend boundaries. As we ascent to high altitude, partial pressure of oxygen reduces, whereas concentration remains the same; this reduces the availability of oxygen to different body parts. This pathophysiological condition is known as hypobaric hypoxia (HH) which leads to oxidative stress and further causes cognitive dysfunction in some cases. Hypoxia causes neurodegeneration in different brain regions; however, the hippocampus is found to be more prone in comparison to other brain regions. As the hippocampus is affected most, therefore, spatial memory is impaired most during such condition. This chapter will give a brief review of the damaging effect of high altitude on cognition and also throw light on possible herbal interventions at high altitude, which can improve cognitive performance as well as provide protection against the deteriorating effect of hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude.

  11. Exposure to a Highly Caloric Palatable Diet during the Perinatal Period Affects the Expression of the Endogenous Cannabinoid System in the Brain, Liver and Adipose Tissue of Adult Rat Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Arco, Raquel; Decara, Juan; Vázquez, Mariam; Noemí Blanco, Rosario; Alén, Francisco; Suárez, Juan; Gómez de Heras, Raquel; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have linked gestational exposure to highly caloric diets with a disrupted endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS). In the present study, we have extended these studies by analyzing the impact of the exposure to a palatable diet during gestation and lactation on a) the adult expression of endocannabinoid-related behaviors, b) the metabolic profile of adult offspring and c) the mRNA expression of the signaling machinery of the ECS in the hypothalamus, the liver and the adipose tissue...

  12. The Lexicocalorimeter: Gauging public health through caloric input and output on social media

    CERN Document Server

    Alajajian, S E; Reagan, A J; Alajajian, S C; Frank, M R; Mitchell, L; Lahne, J; Danforth, C M; Dodds, P S

    2015-01-01

    We propose and develop a Lexicocalorimeter: an online, interactive instrument for measuring the "caloric content" of social media and other large-scale texts. We do so by constructing extensive yet improvable tables of food and activity related phrases, and respectively assigning them with sourced estimates of caloric intake and expenditure. We show that for Twitter, our naive measures of "caloric input", "caloric output", and the ratio of these measures---"caloric balance"---are all strong correlates with health and well-being demographics for the contiguous United States. Our caloric balance measure outperforms both its constituent quantities, is tunable to specific demographic measures such as diabetes rates, provides a real-time signal reflecting a population's health, and has the potential to be used alongside traditional survey data in the development of public policy and collective self-awareness. Because our Lexicocalorimeter is a linear superposition of principled phrase scores, we also show we can m...

  13. Application of High Pressure in Food Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herceg, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In high pressure processing, foods are subjected to pressures generally in the range of 100 – 800 (1200 MPa. The processing temperature during pressure treatments can be adjusted from below 0 °C to above 100 °C, with exposure times ranging from a few seconds to 20 minutes and even longer, depending on process conditions. The effects of high pressure are system volume reduction and acceleration of reactions that lead to volume reduction. The main areas of interest regarding high-pressure processing of food include: inactivation of microorganisms, modification of biopolymers, quality retention (especially in terms of flavour and colour, and changes in product functionality. Food components responsible for the nutritive value and sensory properties of food remain unaffected by high pressure. Based on the theoretical background of high-pressure processing and taking into account its advantages and limitations, this paper aims to show its possible application in food processing. The paper gives an outline of the special equipment used in highpressure processing. Typical high pressure equipment in which pressure can be generated either by direct or indirect compression are presented together with three major types of high pressure food processing: the conventional (batch system, semicontinuous and continuous systems. In addition to looking at this technology’s ability to inactivate microorganisms at room temperature, which makes it the ultimate alternative to thermal treatments, this paper also explores its application in dairy, meat, fruit and vegetable processing. Here presented are the effects of high-pressure treatment in milk and dairy processing on the inactivation of microorganisms and the modification of milk protein, which has a major impact on rennet coagulation and curd formation properties of treated milk. The possible application of this treatment in controlling cheese manufacture, ripening and safety is discussed. The opportunities

  14. Caloric restriction restores the chronological life span of the Goa1 null mutant of Candida albicans in spite of high cell levels of ROS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Calderone, Richard; Sun, Nuo; Wang, Yun; Li, Dongmei

    2012-12-01

    The Candida albicans Goa1p is required for mitochondrial functions. In a strain lacking GOA1 (GOA31), respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential, complex I (CI) activity of the electron transport chain, and ATP synthesis are significantly decreased. A shortened chronological life span (CLS) of GOA31 occurs in 2% glucose that is associated with an increase in cell reactive oxidant species (ROS) and apoptosis. We now show that caloric restriction (CR) in media containing 0.5% glucose instead of 2% glucose-SC extends the CLS to the level of parental and gene-reconstituted strains. Paradoxically, ROS levels in GOA31 far exceed those of control strains in 0.5% glucose and, as a consequence, increased lipid peroxidation occurs even though CLS is restored. Microarray analysis was used to characterize transcriptional changes during CR in GOA31. We found that CR shifts cells of all strains to a non-glucose carbon metabolism (β-oxidation). Our model of ROS formation in GOA31 follows the paradigm that the generation of oxygen radicals from β-oxidation of cell lipids via FADH(2) (CII) and NADH (CI) creates an unfavorable cellular FADH(2)/NADH ratio that causes a transient overload in CII activity resulting in excess free cell radicals. In GOA31 the CI and peroxisomal dysfunctions increase the levels of ROS compared to control strains. Recovery from high levels of ROS may be associated with an increase in iron and sugar transporters, as well as an anti-stress response that includes the SOD1 and GPX1. Thus, CR creates a favorable growth environment, but cells of GOA31 must overcome a high but transient ROS production.

  15. Effects of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners on resting energy expenditure and energy efficiency: a review of human trials

    OpenAIRE

    Tappy, L; L. Egli; Lecoultre, V.; Schneider, P.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that the consumption of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners (FCCS: mainly sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup) is associated with obesity. The hypothesis that FCCS plays a causal role in the development of obesity however implies that they would impair energy balance to a larger extent than other nutrients, either by increasing food intake, or by decreasing energy expenditure. We therefore reviewed the literature comparing a) diet-induced thermogenesis (DI...

  16. Effect of Replacing Sugar with Non-Caloric Sweeteners in Beverages on the Reward Value after Repeated Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen-Roose, S.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Weijzen, P.L.G.; Rijn, van I.; Bosch, van den I.; Graaf, de C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The reward value of food is partly dependent on learned associations. It is not yet known whether replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in food is affecting long-term acceptance. Objective: To determine the effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in a nutrient-empty d

  17. High pressure processing for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonberg-Broczek, Monika; Windyga, B; Szczawiński, J; Szczawińska, M; Pietrzak, D; Prestamo, G

    2005-01-01

    Food preservation using high pressure is a promising technique in food industry as it offers numerous opportunities for developing new foods with extended shelf-life, high nutritional value and excellent organoleptic characteristics. High pressure is an alternative to thermal processing. The resistance of microorganisms to pressure varies considerably depending on the pressure range applied, temperature and treatment duration, and type of microorganism. Generally, Gram-positive bacteria are more resistant to pressure than Gram-negative bacteria, moulds and yeasts; the most resistant are bacterial spores. The nature of the food is also important, as it may contain substances which protect the microorganism from high pressure. This article presents results of our studies involving the effect of high pressure on survival of some pathogenic bacteria -- Listeria monocytogenes, Aeromonas hydrophila and Enterococcus hirae -- in artificially contaminated cooked ham, ripening hard cheese and fruit juices. The results indicate that in samples of investigated foods the number of these microorganisms decreased proportionally to the pressure used and the duration of treatment, and the effect of these two factors was statistically significant (level of probability, P high pressure treatment than L. monocytogenes and A. hydrophila. Mathematical methods were applied, for accurate prediction of the effects of high pressure on microorganisms. The usefulness of high pressure treatment for inactivation of microorganisms and shelf-life extention of meat products was also evaluated. The results obtained show that high pressure treatment extends the shelf-life of cooked pork ham and raw smoked pork loin up to 8 weeks, ensuring good micro-biological and sensory quality of the products.

  18. Caloric Curves and Nuclear Expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Natowitz, J B; Ma, Y; Murray, M; Qin, L; Shlomo, S; Wada, R; Wang, J

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear caloric curves have been analyzed using an expanding Fermi gas hypothesis to extract average nuclear densities. In this approach the observed flattening of the caloric curves reflects progressively increasing expansion with increasing excitation energy. This expansion results in a corresponding decrease in the density and Fermi energy of the excited system. For nuclei of medium to heavy mass apparent densities $~0.3\\rho_0$ are reached at the higher excitation energies. The average densities derived in this manner are in good agreement with those derived using other, more complicated, techniques.

  19. Differential effect of glucose ingestion on the neural processing of food stimuli in lean and overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heni, Martin; Kullmann, Stephanie; Ketterer, Caroline; Guthoff, Martina; Bayer, Margarete; Staiger, Harald; Machicao, Fausto; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Preissl, Hubert; Veit, Ralf; Fritsche, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Eating behavior is crucial in the development of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. To further investigate its regulation, we studied the effects of glucose versus water ingestion on the neural processing of visual high and low caloric food cues in 12 lean and 12 overweight subjects by functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found body weight to substantially impact the brain's response to visual food cues after glucose versus water ingestion. Specifically, there was a significant interaction between body weight, condition (water versus glucose), and caloric content of food cues. Although overweight subjects showed a generalized reduced response to food objects in the fusiform gyrus and precuneus, the lean group showed a differential pattern to high versus low caloric foods depending on glucose versus water ingestion. Furthermore, we observed plasma insulin and glucose associated effects. The hypothalamic response to high caloric food cues negatively correlated with changes in blood glucose 30 min after glucose ingestion, while especially brain regions in the prefrontal cortex showed a significant negative relationship with increases in plasma insulin 120 min after glucose ingestion. We conclude that the postprandial neural processing of food cues is highly influenced by body weight especially in visual areas, potentially altering visual attention to food. Furthermore, our results underline that insulin markedly influences prefrontal activity to high caloric food cues after a meal, indicating that postprandial hormones may be potential players in modulating executive control.

  20. Nutritional approaches and health-related properties of plant foods processed by high pressure and pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; de Ancos, Begoña; Plaza, Lucía; Elez-Martínez, Pedro; Cano, M Pilar

    2009-06-01

    Consumers are more and more concerned about the nutritional and health-related characteristics of fruits and vegetables, as well as the safety of the food they eat. The processing of foods is becoming more sophisticated and diverse in response to the growing demand for quality foods. Consumers today expect food products to provide fresh-like appearance, convenience, variety, appropriate shelf-life and caloric content, reasonable cost, environmental soundness, high nutritional and functional quality. Nonthermal processing of fruit and vegetable has been revealed as a useful tool to extend their shelf-life and quality as well as to preserve their nutritional and functional characteristics. In the last ten years, there has been an increasing interest in nonthermal technologies as high pressure processing (HPP) and pulsed electric fields (PEF) to preserve fruit and vegetable products without the quality and nutritional damage caused by heat treatments. This review will contribute to inform many of the studies conducted to obtain a better understanding on the effects of some of these nonthermal processing technologies (high hydrostatic pressure and pulsed electric fields) applied to vegetable foods on their nutritional value and bioactive compounds related to health, including the results on micronutrient bioavailability studies and oxidative stress and inflammation biomarkers. These studies could contribute to select the most appropriate processing parameters to obtain safe, high-quality, nutritional, and functional vegetable food.

  1. Application of High Pressure in Food Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Herceg, Z; Režek Jambrak, A; Lelas, V.; Krešić, G.

    2011-01-01

    In high pressure processing, foods are subjected to pressures generally in the range of 100 – 800 (1200) MPa. The processing temperature during pressure treatments can be adjusted from below 0 °C to above 100 °C, with exposure times ranging from a few seconds to 20 minutes and even longer, depending on process conditions. The effects of high pressure are system volume reduction and acceleration of reactions that lead to volume reduction. The main areas of interest regarding high-pressure proc...

  2. What Foods Should Americans Eat? Better Information Needed on Nutritional Quality of Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-30

    in any elementary , inter- mediate, or junior high school . Low nutritional food is defined as any food in which 25 percent or more of its caloric value... overweight and high blood pressure (hypertension) are clearly associated. . . .There is an impressive case for avoidance of obesity , in the young...nutritious foods in schools . (See pp. 8 to 10.) GAO recommends that the Secretaries of Agricul- ture and Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) jointly

  3. Elementi di trasmissione del calore

    CERN Document Server

    Guglielmini, Giovanni

    1990-01-01

    Introduzione ; concetti fondamentali di conduzione termica ; conduzione termica in regime stazionario ; conduzione termica in regime variabile ; analisi numerica nei problemi do conduzione ; concetti fondamentali di convezione termica ; convezione forzata ; convezione naturale ; scambio termico in ebollizione e condensazione ; concetti fondamentali di radiazione termica ; scambio termico per radiazione ; scambiatori di calore ; problemi termici negli edifici.

  4. High pressure effects on allergen food proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuti, Judit; Smeller, László

    2013-12-15

    There are several proteins, which can cause allergic reaction if they are inhaled or ingested. Our everyday food can also contain such proteins. Food allergy is an IgE-mediated immune disorder, a growing health problem of great public concern. High pressure is known to affect the structure of proteins; typically few hundred MPa pressure can lead to denaturation. That is why several trials have been performed to alter the structure of the allergen proteins by high pressure, in order to reduce its allergenicity. Studies have been performed both on simple protein solutions and on complex food systems. Here we review those allergens which have been investigated under or after high pressure treatment by methods capable of detecting changes in the secondary and tertiary structure of the proteins. We focus on those allergenic proteins, whose structural changes were investigated by spectroscopic methods under pressure in correlation with the observed allergenicity (IgE binding) changes. According to this criterion we selected the following allergen proteins: Mal d 1 and Mal d 3 (apple), Bos d 5 (milk), Dau c 1 (carrot), Gal d 2 (egg), Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 (peanut), and Gad m 1 (cod).

  5. High-pressure thermal sterilization: food safety and food quality of baby food puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevenich, Robert; Kleinstueck, Elke; Crews, Colin; Anderson, Warwick; Pye, Celine; Riddellova, Katerina; Hradecky, Jaromir; Moravcova, Eliska; Reineke, Kai; Knorr, Dietrich

    2014-02-01

    The benefits that high-pressure thermal sterilization offers as an emerging technology could be used to produce a better overall food quality. Due to shorter dwell times and lower thermal load applied to the product in comparison to the thermal retorting, lower numbers and quantities of unwanted food processing contaminants (FPCs), for example, furan, acrylamide, HMF, and MCPD-esters could be formed. Two spore strains were used to test the technique; Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, over the temperature range 90 to 121 °C at 600 MPa. The treatments were carried out in baby food puree and ACES-buffer. The treatments at 90 and 105 °C showed that G. stearothermophilus is more pressure-sensitive than B. amyloliquefaciens. The formation of FPCs was monitored during the sterilization process and compared to the amounts found in retorted samples of the same food. The amounts of furan could be reduced between 81% to 96% in comparison to retorting for the tested temperature pressure combination even at sterilization conditions of F₀-value in 7 min.

  6. Comparison of high-calorie, low-nutrient-dense food consumption among obese and non-obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandini, L G; Vu, D; Must, A; Cyr, H; Goldberg, A; Dietz, W H

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether obese adolescents eat more high-calorie low-nutrient-dense foods than non-obese adolescents. Using a cross-sectional design, 22 non-obese and 21 obese adolescents kept 14-day food records. Records provided estimates of total daily energy intake and caloric intake from five categories of high-calorie, low-nutrient-dense (HC) foods: candy, chips, soda, baked goods, and ice cream. Body composition was determined by 18O dilution and daily energy expenditure by doubly labeled water. Percentage of energy intake reported (%report) was calculated as the ratio of reported energy intake to measured energy expenditure (x 100%). Both groups underreported energy intake, but the percentage reported was significantly greater in the non-obese group (78.2+/-20.5% non-obese vs. 55.5+/-21.8% obese, padolescents. However, total energy intake from all HC foods was higher in the non-obese group than among the obese (617+/-356 kcal/day vs. 362+/-223 kcal/day; padolescents consume a substantial portion of reported calories from HC foods and that obese adolescents do not consume more calories from these foods than non-obese adolescents. These data offer no evidence to support the widespread notion that obese adolescents eat more "junk food" than non-obese adolescents. Health professionals who treat obese adolescents must be aware that the excess calories in their diets may come from a variety of food sources and not solely from high-calorie snack foods.

  7. Differences in food environment perceptions and spatial attributes of food shopping between residents of low and high food access areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohi, Inderbir; Bell, Bethany A; Liu, Jihong; Battersby, Sarah E; Liese, Angela D

    2014-01-01

    To explore potential differences in food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions between residents living in areas with low and high food access. A cross-sectional telephone survey to assess food shopping behaviors and perceptions. Data from an 8-county food environment field census used to define the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) healthier food retail tract and US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service food desert measure. A total of 968 residents in 8 South Carolina counties. Residents' food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions. Linear and logistic regression. Compared with residents in high food access areas, residents in low food access areas traveled farther to their primary food store (US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service: 8.8 vs 7.1 miles, P = .03; CDC: 9.2 vs 6.1 miles, P shopping miles per week (CDC: 28.0 vs 15.4 miles; P shopping access (P < .001). These findings lend support to ongoing community and policy interventions aimed at reducing food access disparities. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A randomized control trial for reduction of caloric and non-caloric sweetened beverages in young adults: effects in weight, body composition and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Durán, Marisela; Orea-Tejeda, Arturo; Castillo-Martínez, Lilia; Cano-García, Ángeles; Téllez-Olvera, Laura; Keirns-Davis, Candace

    2016-11-29

    Recently has been documented that the consumption of sweetened non-caloric beverages has increased as an option to weight control, however randomized control trials have demonstrated a modest weight loss. To evaluate the effect of reducing consumption of beverage with caloric and non-caloric sweeteners on weight, body composition and blood pressure in young Mexican adults. In an experimental study 148 nursing students were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: 1) no sweetened beverages were permitted, only plain water, tea or coffee without sugar; 2) consumption of beverages with non-caloric sweeteners was allowed; and 3) no restriction of sweetened beverages was imposed. All groups were given individualized isocaloric diets monitored by a 24-hour record of consumption and food frequency questionnaire and blood pressure, weight, waist circumference and body composition by tetrapolar bioelectric impedance were taken at the beginning of the study and three and six months later. Differences between groups were found in body mass index at 3 months that decrease in group 1 and 2 and increase in group 3 (-1.75 vs.-0.61 vs.0.54% of change, p consumption (-62.0 vs.-54.61 vs.11.08% of change, p consumption of both caloric and non-caloric sweetened beverages contributes to signifi cant body mass index loss and waist circumference.

  9. CALOR87: HETC87, MICAP, EGS4, and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Alsmiller, F.S.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Bishop, B.L.; Hermann, O.W.; Johnson, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    A brief history of CALOR (HETC, EGS, MICAP, SPECT) is presented to indicate the evolution of this code system. Details concerning the current modifications and additions to the high-energy transport code, HETC, are also presented and new comparisons with experimental data are included to verify the new physics improvements. 27 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Influence of caloric intake on experimental carcinogenesis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritchevsky, D; Klurfeld, D M

    1986-01-01

    The effect of caloric intake on tumor growth has been recognized for over 70 years. Inhibition of tumor growth depends primarily on the extent of caloric restriction, but tumor type, animal strain, and dietary composition all exert some influence. Caloric restriction is most effective when maintained during both initiation and promotion, but if limited to one of these phases, restriction during promotion appears to be the more effective modality. The types of tumor that have been studied include spontaneous mammary and lung tumors as well as tumors induced by organ-specific carcinogens or irradiation with ultraviolet light. Numerous investigators have studied the effects of fat, and a diet low in calories but high in fat is generally significantly more effective in inhibiting carcinogenesis than is a diet high in calories but low in fat. Mice fed high fat, low calorie diets exhibited 48% fewer chemically induced skin tumors and 61% fewer tumors induced by ultraviolet irradiation than did mice fed low fat, high calorie diets. Mice fed a diet containing 2% fat exhibited a 66% incidence of skin tumors, whereas mice fed an isocaloric diet containing 61% fat showed a 78% incidence. Rats whose diet was restricted in calories by 40% exhibited no mammary tumors (coconut oil as primary dietary fat) or 75% fewer tumors (corn oil as dietary fat) compared to ad libitum-fed controls; they also exhibited 47% fewer colonic tumors. The mechanism by which caloric restriction exerts its tumor-inhibiting effects remains to be elucidated.

  11. Allured or alarmed: Counteractive control responses to food temptations in the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Kroese, F.M.; Evers, C.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2013-01-01

    Typically, it is believed that palatable, high caloric foods signal reward and trigger indulgent responses. However, Counteractive Control Theory suggests that, to the extent that people are concerned about their weight, a confrontation with palatable foods should also trigger ‘alarm bell responses’

  12. Carnot to Clausius: Caloric to Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburgh, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Carnot engine led to the formulation of the second law of thermodynamics and entropy. The operation of the engine is analysed both in terms of heat as the caloric fluid and heat as a form of energy. A keystone of Carnot's thinking was the absolute conservation of caloric. Although the Carnot analysis was partly…

  13. Using High-Probability Foods to Increase the Acceptance of Low-Probability Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Aimee E.; Fryling, Mitch J.; Wallace, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have evaluated a range of interventions to treat food selectivity in children with autism and related developmental disabilities. The high-probability instructional sequence is one intervention with variable results in this area. We evaluated the effectiveness of a high-probability sequence using 3 presentations of a preferred food on…

  14. Using High-Probability Foods to Increase the Acceptance of Low-Probability Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Aimee E.; Fryling, Mitch J.; Wallace, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have evaluated a range of interventions to treat food selectivity in children with autism and related developmental disabilities. The high-probability instructional sequence is one intervention with variable results in this area. We evaluated the effectiveness of a high-probability sequence using 3 presentations of a preferred food on…

  15. Caloric Restriction, CR Mimetics, and Healthy Aging in Okinawa: Controversies and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Bradley J.; Willcox, Donald Craig

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review To examine the role of two nutritional factors implicated in the healthy aging of the Okinawans: caloric restriction (CR); and traditional foods with potential CR-mimetic properties. Recent Findings CR is a research priority for the U.S. National Institute on Aging. However, little is known regarding health effects in humans. Some CR-related outcomes, such as cause-specific mortality and lifespan, are not practical for human clinical trials. Therefore, epidemiological data on older Okinawans, who experienced a CR-like diet for close to half their lives, are of special interest. The nutritional data support mild CR (10–15%) and high consumption of foods that may mimic the biological effects of CR, including sweet potatoes, marine-based carotenoid-rich foods, and turmeric. Phenotypic evidence is consistent with CR (including short stature, low body weight, lean BMI), less age-related chronic disease (including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and dementia) and longer lifespan (mean and maximum). Summary Both CR and traditional Okinawan functional foods with CR-mimetic properties likely had roles in the extended healthspan and lifespan of the Okinawans. More research is needed on health consequences of CR and foods with CR-mimetic properties to identify possible nutritional interventions for healthy aging. PMID:24316687

  16. The effects of leptin in combination with a cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, AM 251, or cannabidiol on food intake and body weight in rats fed a high-fat or a free-choice high sugar diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierucka-Rybak, M; Wolak, M; Bojanowska, E

    2014-08-01

    High intake of fats and sugars has prompted a rapid growth in the number of obese individuals worldwide. To further investigate whether simultaneous pharmacological intervention in the leptin and cannabinoid system might change food and water intake, preferences for palatable foods, and body weight, we have examined the effects of concomitant intraperitoneal administration of leptin and AM 251, a cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist, or cannabidiol (CBD), a plant cannabinoid, in rats maintained on either a high-fat (HF) diet (45% energy from fat) or free-choice (FC) diet consisting of high-sucrose and normal rat chow (83% and 61% energy from carbohydrates, respectively). Leptin at a dose of 100 μg/kg injected individually for 3 subsequent days to rats fed a HF diet reduced significantly the daily caloric intake and inhibited body weight gain. The hormone had no significant effects, however, on either caloric intake, body weight or food preferences in rats fed an FC diet. Co-injection of leptin and 1 mg/kg AM 251 resulted in a further significant decrease in HF diet intake and a profound reduction in body weight gain both in HF diet- and FC diet-fed rats. This drug combination, however, had no effect on the consumption of high-sucrose chow. In contrast, 3mg/kg of CBD co-injected with leptin did not modify leptin effects on food intake in rats maintained on an FC or HF diet. None of the drug combinations affected water consumption. It is concluded that the concomitant treatment with leptin and AM 251 attenuated markedly body weight gain in rats maintained on high-calorie diets rich in fat and carbohydrates but did not affect preferences for sweet food.

  17. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhan Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20–40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction.

  18. Relationship of Mediterranean diet and caloric intake to phenoconversion in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Karen; Gu, Yian; Eberly, Shirley; Tanner, Caroline M; Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Oakes, David; Shoulson, Ira

    2013-11-01

    Adherence to Mediterranean-type diet (MeDi) may delay onset of Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. Whether adherence to MeDi affects time to phenoconversion in Huntington disease (HD), a highly penetrant, single-gene disorder, is unknown. To determine if MeDi modifies the time to clinical onset of HD (phenoconversion) in premanifest carriers participating in Prospective Huntington at Risk Observational Study (PHAROS), and to examine the effects of body mass index and caloric intake on time to phenoconversion. A prospective cohort study of 41 Huntington study group sites in the United States and Canada involving 1001 participants enrolled in PHAROS between July 1999 and January 2004 who were followed up every 9 months until 2010. A total of 211 participants aged 26 to 57 years had an expanded CAG repeat length (≥ 37). A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was administered 33 months after baseline. We calculated daily gram intake for dairy, meat, fruit, vegetables, legumes, cereals, fish, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, and alcohol and constructed MeDi scores (0-9); higher scores indicate higher adherence. Demographics, medical history, body mass index, and Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) score were collected. Cox proportional hazards regression models to determine the association of MeDi and phenoconversion. RESULTS Age, sex, caloric intake, education status, and UHDRS motor scores did not differ among MeDi tertiles (0-3, 4-5, and 6-9). The highest body mass index was associated with the lowest adherence to MeDi. Thirty-one participants phenoconverted. In a model adjusted for age, CAG repeat length, and caloric intake, MeDi was not associated with phenoconversion (P for trend = 0.14 for tertile of MeDi, and P = .22 for continuous MeDi). When individual components of MeDi were analyzed, higher dairy consumption (hazard ratio, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.0-5.57; P = .05) and higher caloric intake (P = .04) were associated with risk of

  19. A systematic review of the effectiveness of taxes on nonalcoholic beverages and high-in-fat foods as a means to prevent obesity trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniadakis, Nikolaos; Kapaki, Vasiliki; Damianidi, Louiza; Kourlaba, Georgia

    2013-10-22

    As part of the efforts to curb obesity, a new focus seems to be put on taxing foods that are perceived as being associated with obesity (eg, sugar-sweetened beverages and foods high in fat, sugar, and salt content) as a policy instrument to promote healthier diets. To assess the possible effects of such taxation policies by identifying and analyzing all studies which investigate the impact of price increases on consumption, caloric intake, or weight outcomes. Electronic data bases were searched with appropriate terms and their combinations. Thereafter, abstracts were reviewed and studies were selected based on predefined criteria. The characteristics of the selected studies and the results were extracted in a special form and consequently were reviewed and synthesized. Price increase may lead to a reduction in consumption of the targeted products, but the subsequent effect on caloric intake may be much smaller. Only a limited number of the identified studies reported weight outcomes, most of which are either insignificant or very small in magnitude to make any improvement in public health. The effectiveness of a taxation policy to curb obesity is doubtful and available evidence in most studies is not very straightforward due to the multiple complexities in consumer behavior and the underling substitution effects. There is need to investigate in-depth the potential underlying mechanisms and the relationship between price-increase policies, obesity, and public health outcomes.

  20. Short-term pilot study of the effect of sleeve gastrectomy on food preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammon, Brandon S; Bellanger, Drake E; Geiselman, Paula J; Primeaux, Stefany D; Yu, Ying; Greenway, Frank L

    2015-06-01

    The effect of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) on food preference has not been examined in humans, but VSG decreases preference for fat and calorically dense foods in rodents. A validated Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ) assessed food preference changes before and 6 weeks after VSG in humans. The FPQ was completed before and 43 ± 19 days (Mean ± SD) after VSG. Fifteen subjects (14 females) completed the study. Hedonic ratings decreased for foods high in fat and sugar (p = 0.002) and high in fat and complex carbohydrate (p = 0.007). Fat preference (p = 0.048) decreased, VSG reduced preference for calorically dense foods high in fat, sugar, and complex carbohydrate, and these changes may contribute to the weight loss with VSG.

  1. High throughput biotechnology in traditional fermented food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Xu, Rong-man; Song, Jia; Wang, Wei-min

    2010-11-01

    Traditional fermented food is not only the staple food for most of developing countries but also the key healthy food for developed countries. As the healthy function of these foods are gradually discovered, more and more high throughput biotechnologies are being used to promote the old and new industry. As a result, the microflora, manufacturing processes and product healthy function of these foods were pushed forward either in the respect of profundity or extensiveness nowadays. The application and progress of the high throughput biotechnologies into traditional fermented food industries were different from each other, which was reviewed and detailed by the catalogues of fermented milk products (yogurt, cheese), fermented sausages, fermented vegetables (kimchi, sauerkraut), fermented cereals (sourdough) and fermented beans (tempeh, natto). Given the further promotion by high throughput biotechnologies, the middle and/or down-stream process of traditional fermented foods would be optimized and the process of industrialization of local traditional fermented food having many functional factors but in small quantity would be accelerated. The article presents some promising patents on traditional fermented food industry.

  2. Estudio experimental de la conducción del calor en el maquinado de materiales endurecidos con altas velocidades de corte. // Experimental study of heat conduction in mechanization with high cutting speeds of hardened materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cardoso Brandão

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo trata del estudio teórico-experimental de la conducción del calor en los materiales endurecidos, usados para laproducción de moldes y matrices, al maquinarlos con altas-velocidades del corte. Los materiales utilizados son los acerosAISI P20 y AISI D2. Los ensayos se realizaron con fresas de punta esférica (Ball Nose con revestimiento (TiAlN y lasprobetas para los ensayos tienen la forma de una ¼ parte de un tubo de 28 mm de diámetro con una longitud de 100 mm.Las pruebas realizadas demuestran la variación de la temperatura en función de los diferentes sistemas de refrigeración. Seutilizo aire comprimido y aire comprimido frío, comparándose las temperaturas de las probetas con el sistema sinrefrigeración de ningún tipo. Fueron también evaluadas las deformaciones sufridas por la superficie maquinada, debido alas variaciones de temperatura teniendo en cuenta la influencia de los sistemas de refrigeración empleados.Palabras claves: Temperatura; conducción del calor; alta velocidad de corte, moldes y matrices._________________________________________________________________________Abstract.This paper deals with the theoretical-experimental study of heat conduction in hardened materials for the production ofmolds and dies using high speed cutting. The employed materials were the AISI P20 and AISI D2 steels, being the testscarried out with (TiAlN coated ball nose in a work piece with the shape of a 1/4 tube with 28 mm diameter and 100 mmlength. This investigation demonstrates the variation of temperature as a function of different cooling systems, that is,compressed air and compressed cold air. Possible geometric deformation of the machined surfaces due to these variationsin temperature for distinct cooling systems was also evaluated.Keywords: Temperature, heat exchange; high cutting speed, dies.

  3. Exposure to a highly caloric palatable diet during pregestational and gestational periods affects hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoid levels at birth and induces adiposity and anxiety-like behaviors in male rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa eRamírez-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to unbalanced diets during pre-gestational and gestational periods may result in long-term alterations in metabolism and behavior. The contribution of the endocannabinoid system to these long-term adaptive responses is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of female rat exposure to a hypercaloric-hypoproteic palatable diet during pre-gestational, gestational and lactational periods on the development of male offspring. In addition, the hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoid contents at birth and the behavioral performance in adulthood were investigated. Exposure to a palatable diet resulted in low weight offspring who exhibited low hypothalamic contents of arachidonic acid and the two major endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol at birth. Palmitoylethanolamide, but not oleoylethanolamide, also decreased. Additionally, pups from palatable diet-fed dams displayed lower levels of anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide in the hippocampus. The low-weight male offspring, born from palatable diet exposed mothers, gained less weight during lactation and, although they recovered weight during the post-weaning period, they developed abdominal adiposity in adulthood. These animals exhibited anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze and open field test and a low preference for a chocolate diet in a food preference test, indicating that maternal exposure to a hypercaloric diet induces long-term behavioral alterations in male offspring. These results suggest that maternal diet alterations in the function of the endogenous cannabinoid system can mediate the observed phenotype of the offspring, since both hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoids regulate feeding, metabolic adaptions to caloric diets, learning, memory and emotions.

  4. Pasteurization of food by hydrostatic high pressure: chemical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauscher, B

    1995-01-01

    Food pasteurized by hydrostatic high pressure have already been marketed in Japan. There is great interest in this method also in Europe and USA. Temperature and pressure are the essential parameters influencing the state of substances including foods. While the influence of temperature on food has been extensively investigated, effects of pressure, also in combination with temperature, are attracting increasing scientific attention now. Processes and reactions in food governed by Le Chatelier's principle are of special interest; they include chemical reactions of both low- and macromolecular compounds. Theoretical fundamentals and examples of pressure affected reactions are presented.

  5. Multi-Pulsed High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment of Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Sencer Buzrul

    2015-01-01

    Multi-pulsed high hydrostatic pressure (mpHHP) treatment of foods has been investigated for more than two decades. It was reported that the mpHHP treatment, with few exceptions, is more effective than the classical or single-pulsed HHP (spHHP) treatment for inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juice, dairy products, liquid whole egg, meat products, and sea foods. Moreover, the mpHHP treatment could be also used to inactivate enzymes in foods and to increase the shelf-life of foods. The eff...

  6. Desert ants locate food by combining high sensitivity to food odors with extensive crosswind runs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehlmann, Cornelia; Graham, Paul; Hansson, Bill S; Knaden, Markus

    2014-05-05

    Desert ants feeding on dead arthropods forage for food items that are distributed unpredictably in space and time in the food-scarce terrain of the Saharan salt pans [1]. Scavengers of the genus Cataglyphis forage individually and do not lay pheromone trails [2]. They rely primarily on path integration [3] for navigation and, in addition, use visual [4] and olfactory cues [5-7]. While most studies have focused on the navigational mechanisms of ants targeting a familiar place like the nest or a learned feeding site, little is known about how ants locate food in their natural environment. Here we show that Cataglyphis fortis is highly sensitive to and attracted by food odors, especially the necromone linoleic acid, enabling them to locate tiny arthropods over several meters in distance. Furthermore, during the search for food, ants use extensive crosswind walks that increase the chances of localizing food plumes. By combining high sensitivity toward food odors with crosswind runs, the ants efficiently screen the desert for food and hence reduce the time spent foraging in their harsh desert environment.

  7. Exposure to a Highly Caloric Palatable Diet during the Perinatal Period Affects the Expression of the Endogenous Cannabinoid System in the Brain, Liver and Adipose Tissue of Adult Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Arco, Raquel; Decara, Juan; Vázquez, Mariam; Noemí Blanco, Rosario; Alén, Francisco; Suárez, Juan; Gómez de Heras, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have linked gestational exposure to highly caloric diets with a disrupted endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS). In the present study, we have extended these studies by analyzing the impact of the exposure to a palatable diet during gestation and lactation on a) the adult expression of endocannabinoid-related behaviors, b) the metabolic profile of adult offspring and c) the mRNA expression of the signaling machinery of the ECS in the hypothalamus, the liver and the adipose tissue of adult offspring of both sexes. Exposure to a palatable diet resulted in a) sex-dimorphic and perinatal diet specific feeding behaviors, including the differential response to the inhibitory effects of the cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist AM251, b) features of metabolic syndrome including increased adiposity, hyperleptinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia and c) tissue and sex-specific changes in the expression of both CB1 and CB2 receptors and in that of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes FAAH and MAGL, being the adipose tissue the most affected organ analyzed. Since the effects were observed in adult animals that were weaned while consuming a normal diet, the present results indicate that the ECS is one of the targets of maternal programming of the offspring energy expenditure. These results clearly indicate that the maternal diet has long-term effects on the development of pups through multiple alterations of signaling homeostatic pathways that include the ECS. The potential relevance of these alterations for the current obesity epidemic is discussed. PMID:27806128

  8. Uma medida de calor específico sem calorímetro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos Cristiano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Várias técnicas têm sido desenvolvidas para se obter o calor específico de sólidos e líquidos, incluindo a construção de experimentos de baixo custo para o ensino médio. Neste trabalho propomos uma maneira simples de se obter o calor específico de sólidos e líquidos. Por meio de curvas de calibração de resfriamento podemos estimar graficamente a perda de calor do sistema para sua vizinhança, e medir o calor específico do alumínio. Esta aproximação permite introduzir uma discussão sobre o processo dinâmico da troca de calor entre dos corpos.

  9. Acute caloric restriction counteracts hepatic bile acid and cholesterol deficiency in morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straniero, S; Rosqvist, F; Edholm, D; Ahlström, H; Kullberg, J; Sundbom, M; Risérus, U; Rudling, M

    2017-05-01

    Bile acid (BA) synthesis is regulated by BA signalling in the liver and by fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), synthesized and released from the intestine. In morbid obesity, faecal excretion and hepatic synthesis of BAs and cholesterol are strongly induced and caloric restriction reduces their faecal excretion considerably. We hypothesized that the high intestinal food mass in morbidly obese subjects promotes faecal excretion of BAs and cholesterol, thereby creating a shortage of both BAs and cholesterol in the liver. Ten morbidly obese women (BMI 42 ± 2.6 kg m(-2) ) were monitored on days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28 after beginning a low-calorie diet (800-1100 kcal day(-1) ). Serum was collected and liver size and fat content determined. Synthesis of BAs and cholesterol was evaluated from serum markers, and the serum levels of lipoproteins, BAs, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), insulin, glucose and FGF19 were monitored. Fifty-four nonobese women (BMI cholesterol and serum levels of BAs and PCSK9 were elevated in the obese group compared to controls. Already after 3 days on a low-calorie diet, BA and cholesterol synthesis and serum BA and PCSK9 levels normalized, whereas LDL cholesterol increased. FGF19 and triglyceride levels were unchanged, and liver volume was reduced by 10%. The results suggest that hepatic BAs and cholesterol are deficient in morbid obesity. Caloric restriction rapidly counteracts these deficiencies, normalizing BA and cholesterol synthesis and circulating PCSK9 levels, indicating that overproduction of cholesterol in enlarged peripheral tissues cannot explain this phenotype. We propose that excessive food intake promotes faecal loss of BAs and cholesterol contributing to their hepatic deficiencies. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  10. Multi-Pulsed High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment of Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sencer Buzrul

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-pulsed high hydrostatic pressure (mpHHP treatment of foods has been investigated for more than two decades. It was reported that the mpHHP treatment, with few exceptions, is more effective than the classical or single-pulsed HHP (spHHP treatment for inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juice, dairy products, liquid whole egg, meat products, and sea foods. Moreover, the mpHHP treatment could be also used to inactivate enzymes in foods and to increase the shelf-life of foods. The effects of the mpHHP treatment of foods are summarized and the differences between the mpHHP and spHHP are also emphasized.

  11. High Throughput Multispectral Image Processing with Applications in Food Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Nychas, George-John

    2015-01-01

    Recently, machine vision is gaining attention in food science as well as in food industry concerning food quality assessment and monitoring. Into the framework of implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) in the food industry, image processing can be used not only in estimation and even prediction of food quality but also in detection of adulteration. Towards these applications on food science, we present here a novel methodology for automated image analysis of several kinds of food products e.g. meat, vanilla crème and table olives, so as to increase objectivity, data reproducibility, low cost information extraction and faster quality assessment, without human intervention. Image processing's outcome will be propagated to the downstream analysis. The developed multispectral image processing method is based on unsupervised machine learning approach (Gaussian Mixture Models) and a novel unsupervised scheme of spectral band selection for segmentation process optimization. Through the evaluation we prove its efficiency and robustness against the currently available semi-manual software, showing that the developed method is a high throughput approach appropriate for massive data extraction from food samples.

  12. High Throughput Multispectral Image Processing with Applications in Food Science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Tsakanikas

    Full Text Available Recently, machine vision is gaining attention in food science as well as in food industry concerning food quality assessment and monitoring. Into the framework of implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT in the food industry, image processing can be used not only in estimation and even prediction of food quality but also in detection of adulteration. Towards these applications on food science, we present here a novel methodology for automated image analysis of several kinds of food products e.g. meat, vanilla crème and table olives, so as to increase objectivity, data reproducibility, low cost information extraction and faster quality assessment, without human intervention. Image processing's outcome will be propagated to the downstream analysis. The developed multispectral image processing method is based on unsupervised machine learning approach (Gaussian Mixture Models and a novel unsupervised scheme of spectral band selection for segmentation process optimization. Through the evaluation we prove its efficiency and robustness against the currently available semi-manual software, showing that the developed method is a high throughput approach appropriate for massive data extraction from food samples.

  13. High Throughput Multispectral Image Processing with Applications in Food Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Nychas, George-John

    2015-01-01

    Recently, machine vision is gaining attention in food science as well as in food industry concerning food quality assessment and monitoring. Into the framework of implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) in the food industry, image processing can be used not only in estimation and even prediction of food quality but also in detection of adulteration. Towards these applications on food science, we present here a novel methodology for automated image analysis of several kinds of food products e.g. meat, vanilla crème and table olives, so as to increase objectivity, data reproducibility, low cost information extraction and faster quality assessment, without human intervention. Image processing’s outcome will be propagated to the downstream analysis. The developed multispectral image processing method is based on unsupervised machine learning approach (Gaussian Mixture Models) and a novel unsupervised scheme of spectral band selection for segmentation process optimization. Through the evaluation we prove its efficiency and robustness against the currently available semi-manual software, showing that the developed method is a high throughput approach appropriate for massive data extraction from food samples. PMID:26466349

  14. The Lexicocalorimeter: Gauging public health through caloric input and output on social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajajian, Sharon E.; Williams, Jake Ryland; Reagan, Andrew J.; Alajajian, Stephen C.; Frank, Morgan R.; Mitchell, Lewis; Lahne, Jacob; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2017-01-01

    We propose and develop a Lexicocalorimeter: an online, interactive instrument for measuring the “caloric content” of social media and other large-scale texts. We do so by constructing extensive yet improvable tables of food and activity related phrases, and respectively assigning them with sourced estimates of caloric intake and expenditure. We show that for Twitter, our naive measures of “caloric input”, “caloric output”, and the ratio of these measures are all strong correlates with health and well-being measures for the contiguous United States. Our caloric balance measure in many cases outperforms both its constituent quantities; is tunable to specific health and well-being measures such as diabetes rates; has the capability of providing a real-time signal reflecting a population’s health; and has the potential to be used alongside traditional survey data in the development of public policy and collective self-awareness. Because our Lexicocalorimeter is a linear superposition of principled phrase scores, we also show we can move beyond correlations to explore what people talk about in collective detail, and assist in the understanding and explanation of how population-scale conditions vary, a capacity unavailable to black-box type methods. PMID:28187216

  15. Asymmetry Dependence of the Nuclear Caloric Curve

    CERN Document Server

    McIntosh, Alan B; Cammarata, Paul; Hagel, Kris; Heilborn, Lauren; Kohley, Zachary; Mabiala, Justin; May, Larry W; Marini, Paola; Raphelt, Andrew; Souliotis, George A; Wuenschel, Sara; Zarrella, Andrew; Yennello, Sherry J

    2012-01-01

    A basic feature of the nuclear equation of state is not yet understood: the dependence of the nuclear caloric curve on the neutron-proton asymmetry. Predictions of theoretical models differ on the magnitude and even the sign of this dependence. In this work, the nuclear caloric curve is examined for fully reconstructed quasi-projectiles around mass A=50. The caloric curve extracted with the momentum quadrupole fluctuation thermometer shows that the temperature varies linearly with quasi-projectile asymmetry (N-Z)/A. An increase in asymmetry of 0.15 units corresponds to a decrease in temperature on the order of 1 MeV. These results also highlight the importance of a full quasi-projectile reconstruction in the study of thermodynamic properties of hot nuclei.

  16. Energy and protein feed-to-food conversion efficiencies in the US and potential food security gains from dietary changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepon, A.; Eshel, G.; Noor, E.; Milo, R.

    2016-10-01

    Feeding a growing population while minimizing environmental degradation is a global challenge requiring thoroughly rethinking food production and consumption. Dietary choices control food availability and natural resource demands. In particular, reducing or avoiding consumption of low production efficiency animal-based products can spare resources that can then yield more food. In quantifying the potential food gains of specific dietary shifts, most earlier research focused on calories, with less attention to other important nutrients, notably protein. Moreover, despite the well-known environmental burdens of livestock, only a handful of national level feed-to-food conversion efficiency estimates of dairy, beef, poultry, pork, and eggs exist. Yet such high level estimates are essential for reducing diet related environmental impacts and identifying optimal food gain paths. Here we quantify caloric and protein conversion efficiencies for US livestock categories. We then use these efficiencies to calculate the food availability gains expected from replacing beef in the US diet with poultry, a more efficient meat, and a plant-based alternative. Averaged over all categories, caloric and protein efficiencies are 7%-8%. At 3% in both metrics, beef is by far the least efficient. We find that reallocating the agricultural land used for beef feed to poultry feed production can meet the caloric and protein demands of ≈120 and ≈140 million additional people consuming the mean American diet, respectively, roughly 40% of current US population.

  17. Food Expenditures by China's High-Income Households

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, H. Frederick, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    "High-income" households in China had per-capita disposable incomes of just $2,637 during 2003, but their ownership of consumer durable goods suggests a standard of living putting them in the "middle class." Their expenditures on food away from home were sharply higher than those of other urban households. Quantities of beverages, dairy products, and poultry products purchased for at-home consumption were also significantly higher, but purchases of most other food products were only marginall...

  18. Quality Assessment of Some High Consumption Foods in Zanjan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hassanzad Azar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foods go through many changes from production to table and continuous control is necessary to maintain food safety and supply foods with good quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of some foods with high consumption in Zanjan city within 5 years from 2009 to 2013. Methods: In a case-control descriptive study with an annually- controlled program within 5 years from 2009 to 2014, some food samples including pasteurized milk, vegetable oils, flour, kebab, salt, confectionary products and a special cookie called nan-chay were collected and analyzed in food control laboratory of Zanjan university of medical sciences. Results: According to national standard of Iran, of Nan-chay, salt, vegetable oils, kebab, confectionary products, and pasteurized milk samples 68.4%, 46%, 24.3%, 10.4%, 9.3%, 5% were out of national standard limits and unacceptable, respectively. All flour samples had good standard quality. Mean± sd values of pH in Nan-chay samples were 7.5 and 1.19, respectively. Mean± sd values of the degree of purity in salt samples were 98.21 and 1.75, respectively. Conclusion: Results showed that among the 7 types of collected foods in Zanjan city, the most nonstandard cases were of Nan-chay samples and the best quality was seen in flour samples.

  19. Stability parameters of high moisture pet foods

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Salguero Carretero, J.; Gómez Díaz, R.; Sánchez Sánchez, E.; Vioque Amor, M.

    1996-01-01

    In the present work were analyzed the stability conditions of a group of high moisture petfoods. The samples considered complete preserves forming part of a widest study which are included lowmoisture animal feed. It was confirmed that in base to the individual water activity values (aw), pH and moisture contents of 20 analyzed samples, is not assured its stability in relation to microorganism spoilage, only exclusively with a sterilization process. It is discussed the utilization of Hurdle ...

  20. Ethnic differences in BMI among Dutch adolescents: what is the role of screen-viewing, active commuting to school, and consumption of soft drinks and high-caloric snacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amika S; Chinapaw, Mai JM; Brug, Johannes; Kremers, Stef PJ; Visscher, Tommy LS; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Background The threats posed by the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity on public health have been widely acknowledged. Several population groups, which deserve special attention because of their higher prevalence rates, have been identified. These include adolescents and ethnic sub-groups. The aim of the present study was twofold: (1) to assess ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI) and in behaviours that are related to both energy intake and energy expenditure, and (2) to examine whether these behaviours explain the relationship between ethnicity and BMI. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional data analysis among 957 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 12.7 years). Body height and weight were measured using a standardized protocol. Adolescents completed a questionnaire on screen-viewing behaviour, physical activity, consumption of sugar-containing beverages, and consumption of high-caloric snacks. Results In our study sample 121 adolescents (= 13%) were of Non-Western origin. BMI was significantly higher in Non-Western adolescents (boys: 19.9 kg/m2, SD = 3.0, girls: 20.9 kg/m2, SD = 3.8) compared to Dutch adolescents (boys: 18.4 kg/m2, SD = 2.8, girls: 19.0 kg/m2, SD = 3.0). Our results show that time spent on television viewing, active commuting to school, and consumption of fruit juices partially mediated the association between BMI and ethnicity. Conclusion Behaviours related to both energy expenditure and energy intake may contribute to the ethnic differences in BMI in adolescents and should be considered when tailoring overweight prevention programs to ethnic subpopulations. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN87127361 PMID:19383136

  1. Environmental influences on food security in high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Delvina; Bullen, Chris R; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni

    2010-01-01

    Food security is a fundamental human right yet many people are food insecure, even in high-income countries. Reviewed here is the evidence for the physical, economic, sociocultural, and political environmental influences on household food security in high-income countries. The literature was evaluated using the ANGELO framework, which is a lens developed for understanding the environmental factors underpinning the obesity pandemic. A review of the literature identified 78 articles, which mostly reported on cross-sectional or qualitative studies. These studies identified a wide range of factors associated with food security. Foremost among them was household financial resources, but many other factors were identified and the complexity of the issue was highlighted. Few studies were prospective and even fewer tested the use of interventions other than the supplemental nutrition assistance program to address food security. This indicates a solution-oriented research paradigm is required to identify effective interventions and policies to enhance food security. In addition, comprehensive top-down and bottom-up interventions at the community and national levels are urgently needed.

  2. The application of high dose food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruyn, I. De [Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa LTD, Building 2000, P.O. Box 582, Pretoria 0001, (South Africa)

    1997-12-31

    During the 1950`s to end 1970`s the United States Army developed the basic methodology to produce shelf stable irradiated meat, seafood and poultry products. These products are normally packed without gravy, sauce or brine, as liquid is not required to sterilize the product as in the canning process. This leads to the distinctive `dried cooked` taste normally associated with roasts opposed to the casserole taste usually associated with tinned meats. The meats are cooked, chilled, portioned, vacuum packed and irradiated to the required minimum dose of 25 to 45 kGy (depending on the product) at a temperature of between -20 and -40 Centigrade to ensure absolute sterility even under tropical conditions. The product is packaged in a high quality four layer laminate pouch and will therefore not rust or burst even under adverse weather conditions. The product can be guaranteed for more than two years as long as the integrity of the packaging is maintained. (Author)

  3. New developments in caloric materials for cooling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, S.; Mathur, N. D.; Moya, X.

    2015-06-01

    Caloric materials are in the spotlight as candidates for future environmentally friendly cooling technologies. We describe stimulating recent developments in the three caloric strands that are now being studied collectively, namely magnetocaloric, electrocaloric and mechanocaloric (elastocaloric or barocaloric) effects.

  4. New developments in caloric materials for cooling applications

    OpenAIRE

    Crossley, S.; Mathur, N. D.; Moya, X.

    2015-01-01

    Caloric materials are in the spotlight as candidates for future environmentally friendly cooling technologies. We describe stimulating recent developments in the three caloric strands that are now being studied collectively, namely magnetocaloric, electrocaloric and mechanocaloric (elastocaloric or barocaloric) effects.

  5. Effects of the Use of Assisted Reproduction and High Caloric Diet Consumption on Body Weight and Cardiovascular Health of Juvenile Mouse Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenewerk, Angela L.; Ramírez, Francisco; Foote, Christopher; Ji, Tieming; Martínez-Lemus, Luis A.; Rivera, Rocío Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity and the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are two suboptimal developmental environments that can lead to offspring obesity and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that these environments independently and synergistically adversely affect the offspring’s weight and cardiovascular performance at ∼7 weeks of age. Mice were fed either 24% fat and 17.5% high fructose corn syrup (HF) or maintenance chow (5% fat; LF). Dams were subdivided into no-ART and ART groups. ART embryos were cultured in Whitten’s medium and transferred into pseudopregnant recipients consuming the same diet as the donor. Offspring were fed the same diet as the mother. Body weights (BW) were measured weekly and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was collected through carotid artery catheterization at sacrifice (55 ± 0.5 days old). Expression of genes involved in cardiovascular remodeling was measured in thoracic aorta using qRT-PCR, and levels of reactive oxygen species were measured intracellularly and extracellularly in mesenteric resistance arteries. ART resulted in increased BW at weaning. This effect decreased over time and diet was the predominant determinant of BW by sacrifice. Males had greater MAP than females (p=0.002) and HF consumption was associated with greater MAP regardless of sex (pdiet (pdiet pre- and/or post-natally affects weight, MAP, and gene expression while ART increases oxidative stress in mesenteric resistance arteries of juvenile offspring, no synergistic effects were observed. PMID:24163396

  6. APPLICATIONS OF HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya TÜLEK

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, thermal processes are used in order to preserve food from microbiologic and enzymatic changes and extend the shelf life. Thermal treatments are particularly safe, assures a total inactivation of vegetative microorganism cells and spore. On the other hand it present some disadvantages related to the high temperature employed, such as denaturation of proteins, vitamins, productions of toxic compound, undesirable organoleptic features. The last decade, non-thermal inactivation techniques have been a major research issue, driven by an increased consumer demand for nutritious, fresh like food products with a high organoleptical quality and an acceptable shelf life. Present article represents studies on application aspects and effects of high hydrostatic pressure in foods.

  7. Effects of the use of assisted reproduction and high-caloric diet consumption on body weight and cardiovascular health of juvenile mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenewerk, Angela L; Ramírez, Francisco Í; Foote, Christopher; Ji, Tieming; Martínez-Lemus, Luis A; Rivera, Rocío Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity and the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are two suboptimal developmental environments that can lead to offspring obesity and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that these environments independently and synergistically adversely affect the offspring's weight and cardiovascular performance at ~7 weeks of age. Mice were fed either 24% fat and 17.5% high-fructose (HF) corn syrup or maintenance chow (5% fat; low-fat, no-fructose (LF)). Dams were subdivided into no ART and ART groups. ART embryos were cultured in Whitten's medium and transferred into pseudopregnant recipients consuming the same diet as the donor. Offspring were fed the same diet as the mother. Body weights (BW) were measured weekly and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was collected through carotid artery catheterization at killing (55±0.5 days old). Expression of genes involved in cardiovascular remodeling was measured in thoracic aorta using qRT-PCR, and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured intracellularly and extracellularly in mesenteric resistance arteries. ART resulted in increased BW at weaning. This effect decreased over time and diet was the predominant determinant of BW by killing. Males had greater MAP than females (P=0.002) and HF consumption was associated with greater MAP regardless of sex (P<0.05). Gene expression was affected by sex (P<0.05) and diet (P<0.1). Lastly, the use of ART resulted in offspring with increased intracellular ROS (P=0.05). In summary, exposure to an obesogenic diet pre- and/or post-natally affects weight, MAP, and gene expression while ART increases oxidative stress in mesenteric resistance arteries of juvenile offspring, no synergistic effects were observed.

  8. Lifelong caloric restriction increases working memory in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kuhla

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR is argued to positively affect general health, longevity and the normally occurring age-related reduction of cognition. This issue is well examined, but most studies investigated the effect of short-term periods of CR. Herein, 4 weeks old female mice were fed caloric restricted for 4, 20 and especially for 74 weeks. CR mice received 60% of food eaten by their ad libitum (AL fed littermates, and all age-matched groups were behaviorally analyzed. The motor coordination, which was tested by rotarod/accelerod, decreased age-related, but was not influenced by the different periods of CR. In contrast, the age-related impairment of spontaneous locomotor activity and anxiety, both being evaluated by open field and by elevated plus maze test, was found aggravated by a lifelong CR. Measurement of cognitive performance with morris water maze showed that the working memory decreased age-related in AL mice, while a lifelong CR caused a better cognitive performance and resulted in a significantly better spatial memory upon 74 weeks CR feeding. However, a late-onset CR feeding in 66 weeks old mice did not ameliorate the working memory. Therefore, a lifelong CR seems to be necessary to improve working memory.

  9. Lifelong caloric restriction increases working memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhla, Angela; Lange, Sophie; Holzmann, Carsten; Maass, Fabian; Petersen, Jana; Vollmar, Brigitte; Wree, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is argued to positively affect general health, longevity and the normally occurring age-related reduction of cognition. This issue is well examined, but most studies investigated the effect of short-term periods of CR. Herein, 4 weeks old female mice were fed caloric restricted for 4, 20 and especially for 74 weeks. CR mice received 60% of food eaten by their ad libitum (AL) fed littermates, and all age-matched groups were behaviorally analyzed. The motor coordination, which was tested by rotarod/accelerod, decreased age-related, but was not influenced by the different periods of CR. In contrast, the age-related impairment of spontaneous locomotor activity and anxiety, both being evaluated by open field and by elevated plus maze test, was found aggravated by a lifelong CR. Measurement of cognitive performance with morris water maze showed that the working memory decreased age-related in AL mice, while a lifelong CR caused a better cognitive performance and resulted in a significantly better spatial memory upon 74 weeks CR feeding. However, a late-onset CR feeding in 66 weeks old mice did not ameliorate the working memory. Therefore, a lifelong CR seems to be necessary to improve working memory.

  10. General and Food-Specific Inhibitory Control As Moderators of the Effects of the Impulsive Systems on Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuemeng; Chen, Shuaiyu; Chen, Hong; Gu, Yan; Xu, Wenjian

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to extend the application of the reflective-impulsive model to restrained eating and explore the effect of automatic attention (impulsive system) on food choices. Furthermore, we examined the moderating effects of general inhibitory control (G-IC) and food-specific inhibitory control (F-IC) on successful and unsuccessful restrained eaters (US-REs). Automatic attention was measured using "the EyeLink 1000," which tracked eye movements during the process of making food choices, and G-IC and F-IC were measured using the Stop-Signal Task. The results showed that food choices were related to automatic attention and that G-IC and F-IC moderated the predictive relationship between automatic attention and food choices. Furthermore, among successful restrained eaters (S-REs), automatic attention to high caloric foods did not predict food choices, regardless of whether G-IC or F-IC was high or low. Whereas food choice was positively correlated with automatic attention among US-REs with poor F-IC, this pattern was not observed in those with poor G-IC. In conclusion, the S-REs had more effective self-management skills and their food choices were affected less by automatic attention and inhibitory control. Unsuccessful restrained eating was associated with poor F-IC (not G-IC) and greater automatic attention to high caloric foods. Thus, clinical interventions should focus on enhancing F-IC, not G-IC, and on reducing automatic attention to high caloric foods.

  11. General and Food-Specific Inhibitory Control As Moderators of the Effects of the Impulsive Systems on Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemeng Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to extend the application of the reflective-impulsive model to restrained eating and explore the effect of automatic attention (impulsive system on food choices. Furthermore, we examined the moderating effects of general inhibitory control (G-IC and food-specific inhibitory control (F-IC on successful and unsuccessful restrained eaters (US-REs. Automatic attention was measured using “the EyeLink 1000,” which tracked eye movements during the process of making food choices, and G-IC and F-IC were measured using the Stop-Signal Task. The results showed that food choices were related to automatic attention and that G-IC and F-IC moderated the predictive relationship between automatic attention and food choices. Furthermore, among successful restrained eaters (S-REs, automatic attention to high caloric foods did not predict food choices, regardless of whether G-IC or F-IC was high or low. Whereas food choice was positively correlated with automatic attention among US-REs with poor F-IC, this pattern was not observed in those with poor G-IC. In conclusion, the S-REs had more effective self-management skills and their food choices were affected less by automatic attention and inhibitory control. Unsuccessful restrained eating was associated with poor F-IC (not G-IC and greater automatic attention to high caloric foods. Thus, clinical interventions should focus on enhancing F-IC, not G-IC, and on reducing automatic attention to high caloric foods.

  12. Epigenetic regulation of caloric restriction in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular mechanisms of aging are the subject of much research and have facilitated potential interventions to delay aging and aging-related degenerative diseases in humans. The aging process is frequently affected by environmental factors, and caloric restriction is by far the most effective and established environmental manipulation for extending lifespan in various animal models. However, the precise mechanisms by which caloric restriction affects lifespan are still not clear. Epigenetic mechanisms have recently been recognized as major contributors to nutrition-related longevity and aging control. Two primary epigenetic codes, DNA methylation and histone modification, are believed to dynamically influence chromatin structure, resulting in expression changes of relevant genes. In this review, we assess the current advances in epigenetic regulation in response to caloric restriction and how this affects cellular senescence, aging and potential extension of a healthy lifespan in humans. Enhanced understanding of the important role of epigenetics in the control of the aging process through caloric restriction may lead to clinical advances in the prevention and therapy of human aging-associated diseases.

  13. Recent Advances in Food Processing Using High Hydrostatic Pressure Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Hsu, Chiao-Ping; Yang, Binghuei Barry

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is an emerging non-thermal technology that can achieve the same standards of food safety as those of heat pasteurization and meet consumer requirements for fresher tasting, minimally processed foods. Applying high-pressure processing can inactivate pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and enzymes, as well as modify structures with little or no effects on the nutritional and sensory quality of foods. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have approved the use of high-pressure processing (HPP), which is a reliable technological alternative to conventional heat pasteurization in food-processing procedures. This paper presents the current applications of HPP in processing fruits, vegetables, meats, seafood, dairy, and egg products; such applications include the combination of pressure and biopreservation to generate specific characteristics in certain products. In addition, this paper describes recent findings on the microbiological, chemical, and molecular aspects of HPP technology used in commercial and research applications.

  14. (Ultra high pressure homogenization for continuous high pressure sterilization of pumpable foods - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eGeorget

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial spores have a strong resistance to both chemical and physical hurdles and create a risk for food industry which has been tackled by applying high thermal intensity treatments to sterilize food. These strong thermal treatments lead to reduction of the organoleptic and nutritional properties of food and alternative are actively searched for. Innovative hurdles offer an alternative to inactivate bacterial spores. In particular, recent technological developments have enabled a new generation of high pressure homogenizer working at pressures up to 400 MPa and thus opening new opportunities for high pressure sterilization of foods. In this short review, we summarize the work conducted on (ultra-high pressure homogenization (UHPH to inactivate endospores in model and food systems. Specific attention is given to process parameters (pressure, inlet and valve temperatures. This review gathers the current state of the art and underlines the potential of UHPH sterilization of pumpable foods while highlighting the needs for future work.

  15. Disgust evoked by strong wormwood bitterness influences the processing of visual food cues in women: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Daniela; Giraldo, Matteo; Spiegl, Benjamin; Schienle, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The perception of intense bitterness is associated with disgust and food rejection. The present cross-modal event-related potential (ERP) study investigated whether a bitter aftertaste is able to influence affective ratings and the neuronal processing of visual food cues. We presented 39 healthy normal-weight women (mean age: 22.5 years) with images depicting high-caloric meat dishes, high-caloric sweets, and low-caloric vegetables after they had either rinsed their mouth with wormwood tea (bitter group; n = 20) or water (control group; n = 19) for 30s. The bitter aftertaste of wormwood enhanced fronto-central early potentials (N100, N200) and reduced P300 amplitudes for all food types (meat, sweets, vegetables). Moreover, meat and sweets elicited higher fronto-central LPPs than vegetables in the water group. This differentiation was absent in the bitter group, which gave lower arousal ratings for the high-caloric food. We found that a minor intervention ('bitter rinse') was sufficient to induce changes in the neuronal processing of food images reflecting increased early attention (N100, N200) as well as reduced affective value (P300, LPP). Future studies should investigate whether this intervention is able to influence eating behavior.

  16. Food dependence in rats selectively bred for low versus high saccharin intake. Implications for "food addiction".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenko, Veronica; Speidel, Elizabeth R; Chapman, Clinton D; Dess, Nancy K

    2011-10-01

    The "food addiction" concept implies that proneness to drug dependence and to food dependence should covary. The latter was studied in low- (LoS) and high- (HiS) saccharin-consuming rats, who differ in drug self-administration (HiS>LoS) and withdrawal (LoS>HiS). Sugary food intake in the first 1-2 h was higher in HiS than LoS rats. Sugar intake predicted startle during abstinence only among LoS rats. These results may suggest bingeing-proneness in HiS rats and withdrawal-proneness among LoS rats. However, intake escalation and somatic withdrawal did not differ between lines. Further study with selectively bred rats, with attention to definitions and measures, is warranted.

  17. Treatment of foods with high-energy X rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, M. R.; Meissner, J.; Herer, A. S.; Beers, E. W.

    2001-07-01

    The treatment of foods with ionizing energy in the form of gamma rays, accelerated electrons, and X rays can produce beneficial effects, such as inhibiting the sprouting in potatoes, onions, and garlic, controlling insects in fruits, vegetables, and grains, inhibiting the growth of fungi, pasteurizing fresh meat, poultry, and seafood, and sterilizing spices and food additives. After many years of research, these processes have been approved by regulatory authorities in many countries and commercial applications have been increasing. High-energy X rays are especially useful for treating large packages of food. The most attractive features are product penetration, absorbed dose uniformity, high utilization efficiency and short processing time. The ability to energize the X-ray source only when needed enhances the safety and convenience of this technique. The availability of high-energy, high-power electron accelerators, which can be used as X-ray generators, makes it feasible to process large quantities of food economically. Several industrial accelerator facilities already have X-ray conversion equipment and several more will soon be built with product conveying systems designed to take advantage of the unique characteristics of high-energy X rays. These concepts will be reviewed briefly in this paper.

  18. Advantages of high pressure sterilisation on quality of food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matser, A.M.; Krebbers, B.; Berg, van den R.W.; Bartels, P.V.

    2004-01-01

    High pressure processing can be used for sterilisation of food products if applied at elevated temperatures and using the temperature increase due to adiabatic compression. By choosing the appropriate process conditions, it is possible to completely inactivate both vegetative cells and microbial spo

  19. High School Harvest: Combining Food Service Training and Institutional Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, David; Estrin, Hans; Becot, Florence

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses High School Harvest (HSH), an Extension educator-led project in five Vermont schools to provide students with job training and food system education and to provide lightly processed produce to school lunch programs. One hundred and twenty-one students participated, logging 8,752 hours growing, harvesting, and processing…

  20. Feeding preference of adult females of ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus through prey proximate-composition and caloric values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Trindade Bittar

    Full Text Available In the present study we analysed the proximate-composition and caloric values of the preferred prey consumed by ribbonfish, Trichiurus lepturus L. 1758 (adult females, that are distributed in the inner continental shelf from northern Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil (~22ºS, assessing the potential of nutritional and energetic approach as a tool to understand the feeding selective pattern of this marine top carnivore. The preferred prey of this predator composed of fish co-specifics, Pellona harroweri, Chirocentrodon bleekerianus, Lycengraulis grossidens, Peprilus paru, squid Doryteuthis plei, and shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri were collected from 2007 to 2010 for proximate-composition (water, protein, lipid, ash, and carbohydrate and caloric value analyses. The correspondence analysis showed that protein is the main component in the prey species (61.32% of variance explained, standing out from the other nutrients. Lipid has the highest percentage related to L. grossidens, ash to X. kroyeri and carbohydrate to D. plei. The strong correlations between protein and caloric value (positive and lipid and caloric value (negative indicated that T. lepturus is attending its energy demand through the prey protein content. This work elucidated the feeding preference of adult females of T. lepturus in relation to nutritional and caloric content of their preferred prey. The species showed food selectivity to prey that provide more energy per ingested biomass, so that the feeding events can maximize the predator's caloric gain, which is obtained by a protein-based diet.

  1. High-dose irradiation of food; Hochdosisbestrahlung von Lebensmitteln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1999-07-01

    Studies performed on behalf of the International Project on Food Irradiation in the period from 1971 until 1980 resulted in the concluding statement that ''.the irradiation of any food commodity up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy presents no toxicological hazard; hence, toxicological testing of foods so treated is no longer required.'' Since then, licenses for food irradiation have been restricted to this maximum dose in any country applying this technology. Further testing programmes have been carried out investigating the wholesomeness or hazards of high-dose irradiation, but there has been little demand so far by the food industry for licensing of high-dose irradiation, as there is only a small range of products whose irradiation at higher doses offers advantages for given, intended use. These include eg. spices, dried herbs, meat products in flexible pouch packagings for astronauts, or patients with immune deficiencies. (orig./CB) [German] Die im Rahmen des Projekts erteilten Auftraege betrafen nur solche Lebensmittel, die im Dosisbereich < 10 kGy bestrahlt waren, da der Bereich hoeherer Dosen durch die amerikanischen Untersuchungen abgedeckt war. Als das Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Irradiation (JECFI) 1980 in Genf tagte, um ueber die gesundheitliche Bewertung bestrahlter Lebensmittel zu beraten, waren jedoch die in den Vereinigten Staaten laufenden, sehr umfangreichen Langzeitversuche mit strahlensterilisiertem Haehnchenfleisch (Dosis 58 kGy) noch nicht abgeschlossen. Das Komitee beschraenkte sich daher auf die Bewertung der vom Internationalen Projekt vorgelegten Ergebnisse. Die Schlussfolgerung 'the irradiation of any food commodity up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy presents no toxicological hazard; hence, toxicological testing of foods so treated is no longer required'beendete die jahrzehntelange Debatte ueber die gesundheitliche Unbedenklichkeit von im niedrigen (bis 1 kGy) und mittleren (1 bis 10 k

  2. High stability of Stx2 phage in food and under food-processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Tone Mari; Axelsson, Lars; Granum, Per Einar; Heir, Even; Holck, Askild; L'abée-Lund, Trine M

    2011-08-01

    Bacteriophages (phages) carrying Shiga toxin genes constitute a major virulence attribute in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Several EHEC outbreaks have been linked to food. The survival of such strains in different foods has received much attention, while the fate of the mobile Shiga toxin-converting phages (Stx phages) has been less studied. We have investigated the stability of an Stx phage in several food products and examined how storage, food processing, and disinfection influence the infectivity of phage particles. The study involved a recombinant Stx phage (Δstx::cat) of an E. coli O103:H25 strain from a Norwegian outbreak in 2006. Temperature, matrix, and time were factors of major importance for the stability of phage particles. Phages stored at cooling temperatures (4°C) showed a dramatic reduction in stability compared to those stored at room temperature. The importance of the matrix was evident at higher temperatures (60°C). Phages in ground beef were below the detection level when heated to 60°C for more than 10 min, while phages in broth exposed to the same heating conditions showed a 5-log-higher stability. The phages tolerated desiccation poorly but were infective for a substantial period of time in solutions. Under moist conditions, they also had a high ability to tolerate exposure to several disinfectants. In a dry-fermented sausage model, phages were shown to infect E. coli in situ. The results show that Stx phage particles can maintain their infectivity in foods and under food-processing conditions.

  3. Shelf-stable food through high dose irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaček, V.; Svobodová, V.; Bartoníček, B.; Rosmus, J.; Čamra, M.

    2004-09-01

    Irradiation of food with high doses (radappertization) is a way, how to prepare shelf-stable ready-to-eat food. The radappertization process requires that the food be heated at first to an internal temperature of at least 75°C to inactivate autolytic enzyme, which could cause the spoilage during storage without refrigeration. In order to prevent radiation induced changes in sensory properties (off flavors, odors, undesirable color change, etc.) the food was vacuum packed and irradiated in frozen state at -30°C or less to a minimum dose of 35 kGy. Such products have characteristics of fresh food prepared for eating even if they are stored for long time under tropical conditions. The wholesomeness (safety for consumption) has been confirmed during 40 years of testing. Within the NRI Řež 10 kinds of shelf-stable meat products have been prepared. The meat was cooked, vacuum packed in SiO x-containing pouch, freezed in liquid nitrogen and irradiated with electron beam accelerator. The microbial, chemical, and organoleptic properties have been tested.

  4. Shelf-stable food through high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placek, V. E-mail: pla@ujv.cz; Svobodova, V.; Bartonicek, B.; Rosmus, J.; Camra, M

    2004-10-01

    Irradiation of food with high doses (radappertization) is a way, how to prepare shelf-stable ready-to-eat food. The radappertization process requires that the food be heated at first to an internal temperature of at least 75 deg. C to inactivate autolytic enzyme, which could cause the spoilage during storage without refrigeration. In order to prevent radiation induced changes in sensory properties (off flavors, odors, undesirable color change, etc.) the food was vacuum packed and irradiated in frozen state at -30 deg. C or less to a minimum dose of 35 kGy. Such products have characteristics of fresh food prepared for eating even if they are stored for long time under tropical conditions. The wholesomeness (safety for consumption) has been confirmed during 40 years of testing. Within the NRI Rez 10 kinds of shelf-stable meat products have been prepared. The meat was cooked, vacuum packed in SiO{sub x}-containing pouch, freezed in liquid nitrogen and irradiated with electron beam accelerator. The microbial, chemical, and organoleptic properties have been tested.

  5. Infrared Radiation as Heat Transfer Mechanism of High Quality in Heating Processes La radiación infrarroja como mecanismo de transferencia de calor de alta calidad en procesos de calentamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Castañeda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to address the infrared radiation as a primary mechanismof heat transfer of high-quality in different heating processes, to highlightthe issues and applicability in the use, the characterization and design of thetechnologies powered by combustion systems. For this, it summarizes its phenomenology, definitions, assumptions and solutions; addresses some numericalmethods used to solve the Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE and its couplingto CFD codes (Computational Fluids Dynamics; as also the types of radiantequipment usually used, in especial the radiant tubes; as well as certain experimental methodologies used to characterize radiant systems, and some designmethodologies. It was found, that the flux model and the discrete transferare sufficient to give solution to the radiation heat transfer phenomenon withthe help of CFD codes, as well as the measuring device mainly used in experimental measurements is the radiometer, and the most practical designmethodology may be the optimization.En este artículo se pretende abordar la radiación infrarroja como un mecanismoprincipal de transferencia de calor de alta calidad en diferentes procesosde calentamiento, resaltar la pertenencia y problemática en el uso, la caracterizacióny el diseño de las tecnologías propias accionadas por sistemas decombustión. Para esto, se resume su fenomenología, sus definiciones, suposicionesy soluciones; se abordan algunos métodos numéricos utilizados parala solución de la ecuación de transferencia de radiación (Radiative TransferEquation (RTE y el acoplamiento de éstos a los códigos CFD (ComputationalFluids Dynamics; como también los tipos de equipos radiantes utilizadoscon mayor frecuencia, en especial los tubo radiantes; al igual que ciertas metodologíasexperimentales usadas para caracterizar los sistemas radiantes, yalgunas metodologías de diseño. Se encontró, que el modelo del flux y el de transferencias discretas son pertinentes

  6. Conservación por calor

    OpenAIRE

    Cobos García, Angel; Díaz Rubio, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Esta unidade didáctica denominada Conservación por calor forma parte da materia «Tecnoloxía do procesado de alimentos» que se impartirá no primeiro semestre do 2º curso do Grao en Nutrición Humana e Dietética. A materia estrutúrase en diferentes unidades didácticas, tratando cada unha delas as diferentes tecnoloxías de procesado dos alimentos, tanto de conservación coma de transformación. A presente unidade didáctica aborda a conservación dos alimentos por calor. Este método permite destruír ...

  7. Transferencia de calor a lechos empacados

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán Feged, Alvaro; Bonilla Melendez, Alberto; Cancelado Arias, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Consideremos el lecho de solidos granulados de la figura 1.El lecho esta a una temperatura u (z,t), y tiene un calor especifico  cs, que se toma constante. z es la altura del lecho, y t es el tiempo. A este lecho entran G unidades de masa de fluido por unidad de tiempo y de área de sección de lecho(1)(2)

  8. High hydrostatic pressure processing: a promising nonthermal technology to inactivate viruses in high-risk foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Fangfei; Neetoo, Hudaa; Chen, Haiqiang; Li, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne outbreaks of viral origin have become increasingly a serious public health concern. High-pressure processing (HPP), a nonthermal technology, has come to the forefront for food processing given its minimal effects on food quality. Recent studies have revealed encouraging results for the inactivation of several human viruses by HPP. This review provides comprehensive information on the use of HPP to eliminate viruses in model systems and foods. We address the influences of various parameters, including pressure level, holding time, pH, temperature, and food matrix on the efficacy of pressure inactivation of viruses, as well as insight into the mechanisms for inactivation of enveloped and nonenveloped viruses. HPP is a promising technology for mitigating virus contamination of foods, thus it is essential to identify the optimal parameters for enhancing virus inactivation while ensuring sensory and nutritional quality retention of foods.

  9. High-dose processing and application to Korean space foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kang, Sang-Wook; Choi, Gi-Hyuk; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Nutrition bar, Ramen (ready-to-cook noodle), and two Korean traditional foods ( Kimchi, fermented vegetable; Sujeonggwa, cinnamon beverage) have been developed as space foods using high-dose gamma irradiation. Addition of calcium lactate and vitamin C, a mild heating, deep-freezing, and gamma irradiation at 25 kGy were conducted to prepare Kimchi as a ready-to-eat space food. Sterilization of Space Kimchi (SK) was confirmed by a microbiological test. The hardness of the Space Kimchi was lower than the untreated Kimchi (CON), but higher than the irradiated only Kimchi. Sensory attributes of the SK were similar to CON, and maintained during preservation at 35 °C for 30 days. The optimal doses for eliminating the contaminated microbes and maintaining the qualities of the Nutrition bars, Ramen, and Sujeonggwa were determined at 15, 10 and 6 kGy, respectively. All the Korean space food were certificated for use in space flight conditions of 30 days by the Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems.

  10. High-dose processing and application to Korean space foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Choi, Jong-il [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hun [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Astronaut Project Division, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sang-Wook; Choi, Gi-Hyuk [Korea Astronaut Project Division, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Nutrition bar, Ramen (ready-to-cook noodle), and two Korean traditional foods (Kimchi, fermented vegetable; Sujeonggwa, cinnamon beverage) have been developed as space foods using high-dose gamma irradiation. Addition of calcium lactate and vitamin C, a mild heating, deep-freezing, and gamma irradiation at 25 kGy were conducted to prepare Kimchi as a ready-to-eat space food. Sterilization of Space Kimchi (SK) was confirmed by a microbiological test. The hardness of the Space Kimchi was lower than the untreated Kimchi (CON), but higher than the irradiated only Kimchi. Sensory attributes of the SK were similar to CON, and maintained during preservation at 35 {sup o}C for 30 days. The optimal doses for eliminating the contaminated microbes and maintaining the qualities of the Nutrition bars, Ramen, and Sujeonggwa were determined at 15, 10 and 6 kGy, respectively. All the Korean space food were certificated for use in space flight conditions of 30 days by the Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems.

  11. Application of fMRI to obesity research: differences in reward pathway activation measured with fMRI BOLD during visual presentation of high and low calorie foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Sinchai; Adam, Tanja C.; Goran, Michael I.; Singh, Manbir

    2012-03-01

    The factors behind the neural mechanisms that motivate food choice and obesity are not well known. Furthermore, it is not known when these neural mechanisms develop and how they are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. This study uses fMRI together with clinical data to shed light on the aforementioned questions by investigating how appetite-related activation in the brain changes with low versus high caloric foods in pre-pubescent girls. Previous studies have shown that obese adults have less striatal D2 receptors and thus reduced Dopamine (DA) signaling leading to the reward-deficit theory of obesity. However, overeating in itself reduces D2 receptor density, D2 sensitivity and thus reward sensitivity. The results of this study will show how early these neural mechanisms develop and what effect the drastic endocrinological changes during puberty has on these mechanisms. Our preliminary results showed increased activations in the Putamen, Insula, Thalamus and Hippocampus when looking at activations where High Calorie > Low Calorie. When comparing High Calorie > Control and Low Calorie > Control, the High > Control test showed increased significant activation in the frontal lobe. The Low > Control also yielded significant activation in the Left and Right Fusiform Gyrus, which did not appear in the High > Control test. These results indicate that the reward pathway activations previously shown in post-puberty and adults are present in pre-pubescent teens. These results may suggest that some of the preferential neural mechanisms of reward are already present pre-puberty.

  12. Combined caloric effects in a multiferroic Ni-Mn-Ga alloy with broad refrigeration temperature region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Li, Zongbin; Yang, Bo; Qian, Suxin; Gan, Weimin; Gong, Yuanyuan; Li, Yang; Zhao, Dewei; Liu, Jian; Zhao, Xiang; Zuo, Liang; Wang, Dunhui; Du, Youwei

    2017-04-01

    Solid-state refrigeration based on the caloric effects is promising to replace the traditional vapor-compressing refrigeration technology due to environmental protection and high efficiency. However, the narrow working temperature region has hindered the application of these refrigeration technologies. In this paper, we propose a method of combined caloric, through which a broad refrigeration region can be realized in a multiferroic alloy, Ni-Mn-Ga, by combining its elastocaloric and magnetocaloric effects. Moreover, the materials' efficiency of elastocaloric effect has been greatly improved in our sample. These results illuminate a promising way to use multiferroic alloys for refrigeration with a broad refrigeration temperature region.

  13. Operant behavior to obtain palatable food modifies neuronal plasticity in the brain reward circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guegan, Thomas; Cutando, Laura; Ayuso, Eduard; Santini, Emanuela; Fisone, Gilberto; Bosch, Fatima; Martinez, Albert; Valjent, Emmanuel; Maldonado, Rafael; Martin, Miquel

    2013-02-01

    Palatability enhances food intake by hedonic mechanisms that prevail over caloric necessities. Different studies have demonstrated the role of endogenous cannabinoids in the mesocorticolimbic system in controlling food hedonic value and consumption. We hypothesize that the endogenous cannabinoid system could also be involved in the development of food-induced behavioral alterations, such as food-seeking and binge-eating, by a mechanism that requires neuroplastic changes in the brain reward pathway. For this purpose, we evaluated the role of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1-R) in the behavioral and neuroplastic changes induced by operant training for standard, highly caloric or highly palatable isocaloric food using different genetics, viral and pharmacological approaches. Neuroplasticity was evaluated by measuring changes in dendritic spine density in neurons previously labeled with the dye DiI. Only operant training to obtain highly palatable isocaloric food induced neuroplastic changes in neurons of the nucleus accumbens shell and prefrontal cortex that were associated to changes in food-seeking behavior. These behavioral and neuroplastic modifications induced by highly palatable isocaloric food were dependent on the activity of the CB1-R. Neuroplastic changes induced by highly palatable isocaloric food are similar to those produced by some drugs of abuse and may be crucial in the alteration of food-seeking behavior leading to overweight and obesity.

  14. Macronutrient Composition of Menu Offerings in Fast Food Restaurants in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlenski, Marian P; Wolfson, Julia A; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-10-01

    A high intake of fast food is associated with increased obesity risk. This study assessed recent changes in caloric content and macronutrient composition in large U.S. fast food restaurants. Data from the MenuStat project included 11,737 menu items in 37 fast food restaurants from 2012 to 2014. Generalized linear models were used to examine changes in the caloric content and corresponding changes in the macronutrient composition (non-sugar carbohydrates, sugar, unsaturated fat, saturated fat, and protein) of menu items over time. Additionally, macronutrient composition was compared in menu items newly introduced in 2013 and 2014, relative to 2012. Analyses, conducted in January 2016, controlled for restaurant and were stratified by menu categories. Overall, there was a 22-calorie reduction in food items from 2012 to 2014. Beverages had a 46-calorie increase, explained by an increase in calories from sugar (12 calories) and saturated fat (16 calories). Newly introduced main courses in 2014 had 59 calories fewer than those on 2012 menus, explained by a 54-calorie reduction in unsaturated fat, while other macronutrient content remained fairly constant. Newly introduced dessert items in 2014 had 90 calories more than those on 2012 menus, explained primarily by an increase of 57 calories of sugar. Overall, there were relatively minor changes in menu items' caloric and macronutrient composition. Although declines in caloric content among newly introduced fast food main courses may improve the public's caloric intake, it appears that the macronutrient composition of newly introduced items did not shift to a healthier profile. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of non-caloric edulcorants in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calzada León Raúl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the health normativity for the denomination of non caloric edulcorants in Mexico, and the authorization for the use of natural and synthetic non caloric edulcorants in newborn and until puberty. Special emphasis was given to the consecutive points of safety required in order to assure that they are free of secondary effects. For each non caloric edulcorant available in Mexico, we looked into the studies which mention their side effects in terms of growth and overall.

  16. Applications of high and ultra high pressure homogenization for food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Patrignani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the shelf-life and safety of foods have been achieved by thermal processing. Low temperature long time (LTLT and high temperature short time (HTST treatments are the most commonly used hurdles for the pasteurization of fluid foods and raw materials. However, the thermal treatments can reduce the product quality and freshness. Consequently, some non-thermal pasteurization process have been proposed during the last decades, including high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, pulsed electric field (PEF, ultrasound (US and high pressure homogenization (HPH. This last technique has been demonstrated to have a great potential to provide fresh-like products with prolonged shelf-life. Moreover, the recent developments in high-pressure-homogenization technology and the design of new homogenization valves able to withstand pressures up to 350-400 MPa have opened new opportunities to homogenization processing in the food industries and, consequently, permitted the development of new products differentiated from traditional ones by sensory and structural characteristics or functional properties. For this, this review deals with the principal mechanisms of action of high pressure homogenization against microorganisms of food concern in relation to the adopted homogenizer and process parameters. In addition, the effects of homogenization on foodborne pathogenic species inactivation in relation to the food matrix and food chemico-physical and process variables will be reviewed. Also the combined use of this alternative technology with other non-thermal technologies will be considered

  17. Caloric density of Loricariichthys platymetopon (Osteichthyes, Loricariidae in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aparecida Garcia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the muscle energy content (caloric density of L. platymetopon captured at different sites of the Upper Paraná River floodplain, and potential relationships between the content and various environmental variables (water temperature, oxygen dissolved in water, food availability, relative numeric abundance and biological variables (body size and reproductive cycle. Quarterly samplings from September 2006 to June 2007 in the lakes and rivers resulted in a sample of 739 specimens, whose muscle caloric density was determined using a calorimeter. Differences between the caloric averages of the males and females and among the different stages of gonadal development were not significant. Caloric density varied over time and space, with two seasonal variation trends. The intensity of the correlation between the caloric density and each environmental variable, as well as the type of correlation, varied according to the sampled site. Body size and reproductive cycle were not correlated with caloric density.Este estudo analisou o conteúdo de energia (densidade calórica de L. platymetopon capturados em diferentes locais da planície alagável do Alto Rio Paraná, e potenciais relações entre este conteúdo e várias variáveis ambientais (temperatura da água, oxigênio dissolvido na água, disponibilidade de alimento, abundância relativa numérica e variáveis biológicas (tamanho corpóreo e ciclo reprodutivo. Coletas trimestrais, de setembro/2006 a junho/2007, em lagos e rios, resultaram em uma amostra de 739 espécimes, cuja densidade calórica muscular foi determinada através de calorímetro. Diferenças entre as médias calóricas de machos e fêmeas e entre os estádios de desenvolvimento gonadal não foram significativas Densidade calórica variou sazonal e espacialmente, com duas tendências de variação sazonal. A intensidade da correlação entre densidade calórica e cada variável e cada variável ambiental, assim como

  18. Modeling microscale heat transfer using Calore.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Rader, Daniel John; Wong, Chung-Nin Channy; Bainbridge, Bruce L.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley

    2005-09-01

    Modeling microscale heat transfer with the computational-heat-transfer code Calore is discussed. Microscale heat transfer problems differ from their macroscopic counterparts in that conductive heat transfer in both solid and gaseous materials may have important noncontinuum effects. In a solid material, three noncontinuum effects are considered: ballistic transport of phonons across a thin film, scattering of phonons from surface roughness at a gas-solid interface, and scattering of phonons from grain boundaries within the solid material. These processes are modeled for polycrystalline silicon, and the thermal-conductivity values predicted by these models are compared to experimental data. In a gaseous material, two noncontinuum effects are considered: ballistic transport of gas molecules across a thin gap and accommodation of gas molecules to solid conditions when reflecting from a solid surface. These processes are modeled for arbitrary gases by allowing the gas and solid temperatures across a gas-solid interface to differ: a finite heat transfer coefficient (contact conductance) is imposed at the gas-solid interface so that the temperature difference is proportional to the normal heat flux. In this approach, the behavior of gas in the bulk is not changed from behavior observed under macroscopic conditions. These models are implemented in Calore as user subroutines. The user subroutines reside within Sandia's Source Forge server, where they undergo version control and regression testing and are available to analysts needing these capabilities. A Calore simulation is presented that exercises these models for a heated microbeam separated from an ambient-temperature substrate by a thin gas-filled gap. Failure to use the noncontinuum heat transfer models for the solid and the gas causes the maximum temperature of the microbeam to be significantly underpredicted.

  19. A new light on caloric test--what was disclosed by three dimensional analysis of caloric nystagmus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Y.

    2001-01-01

    For better understanding of caloric nystagmus, this phenomenon will be reviewed historically in three stages. 1) The first light on caloric nystagmus was thrown by Barany 1906. Through direct observation of eye movements, Barany established the caloric test as an important tool to determine the side of lesion for vertigo. 2) The second light is shed by electrooculogram (EOG) from the late 1950th. EOG enabled qualitative analysis of caloric nystagmus, and proved Barany's convection theory, but resulted in neglect of vertical and roll eye movements. 3) The third light is gained by 3D recording of eye movements started from the late 1980th. 3D recordings of eye movements enabled us to analyze the spatial orientation of caloric nystagmus, and disclose the close correlation of the nystagmus components in the head vertical and the space vertical planes, suggesting a contribution of the velocity storage integrator. The 3D property of caloric nystagmus will be explained in detail.

  20. Processing of food pictures: influence of hunger, gender and calorie content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Sabine; Laharnar, Naima; Kullmann, Stephanie; Veit, Ralf; Canova, Carlos; Hegner, Yiwen Li; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert

    2010-09-01

    In most cases obesity, a major risk factor for diabetes mellitus type 2 and other associated chronic diseases, is generated by excessive eating. For a better understanding of eating behavior, it is necessary to determine how it is modulated by factors such as the calorie content of food, satiety and gender. Twelve healthy normal weighted participants (six female) were investigated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. In order to prevent the influence of social acceptability, an implicit one-back task was chosen for stimulus presentation. We presented food (high- and low-caloric) and non-food pictures in a block design and subjects had to indicate by button press whether two consecutive pictures were the same or not. Each subject performed the task in a hungry and satiated state on two different days. High-caloric pictures compared to low-caloric pictures led to increased activity in food processing and reward related areas, like the orbitofrontal and the insular cortex. In addition, we found activation differences in visual areas (occipital lobe), despite the fact that the stimuli were matched for their physical features. Detailed investigation also revealed gender specific effects in the fusiform gyrus. Women showed higher activation in the fusiform gyrus while viewing high-caloric pictures in the hungry state. This study shows that the calorie content of food pictures modulates the activation of brain areas related to reward processing and even early visual areas. In addition, satiation seems to influence the processing of food pictures differently in men and women. Even though an implicit task was used, activation differences could also be observed in the orbitofrontal cortex, known to be activated during explicit stimulation with food related stimuli.

  1. A Dissociation Between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delogu, Franco; Huddas, Claire; Steven, Katelyn; Hachem, Souheila; Lodhia, Luv; Fernandez, Ryan; Logerstedt, Macee

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Fifty-five college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize, if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks’ sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers’ choices. PMID:26858681

  2. A Dissociation Between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delogu, Franco; Huddas, Claire; Steven, Katelyn; Hachem, Souheila; Lodhia, Luv; Fernandez, Ryan; Logerstedt, Macee

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Fifty-five college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize, if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks' sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers' choices.

  3. A Dissociation between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco eDelogu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs. 55 college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks’ sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers’ choices.

  4. Applications of High and Ultra High Pressure Homogenization for Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the shelf-life and safety of foods have been achieved by thermal processing. Low temperature long time and high temperature short time treatments are the most commonly used hurdles for the pasteurization of fluid foods and raw materials. However, the thermal treatments can reduce the product quality and freshness. Consequently, some non-thermal pasteurization process have been proposed during the last decades, including high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, ultrasound (US), and high pressure homogenization (HPH). This last technique has been demonstrated to have a great potential to provide “fresh-like” products with prolonged shelf-life. Moreover, the recent developments in high-pressure-homogenization technology and the design of new homogenization valves able to withstand pressures up to 350–400 MPa have opened new opportunities to homogenization processing in the food industries and, consequently, permitted the development of new products differentiated from traditional ones by sensory and structural characteristics or functional properties. For this, this review deals with the principal mechanisms of action of HPH against microorganisms of food concern in relation to the adopted homogenizer and process parameters. In addition, the effects of homogenization on foodborne pathogenic species inactivation in relation to the food matrix and food chemico-physical and process variables will be reviewed. Also the combined use of this alternative technology with other non-thermal technologies will be considered. PMID:27536270

  5. Applications of High and Ultra High Pressure Homogenization for Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the shelf-life and safety of foods have been achieved by thermal processing. Low temperature long time and high temperature short time treatments are the most commonly used hurdles for the pasteurization of fluid foods and raw materials. However, the thermal treatments can reduce the product quality and freshness. Consequently, some non-thermal pasteurization process have been proposed during the last decades, including high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, ultrasound (US), and high pressure homogenization (HPH). This last technique has been demonstrated to have a great potential to provide "fresh-like" products with prolonged shelf-life. Moreover, the recent developments in high-pressure-homogenization technology and the design of new homogenization valves able to withstand pressures up to 350-400 MPa have opened new opportunities to homogenization processing in the food industries and, consequently, permitted the development of new products differentiated from traditional ones by sensory and structural characteristics or functional properties. For this, this review deals with the principal mechanisms of action of HPH against microorganisms of food concern in relation to the adopted homogenizer and process parameters. In addition, the effects of homogenization on foodborne pathogenic species inactivation in relation to the food matrix and food chemico-physical and process variables will be reviewed. Also the combined use of this alternative technology with other non-thermal technologies will be considered.

  6. Effect of chronic caloric restriction on physiological variables related to energy metabolism in the male Fischer 344 rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, P H; Feuers, R J; Leakey, J A; Nakamura, K; Turturro, A; Hart, R W

    1989-05-01

    In the present study, a number of physiological and behavioral measures that are related to metabolism were continuously monitored in 19-month-old male Fischer 344 rats that were fed ad libitum or fed a caloric restricted diet. Caloric restricted rats ate fewer meals but consumed more food during each meal and spent more time eating per meal than did rats fed ad libitum. Therefore, the timing and duration of meals as well as the total number of calories consumed may be associated with life extension. Average body temperature per day was significantly lower in restricted rats but body temperature range per day and motor activity were higher in restricted rats. Dramatic changes in respiratory quotient, indicating rapid changes in metabolic pathway and lower temperature, occurred in caloric restricted rats when carbohydrate reserves were depleted. Lower body temperature and metabolism during this time interval may result in less DNA damage, thereby increasing the survival potential of restricted rats. Nighttime feeding was found to synchronize physiological performance between ad libitum and caloric restricted rats better than daytime feeding, thereby allowing investigators to distinguish the effects of caloric restriction from those related solely to the time-of-day of feeding.

  7. MHD-, ships-, jet engine unit consisting of electrochemical cells producing hydrogen, magneto-caloric hydrogen liquefier, liquid hydrogen-cooled high temperature superconductor-, MHD-, jet engine, liquid hydrogen internal combustion engine as high temperature-, superconductor-, generator-drive. High temperature superconductor coil and permanent magnet superconductor hollow cylinder as battery. MHD-Schiffs-Strahltriebwerks-Aggregat bestehend aus Wasserstoff-produzierenden elektrochemischen Solarzellen, magnetokalorischem Wasserstoffverfluessiger, Fluessigwasserstoff gekuehltem Hochtemperatur-Supraleiter-MHD-Strahltriebwerk, Fluessigwasserstoff-Verbrennungsmotor als Hochtemperatur-Supraleiter-Generator-Antrieb, Hochtemperatur-Supraleiter-Spule und permanentmagnetischem Supraleiter-Hohlzylinder als Akku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berling, E.

    1991-05-02

    MHD-, ships-, jet engine-unit consisting of electrochemical cells producing hydrogen, magneto-caloric hydrogen liquifier, liquid hydrogen-cooled high temperature superconductor-, MHD-, jet engine, liquid hydrogen internal combustion engine as high temperature-, superconductor-, generator-drive. High temperature superconductor coil and permanent magnet superconductor hollow cylinder as battery. Ships water jet engines with magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) low temperature superconductor drive are known. The invention of the ceramic high temperature superconductor MHD drive, which is cooled with liquid hydrogen. The hydrogen is obtained electro-chemically directly from seawater, and is liquified magneto-calorically. The high temperature superconductor elements of the engine, liquifier, generator, storage coil, permanent magnet hollow cylinder store are coupled by a common liquid hydrogen cooling circuit. The internal combustion engine driving the generator is fuelled by the same liquid hydrogen by which the high temperature superconductor elements are cooled.

  8. Proximity of foods in a competitive food environment influences consumption of a low calorie and a high calorie food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Gregory J; Zuraikat, Faris M

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to test if proximity of a food or preference for a food influences food intake in a competitive food environment in which one low calorie/low fat (apple slices) and one higher calorie/higher fat (buttered popcorn) food was available in the same environment. The proximity of popcorn and apple slices was manipulated and 56 participants were randomly assigned to groups. In Group Apples Near, apple slices were placed near (within arms reach) a participant and popcorn was placed far (2m away). In Group Popcorn Near, buttered popcorn was placed near and apple slices were placed far. As a control for the absence of a proximity manipulation, Group Both Near had both test foods placed near. Although participants rated the popcorn as more liked than apples, the food that was placed closer to the participant was consumed most in the two experimental groups, regardless of preference (R(2)=0.38). Total energy intake was reduced most when popcorn was placed far from a participant compared to when it was placed near (R(2)=0.24). The effects reported here were not moderated by BMI and did not vary by sex. In all, the results support the hypothesis that making a low calorie food more proximate will reduce total energy intake and increase intake of a low calorie food, even when a higher calorie and more preferred food is also available, but less proximate.

  9. Experimental study of high density foods for the Space Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    The experimental study of high density foods for the Space Operations Center is described. A sensory evaluation of the high density foods was conducted first to test the acceptability of the products. A shelf-life study of the high density foods was also conducted for three different time lengths at three different temperatures. The nutritional analysis of the high density foods is at present incomplete.

  10. Non-caloric artificial sweeteners and the microbiome: findings and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suez, Jotham; Korem, Tal; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Segal, Eran; Elinav, Eran

    2015-01-01

    Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are common food supplements consumed by millions worldwide as means of combating weight gain and diabetes, by retaining sweet taste without increasing caloric intake. While they are considered safe, there is increasing controversy regarding their potential ability to promote metabolic derangements in some humans. We recently demonstrated that NAS consumption could induce glucose intolerance in mice and distinct human subsets, by functionally altering the gut microbiome. In this commentary, we discuss these findings in the context of previous and recent works demonstrating the effects of NAS on host health and the microbiome, and the challenges and open questions that need to be addressed in understanding the effects of NAS consumption on human health. PMID:25831243

  11. Non-caloric artificial sweeteners and the microbiome: findings and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suez, Jotham; Korem, Tal; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Segal, Eran; Elinav, Eran

    2015-01-01

    Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are common food supplements consumed by millions worldwide as means of combating weight gain and diabetes, by retaining sweet taste without increasing caloric intake. While they are considered safe, there is increasing controversy regarding their potential ability to promote metabolic derangements in some humans. We recently demonstrated that NAS consumption could induce glucose intolerance in mice and distinct human subsets, by functionally altering the gut microbiome. In this commentary, we discuss these findings in the context of previous and recent works demonstrating the effects of NAS on host health and the microbiome, and the challenges and open questions that need to be addressed in understanding the effects of NAS consumption on human health.

  12. High-intensity sweeteners and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, Susan E; Martin, Ashley A; Davidson, Terry L

    2010-04-26

    Recent epidemiological evidence points to a link between a variety of negative health outcomes (e.g. metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) and the consumption of both calorically sweetened beverages and beverages sweetened with high-intensity, non-caloric sweeteners. Research on the possibility that non-nutritive sweeteners promote food intake, body weight gain, and metabolic disorders has been hindered by the lack of a physiologically-relevant model that describes the mechanistic basis for these outcomes. We have suggested that based on Pavlovian conditioning principles, consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners could result in sweet tastes no longer serving as consistent predictors of nutritive postingestive consequences. This dissociation between the sweet taste cues and the caloric consequences could lead to a decrease in the ability of sweet tastes to evoke physiological responses that serve to regulate energy balance. Using a rodent model, we have found that intake of foods or fluids containing non-nutritive sweeteners was accompanied by increased food intake, body weight gain, accumulation of body fat, and weaker caloric compensation, compared to consumption of foods and fluids containing glucose. Our research also provided evidence consistent with the hypothesis that these effects of consuming saccharin may be associated with a decrement in the ability of sweet taste to evoke thermic responses, and perhaps other physiological, cephalic phase, reflexes that are thought to help maintain energy balance.

  13. High pressure-low temperature processing of food proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumay, Eliane; Picart, Laetitia; Regnault, Stéphanie; Thiebaud, Maryse

    2006-03-01

    High pressure-low temperature (HP-LT) processing is of interest in the food field in view of: (i) obtaining a "cold" pasteurisation effect, the level of microbial inactivation being higher after pressurisation at low or sub-zero than at ambient temperature; (ii) limiting the negative impact of atmospheric pressure freezing on food structures. The specific effects of freezing by fast pressure release on the formation of ice I crystals have been investigated on oil in water emulsions stabilized by proteins, and protein gels, showing the formation of a high number of small ice nuclei compared to the long needle-shaped crystals obtained by conventional freezing at 0.1 MPa. It was therefore of interest to study the effects of HP-LT processing on unfolding or dissociation/aggregation phenomena in food proteins, in view of minimizing or controlling structural changes and aggregation reactions, and/or of improving protein functional properties. In the present studies, the effects of HP-LT have been investigated on protein models such as (i) beta-lactoglobulin, i.e., a whey protein with a well known 3-D structure, and (ii) casein micelles, i.e., the main milk protein components, the supramolecular structure of which is not fully elucidated. The effects of HP-LT processing was studied up to 300 MPa at low or sub-zero temperatures and after pressure release, or up to 200 MPa by UV spectroscopy under pressure, allowing to follow reversible structural changes. Pressurisation of approximately 2% beta-lactoglobulin solutions up to 300 MPa at low/subzero temperatures minimizes aggregation reactions, as measured after pressure release. In parallel, such low temperature treatments enhanced the size reduction of casein micelles.

  14. Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il

    2010-04-15

    This study was studied to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering were developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant food borne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources were developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not were developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin were developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam were introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. (1) Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. (2) Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of food borne outbreaks. (3) Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export

  15. New developments in caloric materials for cooling applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Crossley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Caloric materials are in the spotlight as candidates for future environmentally friendly cooling technologies. We describe stimulating recent developments in the three caloric strands that are now being studied collectively, namely magnetocaloric, electrocaloric and mechanocaloric (elastocaloric or barocaloric effects.

  16. Reducing effect of an extract of Phaseolus vulgaris on food intake in mice--focus on highly palatable foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Barbara; Fantini, Noemi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Bombardelli, Ezio; Morazzoni, Paolo; Carai, Mauro A M

    2013-03-01

    Different lines of experimental evidence indicate that treatment with extracts from and derivatives of Phaseolus vulgaris reduces intake of food, including highly palatable foods and beverages, in rats. The present study was designed to extend to mice these lines of evidence. To this end, CD1 mice were treated acutely with a standardized extract of P. vulgaris and then exposed to unlimited access to regular food pellets (Experiment 1) or 1-hour limited access to three different palatable foods/beverages, such as butter cookies (Experiment 2), a condensed-milk beverage (Experiment 3), and a chocolate-flavored beverage (Experiment 4). Treatment with P. vulgaris extract resulted in a significant reduction in the intake of regular food pellets, that was still evident 24h later, as well as of the three palatable nourishments. Together, these results (a) extend to mice several previous findings on the capacity of P. vulgaris extracts to suppress food intake in rats, (b) suggest that P. vulgaris extracts may interfere with the central mechanisms regulating appetite, food intake, palatability, and/or the rewarding and hedonic properties of food, and (c) P. vulgaris extracts may represent a potentially effective therapy for overeating, obesity, and food craving.

  17. Caloric curves of atomic nuclei and other small systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schiller, A; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Rekstad, J; Siem, S

    2003-01-01

    Caloric curves have traditionally been derived within the microcanonical ensemble via dS/dE=1/T or within the canonical ensemble via E=T^2*d(ln Z)/dT. In the thermodynamical limit, i.e., for large systems, both caloric curves give the same result. For small systems like nuclei, the two caloric curves are in general different from each other and neither one is reasonable. Using dS/dE=1/T, spurious structures like negative temperatures and negative heat capacities can occur and have indeed been discussed in the literature. Using E=T^2*d(ln Z)/dT a very featureless caloric curve is obtained which generally smoothes too much over structural changes in the system. A new approach for caloric curves based on the two-dimensional probability distribution P(E,T) will be discussed.

  18. Disruptive Effects of Contingent Food on High-Probability Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank-Crawford, Michelle A.; Borrero, John C.; Nguyen, Linda; Leon-Enriquez, Yanerys; Carreau-Webster, Abbey B.; DeLeon, Iser G.

    2012-01-01

    The delivery of food contingent on 10 s of consecutive toy engagement resulted in a decrease in engagement and a corresponding increase in other responses that had been previously reinforced with food. Similar effects were not observed when tokens exchangeable for the same food were delivered, suggesting that engagement was disrupted by the…

  19. Development of radiation fusion technology with food technology by the application of high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juwoon; Kim, Jaehun; Choi, Jongil; and others

    2012-04-15

    This study was performed to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering was developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources was developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not was developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin was developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam was introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of foodborne outbreaks. Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export. Systemized

  20. Biofuels and Food Security. A report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    In October 2011, the UN Committee on World Food Security (CFS) recommended a ''review of biofuels policies -- where applicable and if necessary -- according to balanced science-based assessments of the opportunities and challenges that they may represent for food security so that biofuels can be produced where it is socially, economically and environmentally feasible to do so''. In line with this, the CFS requested the HLPE (High Level Panel of Experts) to ''conduct a science-based comparative literature analysis taking into consideration the work produced by the FAO and Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) of the positive and negative effects of biofuels on food security''. Recommendations from the report include the following. Food security policies and biofuel policies cannot be separated because they mutually interact. Food security and the right to food should be priority concerns in the design of any biofuel policy. Governments should adopt the principle: biofuels shall not compromise food security and therefore should be managed so that food access or the resources necessary for the production of food, principally land, biodiversity, water and labour are not put at risk. The CFS should undertake action to ensure that this principle is operable in the very varied contexts in which all countries find themselves. Given the trend to the emergence of a global biofuels market, and a context moving from policy-driven to market-driven biofuels, there is an urgent need for close and pro-active coordination of food security, biofuel/bioenergy policies and energy policies, at national and international levels, as well as rapid response mechanisms in case of crisis. There is also an urgent need to create an enabling, responsible climate for food and non-food investments compatible with food security. The HLPE recommends that governments adopt a coordinated food security and energy security strategy, which would require articulation

  1. Resource availability hypothesis: Perceived financial and caloric status affect individuals' height preferences for potential partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingzhou; Lou, Liandi; Lu, Jingyi; Wang, Xiaoming; Zhong, Jun; Tan, Xuyun; Li, Yanxia; Liu, Yongfang

    2016-10-01

    Height is an important concern in human mate choices. Prior research indicates that people who live in areas with abundant resources differ from those who live in areas with scarce resources regarding height preferences. Based on a health-maximizing principle, we propose a resource availability account for such differences. Compared with women's height preferences, men's height preferences are hypothesized to be more dependent on either financial or caloric resource availability. Specifically, taller females would be more preferred by males who are poor in resources than those who are rich in resources. Results from three studies supported these hypotheses. In Study 1, men from remote areas of China who had lower family income preferred taller women more than those from eastern China who had higher family income. In Study 2, men who were financially dissatisfied preferred taller women more than those who were financially satisfied. In Study 3, men with low caloric status preferred taller women more than men with high caloric status. In addition, women's height preferences in Studies 1, 2 and 3 were less determined by resource availability. These findings suggest that height preferences are changeable, depending on financial or caloric status.

  2. Timing versus caloric goal in nutritional therapy for critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oellen Stuani Franzosi

    Full Text Available Introduction: Enteral nutrition is an important therapy for severely critically ill patients. The timing and amount of energy have been highly debated. Objective: The aim of the present study was to directly compare the timing and the caloric targets in critically ill patients. Methods: Retrospective cohort study conducted at a single center, comparing timing and caloric goal for critically ill patients. Patients were stratified according to the start of nutritional therapy (24, 48, or more than 48 h and the amount of energy delivered (target adequacy of previously calculated percentage in the first week. Statistical analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric tests for independent samples and logistic regression. The results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation or incidence and percentage. Results and discussion: There were no differences in major clinical outcomes in relation to the achievement of percentage of caloric goal at the end of the first week of the study. The beginning of caloric intake on the first day of hospitalization was associated with reduced mortality in the intensive care unit, but not with hospital mortality. The strategy of an early and limited amount of calories seems to be associated with a better outcome. Prospective studies evaluating and comparing these strategies are recommended.

  3. Conservación por calor

    OpenAIRE

    Cobos García, Angel; Díaz Rubio, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Grao en Nutrición Humana e Dietética Esta unidade didáctica denominada Conservación por calor forma parte da materia «Tecnoloxía do procesado de alimentos» que se impartirá no primeiro semestre do 2º curso do Grao en Nutrición Humana e Dietética. A materia estrutúrase en diferentes unidades didácticas, tratando cada unha delas as diferentes tecnoloxías de procesado dos alimentos, tanto de conservación coma de transformación. A presente unidade didáctica aborda a conservación dos alimentos ...

  4. Caloric vestibular stimulation in aphasic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eWilkinson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS is commonly used to diagnose brainstem disorder but its therapeutic application is much less established. Based on the finding that CVS increases blood flow to brain structures associated with language and communication, we assessed whether the procedure has potential to relieve symptoms of post-stroke aphasia. Three participants, each presenting with chronic, unilateral lesions to the left hemisphere, were administered daily CVS for 4 consecutive weeks. Relative to their pre-treatment baseline scores, two of the three participants showed significant improvement on both picture and responsive naming at immediate and one-week follow-up. One of these participants also showed improved sentence repetition, and another showed improved auditory word discrimination. No adverse reactions were reported. These data provide the first, albeit tentative, evidence that CVS may relieve expressive and receptive symptoms of aphasia. A larger, sham-controlled study is now needed to further assess efficacy.

  5. Nine out of 10 food advertisements shown during Saturday morning children's television programming are for foods high in fat, sodium, or added sugars, or low in nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batada, Ameena; Seitz, Maia Dock; Wootan, Margo G; Story, Mary

    2008-04-01

    A 2005 review by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies concluded that food marketing influences children's food preferences, consumption, and health. Given the powerful influence of marketing on children's diets, this cross-sectional study examined the types of foods, the nutritional quality of those foods, and the marketing techniques and messages used in food advertising during Saturday morning children's television programming. During 27.5 hours of programming in May 2005, 49% of advertisements shown were for food (281 food advertisements out of 572 total advertisements). The most commonly advertised food categories were ready-to-eat breakfast cereal and cereal bars (27% of all food advertisements), restaurants (19% of food advertisements), and snack foods (18% of food advertisements). Ninety-one percent of food advertisements were for foods or beverages high in fat, sodium, or added sugars or were low in nutrients. Cartoon characters were used in 74% of food advertisements, and toy or other giveaways were used in 26% of food advertisements. About half of food advertisements contained health/nutrition or physical activity messages and 86% of food advertisements contained emotional appeals. This study provides food and nutrition professionals with information about the amount and types of food children are encouraged to eat during Saturday morning television programming. The findings can help food and nutrition professionals counsel children about healthful eating and/or develop programs or policies to balance those advertisements with healthful eating messages.

  6. A Dissociation between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Franco eDelogu; Claire eHuddas; Katelyn eSteven; Souheila eHachem; Luv eLodhia; Ryan eFernandez; Macee eLogerstedt

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Fifty-five college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms ...

  7. Effects of caloric deprivation and satiety on sensitivity of the gustatory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yuriy P

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensitivity of the gustatory system could be modulated by a number of short-term and long-term factors such as body mass, gender, age, local and systemic diseases and pathological processes, excessive alcohol drinking, drug dependence, smoking, composition of oral fluid, state of oral hygiene, consumption of some foods among many others. A few studies have demonstrated the effects of hunger and caloric satiety on sensitivity of the gustatory system in obese humans and animals. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of short-term caloric deprivation and satiety on recognition taste thresholds of healthy, non-smoking, non-drinking, non-obese young male subjects. The two-alternative forced-choice technique was used to measure taste threshold. Results Recognition thresholds for sucrose and salt were significantly lower during fasting state than after a meal (t = 2.23, P Conclusions Short-term caloric deprivation in our study model was associated with increased taste sensitivity to sweet and salty substances compared to satiated state while taste sensitivity to bitter substances was not affected by the conditions of measurements. Selective modulation of sensitivity of the gustatory system might reflect the different biological importance of salty, sweet and bitter qualities of taste.

  8. Analysis of caloric test responses in sudden hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Cheng-Ping; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chen, Hsin-Chien; Lee, Jih-Chin; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Wang, Chih-Hung

    2017-02-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is characterized by a rapid-onset hearing loss that develops within 3 days. Vertigo may also be present. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate whether the severity of a loss of caloric function is associated with the initial hearing loss and with hearing recovery. Our study population was made up of 135 patients-67 men and 68 women, aged 25 to 71 years (mean: 50.9)-with sudden sensorineural hearing loss who had undergone bithermal caloric testing. We compared various patient factors according to patients' hearing level and their response to caloric testing. We also analyzed the canal paresis (CP) value in patients with an abnormal caloric response according to three factors: disease severity, vertigo, and hearing recovery, and we evaluated the correlation between the loss of caloric function and hearing outcomes. We found that an abnormal caloric response was significantly associated with a profound hearing loss at presentation, the presence of vertigo, and poor hearing recovery. Among patients with an abnormal caloric response, the CP value was significantly correlated with hearing recovery (r = 0.503, p = 0.001). Poor hearing recovery was seen in 80% of patients with a CP value of ≥40% but in only 25% of patients with a value of hearing recovery was worse in the patients with a CP value of ≥40% (p = 0.002). We conclude that a CP value of ≥40% is a significant prognostic factor for an unfavorable treatment outcome.

  9. Normal Caloric Responses during Acute Phase of Vestibular Neuritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Uk; Park, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Koo, Ja-Won

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose We report a novel finding of caloric conversion from normal responses into unilateral paresis during the acute phase of vestibular neuritis (VN). Methods We recruited 893 patients with a diagnosis of VN at Dizziness Clinic of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from 2003 to 2014 after excluding 28 patients with isolated inferior divisional VN (n=14) and those without follow-up tests despite normal caloric responses initially (n=14). We retrospectively analyzed the neurotological findings in four (0.5%) of the patients who showed a conversion from initially normal caloric responses into unilateral paresis during the acute phase. Results In those four patients, the initial caloric tests were performed within 2 days of symptom onset, and conversion into unilateral caloric paresis was documented 1–4 days later. The clinical and laboratory findings during the initial evaluation were consistent with VN in all four patients except for normal findings in bedside head impulse tests in one of them. Conclusions Normal findings in caloric tests should be interpreted with caution during the acute phase of suspected VN. Follow-up evaluation should be considered when the findings of the initial caloric test are normal, but VN remains the most plausible diagnosis. PMID:26932259

  10. Analysis of high school students' perception and attitude toward irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yoon Seok; Han, Eun Ok [Dept. of Education and Research, Korea Academy of Nuclear Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    We chose high school students, who are expected to show significant response to education, to try to understand perception and behavior toward irradiated food, and derive evidential materials for education. High school students who had ever acquired information or received education on irradiated food, and students who had ever purchased or eaten irradiated food, tended to have aproper attitude regarding its necessity, safety, and purchase without prejudice. It is necessary to provide information and education to high school students. Additionally, exposure to the irradiated food could be helpful in changing perception and attitude toward irradiated food.

  11. Obesity-prone high-fat-fed rats reduce caloric intake and adiposity and gain more fat-free mass when allowed to self-select protein from carbohydrate:fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chalvon-Demersay, Tristan; Pimentel, Grégory; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire; Even, Patrick C

    2016-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, for rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a prioritization of maintaining protein intake may increase energy consumption and hence result in obesity, particularly for individuals prone to obesity ("fat sensitive," FS, vs. "fat resistant," FR). Male Wistar rats (n = 80) first received 3 wk of HFD (protein 15%, fat 42%, carbohydrate 42%), under which they were characterized as being FS (n = 18) or FR (n = 20) based on body weight gain. They then continued on the same HFD but in which protein (100%) was available separately from the carbohydrate:fat (50:50%) mixture. Under this second regimen, all rats maintained their previous protein intake, whereas intake of fat and carbohydrate was reduced by 50%. This increased protein intake to 26% and decreased fat intake to 37%. Adiposity gain was prevented in both FR and FS rats, and gain in fat-free mass was increased only in FS rats. At the end of the study, the rats were killed 2 h after ingestion of a protein meal, and their tissues and organs were collected for analysis of body composition and measurement of mRNA levels in the liver, adipose tissue, arcuate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens. FS rats had a higher expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in lipogenesis in the liver and white adipose tissue. These results show that FS rats strongly reduced food intake and adiposity gain through macronutrient selection, despite maintenance of a relatively high-fat intake and overexpression of genes favoring lipogenesis.

  12. High Prevalence of Food Insecurity and Hunger in Households in the Rural Lower Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuff, Janice E.; Horton, Jacqueline A.; Bogle, Margaret L.; Connell, Carol; Ryan, Donna; Zaghloul, Sahar; Thornton, Alma; Simpson, Pippa; Gossett, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Residents of the Lower Mississippi Delta of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi are at risk for food insecurity since a high proportion of the population live in households with incomes below the poverty level and have reduced access to food and decreased availability of a variety of foods. However, the magnitude of the problem is unknown because…

  13. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules.

  14. A Pricing Strategy To Promote Sales of Lower Fat Foods in High School Cafeterias: Acceptability and Sensitivity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Peter; French, Simone A.; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the purchase patterns of seven targeted foods under conditions in which prices of three high-fat foods were raised and prices of four low-fat foods were lowered in a high school cafeteria over 1 school year. Data collected on food sales and revenues supported the feasibility of a pricing strategy that offered low-fat foods at lower prices…

  15. A systematic review of the effectiveness of taxes on nonalcoholic beverages and high-in-fat foods as a means to prevent obesity trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maniadakis N

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaos Maniadakis,1 Vasiliki Kapaki,1,2 Louiza Damianidi,3Georgia Kourlaba4 1Department of Health Services Organization and Management, National School of Public Health, Athens, 2University of Peloponnese, Peloponnese, 3Department of Allergy, Second Pediatric Clinic, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens School of Medicine, Athens, 4The Stavros Niarchos Foundation – Collaborative Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Outcomes Research (CLEO, First and Second Departments of Pediatrics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens School of Medicine, Athens, Greece Background: As part of the efforts to curb obesity, a new focus seems to be put on taxing foods that are perceived as being associated with obesity (eg, sugar-sweetened beverages and foods high in fat, sugar, and salt content as a policy instrument to promote healthier diets.Objective: To assess the possible effects of such taxation policies by identifying and analyzing all studies which investigate the impact of price increases on consumption, caloric intake, or weight outcomes.Methods: Electronic data bases were searched with appropriate terms and their combinations. Thereafter, abstracts were reviewed and studies were selected based on predefined criteria. The characteristics of the selected studies and the results were extracted in a special form and consequently were reviewed and synthesized.Results: Price increase may lead to a reduction in consumption of the targeted products, but the subsequent effect on caloric intake may be much smaller. Only a limited number of the identified studies reported weight outcomes, most of which are either insignificant or very small in magnitude to make any improvement in public health.Conclusion: The effectiveness of a taxation policy to curb obesity is doubtful and available evidence in most studies is not very straightforward due to the multiple complexities in consumer behavior and the underling substitution effects. There is

  16. Characteristics of non caloric dulcorants and their use in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calzada León Raúl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive review of the elaboration routes, the physical and chemical characteristics, metabolism and clearance, sweetener level, residual flavor, maximal recommended ingestion, security levels and the assessment of growth and development problems in children (from newborns, including prematures, to the end of puberty, of the main no caloric edulcorants used in Mexico. The no caloric edulcorants included in this review are: aspartame, acesulfame-K, sucralose, sacarin, ciclamates, thaumatin, D- tagatose, estevia and alitame.

  17. Effective nucleon mass and the nuclear caloric curve

    CERN Document Server

    Shetty, D V; Galanopoulos, S; Yennello, S J

    2009-01-01

    Assuming a schematic form of the nucleon effective mass as a function of nuclear excitation energy and mass, we provide a simple explanation for understanding the experimentally observed mass dependence of the nuclear caloric curve. It is observed that the excitation energy at which the caloric curve enters into a plateau region, could be sensitive to the nuclear mass evolution of the effective nucleon mass.

  18. Timing of food intake and obesity: a novel association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, Marta; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies link energy regulation to the circadian clock at the behavioral, physiological and molecular levels, emphasizing that the timing of food intake itself may have a significant role in obesity. In this regards, there is emerging literature in animals demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation. Unusual feeding time can produce a disruption of the circadian system which might produce unhealthy consequences in humans. In a longitudinal study, we recently showed that the timing of the main meal was predictive of weight loss during a 20-week dietary intervention and that this effect was independent from total 24-h caloric intake. The importance of caloric distribution across the day on weight loss therapy was supported by a recent 12-week experimental study showing that subjects assigned to high caloric intake during breakfast lost significantly more weight than those assigned to high caloric intake during the dinner. Furthermore, one of the most influential discoveries relevant for this area of research in the last years is the presence of an active circadian clock in different organs related to food intake. This is the case for stomach, intestine, pancreas or liver. New data also suggest that there is a temporal component in the regulation of adipose tissue functions. Thus, a specific temporal order in the daily patterns of adipose tissue genes appears to be crucial for adipose tissue to exclusively either accumulate fat or to mobilize fat at the proper time. Taking into account that feeding is the source of energy for adipose tissue, the time of feeding, particularly for high-energy content meals, may be decisive, and changes in this timing could have metabolic consequences for the development of obesity and for weight loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Flexible High-Barrier Polymers for Food Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of a polymer laminate with water and oxygen barrier properties suitable for food packaging and preservation on 3-5 year manned space exploration...

  20. High food prices and the global financial crisis have reduced access to nutritious food and worsened nutritional status and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Henk-Jan; de Pee, Saskia; Sanogo, Issa; Subran, Ludovic; Bloem, Martin W

    2010-01-01

    A global economic and financial crisis is engulfing the developing world, coming on top of high food and fuel prices. This paper assesses the impact of the crises on food consumption, nutrition, and health. Several methods were applied, including risk analysis using the cost of the food basket, assessment surveys, simulations, regression analysis using a food consumption score (FCS), reflecting diet frequency and diversity, and a review of the impact of such dietary changes on nutritional status and health. The cost of the food basket increased in several countries, forcing households to reduce quality and quantity of food consumed. The FCS, which is a measure of diet diversity, is negatively correlated with food prices. Simulations show that energy consumption declined during 2006-2010 in nearly all developing regions, resulting potentially in an additional 457 million people (of 4.5 billion) at risk of being hungry and many more unable to afford the dietary quality required to perform, develop, and grow well. As a result of the crises, large numbers of vulnerable households have reduced the quality and quantity of foods they consume and are at risk of increased malnutrition. Population groups most affected are those with the highest requirements, including young children, pregnant and lactating women, and the chronically ill (particularly people with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis). Because undernutrition during the first 2 y of life has life-long consequences, even short-term price rises will have long-term effects. Thus, measures to mitigate the impact of the crises are urgently required.

  1. Operant behavior to obtain palatable food modifies ERK activity in the brain reward circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guegan, Thomas; Cutando, Laura; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Santini, Emanuela; Fisone, Gilberto; Martinez, Albert; Valjent, Emmanuel; Maldonado, Rafael; Martin, Miquel

    2013-03-01

    Food palatability produces behavioral modifications that resemble those induced by drugs of abuse. Palatability-induced behavioral changes require both, the activation of the endogenous cannabinoid system, and changes in structural plasticity in neurons of the brain reward pathway. The ERK intracellular pathway is activated by CB1 receptors (CB1-R) and plays a crucial role in neuroplasticity. We investigated the activation of the ERK signaling cascade in the mesocorticolimbic system induced by operant training to obtain highly palatable isocaloric food and the involvement of the CB1-R in these responses. Using immunofluorescence techniques, we analyzed changes in ERK intracellular pathway activation in the mesocorticolimbic system of wild-type and CB1 knockout mice (CB1-/-) trained on an operant paradigm to obtain standard, highly caloric or highly palatable isocaloric food. Operant training for highly palatable isocaloric food, but not for standard or highly caloric food, produced a robust activation of the ERK signaling cascade in the same brain areas where this training modified structural plasticity. These changes induced by the operant training were absent in CB1-/-. We can conclude that the activation of the ERK pathway is associated to the neuroplasticity induced by operant training for highly palatable isocaloric food and might be involved in CB1-R mediated alterations in behavior and structural plasticity.

  2. The food-contaminant deoxynivalenol modifies eating by targeting anorexigenic neurocircuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardet, Clémence; Bonnet, Marion S; Jdir, Rajae; Sadoud, Medhi; Thirion, Sylvie; Tardivel, Catherine; Roux, Julien; Lebrun, Bruno; Wanaverbecq, Nicolas; Mounien, Lourdes; Trouslard, Jérôme; Jean, André; Dallaporta, Michel; Troadec, Jean-Denis

    2011-01-01

    Physiological regulations of energy balance and body weight imply highly adaptive mechanisms which match caloric intake to caloric expenditure. In the central nervous system, the regulation of appetite relies on complex neurocircuitry which disturbance may alter energy balance and result in anorexia or obesity. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on contaminated cereals and its stability during processing and cooking explains its widespread presence in human food. DON has been implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and farm animals including weight loss. Here, we provide the first demonstration that DON reduced feeding behavior and modified satiation and satiety by interfering with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation. Moreover, our results strongly suggest that during intoxication, DON reaches the brain where it modifies anorexigenic balance. In view of the widespread human exposure to DON, the present results may lead to reconsider the potential consequences of chronic DON consumption on human eating disorders.

  3. Caloric Value of Some Forest Fuels of the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter A. Hough

    1969-01-01

    The caloric value of a variety of southern forest fuels was determined in an oxygen bomb calorimeter. High heat values ranged between about 3,600 and 5,200 cal./g. for fuels as sampled and between 4,500 and 5,600 cal./g. for fuels on an ash-free basis. Additional tests of forest fuels from the Southern, Eastern, and North Central United States showed a...

  4. The costs and cost-efficiency of providing food through schools in areas of high food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Al-Shaiba, Najeeb; Espejo, Francisco

    2009-03-01

    The provision of food in and through schools has been used to support the education, health, and nutrition of school-aged children. The monitoring of financial inputs into school health and nutrition programs is critical for a number of reasons, including accountability, transparency, and equity. Furthermore, there is a gap in the evidence on the costs, cost-efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of providing food through schools, particularly in areas of high food insecurity. To estimate the programmatic costs and cost-efficiency associated with providing food through schools in food-insecure, developing-country contexts, by analyzing global project data from the World Food Programme (WFP). Project data, including expenditures and number of schoolchildren covered, were collected through project reports and validated through WFP Country Office records. Yearly project costs per schoolchild were standardized over a set number of feeding days and the amount of energy provided by the average ration. Output metrics, such as tonnage, calories, and micronutrient content, were used to assess the cost-efficiency of the different delivery mechanisms. The average yearly expenditure per child, standardized over a 200-day on-site feeding period and an average ration, excluding school-level costs, was US$21.59. The costs varied substantially according to choice of food modality, with fortified biscuits providing the least costly option of about US$11 per year and take-home rations providing the most expensive option at approximately US$52 per year. Comparisons across the different food modalities suggested that fortified biscuits provide the most cost-efficient option in terms of micronutrient delivery (particularly vitamin A and iodine), whereas on-site meals appear to be more efficient in terms of calories delivered. Transportation and logistics costs were the main drivers for the high costs. The choice of program objectives will to a large degree dictate the food modality

  5. Caloric restriction in C57BL/6J mice mimics therapeutic fasting in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Christine A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caloric restriction (CR has long been recognized as a dietary therapy that improves health and increases longevity. Little is known about the persistent effects of CR on plasma biomarkers (glucose, ketone bodies, and lipids following re-feeding in mice. It is also unclear how these biomarker changes in calorically restricted mice relate to those observed previously in calorically restricted humans. Results Three groups of individually housed adult female C57BL/6J (B6 mice (n = 4/group were fed a standard rodent chow diet either: (1 unrestricted (UR; (2 restricted for three weeks to reduce body weight by approximately 15–20% (R; or (3 restricted for three weeks and then re-fed unrestricted (ad libitum for an additional three weeks (R-RF. Body weight and food intake were measured throughout the study, while plasma lipids and levels of glucose and ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyrate were measured at the termination of the study. Plasma glucose, phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and triglycerides were significantly lower in the R mice than in the UR mice. In contrast, plasma fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were significantly higher in the R mice than in the UR mice. CR had no effect on plasma phosphatidylinositol levels. While body weight and plasma lipids of the R-RF mice returned to unrestricted levels upon re-feeding, food intake and glucose levels remained significantly lower than those prior to the initiation of CR. Conclusion CR establishes a new homeostatic state in B6 mice that persists for at least three weeks following ad libitum re-feeding. Moreover, the plasma biomarker changes observed in B6 mice during CR mimic those reported in humans on very low calorie diets or during therapeutic fasting.

  6. Heart rate variability biofeedback reduces food cravings in high food cravers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Freund, Rebecca; Skirde, Ann Kathrin; Vögele, Claus; Kübler, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback has been reported to increase HRV while decreasing symptoms in patients with mental disorders. In addition, associations between low HRV and lowered self-regulation were found in non-clinical samples, e.g., in individuals with strong chocolate cravings or unsuccessful dieting. The current study aimed at decreasing food cravings with HRV-biofeedback in individuals frequently experiencing such cravings. Participants (N = 56) with strong or low food cravings associated with a lack of control over eating were selected from the local community. Half of the participants with strong cravings (craving-biofeedback; n = 14) performed 12 sessions of HRV-biofeedback while the other half (craving-control; n = 14) and a group with low cravings (non-craving-control; n = 28) received no intervention. Subjective food cravings related to a lack of control over eating decreased from pre- to post-measurement in the craving-biofeedback group, but remained constant in the control groups. Moreover, only the craving-biofeedback group showed a decrease in eating and weight concerns. Although HRV-biofeedback was successful in reducing food cravings, this change was not accompanied by an increase in HRV. Instead, HRV decreased in the craving-control group. This study provides preliminary evidence that HRV-biofeedback could be beneficial for attenuating dysfunctional eating behavior although specific mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

  7. Cardioprotective Signature of Short-Term Caloric Restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Noyan

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular pathways underlying the cardiac preconditioning effect of short-term caloric restriction (CR.Lifelong CR has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease through a variety of mechanisms. However, prolonged adherence to a CR life-style is difficult. Here we reveal the pathways that are modulated by short-term CR, which are associated with protection of the mouse heart from ischemia.Male 10-12 wk old C57bl/6 mice were randomly assigned to an ad libitum (AL diet with free access to regular chow, or CR, receiving 30% less food for 7 days (d, prior to myocardial infarction (MI via permanent coronary ligation. At d8, the left ventricles (LV of AL and CR mice were collected for Western blot, mRNA and microRNA (miR analyses to identify cardioprotective gene expression signatures. In separate groups, infarct size, cardiac hemodynamics and protein abundance of caspase 3 was measured at d2 post-MI.This short-term model of CR was associated with cardio-protection, as evidenced by decreased infarct size (18.5±2.4% vs. 26.6±1.7%, N=10/group; P=0.01. mRNA and miR profiles pre-MI (N=5/group identified genes modulated by short-term CR to be associated with circadian clock, oxidative stress, immune function, apoptosis, metabolism, angiogenesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM. Western blots pre-MI revealed CR-associated increases in phosphorylated Akt and GSK3ß, reduced levels of phosphorylated AMPK and mitochondrial related proteins PGC-1α, cytochrome C and cyclooxygenase (COX IV, with no differences in the levels of phosphorylated eNOS or MAPK (ERK1/2; p38. CR regimen was also associated with reduced protein abundance of cleaved caspase 3 in the infarcted heart and improved cardiac function.

  8. Back by Popular Demand: A Narrative Review on the History of Food Addiction Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of food addiction has gained more and more popularity. This approach acknowledges the apparent parallels between substance use disorders and overeating of highly palatable, high-caloric foods. Part of this discussion includes that “hyperpalatable” foods may have an addictive potential because of increased potency due to certain nutrients or additives. Although this idea seems to be relatively new, research on food addiction actually encompasses several decades, a fact that often remains unrecognized. Scientific use of the term addiction in reference to chocolate even dates back to the 19th century. In the 20th century, food addiction research underwent several paradigm shifts, which include changing foci on anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, obesity, or binge eating disorder. Thus, the purpose of this review is to describe the history and state of the art of food addiction research and to demonstrate its development and refinement of definitions and methodologies. PMID:26339213

  9. Back by Popular Demand: A Narrative Review on the History of Food Addiction Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the concept of food addiction has gained more and more popularity. This approach acknowledges the apparent parallels between substance use disorders and overeating of highly palatable, high-caloric foods. Part of this discussion includes that "hyperpalatable" foods may have an addictive potential because of increased potency due to certain nutrients or additives. Although this idea seems to be relatively new, research on food addiction actually encompasses several decades, a fact that often remains unrecognized. Scientific use of the term addiction in reference to chocolate even dates back to the 19th century. In the 20th century, food addiction research underwent several paradigm shifts, which include changing foci on anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, obesity, or binge eating disorder. Thus, the purpose of this review is to describe the history and state of the art of food addiction research and to demonstrate its development and refinement of definitions and methodologies.

  10. Effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in beverages on the reward value after repeated exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Griffioen-Roose

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reward value of food is partly dependent on learned associations. It is not yet known whether replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in food is affecting long-term acceptance. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in a nutrient-empty drink (soft drink versus nutrient-rich drink (yoghurt drink on reward value after repeated exposure. DESIGN: We used a randomized crossover design whereby forty subjects (15 men, 25 women with a mean ± SD age of 21 ± 2 y and BMI of 21.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2 consumed a fixed portion of a non-caloric sweetened (NS and sugar sweetened (SS versions of either a soft drink or a yoghurt drink (counterbalanced for breakfast which were distinguishable by means of colored labels. Each version of a drink was offered 10 times in semi-random order. Before and after conditioning the reward value of the drinks was assessed using behavioral tasks on wanting, liking, and expected satiety. In a subgroup (n=18 fMRI was performed to assess brain reward responses to the drinks. RESULTS: Outcomes of both the behavioral tasks and fMRI showed that conditioning did not affect the reward value of the NS and SS versions of the drinks significantly. Overall, subjects preferred the yoghurt drinks to the soft drinks and the ss drinks to the NS drinks. In addition, they expected the yoghurt drinks to be more satiating, they reduced hunger more, and delayed the first eating episode more. Conditioning did not influence these effects. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that repeated consumption of a non-caloric sweetened beverage, instead of a sugar sweetened version, appears not to result in changes in the reward value. It cannot be ruled out that learned associations between sensory attributes and food satiating capacity which developed preceding the conditioning period, during lifetime, affected the reward value of the drinks.

  11. Caloric Restriction Effect on Proinflammatory Cytokines, Growth Hormone, and Steroid Hormone Concentrations during Exercise in Judokas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Abedelmalek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction on the immune and hormonal responses during exercise in judo athletes. In a randomised order, 11 male judokas (age: 20.45 ± 0.51; height: 1.71 ± 0.3 m; and body weight: 75.9 ± 3.1 kg participate in this study during a period of weight maintenance (baseline and after 7 days of caloric restriction (CR. All subjects performed the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT during the two conditions. Values for nutrient intakes were obtained from a 7 d food record kept during a period of weight maintenance and after a 7-day food restriction (−5~6 MJ/day. Our results showed that CR resulted in significant decreases in body weight (P<0.05 and performance (P<0.05. However, heart rate and SJFT index (P<0.05 increase significantly during CR in comparison to baseline. Moreover, exercise leads to a significant increase in testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone (GH, leukocytes, neutrophils, TNF-α, and IL-6, in both CR and baseline conditions. Compared to baseline, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher during CR condition (P<0.05. Additionally, CR leads to an increase in cortisol and GH (P<0.05 and a decrease in testosterone concentrations (P<0.05.

  12. Diet-beverage consumption and caloric intake among US adults, overall and by body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A; Vine, Seanna; Wang, Y Claire

    2014-03-01

    We examined national patterns in adult diet-beverage consumption and caloric intake by body-weight status. We analyzed 24-hour dietary recall with National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 data (adults aged ≥ 20 years; n = 23 965). Overall, 11% of healthy-weight, 19% of overweight, and 22% of obese adults drink diet beverages. Total caloric intake was higher among adults consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) compared with diet beverages (2351 kcal/day vs 2203 kcal/day; P = .005). However, the difference was only significant for healthy-weight adults (2302 kcal/day vs 2095 kcal/day; P diet beverages compared with SSBs (overweight: 1965 kcal/day vs 1874 kcal/day; P = .03; obese: 2058 kcal/day vs 1897 kcal/day; P diet-beverage consumption was 88 kilocalories for overweight and 194 kilocalories for obese adults. Overweight and obese adults drink more diet beverages than healthy-weight adults and consume significantly more solid-food calories and a comparable total calories than overweight and obese adults who drink SSBs. Heavier US adults who drink diet beverages will need to reduce solid-food calorie consumption to lose weight.

  13. Caloric Restriction Effect on Proinflammatory Cytokines, Growth Hormone, and Steroid Hormone Concentrations during Exercise in Judokas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Souissi, Nizar; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction on the immune and hormonal responses during exercise in judo athletes. In a randomised order, 11 male judokas (age: 20.45 ± 0.51; height: 1.71 ± 0.3 m; and body weight: 75.9 ± 3.1 kg) participate in this study during a period of weight maintenance (baseline) and after 7 days of caloric restriction (CR). All subjects performed the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) during the two conditions. Values for nutrient intakes were obtained from a 7 d food record kept during a period of weight maintenance and after a 7-day food restriction (-5~6 MJ/day). Our results showed that CR resulted in significant decreases in body weight (P exercise leads to a significant increase in testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), leukocytes, neutrophils, TNF-α, and IL-6, in both CR and baseline conditions. Compared to baseline, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher during CR condition (P < 0.05). Additionally, CR leads to an increase in cortisol and GH (P < 0.05) and a decrease in testosterone concentrations (P < 0.05).

  14. High cortisol levels are associated with low quality food choice in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Michelle; Cohen, Jessica I; Convit, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis control may be impaired in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Glucocorticoids increase consumption of low quality foods high in calories, sugar, and fat. We explored the relationship between cortisol levels, poor blood glucose control, and food quality choice in T2DM. Twenty-seven healthy controls were age-, gender- and education-matched to 27 T2DM participants. Standard clinical blood tests and cortisol values were measured from fasting blood samples. Participants recorded all consumed food and drink items in a consecutive 3-day food diary. Diaries were analyzed for "high quality" and "low quality" foods using a standardized method with high reliability (0.97 and 0.86, respectively). Controlling for education, body mass index (BMI) and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), log-transformed cortisol (LogC) predicted the percent of low quality foods (R (2) = 0.092, β = 0.360, P foods chosen. Controlling for education, BMI, and LogC, HbA1C significantly predicted both the percent of low quality foods (ΔR (2) = 0.079, β = 0.348, P = 0.024) and high quality foods chosen (ΔR (2) = 0.085, β = -0.362, P = 0.022). The relationship between HbA1C and low quality food choice may be mediated by cortisol, controlling for BMI and education (P food choice (P food choice may be partially mediated by cortisol. Poor blood glucose control may cause HPA axis disruption, increased consumption of low quality foods.

  15. Modeling thermophysical properties of food under high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, L; Guignon, B; Aparicio, C; Sanz, P D

    2010-04-01

    A set of well-known generic models to predict the thermophysical properties of food from its composition at atmospheric conditions was adapted to work at any pressure. The suitability of the models was assessed using data from the literature for four different food products, namely tomato paste, potato, pork, and cod. When the composition of the product considered was not known, an alternative was proposed if some thermal data at atmospheric conditions were available. Since knowledge on the initial freezing point and ice content of food are essential for the correct prediction of its thermal properties, models for obtaining these properties under pressure were also included. Our results showed that good predictions under pressure, accurate enough for most engineering calculations can be made, either from composition data or using known thermal data of the food considered at atmospheric conditions. All the equations and coefficients needed to construct the models are given throughout the text, thus readers can compose their own routines. However, these routines can also be downloaded free at http://www.if.csic.es/programas/ifiform.htm as executable programs running in Windows.

  16. Changes of ampulla pressure in the semicircular canal of pigeons by caloric stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Satoru

    Still now several hypotheses about the mechanisms of the caloric nystagmus have been in conclusive. In this study we confirmed the convection effect and the volume change effect of the endolymph in horizontal semicircular canal following the caloric stimulation using pigeons ( Columba livia). Although the direction of the caloric nystagmus depended on the head position and the stimulus site of calorization, the caloric nystagmus disappeared after plugging of horizontal semicircular canal. On the other hand, the ampulla pressure increased by cold calorization and decreased by hot calorization and these pressure changes had no relation to the head position. These results show that the main role of the mechanisms of the caloric nystagmus under 1G is the convection effect but the volume change effect may act on the caloric nystagmus not only under 1G but also under microgravity.

  17. Ethnobotany of food plants in the high river Ter valley (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula): non-crop food vascular plants and crop food plants with medicinal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigat, Montse; Bonet, Maria Àngels; Garcia, Sònia; Garnatje, Teresa; Vallès, Joan

    2009-01-01

    The present study reports a part of the findings of an ethnobotanical research project conducted in the Catalan region of the high river Ter valley (Iberian Peninsula), concerning the use of wild vascular plants as food and the medicinal uses of both wild and cultivated food plants. We have detected 100 species which are or have been consumed in this region, 83 of which are treated here (the remaining are the cultivated food plants without additional medicinal uses). Some of them, such as Achillea ptarmica subsp. pyrenaica, Convolvulus arvensis, Leontodon hispidus, Molopospermum peloponnesiacum and Taraxacum dissectum, have not been previously reported, or have only very rarely been cited or indicated as plant foods in very restricted geographical areas. Several of these edible wild plants have a therapeutic use attributed to them by local people, making them a kind of functional food. They are usually eaten raw, dressed in salads or cooked; the elaboration of products from these species such as liquors or marmalades is a common practice in the region. The consumption of these resources is still fairly alive in popular practice, as is the existence of homegardens, where many of these plants are cultivated for private consumption.

  18. Modeling and design aspects of active caloric regenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2015-03-01

    A cooling device based on a solid caloric material using, for example, the elastocaloric, magnetocaloric, barocaloric or electrocaloric effect has the potential to replace vapor-compression based systems for a variety of applications. Any caloric device using a solid refrigerant may benefit from using a regenerative cycle to increase the operating temperature span. This presentation shows how all active caloric regenerators can be modeled using similar techniques and how they are related to passive regenerator performance. The advantages and disadvantages of using a regenerative cycle are also discussed. The issue of hysteresis in caloric materials is investigated from a system/thermodynamic standpoint and the effects on cooling power and efficiency are quantified using a numerical model of an active regenerator using model caloric materials with assumed properties. The implementation in a working device will be discussed for elastocaloric and magnetocaloric cooling devices. It is shown that demagnetization effects for magnetocaloric systems and stress concentration effects in elastocaloric system reduce the overall effect in the regenerator and care must be taken in regenerator design for both technologies. Other loss mechanisms outside the regenerator such as heat leaks are also discussed. Finally, experimental results for active magnetic regenerative cooler are given for a range of operating conditions. The most recently published device uses a regenerator consisting of Gd and three alloys of GdY and has demonstrated a COP over 3.

  19. Exploring novel food proteins and processing technologies : a case study on quinoa protein and high pressure –high temperature processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Foods rich in protein are nowadays high in demand worldwide. To ensure a sustainable supply and a high quality of protein foods, novel food proteins and processing technologies need to be explored to understand whether they can be used for the development of high-quality protein foods. Therefore, th

  20. Differing effects of high-fat or high-carbohydrate meals on food hedonics in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Mark; Gibbons, Catherine; Caudwell, Phillipa; Blundell, John E; Finlayson, Graham

    2016-05-28

    Although the effects of dietary fat and carbohydrate on satiety are well documented, little is known about the impact of these macronutrients on food hedonics. We examined the effects of ad libitum and isoenergetic meals varying in fat and carbohydrate on satiety, energy intake and food hedonics. In all, sixty-five overweight and obese individuals (BMI=30·9 (sd 3·8) kg/m2) completed two separate test meal days in a randomised order in which they consumed high-fat/low-carbohydrate (HFLC) or low-fat/high-carbohydrate (LFHC) foods. Satiety was measured using subjective appetite ratings to calculate the satiety quotient. Satiation was assessed by intake at ad libitum meals. Hedonic measures of explicit liking (subjective ratings) and implicit wanting (speed of forced choice) for an array of HFLC and LFHC foods were also tested before and after isoenergetic HFLC and LFHC meals. The satiety quotient was greater after ad libitum and isoenergetic meals during the LFHC condition compared with the HFLC condition (P=0·006 and P=0·001, respectively), whereas ad libitum energy intake was lower in the LFHC condition (Pfoods compared with the isoenergetic HFLC meal, which failed to suppress the hedonic appeal of subsequent HFLC foods. Therefore, when coupled with increased satiety and lower energy intake, the greater suppression of hedonic appeal for high-fat food seen with LFHC foods provides a further mechanism for why these foods promote better short-term appetite control than HFLC foods.

  1. Influence of type of microorganism, food ingredients and food properties on high-pressure carbon dioxide inactivation of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, L; Geeraerd, A H; Elst, K; Van Ginneken, L; Van Impe, J F; Devlieghere, F

    2009-02-28

    High pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) treatment is currently considered as an attractive non-thermal process for preserving food. Industrial application of this technique requires, among others, systematic (quantitative) data on the inactivation of food relevant pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and in-depth information on the effect that the composition and the properties of a food matrix have on the inactivation efficacy. The first objective of this study, therefore, is to evaluate and compare the HPCD susceptibility of several food pathogens and spoilage microorganisms under the same treatment conditions. In the second part, the influence of different food components (NaCl, oil, starch, whey protein and emulsifier) and food properties (pH, fluid viscosity and water activity) on the inactivation efficacy of HPCD was determined. For the first aim, a range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeasts and spores were treated with pressurized CO(2) at 10.5 MPa and 35 degrees C during 20 min. Bacterial susceptibility towards HPCD treatments followed the sequence Gram-negative approximately Gram-positive>yeasts>spores and appeared to be related to the acid resistance of the organisms. To study the effect of different food compounds on HPCD inactivation, the reduction degree of Pseudomonas fluorescens was determined in media with and without these components at 10.5 MPa and 35 degrees C after 5 or 20 min, depending on the tested component. NaCl and the emulsifiers Tween 80 and sucrose stearate enhanced bacterial reduction, while oil reduced the bactericidal efficacy of HPCD. Starch and whey proteins did not influence inactivation. Finally, the influence of pH, fluid viscosity and water activity was investigated by determining the reduction of P. fluorescens at 10.5 MPa and 35 degrees C in suspensions from which the pH, viscosity and water activity were adjusted with respectively NaOH or HCl, gelatin or polyethylene glycol, and sucrose, NaCl or glycerol

  2. Patented Techniques for Acrylamide Mitigation in High-Temperature Processed Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariotti, Salome; Pedreschi, Franco; Antonio Carrasco, José

    2011-01-01

    route for acrylamide for-mation between reducing sugars (glucose and fructose), sucrose, and the amino acid asparagine, and, consequently, a variety of technologies have been developed to reduce acrylamide concentration in thermally processed foods based ei-ther on: (i) Changing process parameters (e...... for acrylamide reduction in foods processed at high temperatures are mentioned and briefly analyzed in order to develop new mitigation techniques for acrylamide in different food matrixes....

  3. Patented Techniques for Acrylamide Mitigation in High-Temperature Processed Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariotti, Salome; Pedreschi, Franco; Antonio Carrasco, José

    2011-01-01

    Heating foods has many advantages since it adds taste, color, texture and minimizes harmful germs, among others. Flavor and aroma compounds are produced via the Maillard reaction, where various hazardous com-pounds may form as well, such as acrylamide. Maillard reaction is believed to be the main...... for acrylamide reduction in foods processed at high temperatures are mentioned and briefly analyzed in order to develop new mitigation techniques for acrylamide in different food matrixes....

  4. Spray Drying of High Sugar Content Foods: Improving of Product Yield and Powder Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Koç; Figen Kaymak-Ertekin

    2016-01-01

    Spray drying is the most preferred drying method to produce powdered food in the food industry and it is also widely used to convert sugar-rich liquid foods to a powder form. During and/or after spray drying process of sugar-rich products, undesirable situation was appeared such as stickiness, high moisture affinity (hygroscopicity) and low solubility due to low molecular weight monosaccharides that found naturally in the structure. The basis of these problems was formed by low glass transiti...

  5. Physical exercise and brain responses to images of high-calorie food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Kipman, Maia; Schwab, Zachary J; Tkachenko, Olga; Preer, Lily; Gogel, Hannah; Bark, John S; Mundy, Elizabeth A; Olson, Elizabeth A; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-04

    Physical exercise has many health benefits, including improved cardiovascular fitness, lean muscle development, increased metabolism, and weight loss, as well as positive effects on brain functioning and cognition. Recent evidence suggests that regular physical exercise may also affect the responsiveness of reward regions of the brain to food stimuli. We examined whether the total number of minutes of self-reported weekly physical exercise was related to the responsiveness of appetite and food reward-related brain regions to visual presentations of high-calorie and low-calorie food images during functional MRI. Second, we examined whether such responses would correlate with self-reported food preferences. While undergoing scanning, 37 healthy adults (22 men) viewed images of high-calorie and low-calorie foods and provided desirability ratings for each food image. The correlation between exercise minutes per week and brain responses to the primary condition contrast (high-calorie>low-calorie) was evaluated within the amygdala, insula, and medial orbitofrontal cortex, brain regions previously implicated in responses to food images. Higher levels of exercise were significantly correlated with lower responsiveness within the medial orbitofrontal cortex and left insula to high-calorie foods. Furthermore, activation of these regions was positively correlated with preference ratings for high-calorie foods, particularly those with a savory flavor. These findings suggest that physical exercise may be associated with reduced activation in food-responsive reward regions, which are in turn associated with reduced preferences for unhealthy high-calorie foods. Physical exercise may confer secondary health benefits beyond its primary effects on cardiovascular fitness and energy expenditure.

  6. The effect of non-caloric sweeteners on cognition, choice, and post-consumption satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sarah E; Prokosch, Marjorie L; Morin, Amanda; Rodeheffer, Christopher D

    2014-12-01

    Consumers often turn to non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) as a means of promoting a healthy body weight. However, several studies have now linked their long-term use to increased weight gain, raising the question of whether these products produce unintended psychological, physiological, or behavioral changes that have implications for weight management goals. In the following, we present the results of three experiments bearing on this issue, testing whether NCS-consumption influences how individuals think about and respond to food. Participants in each of our three experiments were randomly assigned to consume a sugar-sweetened beverage, an unsweetened beverage, or a beverage sweetened with NCS. We then measured their cognition (Experiment 1), product choice (Experiment 2), and subjective responses to a sugar-sweetened food (Experiment 3). Results revealed that consuming NCS-sweetened beverages influences psychological processes in ways that - over time - may increase calorie intake.

  7. Importance of silvopastoral systems on caloric stress reduction in tropical livestock productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Navas Panadero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock systems in Colombia have been developed taking concepts and technologies from the green revolution, where gramineous monocrop is privileged over arboreal cover in grazing lands. This model has not taken into account the climatic conditions of the different tropical ecosystems, in which variables as temperature, relative humidity and evaporation can limit the animal´s productive and reproductive efficiency, besides being a risk factor for illness occurrence in the herd. Bos Taurus and Bos Indicus breeds show termoneutral ranges where its genetic potential can be express. However, out of this comfort area animals can enter in caloric stress which in consequence reduces its performance and sometimes can end up causing death. Silvopastoral systems comprise several functions; it contributes to lessen caloric stress since temperature under the tree canopy can reach between 2 and 9°C lower in comparison to open pastures. Differences in temperature reduction have been found among silvopastoral systems and species, being the tree group arrangements and the species with high density canopy, those with superior effect. Interactions among components should be analyzed in order to design systems that incorporate enough arboreal cover to achieve caloric stress reductions, but without affecting forage production in pastures. Silvopastoral systems contribute to improve animal welfare.

  8. Household food security status and associated factors among high-school students in Esfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Assieh; Dorosty, Ahmadreza; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza

    2010-10-01

    The present study was designed to determine household food security status and factors associated with food insecurity among high-school students in Esfahan, Iran. Cross-sectional surveys. The present study was conducted in autumn 2008 in Esfahan, Iran. The samples were selected using systematic cluster sampling. Socio-economic questionnaires, food security questionnaires and FFQ were filled out during face-to-face interviews. In addition, data on participants' weights and heights were collected. A total of 580 students (261 boys and 319 girls) aged 14-17 years from forty high schools in Esfahan, Iran, were selected. The prevalence of household food insecurity according to the US Department of Agriculture food security questionnaire was 36.6 % (95 % CI 0.33, 0.40). Food insecurity was positively associated with number of members in the household (P sausage and hamburger, poultry, fish, green vegetables, root and bulb (coloured) vegetables, melons, apples and oranges, milk and yoghurt (P healthy foods (except sausage and hamburger), whereas those living in food-insecure households more frequently consumed cheap foods containing high energy per kilogram. The present study suggests that intervention programmes be designed and carried out.

  9. [A caloric vestibular test with increased positive evidence (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzeja, A; Strauss, P; Kapell, H

    1979-12-01

    A decrease of the variance of a caloric test would increase the importance of the statement of this test. An important source of variance are the differences concerning the timecourse of the induced heat wave, determined by the different anatomic conditions in the petrous bone, particularly the pneumatisation. A constant temperature gradient is obtained by the irigation in a pessimum position with the head flexed 30 degrees to the front. This temperature gradient evokes immediately a constant maximum vestibular stimulus after having reflected the head 90 degrees to the back. Comparing this new method with the traditional irrigation, one can state an important reduction of variance. The dependence of the nystagumus response on caloric irrigation of the petrous bone demands a X-ray-examination according to the technique of Schüller before starting with the caloric examination. In case of differences between the right and left sides the described test would be necessary in our opinion.

  10. El clima de las ciudades: isla de calor de Salamanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Salud Alonso García

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se ha determinado la existencia de la isla de calor urbana (ICU, en una ciudad de tamaño medio, con un clima extremado y focos industriales de poca actividad. Con lo que se puede comprobar cómo afecta el calentamiento urbano a ciudades de estas características, pudiendo influir en los seres vivos de la zona. La existencia del fenómeno isla de calor, y su evolución en el tiempo, se han observado comparando los datos de temperatura registrados en una estación meteorológica situada en la ciudad, con los de otra estación fuera del radio de acción de la urbe, durante el período 1996-1998. Se han detectado dos fenómenos: la isla de calor nocturna, cuando la diferencia térmica entre la ciudad y la zona rural es positiva, que presenta sus valores más altos en otoño, y la isla de calor diurna, cuando la diferencia es negativa, que presenta sus valores más altos en primavera. Realizando un estudio estadístico de la evolución anual de la isla de calor nocturna en Salamanca, podemos definir isla de calor débil si su intensidad es inferior a 2 oC, moderada si se encuentra entre 2 oC y 4 oC e intensa si supera los 4 oC.

  11. Central dopaminergic circuitry controlling food intake and reward: implications for the regulation of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucetic, Zivjena; Reyes, Teresa M

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity in the general population has increased in the past 15 years from 15% to 35%. With increasing obesity, the coincident medical and social consequences are becoming more alarming. Control over food intake is crucial for the maintenance of body weight and represents an important target for the treatment of obesity. Central nervous system mechanisms responsible for control of food intake have evolved to sense the nutrient and energy levels in the organism and to coordinate appropriate responses to adjust energy intake and expenditure. This homeostatic system is crucial for maintenance of stable body weight over long periods of time of uneven energy availability. However, not only the caloric and nutritional value of food but also hedonic and emotional aspects of feeding affect food intake. In modern society, the increased availability of highly palatable and rewarding (fat, sweet) food can significantly affect homeostatic balance, resulting in dysregulated food intake. This review will focus on the role of hypothalamic and mesolimbic/mesocortical dopaminergic (DA) circuitry in coding homeostatic and hedonic signals for the regulation of food intake and maintenance of caloric balance. The interaction of dopamine with peripheral and central indices of nutritional status (e.g., leptin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y), and the susceptibility of the dopamine system to prenatal insults will be discussed. Additionally, the importance of alterations in dopamine signaling that occur coincidently with obesity will be addressed.

  12. Advances in high-resolution mass spectrometry based on metabolomics studies for food--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubert, Josep; Zachariasova, Milena; Hajslova, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Food authenticity becomes a necessity for global food policies, since food placed in the market without fail has to be authentic. It has always been a challenge, since in the past minor components, called also markers, have been mainly monitored by chromatographic methods in order to authenticate the food. Nevertheless, nowadays, advanced analytical methods have allowed food fingerprints to be achieved. At the same time they have been also combined with chemometrics, which uses statistical methods in order to verify food and to provide maximum information by analysing chemical data. These sophisticated methods based on different separation techniques or stand alone have been recently coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) in order to verify the authenticity of food. The new generation of HRMS detectors have experienced significant advances in resolving power, sensitivity, robustness, extended dynamic range, easier mass calibration and tandem mass capabilities, making HRMS more attractive and useful to the food metabolomics community, therefore becoming a reliable tool for food authenticity. The purpose of this review is to summarise and describe the most recent metabolomics approaches in the area of food metabolomics, and to discuss the strengths and drawbacks of the HRMS analytical platforms combined with chemometrics.

  13. Ethanol production from food waste at high solid contents with vacuum recovery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve the environmental issues but also provide renewable biofuel to partially substitute fossil fuels. This study investigated the feasibility of utilization of food wastes for producing ethanol at high solid contents (35%, w/w). Vacuum recovery sys...

  14. Core Principles and Test Item Development for Advanced High School and Introductory University Level Food Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing-Kean, Claudine A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, "Advanced Life Science: Foods" ("ALS: Foods") operates under the auspices of the Perkins Act. However, no broad…

  15. High pressure in combination with elevated temperature as a method for the sterilisation of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, D.R.; Dabrowski, L.; Stringer, S.; Moezelaar, R.; Brocklehurst, T.F.

    2008-01-01

    Application of high-pressure processing to foods can effect a decrease in the number of vegetative bacterial cells, and hence can result in pasteurisation. Inactivation of bacterial spores, however, is required for the sterilisation of foods. This article reviews the current status of the applicatio

  16. Assessment of Food Safety Knowledge of High School and Transition Teachers of Special Needs Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivarnik, Lori F.; Patnoad, Martha S.; Richard, Nicole Leydon; Gable, Robert K.; Hirsch, Diane Wright; Madaus, Joseph; Scarpati, Stan; Carbone, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents with disabilities require access to general education and life skills instruction. Knowledge of food safety for this audience is important for health and valuable for work placement. The objective was to implement a survey to assess high school and transition special education teachers in RI, CT, and MA for food safety knowledge and…

  17. The Impact of Nutrition Standards on Competitive Food Offerings and Purchasing Behaviors of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Anastasia M.; Kennard, Teha

    2009-01-01

    Background: With adolescent obesity rates on the rise, the school food environment is receiving closer scrutiny. This study looks at the effects of nutrient standards as part of a wellness policy that was implemented in 3 public high schools in 1 county, by analyzing the nutritional value of competitive food offerings and purchases before and…

  18. A perspective on high throughput analysis of pesticide residues in foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai ZHANG; Jon W WONG; Perry G WANG

    2011-01-01

    The screening of pesticide residues plays a vital role in food safety. Applications of high throughput analytical procedures are desirable for screening a large number of pesticides and food samples in a time-effi- cient and cost-effective manner. This review discusses how sample throughput of pesticide analysis could be improved with an emphasis on sample preparation, instrumentation and data analysis.

  19. Core Principles and Test Item Development for Advanced High School and Introductory University Level Food Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing-Kean, Claudine A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, "Advanced Life Science: Foods" ("ALS: Foods") operates under the auspices of the Perkins…

  20. A Two-Pronged Approach to Promote Food Science in U.S. High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Jennifer Cleveland; Rollins, Mary

    2007-01-01

    The Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), the IFT Foundation, and Discovery Education partnered to create and distribute food science information to science department and school counselor chairs in all 18,000 U.S. high schools in January 2006. Two multimedia "kits" were generated for teachers and counselors, each consisting of DVDs with food…

  1. Assessment of Food Safety Knowledge of High School and Transition Teachers of Special Needs Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivarnik, Lori F.; Patnoad, Martha S.; Richard, Nicole Leydon; Gable, Robert K.; Hirsch, Diane Wright; Madaus, Joseph; Scarpati, Stan; Carbone, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents with disabilities require access to general education and life skills instruction. Knowledge of food safety for this audience is important for health and valuable for work placement. The objective was to implement a survey to assess high school and transition special education teachers in RI, CT, and MA for food safety knowledge and…

  2. The school food environment and adolescent obesity: qualitative insights from high school principals and food service personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellerbeck Edward F

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To examine high school personnel's perceptions of the school environment, its impact on obesity, and the potential impact of legislation regulating schools' food/beverage offerings. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the principal (n = 8 and dietitian/food service manager (n = 7 at 8 schools (4 rural, 4 suburban participating in a larger study examining the relationship between the school environment and adolescent health behavior patterns. Results Principal themes included: 1 Obesity is a problem in general, but not at their school, 2 Schools have been unfairly targeted above more salient factors (e.g., community and home environment, 3 Attempts at change should start before high school, 4 Student health is one priority area among multiple competing demands; academic achievement is the top priority, 5 Legislation should be informed by educators and better incorporate the school's perspective. Food service themes included: 1 Obesity is not a problem at their school; school food service is not the cause, 2 Food offerings are based largely on the importance of preparing students for the real world by providing choice and the need to maintain high participation rates; both healthy and unhealthy options are available, 3 A la carte keeps lunch participation high and prices low but should be used as a supplement, not a replacement, to the main meal, 4 Vending provides school's additional revenue; vending is not part of food service and is appropriate if it does not interfere with the lunch program. Conclusion Discrepancies exist between government/public health officials and school personnel that may inhibit collaborative efforts to address obesity through modifications to the school environment. Future policy initiatives may be enhanced by seeking the input of school personnel, providing recommendations firmly grounded in evidence-based practice, framing initiatives in terms of their potential impact on the

  3. Effects of high-pressure CO2 processing on flavor, texture, and color of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linyan; Bi, Xiufang; Xu, Zenghui; Yang, Yingjie; Liao, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    High-pressure CO2 (HPCD) is a pasteurization method that inactivates microorganism and enzymes through molecular effects of CO2 under pressures below 50 MPa without exposing foods to adverse effects of heat. Thermal pasteurization can impart undesirable changes on organoleptic and nutritional quality of the foods, which can reduce sensory perception and consumer acceptance of the foods. As a novel nonthermal processing technique, HPCD does avoid drawbacks such as loss of flavor, denaturation of nutrients, production of side toxic reactions, as well as changes in physical, mechanical, and optical properties of the food materials involved in the processing. This review gives a survey and analysis of recent publications regarding the effects of HPCD on the flavor, texture and color of processed foods, and possible mechanisms explaining HPCD technique on the flavor, texture, and color of the foods were discussed.

  4. What is the status of food literacy in Australian high schools? Perceptions of home economics teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronto, Rimante; Ball, Lauren; Pendergast, Donna; Harris, Neil

    2017-01-01

    The high school setting has been identified as an ideal setting to teach adolescents about healthy dietary behaviours. This study explored home economics teachers' (HETs) views on the role of high schools in enhancing adolescents' food literacy and promoting healthy dietary behaviours. Semi-structured interviews with 22 HETs were conducted. The interview questions focused on the perceived strengths/opportunities and the limitations/barriers in enhancing adolescents' food literacy and healthy dietary behaviours in Australian high schools. Thematic data analysis was used to identify five key themes from the interview transcripts: (1) the standing of food-related life skills; (2) food literacy in the Australian school curriculum; (3) emphasis on resources; (4) learning through school canteens; and (5) building a school to home and community nexus. Overall, HETs reported that home economics was regarded by parents and other school staff to be less important than Maths or English for adolescents to learn in Australian high schools. Some teachers indicated that their schools offered one year compulsory teaching of food related studies which is typically delivered in the leaning areas of Technologies or Health and Physical Education (HPE). However, HETs stated that the time was insufficient to develop sustainable food-related life skills and introduce broader concepts of food literacy such as environmental sustainability. The lack of financial resources and non-supportive school food environments, including school canteens, were reportedly major factors that prevented food literacy education and healthy dietary behaviours of adolescents. Increasing the status of food literacy education in schools would support adolescents to develop food-related life skills and mobilise them as agents of dietary behaviour change in the home setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Constrained caloric curves and phase transition for hot nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Borderie, Bernard; Rivet, M F; Raduta, Ad R; Ademard, G; Bonnet, E; Bougault, R; Chbihi, A; Frankland, J D; Galichet, E; Gruyer, D; Guinet, D; Lautesse, P; Neindre, N Le; Lopez, O; Marini, P; Parlog, M; Pawlowski, P; Rosato, E; Roy, R; Vigilante, M

    2013-01-01

    Simulations based on experimental data obtained from multifragmenting quasi-fused nuclei produced in central $^{129}$Xe + $^{nat}$Sn collisions have been used to deduce event by event freeze-out properties in the thermal excitation energy range 4-12 AMeV [Nucl. Phys. A809 (2008) 111]. From these properties and the temperatures deduced from proton transverse momentum fluctuations, constrained caloric curves have been built. At constant average volumes caloric curves exhibit a monotonic behaviour whereas for constrained pressures a backbending is observed. Such results support the existence of a first order phase transition for hot nuclei.

  6. Food preferences do not influence adolescent high-level athletes' dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; García-Rovés, Pablo M; García, Angela; Patterson, Angeles M

    2008-01-01

    To assess the influence of preferences on food and nutritional intake in a group of adolescent high-level athletes, 22 male soccer players (14-16 years) were recruited. Individuals were asked to fill in a specific questionnaire including 15 food groups that had to be ranked according to their preferences. Three categories were established: "Like" (ranked 1-5), "Indifferent" (6-10), and "Dislike" (11-15). Dietary intake was assessed using the weighed food method (for nutrient intake) and a quantitative open-ended food frequency questionnaire (for the number of standard portions of each food group ingested daily). The main preferences were Meat, poultry and derivates (ranked 1-5 in 83% of individuals) and Pasta (58%), while Vegetables (ranked 11-15 in 82%) and Fish (64%) were the main dislikes. The most frequently consumed food groups were Fruits and fruit juices (3.9 portions/day), Bread (3.0), and Biscuits, confectionery and sweets (3.0). No statistical differences were found in food consumption between preference groups, and no relation was found between preferences and nutritional intake, except for those individuals who especially like Bread, which had statistically higher energy and carbohydrate intake. Food preferences and food and nutritional intake of adolescent high-level soccer players were, effectively, unrelated.

  7. The Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Microorganisms in Food Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arici

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure is a new food preservation technology known for its capacity to inactivate spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. High-pressure treatments are receiving a great deal of attention for the inactivation of microorganisms in food processing, pressure instead of temperature is used as stabilizing factor. High hydrostatic pressure treatment is the most studied alternative process, many works reported successful results in inactivating a wide range of microorganisms under different operative conditions such as temperature, pressure, exposure time.

  8. The high-sweet-fat food craving among women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder: emotional response, implicit attitude and rewards sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Chang, Shun-Jen; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to: (1) evaluate food craving and high-sweet-fat food craving across the menstrual cycle; (2) compare the craving and explicit/implicit emotional response to different food; and (3) investigate the reward sensitivity among PMDD and control groups. The PMDD group without treatment history and control group were evaluated for food craving, emotional response to food, implicit attitude task to food, and responsiveness to reward both in luteal and follicular phases. A total of 59 women with PMDD and 60 controls had completed the study. The results revealed that both PMDD diagnosis and luteal phase were associated with higher body mass index. The high-sweet-fat food provoked higher craving, positive emotional, and positive implicit response more than other foods. The luteal phase contributed to higher food and high-sweet-fat food cravings. Besides, the PMDD women had higher reward sensitivity, emotional response, positive implicit attitude, and craving response to high-sweet-fat foods. Further, the rewarding sensitivity was associated with emotional response to high-sweet-fat food which was associated with high-sweet-fat food craving. These results would suggest emotional response and implicit attitude might play a role for high-sweet-fat food craving of PMDD. Further, PMDD women with higher reward sensitivity should be a target group of intervention for high-sweet-fat food craving.

  9. Introducing Urban Food Forestry: A Multifunctional Strategy for Enhancing Urban Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Clark, K.

    2012-12-01

    We propose combining elements of urban agriculture and urban forestry into what we call "urban food forestry" (UFF), the practice of growing perennial woody food-producing species ("food trees") in cities. We used four approaches at different scales to gauge the potential of UFF to enhance urban sustainability, in the context of trends including increasing urbanization, resource demands, and climate change. First, we analyzed 37 current international initiatives based around urban food trees, finding that core activities included planting, mapping, and harvesting food trees, but that only about a quarter of initiatives engaged in more than one of these activities necessary to fully utilize the food potential of urban trees. Second, we analyzed 30 urban forestry master plans, finding that only 13% included human food security among their objectives. Third, we used Burlington, Vermont as a case study to quantify the potential caloric output of publicly accessible open space if planted with Malus domestica (the common apple) under 9 different scenarios. We found that the entire caloric deficit of the very low food security population could be met on as few as 29 hectares (representing 16% of total open space), and that 98% of the daily recommended minimum intake of fruit for the entire city's population could be met under the most ambitious planting scenario. Finally, we developed a decision-making tool for selecting potential food trees appropriate for temperate urban environments, the Climate-Food-Species Matrix. We identified a total of 70 species, 30 of which we deemed "highly suitable" for urban food forestry based on their cold hardiness, drought tolerance, and edibility. We conclude that urban food forestry provides multiple pathways for building urban sustainability through local food production, and that our framework can be used to increase the coordination between and effectiveness of a growing number of related initiatives.

  10. Climate Effects on High Latitude Daphnia via Food Quality and Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przytulska, Anna; Bartosiewicz, Maciej; Rautio, Milla; Dufresne, France; Vincent, Warwick F.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is proceeding rapidly at high northern latitudes and may have a variety of direct and indirect effects on aquatic food webs. One predicted effect is the potential shift in phytoplankton community structure towards increased cyanobacterial abundance. Given that cyanobacteria are known to be a nutritionally poor food source, we hypothesized that such a shift would reduce the efficiency of feeding and growth of northern zooplankton. To test this hypothesis, we first isolated a clone of Daphnia pulex from a permafrost thaw pond in subarctic Québec, and confirmed that it was triploid but otherwise genetically similar to a diploid, reference clone of the same species isolated from a freshwater pond in southern Québec. We used a controlled flow-through system to investigate the direct effect of temperature and indirect effect of subarctic picocyanobacteria (Synechococcus) on threshold food concentrations and growth rate of the high latitude clone. We also compared the direct effect of temperature on both Daphnia clones feeding on eukaryotic picoplankton (Nannochloropsis). The high latitude clone had a significantly lower food threshold for growth than the temperate clone at both 18 and 26°C, implying adaptation to lower food availability even under warmer conditions. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were present in the picoeukaryote but not the cyanobacterium, confirming the large difference in food quality. The food threshold for growth of the high latitude Daphnia was 3.7 (18°C) to 4.2 (26°C) times higher when fed Synechococcus versus Nannochloropsis, and there was also a significant negative effect of increased temperature and cyanobacterial food on zooplankton fatty acid content and composition. The combined effect of temperature and food quality on the performance of the high latitude Daphnia was greater than their effects added separately, further indicating the potentially strong indirect effects of climate warming on aquatic food web processes. PMID

  11. Neural signature of the Food Craving Questionnaire (FCQ)-Trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Martin; Steigleder, Leon; Grön, Georg

    2016-12-01

    The Trait and State versions of the Food Craving Questionnaire (FCQ) have been used in numerous behavioral and physiological eating studies. However, the neurobiological signature of the FCQ has not been reported yet. In the present study, 20 healthy male participants performed a food/non-food discrimination task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We investigated where in the brain greater activation upon high-caloric minus low-caloric food cues correlated with participants' scores on the German version of the FCQ-Trait, with the FCQ-State total scores included as a covariate, and vice versa. It was also tested whether individual subscales would map onto distinguishable neural correlates. Significant positive correlations with total scores on the FCQ-Trait were evident in several bilateral loci of the striatum, and in the right middle/lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Correlations with scores on the FCQ-Trait subscales Reinforcement and Hunger were found for subsets of voxels within the ventral striatum, whereas the FCQ-Trait subscales Intentions/Lack of control and Thoughts/Guilt mapped onto right OFC. There were no significant correlations between calorie-sensitive brain activation and scores on the FCQ-State when including the total scores on the FCQ-Trait as a covariate. Present findings show that the trait version of the FCQ associates with neural correlates known to be involved in coding motivational salience, detecting and estimating reward value, and representing information of expected outcomes.

  12. A pricing strategy to promote sales of lower fat foods in high school cafeterias: acceptability and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Peter; French, Simone A; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A

    2002-01-01

    Prices of four low fat foods were reduced about 25% and prices of three high fat foods were increased about 10% to determine the impact on food purchases in a Midwestern suburban high school cafeteria to explore the impact of price on purchases. Low fat foods averaged about 13% of total sales. Sensitivity analysis was used to estimate that low fat foods would probably have averaged about 9% of total sales without the reduced price.

  13. Principles and application of high pressure-based technologies in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, V M Bala; Martínez-Monteagudo, Sergio I; Gupta, Rockendra

    2015-01-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) has emerged as a commercially viable food manufacturing tool that satisfies consumers' demand for mildly processed, convenient, fresh-tasting foods with minimal to no preservatives. Pressure treatment, with or without heat, inactivates pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, yeast, mold, viruses, and also spores and extends shelf life. Pressure treatment at ambient or chilled temperatures has minimal impact on product chemistry. The product quality and shelf life are often influenced more by storage conditions and packaging material barrier properties than the treatment itself. Application of pressure reduces the thermal exposure of the food during processing, thereby protecting a variety of bioactive compounds. This review discusses recent scientific advances of high pressure technology for food processing and preservation applications such as pasteurization, sterilization, blanching, freezing, and thawing. We highlight the importance of in situ engineering and thermodynamic properties of food and packaging materials in process design. Current and potential future promising applications of pressure technology are summarized.

  14. Effects of a food-specific inhibition training in individuals with binge eating disorder-findings from a randomized controlled proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Speer, Eva; Schag, Kathrin; Leehr, Elisabeth Johanna; Zipfel, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    Impulsivity might contribute to the development and maintenance of obesity and eating disorders. Patients suffering from binge eating disorder (BED) show an impulsive eating pattern characterized by regular binge eating episodes. Novel behavioral interventions increasing inhibitory control could improve eating behavior in BED. We piloted a novel food-specific inhibition training in individuals with BED. N = 22 BED patients according to SCID-I were randomly assigned to three sessions of a training or control condition. In both conditions, pictures of high-caloric food items were presented in peripheral vision on a computer screen while assessing gaze behavior. The training group had to suppress the urge to turn their gaze towards these pictures (i.e., to perform antisaccades). The control group was allowed to freely explore the pictures. We assessed self-reported food craving, food addiction, and wanting/liking of food pictures pre- and post-intervention. Twenty participants completed the study. The training proved to be feasible and acceptable. Patients of the training group significantly improved inhibitory control towards high-caloric food stimuli. Both groups reported a significantly lower number of binge eating episodes in the last four weeks after termination of the study. No changes were found in food craving, food addiction, liking, and wanting ratings. A food-specific inhibition training could be a useful element in the treatment of BED and other eating disorders; however, larger efficacy studies in patient samples are needed to investigate the efficacy of this and similar training approaches.

  15. Approach Bias Modification in Food Craving-A Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Hahn, Carolyn; Reetz, Christina; Schmidt, Ulrike; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present proof-of-concept study was to test a novel cognitive bias modification (CBM) programme in an analogue sample of people with subclinical bulimic eating disorder (ED) psychopathology. Thirty participants with high levels of trait food craving were trained to make avoidance movements in response to visual food stimuli in an implicit learning paradigm. The intervention comprised ten 15-minute sessions over a 5-week course. At baseline, participants showed approach and attentional biases towards high-caloric palatable food that were both significantly reduced and turned into avoidance biases after the training. Participants also reported pronounced reductions in both trait and cue-elicited food craving and in ED symptoms as well. The overall evaluation of the training by the participants was positive. The specific CBM programme tested in this pilot trial promises to be an effective and feasible way to alter automatic action tendencies towards food in people suffering from bulimic ED psychopathology.

  16. The effects of food advertising and cognitive load on food choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Advertising has been implicated in the declining quality of the American diet, but much of the research has been conducted with children rather than adults. This study tested the effects of televised food advertising on adult food choice. Methods Participants (N = 351) were randomized into one of 4 experimental conditions: exposure to food advertising vs. exposure to non-food advertising, and within each of these groups, exposure to a task that was either cognitively demanding or not cognitively demanding. The number of unhealthy snacks chosen was subsequently measured, along with total calories of the snacks chosen. Results Those exposed to food advertising chose 28% more unhealthy snacks than those exposed to non-food-advertising (95% CI: 7% - 53%), with a total caloric value that was 65 kcal higher (95% CI: 10-121). The effect of advertising was not significant among those assigned to the low-cognitive-load group, but was large and significant among those assigned to the high-cognitive-load group: 43% more unhealthy snacks (95% CI: 11% - 85%) and 94 more total calories (95% CI: 19-169). Conclusions Televised food advertising has strong effects on individual food choice, and these effects are magnified when individuals are cognitively occupied by other tasks. PMID:24721289

  17. The effects of food advertising and cognitive load on food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frederick J; Shimoga, Sandhya V

    2014-04-10

    Advertising has been implicated in the declining quality of the American diet, but much of the research has been conducted with children rather than adults. This study tested the effects of televised food advertising on adult food choice. Participants (N = 351) were randomized into one of 4 experimental conditions: exposure to food advertising vs. exposure to non-food advertising, and within each of these groups, exposure to a task that was either cognitively demanding or not cognitively demanding. The number of unhealthy snacks chosen was subsequently measured, along with total calories of the snacks chosen. Those exposed to food advertising chose 28% more unhealthy snacks than those exposed to non-food-advertising (95% CI: 7% - 53%), with a total caloric value that was 65 kcal higher (95% CI: 10-121). The effect of advertising was not significant among those assigned to the low-cognitive-load group, but was large and significant among those assigned to the high-cognitive-load group: 43% more unhealthy snacks (95% CI: 11% - 85%) and 94 more total calories (95% CI: 19-169). Televised food advertising has strong effects on individual food choice, and these effects are magnified when individuals are cognitively occupied by other tasks.

  18. Medium- to long-run implications of high food prices for global nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The combined food, fuel, and financial crises of 2007-2009 had severe and widespread negative impacts around the world. Two key questions challenging governments were: how long would the high prices last and with what effects on food security and nutrition over the longer run? This paper considers the drivers of the crisis and explores if, unlike past shocks, the recent price increases reflect structural changes in food price formation that will have lasting global implications. New cross-commodity relationships allowed prices to spike, although there was no shortage of food at the global level nor indeed a significant downturn in recent yields. Yet recent record levels of farm production were also mirrored by growing numbers of people chronically undernourished and/or micronutrient deficient. The gap between supply and need was underpinned by growing urban demand, consumption of processed and higher-value foods (including meat), biofuel policy, and purchasing power erosion, but also by short-term market-distorting policies implemented by governments responding to perceived shortages of food. Thus, the impact of future food price crises will depend largely on what policymakers chose to do in response to the peaks and what they do not do during the troughs. Appropriate investments are urgently needed not just in smallholder developing country agriculture, but in effective food policies and targeted programming that can reverse the recent negative trends in nutrition and that support access globally to improved diet quality as well as food quantity.

  19. Consumer Awareness and Willingness to Pay for High-Pressure Processing of Ready-to-Eat Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Doris T.; Pivarnik, Lori F.; McDermott, Ryan; Richard, Nicole; Hoover, Dallas G.; Kniel, Kalmia E.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial, nonthermal processing of food, such as high hydrostatic-pressure processing (HPP), has increased. The safety and quality of foods produced by HPP has not been well communicated to the public. An online, nationwide consumer survey was implemented to assess awareness of alternative food processing technologies, consumer food safety…

  20. Women with high scores for cognitive dietary restraint choose foods lower in fat and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Candice A; McLean, Judy A; Barr, Susan I

    2004-07-01

    Women with high dietary restraint typically report restricting energy intake and using reduced-kilocalorie foods in an effort to achieve or maintain a certain body weight. However, previous studies of food choices associated with dietary restraint have been limited by the self-report of participants' food selections. We provided all foods consumed during a free-living 24-hour period to 62 normal-weight women with high (n=33) or low (n=29) dietary restraint, and observed choices from among similar foods varying in fat, fiber, and energy content. Women with high dietary restraint consumed less energy and chose reduced-kilocalorie and reduced-fat foods more frequently than unrestrained eaters. Group differences in choices of milk, cream cheese, mayonnaise, salad dressing, and soda were noted. Dietitians may consider frequent use of reduced-kilocalorie and reduced-fat foods a potential indicator of high dietary restraint, which may have health consequences. Accordingly, further exploration of clients' tendency to restrict dietary intake may be warranted.

  1. The Working Principle and Use of High Pressures in the Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Karlović, S.; Brnčić, M.; Ježek, D.; Tripalo, B.; Bosiljkov, T.

    2010-01-01

    High pressure in the food industry, as a new non-thermal method, is applied in many phases of food processing. This new non-thermal technology was developed in the 1990s. The main advantages of high-pressure processing are in the short time of processing which is between a few seconds and 30 minutes. Processing of solid or liquid food products with or without packaginghappens in the temperature interval 5 – 90 °C, and pressures 50 – 1000 MPa. The driving pressure is distributed uniformly thro...

  2. Apuntes de Transmisión del Calor

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Domingo, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    Esta publicacion está basada en unos apuntes para la parte de Transmisión del Calor de las asignaturas de la ETSAM. Sin embargo, con el tiempo se ha añadido otro material extra que excede ampliamente el contenido del curso.

  3. Dal calore all'entropia una introduzione alla termodinamica

    CERN Document Server

    Vicentini Missoni, Matilde

    1992-01-01

    Panta rei : processi ed equilibrio ; l'universo termodinamico : l'aspetto processuale ; il punto di vista dei processi come bilancio tra proprietà dell'equilibrio ; il fluire dell'energia ; automobili, frigoriferi e pompe di calore : informazioni tecnologiche ; e allora ? l'entropia ; la termostatica come teoria assiomatica ; la termodinamica dei processi.

  4. Apuntes de Transmisión del Calor

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Esta publicacion está basada en unos apuntes para la parte de Transmisión del Calor de las asignaturas de la ETSAM. Sin embargo, con el tiempo se ha añadido otro material extra que excede ampliamente el contenido del curso.

  5. Cupula dynamics under caloric stimulation of the semicircular canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrachuk, A. V.; Sirenko, S. P.

    Caloric stimulation of the semicircular canal SC is widely applied in studies of vestibular impairments Barany 1906 suggested that caloric response of SC results from mechanism of endolymph convection due to density changes of endolymph and therefore depends on the action of gravity forces However the Skylab experiments 1983 showed that the caloric reaction of SC can take place even under microgravity The studies of Scherer Clarke 1985 Harada Ariki 1985 Baumgarten et al 1985 considered the thermal expansion of endolymph to be a concurrent mechanism The model of caloric response based on the buoyancy force due to density change in the endolymph induced by thermal stimulation was proposed by Gentine et al 1990 1991 It should be noted that the first qualitative model that took into account the effect of endolymph thermal expansion under local heating to analyze the properties of primary afferents was proposed by Gusev Orlov 1977 However these models failed to answer the question which of the mentioned effects will be dominant under certain conditions The purpose of present study was to account for the expansion and convection of endolymph and to determine under which conditions one mechanism dominates over the other The consideration is based on the following model of SC Kondrachuk Sirenko 1990 an isolated torus filled by a compressible viscous Newton liquid endolymph the torus interior is plugged by an elastic body cupula the cupula surface in contact with endolymph is supposed to be stretched along the

  6. THE GROWING MIDDLE CLASS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND THE MARKET FOR HIGH-VALUE FOOD PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Senauer, Benjamin; Goetz, Linde

    2003-01-01

    The central hypothesis of this paper is that the largest global growth opportunity for high-value food products is the emerging middle class in many developing countries. Using data for Lima, Peru, 20 percent of households are classified as middle or upper class based on the prevalence of ownership of major durable goods, such as refrigerators and automobiles. Monthly expenditures by the middle class on more expensive foods, such as fresh fruit and red meat, and especially for high value-adde...

  7. Applications of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertocchi, Fabio; Paci, Maurizio

    2008-10-22

    The principal applications of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy, in the field of food science, are reviewed, after a short general introduction, mainly focusing on the potential of these investigations, which are, today, routine tools for resolving technological problems. Selected examples of the applications in the field of food science of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy both in (13)C and in (1)H NMR particularly illustrative of the results obtainable are reported in some detail.

  8. High trait impulsivity predicts food addiction-like behavior in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Sánchez, Clara; Ferragud, Antonio; Moore, Catherine F; Everitt, Barry J; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

    2014-09-01

    Impulsivity is a behavioral trait frequently seen not only in drug-addicted individuals but also in individuals who pathologically overeat. However, whether impulsivity predates the development of uncontrollable feeding is unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that a high impulsivity trait precedes and confers vulnerability for food addiction-like behavior. For this purpose, we trained ad libitum-fed male Wistar rats in a differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL) task to select Low- and High-impulsive rats. Then, we allowed Low- and High-impulsive rats to self-administer a highly palatable diet (Palatable group) or a regular chow diet (Chow group) in 1-h daily sessions, under fixed ratio (FR) 1, FR3, FR5, and under a progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. In addition, we tested the compulsiveness for food in Low- and High-impulsive rats by measuring the food eaten in the aversive, open compartment of a light/dark conflict test. Finally, we measured the expression of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the shell and the core of the nucleus accumbens, which is a marker for neuroadaptive changes following addictive drug exposure. The data we obtained demonstrate that impulsivity is a trait that predicts the development of food addiction-like behaviors, including: (i) excessive intake, (ii) heightened motivation for food, and (iii) compulsive-like eating, when rats are given access to highly palatable food. In addition, we show that the food addiction phenotype in high impulsive subjects is characterized by an increased expression of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens shell. These results reveal that impulsivity confers an increased propensity to develop uncontrollable overeating of palatable food.

  9. Food preferences and mound-building behaviour of the mound-building mice Mus spicilegus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzl, Michaela; Krištofík, Ján; Darolová, Alžbeta; Hoi, Herbert

    2011-10-01

    Optimal foraging strategies and food choice are influenced by various factors, e.g. availability, size and caloric content of the food type and predation risk. However, food choice criteria may change when food is not eaten immediately but has to be carried to a storage site for later use. For example, handling time in terms of harvesting and transport time should be optimized, particularly when the risk of predation is high. Thus, it is not clear whether food selected by hoarding animals reflects their food preference due to intrinsic features of the food type, e.g. size, caloric or lipid content, or whether the food type selected is a compromise that also considers the handling time required for harvesting and transport. We investigate this question in relation to food hoarding behaviour in mound-building mice. In autumn, mound-building mice Mus spicilegus collect seeds and other plant material and cover it with soil. Such above-ground storage is quite unusual for rodents. Here, we investigated whether there is a relationship between the seed species preferred as building materials and those preferred for food. We conducted a seed preference test using three most collected weed species for mound building. Controlling factors like food availability or predation risk, mice prefer Setaria spp. as food, although Amaranthus spp. and Chenopodium spp. were preferentially harvested and stored. By including the availability of the three species, our experimental results were confirmed, namely, a clear preference for Setaria spp. Also, handling time and seed size revealed to influence plant choice.

  10. The caloric vestibular nystagmus during short lasting microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterveld, W. J.; de Jong, H. A. A.; Kortschot, H. W.

    In human subjects the caloric vestibular test was conducted during parabolic flight. The ear irrigation was performed from 35 secs. till 5 secs. before the onset of microgravity. Nystagmography covered a 10-minutes period, including three parabolic manoeuvres of the aircraft. a. The slow phase velocity (SPV) of the caloric nystagmus increased proportionally with the value of the g-force. Introduction of microgravity induced an exponential decrease of the SPV decay. b. The nystagmus disappeared completely in microgravity, but SPV decay showed a specific time constant. c. The averaged time constant values of the caloric nystagmus SPV decay after sudden onset of microgravity and the averaged time constant of the SPV decay following a sudden stop after sustained rotation during 0-g appeared to be on the same level (10.2 s. and 10.6 s.). d. These two averaged time constant values obtained during shortlasting microgravity proved to be on a lower level than those time constants (15.5 secs.; 15.9 secs.) found in ground-based conditions. e. Because of the similarities in the characteristics of both SPV decay's and their accompanying time constants, a common working mechanism of cupular stimulation is likely. Most probably a fluid movement (or pressure) provokes a cupula deflexion followed by a cupula reflexion, either caused by a sudden stop after a sustained rotation or by a sudden onset of microgravity after g-load calorization. The present results support the Bárány convection theory with regard the endolymph stimulatory properties following the caloric test.

  11. Impact of Maine's statewide nutrition policy on high school food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley Blum, Janet E; Beaudoin, Christina M; O'Brien, Liam M; Polacsek, Michele; Harris, David E; O'Rourke, Karen A

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the effect on the food environments of public high schools of Maine's statewide nutrition policy (Chapter 51), which banned "foods of minimal nutritional value" (FMNV) in public high schools that participated in federally funded meal programs. We documented allowable exceptions to the policy and describe the school food environments. We mailed surveys to 89 high school food-service directors to assess availability pre-Chapter 51 and post-Chapter 51 of soda, other sugar-sweetened beverages, and junk food. Frequency data were tabulated pre-Chapter 51 and post-Chapter 51, and Fisher exact test was used to assess significance in changes. We conducted food and beverage inventories at 11 high schools. The survey return rate was 61% (N = 54). Availability of soda in student vending significantly decreased pre-Chapter 51 versus post-Chapter 51 (P = .04). No significant changes were found for other sugar-sweetened beverages and junk food. Exceptions to Chapter 51 were permitted to staff (67%), to the public (86%), and in career and technical education programs (31%). Inventories in a subset of schools found no availability of soda for students, whereas other sugar-sweetened beverages and junk food were widely available in à la carte, vending machines, and school stores. Candy, considered a FMNV, was freely available. Soda advertisement on school grounds was common. Student vending choices improved after the implementation of Chapter 51; however, use of FMNV as the policy standard may be limiting, as availability of other sugar-sweetened beverages and junk food was pervasive. School environments were not necessarily supportive of the policy, as advertisement of soda was common and some FMNV were available. Furthermore, local exceptions to Chapter 51 likely reduced the overall effect of the policy.

  12. The Working Principle and Use of High Pressures in the Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlović, S.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available High pressure in the food industry, as a new non-thermal method, is applied in many phases of food processing. This new non-thermal technology was developed in the 1990s. The main advantages of high-pressure processing are in the short time of processing which is between a few seconds and 30 minutes. Processing of solid or liquid food products with or without packaginghappens in the temperature interval 5 – 90 °C, and pressures 50 – 1000 MPa. The driving pressure is distributed uniformly through the whole product independently of its quantity and shape. These processing characteristics combined with improved food microbiological safety, less energy expenditure, low concentration of waste products and longer shelf life make high-pressure processing a very promising novel food technology. Combined with lower cost of treatment (but unfortunately higher initial cost of equipment compared to traditional processing technologies, it is also economically profitable. The main purpose of such treated food products are in preservation of sensory, nutritive and textural properties. As the temperature increase is very low, there are no significant changes in sensory properties, in contrast to conventional thermal processing (sterilization, pasteurization. However, with the combination of heating or cooling and high pressure, modification of existing and creation of new food products is possible. Today, high pressure is used for the treatment of meat products (inactivation of microorganisms, freezing and defrosting of foodstuffs, production of fruit juices (pasteurization, processing of oysters, modificationof milk characteristics (foaming etc. The main purpose of this work is to present the working principle and application of high pressure in the food industry.

  13. Caloric Intake on the Sabbath: A Pilot Study of Contributing Factors to Obesity in the Orthodox Jewish Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Deborah A; Swencionis, Charles; Segal-Isaacson, C J

    2016-10-01

    The American Orthodox Jewish community has specific cultural factors that may contribute to overweight and obesity. This study aimed to look at caloric intake on the Sabbath and its contribution to overweight and obesity. Twelve married or previously married women who identify themselves as Orthodox Jews were recruited to do 24-h food recalls over the phone. The participants were divided into three weight groups (normal, overweight, and obese) based on their BMI. The overweight and obese participants' data were combined into one group for the purposes of statistical testing. Paired t tests looking at the data for all participants showed significantly great caloric intake during an average Sabbath day than an average weekday [t(4) = 7.58, p intake on the Sabbath for the overweight-obese women compared to the normal weight women [F(1) = 7.83, p = 0.02]. No statistical difference was seen between the weekday energy intake of the normal weight women as compared to the combined group of overweight-obese women [F(1) = 0.501, p = 0.499]. These results support the hypotheses that all groups eat significantly more on the Sabbath than on weekdays, and overweight and obese individuals eat significantly more on the Sabbath than normal weight individuals. This supports the theory that caloric intake on the Sabbath is a contributing factor to overweight and obesity within the American Orthodox Jewish community.

  14. Mild and Short-Term Caloric Restriction Prevents Obesity-Induced Cardiomyopathy in Young Zucker Rats without Changing in Metabolites and Fatty Acids Cardiac Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Hurtado, Gema; García-Prieto, Concha F.; Pulido-Olmo, Helena; Velasco-Martín, Juan P.; Villa-Valverde, Palmira; Fernández-Valle, María E.; Boscá, Lisardo; Fernández-Velasco, María; Regadera, Javier; Somoza, Beatriz; Fernández-Alfonso, María S.

    2017-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) ameliorates cardiac dysfunction associated with obesity. However, most of the studies have been performed under severe CR (30–65% caloric intake decrease) for several months or even years in aged animals. Here, we investigated whether mild (20% food intake reduction) and short-term (2-weeks) CR prevented the obese cardiomyopathy phenotype and improved the metabolic profile of young (14 weeks of age) genetically obese Zucker fa/fa rats. Heart weight (HW) and HW/tibia length ratio was significantly lower in fa/fa rats after 2 weeks of CR than in counterparts fed ad libitum. Invasive pressure measurements showed that systolic blood pressure, maximal rate of positive left ventricle (LV) pressure, LV systolic pressure and LV end-diastolic pressure were all significantly higher in obese fa/fa rats than in lean counterparts, which were prevented by CR. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the increase in LV end-systolic volume, stroke volume and LV wall thickness observed in fa/fa rats was significantly lower in animals on CR diet. Histological analysis also revealed that CR blocked the significant increase in cardiomyocyte diameter in obese fa/fa rats. High resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis of the LV revealed a global decrease in metabolites such as taurine, creatine and phosphocreatine, glutamate, glutamine and glutathione, in obese fa/fa rats, whereas lactate concentration was increased. By contrast, fatty acid concentrations in LV tissue were significantly elevated in obese fa/fa rats. CR failed to restore the LV metabolomic profile of obese fa/fa rats. In conclusion, mild and short-term CR prevented an obesity-induced cardiomyopathy phenotype in young obese fa/fa rats independently of the cardiac metabolic profile. PMID:28203206

  15. Ghrelin enhances cue-induced bar pressing for high fat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Veronique; Watts, Alexander; Abizaid, Alfonso

    2016-02-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone produced by the stomach that acts on growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHSRs) both peripherally and centrally. The presence of GHSRs in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) suggests that ghrelin signaling at this level may increase the incentive value of palatable foods as well as other natural and artificial rewards. The present investigation sought to determine if ghrelin plays a role in relapse to such foods following a period of abstinence. To achieve this, thirty-six male Long Evans rats were trained to press a lever to obtain a high fat chocolate food reward on a fixed ratio schedule of 1. Following an extinction period during which lever presses were not reinforced, rats were implanted with a cannula connected to a minipump that continuously delivered ghrelin, a GHSR antagonist ([d-Lys-3]-GHRP-6), or saline in the VTA for 14days. One week later, food reward-associated cues, food reward priming, and an overnight fast were used to induce reinstatement of the lever pressing response. Our results indicate that intra-VTA ghrelin enhances cue-induced reinstatement of responses for palatable food pellets. To the extent that the reinstatement paradigm is considered a valid model of relapse in humans, this suggests that ghrelin signaling facilitates relapse to preferred foods in response to food cues through GHSR signaling in the VTA.

  16. Antioxidant BHT Modelling Migration from Food Packaging of High Density Polyethylene Plastics into the Food Simulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Haitao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Made of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE films containing antioxidant 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (BHT, film samples were manufactured by plastic extrusion equipment, 95% ethanol aqueous solution simulating liquid was used for stimulant, using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC for the long-term migration test of 4 kinds of HDPE films containing different concentrations of antioxidant BHT. The migration data were processed by using Weibull model and then the migration model was specific under experimental conditions. Migration model was setup using the migrating data by Weibull model to fitting real experimental data. Using empirical formula reported FDA model formula and the diffusion coefficient constant D, calculated by the FDA model. Two kinds of model numerical after compared according to FDA model transfer numerical literature that is far lower than the actual test migration value. According to the actual test migration value, Weibull model numerical and experimental tests that the migration software fitting values are consistent.

  17. High doses of gamma radiation suppress allergic effect induced by food lectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Antônio F. M.; Souza, Marthyna P.; Vieira, Leucio D.; Aguiar, Jaciana S.; Silva, Teresinha G.; Medeiros, Paloma L.; Melo, Ana M. M. A.; Silva-Lucca, Rosemeire A.; Santana, Lucimeire A.; Oliva, Maria L. V.; Perez, Katia R.; Cuccovia, Iolanda M.; Coelho, Luana C. B. B.; Correia, Maria T. S.

    2013-04-01

    One of the most promising areas for the development of functional foods lies in the development of effective methods to reduce or eliminate food allergenicity, but few reports have summarized information concerning the progress made with food irradiation. In this study, we investigated the relationship between allergenicity and molecular structure of a food allergen after gamma irradiation and evaluate the profile of the allergic response to irradiated allergens. Cramoll, a lectin isolated from a bean and used as a food allergen, was irradiated and the possible structural changes were accompanied by spectrofluorimetry, circular dichroism and microcalorimetry. Subsequently, sensitized animals subjected to intragastric administration of non-irradiated and irradiated Cramoll were treated for 7 days. Then, body weight, leukocytes, cytokine profiles and histological parameters were also determined. Cramoll showed complete inhibition of intrinsic activity after high radiation doses. Changes in fluorescence and CD spectra with a simultaneous collapse of the tertiary structure followed by a pronounced decrease of native secondary structure were observed after irradiation. After oral challenge, sensitized mice demonstrate an association between Cramoll intake, body weight loss, eosinophilia, lymphocytic infiltrate in the gut and Eotaxin secretion. Irradiation significantly reduces, according to the dose, the effects observed by non-irradiated food allergens. We confirm that high-dose radiation may render protein food allergens innocuous by irreversibly compromising their molecular structure.

  18. Effect of high-pressure homogenization on different matrices of food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Ascensión; Tarazona-Díaz, Martha Patricia; García-González, Antonio; Gómez, Perla A; Aguayo, Encarna

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing demand for food supplements containing high amounts of vitamins, phenolic compounds and mineral content that provide health benefits. Those functional compounds have different solubility properties, and the maintenance of their compounds and the guarantee of their homogenic properties need the application of novel technologies. The quality of different drinkable functional foods after thermal processing (0.1 MPa) or high-pressure homogenization under two different conditions (80 MPa, 33 ℃ and 120 MPa, 43 ℃) was studied. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory qualities were evaluated throughout the six months of accelerated storage at 40 ℃ and 75% relative humidity (RH). Aroma and color were better maintained in high-pressure homogenization-treated samples than the thermally treated ones, which contributed significantly to extending their shelf life. The small particle size obtained after high-pressure homogenization treatments caused differences in turbidity and viscosity with respect to heat-treated samples. The use of high-pressure homogenization, more specifically, 120 MPa, provided active ingredient homogeneity to ensure uniform content in functional food supplements. Although the effect of high-pressure homogenization can be affected by the food matrix, high-pressure homogenization can be implemented as an alternative to conventional heat treatments in a commercial setting within the functional food supplement or pharmaceutical industry.

  19. Enzyme inactivation in food processing using high pressure carbon dioxide technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wanfeng; Zhou, Linyan; Xu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Yan; Liao, Xiaojun

    2013-01-01

    High pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) is an effective non-thermal processing technique for inactivating deleterious enzymes in liquid and solid food systems. This processing method avoids high temperatures and exerts a minimal impact on the nutritional and sensory properties of foods, but extends shelf life by inhibiting or killing microorganisms and enzymes. Indigenous enzymes in food such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), pectin methylesterase (PME), and lypoxygenase (LOX) may cause undesirable chemical changes in food attributes, showing the loss in color, texture, and flavor. For more than two decades, HPCD has proved its effectiveness in inactivating these enzymes. The HPCD-induced inactivation of some microbial enzymes responsible for microbial metabolism is also included. This review presents a survey of the published knowledge regarding the use of HPCD for the inactivation of these enzymes, and analyzes the factors controlling the efficiency of HPCD and speculates on the underlying mechanism that leads to enzyme inactivation.

  20. Differences in home food availability of high- and low-fat foods after a behavioral weight control program are regional not racial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West Delia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies, if any, have examined the impact of a weight control program on the home food environment in a diverse sample of adults. Understanding and changing the availability of certain foods in the home and food storage practices may be important for creating healthier home food environments and supporting effective weight management. Methods Overweight adults (n = 90; 27% African American enrolled in a 6-month behavioral weight loss program in Vermont and Arkansas. Participants were weighed and completed measures of household food availability and food storage practices at baseline and post-treatment. We examined baseline differences and changes in high-fat food availability, low-fat food availability and the storage of foods in easily visible locations, overall and by race (African American or white participants and region (Arkansas or Vermont. Results At post-treatment, the sample as a whole reported storing significantly fewer foods in visible locations around the house (-0.5 ± 2.3 foods, with no significant group differences. Both Arkansas African Americans (-1.8 ± 2.4 foods and Arkansas white participants (-1.8 ± 2.6 foods reported significantly greater reductions in the mean number of high-fat food items available in their homes post-treatment compared to Vermont white participants (-0.5 ± 1.3 foods, likely reflecting fewer high-fat foods reported in Vermont households at baseline. Arkansas African Americans lost significantly less weight (-3.6 ± 4.1 kg than Vermont white participants (-8.3 ± 6.8 kg, while Arkansas white participants did not differ significantly from either group in weight loss (-6.2 ± 6.0 kg. However, home food environment changes were not associated with weight changes in this study. Conclusions Understanding the home food environment and how best to measure it may be useful for both obesity treatment and understanding patterns of obesity prevalence and health disparity.

  1. High tax on high energy dense foods and its effects on the purchase of calories in a supermarket. An experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederkoorn, Chantal; Havermans, Remco C; Giesen, Janneke C A H; Jansen, Anita

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined whether a high tax on high calorie dense foods effectively reduces the purchased calories of high energy dense foods in a web based supermarket, and whether this effect is moderated by budget and weight status. 306 participants purchased groceries in a web based supermarket, with an individualized budget based on what they normally spend. Results showed that relative to the no tax condition, the participants in the tax condition bought less calories. The main reduction was found in high energy dense products and in calories from carbohydrates, but not in calories from fat. BMI and budget did not influence the effectiveness of the tax. The reduction in calories occurred regardless of budget or BMI implying that a food tax may be a beneficial tool, along with other measures, in promoting a diet with fewer calories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High food abundance permits the evolution of placentotrophy: evidence from a placental lizard, Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, James U; Griffith, Oliver W; Thompson, Michael B

    2014-08-01

    Mechanisms of reproductive allocation are major determinants of fitness because embryos cannot complete development without receiving sufficient nutrition from their parents. The nourishment of offspring via placentas (placentotrophy) has evolved repeatedly in vertebrates, including multiple times in squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes). Placentotrophy has been suggested to evolve only if food is sufficiently abundant throughout gestation to allow successful embryogenesis. If scarcity of food prevents successful embryogenesis, females should recoup nutrients allocated to embryos via abortion, reabsorption, and/or cannibalism. We tested these hypotheses in the placentotrophic southern grass skink Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii. We fed females one of four diets (high constant, high variable, low constant, and low variable) during gestation and tested the effects of both food amount and schedule of feeding on developmental success, cannibalism rate, placental nutrient transport, offspring size, and maternal growth and body condition. Low food availability reduced developmental success, placental nutrient transport, offspring size, and maternal growth and body condition. Cannibalism of offspring also increased when food was scarce. Schedule of feeding did not affect offspring or mothers. We suggest that high food abundance and ability to abort and cannibalize poor-quality offspring are permissive factors necessary for placentotrophy to be a viable strategy of reproductive allocation.

  3. Protein Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Protein Foods Foods high in protein such as fish, ... for the vegetarian proteins, whether they have carbohydrate. Protein Choices Plant-Based Proteins Plant-based protein foods ...

  4. Highly Palatable Food during Adolescence Improves Anxiety-Like Behaviors and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Dysfunction in Rats that Experienced Neonatal Maternal Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ho Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis study was conducted to examine the effects of ad libitum consumption of highly palatable food (HPF during adolescence on the adverse behavioral outcome of neonatal maternal separation.MethodsMale Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 hours daily during the first 2 weeks of birth (maternal separation, MS or left undisturbed (nonhandled, NH. Half of MS pups received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28 (MS+HPF. Pups were subjected to behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to stress challenge was analyzed by radioimmunoassay.ResultsDaily caloric intake and body weight gain did not differ among the experimental groups. Ambulatory activities were decreased defecation activity and rostral grooming were increased in MS controls (fed with chow only compared with NH rats. MS controls spent less time in open arms, and more time in closed arms during the elevated plus maze test, than NH rats. Immobility duration during the forced swim test was increased in MS controls compared with NH rats. Cookie access normalized the behavioral scores of ambulatory and defecation activities and grooming, but not the scores during the elevated plus maze and swim tests in MS rats. Stress-induced corticosterone increase was blunted in MS rats fed with chow only, and cookie access normalized it.ConclusionProlonged access to HPF during adolescence and youth partly improves anxiety-related, but not depressive, symptoms in rats that experienced neonatal maternal separation, possibly in relation with improved function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis.

  5. Does competitive food and beverage legislation hurt meal participation or revenues in high schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, Tasha; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B; Samuels, Sarah E; Craypo, Lisa; Woodward-Lopez, Gail

    2012-08-01

    There is limited evidence to evaluate the influence of competitive food and beverage legislation on school meal program participation and revenues. A representative sample of 56 California high schools was recruited to collect school-level data before (2006–2007) and the year after (2007–2008) policies regarding limiting competitive foods and beverages were required to be implemented. Data were obtained from school records, observations, and questionnaires. Paired t-tests assessed significance of change between the two time points. Average participation in lunch increased from 21.7% to 25.3% (p foods, from $0.45 to $0.37 (per student per day). Compliance with food and beverage standards also increased significantly. At end point, compliance with beverage standards was higher (71.0%) than compliance with food standards (65.7%). Competitive food and beverage legislation can increase food service revenues when accompanied by increased rates of participation in the meal program. Future studies collecting expense data will be needed to determine impact on net revenues.

  6. The lifespan extension effects of resveratrol are conserved in the honey bee and may be driven by a mechanism related to caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascón, Brenda; Hubbard, Basil P; Sinclair, David A; Amdam, Gro V

    2012-07-01

    Our interest in healthy aging and in evolutionarily conserved mechanisms of lifespan extension prompted us to investigate whether features of age-related decline in the honey bee could be attenuated with resveratrol. Resveratrol is regarded as a caloric restriction mimetic known to extend lifespan in some but not all model species. The current, prevailing view is that resveratrol works largely by activating signaling pathways. It has also been suggested that resveratrol may act as an antioxidant and confer protection against nervous system impairment and oxidative stress. To test whether honey bee lifespan, learning performance, and food perception could be altered by resveratrol, we supplemented the diets of honey bees and measured lifespan, olfactory learning, and gustatory responsiveness to sucrose. Furthermore, to test the effects of resveratrol under metabolic challenge, we used hyperoxic environments to generate oxidative stress. Under normal oxygen conditions, two resveratrol treatments-30 and 130 μM-lengthened average lifespan in wild-type honey bees by 38% and 33%, respectively. Both resveratrol treatments also lengthened maximum and median lifespan. In contrast, hyperoxic stress abolished the resveratrol life-extension response. Furthermore, resveratrol did not affect learning performance, but did alter gustation. Honey bees that were not fed resveratrol exhibited greater responsiveness to sugar, while those supplemented with resveratrol were less responsive to sugar. We also discovered that individuals fed a high dose of resveratrol-compared to controls-ingested fewer quantities of food under ad libitum feeding conditions.

  7. Obesity-prone high-fat-fed rats reduce caloric intake and adiposity and gain more fat-free mass when allowed to self-select protein from carbohydrate: fat intake

    OpenAIRE

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chalvon Demersay, Tristan; Pimentel, Gregory; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A.; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, for rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a prioritization of maintaining protein intake may increase energy consumption and hence result in obesity, particularly for individuals prone to obesity ("fat sensitive," FS, vs. "fat resistant," FR). Male Wistar rats (n = 80) first received 3 wk of HFD (protein 15%, fat 42%, carbohydrate 42%), under which they were characterized as being FS (n = 18) or FR (n = 20) based on body weight gain. They then continued on the same HF...

  8. Effect of naloxone on food competition aggression in food-restricted high and low aggression pigeons (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachinelli C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone on aggression, emotion, feeder control, and eating behavior in high and low aggression female pigeons maintained at 80% of their normal weight and exposed to food competition interactions. Pigeons were divided into pairs by previously ranked high aggression (total time spent in offensive aggression exceeding 60 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs and low aggression females (time spent in offensive aggression less than 10 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs. A pigeon in each pair received an sc dose of naloxone (1 mg kg-1 ml saline-1 and the other animal received the vehicle. Trials (10 min were performed 30 min after the naloxone/vehicle administration. The naloxone group of high aggression pigeons showed lower scores of total time spent in offensive aggression (control: 98.6 ± 12.0; naloxone: 46.8 ± 6.6 s; P < 0.05 and higher scores of time spent in emotional responses (control: 3.5 ± 0.6; naloxone: 10.8 ± 2.4 s; P < 0.05 than controls. The other behaviors scored, feeder control and eating behavior, were not affected in this group. The naloxone group of low aggression pigeons, however, showed higher scores of offensive aggression than their controls (5.3 ± 1.3; naloxone: 28.7 ± 8.0 s; P < 0.05. The present results suggest that opiate receptor mechanisms are implicated in offensive aggression responses in high and low aggression pigeons. However, as reported for brain 5-hydroxytryptamine manipulation and GABA-A-benzodiazepine receptor manipulation, the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist on food competition aggression in pigeons was related to their pretreatment level of aggression.

  9. Caloric values for young sprouts of nine hardwood species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neenan, M. (An Foras Taluntais, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland); Steinbeck, K.

    1979-09-01

    Caloric content, specific gravity, and ash content of 6- to 15-year-old sprouts of nine hardwood species were determined in midsummer. Energy values for wood, bark, first order branches, twigs, and leaves were determined with an adiabatic bomb calorimeter. The values found for coppice material averaged 4791 cal/g and were comparable to published values for older wood. Intraspecific differences among tissues were greater than the relatively small but significant differences among species. Differences in yield potential are therefore likely to outweigh variations in caloric content among species where total energy production per unit of land area is concerned. Ash content varied from 0.65 percent for wood to 5.88 percent for bark.

  10. DESARROLLOS INSTRUMENTALES EN MICROCALORIMETRIA DE CONDUCCIÓN DE CALOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo G.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan aspectos generales de la microcalorimetría de conducción de calor. Se describe el diseño y la operación de microcalorímetros de conducción de calor estático y de flujo construidos en este laboratorio, los cuales fueron calibrados eléctrica y químicamente. Estos equipos se emplean en la caracterización de sólidos porosos por la técnica de calorimetría de inmersión y en la determinación de entalpias de transferencia de solutos; su uso se ilustra con algunos resultados típicos. Se mencionan además otras aplicaciones que se dan actualmente a estos aparatos.

  11. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  12. Determinants of Fast Food Consumption among Iranian High School Students Based on Planned Behavior Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Sharifirad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was conducted to identify some factors (beliefs and norms which are related to fast food consumption among high school students in Isfahan, Iran. We used the framework of the theory planned behavior (TPB to predict this behavior. Subjects & Methods. Cross-sectional data were available from high school students who were recruited by cluster randomized sampling. All of the students completed a questionnaire assessing variables of standard TPB model including attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control (PBC, and the additional variables past behavior, actual behavior control (ABC. Results. The TPB variables explained 25.7% of the variance in intentions with positive attitude as the strongest (, and subjective norms as the weakest (, determinant. Concurrently, intentions accounted for 6% of the variance for fast food consumption. Past behavior and ABC accounted for an additional amount of 20.4% of the variance in fast food consumption. Conclusion. Overall, the present study suggests that the TPB model is useful in predicting related beliefs and norms to the fast food consumption among adolescents. Subjective norms in TPB model and past behavior in TPB model with additional variables (past behavior and actual behavior control were the most powerful predictors of fast food consumption. Therefore, TPB model may be a useful framework for planning intervention programs to reduce fast food consumption by students.

  13. Determinants of Fast Food Consumption among Iranian High School Students Based on Planned Behavior Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Yarmohammadi, Parastoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study was conducted to identify some factors (beliefs and norms) which are related to fast food consumption among high school students in Isfahan, Iran. We used the framework of the theory planned behavior (TPB) to predict this behavior. Subjects & Methods. Cross-sectional data were available from high school students (n = 521) who were recruited by cluster randomized sampling. All of the students completed a questionnaire assessing variables of standard TPB model including attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control (PBC), and the additional variables past behavior, actual behavior control (ABC). Results. The TPB variables explained 25.7% of the variance in intentions with positive attitude as the strongest (β = 0.31, P < 0.001) and subjective norms as the weakest (β = 0.29, P < 0.001) determinant. Concurrently, intentions accounted for 6% of the variance for fast food consumption. Past behavior and ABC accounted for an additional amount of 20.4% of the variance in fast food consumption. Conclusion. Overall, the present study suggests that the TPB model is useful in predicting related beliefs and norms to the fast food consumption among adolescents. Subjective norms in TPB model and past behavior in TPB model with additional variables (past behavior and actual behavior control) were the most powerful predictors of fast food consumption. Therefore, TPB model may be a useful framework for planning intervention programs to reduce fast food consumption by students. PMID:23936635

  14. Fish mediate high food web connectivity in the lower reaches of a tropical floodplain river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Timothy D; Pusey, Bradley J; Hamilton, Stephen K; Pettit, Neil E; Davies, Peter M; Douglas, Michael M; Sinnamon, Vivian; Halliday, Ian A; Bunn, Stuart E

    2012-03-01

    High levels of hydrological connectivity during seasonal flooding provide significant opportunities for movements of fish between rivers and their floodplains, estuaries and the sea, possibly mediating food web subsidies among habitats. To determine the degree of utilisation of food sources from different habitats in a tropical river with a short floodplain inundation duration (~2 months), stable isotope ratios in fishes and their available food were measured from three habitats (inundated floodplain, dry season freshwater, coastal marine) in the lower reaches of the Mitchell River, Queensland (Australia). Floodplain food sources constituted the majority of the diet of large-bodied fishes (barramundi Lates calcarifer, catfish Neoarius graeffei) captured on the floodplain in the wet season and for gonadal tissues of a common herbivorous fish (gizzard shad Nematalosa come), the latter suggesting that critical reproductive phases are fuelled by floodplain production. Floodplain food sources also subsidised barramundi from the recreational fishery in adjacent coastal and estuarine areas, and the broader fish community from a freshwater lagoon. These findings highlight the importance of the floodplain in supporting the production of large fishes in spite of the episodic nature and relatively short duration of inundation compared to large river floodplains of humid tropical regions. They also illustrate the high degree of food web connectivity mediated by mobile fish in this system in the absence of human modification, and point to the potential consequences of water resource development that may reduce or eliminate hydrological connectivity between the river and its floodplain.

  15. Thermodynamic study of residual heat from a high temperature nuclear reactor to analyze its viability in cogeneration processes; Estudio termodinamico del calor residual de un reactor nuclear de alta temperatura para analizar su viabilidad en procesos de cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillan R, A.; Valle H, J.; Escalante, J. A., E-mail: santillanaura@gmail.com [Universidad Politecnica Metropolitana de Hidalgo, Boulevard acceso a Tolcayuca 1009, Ex-Hacienda San Javier, 43860 Tolcayuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper the thermodynamic study of a nuclear power plant of high temperature at gas turbine (GTHTR300) is presented for estimating the exploitable waste heat in a process of desalination of seawater. One of the most studied and viable sustainable energy for the production of electricity, without the emission of greenhouse gases, is the nuclear energy. The fourth generation nuclear power plants have greater advantages than those currently installed plants; these advantages have to do with security, increased efficiencies and feasibility to be coupled to electrical cogeneration processes. In this paper the thermodynamic study of a nuclear power plant type GTHTR300 is realized, which is selected by greater efficiencies and have optimal conditions for use in electrical cogeneration processes due to high operating temperatures, which are between 700 and 950 degrees Celsius. The aim of the study is to determine the heat losses and the work done at each stage of the system, determining where they are the greatest losses and analyzing in that processes can be taken advantage. Based on the study was appointed that most of the energy losses are in form of heat in the coolers and usually this is emitted into the atmosphere without being used. From the results a process of desalination of seawater as electrical cogeneration process is proposed. This paper contains a brief description of the operation of the nuclear power plant, focusing on operation conditions and thermodynamic characteristics for the implementation of electrical cogeneration process, a thermodynamic analysis based on mass and energy balance was developed. The results allow quantifying the losses of thermal energy and determining the optimal section for coupling of the reactor with the desalination process, seeking to have a great overall efficiency. (Author)

  16. Nurses and Dietitians Differ in Food Safety Information Provided to Highly Susceptible Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffer, Janet; Kendall, Patricia; Medeiros, Lydia; Schroeder, Mary; Sofos, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine content, education channels, and motivational factors that influence what health professionals teach about safe food handling to populations who are highly susceptible for foodborne illnesses. To assess the differences in information provided by health professionals to highly susceptible populations. Design: Descriptive,…

  17. Caloric Effects in Methylammonium Lead Iodide from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shi; Cohen, Ronald E.

    2016-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite architecture could serve as a robust platform for materials design to realize functionalities beyond photovoltaic applications. We explore caloric effects in organometal halide perovskites, taking methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI$_3$) as an example, using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with a first-principles based interatomic potential. The adiabatic thermal change is estimated directly by introducing different driving fields in the simulations. ...

  18. Barcoding the food chain: from Sanger to high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefair, Joanne E; Clare, Elizabeth L

    2016-11-01

    Society faces the complex challenge of supporting biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, while ensuring food security by providing safe traceable food through an ever-more-complex global food chain. The increase in human mobility brings the added threat of pests, parasites, and invaders that further complicate our agro-industrial efforts. DNA barcoding technologies allow researchers to identify both individual species, and, when combined with universal primers and high-throughput sequencing techniques, the diversity within mixed samples (metabarcoding). These tools are already being employed to detect market substitutions, trace pests through the forensic evaluation of trace "environmental DNA", and to track parasitic infections in livestock. The potential of DNA barcoding to contribute to increased security of the food chain is clear, but challenges remain in regulation and the need for validation of experimental analysis. Here, we present an overview of the current uses and challenges of applied DNA barcoding in agriculture, from agro-ecosystems within farmland to the kitchen table.

  19. An outbreak of food-borne gastroenteritis due to sapovirus among junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuku, Shuzo; Kumazaki, Makoto; Kitamura, Katsuhiko; Tochikubo, Osamu; Noguchi, Yuzo

    2008-11-01

    The human sapovirus (SaV) causes acute gastroenteritis mainly in infants and young children. A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with SaV occurred among junior high school students in Yokohama, Japan, during and after a study trip. The nucleotide sequences of the partial capsid gene derived from the students exhibited 98% homology to a SaV genogroup IV strain, Hu/Angelholm/SW278/2004/SE, which was isolated from an adult with gastroenteritis in Solna, Sweden. An identical nucleotide sequence was detected from a food handler at the hotel restaurant, suggesting that the causative agent of the outbreak was transmitted from the food handler. This is the first description of a food-borne outbreak associated with the SaV genogroup IV strain in Japan.

  20. A Decision-Making Model for Deterring Food Vendors from Selling Harmless Low-Quality Foods as High-Quality Foods to Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For certain types of foods, food vendors often label low-quality foods that are harmless to human health as foods of excellent quality and sell these falsely labeled products to consumers. Because this type of food poses no harm to human health, when public health units discover their act of false labeling or food adulteration, vendors are only penalized with a fine rather than having them assume criminal liability. Upon discovering vendors act of falsely labeling food, public health units typically punish the involved parties according to the extent of false labeling. Such static protective measure is ineffective. Instead, the extent of punishment should be based not only on the extent of false labeling, but also on the frequency of food sampling as well as the number of samples obtained for food inspections. Only through this dynamic approach can food adulteration or false labeling be effectively prevented. Adopting the standpoint of the public sector in food safety management, this study developed a mathematical model that facilitates discussion on the aforementioned problems. Furthermore, we discussed how the supply-demand environmental factors of the food market are influenced by the administrative means that the public health units have used to prevent food false labeling.

  1. Reducing high calorie snack food in young adults: a role for social norms and health based messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Harris, Ellis; Thomas, Jason; Aveyard, Paul; Higgs, Suzanne

    2013-06-05

    Consumption of high calorie junk foods has increased recently, especially among young adults and higher intake may cause weight gain. There is a need to develop public health approaches to motivate people to reduce their intake of junk food. To assess the effect of health and social norm messages on high calorie snack food intake (a type of junk food) as a function of usual intake of junk food. In a between-subjects design, 129 young adults (45 men and 84 women, mean age = 22.4 years, SD = 4.5) were assigned to one of three conditions: 1) a social norm condition, in which participants saw a message about the junk food eating habits of others; 2) a health condition, in which participants saw a message outlining the health benefits of reducing junk food consumption and; 3) a control condition, in which participants saw a non-food related message. After exposure to the poster messages, participants consumed a snack and the choice and amount of snack food consumed was examined covertly. We also examined whether usual intake of junk food moderated the effect of message type on high calorie snack food intake. The amount of high calorie snack food consumed was significantly lower in both the health and the social norm message condition compared with the control message condition (36% and 28%, both p food or energy intake between the health and social norm message conditions. There was no evidence that the effect of the messages depended upon usual consumption of junk food. Messages about the health effects of junk food and social normative messages about intake of junk food can motivate people to reduce their consumption of high calorie snack food.

  2. Olas de calor e influencia urbana en Madrid y su área metropolitana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández García, F.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and duration of the warmest temperature episodes, a common phenomenon under the continental Mediterranean conditions of the Spanish Southern Meseta, has increased in the Madrid area since the 80´s, although their magnitude remains unchanged. The effect of the urban environment on those extreme events has exacerbated the heat load due to the persistence of the high temperatures along the night time hours. Nevertheless, the diversity of the urban morphology introduces a spatial variability on the strength of this nocturnal heat load, aggravating it in the densely urbanized areas and mitigating it in the vicinities of the green areas.

    La frecuencia y duración de los episodios cálidos extremos, un fenómeno habitual en el clima mediterráneo continental de la Meseta Meridional, ha aumentado en el área de Madrid desde los años noventa, aunque su magnitud permanece constante. En el interior de la aglomeración urbana, el efecto general de la ciudad sobre estos eventos climáticos extremos ha supuesto una exacerbación del calor, no tanto por un aumento de la temperatura máxima, como por una persistencia del calor en las horas nocturnas. No obstante, la diversidad de la morfología urbana introduce variaciones espaciales en la intensidad de este calor nocturno, agravando sus efectos en las áreas densamente urbanizadas y mitigándolos en las proximidades de las áreas verdes.

  3. Chronic Caloric Restriction and Exercise Improve Metabolic Conditions of Dietary-Induced Obese Mice in Autophagy Correlated Manner without Involving AMPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxia Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the role of AMPK activation and autophagy in mediating the beneficial effects of exercise and caloric restriction in obesity. Methods. Dietary-induced obesity mice were made and divided into 5 groups; one additional group of normal mice serves as control. Mice in each group received different combinations of interventions including low fat diet, caloric restriction, and exercise. Then their metabolic conditions were assessed by measuring serum glucose and insulin, serum lipids, and liver function. AMPK phosphorylation and autophagy activity were detected by western blotting. Results. Obese mice models were successfully induced by high fat diet. Caloric restriction consistently improved the metabolic conditions of the obese mice, and the effects are more prominent than the mice that received only exercise. Also, caloric restriction, exercise, and low fat diet showed a synergistic effect in the improvement of metabolic conditions. Western blotting results showed that this improvement was not related with the activation of AMPK in liver, skeletal muscle, or heart but correlates well with the autophagy activity. Conclusion. Caloric restriction has more prominent beneficial effects than exercise in dietary-induced obese mice. These effects are correlated with the autophagy activity and may be independent of AMPK activation.

  4. The application of high dose food irradiation in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, Ingrid Nine

    2000-03-01

    During the 1950s to the end of the 1970s the United States Army developed the basic methodology to produce shelf-stable irradiated meat, seafood and poultry products. These products are normally packed without gravy, sauce or brine, as liquid is not required to sterilize the product as in the canning process. This leads to the distinctive "dried cooked" taste normally associated with roasts opposed to the casserole taste usually associated with tinned meats. The Biogam group at the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa is currently producing shelf-stable irradiated meats on a commercial basis. The meats are cooked, chilled, portioned, vacuum packed and irradiated to the required minimum dose of 45 kGy at a temperature of between -20 and -40°C to ensure absolute sterility even under tropical conditions. The product is packaged in a high quality four layer laminate pouch and will therefore not rust or burst even under adverse weather conditions and can be guaranteed for more than two years as long as the integrity of the packaging is maintained. Safari operators in remote parts of Africa, mountaineers, yachtsmen, canoeists and geological survey teams currently use shelf-stable irradiated meat products produced in South Africa.

  5. An In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of the Effects of Caloric and Non-Caloric Sweeteners on Liver Lipid Metabolism in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Sharon; Ciapaite, Jolita; Wolters, Justina C.; van Riel, Natal A.; Nicolay, Klaas; Prompers, Jeanine J.

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to elucidate the effects of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners on liver lipid metabolism in rats using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and to determine their roles in the development of liver steatosis. Wistar rats received normal chow and either normal drinking water, or

  6. Body mass index moderates gaze orienting biases and pupil diameter to high and low calorie food images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Reiko; Hoover, Alison; Ceballos, Natalie A; Komogortsev, Oleg

    2011-06-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine eye gaze behavior to different kinds of food images in individuals differing in BMI status. Eye-tracking methods were used to examine gaze and pupil responses while normal weight and overweight women freely viewed pairs of different food images: high calorie sweet foods, high calorie savory foods, and low calorie foods. Self-report measures of hunger, state and trait cravings, and restrained eating were also obtained. Results revealed orienting biases to low calorie foods and decreases in pupil diameter to high calorie sweet foods relative to low calorie foods in the overweight group. Groups did not differ in the average amount of time spent gazing at the different image types. Furthermore, increased state cravings were associated with larger pupil diameters to high calorie savory foods, especially in individuals with lower BMIs. In contrast, restrained eating scores were associated with a decreased orienting bias to high calorie sweet foods in the high BMI group. In conclusion, BMI status appears to influence gaze parameters that are less susceptible to cognitive control. Results suggest that overweight individuals, especially those who diet, have negative implicit attitudes toward high calorie foods, especially sweets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Correlation between caloric and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Hsuan; Wang, Shou-Jen; Young, Yi-Ho

    2012-02-01

    The ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (o-VEMP) test results correlate significantly with caloric test results for patients with acoustic neuroma (AN), but not for patients with Meniere's disease (MD), indicating that the o-VEMP test may replace the caloric test for evaluating the vestibular nerve from which the AN arises. Conversely, the caloric, o-VEMP, and cervical VEMP (c-VEMP) tests should be performed to map lesion sites in the vestibular labyrinth. This study performed caloric, o-VEMP, and c-VEMP tests on patients with central and peripheral vestibular disorders to investigate their relationships. In all, 66 patients comprising 16 with unilateral AN and 50 with unilateral definite MD were enrolled. All patients underwent caloric, o-VEMP, and c-VEMP tests. In the AN group, the caloric test identified canal paresis and caloric areflexia in 10 ears, while the o-VEMP and c-VEMP tests identified abnormal (absent or delayed) responses in 12 and 11 ears, respectively. A significant correlation existed between caloric and o-VEMP test results, but not between caloric and c-VEMP test results, or between o-VEMP and c-VEMP test results. For the MD group, abnormal caloric, o-VEMP, and c-VEMP test results were obtained for 24%, 44%, and 38% of hydropic ears, respectively. No correlation existed between any two test results.

  8. An experimental device for accurate ultrasounds measurements in liquid foods at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Baltasar, E.; Taravillo, M.; Baonza, V. G.; Sanz, P. D.; Guignon, B.

    2012-12-01

    The use of high hydrostatic pressure to ensure safe and high-quality product has markedly increased in the food industry during the last decade. Ultrasonic sensors can be employed to control such processes in an equivalent way as they are currently used in processes carried out at room pressure. However, their installation, calibration and use are particularly challenging in the context of a high pressure environment. Besides, data about acoustic properties of food under pressure and even for water are quite scarce in the pressure range of interest for food treatment (namely, above 200 MPa). The objective of this work was to establish a methodology to determine the speed of sound in foods under pressure. An ultrasonic sensor using the multiple reflections method was adapted to a lab-scale HHP equipment to determine the speed of sound in water between 253.15 and 348.15 K, and at pressures up to 700 MPa. The experimental speed-of-sound data were compared to the data calculated from the equation of state of water (IAPWS-95 formulation). From this analysis, the way to calibrate cell path was validated. After this calibration procedure, the speed of sound could be determined in liquid foods by using this sensor with a relative uncertainty between (0.22 and 0.32) % at a confidence level of 95 % over the whole pressure domain.

  9. Reducing high calorie snack food in young adults: a role for social norms and health based messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Consumption of high calorie junk foods has increased recently, especially among young adults and higher intake may cause weight gain. There is a need to develop public health approaches to motivate people to reduce their intake of junk food. Objective To assess the effect of health and social norm messages on high calorie snack food intake (a type of junk food) as a function of usual intake of junk food. Design In a between-subjects design, 129 young adults (45 men and 84 women, mean age = 22.4 years, SD = 4.5) were assigned to one of three conditions: 1) a social norm condition, in which participants saw a message about the junk food eating habits of others; 2) a health condition, in which participants saw a message outlining the health benefits of reducing junk food consumption and; 3) a control condition, in which participants saw a non-food related message. After exposure to the poster messages, participants consumed a snack and the choice and amount of snack food consumed was examined covertly. We also examined whether usual intake of junk food moderated the effect of message type on high calorie snack food intake. Results The amount of high calorie snack food consumed was significantly lower in both the health and the social norm message condition compared with the control message condition (36% and 28%, both p junk food. Conclusions Messages about the health effects of junk food and social normative messages about intake of junk food can motivate people to reduce their consumption of high calorie snack food. PMID:23738741

  10. Attentional bias in restrictive eating disorders : Stronger attentional avoidance of high-fat food compared to healthy controls?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Esther M.; de Jong, Peter J.

    A striking feature of the restricting subtype of anorexia nervosa (AN) is that these patients are extremely successful in restricting their food intake. Possibly, they are highly efficient in avoiding attentional engagement of food cues, thereby preventing more elaborate processing of food cues and

  11. Attentional bias in restrictive eating disorders : Stronger attentional avoidance of high-fat food compared to healthy controls?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Esther M.; de Jong, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    A striking feature of the restricting subtype of anorexia nervosa (AN) is that these patients are extremely successful in restricting their food intake. Possibly, they are highly efficient in avoiding attentional engagement of food cues, thereby preventing more elaborate processing of food cues and

  12. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  13. Perinatal overnutrition and the programming of food preferences: pathways and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Z Y; Gugusheff, J R; Muhlhausler, B S

    2012-10-01

    One of the major contributing factors to the continuous rise in obesity rates is the increase in caloric intake, which is driven to a large extent by the ease of access and availability of palatable high-fat, high-sugar 'junk foods'. It is also clear that some individuals are more likely to overindulge in these foods than others; however, the factors that determine an individual's susceptibility towards the overconsumption of palatable foods are not well understood. There is growing evidence that an increased preference for these foods may have its origins early in life. Recent work from our group and others has reported that in utero and early life exposure to these palatable foods in rodents increased the offspring's preference towards foods high in fat and sugar. One of the potential mechanisms underlying the programming of food preferences is the altered development of the mesolimbic reward system, a system that plays an important role in driving palatable food intake in adults. The aim of this review is to explore the current knowledge of the programming of food preferences, a relatively new and emerging area in the DOHAD field, with a particular focus on maternal overnutrition, the development of the mesolimbic reward system and the biological mechanisms which may account for the early origins of an increased preference for palatable foods.

  14. Simultaneous determination of 20 food additives by high performance liquid chromatography with photo-diode array detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Ma; Ya Nan Yang; Xiao Xiong Jiang; Min Zhao; Ye Qiang Cai

    2012-01-01

    An efficient and accurate analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 20 synthetic food additives,including three sweeteners,seven food colorants,nine synthetic preservatives and caffeine,by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detector (PDA).This method permits the detection of food additives at very low concentrations (0.005-0.150 μg/mL).The applicability was verified by the determination of food additives present in various foodstuffs.

  15. High-Throughput Sequencing and Metagenomics: Moving Forward in the Culture-Independent Analysis of Food Microbial Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Ercolini, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    Following recent trends in environmental microbiology, food microbiology has benefited from the advances in molecular biology and adopted novel strategies to detect, identify, and monitor microbes in food. An in-depth study of the microbial diversity in food can now be achieved by using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) approaches after direct nucleic acid extraction from the sample to be studied. In this review, the workflow of applying culture-independent HTS to food matrices is described. T...

  16. The effect of prolonged physical activity performed during extreme caloric deprivation on cardiac function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Planer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endurance exercise may induce transient cardiac dysfunction. Data regarding the effect of caloric restriction on cardiac function is limited. We studied the effect of physical activity performed during extreme caloric deprivation on cardiac function. METHODS: Thirty-nine healthy male soldiers (mean age 20 ± 0.3 years were studied during a field training exercise lasted 85-103 hours, with negligible food intake and unlimited water supply. Anthropometric measurements, echocardiographic examinations and blood and urine tests were performed before and after the training exercise. RESULTS: Baseline VO(2 max was 59 ± 5.5 ml/kg/min. Participants' mean weight reduction was 5.7 ± 0.9 kg. There was an increase in plasma urea (11.6 ± 2.6 to 15.8 ± 3.8 mmol/L, p<0.001 and urine osmolarity (692 ± 212 to 1094 ± 140 mmol/kg, p<0.001 and a decrease in sodium levels (140.5 ± 1.0 to 136.6 ± 2.1 mmol/L, p<0.001 at the end of the study. Significant alterations in diastolic parameters included a decrease in mitral E wave (93.6 to 83.5 cm/s; p = 0.003, without change in E/A and E/E' ratios, and an increase in iso-volumic relaxation time (73.9 to 82.9 ms, p = 0.006. There was no change in left or right ventricular systolic function, or pulmonary arterial pressure. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP levels were significantly reduced post-training (median 9 to 0 pg/ml, p<0.001. There was no elevation in Troponin T or CRP levels. On multivariate analysis, BNP reduction correlated with sodium levels and weight reduction (R = 0.8, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to prolonged physical activity performed under caloric deprivation resulted in minor alterations of left ventricular diastolic function. BNP levels were significantly reduced due to negative water and sodium balance.

  17. High exposure to inorganic arsenic by food: the need for risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Damm, Georg; Foth, Heidi; Freyberger, Alexius; Gebel, Thomas; Golka, Klaus; Röhl, Claudia; Schupp, Thomas; Wollin, Klaus-Michael; Hengstler, Jan Georg

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen that occurs ubiquitously in soil and water. Based on epidemiological studies, a benchmark dose (lower/higher bound estimate) between 0.3 and 8 μg/kg bw/day was estimated to cause a 1 % increased risk of lung, skin and bladder cancer. A recently published study by EFSA on dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic in the European population reported 95th percentiles (lower bound min to upper bound max) for different age groups in the same range as the benchmark dose. For toddlers, a highly exposed group, the highest values ranged between 0.61 and 2.09 µg arsenic/kg bw/day. For all other age classes, the margin of exposure is also small. This scenario calls for regulatory action to reduce arsenic exposure. One priority measure should be to reduce arsenic in food categories that contribute most to exposure. In the EFSA study the food categories 'milk and dairy products,' 'drinking water' and 'food for infants' represent major sources of inorganic arsenic for infants and also rice is an important source. Long-term strategies are required to reduce inorganic arsenic in these food groups. The reduced consumption of rice and rice products which has been recommended may be helpful for a minority of individuals consuming unusually high amounts of rice. However, it is only of limited value for the general European population, because the food categories 'grain-based processed products (non rice-based)' or 'milk and dairy products' contribute more to the exposure with inorganic arsenic than the food category 'rice.' A balanced regulatory activity focusing on the most relevant food categories is required. In conclusion, exposure to inorganic arsenic represents a risk to the health of the European population, particularly to young children. Regulatory measures to reduce exposure are urgently required.

  18. Reducing high calorie snack food in young adults: a role for social norms and health based messages

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Eric; Harris, Ellis; Thomas, Jason; Aveyard, Paul; Higgs, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Consumption of high calorie junk foods has increased recently, especially among young adults and higher intake may cause weight gain. There is a need to develop public health approaches to motivate people to reduce their intake of junk food. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of health and social norm messages on high calorie snack food intake (a type of junk food) as a function of usual intake of junk food. DESIGN: In a between-subjects design, 129 young adults (45 men and 84 women,...

  19. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-03-18

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis).

  20. Attentional bias in restrictive eating disorders. Stronger attentional avoidance of high-fat food compared to healthy controls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Esther M; de Jong, Peter J

    2012-02-01

    A striking feature of the restricting subtype of anorexia nervosa (AN) is that these patients are extremely successful in restricting their food intake. Possibly, they are highly efficient in avoiding attentional engagement of food cues, thereby preventing more elaborate processing of food cues and thus subsequent craving. This study examined whether patients diagnosed with restrictive eating disorders ('restricting AN-like patients'; N=88) indeed show stronger attentional avoidance of visual food stimuli than healthy controls (N=76). Attentional engagement and disengagement were assessed by means of a pictorial exogenous cueing task, and (food and neutral) pictures were presented for 300, 500, or 1000 ms. In the 500 ms condition, both restricting AN-like patients and healthy controls demonstrated attentional avoidance of high-fat food as indexed by a negative cue-validity effect and impaired attentional engagement with high-fat food, whereas no evidence was found for facilitated disengagement from high-fat food. Within the group of restricting AN-like patients, patients with relatively severe eating pathology showed relatively strong attentional engagement with low-fat food. There was no evidence for attentional bias in the 300 and 1000 ms condition. The pattern of findings indicate that attentional avoidance of high-fat food is a common phenomenon that may become counterproductive in restricting AN-like patients, as it could facilitate their restricted food intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The calorically restricted ketogenic diet, an effective alternative therapy for malignant brain cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Weihua

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant brain cancer persists as a major disease of morbidity and mortality in adults and is the second leading cause of cancer death in children. Many current therapies for malignant brain tumors fail to provide long-term management because they ineffectively target tumor cells while negatively impacting the health and vitality of normal brain cells. In contrast to brain tumor cells, which lack metabolic flexibility and are largely dependent on glucose for growth and survival, normal brain cells can metabolize both glucose and ketone bodies for energy. This study evaluated the efficacy of KetoCal®, a new nutritionally balanced high fat/low carbohydrate ketogenic diet for children with epilepsy, on the growth and vascularity of a malignant mouse astrocytoma (CT-2A and a human malignant glioma (U87-MG. Methods Adult mice were implanted orthotopically with the malignant brain tumors and KetoCal® was administered to the mice in either unrestricted amounts or in restricted amounts to reduce total caloric intake according to the manufacturers recommendation for children with refractory epilepsy. The effects KetoCal® on tumor growth, vascularity, and mouse survival were compared with that of an unrestricted high carbohydrate standard diet. Results KetoCal® administered in restricted amounts significantly decreased the intracerebral growth of the CT-2A and U87-MG tumors by about 65% and 35%, respectively, and significantly enhanced health and survival relative to that of the control groups receiving the standard low fat/high carbohydrate diet. The restricted KetoCal® diet reduced plasma glucose levels while elevating plasma ketone body (β-hydroxybutyrate levels. Tumor microvessel density was less in the calorically restricted KetoCal® groups than in the calorically unrestricted control groups. Moreover, gene expression for the mitochondrial enzymes, β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and succinyl-CoA: 3-ketoacid Co

  2. Sugar Determination in Foods with a Radially Compressed High Performance Liquid Chromatography Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrus, Martin G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Advocates use of Waters Associates Radial Compression Separation System for high performance liquid chromatography. Discusses instrumentation and reagents, outlining procedure for analyzing various foods and discussing typical student data. Points out potential problems due to impurities and pump seal life. Suggests use of ribose as internal…

  3. Are You What You Eat? An inside Look at High-Tech Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    2007-01-01

    If we abide by the familiar saying "you are what you eat," it is understandable that people may be concerned with the incredible advances in food science technology and their possible impacts on human health. For example, in recent years high-tech scientific processes such as genetic modification, irradiation, and cloning have all been used to…

  4. High rat food vitamin E content improves nerve function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Dam, P.S. van; Bravenboer, B.; Asbeck, B.S. van; Marx, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Antioxidants can improve nerve dysfunction in hyperglycaemic rats. We evaluated whether the standard supplementation of rat food with vitamin E (normally added for preservation purposes) or high-dose vitamin E treatment improves nerve conduction in maturing streptozotocin-diabetic rats, a model

  5. FOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY, A SUGGESTED 2-YEAR POST HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KNOEBEL, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    ADMINISTRATORS, ADVISORY COMMITTEES, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS MAY USE THIS GUIDE IN PLANNING AND DEVELOPING NEW PROGRAMS OR EVALUATING EXISTING PROGRAMS IN POST-HIGH SCHOOL FOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY. BASIC MATERIALS WERE PREPARED BY THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AGRICULTURAL AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE AT MORRISVILLE AND FINAL PREPARATION WAS…

  6. The National School Lunch and Competitive Food Offerings and Purchasing Behaviors of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Anastasia M.; Korba, Casey; Burkey, Alyvia

    2007-01-01

    Background: Across the nation, schools have become actively involved in developing obesity prevention strategies both in classrooms and in cafeterias. We sought to determine the type of foods being offered during lunch in the cafeteria of 3 public high schools in 1 county and if this reflects the purchasing patterns of students. By labeling foods…

  7. Obesity, High-Calorie Food Intake, and Academic Achievement Trends among U.S. School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; O'Connell, Ann A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated children's self-reported high-calorie food intake in Grade 5 and its relationship to trends in obesity status and academic achievement over the first 6 years of school. They used 3-level hierarchical linear models in the large-scale database (the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort). Findings indicated…

  8. Is Childhood Obesity Associated with High-Fat Foods and Low Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muecke, Lee; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Study investigated whether high-fat food consumption and low physical activity were risk factors for obesity in third graders. Tests revealed a greater prevalence of childhood obesity in 1985 than in 1976-80. Neither intake nor activity level were independent risk factors, but there may be synergistic effects with both present. (SM)

  9. Food consumption of children younger than 6 years according to the degree of food processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediana Volz Neitzke Karnopp

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To evaluate food intake according to the degree of processing, stratified by family income and age, in a representative sample of children younger than 6 years in the city of Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based study carried out with 770 children aged 0-72 months of age living in the urban area of Pelotas. The dietary intake of children was assessed by 24-h recall administered to mothers or guardians. The energy intake was estimated and each food item was classified according to the food processing degree. Food consumption was stratified by age (younger than 24 months; 24 months or older and associations between quintiles of family income and relative contribution of each food to total energy were performed by linear regression. The Wald test was applied to test linear trend across groups. Results: The mean energy intake was 1725.7 kcal/day. The mean contribution of processed and ultraprocessed foods was 19.7% among children younger than 24 months and 37% in those aged 24 months or older, while the mean consumption of natural and minimally processed food was 61% and 44%, respectively. Among children aged 24 months or older, a greater consumption of canned foods, cheese and sweets was observed as family income quintiles increased, while breads were more consumed by those children belonging to the lower income quintiles. Conclusion: A high caloric contribution of ultraprocessed foods in detriment to a lower consumption of natural and minimally processed foods was observed in the diet of children younger than 6 years.

  10. [Index of Nutritional Purchasing Power Parity: comparison of caloric costs of a healthy versus an unhealthy diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Velázquez, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Develop the Index of Nutritional Purchasing Power Parity (Nut3-CiO) as an instrument to compare the caloric costs of a healthy versus an unhealthy diet between regions or cities in a country over time. Indices of caloric prices were constructed and the "law of one price" was used to derive the Nut3-CiO index. Caloric inflation rates were obtained using basic descriptive statistics. The Nut3-CiO was applied in the major cities of Mexico during the period from January 1996 to December 2010. The statistical behavior of the Nut3-CiO revealed that, in Mexican cities, products for a typical diet are less expensive than products for a healthy diet. The findings showed a cyclical behavior to the index, a high correlation between inflation for the typical diet and inflation for the market basket, and a high persistence of prices. The Nut3-CiO index makes it possible to periodically compare the price differential of two types of diets-typical and healthy-between cities in a single country. This instrument could help health authorities identify the cities where it is easier or more difficult for consumers to access a typical or healthy diet in terms of cost. Furthermore, it makes it possible to estimate the percentage adjustment necessary in each city to attain levels of nutritional purchasing power parity.

  11. Children’s Executive Function and High Calorie, Low Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low nutrient (HCLN) food. Design One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from larger randomized control trial Setting Southern California elementary schools Subjects Fourth and fifth grade children (n = 1,005) participating in the Pathways to Health obesity prevention program Results Child EF problems were associated with higher concurrent HCLN intake (B = 0.29, SE = 0.10, p fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.11/0.25, p fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.02/0.10, p perception of parent concurrent fast food intake, contributing to their own unhealthy food intake. However, EF problems may not directly affect HCLN intake across time, except when problems are associated with child perception of more frequent parent consumption of convenience foods. Future research is needed to investigate the possibility that helping children perceive and understand role models’ convenience food consumption may improve child dietary consumption patterns. PMID:25194147

  12. Determination of 15 isoflavone isomers in soy foods and supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanaka, Kaoru; Takebayashi, Jun; Matsumoto, Teruki; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2012-04-25

    Soy isoflavone is the generic name for the isoflavones found in soy. We determined the concentrations of 15 soy isoflavone species, including 3 succinyl glucosides, in 22 soy foods and isoflavone supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total isoflavone contents in 14 soy foods and 8 supplements ranged from 45 to 735 μg/g and from 1,304 to 90,224 μg/g, respectively. Higher amounts of succinyl glucosides were detected in natto, a typical fermented soy product in Japan; these ranged from 30 to 80 μg/g and comprised 4.1-10.9% of the total isoflavone content. In soy powder, 59 μg/g of succinyl glucosides were detected, equivalent to 4.6% of the total isoflavone content. These data suggest that the total isoflavone contents may be underestimated in the previous studies that have not included succinyl glucosides, especially for Bacillus subtilis -fermented soy food products.

  13. Spray Drying of High Sugar Content Foods: Improving of Product Yield and Powder Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Koç

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying is the most preferred drying method to produce powdered food in the food industry and it is also widely used to convert sugar-rich liquid foods to a powder form. During and/or after spray drying process of sugar-rich products, undesirable situation was appeared such as stickiness, high moisture affinity (hygroscopicity and low solubility due to low molecular weight monosaccharides that found naturally in the structure. The basis of these problems was formed by low glass transition temperature of sugar-rich products. This review gives information about the difficulties in drying of sugar-rich products via spray dryer, actions need to be taken against these difficulties and drying of sugar-rich honey and fruit juices with spray drying method.

  14. Opportunity for high value-added chemicals from food supply chain wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharu, Avtar S; de Melo, Eduardo M; Houghton, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    With approximately 1.3 billion tonnes of food wasted per annum, food supply chain wastes (FSCWs) may be viewed as the contemporary Periodic Table of biobased feedstock chemicals (platform molecules) and functional materials. Herein, the global drivers and case for food waste valorisation within the context of global sustainability, sustainable development goals and the bioeconomy are discussed. The emerging potential of high value added chemicals from certain tropical FSCW is considered as these are grown in three major geographical areas: Brazil, India and China, and likely to increase in volume. FSCW in the context of biorefineries is discussed and two case studies are reported, namely: waste potato, and; orange peel waste. Interestingly, both waste feedstocks, like many others, produce proteins and with the global demand for vegetable proteins on the rise then proteins from FSCW may become a dominant area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interplay between various degrees of freedom in determining the aspect of the caloric curve

    CERN Document Server

    Raduta, A H

    1999-01-01

    A sharp microcanonical model is used to investigate the primary decay nuclear caloric curve. A wide plateau of the caloric curve corresponding to a temperature of around 5 MeV, sign of liquid-gas phase transition, is evidenced for three sample nuclei. The results are resembling the experimental data of Pochodzalla et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 (1995) 1040]. Calculated He-Li temperatures manifest a similar behavior. Correlations between different parts of the caloric curves and the energy amounts deposited in the available degrees are discussed. The extent to which the existent degrees of freedom are contributing to the shape of the caloric curve is commented.

  16. Make up your mind about food : A healthy mindset attenuates attention for high-calorie food in restrained eaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Roefs, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Attention bias for food could be a cognitive pathway to overeating in obesity and restrained eating. Yet, empirical evidence for individual differences (e.g., in restrained eating and body mass index) in attention bias for food is mixed. We tested experimentally if temporarily induced health versus

  17. Food technologies and developing countries: a processing method for making edible the highly toxic cassava roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Lambri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to be a possible solution to the food crisis becoming a productive model to follow, the development of a process and/or a technique of food production in a developing country could create advantages from an industrial point of view due to the use of alternative raw materials, which have a potentially high competitiveness. In developing countries, agriculture is able to offer a variety of products making up the daily diet and provide products with potential that could make up for many nutritional deficiencies to which resident populations are subject. Food technology applications on cereals, tubers, roots, fruits, and by-products from related processes are reported at aiming to obtain finished and semi-finished foods and/or basic ingredients meeting the food safety criteria. In detail, this study aims to generate a processing method for the white bitter roots collected in a rural area of Burundi with a cyanogenic glycoside content >400 mg cyanide equivalent/kg dry weight. A standardised procedure consisting of peeling, grating, and oven drying at 60°C, with or without fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was successfully tested.

  18. Challenging genosensors in food samples: The case of gluten determination in highly processed samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Begoña; de-los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Martín-Clemente, Juan Pedro; Lobo-Castañón, María Jesús; López-Ruiz, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical genosensors have undergone an enormous development in the last decades, but only very few have achieved a quantification of target content in highly processed food samples. The detection of allergens, and particularly gluten, is challenging because legislation establishes a threshold of 20 ppm for labeling as gluten-free but most genosensors expresses the results in DNA concentration or DNA copies. This paper describes the first attempt to correlate the genosensor response and the wheat content in real samples, even in the case of highly processed food samples. A sandwich-based format, comprising a capture probe immobilized onto the screen-printed gold electrode, and a signaling probe functionalized with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), both hybridizing with the target was used. The hybridization event was electrochemically monitored by adding an anti-FITC peroxidase (antiFITC-HRP) and its substrate, tetramethylbenzidine. Binary model mixtures, as a reference material, and real samples have been analyzed. DNA from food was extracted and a fragment encoding the immunodominant peptide of α2-gliadin amplified by a tailored PCR. The sensor was able to selectively detect toxic cereals for celiac patients, such as different varieties of wheat, barley, rye and oats, from non-toxic plants. As low as 0.001% (10 mg/kg) of wheat flour in an inert matrix was reliably detected, which directly compete with the current method of choice for DNA detection, the real-time PCR. A good correlation with the official immunoassay was found in highly processed food samples.

  19. La isla de calor estival en Temuco, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Capelli de Steffens

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Temuco es una ciudad localizada en el centro sur de Chile (38º 45’ S y 72º 40’ W. Morfológicamente, el sitio de la ciudad corresponde a las terrazas fluviales del río Cautín que se desarrollan en forma encajonada entre los cerros Ñielol (350 m y Conunhueno (360 m. Esta ciudad se ha desarrollado rápidamente en las últimas décadas, por lo tanto es necesario conocer el efecto antrópico en la misma. Para evaluar parte de ese efecto se analiza la isla de calor urbana estival en la ciudad de Temuco, Chile. Se efectuaron mediciones de temperatura del aire y humedad a través de la ciudad para determinar la forma y la intensidad de la isla de calor urbano. Se utilizaron estaciones móviles e información de una estación meteorológica fija. La ciudad presenta un comportamiento térmico diferente a lo largo del día. Durante el día genera una isla de calor que responde en líneas generales al modelo ideal de calentamiento urbano. La intensidad de la isla calórica (∆Tu-r fue 6.3ºC y 1.2ºC durante el día y la noche, respectivamente. La influencia de los cerros que limitan la ciudad es importante. El estudio confirma la idea que el clima urbano de una ciudad es un mosaico de microclimas que interactuan continuamente.

  20. Determinants of Fast Food Consumption among Iranian High School Students Based on Planned Behavior Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Sharifirad; Parastoo Yarmohammadi; Leila Azadbakht; Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad; Akbar Hassanzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study was conducted to identify some factors (beliefs and norms) which are related to fast food consumption among high school students in Isfahan, Iran. We used the framework of the theory planned behavior (TPB) to predict this behavior. Subjects & Methods. Cross-sectional data were available from high school students (n = 521) who were recruited by cluster randomized sampling. All of the students completed a questionnaire assessing variables of standard TPB model including at...

  1. A crise do socialismo analisada no calor da hora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Benedito Dias

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo demonstra como os acontecimentos que levaram à crise e desintegração dos países do bloco soviético foram analisados no calor dos acontecimentos, tomando como parâmetro os livros "Nós, o povo" e "A desintegração do monolito", selecionados por causa das diferentes perspectivas metodológicas e ideológicas que representam.  

  2. Gene expression profiling of the short-term adaptive response to acute caloric restriction in liver and adipose tissues of pigs differing in feed efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, where low RFI denotes high feed efficiency. Caloric restriction (CR) is associated with feed efficiency in livestock species and relevant to human health benefits such as longevity and cancer prevention. We generated transcript profiles of ...

  3. Effects of Low-Dose Non-Caloric Sweetener Consumption on Gut Microbiota in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Uebanso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NASs provide sweet tastes to food without adding calories or glucose. NASs can be used as alternative sweeteners for controlling blood glucose levels and weight gain. Although the consumption of NASs has increased over the past decade in Japan and other countries, whether these sweeteners affect the composition of the gut microbiome is unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of sucralose or acesulfame-K ingestion (at most the maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI levels, 15 mg/kg body weight on the gut microbiome in mice. Consumption of sucralose, but not acesulfame-K, for 8 weeks reduced the relative amount of Clostridium cluster XIVa in feces. Meanwhile, sucralose and acesulfame-K did not increase food intake, body weight gain or liver weight, or fat in the epididymis or cecum. Only sucralose intake increased the concentration of hepatic cholesterol and cholic acid. Moreover, the relative concentration of butyrate and the ratio of secondary/primary bile acids in luminal metabolites increased with sucralose consumption in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that daily intake of maximum ADI levels of sucralose, but not acesulfame-K, affected the relative amount of the Clostridium cluster XIVa in fecal microbiome and cholesterol bile acid metabolism in mice.

  4. Eat your troubles away: electrocortical and experiential correlates of food image processing are related to emotional eating style and emotional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechert, Jens; Goltsche, Julia E; Herbert, Beate M; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2014-02-01

    Emotional eating, a trait-like style of food intake in response to negative emotion states, represents an important aspect of overeating and eating related psychopathology. The mechanisms of emotional eating both on experiential and neuronal levels are not well delineated. We recorded event related potentials (ERPs) while individuals with high or low emotional eating style (HEE, n=25; LEE, n=20) viewed and rated pictures of high-caloric food during neutral state vs. negative idiosyncratic emotion induction. Craving ratings increased in HEE and decreased in LEE during negative relative to neutral states. ERPs to food pictures showed an enhanced late positive potential (LPP) over parieto-occipital regions for HEE compared to LEE. Emotional state modulated food picture evoked ERPs over right frontal regions in HEE only. This suggests that appetitive food processing is susceptible to both concurrent emotion and habitual eating style which is of relevance for overeating in healthy and abnormal eating.

  5. comment="please make the changes marked up in the attached pdf"Sex-Dependent Effects of Caloric Restriction on the Ageing of an Ambush Feeding Copepod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, Enric; Calbet, Albert; Griffell, Kaiene

    2017-10-04

    Planktonic copepods are a very successful group in marine pelagic environments, with a key role in biogeochemical cycles. Among them, the genus Oithona is one of the more abundant and ubiquitous. We report here on the effects of caloric (food) restriction on the ageing patterns of the copepod Oithona davisae. The response of O. davisae to caloric restriction was sex dependent: under food limitation, females have lower age-specific mortality rates and longer lifespans and reproductive periods; male mortality rates and life expectancy were not affected. Males are more active swimmers than females, and given their higher energetic demands presumably generate reactive oxygen species at higher rates. That was confirmed by starvation experiments, which showed that O. davisae males burn through body reserves much faster, resulting in shorter life expectancy. Compared with common, coastal calanoid copepods, the effects of caloric restriction on O. davisae appeared less prominent. We think this difference in the magnitude of the responses is a consequence of the distinct life-history traits associated with the genus Oithona (ambush feeder, egg-carrier), with much lower overall levels of metabolism and reproductive effort.

  6. Effect of high-pressure food processing on the physical properties of synthetic and biopolymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galotto, M J; Ulloa, P A; Guarda, A; Gavara, R; Miltz, J

    2009-08-01

    The effect of high-pressure processing on 2 plastic food packaging films, a biopolymer (PLASiOx/PLA) and a synthetic polymer (PET-AlOx), was studied. Samples in direct contact with olive oil, as a fatty food simulant, and distilled water, as an aqueous simulant, were subjected to a pressure of 500MPa for 15 min at 50 degrees C. The mechanical, thermal, and gas barrier properties of both films were evaluated after the high-pressure processing (HPP) and compared to control samples that have not undergone this treatment. Significant changes in all properties were observed in both films after the HPP treatment and in contact with the food simulants. In both films an induced crystallization was noticed. In the PLASiOx/PLA film the changes were larger when in contact with water that probably acted as a plasticizer. In the PET-AlOx film the changes in properties were attributed to the formation of pinholes and cracks during the HPP treatment. In this film, most of the properties changed more in the presence of oil as the food simulant.

  7. Eradication of high viable loads of Listeria monocytogenes contaminating food-contact surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia ede Candia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the efficacy of cold gaseous ozone treatments at low concentrations in the eradication of high Listeria monocytogenes viable cell loads from glass, polypropylene, stainless steel and expanded polystyrene food-contact surfaces. Using a step by step approach, involving the selection of the most resistant strain-surface combinations, 11 Listeria spp. strains resulted inactivated by a continuous ozone flow at 1.07 mg m-3 after 24 or 48 h of cold incubation, depending on both strain and surface evaluated. Increasing the inoculum level to 9 log CFU coupon-1, the best inactivation rate was obtained after 48h of treatment at 3.21 mg m-3 ozone concentration when cells were deposited onto stainless steel and expanded polystyrene coupons, resulted the most resistant food-contact surfaces in the previous assays.The addition of naturally microbiologically contaminated meat extract to a high load of L. monocytogenes LMG 23775 cells, the most resistant strain out of the 11 assayed Listeria spp. strains, led to its complete inactivation after four days of treatment.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the survival of L. monocytogenes and the effect of ozone treatment under cold storage conditions on expanded polystyrene, a commonly-used material in food packaging. These results could be useful for reducing pathogen cross-contamination phenomena during cold food storage.

  8. Health Food Supplements (“Health Food” Highly Nutritious From Chlorella And Oil Catfish (Pangasius hypopthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Syahrul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of microalgae as a food ingredient considered effective, because in addition to alternativefood sources also contains nutrients chlorella microalgae in particular is very good for health. This microalgaerich in protein (60.5%, fat (11%, carbohydrates (20.1%, water, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals Besidesthese microalgae contain pigments (chlorophyll, tocopherol and the active component (antimicrobial andantioxidants. This is what underlies microalgae is very useful to be used as a source of raw materials ofhealth food supplements. Currently the health food supplements have become a necessity for people tomaintain their health in order to remain vibrant. This study aims to produce high nutritious health foodsupplements from raw material chlorella enriched with fish protein concentrate and oil catfish. The methodused in the manufacture of high nutritious health food supplement is a method of microencapsulation withdifferent formulations. The results showed that the best formulations based on the profile of amino acids,fatty acids and standards AAE per day especially essential fatty acids oleic and linoleic is formulation B(chlorella 2%, 1% fish oil and fish protein concentrate 1%.

  9. JTT-130, a novel intestine-specific inhibitor of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, reduces food preference for fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Yasuko; Hata, Takahiro; Ishii, Yukihito; Tomimoto, Daisuke; Kawai, Takashi; Ohta, Takeshi; Kakutani, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is involved in the assembly and secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from enterocytes and hepatocytes. JTT-130 is a novel intestine-specific MTP inhibitor, which has been shown to be useful in the prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia, obesity, and diabetes. JTT-130 has also been shown to suppress food intake in a dietary fat-dependent manner in rats. However, whether JTT-130 enables changes in food preference and nutrient consumption remains to be determined. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of JTT-130 on food preference in rat under free access to two different diets containing 3.3% fat (low-fat diet, LF diet) and 35% fat (high-fat diet, HF diet). JTT-130 decreased HF diet intake and increased LF diet intake, resulting in a change in ratio of caloric intake from LF and HF diets to total caloric intake. In addition, macronutrient analysis revealed that JTT-130 did not affect carbohydrate consumption but significantly decreased fat consumption (P fat absorption, but also suppresses food intake and specifically reduces food preference for fat. Therefore, JTT-130 is expected to provide a new option for the prevention and treatment of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders.

  10. High-Intensity Interval Training, Appetite, and Reward Value of Food in the Obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catia; Aschehoug, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit; Holst, Jens; Finlayson, Graham; Wisloff, Ulrik; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil; Kulseng, Bård

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the effect of chronic interval training on appetite in the obese population are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 wk of isocaloric programs of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT), or short-duration HIIT on subjective feelings of appetite, appetite-related hormones, and reward value of food in sedentary obese individuals. Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women and 16 men), with a body mass index of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg·m and age of 34.4 ± 8.8 yr, were randomly assigned to one of the three training groups: MICT (n = 14), HIIT (n = 16), or short-duration HIIT (n = 16). Exercise was performed three times per week for 12 wk. Subjective feelings of appetite and plasma levels of acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1 were measured before and after a standard breakfast (every 30 min up to 3 h), before and after the exercise intervention. Fat and sweet taste preferences and food reward were measured using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. A significant increase in fasting and postprandial feelings of hunger was observed with the exercise intervention (P = 0.01 and P = 0.048, respectively), but no effect of group and no interaction. No significant effect of exercise intervention, group, or interaction was found on fasting or postprandial subjective feelings of fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption or plasma concentration of acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1. No changes in food preference or reward over time, differences between groups, or interactions were found. This study suggests that chronic HIIT has no independent effect on appetite or food reward when compared with an isocaloric program of MICT in obese individuals.

  11. Isla de calor en Toluca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Constantino Morales Méndez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El clima de la ciudad de Toluca y del mundo ha sido modificado como consecuencia del crecimiento de su población y el aumento de las dimensiones de su distribución territorial. Las variaciones atmosféricas son más acusadas entre los espacios urbanos y rurales a medida que las ciudades son más grandes y su mancha urbana es más extensa,así como de la reducción de la vegetación, el aumento en la calefacción en casas y edificios y por la contaminación del aire. Para identificar los espacios con calor más intenso por la infraestructura urbana, se propone una metodología que consiste en la determinación de los valores de temperatura que se registraron en dos días típicos de invierno y verano, durante el día y la noche,mostrando la distribución de la isla de calor en la zona de estudio, a partir de los datos delas estaciones de la Red Automática de Monitoreo Ambiental (RAMA. Asimismo, se considera el comportamiento y variación de algunas variables atmosféricas como humedad relativa, precipitación y viento, para mostrar su comportamiento relativamente anómalo en la zona urbana.

  12. Confirmation of the association between high levels of immunoglobulin E food sensitization and eczema in infancy : an international study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, D. J.; Hosking, C. S.; de Benedictis, F. M.; Oranje, A. P.; Diepgen, T. L.; Bauchau, V.

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies of Australian infants have reported that more than 80% of those with moderate atopic eczema (AE) have high levels of IgE food sensitization (IgE-FS) that are commonly associated with IgE food allergy. Objectives To explore the relationship between high levels of IgE-FS and AE in a

  13. Location of Food Stores Near Schools Does Not Predict the Weight Status of Maine High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David E.; Blum, Janet Whatley; Bampton, Matthew; O'Brien, Liam M.; Beaudoin, Christina M.; Polacsek, Michele; O'Rourke, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between stores selling calorie-dense food near schools and student obesity risk, with the hypothesis that high availability predicts increased risk. Methods: Mail surveys determined height, weight, and calorie-dense food consumption for 552 students at 11 Maine high schools. Driving distance from all food…

  14. Location of Food Stores Near Schools Does Not Predict the Weight Status of Maine High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David E.; Blum, Janet Whatley; Bampton, Matthew; O'Brien, Liam M.; Beaudoin, Christina M.; Polacsek, Michele; O'Rourke, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between stores selling calorie-dense food near schools and student obesity risk, with the hypothesis that high availability predicts increased risk. Methods: Mail surveys determined height, weight, and calorie-dense food consumption for 552 students at 11 Maine high schools. Driving distance from all food…

  15. Food cravings in everyday life: An EMA study on snack-related thoughts, cravings, and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Anna; Meule, Adrian; Reichenberger, Julia; Blechert, Jens

    2017-06-01

    Food craving refers to an intense desire to consume a specific food and is regularly experienced by the majority of individuals. Yet, there are interindividual differences in the frequency and intensity of food craving experiences, which is often referred to as trait food craving. The characteristics and consequences of trait and state food craving have mainly been investigated in questionnaire-based and laboratory studies, which may not reflect individuals' behavior in daily life. In the present study, sixty-one participants completed the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) as measure of trait food craving, followed by seven days of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), during which they reported snack-related thoughts, craving intensity, and snack consumption at five times per day. Results showed that 86 percent of reported snacks were high-caloric, with chocolate-containing foods being the most often reported snacks. Individuals with high FCQ-T-r scores (high trait food cravers, HCs) thought more often about high-calorie than low-calorie snacks whereas no differences were found in individuals with low FCQ-T-r scores (low trait food cravers, LCs). Further, the relationship between craving intensity and snack-related thoughts was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Higher craving intensity was associated with more consumption of snacks and again this relationship was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Finally, more snack-related thoughts were related to more frequent consumption of snacks, independent of trait food craving. Thus, HCs are more prone to think about high-calorie snacks in their daily lives and to consume more snack foods when they experience intense cravings, which might be indicative of a heightened responding towards high-calorie foods. Thus, trait-level differences as well as snack-related thoughts should be targeted in dietary interventions.

  16. Is sensitivity to reward associated with the malleability of implicit inclinations toward high-fat food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Casey R; Stritzke, Werner G K

    2013-08-01

    Two experiments examined the effect of positive and negative priming on implicit approach and avoidance inclinations toward high-fat food stimuli in participants high or low in reward sensitivity, using personalized unipolar variants of the Implicit Association Test (IAT; A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, & J. L. K. Schwartz, 1998, "Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit Association Test," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 74, pp. 1464-1480). Participants high in reward sensitivity showed an automatic processing bias that is characterized by a dual vulnerability of being particularly susceptible to priming of the rewarding aspects of high-fat foods, while being unaffected by priming of the negative aspects of those foods. In contrast, participants low in reward sensitivity generally showed no facilitation of implicit-approach inclinations following positive priming, but consistently showed facilitation of implicit-avoidance inclinations following negative priming. These results are consistent with the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory ( J. A. Gray & N. McNaughton, 2000, The neuropsychology of anxiety: An enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system, 2nd ed., New York, NY, Oxford University Press.) and suggest that the systems mediating reward sensitivity and punishment sensitivity are not orthogonal, as predicted by the separable subsystems hypothesis, but can be interdependent, as predicted by the joint subsystems hypothesis.

  17. A Socially Inclusive Pathway to Food Security: The Agroecological Alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. McKay (Ben)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Introduction__ With roughly 1 billion people unable to meet their minimum daily caloric intake, the issue of food security is imperative to overcoming rural poverty. The way in which we produce food plays an extremely important role in solving the hunger epidemic and reaching the

  18. An enzymatic method for the determination of fructans in foods and food products - Comparison of the results by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperemetric detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Sørensen, A.

    1999-01-01

    effects than the fructanase reported as normally used. The method is tested on ten standard substances and five fructan products, and nine foods and food products are also analysed. The enzymatic measurement of the released sugars is confirmed by measurements done by high performance anion exchange......We report a new and non-equipment demanding method of measuring the content of fructans as well as the contents of free glucose, free fructose and sucrose in foods and food products enzymatically. This method comprises hydrolysis of fructans into D-glucose and D-fructose enzymatically...... and measurement of the released sugars enzymatically. Sucrose is hydrolysed by alpha-glucosidase instead of beta-fructosidase, which is normally used. In addition, sucrose is measured in the form of D-fructose instead of the typical D-glucose form, and the fructanase used to hydrolyse the fructans has fewer side...

  19. The association between BMI development among young children and (un)healthy food choices in response to food advertisements: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkvord, F.; Anschutz, D.J.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have focused on the acute effects of food advertisements on the caloric intake of children; however, the long-term effects of this food cue reactivity on weight gain have not been examined. The main aim of this study was to explore if reactivity to food cues in an advert

  20. Effects of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners on resting energy expenditure and energy efficiency: a review of human trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappy, Luc; Egli, Leonie; Lecoultre, Virgile; Schneider, Pascal

    2013-08-13

    Epidemiological studies indicate that the consumption of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners (FCCS: mainly sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup) is associated with obesity. The hypothesis that FCCS plays a causal role in the development of obesity however implies that they would impair energy balance to a larger extent than other nutrients, either by increasing food intake, or by decreasing energy expenditure. We therefore reviewed the literature comparing a) diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) after ingestion of isocaloric FCCS vs glucose meals, and b) basal metabolic rate (BMR) or c) post-prandial energy expenditure after consuming a high FCCS diet for > 3 days vs basal,weight-maintenance low FCCS diet. Nine studies compared the effects of single isocaloric FCCS and glucose meals on DIT; of them, six studies reported that DIT was significantly higher with FCCS than with glucose, 2 reported a non-significant increase with FCCS, and one reported no difference. The higher DIT with fructose than glucose can be explained by the low energy efficiency associated with fructose metabolism. Five studies compared BMR after consumption of a high FCCS vs a low FCCS diet for > 3 days. Four studies reported no change after 4-7 day on a high FCCS diet, and only one study reported a 7% decrease after 12 week on a high FCCS diet. Three studies compared post-prandial EE after consumption of a high FCCS vs a low FCCS diet for > 3 days, and did not report any significant difference. One study compared 24-EE in subjects fed a weight-maintenance diet and hypercaloric diets with 50% excess energy as fructose, sucrose and glucose during 4 days: 24-EE was increased with all 3 hypercaloric diets, but there was no difference between fructose, sucrose and glucose. We conclude that fructose has lower energy efficiency than glucose. Based on available studies, there is presently no hint that dietary FCCS may decrease EE. Larger, well controlled studies are however needed to assess the longer

  1. Chronic food restriction in young rats results in depression- and anxiety-like behaviors with decreased expression of serotonin reuptake transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahng, Jeong Won; Kim, Jae Goo; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Kang, Dong-Won; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2007-05-30

    Evidence of semi-starvation is commonly found in patients with eating disorders. This study was conducted to examine the adverse effects of chronic caloric restriction in young rats, since there have been increasing incidence of eating disorders especially among young populations. Food restriction group was supplied daily with 50% of chow consumed by its ad libitum fed control group from postnatal day 28. After 5 weeks of food restriction, brain contents of serotonin (5-hydroxy-tryptamine; 5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindol acetic acid were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and mRNA expression of 5-HT reuptake transporter (5-HTT) by in situ hybridization. Plasma corticosterone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. Behavioral assessments were performed with Porsolt swim test for depressive behavior and with elevated plus maze test for anxiety. Five weeks of food restriction markedly increased plasma level of corticosterone, and significantly decreased 5-HT turnover rates in the hippocampus and the hypothalamus. 5-HTT mRNA expression decreased in the raphe nucleus of food restricted rats compared with free fed controls. Immobility time during the swim test increased in the food restricted group, compared to the control group. Food restricted rats spent more time in the closed arms, less time in the open arms, of elevated plus maze compared with control rats. These results suggest that chronic caloric restriction in young rats may lead to the development of depressive and/or anxiety disorders, likely, in relation with dysfunction of brain 5-HT system.

  2. Hydrolyzed collagen (gelatin decreases food efficiency and the bioavailability of high-quality protein in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Cantelli Daud BORDIN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Although deficient in all indispensable amino acids, gelatin is used in protein-restricted diets. Food efficiency and protein quality of casein and gelatin mixtures in low protein diets in Wistar rats were investigated. Methods The rats were treated with protein-restricted diets (10.0 and 12.5% containing casein (control diets, casein with gelatin mixtures (4:1 of protein content, and gelatin as sources of protein. The food conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, relative and corrected protein efficiency ratio, true protein digestibility, and hepatic parameters were estimated. Results After 28 days of the experiment, food efficiency of 10.0% casein/gelatin diet decreased when compared to that of 10.0% casein diet, and the protein efficiency ratio of the casein/gelatin mixtures (10.0%=2.41 and 12.5%=2.03 were lower than those of the casein (10.0%=2.90 and 12.5%=2.32. After 42 days of the experiment, the weight of the liver of the animals treated with 10.0 and 12.5% casein/gelatin diets, and the liver protein retention of the 12.5% casein/gelatin diet group of animals were lower than those of the control group. Conclusion Gelatin decreases food efficiency and high-quality protein bioavailability in protein-restricted diets.

  3. [Factors to be considered in the production and introduction of high-quality protein foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, J F

    1980-03-01

    A wide variety of factors can influence the development, production and introduction of high-quality protein foods in a given country. Such factors can be grouped in three main areas: I. Factors depending upon the country itself. II. Factors related with the identity of the food and III. Factors inherent to the consumer. The role of the food industry and of the government are discussed in area I, and such aspects as improvement of staples, availability of raw materials, health programs and energy crisis are briefly commented. Area II covers product identity in relation to used ingredients. Nutritional quality and requirements as well as the danger of increasing the price of the product after being in the market are briefly discussed. The consumer's attitude, preferences and personal reactions towards the presentation of the food are covered in area III. Also marketing approach, promotion, labels and possible influence of the name are discussed. The launching of "incaparina" in Venezuela in 1964 and the reasons for its failure are commented from the different points of view covered in the above sections.

  4. Citicoline affects appetite and cortico-limbic responses to images of high-calorie foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Ross, Amy J; Kamiya, Toshikazu; Kawada, Yoko; Renshaw, Perry F; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2010-01-01

    Cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (citicoline) has a variety of cognitive enhancing, neuroprotective, and neuroregenerative properties. In cocaine-addicted individuals, citicoline has been shown to increase brain dopamine levels and reduce cravings. The effects of this compound on appetite, food cravings, and brain responses to food are unknown. We compared the effects of treatment with Cognizin citicoline (500 mg/day versus 2,000 mg/day) for 6 weeks on changes in appetite ratings, weight, and cortico-limbic responses to images of high-calorie foods using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). After 6 weeks, there was no significant change in weight status, although significant declines in appetite ratings were observed for the 2,000 mg/day group. The higher dose group also showed significant increases in functional brain responses to food stimuli within the amygdala, insula, and lateral orbitofrontal cortex. Increased activation in these regions correlated with declines in appetite ratings. These preliminary findings suggest a potential usefulness of citicoline in modulating appetite, but further research is warranted.

  5. Citicoline Affects Appetite and Cortico-Limbic Responses to Images of High Calorie Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D. S.; Ross, Amy J.; Kamiya, Toshi; Kawada, Yoko; Renshaw, Perry F.; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Cytidine-5’-diphosphocholine (citicoline) has a variety of cognitive enhancing, neuroprotective, and neuroregenerative properties. In cocaine-addicted individuals, citicoline has been shown to increase brain dopamine levels and reduce cravings. The effects of this compound on appetite, food cravings, and brain responses to food are unknown. We compared the effects of treatment with citicoline (500 mg/day versus 2000 mg/day) for six weeks on changes in appetite ratings, weight, and cortico-limbic responses to images of high calorie foods using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). After six weeks, there was no significant change in weight status, although significant declines in appetite ratings were observed for the 2000 mg/day group. The higher dose group also showed significant increases in functional brain responses to food stimuli within the amygdala, insula, and lateral orbitofrontal cortex. Increased activation in these regions correlated with declines in appetite ratings. These preliminary findings suggest a potential usefulness of citicoline in modulating appetite, but further research is warranted. PMID:19260039

  6. Determination of hexamethylenetetramine in foods by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, HoSoo; Kim, JungIm; Ko, KyungYuk; Kim, Meehye

    2014-01-01

    A simple and rapid method was developed and validated for the determination of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) in foods. Samples were homogenised and extracted with methanol, followed by centrifugation. The resulting solution was filtered and injected into the high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). HMT was separated using a Zorbax SCX-300 column coupled to a photodiode array detector. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 1.0-100 μg ml(-1), with good correlation coefficients (r(2) = 0.9992). The recoveries of HMT from foods spiked at levels of 10, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) ranged from 91.6% to 103.8%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 0.9% and 5.3%. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification of HMT were 0.3 and 1.0 mg kg(-1) based on three food matrixes (provolone cheese, glass noodle and tofu snack), respectively. Uncertainty associated with accuracy contributed mostly to the expanded uncertainty. No detectable levels of HMT were found in any of the samples retailed in Korea. The method was successful in determining HMT in foods.

  7. Impact of High Seas Closure on Food Security in Low Income Fish Dependent Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Louise S. L.; Lam, Vicky W. Y.; Cheung, William W. L.; Miller, Dana; Teh, Lydia C. L.; Sumaila, U. Rashid

    2016-01-01

    We investigate how high seas closure will affect the availability of commonly consumed food fish in 46 fish reliant, and/or low income countries. Domestic consumption of straddling fish species (fish that would be affected by high seas closure) occurred in 54% of the assessed countries. The majority (70%) of countries were projected to experience net catch gains following high seas closure. However, countries with projected catch gains and that also consumed the straddling fish species domestically made up only 37% of the assessed countries. In contrast, much fewer countries (25%) were projected to incur net losses from high seas closure, and of these, straddling species were used domestically in less than half (45%) of the countries. Our findings suggest that, given the current consumption patterns of straddling species, high seas closure may only directly benefit the supply of domestically consumed food fish in a small number of fish reliant and/or low income countries. In particular, it may not have a substantial impact on improving domestic fish supply in countries with the greatest need for improved access to affordable fish, as only one third of this group used straddling fish species domestically. Also, food security in countries with projected net catch gains but where straddling fish species are not consumed domestically may still benefit indirectly via economic activities arising from the increased availability of non-domestically consumed straddling fish species following high seas closure. Consequently, this study suggests that high seas closure can potentially improve marine resource sustainability as well as contribute to human well-being in some of the poorest and most fish dependent countries worldwide. However, caution is required because high seas closure may also negatively affect fish availability in countries that are already impoverished and fish insecure. PMID:28033359

  8. Caloric restriction, the traditional Okinawan diet, and healthy aging: the diet of the world's longest-lived people and its potential impact on morbidity and life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Bradley J; Willcox, D Craig; Todoriki, Hidemi; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Yano, Katsuhiko; He, Qimei; Curb, J David; Suzuki, Makoto

    2007-10-01

    Long-term caloric restriction (CR) is a robust means of reducing age-related diseases and extending life span in multiple species, but the effects in humans are unknown. The low caloric intake, long life expectancy, and the high prevalence of centenarians in Okinawa have been used as an argument to support the CR hypothesis in humans. However, no long-term, epidemiologic analysis has been conducted on traditional dietary patterns, energy balance, and potential CR phenotypes for the specific cohort of Okinawans who are purported to have had a calorically restricted diet. Nor has this cohort's subsequent mortality experience been rigorously studied. Therefore, we investigated six decades of archived population data on the elderly cohort of Okinawans (aged 65-plus) for evidence of CR. Analyses included traditional diet composition, energy intake, energy expenditure, anthropometry, plasma DHEA, mortality from age-related diseases, and current survival patterns. Findings include low caloric intake and negative energy balance at younger ages, little weight gain with age, life-long low BMI, relatively high plasma DHEA levels at older ages, low risk for mortality from age-related diseases, and survival patterns consistent with extended mean and maximum life span. This study lends epidemiologic support for phenotypic benefits of CR in humans and is consistent with the well-known literature on animals with regard to CR phenotypes and healthy aging.

  9. The Association between Socio-Demographic Charactristics and Fast Food Consumption withinHigh School Students in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parastoo Yarmohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Fast food consumption has greatly increased with in adolescents in recent years, which is linked with weight gain, poor dietary indexes and insulin resistance. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between demographic characteristics and fast food consumption with in high school students. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, a sample of 521 high school students  aged 15-18 years were examined in Isfahan city, who were selected via multistage sampling method. The study data were collected using a questionnaire completed by the students. The present study probed to assess such items as frequency of fast food consumption, demographic characteristics, hours of television viewing, as well as high school students' knowledge and attitude. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Result: Frequent intake of fast food (&ge1 time/week was reported 15.5% within females and 15.3% within males. A significant relationship was detected between parents’ high level of education and high income of the family with the fast food consumption. The predominate reasons for fast food consumption were stated as “enjoying tastes”, “eating at any place”,” inexpensive and economic”. Conclusion: The findings revealed that fast food consumption increased in families with high income and high education level, though these families needed to be educated on the harmful effects of fast food and how to choose the healthy foods. Therefore, some interventions may be regarded beneficial in order to reduce the exposure to the fast food and promote knowledge, attitude, and behavior change in regard with reducing consumption of fast food.

  10. Food intake and energy expenditure are increased in high-fat-sensitive but not in high-carbohydrate-sensitive obesity-prone rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Even, Patrick C

    2014-01-01

    .... Energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), caloric intake (CI), and locomotor activity measured during HFD identified no differences in EE and RQ between fat-resistant (FR) and fat-sensitive (FS...

  11. Impulsivity, "advergames," and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Westerik, Henk; Buijzen, Moniek

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have focused on the effect of food advertisements on the caloric intake of children. However, the role of individual susceptibility in this effect is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the role of impulsivity in the effect of advergames that promote energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. First, impulsivity scores were assessed with a computer task. Then a randomized between-subject design was conducted with 261 children aged 7 to 10 years who played an advergame promoting either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. As an extra manipulation, half of the children in each condition were rewarded for refraining from eating, the other half were not. Children could eat freely while playing the game. Food intake was measured. The children then completed questionnaire measures, and were weighed and measured. Overall, playing an advergame containing food cues increased general caloric intake. Furthermore, rewarding children to refrain from eating decreased their caloric intake. Finally, rewarding impulsive children to refrain from eating had no influence when they were playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks, whereas it did lead to reduced intake among low impulsive children and children who played nonfood advergames. Playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks contributes to increased caloric intake in children. The advergame promoting energy-dense snacks overruled the inhibition task to refrain from eating among impulsive children, making it more difficult for them to refrain from eating. The findings suggest that impulsivity plays an important role in susceptibility to food advertisements. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of high-pressure extruded food waste by inoculum optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xin; Xu, Shuang; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Huan; Zhao, Ke; He, Liang

    2016-01-15

    The inoculation for extruded food waste anaerobic digestion (AD) was optimized to improve methane (CH4) yield. The inoculum of acclimated anaerobic sludge resulted in high biodegradability, producing CH4 yields from 580 mLCH4 g(-1)·VSadded to 605 mLCH4 g(-1)·VSadded, with corresponding BDCH4 ranging from 90% to 94%. We also investigated inoculum to substrate ratios (ISRs). With regards to digested slurry as inoculum, we found that a decrease in ISR improved CH4 yield, while a lower ISR prolonged the lag time of the initial AD stage due to lipid inhibition caused by excessive food waste. These results demonstrate that minimal inocula are required to start the AD system for high-pressure extruded food waste because it is easily biodegraded. High ammonia concentration had a negative effect on CH4 production (i.e., when free ammonia nitrogen [FAN] increased from 20 to 30 mg L(-1) to 120-140 mg L(-1), the CH4 yield decreased by 25%), suggesting that FAN was a significant inhibitor in CH4 yield reduction. In terms of CH4 yield and lag time of the AD process, the optimal inoculation of digested slurry for the extruded food waste had an ISR of 0.33 with CH4 yield of 505 mLCH4 g(-1)VSadded, which was 20% higher than what was found for higher ISR controls of 2, 1 and 0.5.

  13. Water, food, and population -- a panel discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes a conference panel discussion among parliamentarians and researchers on water and food supplies and population growth in Asia. The Western Samoa legislator urged delegates to be aware of human development that was no more than the promotion of values associated with a market economy. Samoans increased their per capita caloric consumption. The food supply is provided locally, and 90% of exports are food products. Food security would be jeopardized by a fivefold increase in population. Samoan human development indicators were relatively good for a developing country. However, the country was still ranked as a low-income, food-deficit country. The Pakistani delegate explained that Pakistan's agriculture used the largest, continuous irrigation system in the world. However, the system operated inefficiently. There was concern that future high population growth would jeopardize food security. Another barrier was institutional mismanagement of irrigation and reliance on imports for staple items. Agricultural productivity must increase to meet the increased needs of continued population growth. All available land is currently under cultivation. Future strategies will necessitate international cooperation and innovative and environmentally sound technology. Professor Xuan remarked that increased population growth and rising demand, decreased water quality, and changing consumption patterns were a threat to water supplies. Sustainable increases in food production would entail better water management: reforestation to reduce and prevent water runoff, better technological exploitation of rain water, and more efficient use of irrigation systems. Better international financing schemes were needed for support of these policy changes. Professor Ness suggested free markets in water in order to price water at actual rates of consumption. Polluters should pay. Water management was also threatened by global warming.

  14. High-Sugar, but Not High-Fat, Food Activates Supraoptic Nucleus Neurons in the Male Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Catherine; Sabatier, Nancy; Menzies, John

    2017-07-01

    Oxytocin is a potent anorexigen and is believed to have a role in satiety signaling. We developed rat models to study the activity of oxytocin neurons in response to voluntary consumption or oral gavage of foods using c-Fos immunohistochemistry and in vivo electrophysiology. Using c-Fos expression as an indirect marker of neural activation, we showed that the percentage of magnocellular oxytocin neurons expressing c-Fos increased with voluntary consumption of sweetened condensed milk (SCM). To model the effect of food in the stomach, we gavaged anesthetized rats with SCM. The percentage of supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus magnocellular oxytocin-immunoreactive neurons expressing c-Fos increased with SCM gavage but not with gastric distention. To further examine the activity of the supraoptic nucleus, we made in vivo electrophysiological recordings from SON neurons, where anesthetized rats were gavaged with SCM or single cream. Pharmacologically identified oxytocin neurons responded to SCM gavage with a linear, proportional, and sustained increase in firing rate, but cream gavage resulted in a transient reduction in firing rate. Blood glucose increased after SCM gavage but not cream gavage. Plasma osmolarity and plasma sodium were unchanged throughout. We show that in response to high-sugar, but not high-fat, food in the stomach, there is an increase in the activity of oxytocin neurons. This does not appear to be a consequence of stomach distention or changes in osmotic pressure. Our data suggest that the presence of specific foods with different macronutrient profiles in the stomach differentially regulates the activity of oxytocin neurons. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  15. Production of High-Value Nanoparticles via Biogenic Processes Using Aquacultural and Horticultural Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Purabi R.; Fawcett, Derek; Sharma, Shashi B.; Poinern, Gerrard E. J.

    2017-01-01

    The quantities of organic waste produced globally by aquacultural and horticulture are extremely large and offer an attractive renewable source of biomolecules and bioactive compounds. The availability of such large and diverse sources of waste materials creates a unique opportunity to develop new recycling and food waste utilisation strategies. The aim of this review is to report the current status of research in the emerging field of producing high-value nanoparticles from food waste. Eco-friendly biogenic processes are quite rapid, and are usually carried out at normal room temperature and pressure. These alternative clean technologies do not rely on the use of the toxic chemicals and solvents commonly associated with traditional nanoparticle manufacturing processes. The relatively small number of research articles in the field have been surveyed and evaluated. Among the diversity of waste types, promising candidates and their ability to produce various high-value nanoparticles are discussed. Experimental parameters, nanoparticle characteristics and potential applications for nanoparticles in pharmaceuticals and biomedical applications are discussed. In spite of the advantages, there are a number of challenges, including nanoparticle reproducibility and understanding the formation mechanisms between different food waste products. Thus, there is considerable scope and opportunity for further research in this emerging field. PMID:28773212

  16. Calorie Underestimation When Buying High-Calorie Beverages in Fast-Food Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckle, Rebecca L; Block, Jason P; Roberto, Christina A

    2016-07-01

    We asked 1877 adults and 1178 adolescents visiting 89 fast-food restaurants in New England in 2010 and 2011 to estimate calories purchased. Calorie underestimation was greater among those purchasing a high-calorie beverage than among those who did not (adults: 324 ±698 vs 102 ±591 calories; adolescents: 360 ±602 vs 198 ±509 calories). This difference remained significant for adults but not adolescents after adjusting for total calories purchased. Purchasing high-calorie beverages may uniquely contribute to calorie underestimation among adults.

  17. Effects of normal caloric high-protein diet on metabolic parameters and gastrointestinal hormones in patients with obesity or type 2 diabetes mellitus%正常热量高蛋白饮食对肥胖和2型糖尿病患者代谢指标及胃肠激素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海燕; 周洁; 王哲; 李茵茵; 李明龙

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of normal caloric high-protein diet on metabolic parameters and gastrointestinal hormones in patients with obesity or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Methods Totally 30 obese subjects (OB group) and 40 obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM group) received normal caloric high-protein diet for 24 weeks.Then body weight,fat mass,and metabolic parameters were assessed.The serum ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were also measured at 0 and 2 h after an oral 100 g of steamed bread meal test.Results After 24 weeks,body weight [(78.23 ± 7.51) kg vs (80.83±8.13) kg,P=0.016; (80.45±7.48) kg vs (83.26±9.35) kg,P=0.011],body mass index [(31.03 ±2.72) kg/m2 vs (32.01 ±2.95) kg/m2,P=0.033; (32.63 ±2.81) kg/m2 vs (33.86±3.03) kg/m2,P =0.043],waist circumference [(93.65 ± 6.23) cm vs (97.30 ± 7.81) cm,P =0.041 ;(97.02±7.43) cm vs (101.87 ±9.87) cm,P =0.034],fat mass [(30.42 ±6.18) kg vs (32.47 ±5.91) kg,P=0.022; (34.23 ±7.03) kg vs (36.64 ±6.83) kg,P =0.032],fasting serum insulin [(10.81±3.69) mmol/Lvs (13.58±4.86) mmol/L,P=0.012; (9.58±3.51) mmol/Lvs (10.82±4.28) mmol/L,P =0.015],HOMA-insulin resistance index [(2.42 ± 0.83) vs (3.16 ± 1.21),P =0.019; (3.15±0.74) vs (4.13±0.67),P=0.024] and triglycerides [(1.24±0.32) mmol/Lvs (1.49±0.52) mmol/L,P=0.046; (1.86±1.05) mmol/L vs (2.46±1.85) mmol/L,P=0.034] were significantly decreased in OB and T2DM groups,respectively,compared with 0 week.Fasting blood glucose (FBG)and glycosylated hemoglobin were also significantly declined in T2DM group [FBG:(6.73 ± 1.25) mmol/Lv s (8.63 ±2.81)) mmol/L,P=0.010; HbA1c (6.44 ±0.47) vs (7.38 ±0.33),P=0.031].The serum ghrelin and GLP-1 both increased at 0h and 2 h after meal test in OB and T2DM groups [fasting serum ghrelin:(4.98 ±0.89) μg/L vs (3.95 ±0.98) μg/L,P=0.021; (4.23 ± 1.67) μg/L vs (3.15 ± 1.01) μgL,P=0.025; 2 h postprandial serum ghrelin:(2.98 ±0.96) μg/L vs (2.56 ±0.83) μg/L,P =0

  18. State and trait food craving in people with bulimic eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Eynde, Frederique; Koskina, Antonia; Syrad, Hayley; Guillaume, Sébastien; Broadbent, Hannah; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2012-12-01

    In two studies, we examined trait and state food craving levels in people with a bulimic disorder (BD) (bulimia nervosa and related disorders) and healthy controls (HC) using multidimensional self-report assessments. In study 1, trait food craving was assessed in 70 people with a BD and 69 HC using the Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait. Participants also completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q). In study 2, 45 people with a BD and 29 HC completed the Food Craving Questionnaire-State and the EDE-Q following exposure to visual and real high-caloric food cues. The results showed that both trait and state food cravings were significantly higher in people with a BD, compared to HC. Trait food craving was associated with eating disorder symptomatology in both the HC and BD groups. State food craving was associated with eating disorder psychopathology, but only in the BD group. This research underscores the importance of food craving in the study and conceptualization of BD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Caloric Restriction Promotes Structural and Metabolic Changes in the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Forni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR is the most effective intervention known to enhance lifespan, but its effect on the skin is poorly understood. Here, we show that CR mice display fur coat remodeling associated with an expansion of the hair follicle stem cell (HFSC pool. We also find that the dermal adipocyte depot (dWAT is underdeveloped in CR animals. The dermal/vennule annulus vasculature is enlarged, and a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF switch and metabolic reprogramming in both the dermis and the epidermis are observed. When the fur coat is removed, CR mice display increased energy expenditure associated with lean weight loss and locomotion impairment. Our findings indicate that CR promotes extensive skin and fur remodeling. These changes are necessary for thermal homeostasis and metabolic fitness under conditions of limited energy intake, suggesting a potential adaptive mechanism.

  20. Oral fat perception is related with body mass index, preference and consumption of high-fat foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ruiz, Nina R; López-Díaz, José A; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge A; Angulo, Ofelia

    2014-04-22

    Oral sensory perception may play an important role in food preferences, driving food intake and energy balance. Fat perceived in oral cavity has been associated with satiety and homeostatic signals. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that fat oral-intensity perception may be associated with BMI, food preferences and consumption of fat-rich foods. The ability to perceive linoleic acid at different concentrations by intensity scaling was measured in young adults (n=121), characterized by anthropometric measurements such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and total body fat (TBF) percentage. Additionally, dietary habits were recorded online during 35days using a questionnaire designed according to the 24-hour recall and the food diary methods. Finally, food preferences were evaluated online using a nine-point hedonic scale. Taste sensitivity (intensity scaling with suprathreshold concentrations) was estimated with different linoleic acid concentrations using a linear scale of 150mm labeled at the ends. Four groups were established after the ratings for oral-intensity perception of linoleic acid: quartile high ratings (QH), quartile medium-high ratings (QMH), quartile medium-low ratings (QML) and quartile low ratings (QL). Participants with high-intensity ratings for linoleic acid (QH) had lower BMI (p=0.04) and waist circumference (WC) (p=0.03) values than participants in the QL group. High-fat foods (foods with more than 20% of energy from lipids such as fast foods and Mexican street foods) were less preferred by participants with high-intensity ratings for linoleic acid (QH) than by participants with medium- (QMH, QML) and low-(QL) intensity ratings (pfoods like fast foods (p=0.04) and Mexican street foods (p=0.03) than subjects with medium- (QMH, QML) and low-(QL) intensity ratings. Overall, these data suggest that the participant's intensity ratings for oral perception of linoleic acid were inversely correlated with BMI, WC

  1. The effect of food and ice cream on the adsorption capacity of paracetamol to high surface activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Angelo, Helle Riis; Christophersen, Anne Bolette

    2003-01-01

    The effect of added food mixture (as if food was present in the stomach of an intoxicated patient) or 4 different types of ice cream (added as a flavouring and lubricating agent) on the adsorption of paracetamol (acetaminophen) to 2 formulations of activated charcoal was determined in vitro......, and paracetamol were mixed with either food mixture or ice cream followed by one hr incubation. The maximum adsorption capacity of paracetamol to activated charcoal was calculated using Langmuirs adsorption isotherm. Paracetamol concentration was analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography. In the presence...... of food, the paracetamol adsorption capacity of the 2 activated charcoals was reduced by max. 19% (Pcream was mixed with the charcoal...

  2. Caloric Restriction in Lean and Obese Strains of Laboratory ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? How do lean and obese rats respond physiologically to caloric restriction? What is the main finding and its importance? Obese rats show marked benefits compared with lean animals. Reduced body fat is associated with improved longevity with caloric restriction (CR) in rodents. Little is known regarding effects of CR in genetically lean versus obese strains. Long-Evans (LE) and Brown Norway (BN) rats make an ideal comparison for a CR study because the percentage body fat of young adult LE rats is double that of BN rats. Male LE and BN rats were either fed ad libitum (AL) or were caloricallyrestricted to 80 or 90% of their AL weight. The percentages of fat, lean and fluid mass were measured non-invasively at 2- to 4-week intervals. Metabolic rate and respiratory quotient were measured after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of CR. Overall health was scored monthly. The percentage of fat of the LE strain decreased with CR, whereas the percentage of fat of the BN strain remained above the AL group for several months. The percentage of lean mass increased above the AL for both strains subjected to CR. The percentage offluid was unaffected by CR. The average metabolic rate over 22 h of the BN rats subjected to CR was reduced, whereas that of LE rats was increased slightly above the AL group. The respiratory quotient of BN rats wasdecreased with CR. Overall health of the CR LE group was significantly improved compared with t

  3. Food insecurity among volunteer AIDS caregivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was highly prevalent but buffered from the 2008 food crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Kenneth C; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru; Shifferaw, Selamawit; Tesfaye, Yihenew Alemu

    2009-09-01

    Our objective in this study was to assess the validity and dependability of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), which was developed for international use, among community health volunteers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The HFIAS was translated into Amharic and subsequently tested for content and face validity. This was followed by a quantitative validation study based on a representative sample (n = 99) of female community volunteers (HIV/AIDS home-based caregivers), with whom the HFIAS was administered at 3 time points over the course of 2008, in the context of the local and global "food crisis." By pooling observations across data collection rounds and accounting for intra-individual correlation in repeated measures, we found that the HFIAS performed well according to standards in the field. We also observed slight amelioration in reported food insecurity (FI) status over time, which seems paradoxical given the increasing inaccessibility of food over the same time period due to inflating prices and disappearing food aid. We attempted to resolve this paradox by appealing to self-report-related phenomena that arise in the context of longitudinal study designs: 1) observation bias, in which respondents change their reports according to changing expectations of the observer-respondent relationship or change their behavior in ways that ameliorate FI after baseline self-reports; and 2) "response shift," in which respondents change their reports according to reassessment of internal standards of FI. Our results are important for the validation of FI tools and for the sustainability of community health programs reliant on volunteerism in sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. [The new method for simultaneous determination of natural and synthetic food dyes by high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessonov, V V; Perederiaev, O I; Vedishcheva, Iu V; Bogachuk, M N

    2010-01-01

    In the food industry in Russia is currently allowed to use more than 30 different dyes. Existing approaches to monitoring their use in foods are based on spectrophotometry, thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods of research focused on the analysis of a specific class of food dye--natural or synthetic, and can not be used in the analysis of their mixtures. The aim of work was to develop HPLC method for the joint determination of various classes of dyes in complex food additives and food products. As a result of the research suggested a method to allow a simultaneous determination of at least 15 natural and synthetic food dyes.

  5. Variable Selection and Updating In Model-Based Discriminant Analysis for High Dimensional Data with Food Authenticity Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Thomas Brendan; Dean, Nema; Raftery, Adrian E

    2010-03-01

    Food authenticity studies are concerned with determining if food samples have been correctly labelled or not. Discriminant analysis methods are an integral part of the methodology for food authentication. Motivated by food authenticity applications, a model-based discriminant analysis method that includes variable selection is presented. The discriminant analysis model is fitted in a semi-supervised manner using both labeled and unlabeled data. The method is shown to give excellent classification performance on several high-dimensional multiclass food authenticity datasets with more variables than observations. The variables selected by the proposed method provide information about which variables are meaningful for classification purposes. A headlong search strategy for variable selection is shown to be efficient in terms of computation and achieves excellent classification performance. In applications to several food authenticity datasets, our proposed method outperformed default implementations of Random Forests, AdaBoost, transductive SVMs and Bayesian Multinomial Regression by substantial margins.

  6. High-throughput sequencing and metagenomics: moving forward in the culture-independent analysis of food microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolini, Danilo

    2013-05-01

    Following recent trends in environmental microbiology, food microbiology has benefited from the advances in molecular biology and adopted novel strategies to detect, identify, and monitor microbes in food. An in-depth study of the microbial diversity in food can now be achieved by using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) approaches after direct nucleic acid extraction from the sample to be studied. In this review, the workflow of applying culture-independent HTS to food matrices is described. The current scenario and future perspectives of HTS uses to study food microbiota are presented, and the decision-making process leading to the best choice of working conditions to fulfill the specific needs of food research is described.

  7. The effect of fast-food availability on fast-food consumption and obesity among rural residents: an analysis by race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Richard A; Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Rural areas of the United States tend to have higher obesity rates than urban areas, particularly in regions with high proportions of non-white residents. This paper analyzes the effect of fast-food availability on the level of fast-food consumption and obesity risk among both white and non-white residents of central Texas. Potential endogeneity of fast-food availability is addressed through instrumental variables regression using distance to the nearest major highway as an instrument. We find that non-whites tend to exhibit higher obesity rates, greater access to fast-food establishments and higher consumption of fast-food meals compared to their white counterparts. In addition, we found that whites and non-whites respond differently to the availability of fast-food in rural environments. Greater availability is not associated with either greater consumption of fast-food meals or a higher obesity risk among the sample of whites. In contrast, greater availability of fast-food is positively associated with both the number of meals consumed for non-white rural residents and their obesity. While our results are robust to specification, the effect of availability on weight outcomes is notably weaker when indirectly calculated from the implied relationship between consumption and caloric intake. This highlights the importance of directly examining the proposed mechanism through which an environmental factor influences weight outcomes.

  8. Appropriateness of the food-pics image database for experimental eating and appetite research with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D; Duraccio, Kara M; Barnett, Kimberly A; Stevens, Kimberly S

    2016-12-01

    Research examining effects of visual food cues on appetite-related brain processes and eating behavior has proliferated. Recently investigators have developed food image databases for use across experimental studies examining appetite and eating behavior. The food-pics image database represents a standardized, freely available image library originally validated in a large sample primarily comprised of adults. The suitability of the images for use with adolescents has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the appropriateness of the food-pics image library for appetite and eating research with adolescents. Three hundred and seven adolescents (ages 12-17) provided ratings of recognizability, palatability, and desire to eat, for images from the food-pics database. Moreover, participants rated the caloric content (high vs. low) and healthiness (healthy vs. unhealthy) of each image. Adolescents rated approximately 75% of the food images as recognizable. Approximately 65% of recognizable images were correctly categorized as high vs. low calorie and 63% were correctly classified as healthy vs. unhealthy in 80% or more of image ratings. These results suggest that a smaller subset of the food-pics image database is appropriate for use with adolescents. With some modifications to included images, the food-pics image database appears to be appropriate for use in experimental appetite and eating-related research conducted with adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Foods with a high fat quality are essential for healthy diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevenbergen, H; de Bree, A; Zeelenberg, M; Laitinen, K; van Duijn, G; Flöter, E

    2009-01-01

    Fat is generally a highly valued element of the diet to provide energy, palatability to dry foods or to serve as a cooking medium. However, some foods rich in fat have a low fat quality with respect to nutrition, i.e., a relative high content of saturated (SFA) as compared to unsaturated fatty acids, whereas others have a more desirable fat quality, i.e., a relative high content of unsaturated fatty acids as compared to SFA. High-fat dairy products and fatty meats are examples of foods with low fat quality, whereas vegetable oils (tropical oils such as palm and coconut oil excluded) are products with a generally high fat quality. The aim of this paper is to explore the nutritional impact of products made of vegetable oils, e.g. margarines and dressings, and how they can be designed to contribute to good health. Since their first industrial production, the food industry has endeavored to improve products like margarines, including their nutritional characteristics. With evolving nutrition science, margarines and cooking products, and to a lesser extent dressings, have been adapted to contain less trans fatty acids (TFA), less SFA and more essential (polyunsaturated, PUFA) fatty acids. This has been possible by using careful fat and oil selection and modification processes. By blending vegetable oils rich in the essential PUFAs alpha-linolenic acid (vegetable omega-3) or linoleic acid (omega-6), margarines and dressings with both essential fatty acids present in significant quantities can be realized. In addition, full hydrogenation and fat rearrangement have enabled the production of cost-effective margarines virtually devoid of TFA and low in SFA. Dietary surveys indicate that vegetable oils, soft margarines and dressings are indeed often important sources of essential fatty acids in people's diets, whilst providing negligible amounts of TFA and contributing modestly to SFA intakes. Based on empirical and epidemiological data, the public health benefit of switching

  10. Differential activation of the frontal pole to high vs low calorie foods: The neural basis of food preference in Anorexia Nervosa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaife, Jessica C; Godier, Lauren R; Reinecke, Andrea; Harmer, Catherine J; Park, Rebecca J

    2016-12-30

    Neuroimaging studies in anorexia nervosa (AN) suggest that altered food reward processing may result from dysfunction in both limbic reward and cortical control centers of the brain. This fMRI study aimed to index the neural correlates of food reward in a subsample of individuals with restrictive AN: twelve currently ill, fourteen recovered individuals and sixteen healthy controls. Participants were shown pictures of high and low-calorie foods and asked to evaluate how much they wanted to eat each one following a four hour fast. Whole-brain task-activated analysis was followed by psychophysiological interaction analysis (PPI) of the amygdala and caudate. In the AN group, we observed a differential pattern of activation in the lateral frontal pole: increasing following presentation of high-calorie stimuli and decreasing in during presentation of low-calorie food pictures, the opposite of which was seen in the healthy control (HC) group. In addition, decreased activation to food pictures was observed in somatosensory regions in the AN group. PPI analyses suggested hypo-connectivity in reward pathways, and between the caudate and both somatosensory and visual processing regions in the AN group. No significant between-group differences were observed between the recovered group and the currently ill and healthy controls in the PPI analysis. Taken together, these findings further our understanding of the neural processes which may underpin the avoidance of high-calorie foods in those with AN and might exacerbate the development of compulsive weight-loss behavior, despite emaciation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Unusually high food availability in Kaikoura Canyon linked to distinct deep-sea nematode community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, D.; Rowden, A. A.; Nodder, S. D.; Berkenbusch, K.; Probert, P. K.; Hadfield, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    Kaikoura Canyon, on the eastern New Zealand continental margin, is the most productive, non-chemosynthetic deep-sea habitat described to date, with megafaunal biomass 100-fold higher than those of other deep-sea habitats. The present study, which focused on free-living nematodes, provides the first comparison of faunal community structure and diversity between Kaikoura Canyon and nearby open slope habitats. Results show substantially higher food availability in the canyon relative to open slope sediments, which probably reflects greater levels of primary productivity above the canyon, coupled with downwelling and/or topographically-induced channelling, which serves to concentrate surface-derived organic matter along the canyon axis. This high food availability appears to be responsible for the elevated nematode biomass in Kaikoura Canyon, with values exceeding all published nematode biomass data from canyons elsewhere. There was also markedly lower local species diversity of nematodes inside the canyon relative to the open slope habitat, as well as a distinct community structure. The canyon community was dominated by species, such as Sabateria pulchra, which were absent from the open slope and are typically associated with highly eutrophic and/or disturbed environments. The presence of these taxa, as well as the low observed diversity, is likely to reflect the high food availability, and potentially the high levels of physically and biologically induced disturbance within the canyon. Kaikoura Canyon is a relatively small habitat characterised by different environmental conditions that makes a disproportionate contribution to deep-sea diversity in the region, despite its low species richness.

  12. [Surveillance study on use of over-the-counter drug and health food by school pharmacist for grade-schooler, junior high school student, and high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anraku, Makoto; Tomida, Hisao; Sato, Eiji; Tabuchi, Norihiko; Yoshitomi, Hironori; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Taguchi, Katsuhide; Kondo, Yuko; Murakami, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, it is necessary to acquire knowledge not only about medicine but also over-the-counter (OTC) drugs and health food for children, because lowering trend in the age of the health hazard by improper use of health food is reported. Therefore, in order to estimate the extent of use of OTC drugs and health food, the school pharmacists administered a questionnaire to students in grade-school (n=123), junior high school (n=303), and high school (n=115) in Fukuyama city. As a result of the questionnaire survey, surprisingly, the usage ratio of OTC drugs and health food showed the most increase in grade-schooler. The trigger of use of health food is "parents' recommendations" in the lower grades, otherwise the ratio of "use by themselves" was increased in the higher grades. Moreover, a remarkable difference was observed by the kinds of use in students with or without exercise. Interestingly, exercise group expected "physical strength" effects than no exercise group. In addition, the ratio of consultation to the pharmacist at the time of purchase of OTC drugs and health food was low in all grade students. In particular, the ratio of consultation to the pharmacist at the time of purchase of health food was very low in high school students. Therefore, to provide accurate information of medicine and health food for students, the school pharmacist should engage not only in routine work but also in positive guidance about OTC drugs and health food in the future.

  13. DETERMINANTS OF SMALLHOLDERS’ PREFERENCE TO HYBRIDS – PROSPECT FOR UPGRADING TO HIGH-VALUE FOOD CHAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Ejigu Alemu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid coordination systems (marketing cooperatives and contracts are in place in agriculture to link smallholder farmers to the global agri-food value chains. With the framework of transaction cost economics, this study, however, is particularly designed to investigate the key determinants pushing dairy farmers to hybrids (marketing cooperatives and contracts, viz. spot market channels in the local food chains. A household survey of 415 smallholder dairy farmers was designed. Data collection was administered using trained enumerators. A multinomial logistic regression model was employed to analyze data and to identify the signifi cant determinants. The results indicate that high transaction costs and resource constraints were found driving farmers to cooperative engagement and contracts, implying that hybrids were found to be a solution to farmers’ constraints of access to information and institutional absence, as well as resource constraints. Policy makers and development partners are advised to strengthen cooperative societies and contract enforcement mechanisms. Providing information and resources to increase smallholders’ capacity with resources appear to be interventions which will enable the agricultural marketing system to properly function by serving smallholders in linking to the global food chains.

  14. Nutritional and sensory properties: Snack food made from high-quality cassava flour and legume blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziya-Dixon, Busie; Alamu, Emmanuel O; Popoola, Ibironke O; Yomeni, Marie

    2017-05-01

    The nutritional benefits of grain legumes such as cowpea and soybean in sub-Saharan Africa have not been fully utilized to alleviate problem of protein-malnutrition in this region. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the nutritional properties and sensory evaluation of snack food made from high-quality cassava flour (HQCF) and soybeans (50:50), and HQCF and cowpea (50:50). Sensory evaluation was conducted among panellists in Nigeria and DR Congo. Results showed that the soy variant of the snack contained significantly higher protein than the cowpea variant. There was cross-cultural difference in snack preference between panellists in Nigeria and DR Congo. Panellists in DR Congo preferred the aroma of the unboiled soy variant, whereas panellists in Nigeria preferred the boiled soy variant more. This study showed the potential of legumes and cassava in the snack food sector not only as a partial substitute for wheat flour but as a major ingredient and also form basis for the new product development in the snacks food industry. The developed product could be possibly used to alleviate the protein-malnutrition among the vulnerable groups of most developing countries.

  15. Sensory characteristics of high-amylose maize-resistant starch in three food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziarz, Mindy; Sherrard, Melanie; Juma, Shanil; Prasad, Chandan; Imrhan, Victorine; Vijayagopal, Parakat

    2013-03-01

    Type 2 resistant starch from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) is considered a functional ingredient due to its positive organoleptic and physiochemical modifications associated with food and physiological benefits related to human health. The sensory characteristics of three types of food products (muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry) with and without HAM-RS2 were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry contained 5.50 g/100 g, 13.10 g/100 g, and 8.94 g/100 g RS, respectively, based on lyophilized dry weight. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffin had higher moisture content and was perceived as being significantly moister than the control according to the sensory evaluation. The addition of HAM-RS2 to muffins significantly enhanced all sensory characteristics and resulted in a higher mean overall likeability score. The HAM-RS2-enriched focaccia bread appeared significantly darker in color, was more dense, and had the perception of a well-done crust versus the control. A grainer texture was observed with the chicken curry containing HAM-RS2 which did not significantly affect overall likeability. We concluded that the addition of HAM-RS2 may not significantly alter consumer's acceptability in most food products.

  16. Inactivation of pathogenic bacteria in food matrices: high pressure processing, photodynamic inactivation and pressure-assisted photodynamic inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, A.; Couceiro, J.; Bonifácio, D.; Martins, C.; Almeida, A.; Neves, M. G. P. M. S.; Faustino, M. A. F.; Saraiva, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    Traditional food processing methods frequently depend on the application of high temperature. However, heat may cause undesirable changes in food properties and often has a negative impact on nutritional value and organoleptic characteristics. Therefore, reducing the microbial load without compromising the desirable properties of food products is still a technological challenge. High-pressure processing (HPP) can be classified as a cold pasteurization technique, since it is a non-thermal food preservation method that uses hydrostatic pressure to inactivate spoilage microorganisms. At the same time, it increases shelf life and retains the original features of food. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is also regarded as promising approach for the decontamination of food matrices. In this case, the inactivation of bacterial cells is achieved by the cytotoxic effects of reactive oxygens species (ROS) produced from the combined interaction of a photosensitizer molecule, light and oxygen. This short review examines some recent developments on the application of HPP and PDI with food-grade photosensitizers for the inactivation of listeriae, taken as a food pathogen model. The results of a proof-of-concept trial of the use of high-pressure as a coadjutant to increase the efficiency of photodynamic inactivation of bacterial endospores is also addressed.

  17. Factors affecting biotic mercury concentrations and biomagnification through lake food webs in the Canadian high Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescord, Gretchen L., E-mail: glescord@gmail.com [University of New Brunswick/Canadian Rivers Institute, 100 Tucker Park Rd, Saint John, NB E2L 4A6 (Canada); Kidd, Karen A. [University of New Brunswick/Canadian Rivers Institute, 100 Tucker Park Rd, Saint John, NB E2L 4A6 (Canada); Kirk, Jane L. [Environment Canada, Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, 867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington, ON L7S 1A1 (Canada); O' Driscoll, Nelson J. [Acadia University, 15 University Ave, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Wang, Xiaowa; Muir, Derek C.G. [Environment Canada, Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, 867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington, ON L7S 1A1 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    In temperate regions of Canada, mercury (Hg) concentrations in biota and the magnitude of Hg biomagnification through food webs vary between neighboring lakes and are related to water chemistry variables and physical lake features. However, few studies have examined factors affecting the variable Hg concentrations in landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) or the biomagnification of Hg through their food webs. We estimated the food web structure of six high Arctic lakes near Resolute Bay, Nunavut, Canada, using stable carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) isotopes and measured Hg (total Hg (THg) in char, the only fish species, and methylmercury (MeHg) in chironomids and zooplankton) concentrations in biota collected in 2010 and 2011. Across lakes, δ{sup 13}C showed that benthic carbon (chironomids) was the dominant food source for char. Regression models of log Hg versus δ{sup 15}N (of char and benthic invertebrates) showed positive and significant slopes, indicting Hg biomagnification in all lakes, and higher slopes in some lakes than others. However, no principal components (PC) generated using all water chemistry data and physical characteristics of the lakes predicted the different slopes. The PC dominated by aqueous ions was a negative predictor of MeHg concentrations in chironomids, suggesting that water chemistry affects Hg bioavailability and MeHg concentrations in these lower-trophic-level organisms. Furthermore, regression intercepts were predicted by the PCs dominated by catchment area, aqueous ions, and MeHg. Weaker relationships were also found between THg in small char or MeHg in pelagic invertebrates and the PCs dominated by catchment area, and aqueous nitrate and MeHg. Results from these high Arctic lakes suggest that Hg biomagnification differs between systems and that their physical and chemical characteristics affect Hg concentrations in lower-trophic-level biota. - Highlights: • Mercury (Hg) in Arctic char and invertebrates

  18. Transferencia de calor incrementada en espacios anulares con elementos helicoidales insertados//Review of augmentation techniques for heat transfer coefficient in annular spaces using helical elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Imbert‐González

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La transferencia de calor incrementada por métodos pasivos se emplea en diversosintercambiadores de calor de alta efectividad. El objetivo del trabajo presentado fue la evaluación del estado de las investigaciones en el campo de la transferencia de calor mejorada en espacios anulares, a partir del empleo de elementos turbulizadores helicoidales como técnicas pasivas. La revisión se centró en el empleo de láminas helicoidales y espirales, la obtención de ecuaciones de correlación del coeficiente de transferencia de calor incrementado, el coeficiente de fricción y la evaluación que se realiza de este proceso por parte de diferentes autores. El análisis crítico permitió realizar valoraciones integradas y recomendar sobre los aspectos que podrían ser analizados en el futuro en esta temática.Palabras claves: transferencia de calor incrementada, láminas helicoidales, espirales, espacios anulares, métodos pasivos._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe transfer enhancement by passive methods is used in several heat exchanger of high effectiveness. The objective of the presented work was the evaluation of the state of the investigations in heat transfer enhancement in annular spaces, from the employment of elements helical. The revision was centered in the employment of twisted tape and wire coil in spiral, the equations of correlation obtained of the coefficient of transfer of increased heat, the coefficient of friction and the evaluation that was carried out of this process on the part of different authors. From the critical analysis of the published results, the authors recommend on the topics that can be analyzed in the future in this area.Key words: heat transfer enhancement, twisted tape, helical springs, annular spaces, passive methods.

  19. High-Efficiency Food Production in a Renewable Energy Based Micro-Grid Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David; Meiners, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) systems can be used to produce high-quality, desirable food year round, and the fresh produce can positively contribute to the health and well being of residents in communities with difficult supply logistics. While CEA has many positive outcomes for a remote community, the associated high electric demands have prohibited widespread implementation in what is typically already a fully subscribed power generation and distribution system. Recent advances in CEA technologies as well as renewable power generation, storage, and micro-grid management are increasing system efficiency and expanding the possibilities for enhancing community supporting infrastructure without increasing demands for outside supplied fuels. We will present examples of how new lighting, nutrient delivery, and energy management and control systems can enable significant increases in food production efficiency while maintaining high yields in CEA. Examples from Alaskan communities where initial incorporation of renewable power generation, energy storage and grid management techniques have already reduced diesel fuel consumption for electric generation by more than 40% and expanded grid capacity will be presented. We will discuss how renewable power generation, efficient grid management to extract maximum community service per kW, and novel energy storage approaches can expand the food production, water supply, waste treatment, sanitation and other community support services without traditional increases of consumable fuels supplied from outside the community. These capabilities offer communities with a range of choices to enhance their communities. The examples represent a synergy of technology advancement efforts to develop sustainable community support systems for future space-based human habitats and practical implementation of infrastructure components to increase efficiency and enhance health and well being in remote communities today and tomorrow.

  20. Association between Food Insecurity and Procurement Methods among People Living with HIV in a High Resource Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, Aranka; Fielden, Sarah J.; Shurgold, Susan; Ding, Erin; Messina, Jennifer; Jones, Jennifer E.; Chittock, Brian; Monteith, Ken; Globerman, Jason; Rourke, Sean B.; Hogg, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective People living with HIV in high-resource settings suffer severe levels of food insecurity; however, limited evidence exists regarding dietary intake and sub-components that characterize food insecurity (i.e. food quantity, quality, safety or procurement) in this population. We examined the prevalence and characteristics of food insecurity among people living with HIV across British Columbia, Canada. Design This cross-sectional analysis was conducted within a national community-based research initiative. Methods Food security was measured using the Health Canada Household Food Security Scale Module. Logistic regression was used to determine key independent predictors of food insecurity, controlling for potential confounders. Results Of 262 participants, 192 (73%) reported food insecurity. Sub-components associated with food insecurity in bivariate analysis included: < RDI consumption of protein (p = 0.046); being sick from spoiled/unsafe food in the past six months (p = 0.010); and procurement of food using non-traditional methods (p <0.05). In multivariable analyses, factors significantly associated with food insecurity included: procurement of food using non-traditional methods [AOR = 11.11, 95% CI: 4.79–25.68, p = <0.001]; younger age [AOR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86–0.96, p = <0.001]; unstable housing [AOR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.15–17.36, p = 0.031]; household gross annual income [AOR = 4.49, 95% CI: 1.74–11.60, p = 0.002]; and symptoms of depression [AOR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.25–5.96, p = 0.012]. Conclusions Food insecurity among people living with HIV in British Columbia is characterized by poor dietary quality and food procurement methods. Notably, participants who reported procuring in non-traditional manners were over 10 times more likely to be food insecure. These findings suggest a need for tailored food security and social support interventions in this setting. PMID:27487041

  1. The mixed health messages of Millsberry: a critical study of online child-targeted food advergaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Deborah M

    2011-06-01

    This paper offers a critical study of the contradictions of Millsberry.com, a General Mills (GM) advergaming website used to market GM's breakfast cereal brands to children. The paper takes a critical semiotic approach to argue that Millsberry.com sends players contradictory messages about health by simultaneously promoting nutritional wellness and consumption of high-sugar cereals, essentially conflating the two. Players on Millsberry.com create a virtual self (a Buddy) who lives in the fictional town of Millsberry, and a Buddy's health is tracked over time as players make nutritional choices for the Buddy. Health on Millsberry equates to eating from multiple food groups (nutritional balance) and eating only until full (caloric moderation). Yet both of these health messages are essentially undermined by play on the site. Nutritional balance is undermined by both the excessive promotion of high-sugar cereals and the differences between depictions of branded and unbranded foods. Caloric moderation is contradicted by digital advergames that operate on a logic of maximal consumption, by narratives of branded spokescharacters' endless appetites for cereal, and by giveaways of "free" boxes of virtual cereal that can be eaten by the Buddy in a single bite. The study concludes that such mixed messages about nutritional health are highly problematic, particularly given the alarming increase in diet and weight-related diseases among children.

  2. Doped graphene/Cu nanocomposite: A high sensitivity non-enzymatic glucose sensor for food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabnam, Luba; Faisal, Shaikh Nayeem; Roy, Anup Kumar; Haque, Enamul; Minett, Andrew I; Gomes, Vincent G

    2017-04-15

    An amperometric non-enzymatic glucose sensor was developed based on nitrogen-doped graphene with dispersed copper nanoparticles (Cu-NGr). The sensing element was tested in conjunction with a modified glassy carbon electrode for glucose detection. The Cu-NGr composite was prepared by one pot synthesis from a mixture of graphene oxide, copper nitrate and uric acid, followed by thermal annealing at 900°C for 1h. Detailed characterizations showed homogeneous copper nanoparticle dispersion and the presence of significant proportion of graphitic nitrogen. The developed electrode presented high electrocatalytic activity towards glucose through synergetic effect of copper nanoparticles and nitrogen-doped graphene. Amperometric analysis confirmed high glucose sensitivity and ultra-low detection of 10nM glucose over a linear range. The sensor was tested for direct application to detect glucose in food samples for which the sensor displayed high selectivity with excellent reproducibility and recovery in complex food materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Steviol glycoside safety: are highly purified steviol glycoside sweeteners food allergens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Jonathan D; Carakostas, Michael C; Taylor, Steve L

    2015-01-01

    Steviol glycoside sweeteners are extracted from the plant Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), a member of the Asteraceae (Compositae) family. Many plants from this family can induce hypersensitivity reactions via multiple routes of exposure (e.g., ragweed, goldenrod, chrysanthemum, echinacea, chamomile, lettuce, sunflower and chicory). Based on this common taxonomy, some popular media reports and resources have issued food warnings alleging the potential for stevia allergy. To determine if such allergy warnings are warranted on stevia-based sweeteners, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all available data related to allergic responses following the consumption of stevia extracts or highly purified steviol glycosides. Hypersensitivity reactions to stevia in any form are rare. The few cases documented in the peer-reviewed literature were reported prior to the introduction of high-purity products to the market in 2008 when many global regulatory authorities began to affirm the safety of steviol glycosides. Neither stevia manufacturers nor food allergy networks have reported significant numbers of any adverse events related to ingestion of stevia-based sweeteners, and there have been no reports of stevia-related allergy in the literature since 2008. Therefore, there is little substantiated scientific evidence to support warning statements to consumers about allergy to highly purified stevia extracts.

  4. Detection of abnormally high amygdalin content in food by an enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, A-Yeon; Yi, Kye Sook; Rhim, Jung-Hyo; Kim, Kyu-Il; Park, Jae-Young; Keum, Eun-Hee; Chung, Junho; Oh, Sangsuk

    2006-04-30

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside compound which is commonly found in the pits of many fruits and raw nuts. Although amygdalin itself is not toxic, it can release cyanide (CN) after hydrolysis when the pits and nuts are crushed, moistened and incubated, possibly within the gastrointestinal tract. CN reversibly inhibits cellular oxidizing enzymes and cyanide poisoning generates a range of clinical symptoms. As some pits and nuts may contain unusually high levels of amygdalin such that there is a sufficient amount to induce critical CN poisoning in humans, the detection of abnormal content of amygdalin in those pits and nuts can be a life-saving measure. Although there are various methods to detect amygdalin in food extracts, an enzyme immunoassay has not been developed for this purpose. In this study we immunized New Zealand White rabbits with an amygdalin-KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) conjugate and succeeded in raising anti-sera reactive to amygdalin, proving that amygdalin can behave as a hapten in rabbits. Using this polyclonal antibody, we developed a competition enzyme immunoassay for determination of amygdalin concentration in aqueous solutions. This technique was able to effectively detect abnormally high amygdalin content in various seeds and nuts. In conclusion, we proved that enzyme immunoassay can be used to determine the amount of amygdalin in food extracts, which will allow automated analysis with high throughput.

  5. The effect of vertical sleeve gastrectomy on food choice in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Pérez, H E; Chambers, A P; Sandoval, D A; Stefater, M A; Woods, S C; Benoit, S C; Seeley, R J

    2013-02-01

    Diets high in fat are implicated in the development and maintenance of obesity, and obese individuals display greater preferences for high-fat foods than do their lean counterparts. Weight-reduction bariatric surgery is associated with changes in food choice. In particular, after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), humans and rodents select or prefer foods that are lower in fat content. We asked whether a bariatric surgical procedure limited to the stomach, vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), causes a similar reduction of fat intake/preference. Rats received VSG or Sham surgery or remained surgically naïve, and were assessed for food preference using three diet-choice paradigms. Using progressive-ratio (PR) and conditioned taste aversion paradigms, we further asked whether surgically induced changes in food choice are secondary to changes in the reward value of food and/or to the formation of a food aversion. Finally, food choice was compared between VSG- and RYGB-operated rats. VSG rats decreased their intake of dietary fat, and shifted their preference toward lower caloric-density foods. This change in food choice was not associated with changes in motivated responding on a PR schedule for either a fat or a carbohydrate food reinforcer. When VSG and RYGB were compared directly, both procedures caused comparable changes in food choice. The conditioned taste aversion paradigm revealed that VSG rats form an aversion to an intra-gastric oil administration whereas RYGB rats do not. VSG and RYGB, two anatomically distinct bariatric procedures, produce similar changes in food choice.

  6. High-oxygen and high-carbon dioxide containing atmospheres inhibit growth of food associated moulds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, S.W.; Kets, E.P.W.; Dijksterhuis, J.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the growth of three foodborne fungi and high-oxygen modified atmosphere. Methods and Results: Petri dishes were incubated in a series of connected flasks, which were placed in a climatized room and flushed continuously with

  7. High-oxygen and high-carbon dioxide containing atmospheres inhibit growth of food associated moulds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, S W; Kets, E P W; Dijksterhuis, J

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the growth of three foodborne fungi and high-oxygen modified atmosphere. METHODS AND RESULTS: Petri dishes were incubated in a series of connected flasks, which were placed in a climatized room and flushed continuously with

  8. Comparison of caloric intake and weight outcomes of an ad lib feeding regimen for preterm infants in two nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridham, K F; Kosorok, M R; Greer, F; Kayata, S; Bhattacharya, A; Grunwald, P

    2001-09-01

    Effects on caloric intake and weight gain of an ad libitum (ad lib) feeding regimen for preterm infants may be specific to a special care nursery. To explore across two nurseries the similarity of effect on caloric intake and weight gain of an ad lib feeding regimen compared with a prescribed regimen and the similarity of effect of caloric intake on weight gain. All infants participating in the multi-site randomized clinical trial (RCT) of the ad lib feeding regimen were lib. After accounting for caloric intake, the ad lib regimen did not affect weight gain. The time-by-regimen interaction effect on caloric intake was significant in both nurseries. Caloric intake for infants fed ad lib increased significantly over 5 days. Despite differences between nurseries in infant characteristics and in protocol implementation, the feeding regimen effect was consistent for caloric intake and weight gain. Further support was found for the development of infant self-regulatory capacity.

  9. The Effects of Different High-Protein Low-Carbohydrates Proprietary Foods on Blood Sugar in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Alessandra; Karsten, Bettina; Bosco, Gerardo; Gómez-López, Manuel; Brandão, Paula Paraguassú; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects on blood sugar concentrations through the calculation of the glycemic score (GS) of 10 different high-protein low-carbohydrates (CHOs) proprietary foods that are commonly used as meals during very low-CHO ketogenic diets or during low-CHO diets. Fourteen healthy females were tested for their glycemic response curve elicited by 1000 kJ of glucose three times within a 3-week period (one test each week) compared with one of 10 test foods once on separate days twice a week. After determining the GS of each food in each individual, the mean GS of each test food was calculated. All test foods, compared with glucose, produced a significantly lower glycemic response. The GS of all test food resulted in being lower than 25 and the difference between the mean glycemia after the intake of glucose (mean 122 ± 15 mg/dL) and after the intake of the sweet test foods (mean 89 ± 7 mg/dL) was 33 mg/dL (P < .001), whereas the difference between the mean glycemia after the intake of glucose and after the intake of savory test foods (mean 91 ± 8 mg/dL) was of 31 mg/dL (P < .001). The reformulation of ultraprocessed ready-to-consume foods in a low-CHO, high-protein version can produce a significantly lower glycemic response whilst maintaining the valued ready-to-use format and high palatability demanded by consumers. The low impact on postprandial glycemia and the nutritional characteristics of these proprietary foods makes them useful in both weight control management strategies and in the care management of diabetes.

  10. Caloric sxpense in daily and labor activities of cycling postmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Carlos Della Giustina

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify lifestyle behaviors and to quantify caloric expenditure in daily and labor activities of bike postmen (employees from CORREIOS - Brazilian Postal Services of the city of São José – SC – Brazil. The methodology used an interview using the IPAQ questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and records of daily activities (measuring time spent in selecting mail, and in delivering it as well as monitoring speed and time during cycling. The caloric expenditure was estimated by using body mass and mean speed of delivering mail, which corresponds to 4 METs. From descriptive analyses of the data, a confidence interval scale was created. Twenty-three subjects composed the sample with mean age of 31.3 yrs (sd 6.3, body mass of 73.4 kg (sd 9.6, stature of 1.74 m (sd 0.05 and IMC of 24.4 kg.m-2 (sd 2.9. The results indicated that the majority of subjects had healthy lifestyles. Mean daily caloric expenditure in selecting mail was 590 kcal.day-1 and in delivering it was 1818 kcal.day -1 . Daily labor activities of bike postmen were a positive factor of their health-related physical fitness components. RESUMO Com o objetivo de conhecer hábitos de vida e estimar gasto calórico despendido, esse estudo se realizou com carteiros que utilizam a bicicleta como meio de locomoção para a entrega domiciliar, em São José/SC. A investigação constou de entrevista dirigida, utilizando-se o questionário sobre hábitos de atividade física (IPAQ, coleta de dados antropométricos e acompanhamento de um dia normal de entrega de correspondências, observando-se tempo despendido na seleção e entrega de correspondências (monitorando velocidade da pedalada. O estudo do gasto calórico nas atividades de trabalho foi estimado conforme tempo despendido na triagem das cartas e a entrega (calculado através do peso do indivíduo e da velocidade média de entrega pedalando, correspondente a 4 METs. Os dados foram analisados através de escalas

  11. Inulin and Oligofructosis: a review about functional properties, prebiotic effects and importance for food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celia de Oliveira Hauly

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays consumers are more conscious about the relation between food and health. Therefore food industry has been looking for food that has a lot of benefits besides good flavor and appearance. Inulin and oligofructose are fructose polimers, vastly found in plants as storage carbohydrates. They present important functional for the food industry. Both inulin and oligofructose have been used as fiber bulk in food products. Differently from other fibers, they do not add flavor, allowing the food to be improved without changing its viscosity. Inulin and oligofructose have similar nutritional properties. Inulin is more indicated for obtaining products with a low fat content such as ice cream, cake and soup, while oligofructose is indicated for yogurt with a low caloric value and in order to mask the residual flavor from high intensity sweeteners used in food preparation. Research has shown that inulin and oligofructose have prebiotic effects because they are not digestible and they can develop bifidogenic effects, improving the intestinal microflora. The simultaneous use of inulin and oligofructose with probiotic agents in food is recommended for symbiotic effects.

  12. Cognitive reappraisal fails when attempting to reduce the appetitive value of food: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlo, Michela; Ubel, Sonja; Leutgeb, Verena; Schienle, Anne

    2013-12-01

    This event-related potential (ERP) study investigated neural correlates of cognitive reappraisal during the exposure to food cues. Thirty-three healthy, normal-weight women viewed images of high-caloric food and non-food items after an overnight fast. The participants were instructed to either passively look at the pictures, or to change (increase, decrease) the appetitive value of the food items. The P300 and the late positive potential (LPP) were higher across all conditions for food relative to non-food pictures. In the 'increase condition' the food images were rated as more appetizing and arousing than during passive viewing which was accompanied by increased amplitudes of the P300 and LPP. In contrast, the 'watch condition' and the 'decrease condition' did not differ with regard to appetite and arousal ratings as well as ERPs. Amplitudes of late positive potentials in the 'decrease condition' were positively correlated with scores on eating disorder scales indicating bulimic tendencies. The ERP data show that the appetitive value of food cues can easily be enhanced via reappraisal but is difficult to reduce, especially in women who display non-clinical forms of purging. The reduced ERP reactivity might constitute a risk factor for bulimia nervosa. Future longitudinal-prospective studies should follow up on this aspect.

  13. Motivation for Palatable Food Despite Consequences in an Animal Model of Binge-Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Kimberly D.; Murdaugh, Donna L.; King, Vinetra L.; Boggiano, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Binge-eating involves an abnormal motivation for highly palatable food in that these foods are repeatedly consumed despite their binge-triggering effects and life-affecting consequences associated with binge-eating. We determined if rats identified as binge-eating prone (BEP) similarly display abnormal motivation for palatable food. Method Food-sated BEP and binge-eating resistant (BER) rats were given voluntary access to palatable food paired with increasing intensity of footshock. Later, they were exposed to a period of cyclic caloric restriction-refeeding. Results BEPs consumed significantly more and tolerated higher levels of footshock for palatable food than BERs. Cyclic restriction-refeeding increased BERs' tolerance of shock for palatable food. Discussion Previously observed parallels of the rat BEP model to human binge-eating can now be extended to include an abnormal motivation for palatable food. This model should prove useful in identifying specific genes that interact with the nutritional environment to mediate binge-eating and may point to novel physiological targets to treat compulsive overeating. PMID:20186718

  14. Are You Sure? Confidence about the Satiating Capacity of a Food Affects Subsequent Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgi B. Schiöth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Expectations about a food’s satiating capacity predict self-selected portion size, food intake and food choice. However, two individuals might have a similar expectation, but one might be extremely confident while the other might be guessing. It is unclear whether confidence about an expectation affects adjustments in energy intake at a subsequent meal. In a randomized cross-over design, 24 subjects participated in three separate breakfast sessions, and were served a low-energy-dense preload (53 kcal/100 g, a high-energy-dense preload (94 kcal/100 g, or no preload. Subjects received ambiguous information about the preload’s satiating capacity and rated how confident they were about their expected satiation before consuming the preload in its entirety. They were served an ad libitum test meal 30 min later. Confidence ratings were negatively associated with energy compensation after consuming the high-energy-dense preload (r = −0.61; p = 0.001. The same relationship was evident after consuming the low-energy-dense preload, but only after controlling for dietary restraint, hunger prior to, and liking of the test meal (p = 0.03. Our results suggest that confidence modifies short-term controls of food intake by affecting energy compensation. These results merit consideration because imprecise caloric compensation has been identified as a potential risk factor for a positive energy balance and weight gain.

  15. Poverty, inequality, and increased consumption of high calorie food: Experimental evidence for a causal link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratanova, Boyka; Loughnan, Steve; Klein, Olivier; Claassen, Almudena; Wood, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Rising obesity represents a serious, global problem. It is now well established that obesity is associated with poverty and wealth inequality, suggesting that these factors may promote caloric intake. Whereas previous work has examined these links from an epidemiological perspective, the current paper examined them experimentally. In Study 1 we found that people experimentally induced to view themselves as poor (v. wealthy) exhibited increased calorie intake. In Study 2, participants who believed that they were poorer or wealthier than their interaction partners exhibited higher levels of anxiety compared to those in an equal partners condition; this anxiety in turn led to increased calorie consumption for people who had a strong need to belong. The findings provide causal evidence for the poverty-intake and inequality-intake links. Further, we identify social anxiety and a strong need to belong as important social psychological factors linking inequality to increased calorie intake.

  16. Executive functions and consumption of fruits/ vegetables and high saturated fat foods in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbers, Christine A; Young, Danielle

    2015-05-01

    Executive functions play a critical role in regulating eating behaviors and have been shown to be associated with overeating which over time can result in overweight and obesity. There has been a paucity of research examining the associations among healthy dietary behaviors and executive functions utilizing behavioral rating scales of executive functioning. The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations among fruit and vegetable consumption, intake of foods high in saturated fat, and executive functions using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version. A total of 240 university students completed the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version, the 26-Item Eating Attitudes Test, and the Diet subscale of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted with two separate models in which fruit and vegetable consumption and saturated fat intake were the outcomes. Demographic variables, body mass index, and eating styles were controlled for in the analysis. Better initiation skills were associated with greater intake of fruits and vegetables in the last 7 days (standardized beta = -0.17; p fruit and vegetable consumption are distinct from those that predict avoidance of foods high in saturated fat. Future research should investigate whether continued skill enhancement in initiation and inhibition following standard behavioral interventions improves long-term maintenance of weight loss.

  17. High-value components and bioactives from sea cucumbers for functional foods--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2011-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  18. Safe and High Quality Food Production using Low Quality Waters and Improved Irrigation Systems and Management, EU Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Jensen, Christian Richardt; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2009-01-01

    while at the same time reducing the use of natural resources and the impact on aquatic ecosystems that are frequently already polluted. These problems are linked, since most of our vegetables are produced using irrigation water from the same ecosystems. To ensure food safety and quality, the innovative......: the safety and quality of food products, and the increasing competition for clean freshwater. SAFIR is funded for the period 2005-2009 under the Food Quality and Safety thematic area of the EU 6th Framework Research Programme. The challenge for the next years will be to produce safe and high quality foods...... a multi-disciplinary team, with food safety and quality experts, engineers, agronomists and economists from17 research institutes and private companies in Europe, Israel and China working together. The project assesses potential risks to farmers. Coupled with farm management and economic models, a new...

  19. Safe and High Quality Food Production using Low Quality Waters and Improved Irrigation Systems and Management, EU Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Jensen, Christian Richardt; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2009-01-01

    while at the same time reducing the use of natural resources and the impact on aquatic ecosystems that are frequently already polluted. These problems are linked, since most of our vegetables are produced using irrigation water from the same ecosystems. To ensure food safety and quality, the innovative......: the safety and quality of food products, and the increasing competition for clean freshwater. SAFIR is funded for the period 2005-2009 under the Food Quality and Safety thematic area of the EU 6th Framework Research Programme. The challenge for the next years will be to produce safe and high quality foods...... SAFIR irrigation systems combine state-of-the-art water-cleaning technology with high-efficiency irrigation systems. The water treatments consist of both high tech and low tech solutions supplying sub-surface and surface drip irrigation system with roughly treated waste water. SAFIR has assembled...

  20. The establishment of the High Level Panel of Experts on food security and nutrition (HLPE). Shared, independent and comprehensive knowledge for international policy coherence in food security and nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Following the 2007-2008 food crisis, improvements of world food governance was at the centre of international discussions, leaning towards a new Global Partnership for Agriculture, Food Security and Nutrition. In this process, the issue of the management of various streams of knowledge appeared a central element to allow for better policy coordination, and led to the creation of the High Level Panel of Experts on food security and nutrition (HLPE). Here we describe the genesis and unveil the ...

  1. Predictors of adult humans' self-control and impulsiveness for food reinforcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzano, L B; Logue, A W

    1992-08-01

    Humans vary in the degree to which they demonstrate self-control--choice of larger, more delayed over smaller, less delayed reinforcers. When reinforcers consist of food, individual human subjects' choice behavior varies from virtually exclusive self-control to exclusive impulsiveness. The present experiment, using 26 men and 26 women subjects, explored some possible sources of this individual variation through assessing the correlation of behaviors exhibited in the self-control paradigm with various subject characteristics. The results suggest that self-control is negatively related to individuals' reported susceptibility to hunger (Factor 3 of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) and positively related to overall rating of juice desirability, but not to gender or to various measures of caloric deprivation or personality. Relatively high self-perceived levels of food deprivation may decrease self-control, whereas assigning a relatively high value to the reinforcer may increase self-control. Both tendencies would have been adaptive for evolving humans.

  2. High variation in manufacturer-declared serving size of packaged discretionary foods in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskelberg, Hila; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Flood, Victoria; Rangan, Anna; Thomas, Beth; Cleanthous, Xenia; Trevena, Helen; Zheng, Jazzmin Miaobing; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Gill, Timothy; Wu, Jason H Y

    2016-05-28

    Despite the potential of declared serving size to encourage appropriate portion size consumption, most countries including Australia have not developed clear reference guidelines for serving size. The present study evaluated variability in manufacturer-declared serving size of discretionary food and beverage products in Australia, and how declared serving size compared with the 2013 Australian Dietary Guideline (ADG) standard serve (600 kJ). Serving sizes were obtained from the Nutrition Information Panel for 4466 packaged, discretionary products in 2013 at four large supermarkets in Sydney, Australia, and categorised into fifteen categories in line with the 2013 ADG. For unique products that were sold in multiple package sizes, the percentage difference between the minimum and the maximum serving size across different package sizes was calculated. A high variation in serving size was found within the majority of food and beverage categories - for example, among 347 non-alcoholic beverages (e.g. soft drinks), the median for serving size was 250 (interquartile range (IQR) 250, 355) ml (range 100-750 ml). Declared serving size for unique products that are available in multiple package sizes also showed high variation, particularly for chocolate-based confectionery, with median percentage difference between minimum and maximum serving size of 183 (IQR 150) %. Categories with a high proportion of products that exceeded the 600 kJ ADG standard serve included cakes and muffins, pastries and desserts (≥74 % for each). High variability in declared serving size may confound interpretation and understanding of consumers interested in standardising and controlling their portion selection. Future research is needed to assess if and how standardising declared serving size might affect consumer behaviour.

  3. Automobilismo: no calor da competição Automovilismo: en el calor de la competición Car racing: in the heat of competition

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro Rodrigues; Flávio de Castro Magalhães

    2004-01-01

    O presente artigo questiona o papel do calor como um fator de risco adicional para o acidente que vitimou Ayrton Senna. O automobilismo de competição constitui um desafio biológico, uma situação estressante do ponto de vista mental e físico. A manutenção da performance depende da disponibilidade de carboidratos e oxigênio, hidratação adequada e temperatura interna constante entre 37 e 38 graus centígrados. A dissipação do calor produzido pelo metabolismo ocorre através do aumento do fluxo de ...

  4. Fasting and Caloric Restriction in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Longo, Valter D

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and among the leading major diseases in the world. It is anticipated to continue to increase because of the growth of the aging population and prevalence of risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and/or poor dietary habits. Cancer treatment has remained relatively similar during the past 30 years with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery remaining the standard therapies although novel therapies are slowly replacing or complementing the standard ones. According to the American Cancer Society, the dietary recommendation for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is to increase calorie and protein intake. In addition, there are no clear guidelines on the type of nutrition that could have a major impact on cancer incidence. Yet, various forms of reduced caloric intake such as calorie restriction (CR) or fasting demonstrate a wide range of beneficial effects able to help prevent malignancies and increase the efficacy of cancer therapies. Whereas chronic CR provides both beneficial and detrimental effects as well as major compliance challenges, periodic fasting (PF), fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs), and dietary restriction (DR) without a reduction in calories are emerging as interventions with the potential to be widely used to prevent and treat cancer. Here, we review preclinical and preliminary clinical studies on dietary restriction and fasting and their role in inducing cellular protection and chemotherapy resistance.

  5. Caloric restriction decreases orthostatic tolerance independently from 6° head-down bedrest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Florian

    Full Text Available Astronauts consume fewer calories during spaceflight and return to earth with an increased risk of orthostatic intolerance. Whether a caloric deficiency modifies orthostatic responses is not understood. Thus, we determined the effects of a hypocaloric diet (25% caloric restriction during 6° head down bedrest (an analog of spaceflight on autonomic neural control during lower body negative pressure (LBNP. Nine healthy young men completed a randomized crossover bedrest study, consisting of four (2 weeks each interventions (normocaloric bedrest, normocaloric ambulatory, hypocaloric bedrest, hypocaloric ambulatory, each separated by 5 months. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA was recorded at baseline following normocaloric and hypocaloric interventions. Heart rate (HR and arterial pressure were recorded before, during, and after 3 consecutive stages (7 min each of LBNP (-15, -30, -45 mmHg. Caloric and posture effects during LBNP were compared using two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. There was a strong trend toward reduced basal MSNA following caloric restriction alone (normcaloric vs. hypocaloric: 22±3 vs. 14±4 burst/min, p = 0.06. Compared to the normocaloric ambulatory, both bedrest and caloric restriction were associated with lower systolic blood pressure during LBNP (p<0.01; however, HR responses were directionally opposite (i.e., increase with bedrest, decrease with caloric restriction. Survival analysis revealed a significant reduction in orthostatic tolerance following caloric restriction (normocaloric finishers: 12/16; hypocaloric finishers: 6/16; χ2, p = 0.03. Caloric restriction modifies autonomic responses to LBNP, which may decrease orthostatic tolerance after spaceflight.

  6. Comparison of standardized versus individualized caloric prescriptions in the nutritional rehabilitation of inpatients with anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynos, Ann F.; Snipes, Cassandra; Guarda, Angela; Mayer, Laurel E.; Attia, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sparse research informs how caloric prescriptions should be advanced during nutritional rehabilitation of inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN). This study compared the impact of a standardized caloric increase approach, in which increases occurred on a predetermined schedule, to an individualized approach, in which increases occurred only following insufficient weight gain, on rate, pattern, and cumulative amount of weight gain and other weight restoration outcomes. Method This study followed a natural experiment design comparing AN inpatients consecutively admitted before (n = 35) and after (n = 35) an institutional change from individualized to standardized caloric prescriptions. Authors examined the impact of prescription plan on weekly weight gain in the first treatment month using multilevel modeling. Within a subsample remaining inpatient through weight restoration (n = 40), multiple regressions examined the impact of caloric prescription plan on time to weight restoration, length of hospitalization, maximum caloric prescription, discharge BMI, and incidence of activity restriction and edema. Results There were significant interactions between prescription plan and quadratic time on average weekly weight gain (p = .03) and linear time on cumulative weekly weight gain (p < .001). Under the standardized plan, patients gained in an accelerated curvilinear pattern (p = .04) and, therefore, gained cumulatively greater amounts of weight over time (p < .001). Additionally, 30% fewer patients required activity restriction under the standardized plan. Discussion Standardized caloric prescriptions may confer advantage by facilitating accelerated early weight gain and lower incidence of bed rest without increasing the incidence of refeeding syndrome. PMID:26769581

  7. Herdabilidade da necessidade de calor para a antese e brotação em pessegueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citadin Idemir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A herdabilidade da necessidade de calor para antese e brotação em pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] foi estudada em ramos de 16 cultivares e seleções de baixa, média e alta necessidade de calor e 11 progênies oriundas de hibridações entre elas. Os ramos foram submetidos, previamente, a 2 ºC por 500 horas para satisfazer a necessidade de frio. O valor estimado da herdabilidade média para a necessidade de calor em gemas florais foi de 45% e 57%, em 1999 e 2000, respectivamente. Para gemas vegetativas, o valor estimado foi de 30%, em 1999. 'BR-1', 'Barbosa', 'Chula', 'Chinoca' e 'Eldorado' transmitem melhor o caráter necessidade de calor para as progênies do que os demais genótipos estudados. Os registros observados suportam um modelo de herança quantitativa com genes de maior efeito para menor necessidade de calor. A seleção de indivíduos com maior necessidade de calor para floração tende a retardar a floração sem, contudo, retardar com a mesma intensidade a época de brotação.

  8. Caloric stimulation with near infrared radiation does not induce paradoxical nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, L E; Asenov, D R; Di Martino, E

    2011-04-01

    Near infrared radiation can be used for warm stimulation in caloric irrigation of the equilibrium organ. Aim of this study was to determine whether near infrared radiation offers effective stimulation of the vestibular organ, whether it is well tolerated by the patients and especially whether it is a viable alternative to warm air stimulation in patients with defects of the tympanic membrane and radical mastoid cavities. Patients with perforations of the tympanic membrane (n = 15) and with radical mastoid cavities (n = 13) were tested both with near infrared radiation and warm dry air. A caloric-induced nystagmus could be seen equally effectively and rapidly in all patients. Contrary to stimulation with warm dry air, no paradoxical nystagmus was observed following caloric irrigation with a warm stimulus (near infrared radiation). Results of a questionnaire showed excellent patient acceptance of near infrared stimulation with no arousal effects or unpleasant feeling. In conclusion, near infrared radiation proved to be an alternative method of caloric irrigation to warm dry air in patients with tympanic membrane defects and radical mastoid cavities. Near infrared radiation is pleasant, quick, contact free, sterile and quiet. With this method an effective caloric warm stimulus is available. If near infrared radiation is used for caloric stimulus no evaporative heat loss occurs.

  9. Furan Occurrence in Starchy Food Model Systems Processed at High Temperatures: Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Heating Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariotti, María; Granby, Kit; Fromberg, Arvid

    2012-01-01

    Furan, a potential carcinogen, has been detected in highly consumed starchy foods, such as bread and snacks; however, research on furan generation in these food matrixes has not been undertaken, thus far. The present study explored the effect of ascorbic acid addition and cooking methods (frying...... and baking) over furan occurrence and its relation with the non-enzymatic browning in a wheat flour starchy food model system. Results showed that furan generation significantly increased in the presence of ascorbic acid after 7 min of heating (p

  10. NGS tools for traceability in candies as high processed food products: Ion Torrent PGM versus conventional PCR-cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The Next Generation Sequencing methodologies are considered the next step within DNA-based methods and their applicability in different fields is being evaluated. Here, we tested the usefulness of the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) in food traceability analyzing candies as a model of high processed foods, and compared the results with those obtained by PCR-cloning-sequencing (PCR-CS). The majority of samples exhibited consistency between methodologies, yielding more information and species per product from the PGM platform than PCR-CS. Significantly higher AT-content in sequences of the same species was also obtained from PGM. This together with some taxonomical discrepancies between methodologies suggest that the PGM platform is still pre-mature for its use in food traceability of complex highly processed products. It could be a good option for analysis of less complex food, saving time and cost per sample.

  11. Consumer perception of the use of high-pressure processing and pulsed electric field technologies in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Boel; Sonne, Anne-Mette; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    . Participants were introduced to the HPP and PEF technologies and then to the effect of the two new technologies on two specific product categories: juice and baby food. The transcribed data was content analysed and the coded data was transformed into diagrams using UCINET 5 and NETDRAW. The results show......The success of new food processing technologies is highly dependent on consumers' acceptance. The purpose of this paper is to study consumers' perceptions of two new processing technologies and food products produced by means of these novel technologies. To accomplish this, a qualitative study...... on consumer attitudes towards high-pressure processing (HPP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing of food was carried out. In all 97 adults between 20 and 71 years of age participated in 12 focus groups conducted in Slovenia, Hungary, Serbia, Slovakia, Norway and Denmark using a common guideline...

  12. A Systematic Evaluation of Food Textures to Decrease Packing and Increase Oral Intake in Children with Pediatric Feeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Meeta R.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Layer, Stacy A.; Coleman, Russell; Swartzwelder, Dana M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined packing (pocketing or holding accepted food in the mouth) in 3 children who were failing to thrive or had inadequate weight gain due to insufficient caloric intake. The results of an analysis of texture indicated that total grams consumed were higher when lower textured foods were presented than when higher textured foods were…

  13. CONSUMERS' RESISTANCE TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS IN HIGH INCOME COUNTRIES: THE ROLE OF INFORMATION IN AN UNCERTAIN ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Wallace E.; Rousu, Matthew C.; Shogren, Jason F.; Tegene, Abebayehu

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the market characteristics that push consumers in high income countries to resist GM foods, with an emphasis on negative information from environmental groups and third-party, verifiable information. For this study, unique data were collected from adult consumers in the United States who participated in laboratory auctions of three food types with randomly assigned labeling and information treatments. Using U.S. consumers is important because U.S. consumers are generally s...

  14. Differences in perceptions and fast food eating behaviours between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods of Chandigarh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased density of fast food restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fast food outlets. The purpose of the study is to explore the differences in fast food preferences, perceptions, and patronage between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 204 men and women (35 to 65 years in age) from high- and low-income neighbourhoods who completed a questionnaire on fast food consumption. The questionnaire asked participants to define fast food and to provide reasons for and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants. The differences were analyzed using Chi square and t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results Participants from a high-income neighbourhood were more likely to perceive Western -style fast food as fast food, while people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to identify food sold by street vendors as fast food (p food from street vendors while less likely to dine out at both fast food and non-fast food restaurants (pfast food restaurants than their low-income neighbourhood counterparts, there were no significant differences in the reasons for visiting fast food restaurants (convenience, price, social enjoyment, and quality of meals) between the two groups. Both groups preferred home cooked over restaurant meals, and they recognized that home cooked food was healthier. Conclusions Overall, consumption of fast food was low. People from a high-income neighbourhood dined out more frequently and were more likely to perceive Western-style food as fast food compared to their counterparts from the low-income neighbourhood. PMID:23289746

  15. Food choices of 4 to 6-year-old overweight and nonoverweight children while role-playing as adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoek, Harriëtte M; Sessink, Nienke Y; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-12-01

    The following study compared the food choices made by overweight and non-overweight preschoolers while role-playing a mother who bought food for a family, and examined the influence of maternal restriction on food choice. After screening 619 children for height and weight, 56 overweight children (equal sex distribution, ages 4-6) and 56 non-overweight children (matched on age, sex, demographics) were selected to participate. Children's purchases of low and high caloric snacks, drinks, and dinner products in a miniature supermarket were recorded. Mother and child-reported maternal restriction were assessed using the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) and the Kid's CFQ. Compared to non-overweight children, overweight children choose more high-calorie foods when role-playing a mother. Maternal restriction did not differ between overweight and non-overweight children. Both children's and mothers' reported maternal restriction were unrelated to food choices and there were no significant interactions between restriction and weight status on food choices. In conclusion, while parental restriction seems to be unrelated to children's food choices, family food patterns might have great impact already at young ages.

  16. Fast Food Consumption Behaviors in High-School Students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mirkarimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies report inappropriate snack and junk food consumption patterns in children and young adults in Iran. The current survey was aimed to explore fast food consumption behaviors in high-school students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among 500 high-school students. Samples were selected based on cluster sampling method at first and simple random at second. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire. To analyze, SPSS-16 and tests, including t-test, Chi-square, correlation coefficient and multiple regressions were used. Results: The monthly frequency of fast food consumption was 4.01. The TPB explained fast food use behaviors with R2 of 0.6, effectively. Results also represented that frequency of fast food consumption was meaningfully in line with behavioral intention (β = 0.60, P < 0.05 and subjective norms (β = 0.17, P < 0.05. Conclusion: It seems likely beneficial to consider important subjective norms (especially friends that may strongly effect on high-school student intention to use fast food. Also students perceived behavioral control must be increased.

  17. Characterization of fat metabolism in the fatty liver caused by a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet: A study under equal energy conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaka, Yuka; Shiroya, Yoko; Yamauchi, Hideki; Kitamura, Hiromi; Minato, Kumiko

    2017-05-20

    The pathology of fatty liver due to increased percentage of calories derived from fat without increased overall caloric intake is largely unclear. In this study, we aimed to characterize fat metabolism in rats with fatty liver resulting from consumption of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HFLC) diet without increased caloric intake. Four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the control (Con) and HFLC groups, and rats were fed the corresponding diets ad libitum. Significant decreases in food intake per gram body weight were observed in the HFLC group compared with that in the Con group. Thus, there were no significant differences in body weights or caloric intake per gram body weight between the two groups. Marked progressive fat accumulation was observed in the livers of rats in the HFLC group, accompanied by suppression of de novo lipogenesis (DNL)-related proteins in the liver and increased leptin concentrations in the blood. In addition, electron microscopic observations revealed that many lipid droplets had accumulated within the hepatocytes, and mitochondrial numbers were reduced in the hepatocytes of rats in the HFLC group. Our findings confirmed that consumption of the HFLC diet induced fatty liver, even without increased caloric intake. Furthermore, DNL was not likely to be a crucial factor inducing fatty liver with standard energy intake. Instead, ultrastructural abnormalities found in mitochondria, which may cause a decline in β-oxidation, could contribute to the development of fatty liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Cho, J. Kim, R.; Michaelides, M.; Primeaux, S.; Bray, G.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-10-27

    Dopamine (DA) and DAD{sub 2} receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation.

  19. Measurement of metallic contaminants in food with a high-T{sub c} SQUID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Saburo; Natsume, Miyuki; Uchida, Masashi; Hotta, Naoki; Matsuda, Takemasa; Spanut, Zarina A; Hatsukade, Yoshimi [Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2004-04-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a high-T{sub c} SQUID system for detecting metallic contaminants in foodstuffs. There is a demand for the development of systems for detecting not only magnetic materials but also non-magnetic materials such as Cu and aluminium in foodstuffs to ensure food safety. The system consists of a SQUID magnetometer, an excitation coil and a permanent magnet. For a non-magnetic sample, an AC magnetic field is applied during detection to induce an eddy current in the sample. For a magnetizable sample, a strong magnetic field is applied to the sample prior to the detection attempt. We were able to detect a stainless steel ball with a diameter of 0.1 mm and a Cu ball less than 1 mm in diameter, for example.

  20. Rapid production of organic fertilizer by dynamic high-temperature aerobic fermentation (DHAF) of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ju, Meiting; Li, Weizun; Ren, Qingbin; Liu, Le; Chen, Yu; Yang, Qian; Hou, Qidong; Liu, Yiliang

    2015-12-01

    Keep composting matrix in continuous collision and friction under a relatively high-temperature can significantly accelerate the progress of composting. A bioreactor was designed according to the novel process. Using this technology, organic fertilizer could be produced within 96h. The electric conductivity (EC) and pH value reached to a stable value of 2.35mS/cm and 7.7 after 96h of fermentation. The total carbon/total nitrogen (TC/TN) and dissolved carbon/dissolved nitrogen (DC/DN) ratio was decrease from 27.3 and 36.2 to 17.4 and 7.6 respectively. In contrast, it needed 24days to achieve the similar result in traditional static composting (TSC). Compost particles with different size were analyzed to explore the rapid degradation mechanism of food waste. The evidence of anaerobic fermentation was firstly discovered in aerobic composting.

  1. Pretreatment of food waste with high voltage pulse discharge towards methane production enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lianpei; Ma, Chaonan; Liu, Jianyong; Li, Mingfei; Ye, Min; Qian, Guangren

    2016-12-01

    Anaerobic batch tests were performed to investigate the methane production enhancement and solid transformation rates from food waste (FW) by high voltage pulse discharge (HVPD) pretreatment. The total cumulative methane production with HVPD pretreatment was 134% higher than that of the control. The final volatile solids transformation rates of FW with and without HVPD pretreatment were 54.3% and 32.3%, respectively. Comparison study on HVPD pretreatment with acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreatments showed that the methane production and COD removal rates of FW pretreated with HVPD were more than 100% higher than the control, but only about 50% higher can be obtained with other pretreatments. HVPD pretreatment could be a promising pretreatment method in the application of energy recovery from FW.

  2. The food-contaminant deoxynivalenol modifies eating by targeting anorexigenic neurocircuitry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémence Girardet

    Full Text Available Physiological regulations of energy balance and body weight imply highly adaptive mechanisms which match caloric intake to caloric expenditure. In the central nervous system, the regulation of appetite relies on complex neurocircuitry which disturbance may alter energy balance and result in anorexia or obesity. Deoxynivalenol (DON, a trichothecene, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on contaminated cereals and its stability during processing and cooking explains its widespread presence in human food. DON has been implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and farm animals including weight loss. Here, we provide the first demonstration that DON reduced feeding behavior and modified satiation and satiety by interfering with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation. Moreover, our results strongly suggest that during intoxication, DON reaches the brain where it modifies anorexigenic balance. In view of the widespread human exposure to DON, the present results may lead to reconsider the potential consequences of chronic DON consumption on human eating disorders.

  3. A Study of Food Consumption Patterns of and Obesity in Female Adolescents in Khorramshahr High Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadinasab

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background One consequence of an industrial age is overweight and obesity. The accelerating rate of obesity, especially in adolescent girls, has led to growing concern regarding the health of this generation. Objectives The objective of this study was to examine the food consumption patterns of and obesity in female adolescents in Khorramshahr high schools. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study involved 200 high school girls from Khorramshahr. The study sample was selected via multistage random sampling. Body weight and height were measured and the body mass index (BMI values were calculated. Underweight, overweight, and obesity were defined as the 5th, 85th, and 95th percentiles, respectively, using the centers for disease control and prevention (CDC BMI-for-age growth charts for girls. More data were collected by using the Food frequency questionnaire. Analysis was done using the SPSS software, Kruskal-Wallis test, and median measures. Results Findings showed that according to their BMI, 3% of the students were underweight, 82% had normal weight, 11% were overweight, and 4% were obese. There were significant relationships between the consumption of bread, dough, and sugar cubes and the BMI (P < 0.05. The highest bread consumption was among overweight students (min 90, max 360, mean 180 palms per month. In addition, students with normal weight had the highest consumption of rice and sugar cubes (160 plates and 360 cubes per month, respectively. Conclusions The findings of this study offer information regarding the current dietary patterns among adolescent girls that can be used to design educational programs to promote healthy eating in this group.

  4. Androgen (dihydrotestosterone)-mediated regulation of food intake and obesity in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Noriko; Vonderfecht, Steven; Chen, Shiuan

    2013-11-01

    To better understand how elevated androgen levels regulate food intake and obesity in females, we treated ovariectomized female mice with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (non-aromatazable androgen), measured food intake and body weight, and evaluated physiological changes in liver function, glucose tolerance, and leptin resistance. Ovariectomized mice were treated with DHT or placebo. Mice were then fed a high fat diet under free-feeding or pair-feeding conditions for 3 months. We found that when DHT-treated ovariectomized mice had free access to food (free-feeding), they had increased food intake and higher body weight compared with control animals. These mice also had a significantly greater accumulation of fat in the liver and exhibited increased fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and resistance to leptin. However, when these mice were placed on a restricted diet and fed the same caloric amounts as controls (pair-feeding), their body weight increased at the same rate as control animals. This suggests that androgen regulates food intake through altered leptin sensitivity, and this increase of food intake could significantly contribute to an obesity phenotype. In summary, we demonstrated a role for androgen in the regulation of food intake and weight gain in females using a mouse model. This model will be useful to further elucidate the role of elevated androgen in females. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficient gasification of wet biomass residue to produce middle caloric gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangwen Xu; Takahiro Murakami; Toshiyuki Suda; Hidehisa Tani; Yutaka Mito

    2008-01-01

    Various process residues represent a kind of biomass resource already concentrated but containing water as much as 60 wt.%.These materials are generally treated as waste or simply combusted directly to generate heat.Recently,we attempted to convert them into middle caloric gas to substitute for natural gas,as a chemical or a high-rank gaseous fuel for advanced combustion utilities.Such conversion is implemented through dual fluidized bed gasification (DFBG).Concerning the high water content of the fuels,DFBG was suggested to accomplish either with high-efficiency fuel drying in advance or direct decoupling of fuel drying/pyrolysis from char gasification and tar/hydrocarbon reforming.Along with fuel drying,calcium-based catalyst can be impregnated into the fuel,without much additional cost,to increase the fuel's gasification reactivity and to reduce tar formation.This article reports the Ca impregnation method and its resulting effects on gasification reactivity and tar suppression ability.Meanwhile,the principle of directly gasifying wet fuel with decoupled dual fluidized bed gasification (D-DFBG) is also highlighted.

  6. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor coagonist d-serine suppresses intake of high-preference food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tsutomu; Kinoshita, Yoshihiro; Matsui, Sho; Kakuta, Shigeru; Yokota-Hashimoto, Hiromi; Kinoshita, Kuni; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Kinoshita, Toshio; Yada, Toshihiko; Amano, Naoji; Kitamura, Tadahiro

    2015-09-01

    d-Serine is abundant in the forebrain and physiologically important for modulating excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission as a coagonist of synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. NMDA signaling has been implicated in the control of food intake. However, the role of d-serine on appetite regulation is unknown. To clarify the effects of d-serine on appetite, we investigated the effect of oral d-serine ingestion on food intake in three different feeding paradigms (one-food access, two-food choice, and refeeding after 24-h fasting) using three different strains of male mice (C57Bl/6J, BKS, and ICR). The effect of d-serine was also tested in leptin signaling-deficient db/db mice and sensory-deafferented (capsaicin-treated) mice. The expression of orexigenic neuropeptides [neuropeptide Y (Npy) and agouti-related protein (Agrp)] in the hypothalamus was compared in fast/refed experiments. Conditioned taste aversion for high-fat diet (HFD) was tested in the d-serine-treated mice. Under the one-food-access paradigm, some of the d-serine-treated mice showed starvation, but not when fed normal chow. HFD feeding with d-serine ingestion did not cause aversion. Under the two-food-choice paradigm, d-serine suppressed the intake of high-preference food but not normal chow. d-Serine also effectively suppressed HFD intake but not normal chow in db/db mice and sensory-deafferented mice. In addition, d-serine suppressed normal chow intake after 24-h fasting despite higher orexigenic gene expression in the hypothalamus. d-Serine failed to suppress HFD intake in the presence of L-701,324, the selective and full antagonist at the glycine-binding site of the NMDA receptor. Therefore, d-serine suppresses the intake of high-preference food through coagonism toward NMDA receptors. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Preference and intake frequency of high sodium foods and dishes and their correlations with anthropometric measurements among Malaysian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Stella Sinn-Yee; Balan, Sumitha Nair; Chua, Leong-Siong; Say, Yee-How

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the preference and intake frequency of a list of 15 commonly available high sodium Malaysian foods/dishes, discretionary salt use, and their possible association with demographics, blood pressures and anthropometric measurements among 300 Malaysian university students (114 males, 186 females; 259 ethnic Chinese, 41 Indians; 220 lean, 80 overweight). French fries and instant soup noodle were found to be the most preferred and most frequently consumed salty food, respectively, while salted fish was least preferred and least frequently consumed. Males had a significantly higher intake frequency of at least 6 of the salty foods, but the preference of most salty foods was not significantly different between genders. Ethnic Chinese significantly preferred more and took more frequently traditional and conventional Malaysian foods like asam laksa (a Malaysian salty-sour-spicy noodle in fish stock), salted biscuits and salted vegetable, while Indians have more affinity and frequency towards eating salty Western foods. Body Mass Index was significantly negatively correlated with the intake frequency of canned/packet soup and salted fish while waist circumference was significantly positively correlated with the preference of instant noodle. Also, an increased preference of potato chips and intake frequency of salted biscuits seemed to lead to a decreased WHR. Other than these, all the other overweight/obesity indicators did not seem to fully correlate with the salty food preference and intake frequency. Nevertheless, the preference and intake frequency of asam laksa seemed to be significant negative predictors for blood pressures. Finally, increased preference and intake frequency of high sodium shrimp paste (belacan)-based foods like asam laksa and belacan fried rice seemed to discourage discretionary salt use. In conclusion, the preference and intake frequency of the high sodium belacan-based dish asam laksa seems to be a good predictor for ethnic

  8. The effect of a fictitious peer on young children's choice of familiar v. unfamiliar low- and high-energy-dense foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-09-28

    The present experimental study was the first to investigate the impact of a remote (non-existent) peer on children's food choice of familiar v. unfamiliar low- and high-energy-dense food products. In a computer task, children (n 316; 50·3 % boys; mean age 7·13 (SD 0·75) years) were asked to choose between pictures of familiar and unfamiliar foods in four different choice blocks using the following pairs: (1) familiar v. unfamiliar low-energy-dense foods (fruits and vegetables), (2) familiar v. unfamiliar high-energy-dense foods (high sugar, salt and/or fat content), (3) familiar low-energy-dense v. unfamiliar high-energy-dense foods and (4) unfamiliar low-energy-dense v. familiar high-energy-dense foods. Participants who were not in the control group were exposed to the food choices (either always the familiar or always the unfamiliar food product) of a same-sex and same-age fictitious peer who was supposedly completing the same task at another school. The present study provided insights into children's choices between (un)familiar low- and high-energy-dense foods in an everyday situation. The findings revealed that the use of fictitious peers increased children's willingness to try unfamiliar foods, although children tended to choose high-energy-dense foods over low-energy-dense foods. Intervention programmes that use peer influence to focus on improving children's choice of healthy foods should take into account children's strong aversion to unfamiliar low-energy-dense foods as well as their general preference for familiar and unfamiliar high-energy-dense foods.

  9. Fast Food Consumption Pattern and Its Association with Overweight Among High School Boys in Mangalore City of Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nitin; Nelliyanil, Maria; Rai, Sharada; Y P, Raghavendra Babu; Kotian, Shashidhar M; Ghosh, Tanima; Singh, Manisha

    2015-05-01

    Fast foods are quite popular among children owing to taste, appearance and hype created by mass media. However, the increased incidence of lifestyle disorders seen now-a-days at an early age could be attributed to fast foods. This study was done to assess the awareness of health hazards, consumption pattern of fast foods and to find out its association with overweight among high school students. This cross-sectional study was done among boys of 3 private schools in Mangalore city in March 2012. Data was collected using a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire. Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA and binary logistic regression analysis was used for analysis. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant association. Mean age of boys was 13.5±0.9 years. Out of 300 participants, 41(13.7%) were overweight and 8 (2.7%) were obese. 292(97.3%) were fast food users of which 42(14.4%) consumed it every day. Majority of participants were introduced to fast foods through television commercials 193(64.3%). 73(57%) developed this habit as they were bored with home food. Awareness of harmful effects of fast food consumption was known to 186(62%) students and this was found to be associated with the perceived need to control its usage (pfoods was found to influence fast food consumption among children (p=0.024). As many as 68(22.7%) and 206(68.7%) children were not eating vegetables and fruits respectively every day. Increased frequency of fast food consumption in a week was found to be associated with overweight or obesity among children after adjusting the effects of confounders (p=0.003). Awareness on health hazards of fast foods needs to be taught at schools so as to minimize its consumption. Parents have to set an example themselves by not eating fast foods and improving home food to support discouragement of fast foods. This would minimize life style disorders among children to a greater extent.

  10. Simultaneous determination of some food additives in soft drinks and other liquid foods by flow injection on-line dialysis coupled to high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsunankul, Orawan; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2011-06-15

    Flow injection on-line dialysis was developed for sample pretreatment prior to the simultaneous determination of some food additives by high performance liquid chromatography (FID-HPLC). A liquid sample or mixed standard solution (900 μL) was injected into a donor stream (5%, w/v, sucrose) of FID system and was pushed further through a dialysis cell, while an acceptor solution (0.025 mol L(-1) phosphate buffer, pH 3.75) was held in the opposite side of the dialysis membrane. The dialysate was then flowed to an injection loop of the HPLC valve, where it was further injected into the HPLC system and analyzed under isocratic reverse-phase HPLC conditions and UV detection (230 nm). The order of elution of five food additives was acesulfame-K, saccharin, caffeine, benzoic acid and sorbic acid, respectively, with the analysis time of 14 min. On-line dialysis and HPLC analysis could be performed in parallel, providing sample throughput of 4.3h(-1). Dialysis efficiencies of five food additives were in ranges of 5-11%. Linear calibration graphs were in ranges of 10-100 mg L(-1) for acesulfame-K and saccharin, 10-250 mg L(-1) for benzoic acid and 10-500 mg L(-1) for caffeine and sorbic acid. Good precisions (RSDadditives were obtained. The proposed system was applied to soft drink and other liquid food samples. Acceptable percentage recoveries could be obtained by appropriate dilution of the sample before injecting into the system. The developed system has advantages of high degrees of automation for sample pretreatment, i.e., on-line sample separation and dilution and low consumption of chemicals and materials.

  11. Poor Prognosis After Second Locoregional Recurrences in the CALOR Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapnir, Irene L; Gelber, Shari; Anderson, Stewart J; Mamounas, Eleftherios P; Robidoux, André; Martín, Miguel; Nortier, Johan W R; Geyer, Charles E; Paterson, Alexander H G; Láng, István; Price, Karen N; Coates, Alan S; Gelber, Richard D; Rastogi, Priya; Regan, Meredith M; Wolmark, Norman; Aebi, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Isolated locoregional recurrences (ILRRs) of breast cancer confer a significant risk for the development of distant metastasis. Management practices and second ILRR events in the Chemotherapy as Adjuvant for LOcally Recurrent breast cancer (CALOR) trial were investigated. In this study, 162 patients with ILRR were randomly assigned to receive postoperative chemotherapy or no chemotherapy. Descriptive statistics characterize outcomes according to local therapy and the influence of hormone receptor status on subsequent recurrences. Competing risk regression models, Kaplan-Meier estimates, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate associations between treatment, site of second recurrence, and outcome. The median follow-up period was 4.9 years. Of the 98 patients who received breast-conserving primary surgery 89 had an ipsilateral-breast tumor recurrence. Salvage mastectomy was performed for 73 patients and repeat lumpectomy for 16 patients. Another eight patients had nodal ILRR, and one patient had chest wall ILRR. Among 64 patients whose primary surgery was mastectomy, 52 had chest wall/skin ILRR, and 12 had nodal ILRR. For 15 patients, a second ILRR developed a median of 1.6 years (range 0.08-4.8 years) after ILRR. All second ILRRs occurred for patients with progesterone receptor-negative ILRR. Death occurred for 7 (47 %) of 15 patients with a second ILRR and 19 (51 %) of 37 patients with a distant recurrence. As shown in the multivariable analysis, the significant predictors of survival after either a second ILRR or distant recurrence were chemotherapy for the primary cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 3.55; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.15-10.9; p = 0.03) and the interval (continuous) from the primary surgery (HR, 0.87; 95 % CI, 0.75-1.00; p = 0.05). Second ILRRs represented about one third of all recurrence events after ILRR, and all were PR-negative. These second ILRRs and distant metastases portend an unfavorable outcome.

  12. Effect of exercise on the caloric intake of breast cancer patients undergoing treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. Battaglini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an exercise intervention on the total caloric intake (TCI of breast cancer patients undergoing treatment. A secondary purpose was to determine whether or not a relationship existed between changes in TCI, body fat composition (%BF, and fatigue during the study, which lasted 6 months. Twenty females recently diagnosed with breast cancer, scheduled to undergo chemotherapy or radiation, were assigned randomly to an experimental (N = 10 or control group (N = 10. Outcome measures included TCI (3-day food diary, %BF (skinfolds, and fatigue (revised Piper Fatigue Scale. Each exercise session was conducted as follows: initial cardiovascular activity (6-12 min, followed by stretching (5-10 min, resistance training (15-30 min, and a cool-down (approximately 8 min. Significant changes in TCI were observed among groups (F1,18 = 8.582; P = 0.009, at treatments 2 and 3, and at the end of the study [experimental (1973 ± 419, control (1488 ± 418; experimental (1946 ± 437, control (1436 ± 429; experimental (2315 ± 455, control (1474 ± 294, respectively]. A significant negative correlation was found (Spearman rho(18 = -0.759; P < 0.001 between TCI and %BF and between TCI and fatigue levels (Spearman rho(18 = -0.541; P = 0.014 at the end of the study. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that an exercise intervention administered to breast cancer patients undergoing medical treatment may assist in the mitigation of some treatment side effects, including decreased TCI, increased fatigue, and negative changes in body composition.

  13. High protein high fibre snack bars reduce food intake and improve short term glucose and insulin profiles compared with high fat snack bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gemma; Noakes, Manny; Keogh, Jennifer; Foster, Paul; Clifton, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The replacement in the diet of refined carbohydrate and fat with fibre and protein has been shown to promote satiety and improve glucose and insulin profiles. It is less clear whether the macronutrient composition of individual foods such as snacks have any meaningful impact on metabolic parameters and satiety. We examined if the consumption of higher protein higher fibre snack bars would result in reducing outcome measures such as food intake and glucose and insulin patterns compared to a conventional isocaloric high fat high refined carbohydrate snack bar. Twenty three women were randomized in a single blind cross over study with 2 interventions, a high fat high sugar snack bar and a comparatively higher protein, higher fibre snack bar intervention. Snack bars were eaten at mid morning and mid afternoon, and a standard breakfast and ad libitum buffet lunch. The glucose and insulin responses over 9 hours were significantly lower (P = 0.014 and P = 0.012 respectively) during the high protein snack bar intervention. Peak glucose levels were also 16% lower after the morning HP bar (P bar reduced the energy intake at the buffet lunch meal by 5% (4657 +/- 1025KJ vs 4901 +/- 1186KJ, P bar can assist in reducing the energy intake at a subsequent meal and improve short term glucose and insulin profiles.

  14. Differences in perceptions and fast food eating behaviours between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods of Chandigarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloia Christopher Robert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased density of fast food restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fast food outlets. The purpose of the study is to explore the differences in fast food preferences, perceptions, and patronage between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 204 men and women (35 to 65 years in age from high- and low-income neighbourhoods who completed a questionnaire on fast food consumption. The questionnaire asked participants to define fast food and to provide reasons for and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants. The differences were analyzed using Chi square and t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results Participants from a high-income neighbourhood were more likely to perceive Western -style fast food as fast food, while people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to identify food sold by street vendors as fast food (p Conclusions Overall, consumption of fast food was low. People from a high-income neighbourhood dined out more frequently and were more likely to perceive Western-style food as fast food compared to their counterparts from the low-income neighbourhood.

  15. Improve biogas production from low-organic-content sludge through high-solids anaerobic co-digestion with food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanyang; Li, Huan; Zhang, Yuyao; Liu, Can

    2016-11-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste was tested at two different total solid (TS) concentrations. In the low-solids group with TS 4.8%, the biogas production increased linearly as the ratio of food waste in substrate increased from 0 to 100%, but no synergetic effect was found between the two substrates. Moreover, the additive food waste resulted in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids and decelerated biogas production. Thus, the blend ratio of food waste should be lower than 50%. While in the high-solids group with TS 14%, the weak alkaline environment with pH 7.5-8.5 avoided excessive acidification but high concentration of free ammonia was a potential risk. However, good synergetic effect was found between the two substrates because the added food waste improved mass transfer in sludge cake. Thus, 50% was recommended as the optimum ratio of food waste in substrate because of the best synergetic effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A healthy trend: less food used in fundraising and as rewards and incentives in Minnesota middle and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y; Farbakhsh, Kian; Lytle, Leslie A

    2013-04-01

    To assess change in the 4-year prevalence (2006-2009) of the use of food in school fundraising and as rewards and incentives for students, following implementation of federal legislation in the USA in 2006. Serial cross-sectional design using trend analysis to assess school-level data collected over four consecutive years from 2006/2007 to 2009/2010. Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN. Convenience sample of middle and high schools participating in two longitudinal, aetiological studies that examined youth, their environment and obesity-related factors. A significant and sustained decrease was demonstrated in the use of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods in school fundraising activities and the use of food and food coupons as rewards and incentives by teachers and school staff. Results support the utility of policy and legislative action as a tool for creating healthy, sustainable environmental change.

  17. Reducing Liver Fat by Low Carbohydrate Caloric Restriction Targets Hepatic Glucose Production in Non-Diabetic Obese Adults with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haoyong; Jia, Weiping; Guo, ZengKui

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) impairs liver functions, the organ responsible for the regulation of endogenous glucose production and thus plays a key role in glycemic homeostasis. Therefore, interventions designed to normalize liver fat content are needed to improve glucose metabolism in patients affected by NAFLD such as obesity. Objective: this investigation is designed to determine the effects of caloric restriction on hepatic and peripheral glucose metabolism in obese humans with NAFLD. Methods: eight non-diabetic obese adults were restricted for daily energy intake (800 kcal) and low carbohydrate ( 0.05). Liver fat is the only independent variable highly correlated to HGP after the removal of confounders. Conclusion: NAFLD impairs HGP but not peripheral glucose disposal; low carbohydrate caloric restriction effectively lowers liver fat which appears to directly correct the HGP impairment. PMID:25411646

  18. Curcumin Mimics the Neurocognitive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Caloric Restriction in a Mouse Model of Midlife Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Rahman Sarker

    Full Text Available Dietary curcumin was studied for its potential to decrease adiposity and reverse obesity- associated cognitive impairment in a mouse model of midlife sedentary obesity. We hypothesized that curcumin intake, by decreasing adiposity, would improve cognitive function in a manner comparable to caloric restriction (CR, a weight loss regimen. 15-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were assigned in groups to receive the following dietary regimens for 12 weeks: (i a base diet (Ain93M fed ad libitum (AL, (ii the base diet restricted to 70% of ad libitum (CR or (iii the base diet containing curcumin fed AL (1000 mg/kg diet, CURAL. Blood markers of inflammation, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP, as well as an indicator of redox stress (GSH: GSSG ratio, were determined at different time points during the treatments, and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured upon completion of the experiment. After 8 weeks of dietary treatment, the mice were tested for spatial cognition (Morris water maze and cognitive flexibility (discriminated active avoidance. The CR group showed significant weight loss and reduced adiposity, whereas CURAL mice had stable weight throughout the experiment, consumed more food than the AL group, with no reduction of adiposity. However, both CR and CURAL groups took fewer trials than AL to reach criterion during the reversal sessions of the active avoidance task, suggesting an improvement in cognitive flexibility. The AL mice had higher levels of CRP compared to CURAL and CR, and GSH as well as the GSH: GSSG ratio were increased during curcumin intake, suggesting a reducing shift in the redox state. The results suggest that, independent of their effects on adiposity; dietary curcumin and caloric restriction have positive effects on frontal cortical functions that could be linked to anti-inflammatory or antioxidant actions.

  19. Protracted effects of juvenile stressor exposure are mitigated by access to palatable food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Christine MacKay

    Full Text Available Stressor experiences during the juvenile period may increase vulnerability to anxiety and depressive-like symptoms in adulthood. Stressors may also promote palatable feeding, possibly reflecting a form of self-medication. The current study investigated the short- and long-term consequences of a stressor applied during the juvenile period on anxiety- and depressive-like behavior measured by the elevated plus maze (EPM, social interaction and forced swim test (FST. Furthermore, the effects of stress on caloric intake, preference for a palatable food and indices of metabolic syndrome and obesity were assessed. Male Wistar rats exposed to 3 consecutive days of variable stressors on postnatal days (PD 27-29, displayed elevated anxiety-like behaviors as adults, which could be attenuated by consumption of a palatable high-fat diet. However, consumption of a palatable food in response to a stressor appeared to contribute to increased adiposity.

  20. Hen eggs chemical compounds, caloricity and cholesterol level, as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    simba

    2014-02-08

    Feb 8, 2014 ... although the cholesterol level in eggs was not influenced by the ... Consumer behaviour and preferences are frequently influenced by the marketing strategies of food ..... iodine and selenium: A new natural multi-enriched egg.

  1. Maternal "junk food" diet during pregnancy as a predictor of high birthweight: findings from the healthy beginnings trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li Ming; Simpson, Judy M; Rissel, Chris; Baur, Louise A

    2013-03-01

    A high infant birthweight is associated with future risk of a range of adverse health consequences. This study sought to determine whether maternal "junk food" diet (energy-dense, nutrient-poor) predicts high birthweight in first-time mothers in southwest Sydney, Australia. A community-based longitudinal study was conducted with a total of 368 first-time mothers and their newborns. Information about maternal "junk food" diet, including high consumption of soft drink, fast food, and/or processed meat and chips, and self-reported prepregnant weight and height of first-time mothers was collected by a face-to-face interview with mothers between 24 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. Birthweight was measured in hospital and reported by the mother, together with gestational age, when the baby was 6 months old. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine the factors predicting birthweight greater than 4.0 kg. Eleven percent of newborns weighed more than 4.0 kg (12% boys, 9% girls). Compared with mothers who had a "junk food" diet, mothers who had not consumed "junk food" during pregnancy were significantly less likely to have a newborn weighing more than 4.0 kg, with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.36, 95 percent confidence interval (CI) 0.14-0.91, p = 0.03, after adjusting for maternal weight status and gestational age. Compared with healthy and underweight mothers, overweight or obese mothers were more likely to have a newborn weighing more than 4.0 kg (AOR overweight 3.03, 95% CI 1.35-6.80; obese 3.79, 95% CI 1.41-10.25) after allowing for "junk food" diet and gestational age. Maternal "junk food" diet during pregnancy and prepregnant overweight and obesity were independent predictors of high infant birthweight. Early childhood obesity interventions should consider addressing these factors. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Food intake and energy expenditure are increased in high-fat-sensitive but not in high-carbohydrate-sensitive obesity-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Even, Patrick C

    2014-08-01

    Obesity-prone (OP) rodents are used as models of human obesity predisposition. The goal of the present study was to identify preexisting defects in energy expenditure components in OP rats. Two studies were performed. In the first one, male Wistar rats (n = 48) were fed a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) for 3 wk and then a high-fat diet (HFD) for the next 3 wk. This study showed that adiposity gain under HCD was 2.9-fold larger in carbohydrate-sensitive (CS) than in carbohydrate-resistant (CR) rats, confirming the concept of "carbohydrate-sensitive" rats. Energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), caloric intake (CI), and locomotor activity measured during HFD identified no differences in EE and RQ between fat-resistant (FR) and fat-sensitive (FS) rats, and indicated that obesity developed in FS rats only as the result of a larger CI not fully compensated by a parallel increase in EE. A specific pattern of spontaneous activity, characterized by reduced activity burst intensity, was identified in FS rats but not in CS ones. This mirrors a previous observation that under HCD, CS but not FS rats, exhibited bursts of activity of reduced intensity. In a second study, rats were fed a HFD for 3 wk, and the components of energy expenditure were examined by indirect calorimetry in 10 FR and 10 FS rats. This study confirmed that a low basal EE, reduced thermic effect of feeding, defective postprandial energy partitioning, or a defective substrate utilization by the working muscle are not involved in the FS phenotype. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Not as bad as you think: a comparison of the nutrient content of best price and brand name food products in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalatbari-Soltani, Saman; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have shown that low-cost foods have an equivalent nutrient composition compared to high-cost foods, but such information is lacking in Switzerland. Thus, we compared the caloric and nutrient content of "best price" (BPF) and brand name foods (BNF) in Switzerland using the version 5.0 (April 2015) of the Swiss Food and Nutrient composition database. Over 4000 processed food items were included and 26 food categories were compared regarding total energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates, saturated fatty acids, sugar, fiber and sodium. BPF, namely core food categories like Bread, Red meat, White meat and Fish products, were 42%, 39%, 42% and 46% less expensive than their BNF equivalents, respectively. No differences were found between BPF and BNF regarding total energy and protein, fat and carbohydrates for most food categories. In the Cheese category, BPF had a lower caloric content than BNF [Median (interquartile range, IQR): 307 (249-355) vs. 365 (308-395) kcal/100 g, respectively, p < 0.001]; BPF also had lower fat and saturated fatty acid content but higher carbohydrate content than BNF (both p < 0.01). In the Creams and puddings group, BPF had lower fat 1.3 (0.9-1.7) vs. 6.0 (3.5-11.0) g/100 g and saturated fatty acid 0.6 (0.6-0.8) vs. 2.9 (2.3-6.0) g/100 g content than BNF (both p < 0.005). In the Tinned fruits and vegetables group, BPF had lower sodium content than BNF: 175 (0-330) vs. 370 (150-600) mg/100 g, p = 0.006. BPF might be a reasonable and eventually healthier alternative of BNF for economically deprived people in Switzerland.

  4. Caloric Intake from Fast Food among Adults: United States, 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... subgroups. African-American persons, Hispanic persons, persons with low income, and persons aged 60 and over were oversampled ... Human Services, Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. Poverty guidelines, research, and measurement . Washington, DC. 2011. National ...

  5. Thylakoids suppress appetite by increasing cholecystokinin resulting in lower food intake and body weight in high-fat fed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhnke, Rickard; Lindqvist, Andreas; Göransson, Nathanael

    2009-01-01

    affect food intake and body weight during long-term feeding in mice. Female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a high-fat diet containing 41% of fat by energy with and without thylakoids for 100 days. Mice fed the thylakoid-enriched diet had suppressed food intake, body weight gain and body fat...... fat mass. There was no sign of desensitization in the animals treated with thylakoids. The results suggest that thylakoids are useful to suppress appetite and body weight gain when supplemented to a high-fat food during long-term feeding....... compared with the high-fat fed control mice. Reduced serum glucose, serum triglyceride and serum free fatty acid levels were found in the thylakoid-treated animals. The satiety hormone cholecystokinin was elevated, suggesting this hormone mediates satiety. Leptin levels were reduced, reflecting a decreased...

  6. The Leeds food preference questionnaire after mild sleep restriction - A small feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, Cathalijn H C; Zant, Janneke C; Aussems, Audrey; Faatz, Vivian; Snackers, Daphne; Kalsbeek, A.

    2016-01-01

    Besides the increased sedentary lifestyle and increased caloric intake, changes in dietary composition may play an important role in the increased prevalence of obesity. Because inadequate sleep could be a risk factor in the aetiology of obesity, reliable methods for assessing food intake and food

  7. 21 CFR 101.60 - Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... condition without the benefit of special processing, alteration, formulation, or reformulation to lower the caloric content, it is labeled to disclose that calories are not usually present in the food (e.g., “cider...). (ii) If a food meets these conditions without the benefit of special processing,...