WorldWideScience

Sample records for high buried line

  1. The HEMP (High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse) Response of a Long Transmission Line Buried in the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    Carnahan, H. A. Luther, and J. 0. Wilkes, Applied Numerical methods , John Wiley and Sons (1969), 440-442. *6. Alf red G. Brandatein and Egon Marx... Numerical Methods , John Wiley and Sons (1969), 440-442. 10 ." . *..,** .,.. *..;.* . . . . ....... .. . * . *o .. . *. .*. ..*. . . .. . -S . ° .S...the transmission line, as shown in figure 3. Hence, equation (6) is expanded in the form5 5 B. Carnahan, H. A. Luther, and J. 0. Wilkes, Applied

  2. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...... in close proximity to the park bridge and new projects being added to fit the context. The outcome is a conglomeration of non-contemporary urban activities along the High Line, where mechanical workshops, small wholesale stores. etc. mix with new exclusive residential buildings, eminent cafés...

  3. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    in close proximity to the park bridge and new projects being added to fit the context. The outcome is a conglomeration of non-contemporary urban activities along the High Line, where mechanical workshops, small wholesale stores. etc. mix with new exclusive residential buildings, eminent cafés......At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many...... factories and warehouses on Gansevoort Street. Today the High Line is a beautiful park covered with new tiles, viewing platforms and smaller recreational areas. The park bridge has simple, uniform, urban fittings and features a variety of flowering plants, grasses, shrubs and trees from around the world...

  4. A vertically integrated dynamic RAM-cell: Buried bit line memory cell with floating transfer layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, Ton; Vertregt, Maarten

    1986-01-01

    A charge injection device has been realized in which charge can be injected on to an MOS-capacitor from a buried layer via an isolated transfer layer. The cell is positioned vertically between word and bit line. LOCOS (local oxidation) is used to isolate the cells and (deep) ion implantation to real

  5. Buried stone lines in deserts - What can they tell us about landscape evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, M.; Kleber, A.

    2009-04-01

    Stone pavements are typical features of climate-sensitive arid environments. They allow formation of cumulic soils, protected from erosion, which may be used as archives that recorded past geomorphologic and pedologic processes. Stone lines within the soil column resulted from buried stone pavements. These stone lines, situated between compound soil horizons were affected by postdepositional processes that may be attributed to specific palaeoenvironmental conditions. From Cima Volcanic Field, eastern Mojave Desert, California, we present detailed alignment measurements of buried stone stratae. Soils in the study area were developed on basalt flows of middle Pleistocene age and consist mainly of aeolian dust which was overprinted by several phases of soil formation and stone pavement development. Stones that were arranged in specific depth intervals between compound soil horizons showed prominent orientation patterns that may be attributed to geomorphic processes that created, distorted or reworked at least two ancient stone pavements, now covered by sediment and the modern pavement. We suggest fluvial (re-)orientation of surficial stones prior to burial. Furthermore, a lateral displacement of clasts within the sediment matrix is recorded. The stratigraphic position of realigned stone lines within soil horizons presumably formed, both, under humid and arid environmental conditions allows the description of geomorphic processes for discrete climatic frameworks. Buried stone pavements are thus a unique opportunity for investigating past landscape dynamics, not recorded in other archives.

  6. The thermal regime around buried submarine high-voltage cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeana, C. J.; Hughes, T. J.; Dix, J. K.; Gernon, T. M.; Henstock, T. J.; Thompson, C. E. L.; Pilgrim, J. A.

    2016-08-01

    The expansion of offshore renewable energy infrastructure and the need for trans-continental shelf power transmission require the use of submarine high-voltage (HV) cables. These cables have maximum operating surface temperatures of up to 70 °C and are typically buried 1-2 m beneath the seabed, within the wide range of substrates found on the continental shelf. However, the heat flow pattern and potential effects on the sedimentary environments around such anomalously high heat sources in the near-surface sediments are poorly understood. We present temperature measurements from a 2-D laboratory experiment representing a buried submarine HV cable, and identify the thermal regimes generated within typical unconsolidated shelf sediments—coarse silt, fine sand and very coarse sand. We used a large (2 × 2.5 m2) tank filled with water-saturated spherical glass beads (ballotini) and instrumented with a buried heat source and 120 thermocouples to measure the time-dependent 2-D temperature distributions. The observed and corresponding Finite Element Method simulations of the steady state heat flow regimes and normalized radial temperature distributions were assessed. Our results show that the heat transfer and thus temperature fields generated from submarine HV cables buried within a range of sediments are highly variable. Coarse silts are shown to be purely conductive, producing temperature increases of >10 °C up to 40 cm from the source of 60 °C above ambient; fine sands demonstrate a transition from conductive to convective heat transfer between cf. 20 and 36 °C above ambient, with >10 °C heat increases occurring over a metre from the source of 55 °C above ambient; and very coarse sands exhibit dominantly convective heat transfer even at very low (cf. 7 °C) operating temperatures and reaching temperatures of up to 18 °C above ambient at a metre from the source at surface temperatures of only 18 °C. These findings are important for the surrounding near

  7. Microbial communities of buried soils of the Tsaritsyn Defense Line (1718-1720)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kuznetsova, T. V.; Kontoboitseva, A. A.; Borisov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities of recent surface soils and the soils buried beneath the rampart of the Tsaritsyn Defense Line (1718-1720) in the Little Ice Age were studied. The contribution of the time factor to the variability in the number of microorganisms from different trophic groups was shown to be minor (0.2-0.3%), although significant. In the upper horizon of the paleosols reflecting the environmental conditions intrinsic to the period of the rampart construction, the lower (by two times) content of live microbial biomass, the lower metabolic activity of the microbial community, and the more contrasting changes in the microbiological parameters as compared to these characteristics in the recent soils were found for all the elements of the local topography. The stabilities of the microbial communities in the buried and recent soils were almost the same. The ecological-trophic structure of the microbial communities in the buried soils evidences that, the climate of the 18th century in the southern Privolzhskaya Upland was more humid than now. At the same time, temperature conditions of the Little Ice Age did not prevent the development of steppe vegetation and corresponding soil microbial communities in this area. Our data on the morphology and physicochemical properties of the soils confirm the assumption about more humid climatic conditions at the beginning of the 18th century in the studied area.

  8. Extracting features buried within high density atom probe point cloud data through simplicial homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Srikant; Kaluskar, Kaustubh; Broderick, Scott; Rajan, Krishna

    2015-12-01

    Feature extraction from Atom Probe Tomography (APT) data is usually performed by repeatedly delineating iso-concentration surfaces of a chemical component of the sample material at different values of concentration threshold, until the user visually determines a satisfactory result in line with prior knowledge. However, this approach allows for important features, buried within the sample, to be visually obscured by the high density and volume (~10(7) atoms) of APT data. This work provides a data driven methodology to objectively determine the appropriate concentration threshold for classifying different phases, such as precipitates, by mapping the topology of the APT data set using a concept from algebraic topology termed persistent simplicial homology. A case study of Sc precipitates in an Al-Mg-Sc alloy is presented demonstrating the power of this technique to capture features, such as precise demarcation of Sc clusters and Al segregation at the cluster boundaries, not easily available by routine visual adjustment.

  9. Novel high-voltage power lateral MOSFET with adaptive buried electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wen-Tong; Wu Li-Juan; Qiao Ming; Luo Xiao-Rong; Zhang Bo; Li Zhao-Ji

    2012-01-01

    A new high-voltage and low-specific on-resistance (Ron,sp) adaptive buried electrode (ABE) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) power lateral MOSFET and its analytical model of the electric fields are proposed.The MOSFET features are that the electrodes are in the buried oxide (BOX) layer,the negative drain voltage Vd is divided into many partial voltages and the output to the electrodes is in the buried oxide layer and the potentials on the electrodes change linearly from the drain to the source.Because the interface silicon layer potentials are lower than the neighboring electrode potentials,the electronic potential wells are formed above the electrode regions,and the hole poteutial wells are formed in the spacing of two neighbouring electrode regions.The interface hole concentration is much higher than the electron concentration through designing the buried layer electrode potentials.Based on the interface charge enhanced dielectric layer field theory,the electric field strength in the buried layer is enhanced.The vertical electric field EI and the breakdown voltage (BV) of ABE SOI are 545 V/μm and -587 V in the 50 μm long drift region and the 1 tm thick dielectric layer,and a low Ron,sp is obtained.Furthermore,the structure also alleviates the self-heating effect (SHE).The analytical model matches the simulation results.

  10. High energy beam lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  11. Extracting features buried within high density atom probe point cloud data through simplicial homology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Srikant; Kaluskar, Kaustubh; Broderick, Scott; Rajan, Krishna, E-mail: krajan@iastate.edu

    2015-12-15

    Feature extraction from Atom Probe Tomography (APT) data is usually performed by repeatedly delineating iso-concentration surfaces of a chemical component of the sample material at different values of concentration threshold, until the user visually determines a satisfactory result in line with prior knowledge. However, this approach allows for important features, buried within the sample, to be visually obscured by the high density and volume (~10{sup 7} atoms) of APT data. This work provides a data driven methodology to objectively determine the appropriate concentration threshold for classifying different phases, such as precipitates, by mapping the topology of the APT data set using a concept from algebraic topology termed persistent simplicial homology. A case study of Sc precipitates in an Al–Mg–Sc alloy is presented demonstrating the power of this technique to capture features, such as precise demarcation of Sc clusters and Al segregation at the cluster boundaries, not easily available by routine visual adjustment. - Highlights: • Provides a data driven methodology to select appropriate concentration threshold. • Maps topology of APT data using persistent simplicial homology. • The application to Sc precipitates in an Al–Mg–Sc alloy is provided. • Capture features not easily available by routine visual adjustment.

  12. Estimated Buried Power and Gas Lines at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The gas and power lines were compiled from utility lines collected with GPS equipment in the summer of 2003 and then merged with older gas and power line data...

  13. Estimated Buried Utility Water and Wastewater Lines at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The water and wastewater lines were compiled from utility lines collected with GPS equipment in the summer of 2003 and then merged with older water line data...

  14. Estimated Buried Irrigation Water Lines at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset captures the irrigation water lines running through and around the cemetery. The irrigation lines were compiled from utility lines collected with GPS...

  15. Influence of a highly doped buried layer for HfInZnO thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Eugene; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2012-01-01

    Hafnium-indium-zinc oxide (HIZO) channel thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been reported with a 12 nm thick indium-zinc oxide (IZO)-buried layer. IZO-buried HIZO TFTs show excellent electrical characteristics and stabilities such as a high mobility (µFE) of ˜41.4 cm2 V-1 s-1 which is three times higher than that of conventional HIZO TFTs and significantly enhanced bias-temperature-induced stability. High mobility could be obtained since the current path is mainly formed on a highly conductive buried layer with a high carrier concentration over 1018 cm-3. Enhanced stability could be achieved mainly because the generation of the additional trap state was considerably reduced near the drain region due to a relatively short path since the current flows vertically from a highly conductive buried layer to a drain electrode through the HIZO channel via a relatively low carrier density region.

  16. A high-resolution aeromagnetic field test in Friuli: towards developing remote location of buried ferro-metallic bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Armadillo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available High Resolution AeroMagnetic surveys (HRAM are a novel tool experimented in several countries for volcano and earthquake hazard re-assessment, ground water exploration and mitigation, hazardous waste site characterization and accurate location of buried ferrous objects (drums, UXO, pipelines. The improvements achieved by HRAM stem from lower terrain clearance coupled with accurately positioned, real-time differential navigation on closely spaced flight grids. In field cultural noise filtering, advanced data processing, imaging and improved interpretation techniques enhance data information content. Development of HRAM approaches might also contribute to mitigate environmental hazards present throughout the Italian territory. Hence an HRAM field test was performed in July 2000 in Friuli, North-Eastern Italy to assess the capabilities and limitations of HRAM over a buried pipeline and a domestic waste site. A Cesium magnetometer in towed bird configuration was used on two separate grids. Profile line spacing was 50-100 m and bird nominal ground clearance was set to 50 m. Microlevelled total field magnetic anomaly data forms the basis for subsequent advanced processing products including 3D analytic signal, maximum horizontal gradient of pseudo-gravity and 3D Euler Deconvolution. The magnetic signatures we detected and enhanced over the environmental test site area in Friuli are also compared with similar but more extensive HRAM signatures recently observed in other countries.

  17. Luminous HC3N line emission in NGC4418 - buried AGN or nascent starburst?

    CERN Document Server

    Aalto, S; Martin, S

    2007-01-01

    IRAM 30m observations reveal that the deeply obscured IR-luminous galaxy NGC4418 has a rich molecular chemistry - including unusually luminous HC3N line emission. We furthermore detect: ortho-H2CO 2-1, 3-2; CN 1-0, 2-1; HCO+, 1-0. 3-2, HCN 3-2, HNC 1-0, 3-2 (and tentatively OCS 12-11). The HCN, HCO+, H2CO and CN line emission can be fitted to densities of n=5 x 10E4 - 10E5 cm-3 and gas temperatures Tk=80-150 K. Both HNC and HC3N are, however, significantly more excited than the other species which requires higher gas densities - or radiative excitation through e.g. mid-IR pumping. The HCN line intensity is fainter than that of HCO+ and HNC for the 3-2 transition, in contrast to previous findings for the 1-0 lines where the HCN emission is the most luminous. We tentatively suggest that the observed molecular line emission is consistent with a young starburst, where the emission can be understood as emerging from dense, warm gas with an additional PDR component. We find that X-ray chemistry is not required to e...

  18. Best period for high spatial resolution satellite images for the detection of marks of buried structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Kaimaris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in sensor technology in recent decades led to the creation of ground, air and space imaging systems, whose data can be used in archaeological studies. Greece is one of the lucky areas that are rich in archaeological heritage. The detection of prehistoric/historic undiscovered constructions on satellite images or aerial photos is a complex and complicated matter. These marks are not visible from the ground, they can, however, be traced on satellite or aerial images, because of the differences in tone and texture. These differences appear as crop, soil and shadow marks. Undoubtedly, the detection of buried structures requires a suitable spatial resolution image, taken under appropriate meteorological conditions and during the best period of the vegetation growing cycle. According to the pertinent literature, detecting covered memorials may be achieved either accidentally or, usually, after a systematic investigation based on historical narratives. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors that facilitate or hinder the detection of buried structures through high spatial resolution satellite imagery. In this study, pan sharpened images from the QuickBird-2 satellite were used, of a spatial resolution of 0.60-0.70 m. This study concerns the detection of marks of the ancient Via Egnatia, from the ancient Amphipolis to Philippi (Eastern Macedonia, Greece. We studied different types of vegetation in the region and their phenological cycle. Taking into account the vegetation phenological cycle of the study area as well as the meteorological data, four pan sharpened QuickBird-2 images of a spatial resolution of 0.60–0.70 m. were used, during four different seasons. By processing the four images, we can determine the one acquired during the most appropriate conditions for the detection of buried structures. The application of this methodology in the study area had positive results, and not only was the main purpose of this

  19. High power, high efficiency window buried heterostructure GaAlAs superluminescent diode with an integrated absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, N.S.K.; Lau, K.Y.; Bar-Chaim, N.; Ury, I.; Lee, K.J.

    1987-12-07

    A superluminescent diode (SLD) based on a proven high power, high efficiency ''window-'' type index-guided buried heterostructure laser is demonstrated. Lasing is suppressed for SLD operation by antireflection coating and by incorporating an unpumped absorber section. The resulting device emits high optical power (14 mW) in the SLD mode at very low injection current (50 mA). The spectral modulation depth is below 14% over the entire emission spectral bandwidth of 20 nm, with a symmetrical beam divergence (20/sup 0/ x 40/sup 0/) and a stable transverse mode.

  20. Generation of High-Frequency P and S Wave Energy by Rock Fracture During a Buried Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-20

    AFRL-RV -PS- TR-2015-0145 AFRL-RV -PS- TR-2015-0145 GENERATION OF HIGH-FREQUENCY P AND S WAVE ENERGY BY ROCK FRACTURE DURING A BURIED EXPLOSION ...SUBTITLE Generation of High-Frequency P and S Wave Energy by Rock Fracture During a Buried Explosion 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-12-C-0210 5b...underground nuclear explosions . This model predicts the generation of strong S wave radiation in the non-linear source region whenever spherical

  1. Azimuth calculation for buried pipelines using a synthetic array of emitters, a single survey line and scattering matrix formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullo, Darío; Villela, Almendra; Bonomo, Néstor

    2016-11-01

    We evaluate the simultaneous application of a synthetic-emitter array (SEA) methodology and formulation derived from the analysis of the rotation transformations of the scattering matrix (RTSM) to calculate the orientation of buried pipes from GPR data acquired along a single survey line. The main objective of this study is to analyze if the SEA-RTSM combination can improve the azimuth calculation obtained from the usual single-offset-RTSM (SO-RTSM) procedure. This possibility is based on the SEA ability of increasing the continuity and amplitude of the primary reflections with respect to the background clutter and noise, which is expected to reduce the fluctuations involved in the RTSM calculation of the azimuth, so that its accuracy and precision are improved. A SEA methodology designed to be used in conjunction with the RTSM methodology is described. A procedure that optimizes the results of the SEA methodology is explained. A statistical RTSM calculation is adopted in order to obtain the final azimuth. Different relevant parameters of the soil and the array of emitters are varied in order to evaluate the SEA-RTSM methodology and its results. Numerically simulated and experimental data are used in this evaluation. The SEA-RTSM and the SO-RTSM results are compared between them. These results are also compared with an equivalent common-midpoint-RTSM (CMP-RTSM) calculation. Improved precision and accuracy are obtained from the SEA-RTSM methodology in the great majority of the examples. The height/width of the resulting azimuth distribution increases 102% in average when using this procedure instead of the usual SO-RTSM procedure, the average standard deviation diminishes 12%, and the average differences between the calculated and true azimuths reduce 34%. Minor improvements with respect to SO are obtained with the CMP-RTSM methodology. The proposed SEA-RTSM methodology and its results are especially relevant in civil engineering applications in which it is

  2. Innovation design of long-distance pipelines buried under high-filling planned roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueshen Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available If a long-distance gas pipeline is unavoidably buried under a planned high-filling road, the high fill subgrade setting will result in the change of the pipe's mechanical shape and the local stress concentration on the pipe, which will pose threats to the safe operation of the pipeline. Protection culverts are generally adopted to solve this issue, but the construction of protection culverts are difficult and high in cost and usually unable to meet the requirements of construction schedule of the planned road project by the local government. For this reason, the stress on pipelines in high fill subgrade was analyzed and a rectification measure was proposed and its safety and rationality was also calculated. The results show that increasing pipe thickness is a feasible rectification measure. Thus, we analyzed the stability of and stress on the pipe caused by the uneven high fill setting by using the ABAQUS finite element software package, in which the pipe was simulated as the beam element, the backfill above the pipe as the stress load, and the elastic foundation underneath the pipe as the evenly-distributed spring. From the stress cloud charts, we can see the stress concentration on the pipe where a sudden change occurs in high fill setting. Without proper measures, accidents would be inevitable in the end. The analysis results from the ABAQUS also show that the scheme of increasing the pipe thickness will be the most cost-effective and practical way to deal with the stress resulted from the uneven high fill setting above the pipe. But it is pointed out that the pipeline laying route should avoid planned high filling roads as far as possible to ensure its safe operation.

  3. PERFORMANCE OF A BURIED RADIOACTIVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS AFTER 24 YEARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C; Daniel Kaplan, D; Ned Bibler, N; David Peeler, D; John Plodinec, J

    2008-05-05

    A radioactive high level waste glass was made in 1980 with Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 15 waste. This glass was buried in the SRS burial ground for 24 years but lysimeter data was only available for the first 8 years. The glass was exhumed and analyzed in 2004. The glass was predicted to be very durable and laboratory tests confirmed the durability response. The laboratory results indicated that the glass was very durable as did analysis of the lysimeter data. Scanning electron microscopy of the glass burial surface showed no significant glass alteration consistent with the results of the laboratory and field tests. No detectable Pu, Am, Cm, Np, or Ru leached from the glass into the surrounding sediment. Leaching of {beta}/{delta} from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in the glass was diffusion controlled. Less than 0.5% of the Cs and Sr in the glass leached into the surrounding sediment, with >99% of the leached radionuclides remaining within 8 centimeters of the glass pellet.

  4. Thermal Convection in High-Pressure Ice Layers Beneath a Buried Ocean within Titan and Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.; Dumont, M.

    2014-12-01

    Deep interiors of large icy satellites such as Titan and Ganymede probably harbor a buried ocean sandwiched between low pressure ice and high-pressure ice layers. The nature and location of the lower interface of the ocean involves equilibration of heat and melt transfer in the HP ices and is ultimately controlled by the amount heat transferred through the surface ice Ih layer. Here, we perform 3D simulations of thermal convection, using the OEDIPUS numerical tool (Choblet et al. GJI 2007), to determine the efficiency of heat and mass transfer through these HP ice mantles. In a first series of simulations with no melting, we show that a significant fraction of the HP layer reaches the melting point. Using a simple description of water production and transport, our simulations demonstrate that the melt generation in the outermost part of the HP ice layer and its extraction to the overlying ocean increase the efficiency of heat transfer and reduce strongly the internal temperature. structure and the efficiency of the heat transfer. Scaling relationships are proposed to describe the cooling effect of melt production/extraction and used to investigate the consequences of internal melting on the thermal history of Titan and Ganymede's interior.

  5. Review of Detection and Monitoring Systems for Buried High Pressure Pipelines : Final Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadollahi Dolatabad, Saeid; Doree, Andries G.; olde Scholtenhuis, Léon Luc; Vahdatikhaki, Faridaddin

    2017-01-01

    The Netherlands has approximately two million kilometers of underground cables and pipelines. One specific type of buried infrastructure is the distribution network of hazardous material such as gas, oil, and chemicals (‘transportleiding gevaarlijke stoffen’). This network comprises 22.000

  6. Guiding and collimating the fast electrons by using a low-density-core target with buried high density layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chong; Wan, Feng; Hou, Ya-Juan; Jia, Mo-Ran; Sang, Hai-Bo; Xie, Bai-Song; Liu, Shi-Bing

    2017-02-01

    A low-density-core target with buried high density layers is proposed to improve the transport of fast electrons and involved problems are investigated by using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. It is demonstrated that this target can collimate the fast electrons efficiently and lead to a better beam quality. The enhancement is attributed to the weakening of the two stream instability and the better collimation by the self-generated multilayer megagauss magnetic field as well as the baroclinic magnetic field. Comparing this to that without buried high density layers, the energy flux of fast electrons is increased by a factor of about 1.8 and has a narrower transverse distribution in space. Besides, the dependence of the efficiency on the target parameters is examined, and the optimal target parameters are also obtained. Such a target can be useful to many applications, such as fast ignition in inertial fusion.

  7. High-resolution subsurface imaging and neural network recognition: Non-intrusive buried substance location. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternberg, B.K.; Poulton, M.M.

    1997-01-26

    A high-frequency, high-resolution electromagnetic (EM) imaging system has been developed for environmental geophysics surveys. Some key features of this system include: (1) rapid surveying to allow dense spatial sampling over a large area, (2) high-accuracy measurements which are used to produce a high-resolution image of the subsurface, (3) measurements which have excellent signal-to-noise ratio over a wide bandwidth (31 kHz to 32 MHz), (4) elimination of electric-field interference at high frequencies, (5) large-scale physical modeling to produce accurate theoretical responses over targets of interest in environmental geophysics surveys, (6) rapid neural network interpretation at the field site, and (7) visualization of complex structures during the survey. Four major experiments were conducted with the system: (1) Data were collected for several targets in our physical modeling facility. (2) The authors tested the system over targets buried in soil. (3) The authors conducted an extensive survey at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Cold Test Pit (CTP). The location of the buried waste, category of waste, and thickness of the clay cap were successfully mapped. (4) The authors ran surveys over the acid pit at INEL. This was an operational survey over a hot site. The interpreted low-resistivity region correlated closely with the known extent of the acid pit.

  8. High-resolution subsurface imaging and neural network recognition: Non-intrusive buried substance location. Final report, January 26, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternberg, B.K.; Poulton, M.M.

    1998-12-31

    A high-frequency, high-resolution electromagnetic (EIVI) imaging system has been developed for environmental geophysics surveys. Some key features of this system include: (1) rapid surveying to allow dense spatial sampling over a large area, (2) high-accuracy measurements which are used to produce a high-resolution image of the subsurface, (3) measurements which have excellent signal-to-noise ratio over a wide bandwidth (31 kHz to 32 MHZ), (4) elimination of electric-field interference at high frequencies, (5) large-scale physical modeling to produce accurate theoretical responses over targets of interest in environmental geophysics surveys, (6) rapid neural network interpretation at the field site, and (7) visualization of complex structures during the survey. Four major experiments were conducted with the system: (1) Data were collected for several targets in our physical modeling facility. (2) We tested the system over targets buried in soil. (3) We conducted an extensive survey at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Cold Test Pit (CTP). The location of the buried waste, category of waste, and thickness of the clay cap were successfully mapped. (4) We ran surveys over the acid pit at INEL. This was an operational survey over a hot site. The interpreted low-resistivity region correlated closely with the known extent of the acid pit.

  9. A High-Resolution Aeromagnetic Survey to Identify Buried Faults at Dixie Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Richard Paul; Grauch, V. J. S.; Blackwell, David D.

    2002-09-01

    Preliminary results from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey (200m line spacing) acquired in Dixie Valley early in 2002 provide confirmation of intra-basin faulting based on subtle surface indications. In addition the data allow identification of the locations and trends of many faults that have not been recognized at the surface, and provide a picture of intrabasin faulting patterns not possible using other techniques. The data reveal a suite of northeasterly-trending curving and branching faults that surround a relatively coherent block in the area of Humboldt Salt Marsh, the deepest part of the basin. The producing reservoir occurs at the north end of this coherent block, where rampart faults from the northwest side of the valley merge with anthithetic faults from the central and southeast parts of the valley.

  10. A NEW STRUCTURE AND ITS ANALYTICAL BREAKDOWN MODEL OF HIGH VOLTAGE SOI DEVICE WITH STEP UNMOVABLE SURFACE CHARGES OF BURIED OXIDE LAYER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new SOI (Silicon On Insulator) high voltage device with Step Unmovable Surface Charges(SUSC) of buried oxide layer and its analytical breakdown model are proposed in the paper. The unmovable charges are implemented into the upper surface of buried oxide layer to increase the vertical electric field and uniform the lateral one. The 2-D Poisson's equation is solved to demonstrate the modulation effect of the immobile interface charges and analyze the electric field and breakdown voltage with the various geometric parameters and step numbers. A new RESURF (REduce SURface Field) condition of the SOI device considering the interface charges and buried oxide is derived to maximize breakdown voltage. The analytical results are in good agreement with the numerical analysis obtained by the 2-D semiconductor devices simulator MEDICI. As a result, an 1200V breakdown voltage is firstly obtained in 3μm-thick top Si layer, 2μm-thick buried oxide layer and 70μm-length drift region using a linear doping profile of unmovable buried oxide charges.

  11. High-speed Power Line Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew N. O. Sadiku,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is the idea of using existing power lines for communication purposes. Power line communications (PLC enables network communication of voice, data, and video over direct power lines. High-speed PLC involves data rates in excess of 10 Mbps. PLC has attracted a lot of attention and has become an interesting subject of research lately.

  12. High performance nanophotonic circuits based on partially buried horizontal slot waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Chi; Li, Mo; Tang, Hong X

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel platform to construct high-performance nanophotonic devices in low refractive index dielectric films at telecoms wavelengths. The formation of horizontal slots by PECVD deposition of high index amorphous silicon provides a convenient and low-cost way to tailor nanophotonic devices to application needs. Low propagation loss of less than 2 dB/cm is obtained allowing us to fabricate optical resonators with measured high optical quality factors exceeding 10^5. We design and experimentally demonstrate on-chip grating couplers to efficiently couple light into integrated circuitry with coupling loss of 4 dB and optical bandwidth exceeding 110 nm. The entire on-chip circuitry consisting of input/output couplers, Mach-Zehnder interferometers with high extinction ratio and ring, racetrack resonators are designed, fabricated and characterized.

  13. Transparent Electrodes for High E-Field Production Using A Buried ITO Layer

    CERN Document Server

    Gunton, Will; Semczuk, Mariusz; Madison, Kirk W

    2015-01-01

    We present a design and characterization of optically transparent electrodes suitable for atomic and molecular physics experiments where high optical access is required. The electrodes can be operated in air at standard atmospheric pressure and do not suffer electrical breakdown even for electric fields far exceeding the dielectric breakdown of air. This is achieved by putting an ITO coated dielectric substrate inside a stack of dielectric substrates, which prevents ion avalanche resulting from Townsend discharge. With this design, we observe no arcing for fields of up to 120 kV/cm. Using these plates, we directly verify the production of electric fields up to 18~kV/cm inside a quartz vacuum cell by a spectroscopic measurement of the dc Stark shift of the $5^2S_{1/2} \\rightarrow 5^2P_{3/2}$ transition for a cloud of laser cooled Rubidium atoms. We also report on the shielding of the electric field and residual electric fields that persist within the vacuum cell once the electrodes are discharged. In addition,...

  14. Avian influenza protection knowledge, awareness, and behaviors in a high-risk population in Suphan Buri Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Tavorn; Butraporn, Piyarat; Kaewkangwal, Jaranit; Fungladda, Wijitr

    2007-05-01

    Avian influenza (Al) had outbreaks in Thailand from January 2004 to December 2005, which resulted in 22 human cases, and 14 deaths. Three confirmed cases were reported in Suphan Buri Province in 2004, one of whom died. A cross-sectional study aimed to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices about AI in Song Phi Nong District of Suphan Buri Province. Most of the respondents had moderate levels of knowledge. Most of their attitudes towards and practices of the prevention and control of AI were also appropriate. However, the peoples' knowledge about major signs and symptoms of AI was limited. The study suggested that those who had received information from media had better attitudes towards and practices of AI prevention and control, compared with those who had not received information from media. Therefore, the media played an important role in improving knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors; but for the better protection from AI, continuing health education will be necessary in Thailand.

  15. Impact of blind via and buried via on high speed PCB signal property%盲埋孔对高速PCB板信号特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖惜春; 屈峰成

    2014-01-01

    As the operating frequency increases and signal rise time reduces, Blind via and buried via cause impedance discontinuities resulting in signal refiections and hence deterioration of system performance in the multi-layers PCB design. So the design of blind via and buried via has been the one of key factors of the high-speed digital circuit. The paper carries out a study of blind via and buried via structure in multi-layers PCBs by modeling and simulation, using a full-wave electromagnetic simulator, and comparing with the through via, analyzes the impact of blind via and buried via diameter, pad and anti-pad on signal property.%在高速数字电路中,随着系统工作频率的提高和数字信号上升沿的变陡,多层印制电路板中的盲埋孔带来的阻抗不连续性会引起信号的反射,严重影响到系统的信号特性。因此,盲埋孔的设计正逐渐成为制约高速PCB设计的关键因素之一。本文运用全波电磁仿真软件HFSS,对多层PCB板盲埋孔结构建模仿真,将盲埋孔与导通孔进行比较,分析盲埋孔孔径、焊盘、反焊盘几种关键参数对信号特性的影响。

  16. ULTRA HIGH POWER TRANSMISSION LINE TECHNIQUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultra-high power transmission line techniques including both failure mechanisms and component design are discussed. Failures resulting from...a waveguide. In view of the many advantages of the low loss mode in circular waveguide for ultra-high power levels, a mode transducer and a two...percent of the peak power of a standard rectangular wave guide. Water cooling is provided for high average power operation. Analysis of mode sup pression

  17. Plasmonics in buried structures

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, I. T.; García de Abajo, Francisco Javier

    2009-01-01

    We describe plasmon propagation in silica-filled coupled nanovoids fully buried in gold. Propagation bands and band gaps are shown to be tunable through the degree of overlap and plasmon hybridization between contiguous voids. The effect of disorder and fabrication imperfections is thoroughly investigated. Our work explores a novel paradigm for plasmon photonics relying on plasmon modes in metal-buried structures, which can benefit from long propagation distances, cancelation of radiative los...

  18. Theory buried under heavy description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin Ph.D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In journalism when a reporter puts the main news or point of the story deep down in the text, we say she’s buried the lead, the lead being the main point of the story and usually the first paragraph. In Children in Genocide: extreme traumatization and affect regulation, psychoanalyst Suzanne Kaplan buries her theory. Her study of the after effects of trauma among Holocaust survivors who were children during their persecution and survivors of atrocities during the Rwandan atrocities of the 1990s, is filled with highly descriptive material from the many interviews that serve as data. An interesting grounded theory is peeking out from under all the disciplinary discourse and historical background one must read through to get to what grounded theory readers will consider the juicy parts: concepts on affect regulation in trauma survivors.

  19. Subaru Adaptive-optics High-spatial-resolution Infrared K- and L'-band Imaging Search for Deeply Buried Dual AGNs in Merging Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of infrared K- (2.2 micron) and L'-band (3.8 micron) high-spatial-resolution (<0.2 arcsec) imaging observations of nearby gas- and dust-rich infrared luminous merging galaxies, assisted by the adaptive optics (AO) system on the Subaru 8.2-m telescope. We investigate the presence and frequency of red K-L' compact sources, which are sensitive indicators of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), including AGNs that are deeply buried in gas and dust. We observed 29 merging systems and confirmed at least one AGN in all but one system. However, luminous dual AGNs were detected in only four of the 29 systems (~14%), despite our method's being sensitive to buried AGNs. For multiple nuclei sources, we compared the estimated AGN luminosities with supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses inferred from large aperture K-band stellar emission photometry in individual nuclei. We found that mass accretion rates onto SMBHs are significantly different among multiple SMBHs, such that larger-mass SMBHs generally s...

  20. Radiolysis products and sensory properties of electron-beam-irradiated high-barrier food-packaging films containing a buried layer of recycled low-density polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chytiri, S D; Badeka, A V; Riganakos, K A; Kontominas, M G

    2010-04-01

    The aim was to study the effect of electron-beam irradiation on the production of radiolysis products and sensory changes in experimental high-barrier packaging films composed of polyamide (PA), ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE). Films contained a middle buried layer of recycled LDPE, while films containing 100% virgin LDPE as the middle buried layer were taken as controls. Irradiation doses ranged between zero and 60 kGy. Generally, a large number of radiolysis products were produced during electron-beam irradiation, even at the lower absorbed doses of 5 and 10 kGy (approved doses for food 'cold pasteurization'). The quantity of radiolysis products increased with irradiation dose. There were no significant differences in radiolysis products identified between samples containing a recycled layer of LDPE and those containing virgin LDPE (all absorbed doses), indicating the 'functional barrier' properties of external virgin polymer layers. Sensory properties (mainly taste) of potable water were affected after contact with irradiated as low as 5 kGy packaging films. This effect increased with increasing irradiation dose.

  1. Buried Craters of Utopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-365, 19 May 2003Beneath the northern plains of Mars are numerous buried meteor impact craters. One of the most heavily-cratered areas, although buried, occurs in Utopia Planitia, as shown in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. The history of Mars is complex; impact craters provide a tool by which to understand some of that history. In this case, a very ancient, cratered surface was thinly-buried by younger material that is not cratered at all. This area is near 48.1oN, 228.2oW; less than 180 km (112 mi) west of the Viking 2 lander site. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  2. Plasmonics in buried structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, I; García de Abajo, F J

    2009-10-12

    We describe plasmon propagation in silica-filled coupled nanovoids fully buried in gold. Propagation bands and band gaps are shown to be tunable through the degree of overlap and plasmon hybridization between contiguous voids. The effect of disorder and fabrication imperfections is thoroughly investigated. Our work explores a novel paradigm for plasmon photonics relying on plasmon modes in metal-buried structures, which can benefit from long propagation distances, cancelation of radiative losses, minimum crosstalk between neighboring waveguides, and maximum optical integration in three-dimensional arrangements.

  3. FIR line emission from high redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Vallini, Livia; Ferrara, Andrea; Baek, Sunghye

    2013-01-01

    By combining high resolution, radiative transfer cosmological simulations of z~6 galaxies with a sub-grid multi-phase model of their interstellar medium we derive the expected intensity of several far infrared (FIR) emission lines ([C II] 158 micron, [O I] 63 micron, and [N II] 122 micron) for different values of the gas metallicity, Z. For Z = Z_sun the [C II] spectrum is very complex due to the presence of several emitting clumps of individual size < 3 kpc; the peak is displaced from the galaxy center by ~100 km/s. While the [O I] spectrum is also similarly displaced, the [N II] line comes predominantly from the central ionized regions of the galaxy. When integrated over ~500 km/s, the [C II] line flux is 185 mJy km/s; 95% of such flux originates from the cold (T~250 K) H I phase, and only 5% from the warm (T~5000 K) neutral medium. The [O I] and [N II] fluxes are ~6 and ~90 times lower than the [C II] one, respectively. By comparing our results with observations of Himiko, the most extended and luminous...

  4. High spin isomer beam line at RIKEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishida, T.; Ideguchi, E.; Wu, H.Y. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Saitama (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear high spin states have been the subject of extensive experimental and theoretical studies. For the production of high spin states, fusion reactions are usually used. The orbital angular momentum brought in the reaction is changed into the nuclear spin of the compound nucleus. However, the maximum induced angular momentum is limited in this mechanism by the maximum impact parameter of the fusion reaction and by the competition with fission reactions. It is, therefore, difficult to populate very high spin states, and as a result, large {gamma}-detector arrays have been developed in order to detect subtle signals from such very high spin states. The use of high spin isomers in the fusion reactions can break this limitation because the high spin isomers have their intrinsic angular momentum, which can bring the additional angular momentum without increasing the excitation energy. There are two methods to use the high spin isomers for secondary reactions: the use of the high spin isomers as a target and that as a beam. A high spin isomer target has already been developed and used for several experiments. But this method has an inevitable shortcoming that only {open_quotes}long-lived{close_quotes} isomers can be used for a target: {sup 178}Hf{sup m2} (16{sup +}) with a half-life of 31 years in the present case. By developing a high spin isomer beam, the authors can utilize various short-lived isomers with a short half-life around 1 {mu}s. The high spin isomer beam line of RIKEN Accelerator Facility is a unique apparatus in the world which provides a high spin isomer as a secondary beam. The combination of fusion-evaporation reaction and inverse kinematics are used to produce high spin isomer beams; in particular, the adoption of `inverse kinematics` is essential to use short-lived isomers as a beam.

  5. Subaru adaptive-optics high-spatial-resolution infrared K- and L'-band imaging search for deeply buried dual AGNs in merging galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Saito, Yuriko, E-mail: masa.imanishi@nao.ac.jp [Also at Department of Astronomy, School of Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan. (Japan)

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of infrared K- (2.2 μm) and L'-band (3.8 μm) high-spatial-resolution (<0.''2) imaging observations of nearby gas- and dust-rich infrared luminous merging galaxies, assisted by the adaptive optics system on the Subaru 8.2 m telescope. We investigate the presence and frequency of red K – L' compact sources, which are sensitive indicators of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), including AGNs that are deeply buried in gas and dust. We observed 29 merging systems and confirmed at least one AGN in all but one system. However, luminous dual AGNs were detected in only four of the 29 systems (∼14%), despite our method's being sensitive to buried AGNs. For multiple nuclei sources, we compared the estimated AGN luminosities with supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses inferred from large-aperture K-band stellar emission photometry in individual nuclei. We found that mass accretion rates onto SMBHs are significantly different among multiple SMBHs, such that larger-mass SMBHs generally show higher mass accretion rates when normalized to SMBH mass. Our results suggest that non-synchronous mass accretion onto SMBHs in gas- and dust-rich infrared luminous merging galaxies hampers the observational detection of kiloparsec-scale multiple active SMBHs. This could explain the significantly smaller detection fraction of kiloparsec-scale dual AGNs when compared with the number expected from simple theoretical predictions. Our results also indicate that mass accretion onto SMBHs is dominated by local conditions, rather than by global galaxy properties, reinforcing the importance of observations to our understanding of how multiple SMBHs are activated and acquire mass in gas- and dust-rich merging galaxies.

  6. 7 CFR 58.219 - High pressure pumps and lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High pressure pumps and lines. 58.219 Section 58.219....219 High pressure pumps and lines. High pressure lines may be cleaned-in-place and shall be of such construction that dead ends, valves and the high pressure pumps can be disassembled for hand cleaning. The...

  7. Increase in the scattering of electric field lines in a new high voltage SOI MESFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvarifard, Mohammad K.

    2016-09-01

    This paper illustrates a new efficient technique to enhance the critical features of a silicon-on-insulator metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor (SOI MESFET) applied in high voltage applications. The structure we proposed utilizes a new method to scatter the electric field lines along the channel region. Realization of two trenches with different materials, which a trench is created in the channel region and the other one is created in the buried oxide, helps the proposed structure to improve the breakdown voltage, driving current, drain-source conductance, minimum noise figure, unilateral power gain and output power density. Exploring the obtained results, the proposed structure has superior electrical performance in comparison to the conventional structure.

  8. LED-Based High-Voltage Lines Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldar MUSA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available LED-based system, running with the current of high-voltage lines and converting the current flowing through the line into the light by using a toroid transformer, has been developed. The transformer’s primary winding is constituted by the high voltage power line. Toroidal core consists of two equal parts and the secondary windings are evenly placed on these two parts. The system is mounted on the high-voltage lines as a clamp. The secondary winding ends are connected in series by the connector on the clamp. LEDs are supplied by the voltage at the ends of secondary. Current flowing through highvoltage transmission lines is converted to voltage by the toroidal transformer and the light emitting LEDs are supplied with this voltage. The theory of the conversion of the current flowing through the line into the light is given. The system, running with the current of the line and converting the current into the light, has been developed. System has many application areas such as warning high voltage lines (warning winches to not hinder the high-voltage lines when working under the lines, warning planes to not touch the high-voltage lines, remote measurement of high-voltage line currents, and local illumination of the line area

  9. 高密度电法在隐伏断裂探测中的应用%APPLICATION OF HIGH-DENSITY RESISTIVITY METHOD TO BURIED FAULT EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玄月; 王金萍; 冯军; 孙铭心; 李红光

    2011-01-01

    The Wenner and Diple devices of high-density resistivity method are used for exploring Huang-zhuang-Gaoliying fault. Through data processing and analysis, the results show that the distribution, strike and dip of the fault are consistent with the results of shallow seismic exploration and trench. The study indicates that the application of high-density resistivity method to explore the buried fault has a good prospect.%应用高密度电法中的温纳和偶极两种探测方法,对北京地区的黄庄-高丽营隐伏断裂进行了探测,结果表明,该断裂的走向、倾向与浅层地震勘探和探槽剖面探测结果非常一致,说明电法探测技术在隐伏断裂探测中有着良好的应用前景.

  10. Controlled Compact High Voltage Power Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postolati V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays modern overhead transmission lines (OHL constructions having several significant differences from conventional ones are being used in power grids more and more widely. Implementation of compact overhead lines equipped with FACTS devices, including phase angle regulator settings (compact controlled OHL, appears to be one of the most effective ways of power grid development. Compact controlled AC HV OHL represent a new generation of power transmission lines embodying recent advanced achievements in design solutions, including towers and insulation, together with interconnection schemes and control systems. Results of comprehensive research and development in relation to 110–500kV compact controlled power transmission lines together with theoretical basis, substantiation, and methodological approaches to their practical application are presented in the present paper.

  11. Conditions of the Classical Transmission Line Equations at High Frequency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    New transmission line equations are deduced applying Maxwell's equations in this paper. The conditions of the classical transmission line equations have been discussed, which is important to solve the EM problems in high frequency case.

  12. Fully Coupled FE Analyses of Buried Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. Baylot

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Current procedures for determining the response of buried structures to the effects of the detonation of buried high explosives recommend decoupling the free-field stress analysis from the structure response analysis. A fully coupled (explosive–soil structure finite element analysis procedure was developed so that the accuracies of current decoupling procedures could be evaluated. Comparisons of the results of analyses performed using this procedure with scale-model experiments indicate that this finite element procedure can be used to effectively evaluate the accuracies of the methods currently being used to decouple the free-field stress analysis from the structure response analysis.

  13. A Buried Vertical Filter for Micro and Nanoparticle Filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.J.; Shen, C.; Sarro, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a silicon micromachined filter for micro- and nanoparticles. The filter is vertical and completely buried beneath the surface. The buried aspect allows additional features to be integrated above the filter, while the vertical aspect allows the creation of highly uniform pores and

  14. Modelling ruptures of buried high pressure dense phase CO2 pipelines in carbon capture and storage applications - Part I. Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Wareing, CJ; Fairweather, M.; Falle, SAEG; Woolley, RM

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage presents a short-term option for significantly reducing the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere and mitigating the effects of climate change. To this end, National Grid initiated the COOLTRANS research programme to consider the pipeline transportation of high pressure dense phase CO2, including the development and application of a mathematical model for predicting the sonic near-field dispersion of pure CO2 following the venting or failure of su...

  15. Living and Working Safely Around High-Voltage Power Lines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2001-06-01

    High-voltage transmission lines can be just as safe as the electrical wiring in the homes--or just as dangerous. The crucial factor is ourselves: they must learn to behave safely around them. This booklet is a basic safety guide for those who live and work around power lines. It deals primarily with nuisance shocks due to induced voltages, and with potential electric shock hazards from contact with high-voltage lines. References on possible long-term biological effects of transmission lines are shown. In preparing this booklet, the Bonneville Power Administration has drawn on more than 50 years of experience with high-voltage transmission. BPA operates one of the world`s largest networks of long-distance, high-voltage lines. This system has more than 400 substations and about 15,000 miles of transmission lines, almost 4,400 miles of which are operated at 500,000 volts.

  16. 穴位埋线配合人参补精安神方治疗老年性痴呆的临床效果评价%Acupuncture point bury line fill with ginseng fine nerves clinical effect evaluation for the treatment of senile dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿萱; 王倩; 刘丽敏; 毕丽梅; 刘淑颖; 刘瑾

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the acupuncture points embedded wire fill with ginseng fine nerves clinical effect for the treatment of senile dementia.Methods The research object to our hospital from February 2014 to February 2014 in the hospital for treatment of 98 cases of senile dementia patients. Randomized methods: digital grouping. 49 cases in each group. Buried quad give acupuncture point bury line treatment; Embedded wire+Chinese traditional medicine group was given acupuncture points buried lines with ginseng essence sedative treatment. Compare the clinical curative effect, the differences between the cognitive function before and after the treatment. Results (1) the embedded wire+Chinese traditional medicine group compared to the buried quad total effective rate is higher,P0.05; Embedded wire+Chinese traditional medicine group after treatment compared with buried quad ACE-R score improved more significantly,P<0.05).Conclusion Acupuncture point bury line fill with ginseng fine nerves exactly the clinical effect of treating senile dementia, which can effectively improve cognitive function in patients, is worth promoting.%目的:研究穴位埋线配合人参补精安神方治疗老年性痴呆的临床效果。方法:研究对象为我院2014年2月到2015年2月住院接受治疗的98例老年性痴呆患者。随机分组方法:数字分组法。每组49例。埋线组给予穴位埋线治疗;埋线+中药组给予穴位埋线配合人参补精安神方治疗。对比临床疗效、治疗前后认知功能的差异。结果:(1)埋线+中药组相比于埋线组总有效率更高, P<0.05;(2)治疗前两组ACE-R评分相似,P>0.05;治疗后埋线+中药组相比于埋线组ACE-R评分改善更显著,P<0.05。结论:穴位埋线配合人参补精安神方治疗老年性痴呆的临床效果确切,可有效改善患者认知功能,值得推广。

  17. 埋地金属管道影响视电阻率观测的数值模拟%Digital analogue of apparent resistivity where there is a metal pipe line buried

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡德军; 徐建明; 张建民; 鞠岷

    2015-01-01

    目前在地震研究领域,绝大多数地电阻率观测台站均采用温纳装置,按照单极距方式进行观测,观测的视电阻率变化应该是表层变化(主要是干扰)和测区范围内深部变化(地下介质应力与应变状态发生变化)的综合变化。随着社会和经济的发展以及城市化进程的加快,城市基本建设范围快速扩张,不少地电阻率观测站受到各种各样的干扰,其中,地电阻率测区及附近埋地金属管道的影响是最主要的干扰因素之一。通过数值模拟进行了定性和半定量分析,找出了金属管道的物理属性、几何属性、埋设位置与干扰大小的关系,以方便数据中异常的识别。%In most of seismic research field at present,the instrument for the apparent resistivity or earth-resistivity measurement is Wenner device and the single pole layout is used. The measurement result of apparent resistivity mainly shows a comprehensive change of upper part of surface and the stress changes of the inner crust medium. The changes caused by the upper surface are called interference. With the development of social economy and ur-ban construction of infrastructure in China more and more seismic stations for apparent resistivity or earth-resistivi-ty measurement are affected by many kinds of interferences. The metal pipe line of water supply is one of interfer-ences. We use digital analogue to semi-qualitatively analyze and quantitatively analyze the interfere and try to find the physical attribute ,the geometry and the position of the buried metal pipe line in order to recognized the interfere in seismic data.

  18. Astronomical High Tide Line, Geographic NAD83, NWRC (1995) [hightide_line_NWRC_1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The astronomical high tide line was compiled from National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) 1:24,000-scale habitat maps that were photo-interpreted from color-infrared...

  19. A Review of Celestial Burying Ground in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUQIAN

    2005-01-01

    Celestial burying ground ,also called “Mandala”,is where life leaves and comes.A huge piece of stone hidden in high mountains is surrounded by burning plants that give up smoke going up into the air.

  20. High-redshift SDSS Quasars with Weak Emission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Brandt, W. N.

    2009-01-01

    We identify a sample of 74 high-redshift quasars (z > 3) with weak emission lines from the Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and present infrared, optical, and radio observations of a subsample of four objects at z > 4. These weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) constitute a promine...

  1. Simple high-speed confocal line-scanning microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Kang-Bin; Han, Sumin; Park, Hwajoon; Kim, Dongsun; Kim, Beop-Min

    2005-06-27

    Using a line scan camera and an acousto-optic deflector (AOD), we constructed a high-speed confocal laser line-scanning microscope that can generate confocal images (512 x 512 pixels) with up to 191 frames/s without any mechanically moving parts. The line scanner consists of an AOD and a cylindrical lens, which creates a line focus sweeping over the sample. The measured resolutions in z (depth), x (perpendicular to line focus), and y (direction of line focus) directions are 3.3 mum, 0.7 mum and 0.9 mum, respectively, with a 50x objective lens. This confocal microscope may be useful for analyzing fast phenomena during biological and chemical interactions and for fast 3D image reconstruction.

  2. High speed electrical transmission line design and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Buytaert, J.; Eklund, L.; de Acedo, L. F. S.; Longstaff, I.; Naik, S.; Sullivan, S.; Wraight, K.

    2017-02-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments have unique requirements for data communication. High data speeds, combined with extreme restrictions on materials allowed, leads to custom transmission lines. This paper will present transmission line design theory, simulation and testing methods. Transmission line designs options like flexes and rigid PCBs as well as cables will be studied. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software packages simulate energy dissipation and quality of transmitted signals. The characterisation techniques of time-domain reflectometry and frequency-domain measurements are discussed and compared. Bit-error-rate testing is presented and its limitations for design discussed. Methods to improve quality, like three different types of equalization are described.

  3. High aspect ratio transmission line circuits micromachined in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Shane Truman

    The performance of complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) fabricated on silicon has improved dramatically. The scaling down of silicon transistors has increased the maximum frequency of transistors to the point where silicon MMICs have become a viable alternative to compound semiconductor MMICs in certain applications. A fundamental problem still exists in silicon MMICs however in that transmission lines fabricated on silicon can suffer from high loss due to the finite conductivity of the silicon substrate. A novel approach for creating low-loss transmission lines on silicon is presented in this work. Low-loss transmission lines are created on low resistivity silicon by using a micromachining method that combines silicon deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), thermal oxidation, electroplating, and planarization. Two types of high aspect ratio transmission lines are created with this method including high aspect ratio coplanar waveguide (hicoplanar) and semi-rectangular coaxial (semicoaxial). Transmission lines with impedances ranging from 20--80 O have been fabricated with minimum measured loss lower than 1 dB/cm at 67 GHz. Low-loss dielectrics are created for the high aspect ratio transmission lines using the mesa merging method. The mesa merging method works by creating silicon mesa arrays using DRIE and then converting and merging the mesa arrays into a solid oxide dielectric using thermal oxidation. The transmission lines are designed so that the fields penetrate the low-loss oxide dielectric and are isolated from the lossy silicon substrate. The mesa merging method has successfully created large volume oxide with depth up to 65 microm and width up to 240 microm in short oxidation times. Other advantages of the high aspect ratio transmission lines are demonstrated including low-loss over a wide impedance range, high isolation, and high coupling for coupled-line circuits. Transmission line models have been

  4. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-07

    "9A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval. The primary research question with buried ducts is potential condensation at the outer jacket of the duct insulation in humid climates during the cooling season. Current best practices for buried ducts rely on encapsulating the insulated ducts with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam insulation to control condensation and improve air sealing. The encapsulated buried duct concept has been analyzed and shown to be effective in hot-humid climates. The purpose of this project is to develop an alternative buried duct system that performs effectively as ducts in conditioned space - durable, energy efficient, and cost-effective - in a hot-humid climate (IECC warm-humid climate zone 3A) with three goals that distinguish this project: 1) Evaluation of design criteria for buried ducts that use common materials and do not rely on encapsulation using spray foam or disrupt traditional work sequences; 2) Establishing design criteria for compact ducts and incorporate those with the buried duct criteria to further reduce energy losses and control installed costs; 3) Developing HVAC design guidance for performing accurate heating and cooling load calculations for compact buried ducts.

  5. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval.

  6. Bottlenecks reduction using superconductors in high voltage transmission lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daloub Labib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy flow bottlenecks in high voltage transmission lines known as congestions are one of the challenges facing power utilities in fast developing countries. Bottlenecks occur in selected power lines when transmission systems are operated at or beyond their transfer limits. In these cases, congestions result in preventing new power supply contracts, infeasibility in existing contracts, price spike and market power abuse. The “Superconductor Technology” in electric power transmission cables has been used as a solution to solve the problem of bottlenecks in energy transmission at high voltage underground cables and overhead lines. The increase in demand on power generation and transmission happening due to fast development and linked to the intensive usage of transmission network in certain points, which in turn, lead to often frequent congestion in getting the required power across to where it is needed. In this paper, a bottleneck in high voltage double overhead transmission line with Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced was modeled using conductor parameters and replaced by Gap-Type Superconductor to assess the benefit of upgrading to higher temperature superconductor and obtain higher current carrying capacity. This proved to reduce the high loading of traditional aluminum conductors and allow more power transfer over the line using superconductor within the same existing right-of-way, steel towers, insulators and fittings, thus reducing the upgrade cost of building new lines.

  7. Electronic Current Transducer (ECT) for high voltage dc lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, J. M.; Peters, P. H., Jr.; Summerayes, H. R., Jr.; Carlson, G. J.; Itani, A. M.

    1980-02-01

    The development of a bipolar electronic current transducer (ECT) for measuring the current in a high voltage dc (HVDC) power line at line potential is discussed. The design and construction of a free standing ECT for use on a 400 kV line having a nominal line current of 2000 A is described. Line current is measured by a 0.0001 ohm shunt whose voltage output is sampled by a 14 bit digital data link. The high voltage interface between line and ground is traversed by optical fibers which carry digital light signals as far as 300 m to a control room where the digital signal is converted back to an analog representation of the shunt voltage. Two redundant electronic and optical data links are used in the prototype. Power to operate digital and optical electronics and temperature controlling heaters at the line is supplied by a resistively and capacitively graded 10 stage cascade of ferrite core transformers located inside the hollow, SF6 filled, porcelain support insulator. The cascade is driven by a silicon controlled rectifier inverter which supplies about 100 W of power at 30 kHz.

  8. Dual Band High Efficiency Power Amplifier Based on CRLH Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Segovia-Vargas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose the use of Composite Right/Left Hand (CRLH and Extended Composite Right/Left Hand (ECRLH transmission lines for the design of dual band high efficiency power amplifiers working in CE class. The harmonic termination can be synthesized using the meta-lines is particularly suitable for CE class amplifiers, which have a termination not as sensitive to the third harmonic as F class amplifier. This paper presents the design procedure and the design equations. The nonlinear phase response of a CRLH and ECRLH transmission line has been utilized to design arbitrary dual-band amplifiers.

  9. Beijing-Tianjin Intercity High-speed Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Ever since 2003, under the guidance of the scientific development concept and in line with the decisions and deployments made by the Party Central Committee and the State Council, China Railways has eagerly taken the golden opportunity for development, to facilitate the implementation of the Mid-term and Long-term Railway Network Development Program, and so it has achieved bumper significant accomplishments in the modernization progress, with Beijing-Tianjin Intercity High-speed Line as one of the exemplary representatives.

  10. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of mechanical and manual soil-buried methods for Oncomelania hupensis control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Neng-ming; Ye, Xiao-dong; Huang, Li-lan; Wang, Song-bo; Zheng, Shou-gui

    2014-06-01

    To explore a high molluscicidal efficient method in special Oncomelania hupensis snail environments. In 2005 and 2006, in large special environments (rubble creek beaches and seepage barren hills with snails), the mechanical soil-buried method (excavator digging to bury deep snails) and manual soil-buried method were used respectively, and the results were compared for the cost-effectiveness. With the mechanical soil-buried method in 2006, the investment was 0.78 yuan/m2, and the compression rate of snail areas was 100%; with the manual soil-buried method in 2005, the investment was 1.34 yuan/m2, and the compression rate of snail areas was 20.26%. The former was much better than the latter. In the large special environments with snails, the mechanical soil-buried method is superior to manual soil-buried method.

  11. Multiple instance learning for buried hazard detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Joseph; Pinar, Anthony; Havens, Timothy C.; Webb, Adam; Schulz, Timothy J.

    2016-05-01

    Buried explosives hazards are one of the many deadly threats facing our Soldiers, thus the U.S. Army is interested in the detection and neutralization of these hazards. One method of buried target detection uses forward-looking ground-penetrating radar (FLGPR), and it has grown in popularity due to its ability to detect buried targets at a standoff distance. FLGPR approaches often use machine learning techniques to improve the accuracy of detection. We investigate an approach to explosive hazard detection that exploits multi-instance features to discriminate between hazardous and non-hazardous returns in FLGPR data. One challenge this problem presents is a high number of clutter and non-target objects relative to the number of targets present. Our approach learns a bag of words model of the multi-instance signatures of potential targets and confuser objects in order to classify alarms as either targets or false alarms. We demonstrate our method on test data collected at a U.S. Army test site.

  12. Exomol molecular line lists VI: A high temperature line list for Phosphorus Nitride

    CERN Document Server

    Yorke, Leo; Lodi, Lorenzo; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Accurate rotational-vibrational line lists for $^{31}$P$^{14}$N and $^{31}$P$^{15}$N in their ground electronic states are computed. The line lists are produced using an empirical potential energy curve obtained by fitting to the experimental transition frequencies available in the literature in conjunction with an accurate, high level \\textit{ab initio} dipole moment curve. In these calculations the programs DPotFit and LEVEL~8.0 were used. The new line lists reproduce the experimental wavenumbers with a root-mean-square error of 0.004~cm$^{-1}$. The line lists cover the frequency range 0--51000 cm$^{-1}$, contain almost 700~000 lines each and extend up to a maximum vibrational level of $v$=66 and a maximum rotational level of $J$=357. They should be applicable for a large range of temperature up to, at least, 5000~K. These new line lists are used to simulate spectra for PN at a range of temperatures and are deposited in the Strasbourg data centre. This work is performed as part of the ExoMol project.

  13. High-redshift SDSS Quasars with Weak Emission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Brandt, W. N.

    2009-01-01

    We identify a sample of 74 high-redshift quasars (z > 3) with weak emission lines from the Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and present infrared, optical, and radio observations of a subsample of four objects at z > 4. These weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) constitute a prominent...... tail of the Lya + N v equivalent width distribution, and we compare them to quasars with more typical emission-line properties and to low-redshift active galactic nuclei with weak/absent emission lines, namely BL Lac objects. We find that WLQs exhibit hot (T ~ 1000 K) thermal dust emission and have...... rest-frame 0.1-5 µm spectral energy distributions that are quite similar to those of normal quasars. The variability, polarization, and radio properties of WLQs are also different from those of BL Lacs, making continuum boosting by a relativistic jet an unlikely physical interpretation. The most...

  14. Naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines at high altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ogawa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines (NEIALs between 1200 and 1900 km altitude are investigated. The NEIALs were found in the background gates of data from the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT Svalbard radar (ESR at 78° N looking field-aligned. Only strongly enhanced lines are detected at such high altitudes. The estimated enhancement above incoherent scattering integrated over the antenna beam and preintegration time of 10 s reaches about 10 000. Both lines are always enhanced above 1000 km altitude, and the downshifted line, corresponding to upward propagating ion-acoustic waves, is always stronger than the upshifted line, for downgoing waves. The ratio of the downshifted and upshifted peaks is often remarkably constant along a profile. Using the line positions as indicators of the ion-acoustic speeds and the bulk drift velocity, we find that the bulk drift does not exceed the ion-acoustic (sound speed, but extrapolation of the profiles suggests that the sound barrier is reached around 2000 km in one event. The highest ion-acoustic speed is seen near 600 km, above the density peak, indicating that electrons are heated not only by ionizing precipitation but significantly also by upgoing waves. Upflow continues to speed up above the estimated temperature maximum. A certain qualitative similarity to the solar corona seems to be the case.

  15. High-throughput microfluidic line scan imaging for cytological characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Joshua A.; Powless, Amy J.; Majid, Aneeka A.; Claycomb, Adair; Fritsch, Ingrid; Balachandran, Kartik; Muldoon, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Imaging cells in a microfluidic chamber with an area scan camera is difficult due to motion blur and data loss during frame readout causing discontinuity of data acquisition as cells move at relatively high speeds through the chamber. We have developed a method to continuously acquire high-resolution images of cells in motion through a microfluidics chamber using a high-speed line scan camera. The sensor acquires images in a line-by-line fashion in order to continuously image moving objects without motion blur. The optical setup comprises an epi-illuminated microscope with a 40X oil immersion, 1.4 NA objective and a 150 mm tube lens focused on a microfluidic channel. Samples containing suspended cells fluorescently stained with 0.01% (w/v) proflavine in saline are introduced into the microfluidics chamber via a syringe pump; illumination is provided by a blue LED (455 nm). Images were taken of samples at the focal plane using an ELiiXA+ 8k/4k monochrome line-scan camera at a line rate of up to 40 kHz. The system's line rate and fluid velocity are tightly controlled to reduce image distortion and are validated using fluorescent microspheres. Image acquisition was controlled via MATLAB's Image Acquisition toolbox. Data sets comprise discrete images of every detectable cell which may be subsequently mined for morphological statistics and definable features by a custom texture analysis algorithm. This high-throughput screening method, comparable to cell counting by flow cytometry, provided efficient examination including counting, classification, and differentiation of saliva, blood, and cultured human cancer cells.

  16. 47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buried cable. 32.2423 Section 32.2423... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2423 Buried cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of buried cable as well as the cost of other material...

  17. Low phytic acid, low stachyose, high sucrose soybean lines

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The present invention provides novel soybean lines having high sucrose content and low phytic acid and low stachyose content. The soybeans are easily digested and provide high energy content for animals and humans. The low phytic acid content permits animal feed to be produced that does not require phytase, yet does not result in significant production of pollution to the environment from excretion by farm animals.

  18. Investigation of a stripline transmission line structure for gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, D V; Parson, J M; Neuber, A A; Dickens, J C; Mankowski, J J

    2016-03-01

    A stripline gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) was constructed out of yttrium iron garnet ferrite and tested at charge voltages of 35 kV-55 kV with bias fields ranging from 10 kA/m to 20 kA/m. Typically, high power gyromagnetic NLTLs are constructed in a coaxial geometry. While this approach has many advantages, including a uniform transverse electromagnetic (TEM) mode, simple interconnection between components, and the ability to use oil or pressurized gas as an insulator, the coaxial implementation suffers from complexity of construction, especially when using a solid insulator. By moving to a simpler transmission line geometry, NLTLs can be constructed more easily and arrayed on a single substrate. This work represents a first step in exploring the suitability of various transmission line structures, such as microstrips and coplanar waveguides. The resulting high power microwave (HPM) source operates in ultra high frequency (UHF) band with an average bandwidth of 40.1% and peak rf power from 2 MW to 12.7 MW.

  19. Analytical Model for High Impedance Fault Analysis in Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maximov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A high impedance fault (HIF normally occurs when an overhead power line physically breaks and falls to the ground. Such faults are difficult to detect because they often draw small currents which cannot be detected by conventional overcurrent protection. Furthermore, an electric arc accompanies HIFs, resulting in fire hazard, damage to electrical devices, and risk with human life. This paper presents an analytical model to analyze the interaction between the electric arc associated to HIFs and a transmission line. A joint analytical solution to the wave equation for a transmission line and a nonlinear equation for the arc model is presented. The analytical model is validated by means of comparisons between measured and calculated results. Several cases of study are presented which support the foundation and accuracy of the proposed model.

  20. Rescue missions for totally buried avalanche victims: conclusions from 12 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlrieder, Matthias; Thaler, Stephanie; Wuertl, Walter; Voelckel, Wolfgang; Ulmer, Hanno; Brugger, Hermann; Mair, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The planning and execution of avalanche rescue missions to search for totally buried avalanche victims are mostly based on personal experience and preference, as evidence-based information from literature is almost completely missing. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify major factors determining the survival probability of totally buried victims during avalanche rescue missions carried out by organized rescue teams (Austrian Mountain Rescue Service, Tyrol). During the 12-year period studied, 109 totally buried persons (56 off-piste, 53 backcountry), were rescued or recovered; 18.3% survived to hospital discharge. Median depth of burial was 1.25 m; median duration of burial was 85 min. The majority (61.6%) of the rescue missions were conducted under considerably dangerous avalanche conditions. The probability of survival was highest when located visually and lowest for those located by avalanche transceiver; survival did not significantly differ between those found by rescue dogs and those located with avalanche probes. Multivariate analysis revealed short duration of burial and off-piste terrain to be the two independent predictors of survival. Whenever companion rescue fails, snow burial in an avalanche is associated with extraordinarily high mortality. Searching the avalanche debris with probe lines seems to be equally effective as compared to searching with rescue dogs. The potential hazard for rescuers during avalanche rescue missions comes mainly from self-triggered avalanches, hence thorough mission planning and critical risk-benefit assessment are of utmost importance for risk reduction.

  1. Quantitative Chemically-Specific Coherent Diffractive Imaging of Buried Interfaces using a Tabletop EUV Nanoscope

    CERN Document Server

    Shanblatt, Elisabeth R; Gardner, Dennis F; Mancini, Giulia F; Karl, Robert M; Tanksalvala, Michael D; Bevis, Charles S; Vartanian, Victor H; Kapteyn, Henry C; Adams, Daniel E; Murnane, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing buried layers and interfaces is critical for a host of applications in nanoscience and nano-manufacturing. Here we demonstrate non-invasive, non-destructive imaging of buried interfaces using a tabletop, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) nanoscope. Copper nanostructures inlaid in SiO2 are coated with 100 nm of aluminum, which is opaque to visible light and thick enough that neither optical microscopy nor atomic force microscopy can image the buried interfaces. Short wavelength (29 nm) high harmonic light can penetrate the aluminum layer, yielding high-contrast images of the buried structures. Moreover, differences in the absolute reflectivity of the interfaces before and after coating reveal the formation of interstitial diffusion and oxidation layers at the Al-Cu and Al-SiO2 boundaries. Finally, we show that EUV CDI provides a unique capability for quantitative, chemically-specific imaging of buried structures, and the material evolution that occurs at these buried ...

  2. Weak-Line Quasars at High Redshift: Extremely High Accretion Rates or Anemic Broad-Line Regions?

    CERN Document Server

    Shemmer, Ohad; Anderson, Scott F; Brandt, W N; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M; Fan, Xiaohui; Lira, Paulina; Netzer, Hagai; Plotkin, Richard M; Richards, Gordon T; Schneider, Donald P; Strauss, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z=3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z=3.49. In both sources we detect an unusually weak broad H_beta line and we place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, H_beta-based black-hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/L_Edd=0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of Gamma=1.91^{+0.24}_{-0.22} which supports the virial L/L_Edd determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad-emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad-emission line region proper...

  3. Flux pinning characteristics and irreversibility line in high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, T.; Ihara, N.; Kiuchi, M.

    1995-01-01

    The flux pinning properties in high temperature superconductors are strongly influenced by thermally activated flux motion. The scaling relation of the pinning force density and the irreversibility line in various high temperature superconductors are numerically analyzed in terms of the flux creep model. The effect of two factors, i.e., the flux pinning strength and the dimensionality of the material, on these properties are investigated. It is speculated that the irreversibility line in Bi-2212 superconductors is one order of magnitude smaller than that in Y-123, even if the flux pinning strength in Bi-2212 is improved up to the level of Y-123. It is concluded that these two factors are equally important in determination of the flux pinning characteristics at high temperatures.

  4. The calculation of satellite line structures in highly stripped plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, J. Jr.; Kilcrease, D.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A. [Multicharged Ion Spectra Data Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Recently developed high-resolution x-ray spectrographs have made it possible to measure satellite structures from various plasma sources with great detail. These lines are weak optically thin lines caused by the decay of dielectronic states and generally accompany the resonance lines of H-like and He-like ions. The Los Alamos atomic physics and kinetics codes provide a unique capability for calculating the position and intensities of such lines. These programs have been used to interpret such highly resolved spectral measurements from pulsed power devices and laser produced plasmas. Some of these experiments were performed at the LANL Bright Source and Trident laser facilities. The satellite structures are compared with calculations to diagnose temperatures and densities. The effect of non-thermal electron distributions of electrons on calculated spectra was also considered. Collaborations with Russian scientists have added tremendous value to this research die to their vast experience in x-ray spectroscopy.

  5. Trend on High-speed Power Line Communication Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Osamu

    High-speed power line communication (PLC) is useful technology to easily build the communication networks, because construction of new infrastructure is not necessary. In Europe and America, PLC has been used for broadband networks since the beginning of 21th century. In Japan, high-speed PLC was deregulated only indoor usage in 2006. Afterward it has been widely used for home area network, LAN in hotels and school buildings and so on. And recently, PLC is greatly concerned as communication technology for smart grid network. In this paper, the author surveys the high-speed PLC technology and its current status.

  6. Wetting dynamics at high values of contact line speed

    OpenAIRE

    Пономарев, К. О.; Феоктистов, Дмитрий Владимирович; Орлова, Евгения Георгиевна

    2015-01-01

    Experimental results analyses of dynamic contact angle change under the conditions of substrate wetting by distilled water at high values of the contact line speed was conducted. Three spreading modes for copper substrates with different roughness were selected: drop formation, spreading and equilibrium contact angle formation. Peculiarity of droplet spreading on superhydrophobic surface is found. It consists in a monotonic increase of the advancing dynamic contact angle. The effect of the dr...

  7. 49 CFR 192.707 - Line markers for mains and transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Line markers for mains and transmission lines. 192... § 192.707 Line markers for mains and transmission lines. (a) Buried pipelines. Except as provided in... buried main and transmission line: (1) At each crossing of a public road and railroad; and (2)...

  8. Highly efficient site-specific transgenesis in cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Iacovos P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transgenes introduced into cancer cell lines serve as powerful tools for identification of genes involved in cancer. However, the random nature of genomic integration site of a transgene highly influences the fidelity, reliability and level of its expression. In order to alleviate this bottleneck, we characterized the potential utility of a novel PhiC31 integrase-mediated site-specific insertion system (PhiC31-IMSI for introduction of transgenes into a pre-inserted docking site in the genome of cancer cells. Methods According to this system, a “docking-site” was first randomly inserted into human cancer cell lines and clones with a single copy were selected. Subsequently, an “incoming” vector containing the gene of interest was specifically inserted in the docking-site using PhiC31. Results Using the Pc-3 and SKOV-3 cancer cell lines, we showed that transgene insertion is reproducible and reliable. Furthermore, the selection system ensured that all surviving stable transgenic lines harbored the correct integration site. We demonstrated that the expression levels of reporter genes, such as green fluorescent protein and luciferase, from the same locus were comparable among sister, isogenic clones. Using in vivo xenograft studies, we showed that the genetically altered cancer cell lines retain the properties of the parental line. To achieve temporal control of transgene expression, we coupled our insertion strategy with the doxycycline inducible system and demonstrated tight regulation of the expression of the antiangiogenic molecule sFlt-1-Fc in Pc-3 cells. Furthermore, we introduced the luciferase gene into the insertion cassette allowing for possible live imaging of cancer cells in transplantation assays. We also generated a series of Gateway cloning-compatible intermediate cassettes ready for high-throughput cloning of transgenes and demonstrated that PhiC31-IMSI can be achieved in a high throughput 96-well plate

  9. Development of high strength line pipe for Arctic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, L.E.; Klein, R.; Bai, D. [Evraz Inc., Regina, SK (Canada). Frontier Pipe Research Unit

    2009-07-15

    The pipelines that will carry large volumes of natural gas from the Mackenzie Delta and the Alaska North Slope to Alberta will have to meet stringent new requirements on material performance. High strength steels with thick pipe walls will be needed to accommodate the high operating pressure that will be needed to transmit gas over long distances. In addition, low operating temperatures and strain-based designs will be needed to meet Arctic operating conditions in areas of continuous or discontinuous permafrost. The Mackenzie Gas Project (MGP) has specified 762 mm OD x 16.2 mm WT Grade 550 (APIx80). Although the pipe has a high degree of ductility, material performance is of concern in terms of girth welds and associated heat affected zones. Studies have shown that the weld strength must overmatch the longitudinal strength of the pipe by at least 5 per cent in order to deflect any failure from a crack on the weld fusion line. The weld itself and the HAZ must also demonstrate a high degree of toughness. While proponents of the Alaska gas pipeline wish to use Grade 690 (APIx100) line pipe, full stress capacity tests have yet to be completed for Grade 690 material in the preferred gauge of 19 to 25 mm. Therefore, this paper examined 3 key issues pertaining to the performance of high strength line pipe in strain-based designs. These included girth weld HAZ toughness; work hardening characteristics; and achievement of very high strength levels. It was concluded that much more effort is needed to fully optimize these steels and to translate preliminary laboratory solutions to workable processing technologies. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  10. Emissivities of ceramic fibre linings for high-temperature furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.D.; Williams, A.

    1984-09-01

    Measurements have been made of the emissivities of ceramic fibre linings of the type used for low thermal mass high-temperature furnaces. The apparatus used consisted of a circular ceramic fibre lined combustion chamber heated by a natural gas burner. The surface temperature of the rear wall was monitored by a number of thermocouples mounted near the surface. The radiant flux from this wall was measured over the temperature range of 700-1400 K and by comparison with emission from a black body, the emissivities of the surface were determined. It was found that the emissivity varied with the type of surface and with temperature. The stack-bonded Kaowool ceramic fibres had a higher emissivity than parallel-bonded fibres, the values at 1400 K being 0.66 and 0.5 respectively; 'damaged' stack-bonded fibres had an intermediate value.

  11. BATATA: a buried muon hodoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, F.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Paic, G.; Salazar, M. E. Patiño; D'Olivo, J. C.; Molina, R. Alfaro

    2009-04-01

    Muon hodoscopes have several applications, ranging from astrophysics to fundamental particle physics. In this work, we present a detector dedicated to the study, at ground level, of the main signals of cosmic-ray induced showers above 6 PeV. The whole detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes buried at fix depths ranging from 120 g/cm2 to 600 g/cm2 and by a triangular array of water cerenkov detectors located nearby on ground.

  12. 具有浮空埋层的高压器件新结构和击穿电压模型%A New High Voltage Device with Floating Buried Layer and the Model of Breakdown Voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦; 张扬; 段吉海

    2011-01-01

    提出具有浮空埋层的变掺杂高压器件新结构(BVLD:Variation in lateral doping with floating buriedlayer),建立其击穿电压模型.线性变掺杂漂移区的电场耦合作用使表面电场达到近似理想的均匀分布,n+浮空等电位层与衬底形成新平行平面结,使得纵向电压由常规结构的一个pn结承受转变为两个串联pn结分担,改善了器件的击穿特性;建立二维的击穿电压模型,获得器件结构参数间的优化关系.结果表明:与常规LDMOS相比,BVLD结构的击穿电压提高94%.%A novel high voltage device with variation in lateral doping and floating buried layer (BVLD) is proposed, and a model of breakdown voltage is developed. The surface electric field reaches nearly ideal uniform distribution due to electric field modulation of variation in lateral doping. A new parallel-plane junction is formed between n+ floating buried layer and substrate,which can support more biases by series of two pn junctions. Based on the 2-D model of breakdown voltage, the quantified optimal relation between the structure parameters is also obtained.The results indicate that the breakdown voltage of BVLD device is increased by 94% in comparison to conventional LDMOS.

  13. Plasma simulations of emission line regions in high energy environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Chris T.

    This dissertation focuses on understanding two different, but in each case extreme, astrophysical environments: the Crab Nebula and emission line galaxies. These relatively local objects are well constrained by observations and are test cases of phenomena seen at high-z where detailed observations are rare. The tool used to study these objects is the plasma simulation code known as Cloudy. The introduction provides a brief summary of relevant physical concepts in nebular astrophysics and presents the basic features and assumptions of Cloudy. The first object investigated with Cloudy, the Crab Nebula, is a nearby supernova remnant that previously has been subject to photoionization modeling to reproduce the ionized emission seen in the nebula's filamentary structure. However, there are still several unanswered questions: (1) What excites the H2 emitting gas? (2) How much mass is in the molecular component? (3) How did the H2 form? (4) What is nature of the dust grains? A large suite of observations including long slit optical and NIR spectra over ionized, neutral and molecular gas in addition to HST and NIR ground based images constrain a particularly bright region of H2 emission, Knot 51, which exhibits a high excitation temperature of ˜3000 K. Simulations of K51 revealed that only a trace amount of H2 is needed to reproduce the observed emission and that H2 forms through an uncommon nebular process known as associative detachment. The final chapters of this dissertation focus on interpreting the narrow line region (NLR) in low-z emission line galaxies selected by a novel technique known as mean field independent component analysis (MFICA). A mixture of starlight and radiation from an AGN excites the gas present in galaxies. MFICA separates galaxies over a wide range of ionization into subsets of pure AGN and pure star forming galaxies allowing simulations to reveal the properties responsible for their observed variation in ionization. Emission line ratios can

  14. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented.

  15. 49 CFR 192.457 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed before August 1, 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged... SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.457 External corrosion control: Buried or... areas in which active corrosion is found: (1) Bare or ineffectively coated transmission lines. (2)...

  16. A breakdown voltage model for implanted resurf p-LDMOS device on n+ buried layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Ming-Jiang; Van Calster, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical expression of the breakdown voltage of a high voltage implanted RESURF p-LDMOS device which uses the n+ buried layer as an effective device substrate. In this model, the doping profile of the buried layer is considered and discussed. The implant dose for the drift r

  17. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  18. Gallium arsenide pilot line for high performance components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The Gallium Arsenide Pilot Line for High Performance Components (Pilot Line III) is to develop a facility for the fabrication of GaAs logic and memory chips. The first thirty months of this contract are now complete, and this report covers the period from March 27 through September 24, 1989. Similar to the PT-2M SRAM function for memories, the six logic circuits of PT-2L and PT-2M have served their functions as stepping stones toward the custom, standard cell, and cell array logic circuits. All but one of these circuits was right first time; the remaining circuit had a layout error due to a bug in the design rule checker that has since been fixed. The working devices all function over the full temperature range from -55 to 125 C. They all comfortably meet the 200 MHz requirement. They do not solidly conform to the required input and output voltage levels, particularly Vih. It is known that these circuits were designed with the older design models and that they came from an era where the DFET thresholds were often not on target.

  19. Acoustic imaging of objects buried in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, C H; Cadalli, N; Munson, D C; O'Brien, W D

    2000-07-01

    In this study, we demonstrate an acoustic system for high-resolution imaging of objects buried in soil. Our goal is to image cultural artifacts in order to assess in a rapid manner the historical significance of a potential construction site. We describe the imaging system and present preliminary images produced from data collected from a soil phantom. A mathematical model and associated computer software are developed in order to simulate the signals acquired by the system. We have built the imaging system, which incorporates a single element source transducer and a receiver array. The source and receiver array are moved together along a linear path to collect data. Using this system, we have obtained B-mode images of several targets by using delay-and-sum beamforming, and we have also applied synthetic aperture theory to this problem.

  20. Through-focal HAADF-STEM of buried nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Lebrero, M P; Pizarro, J; Guerrero, E; Galindo, P L; Yanez, A [Department Lenguajes y Sist. Informaticos, Universidad de Cadiz (Spain); Molina, S I, E-mail: maria.guerrero@uca.e [Department Ciencia de los Materiales e I.M. y Q.I. Universidad de Cadiz (Spain)

    2010-02-01

    High-Angle Annular Dark-Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF-STEM) in combination with strain mapping techniques provides a powerful tool for quantitative analysis of crystalline semiconductor materials. Due to the complex interaction of a focused probe and a sample in HAADF, the calculation of each pixel in a simulation process requires a complete multislice iteration, making the overall computing process a rather demanding task in time and memory. SICSTEM is a parallel software code recently developed for running on the University of Cadiz Supercomputer (3.75 Tflops) that allows the simulation of images from large nanostructures containing more than one million atoms. The software has been designed to be able to generate not only one dimensional line scans or two dimensional images, but also to perform optical sectioning in the STEM simulation process, providing an easy way to simulate 3D HAADF-STEM images. In this work we consider GaAs capped GaSb nanostructures epitaxially oriented on a GaAs substrate. A methodology has been developed by combining the through-focal series STEM imaging and image analysis to estimate shape and position of buried GaSb nanostructures.

  1. Long-distance pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klofai, Yerima [Department of Physics, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Maroua, PO Box 46 Maroua (Cameroon); Essimbi, B Z [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde 1, PO Box 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); Jaeger, D, E-mail: bessimb@yahoo.fr [ZHO, Optoelectronik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs)/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps is investigated for long-distance propagation of short pulses. Applying perturbative analysis, we show that the dynamics of each line is reduced to an expanded Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation. Moreover, it is found by computer experiments that the soliton developed in NLTLs experiences an exponential amplitude decay on the one hand and an exponential amplitude growth on the other. As a result, the behavior of a pulse in special electrical networks made of concatenated pieces of lines is closely similar to the transmission of information in optical/electrical communication systems.

  2. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  3. Analysis of Knee Joint Line Obliquity after High Tibial Osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kwang-Jun; Ko, Young Bong; Bae, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Suk Tae; Kim, Jae Gyoon

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate which lower extremity alignment (knee and ankle joint) parameters affect knee joint line obliquity (KJLO) in the coronal plane after open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO). Overall, 69 knees of patients that underwent OWHTO were evaluated using radiographs obtained preoperatively and from 6 weeks to 3 months postoperatively. We measured multiple parameters of knee and ankle joint alignment (hip-knee-ankle angle [HKA], joint line height [JLH], posterior tibial slope [PS], femoral condyle-tibial plateau angle [FCTP], medial proximal tibial angle [MPTA], mechanical lateral distal femoral angle [mLDFA], KJLO, talar tilt angle [TTA], ankle joint obliquity [AJO], and the lateral distal tibial ground surface angle [LDTGA]; preoperative [-pre], postoperative [-post], and the difference between -pre and -post values [-Δ]). We categorized patients into two groups according to the KJLO-post value (the normal group [within ± 4 degrees, 56 knees] and the abnormal group [greater than ± 4 degrees, 13 knees]), and compared their -pre parameters. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the contribution of the -pre parameters to abnormal KJLO-post. The mean HKA-Δ (-9.4 ± 4.7 degrees) was larger than the mean KJLO-Δ (-2.1 ± 3.2 degrees). The knee joint alignment parameters (the HKA-pre, FCTP-pre) differed significantly between the two groups (p knee joint alignment and knee joint convergence angle evaluated by HKA-pre and FCTP-pre angle, respectively, were significant predictors of abnormal KJLO after OWHTO. However, -pre ankle joint parameters were not significantly associated with abnormal KJLO after OWHTO.

  4. Identification of buried victims in natural disaster with GPR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Rianty Kusuma; Kurniawan, Adityo; Taqwantara, Reyhan Fariz; Iskandar, Farras M.; Naufal, Taufiq Ziyan; Widodo

    2017-07-01

    Indonesian is one of the most seismically active regions in the world and has very complicated plate convergence because there is meeting point of several tectonic plates. The complexity of tectonic features causes a lot of natural disasters such as landslides, tsunamis, earth quakes, volcanoes eruption, etc. Sometimes, the disasters occurs in high populated area and causing thousands to millions of victim been buried under the rumble. Unfortunately, the evacuation still uses the conventional method such using rescue dogs whereas the sensitivity of smell is decrease when the victims buried under the level of the ground. The purpose of this study is to detect buried bodies using GPR method, so it can enhance the effectiveness and the efficiency in looking for the disaster victims. GPR method is used because it can investigate things under the ground. A detailed GPR research has been done in Cikutra Graveyard, Bandung, with corpse buried two week until two years before the research. The radar profiles from this research showed amplitude contras anomaly between the new corpse and the old ones. We obtained the amplitude contras at 1.2-1.4 meters under the surface. This method proved to be effective but still need more attention on undulated surface and non-soil areas.

  5. X-Ray Line Measurements with High Efficiency Bragg Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, A; Gregori, G; Knight, J; Campbell, K; Landen, O; Glenzer, S

    2004-04-01

    We have studied the focusing properties of two highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) spectrometers, which differ in the degree of the mosaic spread: ZYA with a low mosaic spread ({gamma}=0.4 degrees) and ZYH with a large mosaic spread ({gamma}=3.5 degrees). In order to assess the crystal performance for a variety of different experiments, various K{alpha} and K{beta} x-ray lines have been produced using a high-intensity ({approx}>10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}) short-pulse ({approx} 100 fs) laser beam focused onto Ti, V, Zn, and Cu foils. The measured spectral resolution of the HOPG crystals in both first and second order diffraction has been compared with theoretical predictions. Using known values for the peak reflectivity of HOPG crystals, we have also computed K{alpha} x-ray conversion efficiencies of Ti, V, Zn, and Cu. These results are important to estimate the optimal conditions under which different types of HOPG monochromators can be used for the detection of weak x-ray signals as the one encountered in x-ray Thomson/Compton scattering experiments.

  6. Bedrock mapping of buried valley networks using seismic reflection and airborne electromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenborger, G. A.; Logan, C. E.; Hinton, M. J.; Pugin, A. J.-M.; Sapia, V.; Sharpe, D. R.; Russell, H. A. J.

    2016-05-01

    In glaciated terrain, buried valleys often host aquifers that are significant groundwater resources. However, given the range of scales, spatial complexity and depth of burial, buried valleys often remain undetected or insufficiently mapped. Accurate and thorough mapping of bedrock topography is a crucial step in detecting and delineating buried valleys and understanding formative valley processes. We develop a bedrock mapping procedure supported by the combination of seismic reflection data and helicopter time-domain electromagnetic data with water well records for the Spiritwood buried valley aquifer system in Manitoba, Canada. The limited spatial density of water well bedrock observations precludes complete depiction of the buried valley bedrock topography and renders the water well records alone inadequate for accurate hydrogeological model building. Instead, we leverage the complementary strengths of seismic reflection and airborne electromagnetic data for accurate local detection of the sediment-bedrock interface and for spatially extensive coverage, respectively. Seismic reflection data are used to define buried valley morphology in cross-section beneath survey lines distributed over a regional area. A 3D model of electrical conductivity is derived from inversion of the airborne electromagnetic data and used to extrapolate buried valley morphology over the entire survey area. A spatially variable assignment of the electrical conductivity at the bedrock surface is applied to different features of the buried valley morphology identified in the seismic cross-sections. Electrical conductivity is then used to guide construction of buried valley shapes between seismic sections. The 3D locus of points defining each morphological valley feature is constructed using a path optimization routine that utilizes deviation from the assigned electrical conductivities as the cost function. Our resulting map represents a bedrock surface of unprecedented detail with more

  7. Hidden blazars and emission line variability of high redshift quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ma

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out a survey to search for hidden blazars in a sample of z 2 radio{loud quasars. The idea is based on our prediction that we should be able to see large C IV line variability not associated with observed continuum variations or most other emission lines in every radio{loud quasar. Here we report the initial results including the discovery of large C IV line variations in two quasars.

  8. 30 CFR 77.704-1 - Work on high-voltage lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work on high-voltage lines. 77.704-1 Section 77... MINES Grounding § 77.704-1 Work on high-voltage lines. (a) No high-voltage line shall be regarded as... provided in § 77.103) that such high-voltage line has been deenergized and grounded. Such qualified...

  9. 30 CFR 75.705-1 - Work on high-voltage lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work on high-voltage lines. 75.705-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.705-1 Work on high-voltage lines. (a) Section 75.705 specifically prohibits work on energized high-voltage lines underground;...

  10. 30 CFR 75.705-2 - Repairs to energized surface high-voltage lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Repairs to energized surface high-voltage lines... Repairs to energized surface high-voltage lines. An energized high-voltage surface line may be repaired... on power circuits with a phase-to-phase nominal voltage no greater than 15,000 volts; (3)...

  11. Locating a buried earth penetrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffey, T.W.H.

    1977-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to assist the recovery of a buried earth penetrator by locating the vertical projection of the penetator upon the surface within a horizontal radius error of one meter. The penetrator will carry a small coil which is driven by an alternating current to form a magnetic dipole. Five measurements of the magnetic field vector upon the surface of the earth are shown to be sufficient for determining not only the xyz-coordinates of the dipole, but also the orientation of the dipole axis. The theory, computation process, and field tests are comprehensively described. Results of 26 field tests with the dipole at 9 different combinations of location and orientation are given. Average radial and vertical location errors are 0.27 m and -0.05 m, respectively, while the mean errors in the tilt and orientation angles of the dipole axis are 3 degrees and 8 degrees, respectively. The results are applied to the design of a locating system for a Pershing II penetrator which contains a recessed, rear-mounted coil.

  12. High Speed Lines in Belgium: Various Engineering Geological and Geotechnical Aspects: Keynote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethy, Bernard; Bouhenni, Saâd

    The High Speed Railway network in Belgium extends over 322 km of lines made up of 210 km of new line designed for speeds of 300 km/h and 112 km of conventional lines developed and upgraded for max. speeds up to 220 km/h. The estimation of the total budget of HSR lines is around 4,6 billion euros (1999).

  13. Modelling ruptures of buried high-pressure dense-phase CO2 pipelines in carbon capture and storage applications - Part II. A full-scale rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Wareing, CJ; Fairweather, M.; Falle, SAEG; Woolley, RM

    2015-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) presents a short-term option for significantly reducing the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere. National Grid initiated the COOLTRANS research programme to consider the CCS pipeline transportation of high-pressure dense-phase CO2, including the development and application of a mathematical model for predicting the sonic near-field dispersion of pure CO2 following pipeline venting or failure. In Part I (Wareing et al., 2015a) validation...

  14. Buried volcanic structures in the Gulf of Naples (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy resulting from high resolution magnetic survey and seismic profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ruggieri

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a correlation between volcanic structures and magnetic anomalies in the Gulf of Naples (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea based on high resolution magnetic profiling. A densely spaced grid of magnetic profiles coupled with multichannel seismics (seismic source Watergun 15 cubic inch was recorded in the Gulf of Naples, representing an active volcanic area during the Late Quaternary (volcanic centers of Somma-Vesuvius, Phlegraean Fields and Ischia and Procida islands. The dataset was collected during the oceanographic cruise GMS00-05 which took place during October-November 2000 in the South Tyrrhenian Sea onboard of the R/V Urania (National Research Council, Italy. Shallow volcanic structures in the subsurface of the gulf were recognized by seismo-stratigraphic analysis of high resolution profiles; the volcanic nature of some of these structures was inferred identifying the magnetic anomalies on a high resolution magnetic anomaly map of the gulf. Even if qualitative, the correlations between seismic and magnetic profiles allow us to better assess the geological structure of the Gulf of Naples.

  15. Line width and line shape analysis in the inductively coupled plasma by high resolution Fourier transform spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faires, L.M.; Palmer, B.A.; Brault, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    High resolution Fourier transform spectrometry has been used to perform line width and line shape analysis of eighty-one iron I emision lines in the spectral range 290 to 390nm originating in the normal analytical zone of an inductively coupled plasma. Computer programs using non-linear least squares fitting techniques for line shape analysis were applied to the fully resolved spectra to determine Gaussian and Lorentzian components of the total observed line width. The effect of noise in the spectrum on the precision of the line fitting technique was assessed, and the importance of signal to noise ratio for line shape analysis is discussed. Translational (Doppler) temperatures were calculated from the Gaussian components of the line width and were found to be on the order of 6300/sup 0/K. The excitation temperature of iron I was also determined from the same spectral data by the spectroscopic slope method based on the Einstein-Boltzmann expression for spectral intensity and was found to be on the order of 4700/sup 0/K. 31 references.

  16. High-Speed Edge-Detecting Line Scan Smart Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Norman F.

    2012-01-01

    A high-speed edge-detecting line scan smart camera was developed. The camera is designed to operate as a component in a NASA Glenn Research Center developed inlet shock detection system. The inlet shock is detected by projecting a laser sheet through the airflow. The shock within the airflow is the densest part and refracts the laser sheet the most in its vicinity, leaving a dark spot or shadowgraph. These spots show up as a dip or negative peak within the pixel intensity profile of an image of the projected laser sheet. The smart camera acquires and processes in real-time the linear image containing the shock shadowgraph and outputting the shock location. Previously a high-speed camera and personal computer would perform the image capture and processing to determine the shock location. This innovation consists of a linear image sensor, analog signal processing circuit, and a digital circuit that provides a numerical digital output of the shock or negative edge location. The smart camera is capable of capturing and processing linear images at over 1,000 frames per second. The edges are identified as numeric pixel values within the linear array of pixels, and the edge location information can be sent out from the circuit in a variety of ways, such as by using a microcontroller and onboard or external digital interface to include serial data such as RS-232/485, USB, Ethernet, or CAN BUS; parallel digital data; or an analog signal. The smart camera system can be integrated into a small package with a relatively small number of parts, reducing size and increasing reliability over the previous imaging system..

  17. Study on Control Standard of Ground Surface Settlement of Shallow -burying and Under-excavating Tunnel Based on Smoothness of Existing Line%基于既有线平顺性浅埋暗挖隧道地面沉降控制标准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚淑萍; 胡玉娇; 徐彦妮

    2014-01-01

    以西安地铁4号线下穿西安铁路站场咽喉区为例,从隧道施工引起的地层变位的一般规律出发,根据隧道施工地面沉降经典 Peck 法,基于既有线的平顺性,依据规范规定的既有线路的允许偏差值,应用数学力学的基本分析方法,分析了隧道施工对既有线路的影响及浅埋暗挖隧道施工对铁路站场的路线影响,系统地建立浅埋暗挖隧道施工地表沉降控制标准,为地铁隧道工程的资金投入和施工方案、加固方案的选取提供依据。%Taking Xi’an Underground Railway No .4 Line which crosses below Xi’an Station for example ,according to the general deformation regulation in tunnel construction and the classical Peak Method ,and based on the smoothness and the permissible deviation of existing lines ,the impacts of tunnel construction on existing lines and railway stations are an -alyzed ,and the control standard for the ground surface settlement in shallow-burying and under-excavating tunnel con-struction is estabilished by using basic mathematic and mechanical analysis methods ,which could provide some references for the fund investment of metro tunnel engineerings and the selecting of construction and reinforcement schemes .

  18. American burying beetle site records : Valentine NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is specific site records of American burying beetle on Valentine Nationl Wildlife Refuge to date. It includes a map of site location. A discussion...

  19. Plastic Zone Analysis of Deep-Buried, Noncircular Tunnel and Application on the High-Speed Railway in the Karst Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the conformal mapping function provided by Verruijt, the outland of a noncircular tunnel can be mapped to a circular unit in the complex plane and then spread the analytic function into a Laurent series. The stress unified solution of oval and horseshoe cross section can be determined using Muskhelishvili’s complex variables function method. Subsequently, the solution can be taken into the Griffith strength failure criterion and determine the scale and shape of plastic zone in the tunnel surrounding rock. Aiming at the critical safety thickness between a concealed cave and tunnel in the karst area and determining whether the plastic zone of tunnel surrounding rock is connected with the plastic zone of cave as a judgment standard, the model of critical safety thickness among the concealed caves and tunnels is established. The numerical model is established in comparison with the computing method of rock plate critical safety thickness in actual engineering based on the Doumo tunnel engineering of Shanghai-Kunming (Guizhou segment high-speed railway. The following conclusions can be drawn: the analytical approximation method has less indexes, and the output of this method is approximately close to actual engineering and numerical analysis, in which it is reliable and rational.

  20. Interspecific Interactions and the Scope for Parent-Offspring Conflict: High Mite Density Temporarily Changes the Trade-Off between Offspring Size and Number in the Burying Beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornela De Gasperin

    Full Text Available Parents have a limited amount of resources to invest in reproduction and commonly trade-off how much they invest in offspring size (or quality versus brood size. A negative relationship between offspring size and number has been shown in numerous taxa and it underpins evolutionary conflicts of interest between parents and their young. For example, previous work on vertebrates shows that selection favours mothers that produce more offspring, at the expense of individual offspring size, yet favours offspring that have relatively few siblings and therefore attain a greater size at independence. Here we analyse how this trade-off is temporarily affected by stochastic variation in the intensity of interspecific interactions. We examined the effect of the mite Poecilochirus carabi on the relationship between offspring size and number in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides. We manipulated the initial number of mites in the reproductive event (by introducing either no mites, 4 mites, 10 mites, or 16 mites, and assessed the effect on the brood. We found a similar trade-off between offspring size and number in all treatments, except in the '16 mite' treatment where the correlation between offspring number and size flattened considerably. This effect arose because larvae in small broods failed to attain a high mass by dispersal. Our results show that variation in the intensity of interspecific interactions can temporarily change the strength of the trade-off between offspring size and number. In this study, high densities of mites prevented individual offspring from attaining their optimal weight, thus potentially temporarily biasing the outcome of parent-offspring conflict in favour of parents.

  1. Influence of Zn Diffusion on Bandwidth and Extinction in MQW Electroabsorption Modulators Buried with Semi-Insulating InP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayuki; Yamanaka; Hideki; Fukano; Ken; Tsuzuki; Munehisa; Tamura; Ryuzo; Iga; Matsuyuki; Ogasawara; Yasuhiro; Kondo; Tadashi; Saitoh

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of multi-quantum-well electroabsorption modulators buried with semi-insulating (SI)-InP is presented. We quantitatively demonstrate that suppression of Zn diffusion into the burying and optical core layers plays a key role in high-speed and high-extinction operation.

  2. Pannus Is the New Prepuce? Penile Cancer in a Buried Phallus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Manwaring

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two males presented to our urology department with complaints of bleeding and malodor from buried phallus within a suprapubic fat pad. Although both men had neonatal circumcisions, advanced penile carcinoma was found in both men. Formal penectomies showed high grade, poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma invading the corporal bodies and urethra. Buried penis represents a difficulty in early detection of suspicious lesions but may also provide an environment susceptible to poor hygiene and subsequent chronic inflammation. Patients with buried penis may be at a higher risk for development of invasive penile cancer and may benefit from regular and thorough genital exams.

  3. TS-05: 150 lines of java with high architectural complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2005-01-01

    In the short time span available in a software architecture course, it is difficult to find a software system that is both interesting from an architectural perspective and so small that it does not overwhelm the students.We present TS-05 which is a bare 150 line Java "toy-system" that never...

  4. Mapping metals at high redshift with far-infrared lines

    CERN Document Server

    Pallottini, A; Ferrara, A; Yue, B; Vallini, L; Maiolino, R; Feruglio, C

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic metal enrichment is one of the key physical processes regulating galaxy formation and the evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM). However, determining the metal content of the most distant galaxies has proven so far almost impossible; also, absorption line experiments at $z\\sim6$ become increasingly difficult because of instrumental limitations and the paucity of background quasars. With the advent of ALMA, far-infrared emission lines provide a novel tool to study early metal enrichment. Among these, the [CII] line at 157.74 $\\mu$m is the most luminous line emitted by the interstellar medium of galaxies. It can also resonant scatter CMB photons inducing characteristic intensity fluctuations ($\\Delta I/I_{CMB}$) near the peak of the CMB spectrum, thus allowing to probe the low-density IGM. We compute both [CII] galaxy emission and metal-induced CMB fluctuations at $z\\sim 6$ by using Adaptive Mesh Refinement cosmological hydrodynamical simulations and produce mock observations to be directly compare...

  5. High accuracy molecular line lists for exoplanetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, R. J.; Tennyson, J.

    2008-09-01

    Water, carbon monoxide, methane and ammonia are major constituents exoplanetary atmospheres. Measurements of the relative abundances of these species are capable of yielding information about physical conditions, including: temperature, pressure, thermal profile and metallicity. Modern observational techniques and instrumentation mean that in principle, we now have the capability to detect these molecules in the emission and absorption spectra of transiting exoplanets. However, in order to be able to interpret these data, robust atmospheric models and complete and accurate molecular line lists are required. Our team at UCL is a world leader in the computation of molecular spectroscopic line lists. The BT2 water line list [1], which contains over 500 million transitions, was used in the first secure detection of H2O in the atmosphere of a transiting exoplanet [2]. We are currently computing a line list for NH3, which is a considerably more difficult task as the molecule has nine degrees of internal freedom (H2O has six). In this paper, we will discuss the ab initio computation of ro-vibrational molecular spectra and their application in exoplanetary studies. References [1] Barber R. J., Tennyson J., Harris G. J., Tolchenov R., 2006, MNRAS, 368, 1087 [2] Tinetti G. et al., 2007, Nature, 448, 169

  6. The interstellar D1 line at high resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, L.M.; Welty, D.E. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Observations at a resolving power or a velocity resolution are reported of the interstellar D{sub 1} line of Na I in the spectra of Gamma Cas, Delta Ori, Epsilon Ori, Pi Sco, Delta Cyg, and Alpha Cyg. An echelle grating was used in a double-pass configuration with a CCD detector in the coude spectrograph of the 2.7 m reflector at McDonald Observatory. At least 42 kinematically distinct clouds are detected along the light paths to the five more distant stars, in addition to a single cloud seen toward Delta Cyg. The absorption lines arising in 13 of the clouds are sufficiently narrow and unblended to reveal clearly resolved hyperfine structure components split by 1.05 km/s. An additional 13 clouds apparently show comparably narrow, but more strongly blended, lines. For each individual cloud, upper limits T{sub max} and (v{sub t}){sub max} on the temperature and the turbulent velocity, respectively, are derived by fitting the observing lines with theoretical absorption profiles. 15 refs.

  7. The interstellar D1 line at high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, L. M.; Welty, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    Observations at a resolving power or a velocity resolution are reported of the interstellar D(sub 1) line of Na I in the spectra of Gamma Cas, Delta Ori, Epsilon Ori, Pi Sco, Delta Cyg, and Alpha Cyg. An echelle grating was used in a double-pass configuration with a CCD detector in the coude spectrograph of the 2.7 m reflector at McDonald Observatory. At least 42 kinematically distinct clouds are detected along the light paths to the five more distant stars, in addition to a single cloud seen toward Delta Cyg. The absorption lines arising in 13 of the clouds are sufficiently narrow and unblended to reveal clearly resolved hyperfine structure components split by 1.05 km/s. An additional 13 clouds apparently show comparably narrow, but more strongly blended, lines. For each individual cloud, upper limits T(sub max) and (v sub t) (sub max) on the temperature and the turbulent velocity, respectively, are derived by fitting the observing lines with theoretical absorption profiles.

  8. Mapping deeply-buried geothermal faults using microtremor array analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peifen; Ling, Suqun; Li, Chuanjin; Du, Jianguo; Zhang, Dengming; Xu, Xueqiu; Dai, Kangming; Zhang, Zuohong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the spatial autocorrelation microtremor array analysis is utilized to map deeply-buried subtle faults that have primary controls on geothermal reservoirs. We identified a low-velocity anomaly which is approximately 50 m wide at about 550-1400 m deep. A well drilled based on this anomaly later successfully produced hot water and further proved that the low-velocity anomaly was caused by a highly fractured zone at depths from 700 to 1500 m. Our results clearly demonstrate that the microtremor survey method can be effectively utilized to map deeply-buried faults and structures for geothermal energy exploration. The most effective way to increase the drilling success rate and, hence reduce the geothermal exploration risk, seems to be the development of new exploration methods and the integration of various geophysical technologies.

  9. Exploring the nature of Mid-IR selected buried AGN candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Martin; Chini, Rolf; Huchra, John P.; Leipski, Christian; Mueller, Sven A. H.; Ott, Stephan; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Wilkes, Belinda

    2005-06-01

    Among 3000 sources detected by the ISOCAM Parallel Survey at 6.7 micron in an area of 8 square degrees at high galactic latitude we have discovered a population of extremely infrared unknown objects. With a typical 6.7 micron flux between 4 and 0.7 mJy they have red 2MASS and optical counterparts. The analysis of the ISO and 2MASS colours suggests that we have found AGN with a pronounced near- and mid-IR emission from nuclear dust. We performed optical spectroscopy for 55 of the 80 AGN candidates selected by their red near-mid-IR colors. We find 27% type 1 AGN (redshift range z=0.1-1), 13% type 2 AGN (z=0.1-0.5), and 60% extremely reddened emission line galaxies (ELGs) with LINER and HII type spectra (z=0.07-0.3). Our multi-wavelength examination of the ELGs indicates that they resemble a population different from known IR luminous starburst galaxies. The high MIR/NIR flux ratio and the rather low FIR upper flux limits on IRAS-ADDSCANs argue against a pure starburst nature, suggesting that the red ELGs contain a buried AGN. While new IR surveys from Spitzer will certainly detect new interesting objects of that type, we have already identified a promising IR sample which has been further focussed by optical spectroscopy. Therefore, we apply for 19-38 micron IRS low resolution spectroscopy of 10 red ELGs carefully selected from our sample (6.7 micron flux > 1 mJy). By focussing on really buried AGN candidates and the [Ne V]24.3um and [O IV]25.9um lines, this proposal substantially goes beyond our shallower cycle-1 IRS 5-40 micron observations of MIR selected (mainly type 1 and type 2) AGN.

  10. Structural responses of secondary lining of high-speed railway tunnel excavated in loess ground

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Dingli; Fang, Qian; Li, Pengfei; Wong, Louis

    2013-01-01

    To systematically study the mechanical properties and structural responses of the secondary lining for high-speed railway tunnels excavated in loess ground, on-site monitoring was performed to measure the contact pressure between the primary lining and secondary lining. It is found that the contact pressure reaches its first peak value when the tunnel formwork carriage is removed. The load acting on secondary lining is in the form of deformation pressure, which is different from the loose pre...

  11. 30 CFR 77.807-3 - Movement of equipment; minimum distance from high-voltage lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... high-voltage lines. 77.807-3 Section 77.807-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-3 Movement of equipment; minimum distance from high-voltage lines. When any part of any equipment operated on the surface of...

  12. 30 CFR 77.704-2 - Repairs to energized high-voltage lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Repairs to energized high-voltage lines. 77.704... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.704-2 Repairs to energized high-voltage lines. An energized high-voltage... repairs will be performed on power circuits with a phase-to-phase nominal voltage no greater than...

  13. Improvement of cylinder block line for high productivity. Koseisansei cylinder block seizo line no kakuritsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, M. (Aisin Takaoka Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Ito, M. (Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan))

    1991-05-25

    This paper is a technical report of improvig manufacturing line in an automotive cylinder block casting factory, and enhancing the productivity. Gists of the improvement can be summarized in the following three items: Standardization of the production corresponding to product acceptance condition by the subsequent process; elimination of waste in time by means of establishing production framework, including material handling; and accumulation of small scale automations. The result was the productivity in 1989 increased by 1.2 times that in around 1975 as a result of improved rate of operation, and number of workers reduced to half, supported particularly by manpower saving in core making and finishing processes. For instance, core making machines were given size reduction in the facility and die, and multiple core making function, in which one die makes different cores for the same part. The multiple core making function, which can reduce number of machines necessary to make one cylinder block, has a large advantage not only facilitating arrangemets for small quantity production parts, but also dealing with stepwise capacity increase and eliminating the necessity of keeping spare dies. 16 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J.S. [NDE Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18

    The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.

  15. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1996-01-30

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  16. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration stakeholder involvement model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaupanger, R.M.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Milam, L.M.

    1994-04-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Stakeholder participation in the DOE Environmental Management decision-making process is critical to remediation efforts. Appropriate mechanisms for communication with the public, private sector, regulators, elected officials, and others are being aggressively pursued by BWID to permit informed participation. This document summarizes public outreach efforts during FY-93 and presents a strategy for expanded stakeholder involvement during FY-94.

  17. Buried Anode Device Development: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-451

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenent, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The possibility of a reflecting electrochromic device is very attractive, and the 'Buried Anode' architecture developed at NREL could yield such a device. The subject of this cooperative agreement will be the development and refinement of a Buried Anode device process. This development will require the active involvement of NREL and US e-Chromic personnel, and will require the use of NREL equipment as much as possible. When this effort is concluded, US e-Chromic will have enough information to construct a pilot production line, where further development can continue.

  18. Transmission-line decelerators for atoms in high Rydberg states

    CERN Document Server

    Lancuba, P

    2014-01-01

    Beams of helium atoms in Rydberg states with principal quantum number $n=52$, and traveling with an initial speed of 1950 m/s, have been accelerated, decelerated and guided while confined in moving electric traps generated above a curved, surface-based electrical transmission line with a segmented center conductor. Experiments have been performed with atoms guided at constant speed, and with accelerations exceeding $10^7$ m/s$^2$. In each case the manipulated atoms were detected by spatially resolved, pulsed electric field ionization. The effects of tangential and centripetal accelerations on the effective trapping potentials experienced by the atoms in the decelerator have been studied, with the resulting observations highlighting contributions from the density of excited Rydberg atoms to the acceleration, deceleration and guiding efficiencies in the experiments.

  19. Transmission-line decelerators for atoms in high Rydberg states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancuba, P.; Hogan, S. D.

    2014-11-01

    Beams of helium atoms in Rydberg states with principal quantum number n =52 , and traveling with an initial speed of 1950 m/s, have been accelerated, decelerated, and guided while confined in moving electric traps generated above a curved, surface-based electrical transmission line with a segmented center conductor. Experiments have been performed with atoms guided at constant speed, and with accelerations exceeding 107 m /s 2. In each case, the manipulated atoms were detected by spatially resolved, pulsed electric field ionization. The effects of tangential and centripetal accelerations on the effective trapping potentials experienced by the atoms in the decelerator have been studied, with the resulting observations highlighting contributions from the density of excited Rydberg atoms to the acceleration, deceleration, and guiding efficiencies in the experiments.

  20. Lipid characterization of seed oils from high-palmitic, low-palmitoleic, and very high-stearic acid sunflower lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Vega, María J; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael

    2005-04-01

    Information obtained in recent years regarding the enzymes involved in FA synthesis can now be applied to develop novel sunflower lines by incorporating enzymes with specific characteristics into lines with a defined background. We have generated three highly saturated mutant lines in this way and characterized their FA content. The new high-palmitic, low-palmitoleic lines CAS-18 and CAS-25, the latter on a high-oleic background, have been selected from the high-stearic mutant CAS-3 by introducing a deficient stearic acid desaturase in a high-palmitic background from the previously developed mutant lines CAS-5 and CAS-12, respectively. As such, the desaturation of palmitic acid and the synthesis of palmitoleic acid and its derivatives (asclepic and palmitolinoleic acids) were reduced in these high-palmitic lines, increasing the stearic acid content. Likewise, introducing a FA thioesterase from a high-palmitic line (e.g., CAS-5) into the high-stearic CAS-3 increased the stearic acid content from 27 to 32% in the new high-stearic line CAS-31. As previously described in high-palmitic lines, high growth temperatures did not reduce the linoleic acid content of the oil. Furthermore, the FA composition of TAG, DAG, and phospholipids was modified in these lines. Besides a high degree of saturation, the TAG from these new vegetable oils have a low content of saturated FA in the sn-2 position. The alpha asymmetric coefficient obtained also indicates that the saturated FA are asymmetrically distributed within the TAG molecules. Indeed, the disaturated TAG content rose from 31.8 to 48.2%. These values of disaturated TAG are the highest to date in a temperate oilseed.

  1. Ultrasound line-by-line scanning method of spatial-temporal active cavitation mapping for high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ting; Zhang, Siyuan; Fu, Quanyou; Xu, Zhian; Wan, Mingxi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented an ultrasound line-by-line scanning method of spatial-temporal active cavitation mapping applicable in a liquid or liquid filled tissue cavities exposed by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Scattered signals from cavitation bubbles were obtained in a scan line immediately after one HIFU exposure, and then there was a waiting time of 2 s long enough to make the liquid back to the original state. As this pattern extended, an image was built up by sequentially measuring a series of such lines. The acquisition of the beamformed radiofrequency (RF) signals for a scan line was synchronized with HIFU exposure. The duration of HIFU exposure, as well as the delay of the interrogating pulse relative to the moment while HIFU was turned off, could vary from microseconds to seconds. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated in tap-water and a tap-water filled cavity in the tissue-mimicking gelatin-agar phantom as capable of observing temporal evolutions of cavitation bubble cloud with temporal resolution of several microseconds, lateral and axial resolution of 0.50 mm and 0.29 mm respectively. The dissolution process of cavitation bubble cloud and spatial distribution affected by cavitation previously generated were also investigated. Although the application is limited by the requirement for a gassy fluid (e.g. tap water, etc.) that allows replenishment of nuclei between HIFU exposures, the technique may be a useful tool in spatial-temporal cavitation mapping for HIFU with high precision and resolution, providing a reference for clinical therapy.

  2. 30 CFR 56.12071 - Movement or operation of equipment near high-voltage power lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-voltage power lines. 56.12071 Section 56.12071 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12071 Movement or operation of equipment near high-voltage power lines. When equipment must be moved or operated near energized high-voltage powerlines (other than...

  3. 30 CFR 77.807-2 - Booms and masts; minimum distance from high-voltage lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-voltage lines. 77.807-2 Section 77.807-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-2 Booms and masts; minimum distance from high-voltage lines. The booms and masts of equipment operated on the surface of...

  4. Detection of Buried Objects : The MUD Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quesson, B.A.J.; Vossen, R. van; Zampolli, M.; Beckers, A.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Mine Underwater Detection (MUD) project at TNO is to experimentally investigate the acoustic and magnetic detection of explosives underwater, buried in a soft sediment layer. This problem is relevant for the protection of harbors and littoral assets against terrorist attacks and for

  5. Detection of Buried Objects : The MUD Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quesson, B.A.J.; Vossen, R. van; Zampolli, M.; Beckers, A.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Mine Underwater Detection (MUD) project at TNO is to experimentally investigate the acoustic and magnetic detection of explosives underwater, buried in a soft sediment layer. This problem is relevant for the protection of harbors and littoral assets against terrorist attacks and for t

  6. Detection of buried mines with seismic sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Thomas G.; Baker, Steven R.; Gaghan, Frederick E.; Fitzpatrick, Sean M.; Hall, Patrick W.; Sheetz, Kraig E.; Guy, Jeremie

    2003-10-01

    Prior research on seismo-acoustic sonar for detection of buried targets [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 2333-2343 (1998)] has continued with examination of the target strengths of buried test targets as well as targets of interest, and has also examined detection and confirmatory classification of these, all using arrays of seismic sources and receivers as well as signal processing techniques to enhance target recognition. The target strengths of two test targets (one a steel gas bottle, the other an aluminum powder keg), buried in a sand beach, were examined as a function of internal mass load, to evaluate theory developed for seismic sonar target strength [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 2344-2353 (1998)]. The detection of buried naval and military targets of interest was achieved with an array of 7 shaker sources and 5, three-axis seismometers, at a range of 5 m. Vector polarization filtering was the main signal processing technique for detection. It capitalizes on the fact that the vertical and horizontal components in Rayleigh wave echoes are 90 deg out of phase, enabling complex variable processing to obtain the imaginary component of the signal power versus time, which is unique to Rayleigh waves. Gabor matrix processing of this signal component was the main technique used to determine whether the target was man-made or just a natural target in the environment. [Work sponsored by ONR.

  7. 7 CFR 1755.505 - Buried services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., RUS standard for splicing copper and fiber optic cables. (d) Buried service wire or cable shall be... shall be installed against a foundation wall or pillar to provide adequate support and mechanical... lightning rod grounding conductor or grounding electrode with at least a Number (No.) 6 AWG copper...

  8. Electromagnetic Field Evaluation of a 500kV High Voltage Overhead Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Many scientific articles have been written about electromagnetic field distributions under high voltage overhead transmission lines. However, some readers are still left wondering just how exactly the distribution curves formed by the fields are related to the mathematical models used. This paper presents case study results of a 500 kV alternating current overhead transmission line, and explicitly shows how the fields vary under high voltage lines by employing easily understood mathematical models. The numerical simulations, done using MATLAB, can help anyone willing to evaluate the amount of electromagnetic fields available under any other high voltage overhead transmission line. The magnitudes of the fields obtained are compared with the standard values set by the International Radiation Protection Agency so as to assess the integrity of external insulation of the line. Thus, the technical staff can easily attend to complaints that may arise about the electromagnetic field effects from the line.

  9. Numerical Modeling for Impact-resistant Pipes Buried at Shallow Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Jong; Hsu, Jung-Fu

    2010-05-01

    The plastic pipes buried at shallow depth are popular for underground telecommunication lines. To assess their impact-worthiness under loads from heavy traffics, the study establishes a numerical model to correlate with field data. Field impact tests were carried out where a 50-kg mass free-falling at 2.2 m height was dropped onto the soil backfill directly above a buried pipe. A contact-impact model incorporating finite elements of disjoined material regions is developed to simulate the phenomena of mass-soil-pipe interaction and soil dent. Plastic soil deformations are accounted for. Also implemented is a new erosion scheme for dealing with numerical instability caused by crumpled elements during heavy impact. Reasonable agreements can be observed between the analyzed and measured soil dent. This model is versatile in making design evaluations for buried pipes to withstand impact loads. It has potential applications to cemented soil fills and blast loads.

  10. High-resolution molecular line observations of active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    García-Burillo, S; Usero, A; Gracia-Carpio, J

    2008-01-01

    The study of the content, distribution and kinematics of interstellar gas is a key to understand the origin and maintenance of both starburst and nuclear (AGN) activity in galaxies. The processes involved in AGN fueling encompass a wide range of scales, both spatial and temporal, which have to be studied. Probing the gas flow from the outer disk down to the central engine of an AGN host, requires the use of specific tracers of the interstellar medium adapted to follow the change of phase of the gas as a function of radius. Current mm-interferometers can provide a sharp view of the distribution and kinematics of molecular gas in the circumnuclear disks of galaxies through extensive CO line mapping. As such, CO maps are an essential tool to study AGN feeding mechanisms in the local universe. This is the scientific driver of the NUclei of GAlaxies (NUGA) survey, whose latest results are here reviewed. On the other hand, the use of specific molecular tracers of the dense gas phase can probe the feedback influence...

  11. Using Adobe Acrobat to create high-resolution line art images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyoun Sik; Lee, Jeong Min

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce a method for using Adobe Acrobat to make high-resolution and high-quality line art images. High-resolution and high-quality line art images for radiology journal submission can be generated using Adobe Acrobat as a steppingstone, and the customized PDF conversion settings can be used for converting hybrid images, including both bitmap and vector components.

  12. Changes to the Transfer Line Collimation System for the High-Luminosity LHC Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kain, V. [CERN; Aberle, O. [CERN; Bracco, C. [CERN; Fraser, M. [CERN; Galleazzi, F. [CERN; Gianfelice-Wendt, E. [Fermilab; Kosmicki, A. [CERN; Maciariello, F. [CERN; Meddahi, M. [CERN; Nuiry, F. X. [CERN; Steele, G. [CERN; Velotti, F. [CERN

    2015-06-01

    The current LHC transfer line collimation system will not be able to provide enough protection for the high brightness beams in the high-luminosity LHC era. The new collimation system will have to attenuate more and be more robust than its predecessor. The active jaw length of the new transfer line collimators will therefore be 2.1 m instead of currently 1.2 m. The transfer line optics will have to be adjusted for the new collimator locations and larger beta functions at the collimators for absorber robustness reasons. In this paper the new design of the transfer line collimation system will be presented with its implications on transfer line optics and powering, maintainability, protection of transfer line magnets in case of beam loss on a collimator and protection of the LHC aperture.

  13. Changes to the Transfer Line Collimation System for the High-Luminosity LHC Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Bracco, C; Fraser, M; Galleazzi, F; Gianfelice-Wendt, E; Kosmicki, A; Maciariello, F; Meddahi, M; Nuiry, F X; Steele, G; Velotti, F

    2015-01-01

    The current LHC transfer line collimation system will not be able to provide enough protection for the high brightness beams in the high-luminosity LHC era. The new collimation system will have to attenuate more and be more robust than its predecessor. The active jaw length of the new transfer line collimators will therefore be 2.1 m instead of currently 1.2 m. The transfer line optics will have to be adjusted for the new collimator locations and larger beta functions at the collimators for absorber robustness reasons. In this paper the new design of the transfer line collimation system will be presented with its implications on transfer line optics and powering, maintainability, protection of transfer line magnets in case of beam loss on a collimator and protection of the LHC aperture.

  14. Molecular line tracers of high-mass star forming regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagy, Zsofia; Van der Tak, Floris; Ossenkopf, Volker; Bergin, Edwin; Black, John; Faure, Alexandre; Fuller, Gary; Gerin, Maryvonne; Goicoechea, Javier; Joblin, Christine; Le Bourlot, Jacques; Le Petit, Franck; Makai, Zoltan; Plume, Rene; Roellig, Markus; Spaans, Marco; Tolls, Volker

    2013-01-01

    High-mass stars influence their environment in different ways including feedback via their FUV radiation. The penetration of FUV photons into molecular clouds creates Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs) with different chemical layers where the mainly ionized medium changes into mainly molecular. Differe

  15. 47 CFR 32.6423 - Buried cable expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buried cable expense. 32.6423 Section 32.6423... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6423 Buried cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with buried cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  16. Novel high-frequency, high-power, pulsed oscillator based on a transmission line transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdt, R; Curry, R D

    2007-07-01

    Recent analysis and experiments have demonstrated the potential for transmission line transformers to be employed as compact, high-frequency, high-power, pulsed oscillators with variable rise time, high output impedance, and high operating efficiency. A prototype system was fabricated and tested that generates a damped sinusoidal wave form at a center frequency of 4 MHz into a 200 Omega load, with operating efficiency above 90% and peak power on the order of 10 MW. The initial rise time of the pulse is variable and two experiments were conducted to demonstrate initial rise times of 12 and 3 ns, corresponding to a spectral content from 4-30 and from 4-100 MHz, respectively. A SPICE model has been developed to accurately predict the circuit behavior and scaling laws have been identified to allow for circuit design at higher frequencies and higher peak power. The applications, circuit analysis, test stand, experimental results, circuit modeling, and design of future systems are all discussed.

  17. The high altitude SSMIS channels: Validation of fast radiative transfer simulations by comparison with line-by-line simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Richard; Rayer, Peter; Saunders, Roger; Bell, William; Booton, Anna; Buehler, Stefan A.; Eriksson, Patrick; John, Viju

    2015-04-01

    Channels 19-22 of the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) on the DMSP satellite are simulated using a diverse atmospheric temperature profile dataset. These channels all measure the absorption spectra of the main isotope of molecular oxygen, and have pass-bands that are close in frequency to the center frequencies of four of the spectral lines. As a consequence, the channels measure high up in the atmosphere. The sensitivity of some channels even peak above the present upper levels of numerical weather prediction models at 80 km. The high altitude of the measurements in turn means that the molecular oxygen spectroscopy is noticeably affected by the Zeeman effect; this splits a line into frequency-separated polarized components as a function of the external magnetic field. The simulations have been performed using both ARTS and RTTOV as forward radiative transfer simulators. ARTS uses a line-by-line approach to radiative transfer. For the Zeeman effect calculations, ARTS can read line data and 3D magnetism directly from databases and then performs the splitting and polarization for each finite layer to calculate polarized absorption that is input to the radiative transfer equation. RTTOV uses a fast approach to radiative transfer, pre-calculating scalar effective transmission predictors for a set of atmospheric scenarios for each channel. For the Zeeman effect calculations, an altitude independent magnetic field is required as input for the layered transmission for the radiative transfer equation. Our results show that the differences between the models are small compared to sensor noise for all channels. The mean difference between models is larger for the lower altitude channels 21 and 22, but the standard deviation is small between the models. The mean simulated brightness temperatures of ARTS are closer to SSMIS than the RTTOV values, but it is not possible to tell which model is more accurate as temperature errors in the profiles are expected to be

  18. Dielectric-Lined High-Gradient Accelerator Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-04-24

    Rectangular particle accelerator structures with internal planar dielectric elements have been studied, with a view towards devising structures with lower surface fields for a given accelerating field, as compared with structures without dielectrics. Success with this concept is expected to allow operation at higher accelerating gradients than otherwise on account of reduced breakdown probabilities. The project involves studies of RF breakdown on amorphous dielectrics in test cavities that could enable high-gradient structures to be built for a future multi-TeV collider. The aim is to determine what the limits are for RF fields at the surfaces of selected dielectrics, and the resulting acceleration gradient that could be achieved in a working structure. The dielectric of principal interest in this study is artificial CVD diamond, on account of its advertised high breakdown field ({approx}2 GV/m for dc), low loss tangent, and high thermal conductivity. Experimental studies at mm-wavelengths on materials and structures for achieving high acceleration gradient were based on the availability of the 34.3 GHz third-harmonic magnicon amplifier developed by Omega-P, and installed at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory. Peak power from the magnicon was measured to be about 20 MW in 0.5 {micro}s pulses, with a gain of 54 dB. Experiments for studying RF high-field effects on CVD diamond samples failed to show any evidence after more than 10{sup 5} RF pulses of RF breakdown up to a tangential surface field strength of 153 MV/m; studies at higher fields were not possible due to a degradation in magnicon performance. A rebuild of the tube is underway at this writing. Computed performance for a dielectric-loaded rectangular accelerator structure (DLA) shows highly competitive properties, as compared with an existing all-metal structure. For example, comparisons were made of a DLA structure having two planar CVD diamond elements with a all-metal CERN structure HDS

  19. Dual design resistor for high voltage conditioning and transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siggins, Timothy Lynn [Newport News, VA; Murray, Charles W [Hayes, VA; Walker, Richard L [Norfolk, VA

    2007-01-23

    A dual resistor for eliminating the requirement for two different value resistors. The dual resistor includes a conditioning resistor at a high resistance value and a run resistor at a low resistance value. The run resistor can travel inside the conditioning resistor. The run resistor is capable of being advanced by a drive assembly until an electrical path is completed through the run resistor thereby shorting out the conditioning resistor and allowing the lower resistance run resistor to take over as the current carrier.

  20. Estimation of Corrosion Induced Flaw Sizes on Buried Gas Pipeline in the Nigerian Sector of Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.F. Evans

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A geoelectrical survey was conducted to investigate pipeline corrosion in the coastal plain sands of the Nigerian sector of the Niger Delta. The objective is to estimate corrosion flaw sizes on the pipeline quantitatively instead of direct excavation of the pipeline and eventual use of measuring tape to measure the flaws on the pipeline. The pipelines buried in the Benin sands at Ikot Abasi, South of the Niger Delta Basin became instructive for this study. The survey consisted of electrical potential profiling using Close Interval Pipe-Soil potential survey (CIPS and Horizontal Electrical Profiling (HEP according to Wenner electrodes arrangement. Two permanent test points (PS were used for the study and the flaw sizes were estimated at points delineated to be of high corrosion risk in the study area. The data for close interval potential and HEP were analyzed and interpreted in line with the threshold protective potential (-850 mV as well as the American Water Works Association (AWWA soil corrosivity rating. Results indicate high risk zones due to external corrosion at pipeline length 25-30 m from PS1 and 80 m from PS2. These locations contain significant saline groundwater that facilitates corrosion of metal pipes buried within the area. The results also suggest that the corrosion protection systems for the pipeline need to be reinforced to mitigate further growth of the flaws on the pipeline segment. The impact of the flaws could be severe if allowed to continue.

  1. Laboratory Investigation on Lightning Flashes to High Voltage Transmission Lines%Laboratory Investigation on Lightning Flashes to High Voltage Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thongchai Disyadej; Stanislaw Grzybowski

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the attractive width of high voltage transmission lines to lightning strikes. In order to design the optimal lightning protection, the estimated number of lightning flashes on the line, which is based on its attractive width, needs to be determined. The investigation was performed using experiments with model tests at the Mississippi State University High Voltage Laboratory. For laboratory experiments, a total of 2,100 negative and positive switching impulse voltages were applied to transmission line models from a conducting rod, which represented a lightning downward leader. Different tested models of transmission lines on a scale of 1:100 were used. The effects of overhead ground wires, phase conductors, tower structures, and the magnitude and polarity of lightning strokes were also studied. The attractive width increased gradually with the height of overhead ground wires and towers as well as the magnitude of the lightning stroke current. Impulse polarity had an impact on the at- tractive width, and the attractive width for negative polarity was larger than that {or positive polarity. The taller tower had more effect on flash distribution to transmission lines than the shorter one. The experimental results agree with the actual transmission line observations published in literature. The new expressions for the attractive width of transmission lines, based on the experimental results, were established. The accurate estimation of the attractive width can help electric power utilities plan transmission systems reliably and economically. The detailed description of the back- ground problem, proposed method, experimental results, and analysis are presented in this paper.

  2. Electrification of high-speed line Madrid-Lerida; Elektrifizierung der Hochgeschwindigkeitsstrecke Madrid-Lerida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, J.M.G.; Wipfler, H.P. [UTE EUROASCE, Madrid (Spain); Tessun, H. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH, Power Systems, Muenchen (Germany); Martens, G. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH, Power Systems, Offenbach (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    The 450 km long section Madrid-Lerida of the new high-speed line Madrid-Barcelone has been equipped with a new overhead contact line type designed for 350 km/h. (orig.) [German] Der 450 km lange Abschnitt Madrid-Lerida der neuen Hochgeschwindigkeitsstrecke Madrid-Barcelona wurde mit einer fuer 350 km/h ausgelegten neuen Oberleitungsbauart ausgeruestet. (orig.)

  3. High School Open On-Line Courses (HOOC): A Case Study from Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Enrique; Pisani, Armando

    2013-01-01

    The first implementation of complete high school, open on-line courses (HOOC) aiming to support the training and basic scientific knowledge of young students from the Liceo Ginnasio Dante Alighieri in Gorizia, Italy, is discussed. Using the open source and automated recording system openEyA, HOOC give a student the opportunity to watch on-line, at…

  4. a Comparative Earthwork and Cost Analysis of Improving AN Existing Railway Line and Constructing a New High-Speed Line in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, K. A.; Gulal, V. E.

    2016-10-01

    In the past few decades, high-speed railways have become an important transportation system due to their high operational speed, and globally, the networks of these railways have been extended. In addition, there is ongoing work on the construction of new high-speed railways as well as improving existing lines to achieve the same operational speed. To contribute to high-speed railway works in Turkey, this study compared two high-speed railway lines; an existing conventional line, the design of which was improved, and a new high-speed line. The design of an existing conventional railway line was improved according to optimal geometric characteristics of high-speed railways and an alternative line was simulated. These two lines were evaluated on three different types of land in terms of the required volume of earthworks, engineering structures and total cost. The results show that the length of the conventional line was reduced after the improvement process; however, new engineering structures are needed. Furthermore, compared to the alternative line, the track length and total length of engineering structures required for the improvement of the existing line was shorter and the volume of required earthworks was less resulting in lower costs.

  5. Buried caldera of mauna kea volcano, hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S C

    1972-03-31

    An elliptical caldera (2.1 by 2.8 kilometers) at the summit of Mauna Kea volcano is inferred to lie buried beneath hawaiite lava flows and pyroclastic cones at an altitude of approximately 3850 meters. Stratigraphic relationships indicate that hawaiite eruptions began before a pre-Wisconsin period of ice-cap glaciation and that the crest of the mountain attained its present altitude and gross form during a glaciation of probable Early Wisconsin age.

  6. Improving resistivity survey resolution at sites with limited spatial extent using buried electrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiflu, H.; Kruse, S.; Loke, M. H.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Harro, D.

    2016-12-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys are widely used in geological, environmental and engineering studies. However, the effectiveness of surface ERT surveys is limited by decreasing resolution with depth and near the ends of the survey line. Increasing the array length will increase depth of investigation, but may not be possible at urban sites where access is limited. One novel method of addressing these limitations while maintaining lateral coverage is to install an array of deep electrodes. Referred to here as the Multi-Electrode Resistivity Implant Technique (MERIT), self-driving pointed electrodes are implanted at depth below each surface electrode in an array, using direct-push technology. Optimal sequences of readings have been identified with the "Compare R" method of Wilkinson. Numerical, laboratory, and field case studies are applied to examine the effectiveness of the MERIT method, particularly for use in covered karst terrain. In the field case studies, resistivity images are compared against subsurface structure defined from borings, GPR surveys, and knowledge of prior land use. In karst terrain where limestone has a clay overburden, traditional surface resistivity methods suffer from lack of current penetration through the shallow clay layer. In these settings, the MERIT method is found to improve resolution of features between the surface and buried array, as well as increasing depth of penetration and enhancing imaging capabilities at the array ends. The method functions similar to a cross-borehole array between horizontal boreholes, and suffers from limitations common to borehole arrays. Inversion artifacts are common at depths close to the buried array, and because some readings involve high geometric factors, inversions are more susceptible to noise than traditional surface arrays. Results are improved by using errors from reciprocal measurements to weight the data during the inversion.

  7. Blepharoptosis correction with buried suture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang Woo; Kang, Moon Seok; Nam, Seung Min; Kim, Yong Bae

    2015-02-01

    Many surgical techniques have been developed to correct blepharoptosis, including the anterior levator resection or advancement, tarsoaponeurectomy, and Fasanella-Servat Müllerectomy. However, to minimize surgical scarring and reduce the postoperative recovery time, the procedure has been developed from a complete incision to a partial incision, which is appealing to patients. To aid the procedural development, this study describes a surgical technique in which the correction of blepharoptosis and a double eyelid fold operation are performed using a buried suture technique during the same operation. A retrospective review was conducted using the medical records and preoperative and postoperative photography of 121 patients who underwent simultaneous correction of blepharoptosis and had a double eyelid fold created between October 2010 and July 2011. All of the patients had mild (1-2 mm) or moderate (3-4 mm) bilateral blepharoptosis and excellent or good levator function (>8 mm). The average preoperative marginal reflex distance (MRD1) measured 1.174 (0.3) mm. No intraoperative complications occurred. The average postoperative MRD1 measured 3.968 (0.2) mm. There was statistical significance improvement between preoperative MRD1 and postoperative MRD1 (Pexposure keratopathy were noted. Blepharoptosis correction using the buried suture technique is an effective technique for young patients experiencing mild to moderate blepharoptosis who want to have the double eyelid fold operation using the buried suture technique.

  8. Evaluation and Application of Two High-Iron Transgenic Rice Lines Expressing a Pea Ferritin Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Hong-xai; LI Mei; Guo Ze-jian; Shu Qing-yao; xu Xiao-hui; BAO Jin-song; SHEN Sheng-quan

    2008-01-01

    A totaI of 105 transgenic rice lines independently transformed with a pea ferritin gene (Fer)were previously obtained.After seven generations of selfing and β-glucuronidase(GUS)assisted selection,82 transgenic lines with stable agronomic traits were got.Among the 82 transgenic lines,two high-iron transgenic rice lines Fer34 and Fer65,with the iron contents in the milled rice being 4.82 and 3.46 times of that of the wild type Xiushui 11,respectively were identified.In the two transgenic lines,the exogenous Fer gene was highly expressed,and inherited as a single locus.The transgene had no negative effect on the agronomic traits of rice plant,other mineral nutritional components,appearance quailty and eating quailty of the milled rice,indicating that these two lines were elite high-iron breeding lines.Furthermore,the practical application and further studies facilitating utilization of the two elite breeding lines were discussed.

  9. Corona noise model of high-voltage AC transmission lines and engineering applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jiuhui; Di Zelong

    2013-01-01

    In order to predict the levels of corona noise from high-voltage alternating current (AC) transmission lines,the mechanism of corona noise and the corresponding theoretical prediction model are investigated.On the basis of Drude model,the motion of positive and negative ions produced by high-voltage corona is analyzed,and the mechanism of corona noise is discovered.The theoretical prediction model is put forward by using Kirchhoff formula,which is verified by the well agreement between our result and others',considering the case of three-phase single lines.Moreover,the calculation results show that for both single and bundled lines,the sound pressure level of the typical frequency,i.e.twice the power frequency,attenuates slowly and leads to an obviously interferential phenomenon near the transmission lines,but the level of the bundled lines is smaller than that of the single ones under the same transmission voltage.Based on the mechanism of corona noise and the prediction model,it is obvious that bundled lines and/or increased line radius can be adopted to reduce corona noise in the practical engineering applications effectively.This model can also provide a theoretical guidance for the high-volt-age AC transmission line design.

  10. Influence of pulse line switch inductance on output characteristics of high-current nanosecond accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashchenko, A. I.; Vintizenko, I. I.

    2016-06-01

    Various types of high-current nanosecond accelerators are simulated numerically using an equivalent circuit representation. The influence of pulse forming line switch inductance on the amplitude and waveform of output voltage and current pulses is analyzed.

  11. Geotechnical Investigation : Farmers High Line Canal realignment at Two Ponds Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As requested by the Farmers High Line (FHL) Board of Director's, Tetra Tech RMC has prepared aGeo technical Investigation Report for the proposed realignment of the...

  12. Sensitive quantitative analysis of murine LINE1 DNA methylation using high resolution melt analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newman, Michelle; Blyth, Benjamin J; Hussey, Damian J; Jardine, Daniel; Sykes, Pamela J; Ormsby, Rebecca J

    2012-01-01

    We present here the first high resolution melt (HRM) assay to quantitatively analyze differences in murine DNA methylation levels utilizing CpG methylation of Long Interspersed Elements-1 (LINE1 or L1...

  13. Large field-of-view transmission line resonator for high field MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johannesson, Kristjan Sundgaard; Boer, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Transmission line resonators is often a preferable choice for coils in high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), because they provide a number of advantages over traditional loop coils. The size of such resonators, however, is limited to shorter than half a wavelength due to high standing wave....... Achieved magnetic field distribution is compared to the conventional transmission line resonator. Imaging experiments are performed using 7 Tesla MRI system. The developed resonator is useful for building coils with large field-of-view....

  14. New high-speed line Nuremberg - Ingolstadt - Electrical engineering equipment; Neubaustrecke (NBS) Nuernberg - Ingolstadt - Technische Ausruestung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krems, S. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Matthes, U. [DB Projektbau GmbH, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The Bavarian fast railway line Nuremberg - Ingolstadt is equipped with most recent railway infrastructure for a 300 km/h fast high-speed traffic. The electrical engineering installations were implemented within a seven years period. Since December 2006 the line has been integrated into scheduled services and operated with high-speed trains. So far, the installations complied fully with all the requirements. (orig.)

  15. Large field-of-view transmission line resonator for high field MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johannesson, Kristjan Sundgaard; Boer, Vincent;

    2016-01-01

    Transmission line resonators is often a preferable choice for coils in high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), because they provide a number of advantages over traditional loop coils. The size of such resonators, however, is limited to shorter than half a wavelength due to high standing wave....... Achieved magnetic field distribution is compared to the conventional transmission line resonator. Imaging experiments are performed using 7 Tesla MRI system. The developed resonator is useful for building coils with large field-of-view....

  16. Structural coupling between FKBP12 and buried water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szep, Szilvia; Park, Sheldon; Boder, Eric T; Van Duyne, Gregory D; Saven, Jeffery G

    2009-02-15

    Globular proteins often contain structurally well-resolved internal water molecules. Previously, we reported results from a molecular dynamics study that suggested that buried water (Wat3) may play a role in modulating the structure of the FK506 binding protein-12 (FKBP12) (Park and Saven, Proteins 2005; 60:450-463). In particular, simulations suggested that disrupting a hydrogen bond to Wat3 by mutating E60 to either A or Q would cause a structural perturbation involving the distant W59 side chain, which rotates to a new conformation in response to the mutation. This effectively remodels the ligand-binding pocket, as the side chain in the new conformation is likely to clash with bound FK506. To test whether the protein structure is in effect modulated by the binding of a buried water in the distance, we determined high-resolution (0.92-1.29 A) structures of wild-type FKBP12 and its two mutants (E60A, E60Q) by X-ray crystallography. The structures of mutant FKBP12 show that the ligand-binding pocket is indeed remodeled as predicted by the substitution at position 60, even though the water molecule does not directly interact with any of the amino acids of the binding pocket. Thus, these structures support the view that buried water molecules constitute an integral, noncovalent component of the protein structure. Additionally, this study provides an example in which predictions from molecular dynamics simulations are experimentally validated with atomic precision, thus showing that the structural features of protein-water interactions can be reliably modeled at a molecular level.

  17. Influence of high-dose nitrogen implantation on the positive charge density of the buried oxide of silicon-on-insulator wafers%高剂量注氮对注氧隔离硅材料埋氧层中正电荷密度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐海马; 郑中山; 张恩霞; 于芳; 李宁; 王宁娟; 李国花; 马红芝

    2011-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen implantation on the properties of silicon-on-insulator buried oxide using separation by oxygen implantation was studied. Nitrogen ions were implanted into the buried oxide layer with a high-dose of 1016 cm-2.The experimental results showed that the positive charge density of the nitrogen-implanted buried oxide was obviously increased, compared with the control sampes without nitrogen implantation. It was also found that the post-implantation annealing caused an additional increase of the positive charge density in the nitrogen implanted samples. However,annealing time displayed a small effect on the positive charge density of the nitrogen implanted buried oxide, compared with the significant increase induced by nitrogen implantation. Moreover, the capacitance-voltage results showed that the positive charge density of the unannealed sample with nitrogen implanted is approximately equal to that of the sample annealed at 1100 ℃ for 2. 5 h in N2 ambient, despite an additional increase brought with annealing, and the buried oxide of the sample after 0.5 h annealing has a maximum value of positive charge density. According to the simulating results,the nitrogen implantation resulted in a heavy damage to the buried oxide, a lot of silicon and oxygen vacancies were introduced in the buried oxide during implantation. However, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the samples indicates that implantation induced defects can be basically eliminated after an annealing at 1100 ℃ for 0. 5 h. The increase of the positive charge density of the nitrogen implanted buried oxide is ascribed to the accumulation of implanted nitrogen near the interface of buried oxide and silicon, which caused the break of weak Si - Si bonds and the production of positive silicon ions in the silicon-rich region of the buried oxide near the interface, and this conclusion is supported by the results of secondary ion mass spectrometry.%为研究注氮改性对注氧

  18. Subaru high resolution spectroscopy of complex metal absorption lines of QSO HS1603+3820

    CERN Document Server

    Misawa, T; Takada-Hidai, M; Wang, Y; Kashikawa, N; Iye, M; Tanaka, I; Misawa, Toru; Yamada, Toru; Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Wang, Yiping; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Iye, Masanori; Tanaka, Ichi

    2002-01-01

    We present a high resolution spectrum of the quasar, HS1603+3820 (z_em=2.542), observed with the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) on Subaru Telescope. This quasar, first discovered in the Hamburg/CfA Quasar Survey, has 11 C IV lines at 1.96 2.29 and resolves some of them into multiple narrow components with b 65 km/s). We use three properties of C IV lines, specifically, time variability, covering factor, and absorption line profile, to classify them into quasar intrinsic absorption lines (QIALs) and spatially intervening absorption lines (SIALs). The C IV lines at 2.42 < z_abs < 2.45 are classified as QIALs in spite of their large velocity shifts from the quasar. Perhaps they are produced by gas clouds ejected from the quasar with the velocity of v_ej = 8000 km/s -- 10000 km/s. On the other hand, three C IV lines at 2.48 < z_abs < 2.55 are classified as SIALs, which suggests there exist intervening absorbers near the quasar. We, however, cannot rule out QIALs for the two lines at z_abs ~ 2.54...

  19. Mycoplasma pneumonia of swine (MPS) resistance and immune characteristics of pig lines generated by crossing an MPS pulmonary lesion selected Landrace line and a highly immune capacity selected Large White line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjigin, Liushiqi; Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Katayama, Yuki; Watanabe, Kouichi; Kitazawa, Haruki; Roh, Sang-Gun; Aso, Hisashi; Katoh, Kazuo; Uchida, Takafumi; Suda, Yoshihito; Sakuma, Akiko; Nakajo, Mituru; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2016-08-01

    To understand the influence of crossbreeding on Mycoplasma pneumonia of swine (MPS) resistance and immune characteristics, two crossbred lines were characterized. One crossbred line, LaWa, was generated by crossing the MPS pulmonary lesion selected Landrace line (La) and the highly immune-selected Large White line (Wa). The second crossbred line, LaWb, was generated by crossing the La line and the nonselected Large White line (Wb). The crossbred LbWb line (nonselected Landrace line × nonselected Large White line) and the La line were used as controls. The LaWa and LaWb lines had an intermediate level of MPS lung lesions between La and LbWb lines, although the difference was not statistically significant. After stimulation with sheep red blood cells (SRBCs), the LaWb and LaWa lines showed immune characteristics similar to that of the La line; the number of monocytes in peripheral blood increased, while B cells, T cells, secretion of SRBC-specific immunoglobulin G, and interleukin (IL)-13 decreased. Additionally, the number of natural killer (NK) cells and the expression of IL-4 and IL-17 were significantly higher in the LaWb and LaWa lines, respectively. These data suggested that crossbreeding of La and Wa lines resulted in the inheritance of some of the selected immune responses. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Improved Line Tracking System for Autonomous Navigation of High-Speed Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Zare Khafri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Line tracking navigation is one of the most widely techniques used in the robot navigation. In this paper, a customized line tracking system is proposed for autonomous navigation of high speed vehicles. In the presented system, auxiliary information -in addition to the road path- is added to the tracking lines such as locations of turn and intersections in the real roads. Moreover, the geometric position of line sensors is re-designed enables the high rate sensing with higher reliability. Finally, a light-weight navigation algorithm is proposed allow the high-speed movement using a reasonable processing power. This system is implemented on a MIPS-based embedded processor and experimental results with this embedded system show more than 98% accuracy at 200km/h with a 1GHz processor is viable.

  1. High precision ultrasonic guided wave technique for inspection of power transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Qiu, Jinhao; Ji, Hongli; Wang, Enrong; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Uchimoto, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Due to the merits of high inspection speed and long detecting distance, Ultrasonic Guided Wave(UGW) method has been commonly applied to the on-line maintenance of power transmission line. However, the guided wave propagation in this structure is very complicated, leading to the unfavorable defect localization accuracy. Aiming at this situation, a high precision UGW technique for inspection of local surface defect in power transmission line is proposed. The technique is realized by adopting a novel segmental piezoelectric ring transducer and transducer mounting scheme, combining with the comprehensive characterization of wave propagation and circumferential defect positioning with multiple piezoelectric elements. Firstly, the propagation path of guided waves in the multi-wires of transmission line under the proposed technique condition is investigated experimentally. Next, the wave velocities are calculated by dispersion curves and experiment test respectively, and from comparing of the two results, the guided wave mode propagated in transmission line is confirmed to be F(1,1) mode. Finally, the axial and circumferential positioning of local defective wires in transmission line are both achieved, by using multiple piezoelectric elements to surround the stands and send elastic waves into every single wire. The proposed research can play a role of guiding the development of highly effective UGW method and detecting system for multi-wire transmission line.

  2. FOREWORD: Special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesselier, Dominique; Chew, Weng Cho

    2004-12-01

    This Inverse Problems special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles contains a selection of 14 invited papers, involving 41 authors and 19 research groups worldwide. (Though this section consists of invited papers, the standard refereeing procedures of Inverse Problems have been rigorously observed.) We do not claim to have reached all the high-level researchers in the field, but we believe that we have made a fair attempt. As illustrated by the variety of contributions included, the aim of this special section is to address theoretical and practical inversion problems (and the solutions thereof) that arise in the field of electromagnetic characterization of obstacles (artificial or natural) buried on the Earth or in planetary subsoil. Civil and military engineering, archaeological and environmental issues are typically among those within the scope of the investigation. An example is the characterization of a single (or multiple) obstacle(s) located near the interface or at shallow depths via electromagnetic means operating within relevant frequency bands. However, we also welcomed novel and thought-provoking investigations, even though their direct application to the real world, or even to laboratory-controlled settings, may still be far off. Within this general mathematical and applied framework, the submitted papers focused on a combination of theoretical, computational and experimental developments. They either reviewed the most recent advances in a particular area of research or were an original and specialized contribution. Let us now take the opportunity to remind the readers that this special section harks back (in addition to sharing some common contributors) to two special sections already published in the journal which possessed the same flavour of wave-field inversion and its many applications. They were `Electromagnetic imaging and inversion of the Earth's subsurface', which was published in October 2000 (volume 16, issue 5

  3. Design of operation parameters of a high speed TDI CCD line scan camera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the operation parameters of the time delay and integration (TDI) line scan CCD camera, such as resolution, line rate, clock frequency, etc. and their mathematical relationship is deduced. By analyzing and calculating these parameters, the working clocks of the TDI CCD line scan camera are designed,which guarantees the synchronization of the line scan rate and the camera movement speed. The IL - E2 TDI CCD of DALSA Co. is used as the sensor of the camera in the paper. The working clock generator used for the TDI CCD sensor is realized by using the programmable logic device (PLD). The experimental results show that the working clock generator circuit satisfies the requirement of high speed TDI CCD line scan camera.

  4. Consistency of spherical, gravity-dominated dynamics with quasar high-ionization emission-line profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, T. R.; Wilkes, B. J.; Krolik, J. H.; Green, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Line profile data are used to test a simple kinematic model - spherically symmetric gravitational free fall - in which the number of free parameters is limited by requiring physical self-consistency. The predictions of this model are fitted to high-resolution spectra of the stronger rest-frame UV emission lines in 12 quasars with z of about 2. It is found that if all the lines are radiated predominantly from the illuminated faces of the emission-line clouds, the profiles of Ly-alpha, N V 1240 A, and C IV 1549 A can be simultaneously well fitted with very similar parameters for all 12 quasars. It is concluded that spherically symmetric gravitational free fall does not correctly describe the dynamics of quasar broad emission-line regions.

  5. Scanning near-field infrared micro-spectroscopy on buried InAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrenbacher, Markus; Jacob, Rainer; Winnerl, Stephan; Schneider, Harald; Helm, Manfred [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Wenzel, Marc Tobias; Krysztofinski, Anja; Ribbeck, Hans-Georg von; Eng, Lukas M. [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, TU Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Providing an optical resolution on the nanometer length scale, scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) turned out to be a capable technique to investigate the optical properties of perovskites, buried semiconductors and single quantum dots. Thereby, the line-width of the observed resonances (5 - 8 meV) is significantly smaller than the inhomogeneously broadened line-width of other spectroscopic measurements. Using a scattering-type-SNOM (s-SNOM) combined with a tunable free-electron laser (FEL) light source we investigated the electronic structure of single InAs quantum dots, capped under a 70 nm thick GaAs layer. Spectroscopic near-field scans clearly identified two inter-sublevel transitions within the quantum dots at 85 meV and 120 meV, contrasting from the surrounding medium. Moreover, spatially scanning the s-SNOM tip at fixed excitation energies allowed mapping the 3D distribution of such buried quantum dots.

  6. Real-time corrosion control system for cathodic protection of buried pipes for nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Tae; Kim, Hae Woong; Kim, Young Sik [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyun Young; Lim, Bu Taek; Park, Heung Bae [Power Engineering Research Institute, KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Since the operation period of nuclear power plants has increased, the degradation of buried pipes gradually increases and recently it seems to be one of the emerging issues. Maintenance on buried pipes needs high quality of management system because outer surface of buried pipe contacts the various soils but inner surface reacts with various electrolytes of fluid. In the USA, USNRC and EPRI have tried to manage the degradation of buried pipes. However, there is little knowledge about the inspection procedure, test and manage program in the domestic nuclear power plants. This paper focuses on the development and build-up of real-time monitoring and control system of buried pipes. Pipes to be tested are tape-coated carbon steel pipe for primary component cooling water system, asphalt-coated cast iron pipe for fire protection system, and pre-stressed concrete cylinder pipe for sea water cooling system. A control system for cathodic protection was installed on each test pipe which has been monitored and controlled. For the calculation of protection range and optimization, computer simulation was performed using COMSOL Multiphysics (Altsoft co.)

  7. Room Temperature Operation of a Buried Heterostructure Photonic Crystal Quantum Cascade Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Peretti, R; Wolf, J M; Bonzon, C; Süess, M J; Lourdudoss, S; Metaferia, W; Beck, M; Faist, J

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated room temperature operation of deep etched photonic crystal quantum cascade laser emitting around 8.5 micron. We fabricated buried heterostructure photonic crystals, resulting in single mode laser emission on a high order slow Bloch modes of the photonic crystal, between high symmetry points of the Brillouin.

  8. Low frequency synthetic aperture sonar for detecting and classifying buried objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunter, A.J.; Vossen, R. van; Quesson, B.A.J.; Colin, M.E.G.D.; Zampolli, M.; Beckers, A.L.D.

    2012-01-01

    Sidescan high-frequency (HF) sonar (i.e., with frequencies higher than 100 kHz) is ideally suited for providing high-resolution images of the seafloor. However, since sound does not penetrate into the sediment at these frequencies, such systems cannot be used for the detection of buried objects, suc

  9. MIDOT: A novel probe for monitoring high-current flat transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, K.; Novac, B. M.; Graneau, N.; Senior, P.; Smith, I. R.; Sinclair, M.

    2016-12-01

    A novel inductive probe, termed MIDOT, was developed for monitoring high-current flat transmission lines. While being inexpensive the probe does not require calibration, is resistant to both shock waves and temperature variations, and it is easy to manufacture and mount. It generates strong output signals that are relatively easy to interpret and has a detection region limited to a pre-defined part of the transmission line. The theoretical background related to the MIDOT probes, together with their practical implementation in both preliminary experimentation and high-current tests, is also presented in the paper. The novel probe can be used to benchmark existing 2D numerical codes used in calculating the current distribution inside the conductors of a transmission line but can also easily detect an early movement of a transmission line component. The probe can also find other applications, such as locating the position of a pulsed current flowing through a thin wire.

  10. Modeling of Multilayer Transmission Lines for High-Speed Digital Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarhan M. Musa,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the finite element modeling of multilayer transmission lines for high-speed digital interconnects. We mainly focused on the modeling of the transmission structures with both cases of symmetric and asymmetric geometries. We specifically designed asymmetric coupled microstrips and four-line symmetric coupled microstrips with a two-layer substrate. We computed the capacitance matrix for asymmetric coupled microstrips and the capacitance, inductance, and impedance matrices for four-line symmetric coupled microstrips on a two-layer substrate. We also provide the potential distribution spectrums of the models and their meshing analysis.

  11. Accurate Modeling of Multilayer Transmission Lines for High-Speed Digital Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarhan M. Musa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the finite element modeling of multilayer transmission lines for high-speed digital interconnects. We mainly focused on the modeling of the transmission structures with both cases of symmetric and asymmetric geometries. We specifically designed asymmetric coupled microstrips and four-line symmetric coupled microstrips with a two-layer substrate. We computed the capacitance matrix for asymmetric coupled microstrips and the capacitance, and inductance matrices for four-line symmetric coupled microstrips on a twolayer substrate. We also provide the potential distribution spectrums of the models.

  12. On line high dose static position monitoring by ionization chamber detector for industrial gamma irradiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ary A; Vieira, Jose M; Hamada, Margarida M

    2010-01-01

    A 1 cm(3) cylindrical ionization chamber was developed to measure high doses on line during the sample irradiation in static position, in a (60)Co industrial plant. The developed ionization chamber showed to be suitable for use as a dosimeter on line. A good linearity of the detector was found between the dose and the accumulated charge, independently of the different dose rates caused by absorbing materials.

  13. Design aspects and comparison between high Tc superconducting coplanar waveguide and microstrip line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, K. S.; Bhasin, K. B.; Itoh, T.

    1991-01-01

    The high T sub c superconducting microstrip line and coplanar waveguide are compared in terms of the loss characteristics and the design aspects. The quality factor Q values for each structure are compared in respect to the same characteristic impedance with the comparable dimensions of the center conductor of the coplanar waveguide and the strip of the microstrip line. Also, the advantages and disadvantages for each structure are discussed in respect to passive microwave circuit applications.

  14. Design aspects and comparison between high T(sub c) superconducting coplanar waveguide and microstrip line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, K. S.; Bhasin, K. B.; Itoh, T.

    1991-01-01

    The high T sub c superconducting microstrip line and coplanar waveguide are compared in terms of the loss characteristics and the design aspects. The quality factor Q values for each structure are compared in respect to the same characteristic impedance with the comparable dimensions of the center conductor of the coplanar waveguide and the strip of the microstrip line. Also, the advantages and disadvantages for each structure are discussed in respect to passive microwave circuit applications.

  15. On line high dose static position monitoring by ionization chamber detector for industrial gamma irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Ary A. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina-Depto de Fisica, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid, km 38, 086051-990 Londrina (Brazil); Vieira, Jose M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN/CNEN-SP, Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hamada, Margarida M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN/CNEN-SP, Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: mmhamada@ipen.br

    2010-04-15

    A 1 cm{sup 3} cylindrical ionization chamber was developed to measure high doses on line during the sample irradiation in static position, in a {sup 60}Co industrial plant. The developed ionization chamber showed to be suitable for use as a dosimeter on line. A good linearity of the detector was found between the dose and the accumulated charge, independently of the different dose rates caused by absorbing materials.

  16. Study on dinamic behavior and least burying depth of underground protective pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Tetsuyuki; Kokusyo, Goji; Tanaka, Yukihisa; Kobayashi, Seiichi

    1988-03-30

    Effect of unit load per travel wheel on the protective pipe was studied when electricity cable distribution lines were buried in the depth less than the present standard for electric equipment, and logical burying depth was investigated. Test items were material test of the protective pipe, indoor load test, and field test at loamy ground. Impact resistance hard PVC pipe was used as the protective pipe, and its strength and elastic modulus were measured. Along with these tests, it was confirmed that there was no problem of cracking by repeated flattening or breakage by fatigue. By indoor test, it was observed that, in case of shallow burying, creap deformation was small, stress concentrate occured at the middle of axial direction, and that flattening ratio was seriously affected by the method of backfilling. Field test was conducted by applying the static load of a 20 ton dump truck, and the deformation, stress, and subsidence of the protective pipe, were measured. As the conclusion of those experiments, it was found that burying of protective pipe in the depth of not less than 30 cm is allowable, as long as sufficient bakfilling is made. (14 figs, 3 tabs, 3 refs)

  17. Capturing buried defects in metal interconnections with electron beam inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hong; Jiang, Ximan; Trease, David; Van Riet, Mike; Ramprasad, Shishir; Bhatia, Anadi; Lefebvre, Pierre; Bastard, David; Moreau, Olivier; Maher, Chris; MacDonald, Paul; Campochiaro, Cecelia

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we present a novel mode of electron beam inspection (EBI), entitled super wide optics (SWO) mode, which can effectively detect buried defects in tungsten (W) plugs and copper (Cu) wires. These defects are defects of interest (DOI) to integrated circuit (IC) manufacturers because they are not detectable in optical inspection, voltage contrast (VC) mode EBI or physical mode EBI. We used engineering systems to study two samples, a tungsten chemical mechanical polish (CMP) wafer and a copper CMP wafer with a silicon carbon nitride (SiCN) cap layer. EBI with our novel SWO mode was found to capture many dark defects on these two wafers. Furthermore, defect review with all three EBI modes found some of these dark defects were unique to SWO mode. For verification, physical failure analysis was performed on some SWO-unique DOI. The cross-sectional scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images confirmed that the unique DOI were buried voids in W-plugs and copper wire thinning caused by either buried particles or buried particle induced metal trench under-etch. These DOI can significantly increase the resistance of metal interconnects of IC chip and affect the chip yield. This new EBI mode can provide an in-line monitoring solution for these DOI, which does not exist before this study.

  18. Alterations in DNA methylation and genome structure in two rice mutant lines induced by high pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN; Sile; WANG; Zhenwei; SHAN; Xiaohui; WANG; Hua; LI; Ling; LIN; Xuyun; LONG; Likun; WENG; Kenan; LIU; Bao; ZOU; Guangtian

    2006-01-01

    By using high-pressure treatment, two mutant lines were obtained from a genetically stable japonica rice cultivar Bijing38. Genomic DNA of the mutant lines, together with the original line (Bijing38), was either undigested or digested by Hpa II/Msp I, and then subjected to molecular analysis using two markers, ISSR and RAPD. Results indicated that changes in the PCR amplification profiles of both markers are apparent in the two mutant lines compared with the original rice cultivar, suggesting that there had been both sequence changes and DNA methylation modifications in the mutant lines. Southern blot analysis using diverse sequences, including two cellular genes (S2 and S3), a set of retrotransposons (Osr7, Osr36, Tos19 and more), and a MITE transposon family (mPing and Pong), confirmed the results, and indicated that changes in DNA methylation pattern, genomic structure, and possible activation of some transposons indeed occurred in the mutant lines. Moreover, these changes are stably maintained through selfed generations and in different organs. Thus, our results indicate that it is possible to obtain stable mutants in rice by high pressure treatments, and the molecular basis of the mutants may include both genetic and epigenetic changes. Therefore, high hydrostatic pressure seems a promising approach for plant mutagenesis.

  19. Ly\\alpha\\ emission line reconstruction for high-$z$ QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Greig, Bradley; McGreer, Ian D; Gallerani, Simona; Haiman, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an intrinsic Ly\\alpha\\ emission line profile reconstruction method for high-$z$ quasars (QSOs). This approach utilises a covariance matrix of emission line properties obtained from a large, moderate-$z$ ($2 \\leq z \\leq 2.5$), high signal to noise (S/N > 15) sample of BOSS QSOs. For each QSO, we complete a Monte Carlo Markov Chain fitting of the continuum and emission line properties and perform a visual quality assessment to construct a large database of robustly fit spectra. With this dataset, we construct a covariance matrix to describe the correlations between the high ionisation emission lines Ly\\alpha, C IV, Si IV + O IV] and C III], and find it to be well approximated by an $N$-dimensional Gaussian distribution. This covariance matrix characterises the correlations between the line width, peak height and velocity offset from systemic while also allowing for the existence of broad and narrow line components for Ly\\alpha\\ and C IV. We illustrate how this covariance matrix allows us to statist...

  20. Fire ventilation for the high-speed line south train tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leur, P.H.E. van de; Oerle, N.J. van; Lemaire, A.D.; Molag, M.

    1999-01-01

    In The Netherlands, the High-Speed Line South project currently under development as a part of the European railway network for high speed trains. In support of a Quantitative Risk Assessment, CFD calculations provide data on the consequences of fire scenarios for escaping passengers. The paper repo

  1. LINE-1 hypomethylation in cancer is highly variable and inversely correlated with microsatellite instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R H Estécio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alterations in DNA methylation in cancer include global hypomethylation and gene-specific hypermethylation. It is not clear whether these two epigenetic errors are mechanistically linked or occur independently. This study was performed to determine the relationship between DNA hypomethylation, hypermethylation and microsatellite instability in cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined 61 cancer cell lines and 60 colorectal carcinomas and their adjacent tissues using LINE-1 bisulfite-PCR as a surrogate for global demethylation. Colorectal carcinomas with sporadic microsatellite instability (MSI, most of which are due to a CpG island methylation phenotype (CIMP and associated MLH1 promoter methylation, showed in average no difference in LINE-1 methylation between normal adjacent and cancer tissues. Interestingly, some tumor samples in this group showed increase in LINE-1 methylation. In contrast, MSI-showed a significant decrease in LINE-1 methylation between normal adjacent and cancer tissues (P<0.001. Microarray analysis of repetitive element methylation confirmed this observation and showed a high degree of variability in hypomethylation between samples. Additionally, unsupervised hierarchical clustering identified a group of highly hypomethylated tumors, composed mostly of tumors without microsatellite instability. We extended LINE-1 analysis to cancer cell lines from different tissues and found that 50/61 were hypomethylated compared to peripheral blood lymphocytes and normal colon mucosa. Interestingly, these cancer cell lines also exhibited a large variation in demethylation, which was tissue-specific and thus unlikely to be resultant from a stochastic process. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Global hypomethylation is partially reversed in cancers with microsatellite instability and also shows high variability in cancer, which may reflect alternative progression pathways in cancer.

  2. Detection and Analysis of High Temperature Sensitivity of TGMS Lines in Rice Using AMMI Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Li-zhong; XUE Qing-zhong

    2004-01-01

    With the AMMI(additive main effects and multiplicative interaction)analysis model,the determination of the sensitivity to temperature among different TGMS(thermo-sensitive genic male sterile)lines was performed. To assess the genetic differences due to high temperature stress at. the fertility-sensitive stage(10- 20 d before heading),seven genotypes(six TGMS lines and the control Pei-Ai64S)were grown from May 4 at seven different stages with 10d intervals. The temperatures at. the fertility-sensitive stages involved twelve levels from < 20 to >30℃ under the regime natural conditions in Hangzhou,China. There was considerable variation in pollen fertility among genotypes in response to high temperature. Five genotypes identified as TGMS lines as their percentages of fertile pollens were lower than or close to that. of the. control except for the unstable line RTS19(V6). When the temperatures at. the fertility-sensitive stage were at Ⅰ -Ⅳ,Ⅴ-Ⅵ and Ⅶ-Ⅻ,the percentages of fertile pollens varied in the ranges of 46.46- 48.49%,19.62-22.79% and 3.49- 5.87%,respectively. The critical temperatures of sterility and fertility in the five TGMS lines were 25.1 and 23.0℃,respectively. Considering the amounts and directions of main effect and their IPCA(interaction principal components analysis),we can classify the lines and temperature levels into different groups,and describe the characteristics of genotyPe x temperature interaction,offering the information and tools for the development and utility of thermo-sensitive male sterile lines.Several TGMS rice lines with their reproductive sensitivity to high temperature that can be screened using the AMMI model may add valuable germplasm to the breeding program of hybrid rice.

  3. Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year.

  4. Micro-buried spiral zone plate in a lithium niobate crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen-Nan; Hua, Jian-Guan; Hao, Juan; Yu, Yan-Hao; Chen, Qi-Dai; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2017-01-01

    We present a micro-buried spiral zone plate (MBSZP) in the lithium niobate crystal fabricated with femtosecond laser direct writing technology. The microstructures of the MBSZP are buried under the surface of the crystal, which ensures the stability of the optical performance in various refractive index environments. The optical performances of imaging and focusing capabilities were demonstrated. In addition, the experiment showed good agreement with simulation results based on the optical wave propagation method. This novel optical element will have important applications in multistate information encoding, optical manipulation, quantum communication, and computation, especially in high integration, contact coupling, and variable refractive index environments.

  5. Contact-line dynamics for water waves and high-Re flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Liu, Ziyuan; Perlin, Marc; Schultz, William W.

    1997-11-01

    An appropriate contact-line model at the gas/liquid/solid trijunction is critical to the prediction of both low-Re flows and high-Re flows such as occur with water waves. Contact-line condition for water waves was proposed by Hocking (1987) and later by Miles (1991) based on Navier's slip relation. However, Cocciaro et al. (1993) and Ting & Perlin (1995) showed that strongly nonlinear contact-line dynamics are present experimentally, and that these dynamics are more complex than Hocking and Miles' models. We present results on the frequency and damping of Faraday water waves in various wave tanks and under different wetting conditions. The surface-elevation decay is analyzed with a complex demodulation technique. Frequency detuning and contact-line damping are found to obey power laws in the wave amplitude. The power-law exponent depends on the wetting condition and the material of which the tank is constructed. A preliminary analysis suggests that an averaged contact-line condition similar to the Tanner's law gives the correct amplitude dependence in frequency and damping. This condition also agrees qualitatively with contact-line data from Ting & Perlin. Preliminary analysis of the boundary layer structure near a moving contact line is carried out in the large-Re limit. Influence of corner flow and some implications from the self-similar Falkner-Skan equation are presented. This research is supported by ONR and NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program.

  6. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented.

  7. Characteristics and genetic mechanism of deep-buried clastic eureservoir in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Systematic researches to the clastic reservoirs in various types and various geological ages basins in China indicate that the present burial depth of deep buried clastic eureservoir ranges from 3000 to 6000 m,and its geological ages from Paleozoic,Mesozoic to Cenozoic. It mainly deposited in delta (including braid delta,fan delta,normal delta),river,also shore,shallow lake,gravity flow channel and turbidity fan facies. The quartzose sandstone is the main reservoir rock of deep-buried clastic eureservoir in the shore facies in Paleozoic,but the arenite and arkose sandstones are the main reservoir rock types in delta,river,shallow lake and gravity flow facies in Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The porosity of most of deep-buried clastic eureservoir is more than 10% and permeability more than 10×10?3 μm2. The forma-tion of the deep-buried eureservoir was related to the paleotectonics,paleotemperature,sedimentary environment,the deep dissolution caused by organic acid or carbonic acid,burial style,the abnormal high pore fluid pressure,early hydrocarbon charging,gyprock sealing,hot convective fluid flow and the mode of sand-mud interbedded,etc. The paleotectonics controls the burial style of sandstones,and the paleotemperature controls the diagenesis process. The sedimentary environment is the precondi-tion and foundation,the dissolution is the direct reason to generate the deep buried clastic eureservoir. The abnormal high pore fluid pressure,gyprock sealing,the mode of sand-mud interbedded,early hy-drocarbon charging and the structure fractures were the assistant factors of generating the deep buried clastic eureservoir.

  8. Study of HV Dielectrics for High Frequency Operation in Linear & Nonlinear Transmission Lines & Simulation & Development of Hybrid Nonlinear Lines for RF Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    The high voltage diodes D5 to D10 are used to protect the HV switch against negative back swing voltage, while D4 diode for reverse current ...AFRL-AFOSR-CL-TR-2015-0001 STUDY OF HV DIELECTRICS FOR HIGH FREQUENCY OPERATION IN LINEAR & NONLINEAR TRANSMISSION LINES & SIMULATION & DEVELOPMENT...AFOSR Final Performance Report Study of HV Dielectrics for High Frequency Operation in Linear and Nonlinear Transmission Lines and Simulation

  9. Advanced mix-and-match using a high-NA i-line scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijten, Jan P.; Harris, Thomas A.; van der Heijden, Ludo; Witko, David; Cossins, John; Foster, James; Ritchie, Douglas R.

    2000-07-01

    Step and Scan technology has matured for the current generation of semiconductor lithography tools and has become the standard for most new fabs and fab expansions. It is estimated that for the year 1999, more than 64 percent of new exposure tool shipments from all vendors were step and scan platforms. For economical mass production in sub 180 nm applications, DUV and i-line lithography have to be combined with critical layers that are exposure during DUV. Semi- critical and non-critical layers are exposed using i-line. The choice to use a stepper ora scanner for the i-line platform becomes critical in terms of operating cost and technical capability. This paper reports on the performance of high resolution, high throughput i-line scanners that are used in mix and match with DUV scanners. Advanced imaging capability is demonstrated on the ASML PAS 5500/400 i-line scanner as well as alignment performance on the most difficult layers using the ATHENA advanced alignment system. Matching strategies are presented along with a cost analysis showing the merits of using i-line scanners for semi- critical and non-critical layers in mix and match.

  10. Research on Poppers Used as Electrical Connectors in High Speed Textile Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leśnikowski Jacek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of research on poppers used as electrical connectors connecting fragments of textile signal lines. These lines can be used in intelligent clothing for connecting electronic modules implemented in it. Intelligent (smart clothing can be used, among others, in the health monitoring of the elderly, newborn babies, or people working in hazardous conditions, for example, firefighters and soldiers. The aim of the present study was to examine the usefulness of poppers, widely used in clothing, as electrical connectors connecting parts of the textile signal lines designed for transmission of high-speed digital signals. The paper presents examples of measured parameters characterizing transmission properties of two fragments of the coplanar, textile transmission line connected to each other using conventional poppers. The presented measurement results contain the so-called s parameters, characteristic impedance of the poppers, and eye measurements characterizing distortions of digital signals passing through the tested line. In the article, the effect of temperature and humidity of air surrounding the tested poppers on their characteristic impedance was also presented. This property and its stability are important in signal lines designed for high-speed data transmission.

  11. Experimental research on mechanical properties of high voltage transmission lines after the simulated wildfires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tianzheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine whether the mechanical performance after the fires of high voltage transmission lines meets the requirements of normal use, this article simulates the wildfire, and does the mechanical performance experiment of high voltage transmission lines(HVT lines after the simulated wildfires. The experiment studied the breaking force and elongation of each layer of 500kv HVT lines after the simulated wildfire. Experimental results show that, after fires, each layer of single aluminum wires of 500kv HVT lines have low breaking force which can be decreased obviously to half of that of new lines. For the steel core, decrease of breaking force is not obvious than aluminum wires, and with the increasing degree of wildfires, it increases gradually to a maximum of 35% of new steel lines’ breaking force. After wildfires, aluminum lines’ resistance ability of deformation decreases significantly, and its plastic deformation increases obviously during uniaxial tension. The steel core has little plastic deformation, and layers of aluminum become fluffy after fires. Therefore, the steel core main bearing load after wildfires.

  12. On-Line Life Monitoring Technique for Tube Bundles of Boiler High-Temperature Heating Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Dong; Wang Zhongyuan

    2005-01-01

    High-temperature heating surface such as superheater and reheater of large-sized utility boiler all experiences a relatively severe working conditions. The failure of boiler tubes will directly impact the safe and economic operation of boiler. An on-line life monitoring model of high-temperature heating surface was set up according to the well-known L-M formula of the creep damages. The tube wall metal temperature and working stress was measured by on-line monitoring, and with this model, the real-time calculation of the life expenditure of the heating surface tube bundles were realized. Based on the technique the on-line life monitoring and management system of high-temperature heating surface was developed for a 300 MW utility boiler. An effective device was thus suggested for the implementation of the safe operation and the condition-based maintenance of utility boilers.

  13. High voltage transmission lines studies with the use of artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekonomou, L. [A.S.PE.T.E. - School of Pedagogical and Technological Education, Department of Electrical Engineering Educators, N. Heraklion, 141 21 Athens (Greece)

    2009-12-15

    The paper presents an alternative approach for the studies of high voltage transmission lines based on artificial intelligence and more specifically artificial neural networks (ANNs). In contrast to the existing conventional-analytical techniques and simulations which are using in the calculations empirical and/or approximating equations, this approach is based only on actual field data and actual measurements. The proposed approach is applied on high voltage transmission lines in order to calculate the lightning outages, on grounding systems in order to assess the grounding resistance and on high voltage transmission lines' polluted insulators in order to estimate the critical flashover voltage. The obtained results are very close to the actual ones for all three case studies, something which clearly implies that the ANN approach is well working and has an acceptable accuracy, constituting an additional tool of electric engineers. (author)

  14. First Detections of the [N II] 122 micron Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [N II] 122 micron line from a high-redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (>6(sigma)) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and H1413 + 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift (zeta) and Early Universe Spectrometer on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line to far-infrared (FIR) continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0 x 10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1 x 10(exo -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line to continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8%-17% of the molecUlar gas mass. The [O III]/[N II] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using Our previous detection of the [O III] 88 micron line, the [O III]/[N II]line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates that the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar H II regions ionized by O9.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter log(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30%-50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82-like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [N II]line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This war!< demonstrates the utility of the [N II] and [O III] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  15. First Detections of the [NII] 122 Micrometer Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [NIl] 122 {\\mu} m line from a high redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (> 6{\\sigma}) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and HI413+ 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift(z) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS) on the CSO. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line-to-FIR continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0x10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1x10(exp -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line-to-continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8 to 17% of the molecular gas mass. The [OIII]/[NII] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an AGN. Using our previous detection of the [01II] 88 {\\mu}m line, the [OIII]/ [NIl] line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar HII regions ionized by 09.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter 10g(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30 to 50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [NIl] line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This work demonstrates the utility of the [NIl] and [OIII] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  16. First Detections of the [N II] 122 micron Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [N II] 122 micron line from a high-redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (>6(sigma)) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and H1413 + 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift (zeta) and Early Universe Spectrometer on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line to far-infrared (FIR) continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0 x 10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1 x 10(exo -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line to continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8%-17% of the molecUlar gas mass. The [O III]/[N II] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using Our previous detection of the [O III] 88 micron line, the [O III]/[N II]line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates that the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar H II regions ionized by O9.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter log(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30%-50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82-like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [N II]line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This war!< demonstrates the utility of the [N II] and [O III] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  17. Residential Distance to High-voltage Power Lines and Risk of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Patrizia; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Mezei, Gabor;

    2013-01-01

    period 5-20 years before diagnosis were computed. The risks for developing dementia, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and motor neuron disease were not increased in persons living within close vicinity of a power line. The risk of Alzheimer's disease was not increased for ever living within 50 m......The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between residential distance to high-voltage power lines and neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer's disease. A Swiss study previously found increased risk of Alzheimer's disease for people living within 50 m of a power...... line. A register-based case-control study including all patients diagnosed with neurodegenerative diseases during the years 1994-2010 was conducted among the entire adult population of Denmark. Using conditional logistic regression models, hazard ratios for ever living close to a power line in the time...

  18. Expression profile of hypothalamic neuropeptides in chicken lines selected for high or low residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintubin, P; Greene, E; Collin, A; Bordas, A; Zerjal, T; Tesseraud, S; Buyse, J; Dridi, S

    2014-08-01

    The R(+) and R(-) chicken lines have been divergently selected for high (R(+)) or low (R(-)) residual feed intake. For the same body weight and egg production, the R(+) chickens consume 40% more food than their counterparts R(-) lines. In the present study we sought to determine the hypothalamic expression profile of feeding-related neuropeptides in these lines maintained under fed or food-deprived conditions. In the fed condition, the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) was 17-fold lower (Pfeeding-related genes that are differently expressed in the hypothalamus of R(+) and R(-) chickens and that might explain the difference in feed intake observed between the two lines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Line and continuum variability of two intermediate-redshift, high-luminosity quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevese, D.; Paris, D.; Stirpe, G. M.; Vagnetti, F.; Zitelli, V.

    2007-08-01

    Context: It has been shown that the luminosity of active galactic nuclei and the size of their broad line region obey a simple relation of the type R_BLR=a Lγ, from faint Seyfert nuclei to bright quasars, allowing single-epoch determination of the central black hole mass M_BH= b Lγ Δ^2_Hβ from their luminosity L and width of Hβ emission line. Adopting this mass determination for cosmological studies requires the extrapolation to high redshift and luminosity of a relation whose calibration relies so far on reverberation mapping measurements performed for L ⪉ 1046 erg s-1 and redshift z ⪉ 0.4. Aims: We initiated a campaign for the spectrophotometric monitoring of a few luminous, intermediate redshift quasars whose apparent magnitude, V BH from reverberation mapping. Methods: We have repeatedly performed simultaneous spectrophotometric observations of quasars and reference stars to determine relative variability of continuum and emission lines. We describe the observations and methods of analysis. Results: For the quasars PG 1634+706 and PG 1247+268 we obtain light-curves respectively for CIII] (λλ1909 Å), MgII(λλ2798 Å) and for CIV(λλ1549 Å), CIII] (λλ1909 Å) emission lines with the relevant continua. During 3.2 years of observation, in the former case no continuum variability was detected and the evidence for line variability is marginal, while in the latter case both continuum and line variability are detected with high significance and the line variations appear correlated with continuum variations. Conclusions: The detection of the emission line variability in a quasar with L ~ 1047 erg s-1 encourages the continuation of the monitoring campaign which should provide a black hole mass estimate in another 5-6 years, constraining the mass-luminosity relation in a poorly explored range of luminosity.

  20. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF A BREEDING PROGRAMME FOR SETTING UP TWO HIGH PERFORMANCES BEE LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate costs, incomes and financial results related to the creation of two Apis Mellifica Carpatica lines, based on a specific Breeding Programme within a closed population. The two beelines have been carefully selected for the bee populations living in two areas of Romania: North Moldavia and South Muntenia. A new selection technology is set up in order to produce high performance queen bees, well adapted to the environmental conditions mainly to picking. Genetic gain will be get by selling the mated selected queens belonging to the two lines to various beekeepers interested to obtain more and high quality bee products.

  1. System design of the traction power supply for the high-speed line Beijing - Tianjin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, Martin; Fischer, Andreas; Tornow, Torsten [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The high-speed line Beijing - Tianjin connecting the Capital Beijing with the harbour city Tianjin is the first high-speed line in China dedicated only to passenger traffic and is operated at 300 km/h. The commercial service started in due time for the Olympic games in 2008. For the system design and a reliable traction power supply the simulation software Sitras {sup registered} Sidytrac was used. The program incorporates all modules necessary for the overall system design and relating detailed investigations. Measurements during system integration test validated the simulation results. (orig.)

  2. Increased deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) under an AC high-voltage power line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öberg, Tomas; Peltola, Pasi

    2009-12-01

    There is considerable public concern regarding the potential risks to health of electromagnetic fields in general and high-voltage power lines in particular. As epidemiological findings are not supported by a clearly defined mechanism of direct magnetic field interactions with the human body, potential indirect effects are of interest. It has been suggested that an increased exposure to chemical pollutants could occur near high-voltage power lines due to formation and deposition of charged aerosols. The current study reports empirical evidence that seems to support this hypothesis. The deposition of 18 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was studied by collecting samples of pine needles under a 400 kV AC power line and at reference sites in the vicinity. Compared to the reference sites, the average deposition of PCB congeners under the power line was almost double. This difference between the two groups of samples was statistically significant. While it is premature to draw any conclusions regarding the human exposure near high-voltage power lines, the issue deserves attention and further investigations.

  3. Measuring stellar magnetic fields from high resolution spectroscopy of near-infrared lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, F.; Vacca, W. D.; Stift, M. J.

    2003-10-01

    Zeeman splitting of otherwise degenerate levels provides a straight-forward method of measuring stellar magnetic fields. In the optical, the relative displacements of the Zeeman components are quite small compared to the rotational line broadening, and therefore observations of Zeeman splitting are usually possible only for rather strong magnetic fields in very slowly rotating stars. However, the magnitude of the Zeeman splitting is proportional to the square of the wavelength, whereas rotational line broadening mechanisms are linear in wavelength; therefore, there is a clear advantage in using near-infrared spectral lines to measure surface stellar magnetic fields. We have obtained high resolution (R >= 25 000) spectra in the 15 625-15 665 Å region for two magnetic chemically peculiar stars, viz. HD 176232 and HD 201601, and for the suspected magnetic chemically peculiar star HD 180583, as part of a pilot study aimed at determining the accuracy with which we can measure stellar magnetic fields using the Zeeman splitting of near-infrared lines. We confirm that in principle the magnetic field strength can be estimated from the magnetic intensification of spectral lines, i.e. the increase in equivalent width of a line over the zero-field value. However, due to line blending as well as the dependence of this intensification on abundance and field geometry, accurate estimates of the magnetic field strengths can be obtained only by modelling the line profiles by means of spectral synthesis techniques. Using this approach, we find a 1.4 kG magnetic field modulus in HD 176132 and an upper limit of 0.2 kG in HD 180583. The very weak infrared lines in the spectrum of HD 201601 are consistent with a 3.9 kG field modulus estimated from the splitting of the Fe II 6149.258 Å line seen in an optical spectrum. Finally, we would like to draw attention to the fact that there are no sufficiently detailed and reliable atomic line lists available for the near-infrared region that

  4. 3D mapping of buried underworld infrastructure using dynamic Bayesian network based multi-sensory image data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ritaban; Cohn, Anthony G.; Muggleton, Jen M.

    2013-05-01

    The successful operation of buried infrastructure within urban environments is fundamental to the conservation of modern living standards. In this paper a novel multi-sensor image fusion framework has been proposed and investigated using dynamic Bayesian network for automatic detection of buried underworld infrastructure. Experimental multi-sensors images were acquired for a known buried plastic water pipe using Vibro-acoustic sensor based location methods and Ground Penetrating Radar imaging system. Computationally intelligent conventional image processing techniques were used to process three types of sensory images. Independently extracted depth and location information from different images regarding the target pipe were fused together using dynamic Bayesian network to predict the maximum probable location and depth of the pipe. The outcome from this study was very encouraging as it was able to detect the target pipe with high accuracy compared with the currently existing pipe survey map. The approach was also applied successfully to produce a best probable 3D buried asset map.

  5. Early Monitoring of the Viability of the Buried Intrathoracic Omental Flap: A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. van Wingerden; J.M.P. Collins; E.H. Coret; P.J.J. Schröder

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The value of mobile, high-resolution gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasonography (US) in the immediate postoperative, intensive care setting for monitoring the buried flap and vascular pedicle of the laparoscopic or transdiaphragmatic harvested omentum for intrathoracic reconstruction was

  6. Screening differentially expressed genes in mouse hepatocarcinoma ascites cell line with high potential of lymphatic metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Nan Cui; Jian-Wu Tang; Li Hou; Bo Song; Li Li; Ji-Wei Liu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To screen genes differentially expressed in mouse hepatocarcinoma ascites cell line with high potential of lymphatic metastasis.METHODS: A subtracted cDNA library of mouse hepatocarcinoma cell line with high potential of lymphatic metastatic Hca-F and its synogenetic cell line Hca-P with a low metastatic potential was constructed by suppression subtracted hybridization(SSH) method. The screened clones of the subtracted library were sequenced and GeneBank homology search was performed.RESULTS: Fourteen differentially expressed cDNA fragments of Hca-F were obtained with two novel genes.CONCLUSION: SSH is a useful technique to detect differentially expressioned genes and an effective method to clone novel genes.

  7. The New Transfer Line Collimation System for the LHC High Luminosity Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kain, Verena [CERN; Bracco, Chiara [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Maciariello, Fausto [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Mereghetti, Alessio [CERN; Steele, Genevieve [CERN; Velotti, Francesco [CERN; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    A set of passive absorbers is located at the end of each of the 3 km long injection lines to protect the LHC in case of failures during the extraction process from the LHC’s last pre-injector or the beam transfer itself. In case of an erroneous extraction, the absorbers have to attenuate the beam to a safe level and be robust enough themselves to survive the impact. These requirements are difficult to fulfil with the very bright and intense beams produced by the LHC injectors for the high luminosity era. This paper revisits the requirements for the SPS-to-LHC transfer line collimation system and the adapted strategy to fulfill these for the LHC high luminosity operation. A possible solution for the new transfer line collimation system is presented.

  8. Haptic identification of raised-line drawings: high visuospatial imagers outperform low visuospatial imagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaz, Samuel; Jouffrais, Christophe; Picard, Delphine

    2012-09-01

    It has been assumed (Lederman et al. 1990, Perception & psychophysics) that a visual imagery process is involved in the haptic identification of raised-line drawings of common objects. The finding of significant correlations between visual imagery ability and performance on picture-naming tasks was taken as experimental evidence in support of this assumption. However, visual imagery measures came from self-report procedures, which can be unreliable. The present study therefore used an objective measure of visuospatial imagery abilities in sighted participants and compared three groups of high, medium and low visuospatial imagers on their accuracy and response times in identifying raised-line drawings by touch. Results revealed between-group differences on accuracy, with high visuospatial imagers outperforming low visuospatial imagers, but not on response times. These findings lend support to the view that visuospatial imagery plays a role in the identification of raised-line drawings by sighted adults.

  9. A FAST BIT-LOADING ALGORITHM FOR HIGH SPEED POWER LINE COMMUNICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shengqing; Zhao Li; Zou Cairong

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive bit-loading is a key technology in high speed power line communications with the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) modulation technology.According to the real situation of the transmitting power spectrum limited in high speed power line communications,this paper explored the adaptive bit loading algorithm to maximize transmission bit number when transmitting power spectral density and bit error rate are not exceed upper limit.With the characteristics of the power line channel,first of all,it obtains the optimal bit loading algorithm,and then provides the improved algorithm to reduce the computational complexity.Based on the analysis and simulation,it offers a non-iterative bit allocation algorithm,and finally the simulation shows that this new algorithm can greatly reduce the computational complexity,and the actual bit allocation results close to optimal.

  10. Experimental Study of Electromagnetic Environment in the Vicinity of High Voltage Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Tourab

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Several studies have investigated the impact of electromagnetic field generated by high voltage power lines on environment. The evaluation of electric and magnetic field quantities are of paramount interest in the characterization of electromagnetic environment of the proposed line. The purpose of this study was to analyze the behavior of electromagnetic fields generated by power lines in an area of strong population. Approach: The method applied in this study was gradual; examined the effects of different couplings between the different neighboring lines on behavior of electric and magnetic fields. Later, these lines will be used as a source of disturbance applied to the auditory implants EMC. Results: The implications of experimental results were also compared and discussed with new standard. Conclusion: The maximum intensities of electric and magnetic fields measured for the circuit of three lines close to each other, within the El-HADJAR substation were significantly lower than the ICNIRP reference levels for occupational and no occupational exposures.

  11. Modeling the water line emission from the high-mass star-forming region AFGL2591

    CERN Document Server

    Poelman, D R

    2007-01-01

    Context: observations of water lines are a sensitive probe of the geometry, dynamics and chemical structure of dense molecular gas. The launch of Herschel with on board HIFI and PACS allow to probe the behaviour of multiple water lines with unprecedented sensitivity and resolution. Aims: we investigate the diagnostic value of specific water transitions in high-mass star-forming regions. As a test case, we apply our models to the AFGL2591 region. Results: in general, for models with a constant water abundance, the ground state lines, i.e., 1_(10)-1_(01), 1_(11)-0_(00), and 2_(12)-1_(01), are predicted in absorption, all the others in emission. This behaviour changes for models with a water abundance jump profile in that the line profiles for jumps by a factor of ~10-100 are similar to the line shapes in the constant abundance models, whereas larger jumps lead to emission profiles. Asymmetric line profiles are found for models with a cavity outflow and depend on the inclination angle. Models with an outflow cav...

  12. Power Improvement of Transmission Line Using High Voltage Direct Current (Hvdc Transmission System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasisi, H

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of long EHV (Extremely High Voltage ac lines for the transmission of electrical energy increases the line reactance and susceptance which limits the thermal loadings on the line in order to keep sufficient margin against transient instability. With the scheme proposed in this paper, it is possible to load the lines very close to their limit with zero reactance and susceptance. The conductors are allowed to carry usual ac along with dc superimposed on it. The added dc power flow does not cause any transient instability. The scheme comprises a twelve-pulse bridge rectifier, dc-links, pulse width modulated (PSW-voltage sourced inverter (VSI and converter transformers. The master current controller is used to implement the scheme which senses ac current and regulates the dc current orders for converters online such that conductor current never exceeds its thermal limit. This paper gives the feasibility of converting a double circuit ac line into composite ac–dc power transmission line given the advantage of stability improvement, damping oscillations, voltage stabilization and reactive power compensation for ac weak buses. Simulation and experimental studies using MATLAB (Matrix Laboratory are carried out for the coordinated control as well as independent control of ac and dc power transmissions.

  13. Development of hard X-ray photoelectron SPLEED-based spectrometer applicable for probing of buried magnetic layer valence states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozina, Xeniya, E-mail: kozina@uni-mainz.de [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ikenaga, Eiji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Viol Barbosa, Carlos Eduardo; Ouardi, Siham; Karel, Julie [Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Yamamoto, Masafumi [Division of Electronics for Informatics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0814 (Japan); Kobayashi, Keisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, SPring-8, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Elmers, Hans Joachim; Schönhense, Gerd [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg – Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Felser, Claudia [Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A high-voltage compatible spin-HAXPES detector based on SPLEED from W(001) has been developed. • Magnetic properties of a TMR device were studied by core-level photoemission on the Fe 2p{sub 3/2} states. • The developed instrument enabled probing of buried layers in the region of the valence states. - Abstract: A novel design of high-voltage compatible polarimeter for spin-resolved hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (Spin-HAXPES) went into operation at beamline BL09XU of SPring-8 in Hyogo, Japan. The detector is based on the well-established principle of electron diffraction from a W(001) single-crystal at a scattering energy of 103.5 eV. It's special feature is that it can be operated at a high negative bias potential up to 10 kV, necessary to access the HAXPES range. The polarimeter is operated behind a large hemispherical analyzer (Scienta R-4000). It was optimized for high transmission of the transfer optics. A delay-line detector (20 mm dia.) is positioned at the exit plane of the analyzer enabling conventional multichannel intensity spectroscopy simultaneously with single-channel spin analysis. The performance of the combined setup is demonstrated by the spin-resolved data for the valence-region of a FeCo functional layer of a tunneling device, buried beneath 3 nm of oxidic material. The well-structured spin polarization spectrum validates Spin-HAXPES in the valence energy range as powerful method for bulk electronic structure analysis. The spin polarization spectrum exhibits a rich structure, originating from clearly discernible transitions in the majority and minority partial spin spectra.

  14. On-line high speed lipid extraction for nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Yong; Yang, Joon Seon; Park, Se Mi; Byeon, Seul Kee; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2016-09-16

    An on-line lipid extraction method is introduced by utilizing a short capillary extraction column using HILIC and C4 particles prior to nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS). The on-line extraction using a urine sample spiked with PL standards showed similar or slightly higher recovery values (86%-96%) of phospholipids (PLs) compared to those obtained by the conventional off-line extraction based on the Folch method with or without using the air-exposed drying process. In this study, we demonstrated that PL oxidation can occur during the air-exposed drying process of lipid extracts in standard liquid-liquid extraction procedures, which was confirmed by the oxidized PL (OxPL) molecules that were generated from an off-line extraction using a few PL standards. Quantitative comparison of these OxPL species between on- and off-line extraction followed by nLC-MS/MS with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) analysis showed a significant decrease (2-10 fold) in unwanted OxPL species when on-line extraction was employed. While the number of identified PLs from a urine sample was somewhat lower than those by off-line extraction, the number of OxPLs was significantly reduced (from 70 to 22) with on-line extraction. The new method offers high speed (∼5min) automated extraction of PLs with nLC-MS/MS analysis and presents the possibility of handling a biological sample with a very limited amount of lipids.

  15. Ames S-32 O-16 O-18 Line List for High-Resolution Experimental IR Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    By comparing to the most recent experimental data and spectra of the SO2 628 ?1/?3 bands (see Ulenikov et al., JQSRT 168 (2016) 29-39), this study illustrates the reliability and accuracy of the Ames-296K SO2 line list, which is accurate enough to facilitate such high-resolution spectroscopic analysis. The SO2 628 IR line list is computed on a recently improved potential energy surface (PES) refinement, denoted Ames-Pre2, and the published purely ab initio CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVQZ dipole moment surface. Progress has been made in both energy level convergence and rovibrational quantum number assignments agreeing with laboratory analysis models. The accuracy of the computed 628 energy levels and line list is similar to what has been achieved and reported for SO2 626 and 646, i.e. 0.01-0.03 cm(exp -1) for bands up to 5500 cm(exp -1). During the comparison, we found some discrepancies in addition to overall good agreements. The three-IR-list based feature-by-feature analysis in a 0.25 cm(exp -1) spectral window clearly demonstrates the power of the current Ames line lists with new assignments, correction of some errors, and intensity contributions from varied sources including other isotopologues. We are inclined to attribute part of detected discrepancies to an incomplete experimental analysis and missing intensity in the model. With complete line position, intensity, and rovibrational quantum numbers determined at 296 K, spectroscopic analysis is significantly facilitated especially for a spectral range exhibiting such an unusually high density of lines. The computed 628 rovibrational levels and line list are accurate enough to provide alternatives for the missing bands or suspicious assignments, as well as helpful to identify these isotopologues in various celestial environments. The next step will be to revisit the SO2 828 and 646 spectral analyses.

  16. Ames 32S16O18O line list for high-resolution experimental IR analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2016-12-01

    By comparing to the most recent experimental data and spectra of the SO2 628 ν1/ν3 bands (see Ulenikov et al., JQSRT 168 (2016) 29-39), this study illustrates the reliability and accuracy of the Ames-296K SO2 line list, which is accurate enough to facilitate such high-resolution spectroscopic analysis. The SO2 628 IR line list is computed on a recently improved potential energy surface (PES) refinement, denoted Ames-Pre2, and the published purely ab initio CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV(Q+d)Z dipole moment surface. Progress has been made in both energy level convergence and rovibrational quantum number assignments agreeing with laboratory analysis models. The accuracy of the computed 628 energy levels and line list is similar to what has been achieved and reported for SO2 626 and 646, i.e. 0.01-0.03 cm-1 for bands up to 5500 cm-1. During the comparison, we found some discrepancies in addition to overall good agreements. The three-IR-list based feature-by-feature analysis in a 0.25 cm-1 spectral window clearly demonstrates the power of the current Ames line lists with new assignments, correction of some errors, and intensity contributions from varied sources including other isotopologues. We are inclined to attribute part of detected discrepancies to an incomplete experimental analysis and missing intensity in the model. With complete line position, intensity, and rovibrational quantum numbers determined at 296 K, spectroscopic analysis is significantly facilitated especially for a spectral range exhibiting such an unusually high density of lines. The computed 628 rovibrational levels and line list are accurate enough to provide alternatives for the missing bands or suspicious assignments, as well as helpful to identify these isotopologues in various celestial environments. The next step will be to revisit the SO2 828 and 646 spectral analyses.

  17. Landslide Buries Valley of the Geysers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Geysers are a rare natural phenomena found only in a few places, such as New Zealand, Iceland, the United States (Yellowstone National Park), and on Russia's far eastern Kamchatka Peninsula. On June 3, 2007, one of these rare geyser fields was severely damaged when a landslide rolled through Russia's Valley of the Geysers. The landslide--a mix of mud, melting snow, trees, and boulders--tore a scar on the land and buried a number of geysers, thermal pools, and waterfalls in the valley. It also blocked the Geyser River, causing a new thermal lake to pool upstream. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this infrared-enhanced image on June 11, 2007, a week after the slide. The image shows the valley, the landslide, and the new thermal lake. Even in mid-June, just days from the start of summer, the landscape is generally covered in snow, though the geologically heated valley is relatively snow free. The tree-covered hills are red (the color of vegetation in this false-color treatment), providing a strong contrast to the aquamarine water and the gray-brown slide. According to the Russian News and Information Agency (RIA) [English language], the slide left a path roughly a kilometer and a half (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide. Within hours of the landslide, the water in the new lake inundated a number of additional geysers. The geysers directly buried under the landslide now lie under as much as 60 meters (180 feet) of material, according to RIA reports. It is unlikely that the geysers will be able to force a new opening through this thick layer, adds RIA. Among those directly buried is Pervenets (Firstborn), the first geyser found in the valley, in 1941. Other geysers, such as the Bolshoi (Greater) and Maly (Lesser) Geysers, were silenced when buried by water building up behind the new natural dam. According to Vladimir and Andrei Leonov of the Russian Federation Institute of

  18. HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION MULTI-LINE STUDY OF HH 1 AND 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, A. C.; Castellanos-Ramírez, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ap. 70-543, 04510 D.F., México (Mexico); Reipurth, Bo; Chiang, Hsin-Fang [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Bally, J., E-mail: raga@nucleares.unam.mx [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) narrow band images of the bright Herbig–Haro (HH) objects HH 1 and 2 in the light of the Hα, Hβ, [O i] 6300, [O ii] 3726+28, [O iii] 5007 and [S ii] 6716+30 emission lines. The resulting emission and line ratio maps give an improved picture of the physical structure of these HH objects, showing the presence of spatially limited, high excitation/ionization ridges. We find that HH 1 has a morphology that could be interpreted in terms of a single, asymmetric bow shock, and that many of the clumps of HH 2 fall in two bow-shaped structures of different excitations. We also construct two-line ratio plots showing clear trends, which are much simpler than the highly complex spatial distributions of the emission, and are therefore interesting for testing shock models of HH objects (we only present a comparison with previously published, steady plane-parallel shock models). We have also used the temperature-sensitive [O i]/[S ii] line ratio to evaluate the temperature range and to obtain temperature maps of HH 1 and 2. We find that this line ratio picks out emitting regions with temperatures ≈10{sup 4} K, except along the leading edges of the HH 1 and 2 bow shocks (in which temperatures of ∼3 → 5 × 10{sup 4} K are obtained)

  19. Time variations of narrow absorption lines in high resolution quasar spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Boissé, P; Prochaska, J X; Péroux, C; York, D G

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We have searched for temporal variations of narrow absorption lines in high resolution quasar spectra. A sample of 5 distant sources have been assembled, for which 2 spectra - VLT/UVES or Keck/HIRES - taken several years apart are available. Methods. We first investigate under which conditions variations in absorption line profiles can be detected reliably from high resolution spectra, and discuss the implications of changes in terms of small-scale structure within the intervening gas or intrinsic origin. The targets selected allow us to investigate the time behavior of a broad variety of absorption line systems, sampling diverse environments: the vicinity of active nuclei, galaxy halos, molecular-rich galaxy disks associated with damped Lya systems, as well as neutral gas within our own Galaxy. Results. Absorption lines from MgII, FeII or proxy species with lines of lower opacity tracing the same kind of gas appear to be remarkably stable (1 sigma upper limits as low as 10 % for some components on scal...

  20. A review on high-resolution CMOS delay lines: towards sub-picosecond jitter performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrazzaq, Bilal I; Abdul Halin, Izhal; Kawahito, Shoji; Sidek, Roslina M; Shafie, Suhaidi; Yunus, Nurul Amziah Md

    2016-01-01

    A review on CMOS delay lines with a focus on the most frequently used techniques for high-resolution delay step is presented. The primary types, specifications, delay circuits, and operating principles are presented. The delay circuits reported in this paper are used for delaying digital inputs and clock signals. The most common analog and digitally-controlled delay elements topologies are presented, focusing on the main delay-tuning strategies. IC variables, namely, process, supply voltage, temperature, and noise sources that affect delay resolution through timing jitter are discussed. The design specifications of these delay elements are also discussed and compared for the common delay line circuits. As a result, the main findings of this paper are highlighting and discussing the followings: the most efficient high-resolution delay line techniques, the trade-off challenge found between CMOS delay lines designed using either analog or digitally-controlled delay elements, the trade-off challenge between delay resolution and delay range and the proposed solutions for this challenge, and how CMOS technology scaling can affect the performance of CMOS delay lines. Moreover, the current trends and efforts used in order to generate output delayed signal with low jitter in the sub-picosecond range are presented.

  1. 76 FR 4575 - Safety Zone; Repair of High Voltage Transmission Lines to Logan International Airport, Saugus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... to Logan International Airport, Saugus River, Saugus, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... of high voltage transmission lines to Logan Airport. This safety zone is required to provide for the... feed Logan Airport. The safety zone will be enforced immediately before, during, and after the start...

  2. An on-line high performance liquid chromatography-crocin bleaching assay for detection of antioxidants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bountagkidou, O.; Klift, van der E.J.C.; Tsimidou, M.Z.; Ordoudi, S.A.; Beek, van T.A.

    2012-01-01

    An on-line HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) method for the rapid screening of individual antioxidants in mixtures was developed using crocin as a substrate (i.e. oxidation probe) and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH)) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) as a radical generator

  3. Behavioral Coaching to Improve Offensive Line Pass-Blocking Skills of High School Football Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, John V.; Luiselli, James K.; Reed, Derek D.; Fleming, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated several behavioral coaching procedures for improving offensive line pass-blocking skills with 5 high school varsity football players. Pass blocking was measured during practice drills and games, and our intervention included descriptive feedback with and without video feedback and teaching with acoustical guidance (TAG). Intervention…

  4. Development of Fiber Optically Driven Instrument for High-voltage Line Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The measurement theorem of fiber optically driven instrument for high-voltage line current is presented. The PLL voltage-frequency-narrow pulse principle and its micro-consumption mechanism are proposed, followed by analysis on the two main factors affecting PLL measurement precision. A software design scheme using 80C196KB micro-controller is introduced. The experiment result is satisfactory.

  5. Including Arbitrary Antenna Patterns in Microwave Imaging of Buried Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph

    2004-01-01

    A linear inversion scheme for microwave imaging of buried objects is presented in which arbitrary antennas are accounted for through their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra......A linear inversion scheme for microwave imaging of buried objects is presented in which arbitrary antennas are accounted for through their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra...

  6. VIPMOS-A novel buried injector structure for EPROM applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijburg, Rutger C.; Wijburg, R.C.M.; Hemink, Gertjan J.; Hemink, Gertjan; Middelhoek, J.; Middelhoek, Jan; Wallinga, Hans; Mouthaan, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    A buried injector is proposed as a source of electrons for substrate hot electrons injection. To enhance the compatibility with VLSI processing, the buried injector is formed by the local overlap of the n-well and p-well of a retrograde twin-well CMOS process. The injector is activated by means of p

  7. Buried injector logic, a vertical IIL using deep ion implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A vertically integrated alternative for integrated injection logic has been realized, named buried injector logic (BIL). 1 MeV ion implantations are used to create buried layers. The vertical pnp and npn transistors have thin base regions and exhibit a limited charge accumulation if a gate is satura

  8. Including Arbitrary Antenna Patterns in Microwave Imaging of Buried Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph

    2004-01-01

    A linear inversion scheme for microwave imaging of buried objects is presented in which arbitrary antennas are accounted for through their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra......A linear inversion scheme for microwave imaging of buried objects is presented in which arbitrary antennas are accounted for through their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra...

  9. VIPMOS-A novel buried injector structure for EPROM applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijburg, Rutger C.; Hemink, Gertjan J.; Middelhoek, Jan; Wallinga, Hans; Mouthaan, Ton J.

    1991-01-01

    A buried injector is proposed as a source of electrons for substrate hot electrons injection. To enhance the compatibility with VLSI processing, the buried injector is formed by the local overlap of the n-well and p-well of a retrograde twin-well CMOS process. The injector is activated by means of p

  10. A Natural Seismic Isolating System: The Buried Mangrove Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Gueguen, Philippe; Foray, Pierre; Rousseau, Christophe; Maury, Julie; 10.1785/0120100129

    2011-01-01

    The Belleplaine test site, located in the island of Guadeloupe (French Lesser Antilles) includes a three-accelerometer vertical array, designed for liquefac- tion studies. The seismic response of the soil column at the test site is computed using three methods: the spectral ratio method using the vertical array data, a numerical method using the geotechnical properties of the soil column, and an operative fre- quency domain decomposition (FDD) modal analysis method. The Belleplaine test site is characterized by a mangrove layer overlaid by a stiff sandy deposit. This con- figuration is widely found at the border coast of the Caribbean region, which is exposed to high seismic hazard. We show that the buried mangrove layer plays the role of an isolation system equivalent to those usually employed in earthquake engineering aimed at reducing the seismic shear forces by reducing the internal stress within the structure. In our case, the flexibility of the mangrove layer reduces the distortion and the stress in the...

  11. Modified Starch of Sorghum Mutant Line Zh-30 for High Fiber Muffin Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D.S. Santosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum mutant line Zh-30 is a breeding line developed at the Center for the Application of Isotope and Radiation Technology, BATAN by using mutation techniques. Gamma irradiation with the dose of 300 Gy was used to induce sorghum genetic variation. Through selection processes in several generations, the mutant line Zh-30 was identified to have better agronomic characteristics, better grain quality and higher grain yield than the original variety. Research on modified starch quality of this mutant line was done to identify its potential use in food industry. Functionality of pregelatinized, hydroxypropyl and crosslinked starch of this mutant line (Mutant TexInstant 30 has been studied for its use in high fiber muffin products. Characteristics of high fiber muffins containing 1.50; 3.50 and 5.50% of Mutant Tex-Instant 30 replacement levels to wheat flour were evaluated using both sensory panel and physical test methods. With regard to the sensory parameters, the high fiber muffins containing 1.50 - 5.50 % Mutant Tex-Instant 30 in general were not significantly different compared to the standard reference muffin. Results of physical evaluations showed that all Mutant Tex-Instant 30 containing products retained more moisture during baking than the standard reference. Tenderness of all products decreased at similar rate following 24 and 48 hr of room temperature storage and seven days at freezer temperature. These results suggested that sorghum mutant line Zh-30 starch could be modified and potentially used in food industry as a subtitute of wheat flour.

  12. Single step high-speed printing of continuous silver lines by laser-induced forward transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puerto, D., E-mail: puerto@lp3.univ-mrs.fr [Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, LP3 laboratory Campus de Luminy, C.917, Marseille (France); Biver, E. [Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, LP3 laboratory Campus de Luminy, C.917, Marseille (France); Oxford Lasers Ltd., Unit 8, Moorbrook Park, Didcot, OX11 7HP (United Kingdom); Alloncle, A.-P.; Delaporte, Ph. [Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, LP3 laboratory Campus de Luminy, C.917, Marseille (France)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • We have performed an experimental study on laser micro-printing of silver nanoparticle inks. • We have achieved the printing of lines in a single pass at velocities of 17 m/s (1 MHz laser). • The ejection dynamics has been investigated by means of a time-resolved imaging technique. • The control of the donor film properties is of prime importance to print lines at high velocities. • Continuous conductive lines of silver inks are laser-printed on PET flexible substrates. - Abstract: The development of high-speed ink printing process by Laser-Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) is of great interest for the printing community. To address the problems and the limitations of this process that have been previously identified, we have performed an experimental study on laser micro-printing of silver nanoparticle inks by LIFT and demonstrated for the first time the printing of continuous conductive lines in a single pass at velocities of 17 m/s using a 1 MHz repetition rate laser. We investigated the printing process by means of a time-resolved imaging technique to visualize the ejection dynamics of single and adjacent jets. The control of the donor film properties is of prime importance to achieve single step printing of continuous lines at high velocities. We use a 30 ps pulse duration laser with a wavelength of 343 nm and a repetition rate from 0.2 to 1 MHz. A galvanometric mirror head controls the distance between two consecutives jets by scanning the focused beam along an ink-coated donor substrate at different velocities. Droplets and lines of silver inks are laser-printed on glass and PET flexible substrates and we characterized their morphological quality by atomic force microscope (AFM) and optical microscope.

  13. EMPIRICAL LINE LISTS AND ABSORPTION CROSS SECTIONS FOR METHANE AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargreaves, R. J.; Bernath, P. F.; Dulick, M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, 4541 Hampton Boulevard, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Bailey, J., E-mail: rhargrea@odu.edu [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2015-11-01

    Hot methane is found in many “cool” sub-stellar astronomical sources including brown dwarfs and exoplanets, as well as in combustion environments on Earth. We report on the first high-resolution laboratory absorption spectra of hot methane at temperatures up to 1200 K. Our observations are compared to the latest theoretical spectral predictions and recent brown dwarf spectra. The expectation that millions of weak absorption lines combine to form a continuum, not seen at room temperature, is confirmed. Our high-resolution transmittance spectra account for both the emission and absorption of methane at elevated temperatures. From these spectra, we obtain an empirical line list and continuum that is able to account for the absorption of methane in high temperature environments at both high and low resolution. Great advances have recently been made in the theoretical prediction of hot methane, and our experimental measurements highlight the progress made and the problems that still remain.

  14. Lining for high temperature gas turbines. Auskleidung fuer Hochtemperatur-Gasturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, P.; Heckel, J.

    1986-06-26

    A lining is described for high temperature gas turbines, where a thermally insulating layer of a ceramic material is applied on the side of the turbine casing towards the high temperature. In order to insulate the heat which occurs at the very high process temperatures in this gas turbine plant, it is proposed that a first layer of microporous material containing mainly silica should be applied on the inner wall of the casing, that a second layer of ceramic fibres should be applied on this first layer that a binding layer of a fibre mat consisting of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and SiO/sub 2/ and possibly with the addition of Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ should be provided between the turbine casing and the first layer and between the first and second layer, and that a lining layer of heat-resistant high quality steel is applied on this second layer.

  15. Empirical line lists and absorption cross sections for methane at high temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Hargreaves, Robert J; Bailey, Jeremy; Dulick, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Hot methane is found in many "cool" sub-stellar astronomical sources including brown dwarfs and exoplanets, as well as in combustion environments on Earth. We report on the first high-resolution laboratory absorption spectra of hot methane at temperatures up to 1200 K. Our observations are compared to the latest theoretical spectral predictions and recent brown dwarf spectra. The expectation that millions of weak absorption lines combine to form a continuum, not seen at room temperature, is confirmed. Our high-resolution transmittance spectra account for both the emission and absorption of methane at elevated temperatures. From these spectra, we obtain an empirical line list and continuum that is able to account for the absorption of methane in high temperature environments at both high and low resolution. Great advances have recently been made in the theoretical prediction of hot methane, and our experimental measurements highlight the progress made and the problems that still remain.

  16. Planning the most suitable travel speed for high frequency railway lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new method to calculate the most suitable travel speed for high frequency railway lines to achieve as much capacity as possible for congested railway lines. The method calculates the most suitable travel speed based on the braking distance and information about...... the interlocking system. Based on the braking distance it is possible to calculate the minimum headway time, and thereby determine the buffer time when knowing the frequency. Hence the headway time can be divided into minimum headway time and buffer time. The buffer time is an indicator for the spare capacity...

  17. Temsirolimus Is Highly Effective as Third-Line Treatment in Chromophobe Renal Cell Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Zardavas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report unexpectedly high efficacy of temsirolimus as third-line treatment in a patient with metastatic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. After failure of two sequentially administered tyrosine kinase inhibitors, treatment with temsirolimus resulted in a prolonged partial remission of 14 months, and the response is still continuing. Up to now, no data from randomized clinical studies have been published addressing the question of efficacy of temsirolimus as third-line treatment after failure of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The case presented here implies that temsirolimus could be a viable option for patients with metastatic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

  18. Temsirolimus is highly effective as third-line treatment in chromophobe renal cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardavas, Dimitrios; Meisel, Alexander; Samaras, Panagiotis; Knuth, Alexander; Renner, Christoph; Pestalozzi, Bernhard C; Stenner-Liewen, Frank

    2011-01-15

    We report unexpectedly high efficacy of temsirolimus as third-line treatment in a patient with metastatic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. After failure of two sequentially administered tyrosine kinase inhibitors, treatment with temsirolimus resulted in a prolonged partial remission of 14 months, and the response is still continuing. Up to now, no data from randomized clinical studies have been published addressing the question of efficacy of temsirolimus as third-line treatment after failure of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The case presented here implies that temsirolimus could be a viable option for patients with metastatic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

  19. Recommended isolated-line profile for representing high-resolution spectroscopic transitions (IUPAC Technical Report)

    CERN Document Server

    Tennyson, Jonathan; Campargue, Alain; Csaszar, Attila G; Daumont, Ludovic; Gamache, Robert R; Hodges, Joseph T; Lisak, Daniel; Naumenko, Olga V; Rothman, Laurence S; Tran, Ha; Zobov, Nikolai F; Buldyreva, Jeanna; Boone, Chris D; De Vizia, Maria Domenica; Gianfrani, Livio; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; McPheat, Robert; Murray, Jonathan; Ngo, Ngoc Hoa; Polyansky, Oleg L; Weidmann, Damien

    2014-01-01

    The report of an IUPAC Task Group, formed in 2011 on "Intensities and line shapes in high-resolution spectra of water isotopologues from experiment and theory" (Project No. 2011-022-2-100), on line profiles of isolated high-resolution rotational-vibrational transitions perturbed by neutral gas-phase molecules is presented. The well-documented inadequacies of the Voigt profile (VP), used almost universally by databases and radiative-transfer codes, to represent pressure effects and Doppler broadening in isolated vibrational-rotational and pure rotational transitions of the water molecule have resulted in the development of a variety of alternative line-profile models. These models capture more of the physics of the influence of pressure on line shapes but, in general, at the price of greater complexity. The Task Group recommends that the partially Correlated quadratic-Speed-Dependent Hard-Collision profile should be adopted as the appropriate model for high-resolution spectroscopy. For simplicity this should b...

  20. High-resolution Reflection Spectroscopy of Cs D2 Line Studied by High-order-harmonic Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yanting; MA Weiguang; XIAO Liantuan; LI Changyong; ZHANG Linjie; JIA Suotang

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, by numerical analysis the relationship of the modulation broaden index with modulation index using high-order-harmonic detection is investigated. Using the voltage modulation the 2f,4f and 6f harmonic signals about the reflection spectroscopy of 6S1/2(F=4)→6P3/2 transition of the cesium D2 line are also be measured. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. It is found that narrower line-width can be achieved by higher-harmonic detection than the line-width detected by direct absorption when the modulation index is smaller than 1.81, 2.98 and 4.14 for 2f, 4f, and 6f signals, respectively.

  1. Fast Decoupled Power Flow for Power System with High Voltage Direct Current Transmission Line System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: High voltage direct current transmission line system has been widely applied for control power flow in power system. The power flow analysis was the one of powerful tools by which the power system equipped was analyzed both for planning and operation strategies. Approach: This study presented the method to analyze power flow of power system consisted of HVDC system. HVDC was modeled as the complex power injections. The presented complex power injected was incorporated into the existing power flow program based on fast decoupled method. The presented method was tested on the multimachine power system. Results: The transmission line loss of the system with and without HVDC was compared. Conclusion: From the simulation results, the HVDC can reduce transmission line loss of power system.

  2. BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey II: X-ray Emission and High Ionization Optical Emission Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Berney, Simon; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Ricci, Claudio; Lamperti, Isabella; Schawinski, Kevin; Balokovic, Mislav; Crenshaw, D Michael; Fischer, Travis; Gehrels, Neil; Harrison, Fiona; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Ichikawa, Kohei; Mushotzky, Richard; Oh, Kyuseok; Stern, Daniel; Treister, Ezequiel; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between X-ray and optical line emission in 340 nearby AGN selected above 10 keV using Swift BAT. We find a weak correlation between the extinction corrected [O III] and hard X-ray luminosity (14-195 keV) with a [OIII] large scatter (R_Pear = 0.64, sigma = 0.62 dex) and a similarly large scatter with the intrinsic 2-10 keV to [O III] luminosities (RPear=0.63, sigma = 0.63 dex). Correlations of the hard X-ray fluxes with the fluxes of high-ionization narrow lines ([O III], He II, [Ne III] and [Ne V]) are not significantly better than with the low ionization lines (Halpha, [SII]). Factors like obscuration or physical slit size are not found to be a significant part of the large scatter. In contrast, the optical emission lines show much better correlations with each other (sigma = 0.3 dex) than with the X-ray flux. The inherent large scatter questions the common usage of narrow emission lines as AGN bolometric luminosity indicators and suggests that other issues such as geometrical...

  3. ExoMol line lists XVIII. The high temperature spectrum of VO

    CERN Document Server

    McKemmish, Laura K; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    An accurate line list, VOMYT, of spectroscopic transitions is presented for hot VO. The 13 lowest electronic states are considered. Curves and couplings are based on initial {\\it ab initio} electronic structure calculations and then tuned using available experimental data. Dipole moment curves, used to obtain transition intensities, are computed using high levels of theory (e.g. MRCI/aug-cc-pVQZ using state-specific or minimal-state CAS for dipole moments). This line list contains over 277 million transitions between almost 640,000 energy levels. It covers the wavelengths longer than 0.29 $\\mu$m and includes all transitions from energy levels within the lowest nine electronic states which have energies less than 20,000 \\cm{} to upper states within the lowest 13 electronic states which have energies below 50,000 \\cm{}. The line lists give significantly increased absorption at infrared wavelengths compared to currently available VO line lists. The full line lists is made available in electronic form via the CDS...

  4. ExoMol line lists - XVIII. The high-temperature spectrum of VO

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKemmish, Laura K.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    An accurate line list, VOMYT, of spectroscopic transitions is presented for hot VO. The 13 lowest electronic states are considered. Curves and couplings are based on initial ab initio electronic structure calculations and then tuned using available experimental data. Dipole moment curves, used to obtain transition intensities, are computed using high levels of theory (e.g. MRCI/aug-cc-pVQZ using state-specific or minimal-state complete active space for dipole moments). This line list contains over 277 million transitions between almost 640 000 energy levels. It covers the wavelengths longer than 0.29 μm and includes all transitions from energy levels within the lowest nine electronic states which have energies less than 20 000 cm-1 to upper states within the lowest 13 electronic states which have energies below 50 000 cm-1. The line lists give significantly increased absorption at infrared wavelengths compared to currently available VO line lists. The full line lists is made available in electronic form via the CDS database and at www.exomol.com.

  5. Comparison of I-line and DUV high-energy implant litho processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandpierre, A. G.; Berger, C.; Schroeder, U. P.; Schiwon, R.; Kubis, M.

    2006-03-01

    For capacity reasons, it is interesting for us to have the flexibility of switching lithography processes between DUV and I-line steppers. The following discussion concentrates on high energy tilted implants of CMOS technology, critical enough to be worth running on the more expensive DUV equipment. As far as the differences are understood at the level of the printing, as well as the dissimilarities during the following implantation steps, it is possible using the same reticle and with minor target adjustments, to switch between the 2 tools/processes when required. This paper investigates the most important differences between the functionality of a same implant layer making use of the two wavelengths. Taken as high energy implant mask for several successive ion implantations, the resist film considered here is 1.6 pm thick. The taper profiles of I-line and DUV resist are shown after development, and after the successive implantation steps. Both wavelengths provide straight profiles after development, with one main difference: a slight footing for the I-line resist. This can be very well seen on the corresponding top down pictures revealing more tapers for the I-line process than for DUV. The first implantation step following development influences the profiles the most. In fact the profile of the DUV resist changes considerably while the one with I-line resist remains unchanged. That can be explained by the fact that the aliphatic structure of DUV photoresist is less resistant to degradation by ion bombardment as compared to the highly aromatic chemical structure of I-line photoresist. The subsequent implant steps of lower energy do not further influence the tapers, not even in the case of the I-line film. Therefore the biggest shrinkage occurs during the first implantation and all the next ion sequences will see this first deformation without changing it. Finally, simulation show that, an adjustment of the reticle OPC by adding serifs can be beneficial to the I-line

  6. Time-resolved x-ray spectroscopy of deeply buried tracer layers as a density and temperature diagnostic for the fast ignitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitenko, A. I., Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences

    1997-03-26

    The fast igniter concept for inertial confinement fusion relies on the generation of hot electrons, produced by a short-pulse ultra-high intensity laser, which propagate through high-density plasma to deposit their energy in the compressed fuel core and heat it to ignition. In preliminary experiments designed to investigate deep heating of high density matter, we used a 20 joule, 0.5-30 ps laser to heat solid targets, and used emission spectroscopy to measure plasma temperatures and densities achieved at large depths (2-20 microns) away from the initial target surface. The targets consisted of an Al tracer layer buried within a massive CH slab H-like and He-like line emission was then used to diagnose plasma conditions. We observe spectra from tracer layers buried up to 20 microns deep, measure emission durations of up to 200 ps, measure plasma temperatures up to T{sub c} = 650 eV, and measure electron densities near 10{sup 23} cm{sup -3}. Analysis is in progress, but the data appear to be in reasonable agreement with simulations when space-charge induced inhibition is included in hot-electron transport.

  7. In-line high-rate evaporation of aluminum for the metallization of silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mader, Christoph Paul

    2012-07-11

    This work focuses on the in-line high-rate evaporation of aluminum for contacting rear sides of silicon solar cells. The substrate temperature during the deposition process, the wafer bow after deposition, and the electrical properties of evaporated contacts are investigated. Furthermore, this work demonstrates for the first time the formation of aluminum-doped silicon regions by the in-line high-rate evaporation of aluminum without any further temperature treatment. The temperature of silicon wafers during in-line high-rate evaporation of aluminum is investigated in this work. The temperatures are found to depend on the wafer thickness W, the aluminum layer thickness d, and on the wafer emissivity {epsilon}. Two-dimensional finite-element simulations reproduce the measured peak temperatures with an accuracy of 97%. This work also investigates the wafer bow after in-line high-rate evaporation and shows that the elastic theory overestimates the wafer bow of planar Si wafers. The lower bow is explained with plastic deformation in the Al layer. Due to the plastic deformation only the first 79 K in temperature decrease result in a bow formation. Furthermore the electrical properties of evaporated point contacts are examined in this work. Parameterizations for the measured saturation currents of contacted p-type Si wafers and of contacted boron-diffused p{sup +}-type layers are presented. The contact resistivity of the deposited Al layers to silicon for various deposition processes and silicon surface concentrations are presented and the activation energy of the contact formation is determined. The measured saturation current densities and contact resistivities of the evaporated contacts are used in one-dimensional numerical Simulations and the impact on energy conversion efficiency of replacing a screen-printed rear side by an evaporated rear side is presented. For the first time the formation of aluminum-doped p{sup +}-type (Al-p{sup +}) silicon regions by the in-line

  8. Modeling and simulation of high-speed passenger train movements in the rail line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Cheng-Xuan; Xu Yan; Li Ke-Ping

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a new formula of the real-time minimum safety headway based on the relative velocity of consecutive trains and present a dynamic model of high-speed passenger train movements in the rail line based on the proposed formula of the minimum safety headway.Moreover,we provide the control strategies of the high-speed passenger train operations based on the proposed formula of the real-time minimum safety headway and the dynamic model of highspeed passenger train movements.The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed control strategies of the passenger train operations can greatly reduce the delay propagation in the high-speed rail line when a random delay occurs.

  9. High power testing of water-cooled waveguide for ITER-like ECH transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. P.; Doane, J. L.; Grunloh, H. J.; O'Neill, R. C.; Ikeda, R.; Oda, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Sakamoto, K.

    2017-05-01

    The results of high power testing of new water-cooled ECH waveguide components for ITER are presented. The components are a precision-coupled 4.2 m waveguide assembly, a short expansion joint, and water-cooled waveguide for gyrotron commissioning. The testing was conducted at the QST Naka Fusion Institute using gyrotron pulses of 450 kW at 170 GHz for 300 s. Analysis shows that the power absorbed per unit length for the various waveguide components are dependent on location in the transmission line with respect to high order mode generators, such as miter bends. Additionally, larger-than-expected reflections from the load led to high absorption levels in the transmission line.

  10. Exploring star formation in high-z galaxies using atomic and molecular emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullberg, Bitten

    2016-03-01

    The conditions under which stars are formed and the reasons for triggering and quenching of starburst events in high-z galaxies, are still not well understood. Studying the interstellar medium (ISM) and the morphology of high-z galaxies are therefore key points in order to understand galaxy evolution. The cosmic star formation rate density peaks between 1thesis presents three studies of the ISM in high-z galaxies and their morphologies by: Exploring the physical conditions of the ISM in a sample of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) using the relative observed line strength of ionised carbon ([CII]) and carbon monoxide (CO). We find that the line ratios can best be described by a medium of [CII] and CO emitting gas with a higher [CII] than CO excitation temperature, high CO optical depth tau(CO)>>1, and low to moderate [CII] optical depth tau(CII)2, pave the road for future investigations of the star-forming ISM in high-z galaxies, by illustrating the importance of multi-wavelength, fine structure- and molecular line studies.

  11. SEM based overlay measurement between resist and buried patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Osamu; Okagawa, Yutaka; Hasumi, Kazuhisa; Shao, Chuanyu; Leray, Philippe; Lorusso, Gian; Baudemprez, Bart

    2016-03-01

    With the continuous shrink in pattern size and increased density, overlay control has become one of the most critical issues in semiconductor manufacturing. Recently, SEM based overlay of AEI (After Etch Inspection) wafer has been used for reference and optimization of optical overlay (both Image Based Overlay (IBO) and Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO)). Overlay measurement at AEI stage contributes monitor and forecast the yield after formation by etch and calibrate optical measurement tools. however those overlay value seems difficult directly for feedback to a scanner. Therefore, there is a clear need to have SEM based overlay measurements of ADI (After Develop Inspection) wafers in order to serve as reference for optical overlay and make necessary corrections before wafers go to etch. Furthermore, to make the corrections as accurate as possible, actual device like feature dimensions need to be measured post ADI. This device size measurement is very unique feature of CDSEM , which can be measured with smaller area. This is currently possible only with the CD-SEM. This device size measurement is very unique feature of CD-SEM , which can be measured with smaller area. In this study, we assess SEM based overlay measurement of ADI and AEI wafer by using a sample from an N10 process flow. First, we demonstrate SEM based overlay performance at AEI by using dual damascene process for Via 0 (V0) and metal 1 (M1) layer. We also discuss the overlay measurements between litho-etch-litho stages of a triple patterned M1 layer and double pattern V0. Second, to illustrate the complexities in image acquisition and measurement we will measure overlay between M1B resist and buried M1A-Hard mask trench. Finally, we will show how high accelerating voltage can detect buried pattern information by BSE (Back Scattering Electron). In this paper we discuss the merits of this method versus standard optical metrology based corrections.

  12. Observation of HCN hyperfine line anomalies towards low- and high-mass star-forming cores

    CERN Document Server

    Loughnane, R M; Thompson, M A; Lo, N; O'Dwyer, B; Cunningham, M R; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.20121.x

    2013-01-01

    HCN is becoming a popular choice of molecule for studying star formation in both low- and high-mass regions and for other astrophysical sources from comets to high-redshift galaxies. However, a major and often overlooked difficulty with HCN is that it can exhibit non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) behaviour in its hyperfine line structure. Individual hyperfine lines can be strongly boosted or suppressed. In low-mass star-forming cloud observations, this could possibly lead to large errors in the calculation of opacity and excitation temperature, while in massive star-forming clouds, where the hyperfine lines are blended due to turbulent broadening, errors will arise in infall measurements that are based on the separation of the peaks in a self-absorbed profile. The underlying line shape cannot be known for certain if hyperfine anomalies are present. We present a first observational investigation of these anomalies across a range of conditions and transitions by carrying out a survey of low-mass sta...

  13. Subaru High-Dispersion Spectroscopy of Narrow-Line Region in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 4151

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, T; Shioya, Y; Taniguchi, Y; Nagao, Tohru; Murayama, Takashi; Shioya, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki

    2003-01-01

    We report on a study of forbidden emission-line spectrum of nearby Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 4151 based on the high-resolution (R ~ 45,000) optical spectrum obtained by using the High Dispersion Spectrograph boarded on the Subaru Telescope. The profile parameters such as the emission-line widths, the velocity shifts from the recession velocity of the host galaxy, and the asymmetry indices, for emission lines including very faint ones such as [Ar IV]4712,4740 and [Fe VI]5631,5677 are investigated. Statistically significant correlations between the measured profile parameters and the critical densities of transitions are found while there are no meaningful correlations between the profile parameters and the ionization potentials of ions. By comparing the results with photoionization model calculations, we remark that a simple power-law distribution of the gas density which is independent of the radius from the nucleus cannot explain the observed correlation between the emission-line widths and the critical densiti...

  14. THE GENE EXPRESSION PROFILE OF HIGHLY METASTATIC HUMAN OVARIAN CANCER CELL LINE BY GENE CHIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕桂泉; 许沈华; 牟瀚舟; 朱赤红; 羊正炎; 高永良; 楼洪坤; 刘祥麟; 杨文; 程勇

    2001-01-01

    To study the gene expression of high metastatic human ovarian carcinoma cell line (HO-8910PM) and to screen for novel metastasis- associated genes by cDNA microarray. Methods: The cDNA was retro-transcribed from equal quantity mRNA derived from tissues of highly metastatic ovarian carcinoma cell line and normal ovarian, and was labeled with Cy5 and Cy3 fluorescence as probes. The mixed probes were hybridized with BioDoor 4096 double dot human whole gene chip. The chip was scanned by scanArray 3000 laser scanner. The acquired image was analyzed by ImaGene 3.0 software. Results: By applying the cDNA microarray we found: A total of 323 genes whose expression level were 3 times higher or lower in HO-8910PM cell than normal ovarian epithelium cell were screened out, with 71 higher and 252 lower respectively. Among these 10 were new genes. 67 genes showed expression difference bigger than 6 times between HO-8910PM cell and normal ovarian epithelium cell, among these genes 12 were higher, 55 lower, and two new genes were found. Conclusion: cDNA microarray technique is effective in screening the differentially expressed genes between human ovarian cancer cell line (HO-8910PM) and normal ovarian epithelium cell. Using the cDNA microarray to analyze of human ovarian cancer cell line gene expression profile difference will help the gene diagnosis, treatment and protection.

  15. An EXES High-Resolution Molecular Line Survey towards Orion IRc2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangwala, Naseem

    High spectral resolution molecular line surveys provide a chemical inventory for star forming regions and are essential for studying their chemistry, kinematics and physical conditions. Previous surveys have been limited to radio, sub-mm and FIR wavelengths. In the mid-infrared (MIR), there has not been any line survey with high spectral resolution. MIR missions such as ISO and Spitzer had low to moderate resolving power that were only able to link broad features with particular molecular bands and could not resolve the individual rovibrational transitions needed to identify specific molecules with certainty. The EXES instrument is currently the only available (airborne or spaceborne) spectrograph that provides high spectral resolution in the MIR region. We propose to use EXES to conduct an unbiased molecular line survey towards Orion IRc2 from 6 - 28.5 microns with a S/N of better than 70 over 90% of the proposed bandpass. The survey (due to its higher resolving power; R = 50,000) will do 5 - 50 times better than ISO in detecting isolated, narrow lines. This will allow us to (a) resolve the rovibrational structure of the gas phase molecules in order to identify them, (b) resolve their kinematics, (c) detect new gas phase molecules that were missed by ISO, and (d) provide useful constraints on Orion's hot core chemistry as sampled by IRc2. The proposed observations will provide the best infrared measurements (to date) of molecular column densities and physical conditions - providing strong constraints on the current chemical network models for star forming regions. This survey will greatly enhance the inventory of resolved line features in the MIR, making it an invaluable reference to be used by the JWST and ALMA scientific communities. By waiving the proprietary period, this program will allow astronomers to exploit these data as soon as they become available.

  16. Identification of immunity-related genes in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, H; Badapanda, C; Vilcinskas, A

    2011-12-01

    Burying beetles reproduce on small vertebrate cadavers which they bury in the soil after localization through volatiles emitted from the carcass. They then chemically preserve the carcass and prepare it as a diet for the adults and their offspring. It is predicted that exposure to high loads of soil and/or carrion-associated microbes necessitates an effective immune system. In the present paper, we report experimental screening for immunity-related genes in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides using the suppression subtractive hybridization approach. A total of 1179 putative gene objects were identified in the Nicrophorus cDNA library, which was enriched for transcripts differentially expressed upon challenge with heat-inactivated bacteria. In addition to genes known to be involved in immunity-related recognition and signalling, we found transcripts encoding for antimicrobial peptides and for an array of enzymes that can be linked to immunity or to stress-induced pathways. We also determined proteins that may contribute to detoxification of toxins produced by microbial competitors. In addition, factors involved in mRNA stability determination and central components of the RNA interference machinery were identified, implying transcriptional reprogramming and potential stress-induced retrotransposon elimination. The identified candidate immune effector and stress-related genes may provide important information about the unusual ecology and evolution of the burying beetles.

  17. Application of EM tomography to detect a buried pipe; EM tomography no maisetsukan tansa eno tekiyorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakashita, S. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    EM tomography was applied to detect buried pipes. Underground radar exploration method is limited to 10m in depth. Positive use of bored holes is desirable, and in such case, magnetic logging based on the magnetic susceptibility (MS) contrast between buried body and surrounding ground is effective. The primary magnetic field is generated by coil current, and the secondary one is generated by the primary one responding to foreign bodies in the ground. Since the measured primary magnetic field of low frequency within 10Hz can be treated as static magnetic field responding to MS in the ground, it is useful to determine MS distributions. Since the measured magnetic field of high frequency within 100kHz can be treated as induction field responding to conductivity in the ground, it is useful to determine resistivity distributions. The EM tomography which can image both above distributions by using electromagnetic wave in a wide frequency range, was applied to detect buried pipes. The EM tomography could detect an buried foreign body of 3m in diameter at 10m in distance between bored holes. The theoretical equation for analysis was also derived. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. A Novel Method for Detection and Removal of Line Scratch in High Resolution Digital Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With increasing need of high quality movie, more and more standard resolution films are upconverted to the high-resolution films. After this operation, the defects exist in the old movie are more obvious because they are enlarged in size, therefore, an efficient artifacts detection method with more precise result and lower computational complexity is in need. This paper provided a line scratch mathematical model, which derives from the Kokaram model and Bruni model, and then gave a detection method to meet the requirements of the high-resolution video application.

  19. Hot Gas Lines in T Tauri Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ardila, David R; Gregory, Scott G; Ingleby, Laura; France, Kevin; Brown, Alexander; Edwards, Suzan; Johns-Krull, Christopher; Linsky, Jeffrey L; Yang, Hao; Valenti, Jeff A; Abgrall, Hervé; Alexander, Richard D; Bergin, Edwin; Bethell, Thomas; Brown, Joanna M; Calvet, Nuria; Espaillat, Catherine; Hillenbrand, Lynne A; Hussain, Gaitee; Roueff, Evelyne; Schindhelm, Eric R; Walter, Frederick M

    2013-01-01

    For Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTSs), the resonance lines of N V, Si IV, and C IV, as well as the He II 1640 A line, act as diagnostics of the accretion process. Here we assemble a large high-resolution dataset of these lines in CTTSs and Weak T Tauri Stars (WTTSs). We present data for 35 stars: one Herbig Ae star, 28 CTTSs, and 6 WTTSs. We decompose the C IV and He II lines into broad and narrow Gaussian components (BC & NC). The most common (50 %) C IV line morphology in CTTSs is that of a low-velocity NC together with a redshifted BC. The velocity centroids of the BCs and NCs are such that V_BC > 4 * V_NC, consistent with the predictions of the accretion shock model, in at most 12 out of 22 CTTSs. We do not find evidence of the post-shock becoming buried in the stellar photosphere due to the pressure of the accretion flow. The He II CTTSs lines are generally symmetric and narrow, less redshifted than the CTTSs C IV lines, by ~10 km/sec. The flux in the BC of the He II line is small compared to that of t...

  20. High-resolution H-band spectroscopy of Be stars with SDSS-III/apogee. I. New Be stars, line identifications, and line profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chojnowski, S. Drew; Majewski, Steven R.; Hall, Matthew; Beaton, Rachael; Burton, Adam; Damke, Guillermo; Wilson, John [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Whelan, David G. [Department of Physics, Austin College, 900 N. Grand Ave., Sherman, TX 75090 (United States); Wisniewski, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, Texas 78712-1205 (United States); Eikenberry, Steve [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Hasselquist, Sten; Holtzman, Jon A.; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, J. [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States); Mészáros, Szabolcs [ELTE Gothard Astrophysical Observatory, 1H-9704 Szombathely, Szent Imre herceg st. 112 (Hungary); Nidever, David [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zasowski, Gail [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg Center for Physics and Astronomy, Room 366, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: drewski@virginia.edu [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others

    2015-01-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) has amassed the largest ever collection of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R∼22,500), H-band spectra for B-type emission line (Be) stars. These stars were targeted by APOGEE as telluric standard stars and subsequently identified via visual inspection as Be stars based on H i Brackett series emission or shell absorption in addition to otherwise smooth continua and occasionally non-hydrogen emission features. The 128/238 APOGEE Be stars for which emission had never previously been reported serve to increase the total number of known Be stars by ∼6%. Because the H band is relatively unexplored compared to other wavelength regimes, we focus here on identification of the H-band lines and analysis of the emission peak velocity separations (Δv{sub p}) and emission peak intensity ratios (V/R) of the usually double-peaked H i and non-hydrogen emission lines. H i Br11 emission is found to preferentially form in the circumstellar disks at an average distance of ∼2.2 stellar radii. Increasing Δv{sub p} toward the weaker Br12–Br20 lines suggests these lines are formed interior to Br11. By contrast, the observed IR Fe ii emission lines present evidence of having significantly larger formation radii; distinctive phase lags between IR Fe ii and H i Brackett emission lines further supports that these species arise from different radii in Be disks. Several emission lines have been identified for the first time including C i 16895, a prominent feature in the spectra for almost a fifth of the sample and, as inferred from relatively large Δv{sub p} compared to the Br11–Br20, a tracer of the inner regions of Be disks. Emission lines at 15760 Å and 16781 Å remain unidentified, but usually appear along with and always have similar line profile morphology to Fe ii 16878. Unlike the typical metallic lines observed for Be stars in the optical, the H-band metallic lines, such as Fe ii 16878, never exhibit any

  1. An efficient detection agent for the high throughput screening of recombinant manufacturing cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duverger, Valérie; Sauvage, Christophe; Kobr, Michel; Imhof, Markus O

    2013-12-31

    To ensure the selection of high producing recombinant cell lines, a number of screening processes were developed in the presence of detection agents. Here, CHO cell lines secreting recombinant antibodies were detected in semi-solid medium containing detection agents. The aim was to compare two protein A-derived detection agents to two commercial fluorescent antibodies directed against the Fc part of the antibody of interest: the protein A derived Z domain fused to the red fluorescent protein and protein A labelled with a fluorescent Dylight™ 488 dye. All of these agents were compatible with cell recovery and colony formation, and specifically detected colonies secreting recombinant antibodies. Optimisation of the concentration of the fluorescent protein A allowed the identification of a higher number of good producers. Thus these data demonstrate that fluorescently labelled protein A-derivatives can be used for the selection of high producer cells.

  2. Integrated Seismic Survey for Detecting Landslide Effects on High Speed Rail Line at Istanbul–Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grit Mert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves Method (MASW, seismic refraction tomography and seismic reflection methods are used together at Silivri district in Istanbul – a district with a landslide problem because of the high speed rail line project crossing through the area. The landslide structure, border and depth of the slip plane are investigated and correlated within the local geology. According to the obtained 2D seismic sections, the landslide occurs through the East-West direction in the study area and the landslide slip plane with its border are clearly obtained under the subsurface. The results prove that the study area is suitable enough for the landslide development and this evolution also affects the high speed rail line project.

  3. Development of On-Line Monitoring Systems for High Temperature Components in Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongcai Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To accurately detect deformation and extend the component life beyond the original design limits, structural safety monitoring techniques have attracted considerable attention in the power and process industries for decades. In this paper an on-line monitoring system for high temperature pipes in a power plant is developed. The extension-based sensing devices are amounted on straight pipes, T-Joints and elbows of a main steam pipeline. During on-site monitoring for more than two years, most of the sensors worked reliably and steadily. However, the direct strain gauge could not work for long periods because of the high temperature environment. Moreover, it is found that the installation and connection of the extensometers can have a significant influence on the measurement results. The on-line monitoring system has a good alarming function which is demonstrated by detecting a steam leakage of the header.

  4. Development of on-line monitoring systems for high temperature components in power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongcai; Jia, Jiuhong; Wang, Ning; Hu, Xiaoyin; Tu, Shan-Tung; Zhou, Shaoping; Wang, Zhengdong

    2013-11-13

    To accurately detect deformation and extend the component life beyond the original design limits, structural safety monitoring techniques have attracted considerable attention in the power and process industries for decades. In this paper an on-line monitoring system for high temperature pipes in a power plant is developed. The extension-based sensing devices are amounted on straight pipes, T-Joints and elbows of a main steam pipeline. During on-site monitoring for more than two years, most of the sensors worked reliably and steadily. However, the direct strain gauge could not work for long periods because of the high temperature environment. Moreover, it is found that the installation and connection of the extensometers can have a significant influence on the measurement results. The on-line monitoring system has a good alarming function which is demonstrated by detecting a steam leakage of the header.

  5. Development of On-Line Monitoring Systems for High Temperature Components in Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongcai; Jia, Jiuhong; Wang, Ning; Hu, Xiaoyin; Tu, Shan-Tung; Zhou, Shaoping; Wang, Zhengdong

    2013-01-01

    To accurately detect deformation and extend the component life beyond the original design limits, structural safety monitoring techniques have attracted considerable attention in the power and process industries for decades. In this paper an on-line monitoring system for high temperature pipes in a power plant is developed. The extension-based sensing devices are amounted on straight pipes, T-Joints and elbows of a main steam pipeline. During on-site monitoring for more than two years, most of the sensors worked reliably and steadily. However, the direct strain gauge could not work for long periods because of the high temperature environment. Moreover, it is found that the installation and connection of the extensometers can have a significant influence on the measurement results. The on-line monitoring system has a good alarming function which is demonstrated by detecting a steam leakage of the header. PMID:24233026

  6. Development of an electrical current sensor prototype for applications in high-power lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, I. M.; Brígida, A. C. S.; Baptista, J. M.; Costa, J. C. W. A.; Martinez, M. A. G.; Jorge, P. A. S.

    2013-11-01

    A magneto-optical current sensor, based on a low birefringence SF57 glass prism, using a dual quadrature polarimetric configuration was implemented and tested aiming its application in high voltage power lines. Sensor operation is characterized and compared using distinct Super Luminescent Diodes as optical sources, with emission at 650 nm, 830 nm and 1550 nm. Calibration and resolution are obtained in the different operating conditions using a DAQ board and full digital control for signal acquisition and processing. In particular, the sensor was tested in the range from 0 to 1 kA at 50 Hz. Also, operation at different frequencies from 50 Hz to 400 Hz was compared. A robust casing was fabricated in Nylon material enabling the portability of the sensor and its application in different types of conductors. Preliminary results indicate the feasibility of using the sensor both for metering and protection applications in high-power lines with interrogation via the OPGW cable.

  7. INL Reactor Technology Complex Out-of-Service Buried Piping Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas M. Gerstner

    2008-05-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Reactor Technology Complex (RTC) buried piping and components are being characterized to determine if they should be managed as hazardous waste and subject to the Hazardous Waste Management Act /Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). RTC buried piping and components involve both active piping and components from currently operating nuclear facilities, such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), and inactive lines from facilities undergoing D&D activities. The issue exists as to the proper methods to analyze and control hazards associated with D&D activities on facilities collocated with existing operating nuclear facilities, or future collocated facilities being considered with the resurgent nuclear industry. During initial characterization activities, it was determined that residual radioactive material in several inactive RTC lines and components could potentially exceed hazard category (HC) 3 thresholds. In addition, concerns were raised as to how to properly isolate active nuclear facility piping and components from those inactive lines undergoing RCRA actions, and whether the operating facility safety basis could be impacted. Work was stopped, and a potential inadequacy in the safety analysis (PISA) was declared, even though no clear safety basis existed for the inactive, abandoned lines and equipment. An unreviewed safety question (USQ) and an occurrence report resulted. A HC 3 or greater Nuclear Facility/Activity for the buried piping and components was also declared in the occurrence report. A qualitative hazard assessment was developed to evaluate the potential hazards associated with characterization activities, and any potential effects on the safety basis of the collocated RTC operating nuclear facilities. The hazard assessment clearly demonstrated the low hazards associated with the activities based on form and dispersiblity of the radioactive material in the piping and components. The hazard assessment developed

  8. Intensity ratio measurements for density sensitive lines of highly charged Fe ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Safdar, E-mail: safdaruetian@gmail.com; Shimizu, Erina [Institute for Laser Science, The University of Electro-Communications (Japan); Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Daiji; Murakami, Izumi [National Institute for Fusion Science (Japan); Yamamoto, Norimasa [Chubu University (Japan); Hara, Hirohisa; Watanabe, Tetsuya [The Graduate University of Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI) (Japan); Nakamura, Nobuyuki, E-mail: n-nakamu@ils.uec.ac.jp [Institute for Laser Science, The University of Electro-Communications (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Intensity ratio of density sensitive emission lines emitted from Fe ions in the extreme ultraviolet region is important for astrophysics applications. We report high-resolution intensity ratio measurements for Fe ions performed at Tokyo EBIT laboratory by employing a flat-field grazing incidence spectrometer. The experimental intensity ratios of Fe X and Fe XII are plotted as a function of electron density for different electron beam currents. The experimental results are compared with the predicted intensity ratios from the model calculations.

  9. The spectral density function for the Laplacian on high tensor powers of a line bundle

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    For a symplectic manifold with quantizing line bundle, a choice of almost complex structure determines a Laplacian acting on tensor powers of the bundle. For high tensor powers Guillemin-Uribe showed that there is a well-defined cluster of low-lying eigenvalues, whose distribution is described by a spectral density function. We give an explicit computation of the spectral density function, by constructing certain quasimodes on the associated principle bundle.

  10. A review on high-resolution CMOS delay lines: towards sub-picosecond jitter performance

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrazzaq, Bilal I.; Abdul Halin, Izhal; Kawahito, Shoji; Sidek, Roslina M.; Shafie, Suhaidi; Yunus, Nurul Amziah Md

    2016-01-01

    A review on CMOS delay lines with a focus on the most frequently used techniques for high-resolution delay step is presented. The primary types, specifications, delay circuits, and operating principles are presented. The delay circuits reported in this paper are used for delaying digital inputs and clock signals. The most common analog and digitally-controlled delay elements topologies are presented, focusing on the main delay-tuning strategies. IC variables, namely, process, supply voltage, ...

  11. WAVELET-BASED OFDM-CDMA HIGH SPEED POWER LINE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Lerong; Guo Jinghong; Wei Gang

    2004-01-01

    This letter derives the Equivalent M-band Discrete Wavelet(EMDW) transmission mode of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing(OFDM) transmission systems, and presents a new Quadrature M-band Discrete Wavelet(QMDW) based OFDM-CDMA(Code Division Multiple Access) communication systems for high speed Power Line Communication (PLC) channels.This system gives much better robustness to Inter-Channel Interference (ICI), Multi-User Interference (MUI) and noise interference, which is verified by simulation.

  12. Local buckling behavior of 48', X80 high-strain line pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Nobuhisa; Tajika, Hisakazu; Igi, Satoshi; Okatsu, Mitsuru; Kondo, Joe; Arakawa, Takekazu [JFE Steel Corporation (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    In the natural gas sector, more and more long distance and high pressure pipelines are now constructed in challenging areas, such as seismic and Arctic regions. In order to provide safe and reliable operations, high strength, high strain and large diameter pipes are used in such projects to withstand the important strains induced by the environment. The aim of this paper is to investigate the local buckling behavior of high strength and large diameter line pipes. A bending test apparatus was developed and used to perform 2 bending tests on X80 grade, 48'' pipes pressurized to 60% SMYS and a finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted. The comparison between experimental results and simulations showed that the FEA was successful in predicting bending moment, displacement and longitudinal strain. This paper demonstrated the FEA can be used to determine the behavior of high strength, high strain and large diameter pipes.

  13. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  14. A diphtheria outbreak in Buri Ram, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantukosit, Pantavee; Arpornsuwan, Manote; Sookananta, Kanokporn

    2008-07-01

    In May 1996 there was an outbreak of diphtheria in Buri Ram, Thailand which infected 31 patients, 8 males and 23 females. The mean age of the patients was 8 +/- 5 years. Seventy-four percent had a history of childhood vaccinations. Common signs and symptoms included fever (100%) which was low grade in 61%, sore throat (90%), upper airway obstruction (3%), and hoarseness (10%). Pseudomembranes (seen in 100%) were located on the tonsils (71%), pharynx (22%), larynx (9.6%), and uvula (6%). The mean duration of symptoms prior to admission was 2 days with a range of 1 to 5 days. Complications included upper airway obstruction (10%) and cardiac complications (10%). There were no neurological complication or deaths. There were negative associations between cardiac complications, severity of disease and previous diphtheria vaccination. The ages varied from children to adults. Early recognition and prompt treatment decreased complications and mortality in this group of patients when compared with Chiang Mai and Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH) studies.

  15. Buried nanoantenna arrays: versatile antireflection coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Ali; Girgis, Emad; Capasso, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Reflection is usually a detrimental phenomenon in many applications such as flat-panel-displays, solar cells, photodetectors, infrared sensors, and lenses. Thus far, to control and suppress the reflection from a substrate, numerous techniques including dielectric interference coatings, surface texturing, adiabatic index matching, and scattering from plasmonic nanoparticles have been investigated. A new technique is demonstrated to manage and suppress reflection from lossless and lossy substrates. It provides a wider flexibility in design versus previous methods. Reflection from a surface can be suppressed over a narrowband, wideband, or multiband frequency range. The antireflection can be dependent or independent of the incident wave polarization. Moreover, antireflection at a very wide incidence angle can be attained. The reflection from a substrate is controlled by a buried nanoantenna array, a structure composed of (1) a subwavelength metallic array and (2) a dielectric cover layer referred to as a superstrate. The material properties and thickness of the superstrate and nanoantennas' geometry and periodicity control the phase and intensity of the wave circulating inside the superstrate cavity. A minimum reflectance of 0.02% is achieved in various experiments in the mid-infrared from a silicon substrate. The design can be integrated in straightforward way in optical devices. The proposed structure is a versatile AR coating to optically impedance matches any substrate to free space in selected any narrow and broadband spectral response across the entire visible and infrared spectrum.

  16. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (BATATA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro, R. [Inst. de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); De Donato, C.; D' Olivo, J.C.; Guzman, A.; Medina-Tanco, G. [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Moreno Barbosa, E. [Fac. de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Paic, G.; Patino Salazar, E. [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Salazar Ibarguen, H. [Fac. de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Sanchez, F.A., E-mail: federico.sanchez@nucleares.unam.m [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Supanitsky, A.D. [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Valdes-Galicia, J.F. [Inst. de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Vargas Trevino, A.D.; Vergara Limon, S. [Fac. de Ciencias de la Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Villasenor, L.M. [Inst. de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas Hidalgo Morelia (Mexico); Observatorio Pierre Auger, Av. San Martin Norte 304 (5613) Malarguee, Prov. Mendoza (Argentina)

    2010-05-21

    Muon telescopes have multiple applications in the area of cosmic ray research. We are currently building such a detector with the objective of comparing the ground penetration of muon vs. electron-gamma signals originated in cosmic ray showers. The detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fixed depths ranging from 120 to 600g/cm{sup 2}. Each layer is 4m{sup 2} and is composed by 49 rectangular strips of 4cmx2m, oriented at a 90{sup 0} angle with respect to its companion layer, which gives an xy-coincidence pixel of 4x4cm{sup 2}. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips, with an embedded Bicron BC92 wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers, of 1.5 mm in diameter. Light is collected by Hamamatsu H7546B multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels. The front-end (FE) electronics works in counting mode and signals are transmitted to the surface DAQ stage using low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS). Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2{mu}s data collection window. Data, including signal and background, are acquired by a system of FPGA (Spartan 2E) boards and a single-board computer (TS7800).

  17. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (BATATA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, R.; de Donato, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Guzmán, A.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Moreno Barbosa, E.; Paic, G.; Patiño Salazar, E.; Salazar Ibarguen, H.; Sánchez, F. A.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vargas Treviño, A. D.; Vergara Limón, S.; Villaseñor, L. M.; Auger Collaboration

    2010-05-01

    Muon telescopes have multiple applications in the area of cosmic ray research. We are currently building such a detector with the objective of comparing the ground penetration of muon vs. electron-gamma signals originated in cosmic ray showers. The detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fixed depths ranging from 120 to 600g/cm2. Each layer is 4m2 and is composed by 49 rectangular strips of 4cm×2m, oriented at a 90∘ angle with respect to its companion layer, which gives an xy-coincidence pixel of 4×4cm2. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips, with an embedded Bicron BC92 wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers, of 1.5 mm in diameter. Light is collected by Hamamatsu H7546B multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels. The front-end (FE) electronics works in counting mode and signals are transmitted to the surface DAQ stage using low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS). Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2μs data collection window. Data, including signal and background, are acquired by a system of FPGA (Spartan 2E) boards and a single-board computer (TS7800).

  18. 非均匀土壤中埋地电缆 HEMP 响应研究%Response Analysis of Buried Cable Excited by HEMP in Non-Homogeneous Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文刚; 姜勤波; 齐世举; 蔡星会

    2015-01-01

    为进一步研究埋地电缆在高空核爆电磁脉冲( HEMP)辐照下的电磁瞬态响应,采用了电特性更接近实际情况的双层大地土壤模型,基于传输线方程计算了在HEMP平面波垂直入射下,分层大地土壤中埋地电缆的端接负载响应。分析了电导率分层结构、上层土壤厚度及埋地深度等因素对电缆端接负载感应电流的影响。该研究结果可供EMC设计时参考。%For the further study of buried cables′electromagnetic transient response excited by the high -alti-tude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP), the earth is divided into two levels with different electromagnetic proper-ties.The terminal load response of the buried cables in stratified earth irradiated by HEMP plane wave vertical -ly is calculated based on the transmission line equations , and some factors influencing the terminal load induced current , such as the stratified conductivity , the thickness of the upper soil , and the buried depth were ana-lyzed .The results can be a guideline for the empirical EMC design .

  19. Establishment of Stable High Expression Cell Line with Green Fluorescent Protein and Resistance Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shengtao; LIU Wenli; HE Peigen; GONG Feili; YANG Dongliang

    2006-01-01

    In order to establish stable high expression cell lines, the eukaryotic expression vector pIRES2EGFP and recombinant plasmid pIRES2EGFP-TIM-3 were transfected into mammalian cells CHO by Lipofectamine. The transfected cells were cultivated under selective growth medium including G418 and green fluorescent protein (GFP) positive cells were sorted by FACS. Simultaneously, growing transfectants were selected only by G418 in the medium. The GFP expression in stably transfected cells was detected by FACS. Under selective growth conditions with G418, the percentage of GFP positive cells was reduced rapidly and GFP induction was low. In contrast, the percentages of GFP positive cells were increased gradually after FACS. By 3 rounds of GFP selection, the stable high expression cell lines were established. Furthermore, using FACS analysis GFP and the target protein TIM-3 co-expression in the stable transfectants cultured in nonselective medium was detected. Theses results demonstrated that the stably transfected cell lines that express high titer of recombinant protein can be simply and fleetly obtained by using GFP and selective growth medium.

  20. The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, S. R. [ORNL; Daniel, A. [Southwire Company

    2013-10-31

    The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and Southwire Company was to jointly develop a low cost, commercially viable, water-repellant anti-icing coating system for high voltage transmission lines. Icing of power lines and other structures caused by freezing rain events occurs annually in the United States, and leads to severe and prolonged power outages. These outages cause untold economic and personal distress for many American families and businesses. Researchers at the Department of Energy?s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have previously developed a set of superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anti-icing properties that could potentially be sprayed or painted onto high-tension power lines and pylons. These coatings drastically reduce ice accumulation on these structures during freezing rain events. The project involved obtaining technical input, supplies and test high voltage cables from Southwire, along with the joint development of anti-icing coating techniques, which would result in a commercial license agreement between Southwire and ORNL, and potentially other companies requiring water repellent anti-icing coatings.

  1. The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and Southwire Company was to jointly develop a low cost, commercially viable, water-repellant anti-icing coating system for high voltage transmission lines. Icing of power lines and other structures caused by freezing rain events occurs annually in the United States, and leads to severe and prolonged power outages. These outages cause untold economic and personal distress for many American families and businesses. Researchers at the Department of Energy s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have previously developed a set of superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anti-icing properties that could potentially be sprayed or painted onto high-tension power lines and pylons. These coatings drastically reduce ice accumulation on these structures during freezing rain events. The project involved obtaining technical input, supplies and test high voltage cables from Southwire, along with the joint development of anti-icing coating techniques, which would result in a commercial license agreement between Southwire and ORNL, and potentially other companies requiring water repellent anti-icing coatings.

  2. A New Diagnostic Diagram of Ionization Source for High Redshift Emission Line Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new diagram, the Kinematic-Excitation diagram (KEx diagram), which uses the [OIII]/H\\beta\\ line ratio and the [OIII]5007 emission line width (\\sigma_{[OIII]}) to diagnose the ionization source and physical properties of the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) and the star-forming galaxies (SFGs). The KEx diagram is a suitable tool to classify emission-line galaxies (ELGs) at intermediate redshift because it uses only the [OIII]5007 and H\\beta\\ emission lines. We use the SDSS DR7 main galaxy sample and the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich (BPT) diagnostic to calibrate the diagram at low redshift. We find that the diagram can be divided into 3 regions: one occupied mainly by the pure AGNs (KEx-AGN region), one dominated by composite galaxies (KEx-composite region), and one contains mostly SFGs (KEx-SFG region). AGNs are separated from SFGs in this diagram mainly because they preferentially reside in luminous and massive galaxies and have high [OIII]/H\\beta. The separation of AGN from star-forming galaxies is e...

  3. Narrow Line X-Ray Calibration Source for High Resolution Microcalorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokin, M.S.; McCammon, D.; Morgan, K.M.; Bandler, Simon Richard; Lee, S.J.; Moseley, S.H.; Smith, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    We are developing a narrow line calibration source for use with X-ray microcalorimeters. At energies below 300 electronvolts fluorescent lines are intrinsically broad, making calibration of high resolution detectors difficult. This source consists of a 405 nanometers (3 electronvolts) laser diode coupled to an optical fiber. The diode is pulsed to create approximately one hundred photons in a few microseconds. If the pulses are short compared to the rise time of the detector, they will be detected as single events with a total energy in the soft X-ray range. Poisson fluctuations in photon number per pulse create a comb of X-ray lines with 3 electronvolts spacing, so detectors with energy resolution better than 2 electronvolts are required to resolve the individual lines. Our currently unstabilized diode has a multimode width less than 1 nanometer, giving a 300 electronvolt event a Full width at half maximum (FWHM) less than 0.1 electronvolts. By varying the driving voltage, or pulse width, the source can produce a comb centered on a wide range of energies. The calibration events are produced at precisely known times. This allows continuous calibration of a flight mission without contaminating the observed spectrum and with minimal deadtime.

  4. Line and continuum variability of two intermediate-redshift, high-luminosity quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Trevese, D; Stirpe, G M; Vagnetti, F; Zitelli, V

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that the luminosity of AGNs and the size of their broad line region obey a simple relation of the type R=a L^g, from faint Seyfert nuclei to bright quasars, allowing single-epoch determination of the central black hole mass M=b L^g D^2 from their luminosity L and width of H_beta emission line. Adopting this mass determination for cosmological studies requires the extrapolation to high z and L of a relation whose calibration relies so far on reverberation mapping measurements performed for L10^47 erg/s, and determining eventually their M_BH from reverberation mapping. We have repeatedly performed simultaneous observations of quasars and reference stars to determine relative variability of continuum and emission lines. We describe the observations and methods of analysis. For the quasars PG1634+706 and PG1247+268 we obtain light-curves respectively for CIII], MgII and for CIV, CIII] emission lines with the relevant continua. During 3.2 years of observation, in the former case no continuum vari...

  5. Precision Wavelength Measurements And Identifications Of EUV Lines From Highly Charged L-Shell yttrium Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silwal, Roshani; Dreiling, Joan; Gillaspy, John; Takacs, Endre; Ralchenko, Yuri

    2016-05-01

    We present the measurements of extreme-ultraviolet spectra of the L-shell ions of highly charged yttrium (Y29+- Y36+) created and trapped in the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Few Na-like, Mg-like and Al-like yttrium lines (Y26+- Y28+) are reported as well. In order to reach the desired ionization stages, the beam energy was systematically varied from 2.3 keV to 6 keV during the experiment. A flat-field grazing-incidence spectrometer was used to record the spectra in the wavelength range of 4.022 nm to 19.957 nm. The wavelength calibration was provided by the previously measured lines of neon, xenon, oxygen and iron. A total of 63 new spectral lines (allowed and forbidden) corresponding to the Δn = 0 transitions within n = 2 and 3 have been identified using collisional-radiative simulations of the non-Maxwellian EBIT plasma. The total uncertainties assigned to the measured wavelengths vary between 0.001 nm to 0.003 nm and include contributions from calibration uncertainties, statistical uncertainties from the line fits, and estimated systematic uncertainties.

  6. Molecular Line Emission Towards High-Mass Clumps: The MALT90 Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathborne, J. M.; Whitaker, J. S.; Jackson, J. M.; Foster, J. B.; Contreras, Y.; Stephens, I. W.; Guzmán, A. E.; Longmore, S. N.; Sanhueza, P.; Schuller, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Urquhart, J. S.

    2016-07-01

    The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass clumps. Recently completed, it mapped 90 GHz line emission towards 3 246 high-mass clumps identified from the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. By utilising the broad frequency coverage of the Mopra telescope's spectrometer, maps in 16 different emission lines were simultaneously obtained. Here, we describe the first catalogue of the detected line emission, generated by Gaussian profile fitting to spectra extracted towards each clumps' 870 μm dust continuum peak. Synthetic spectra show that the catalogue has a completeness of > 95%, a probability of a false-positive detection of < 0.3%, and a relative uncertainty in the measured quantities of < 20% over the range of detection criteria. The detection rates are highest for the (1-0) transitions of HCO+, HNC, N2H+, and HCN (~77-89%). Almost all clumps (~95%) are detected in at least one of the molecular transitions, just over half of the clumps (~53%) are detected in four or more of the transitions, while only one clump is detected in 13 transitions. We find several striking trends in the ensemble of properties for the different molecular transitions when plotted as a function of the clumps' evolutionary state as estimated from Spitzer mid-IR images, including (1) HNC is relatively brighter in colder, less evolved clumps than those that show active star formation, (2) N2H+ is relatively brighter in the earlier stages, (3) that the observed optical depth decreases as the clumps evolve, and (4) the optically thickest HCO+ emission shows a `blue-red asymmetry' indicating overall collapse that monotonically decreases as the clumps evolve. This catalogue represents the largest compiled database of line emission towards high-mass clumps and is a valuable data set for detailed studies of these objects.

  7. Fabrication and Characterization of Multilayer Capacitors Buried in a Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Y. C.; G. Y. Li

    1998-01-01

    Multilayer ceramic capacitors designed to be embedded in a low temperature co-fired ceramic substrate have been successfully fabricated. Low and high value capacitors were respectively embedded in the low K multilayer substrate and high K dielectric layer. The buried capacitor has a capacitance density range (1 kHz) from about 220 pF/cm2 to 30 nF/cm2. The design took material compatibility and shrinkage characteristics specifically into account. The effects of heating rat...

  8. A New High-Yielding Two-line Hybrid Rice Variety - Peiliang You 981

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Peiliang You 981 (also called 98 Guangzhi 1 or Peiliang You Guangzhi 1) is a late-season two-line indica hybrid rice variety with high yield and late maturity. Pei'ai 64S is the female parent and R981 (Guang 1) is the male parent of Peiliang You 981. The hybrid showed its characters of high and stable yield and wide adaptability in the variety trials and demonstration production in the recent years, and it was released in March 2002 by Hunan Crop Varieties Release Committee.

  9. Modelling High Resolution Absorption Spectra with ExoMolLine Lists: NH3and CH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barton, E. J.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Tennyson, J.;

    The conditions, chemical reactions and gas mixing in industrial progresses involving gasification or combustion can be monitored by in situ measurement of gas temperature and gas composition. This can be done spectroscopically, though the result is highly dependent on the quality of reference data...... [1]. For this reason, a smart collaboration has been established between Optical Diagnostics Group at DTU and ExoMol, to combine high resolution spectra measured at elevated temperatures and empirically tuned ab initio methods to produce suitable molecular line lists for modelling molecules...

  10. Tracing the Lowest Propeller Line in Magellanic High-mass X-Ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Laycock, Silas G. T.; Yang, Jun; Fingerman, Samuel

    2016-09-01

    We have combined the published observations of high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) pulsars in the Magellanic Clouds with a new processing of the complete archival data sets from the XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories in an attempt to trace the lowest propeller line below which accretion to polar caps is inhibited by the centrifugal force and the pulsations from the most weakly magnetized pulsars cease. Previously published data reveal that some of the faster-spinning pulsars with spin periods of P S < 12 s, detected at relatively low X-ray luminosities L X , appear to define such a line in the P S -L X diagram, characterized by a magnetic moment of μ = 3 × 1029 G cm3. This value implies the presence of surface magnetic fields of B ≥ 3 × 1011 G in the compact objects of this class. Only a few quiescent HMXBs are found below the propeller line: LXP4.40 and SXP4.78, for which XMM-Newton and Chandra null detections respectively placed firm upper limits on their X-ray fluxes in deep quiescence; and A0538-66, for which many sub-Eddington detections have never measured any pulsations. On the other hand, the data from the XMM-Newton and Chandra archives show clearly that, during routine observation cycles, several sources have been detected below the propeller line in extremely faint, nonpulsating states that can be understood as the result of weak magnetospheric emission when accretion to the poles is centrifugally stalled or severely diminished. We also pay attention to the anomalous X-ray pulsar CXOU J010043.1-721134 that was reported in HMXB surveys. Its pulsations and locations near and above the propeller line indicate that this pulsar could be accreting from a fossil disk.

  11. HIGH-VELOCITY LINE FORMING REGIONS IN THE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2009ig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, G. H.; Foley, Ryan J.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Vinko, Jozsef; Wheeler, J. Craig; Silverman, Jeffrey M. [University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Hsiao, Eric Y. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Brown, Peter J. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, 4242 AMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Garnavich, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Landsman, Wayne B. [Adnet Systems, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Parrent, Jerod T. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Pritchard, Tyler A.; Roming, Peter W. A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Wang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: gmarion@cfa.harvard.edu [Physics Department and Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics (THCA), Tsinghua University, Beijing 1,00084 (China)

    2013-11-01

    We report measurements and analysis of high-velocity (HVF) (>20,000 km s{sup –1}) and photospheric absorption features in a series of spectra of the Type Ia supernova (SN) 2009ig obtained between –14 days and +13 days with respect to the time of maximum B-band luminosity (B-max). We identify lines of Si II, Si III, S II, Ca II, and Fe II that produce both HVF and photospheric-velocity (PVF) absorption features. SN 2009ig is unusual for the large number of lines with detectable HVF in the spectra, but the light-curve parameters correspond to a slightly overluminous but unexceptional SN Ia (M{sub B} = –19.46 mag and Δm{sub 15}(B) = 0.90 mag). Similarly, the Si II λ6355 velocity at the time of B-max is greater than 'normal' for an SN Ia, but it is not extreme (v{sub Si} = 13,400 km s{sup –1}). The –14 days and –13 days spectra clearly resolve HVF from Si II λ6355 as separate absorptions from a detached line forming region. At these very early phases, detached HVF are prevalent in all lines. From –12 days to –6 days, HVF and PVF are detected simultaneously, and the two line forming regions maintain a constant separation of about 8000 km s{sup –1}. After –6 days all absorption features are PVF. The observations of SN 2009ig provide a complete picture of the transition from HVF to PVF. Most SNe Ia show evidence for HVF from multiple lines in spectra obtained before –10 days, and we compare the spectra of SN 2009ig to observations of other SNe. We show that each of the unusual line profiles for Si II λ6355 found in early-time spectra of SNe Ia correlate to a specific phase in a common development sequence from HVF to PVF.

  12. Design and fabrication of the high-power RF transmission line into the PEFP linac tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Kim, Han-Sung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2012-07-01

    The 100-MeV proton linear accelerator (linac) for the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) has been developed and will be installed at the Gyeong-ju site. For the linac, a total of 11 sets of RF systems are required, and the waveguide layout was fixed to install high-power RF (HPRF) systems. One of the important interfaces with the building construction is the high-power radio-frequency (HPRF) transmission line embedded in the tunnel, which is used to transmit 1-MW RF power to each cavity in the tunnel. The waveguide section penetrating into the linac tunnel was designed with a bending structure for radiation shielding, and the dependence of its voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR) on the chamfer length of the bending was calculated. The HPRF transmission line was fabricated into a piece of waveguide to prevent moisture and any foreign debris inside the 2.5-m thick concrete block. Air leakage was checked with a pressure of 0.25 psig of nitrogen gas, and a maximum VSWR of 1.196 was obtained by measuring the vector reflection coefficients with the quarter-wave transmission section. In this paper, the design and the fabrication of the HPRF transmission line into the PEFP linac tunnel are presented.

  13. Line intensities of the asymptotic asymmetric-top radical HO2 at high temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Xiao-Shu; Cheng Xin-Lu; Yang Xiang-Dong; Linghu Rong-Feng; Lv Sing

    2008-01-01

    The total internal partition sums were calculated in the product approximation at temperatures up to 5000 K for the asymptotic asymmetric-top HO2 molecule.The calculations of the rotational partition function and the vibrational partition function were carried out with the rigid-top model and in the harmonic oscillator approximation,respectively.Our values of the total internal partition sums are consistent with the data of HITRAN database with -0.14% at 296 K.Using the calculated partition functions,we have calculated the line intensities of υ2 band of HO2 at several high temperatures.The results showed that the calculated line intensities are in very good agreement with those of HITRAN database at temperatures up to 3000 K,which provides a strong support for the calculations of partition functions and line intensities at high temperatures.Then we have extended the calculation to higher temperatures.The simulated spectra of u2 band of the asymptotic asymmetric-top HO2 molecule at 4000 and 5000K are also obtained.

  14. Highly and moderately aggressive mouse ovarian cancer cell lines exhibit differential gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wensheng; Kale, Shubha P.; McFerrin, Harris; Davenport, Ian; Wang, Guangdi; Skripnikova, Elena; Li, Xiao-Lin; Bowen, Nathan J.; McDaniels, Leticia B; Meng, Yuan-Xiang; Polk, Paula; Liu, Yong-Yu; Zhang, Qian-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer often experience disease recurrence after standard therapies, a critical factor in determining their five-year survival rate. Recent reports indicated that long-term or short-term survival is associated with varied gene expression of cancer cells. Thus, identification of novel prognostic biomarkers should be considered. Since the mouse genome is similar to the human genome, we explored potential prognostic biomarkers using two groups of mouse ovarian cancer cell lines (group 1: IG-10, IG-10pw, and IG-10pw/agar; group 2: IG-10 clones 2, 3, and 11) which display highly and moderately aggressive phenotypes in vivo. Mice injected with these cell lines have different survival time and rates, capacities of tumor, and ascites formations, reflecting different prognostic potentials. Using an Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array, a total of 181 genes were differentially expressed (Pdeath. None of the genes from a set of the 72 genes overexpressed in the moderately aggressive cell lines had a function annotation in the David database. Our results suggested that the overexpressed MYC and 109 gene set represented highly aggressive ovarian cancer potential biomarkers while overexpressed AR and 72 gene set represented moderately aggressive ovarian cancer potential biomarkers. Based on our knowledge, the current study is first time to report the potential biomarkers relevant to different aggressive ovarian cancer. These potential biomarkers provide important information for investigating human ovarian cancer prognosis. PMID:26935058

  15. Determination of High-Frequency Current Distribution Using EMTP-Based Transmission Line Models with Resulting Radiated Electromagnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mork, B; Nelson, R; Kirkendall, B; Stenvig, N

    2009-11-30

    Application of BPL technologies to existing overhead high-voltage power lines would benefit greatly from improved simulation tools capable of predicting performance - such as the electromagnetic fields radiated from such lines. Existing EMTP-based frequency-dependent line models are attractive since their parameters are derived from physical design dimensions which are easily obtained. However, to calculate the radiated electromagnetic fields, detailed current distributions need to be determined. This paper presents a method of using EMTP line models to determine the current distribution on the lines, as well as a technique for using these current distributions to determine the radiated electromagnetic fields.

  16. High-Velocity Line-Forming Regions in the Type Ia Supernova 2009ig

    CERN Document Server

    Marion, G H "Howie"; Wheeler, J Craig; Foley, Ryan J; Hsiao, Eric Y; Brown, Peter J; Challis, Peter; Filippenko, Alexei V; Garnavich, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P; Landsman, Wayne B; Parrent, Jerod T; Pritchard, Tyler A; Roming, Peter W A; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    We report measurements and analysis of high-velocity (> 20,000 km/s) and photospheric absorption features in a sequence of spectra of SN Ia 2009ig obtained between -14d and +13d with respect to the time of B-band maximum light. We identify lines of Si II, Si III, S II, Ca II and Fe II that produce simultaneous high-velocity (HV) and photospheric velocity (PS) components from -12d to -5d. SN 2009ig is unusual in the number of lines with detectable HV features in its spectra but the light-curve parameters, M_B = -19.46 mag and the Delta m15(B) = 0.90 mag, correspond to a slightly overluminous but unexceptional SN Ia. The velocity of 13,400 km/s for Si II 6355 at the time of B-max is above "normal" for SN Ia but not unusual. The early start and high cadence of our data permit a detailed study of the transition in SN Ia from features dominated by high-velocity components to features with exclusively photospheric components. The -14d and -13d spectra in our sample are the first to clearly resolve high-velocity Si ...

  17. An Extreme, Blueshifted Iron-Line Profile in the Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 PG 1402+261: An Edge-on Accretion Disk or Highly Ionized Absorption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J. N.; Porquet, D.; Turner, T. J.

    2004-11-01

    We report on a short XMM-Newton observation of the radio-quiet narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy PG 1402+261. The EPIC X-ray spectrum of PG 1402+261 shows a strong excess of counts between 6 and 9 keV in the rest frame. This feature can be modeled by an unusually strong (equivalent width 2 keV) and very broad (FWHM velocity of 110,000 km s-1) iron K-shell emission line. The line centroid energy at 7.3 keV appears blueshifted with respect to the iron Kα emission band between 6.4 and 6.97 keV, while the blue wing of the line extends to 9 keV in the quasar rest frame. The line profile can be fitted by reflection from the inner accretion disk, but an inclination angle of >60° is required to model the extreme blue wing of the line. Furthermore, the extreme strength of the line requires a geometry whereby the hard X-ray emission from PG 1402+261 above 2 keV is dominated by the pure-reflection component from the disk, while little or none of the direct hard power law is observed. Alternatively, the spectrum above 2 keV may be explained by an ionized absorber, if the column density is sufficiently high (NH>3×1023 cm-2) and if the matter is ionized enough to produce a deep (τ~1) iron K-shell absorption edge at 9 keV. This absorber could originate in a large column density, high-velocity outflow, perhaps similar to those that appear to be observed in several other high accretion rate active galactic nuclei. Further observations, especially at higher spectral resolution, are required to distinguish between the accretion disk reflection and outflow scenarios.

  18. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.248 Cover over buried pipeline. (a) Unless specifically... (457) Any other area 30 (762) 18 (457) 1 Rock excavation is any excavation that requires blasting or...

  19. An Analysis of Magnetic Field Environment Near High-Voltage Power Lines and Contact Wires of Electric Railways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Image method is used in this paper to calculate the value of magnetic field near high-voltage transmission lines and electric railways. Areas in which the magnetic field is less than 0.002 Gauss are given and the magnetic pollution of high-voltage power transmission lines and electric railways is discussed

  20. Synthesis of a high molecular weight thyroglobulin dimer by two ovine thyroid cell lines: the OVNIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovsépian, S; Aouani, A; Fayet, G

    1986-05-01

    The OVNIS 6H and 5H thyroid cells, 2 permanent cell lines isolated 3 years ago from ovine tissue, synthesize a high molecular weight glycosylated protein, immunologically related to ovine thyroglobulin, which is similar to the prothyroid hormone dimer (17-19) S: thyroglobulin. Using sucrose gradient centrifugation and cell labelling with [14C]Leu or [3H]GlNH2, radioactivity was observed in proteins purified from cell layers and from cell culture media. Addition of thyrotropin to or removal from the media resulted respectively in an increase (+773%) or decrease (-1090%) of the total radioactivity detected in the (17-19)S thyroglobulin fraction. Estimation of thyroglobulin by RIA gave similar though less pronounced effects. These experiments prove (1) that thyroglobulin is still expressed in these OVNIS thyroid cell lines even after 3 years of permanent culture, (2) that TSH modulates the level of this protein through a TSH-receptor functional system.

  1. Multi-line split DNA synthesis: a novel combinatorial method to make high quality peptide libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueno Shingo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We developed a method to make a various high quality random peptide libraries for evolutionary protein engineering based on a combinatorial DNA synthesis. Results A split synthesis in codon units was performed with mixtures of bases optimally designed by using a Genetic Algorithm program. It required only standard DNA synthetic reagents and standard DNA synthesizers in three lines. This multi-line split DNA synthesis (MLSDS is simply realized by adding a mix-and-split process to normal DNA synthesis protocol. Superiority of MLSDS method over other methods was shown. We demonstrated the synthesis of oligonucleotide libraries with 1016 diversity, and the construction of a library with random sequence coding 120 amino acids containing few stop codons. Conclusions Owing to the flexibility of the MLSDS method, it will be able to design various "rational" libraries by using bioinformatics databases.

  2. Data fusion for the detection of buried land mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Schaich, P.C.; Sherwood, R.J.; Buhl, M.R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; Fields, D.J.; Carter, M.R.

    1993-10-01

    The authors conducted experiments to demonstrate the enhanced delectability of buried land mines using sensor fusion techniques. Multiple sensors, including imagery, infrared imagery, and ground penetrating radar, have been used to acquire data on a number of buried mines and mine surrogates. The authors present this data along with a discussion of the application of sensor fusion techniques for this particular detection problem. The authors describe the data fusion architecture and discuss some relevant results of these classification methods.

  3. Classification of Target Buried in the Underground by Radar Polarimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyama, Toshifumi; Nakamura, Masafumi; Yamaguchi, Yoshio; Yamada, Hiroyoshi; Boerner, Wolfgang-M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the classification of targets buried in the underground by radar polarimetry. The subsurface radar is used for the detection of objects buried beneath the ground surface, such as gas pipes, cables and cavities, or in archeological exploration operation. In addition to target echo, the subsurface radar receives various other echoes, because the underground is inhomogeneous medium. Therefore, the subsurface radar needs to distinguish these echoes. In order to enhance the di...

  4. Dynamic Pressure of Seabed around Buried Pipelines in Shallow Water

    OpenAIRE

    Changjing Fu; Guoying Li; Tianlong Zhao; Donghai Guan

    2015-01-01

    Due to the obvious nonlinear effect caused by the shallow waves, the nonlinear wave loads have a great influence on the buried pipelines in shallow water. In order to ensure their stability, the forces on the pipelines that resulted from nonlinear waves should be considered thoroughly. Based on the Biot consolidation theory and the first-order approximate cnoidal wave theory, analytical solutions of the pore water pressure around the buried pipelines in shallow water caused by waves are first...

  5. High-throughput phenotyping to detect drought tolerance QTL in wild barley introgression lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Honsdorf

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most severe stresses, endangering crop yields worldwide. In order to select drought tolerant genotypes, access to exotic germplasm and efficient phenotyping protocols are needed. In this study the high-throughput phenotyping platform "The Plant Accelerator", Adelaide, Australia, was used to screen a set of 47 juvenile (six week old wild barley introgression lines (S42ILs for drought stress responses. The kinetics of growth development was evaluated under early drought stress and well watered treatments. High correlation (r=0.98 between image based biomass estimates and actual biomass was demonstrated, and the suitability of the system to accurately and non-destructively estimate biomass was validated. Subsequently, quantitative trait loci (QTL were located, which contributed to the genetic control of growth under drought stress. In total, 44 QTL for eleven out of 14 investigated traits were mapped, which for example controlled growth rate and water use efficiency. The correspondence of those QTL with QTL previously identified in field trials is shown. For instance, six out of eight QTL controlling plant height were also found in previous field and glasshouse studies with the same introgression lines. This indicates that phenotyping juvenile plants may assist in predicting adult plant performance. In addition, favorable wild barley alleles for growth and biomass parameters were detected, for instance, a QTL that increased biomass by approximately 36%. In particular, introgression line S42IL-121 revealed improved growth under drought stress compared to the control Scarlett. The introgression line showed a similar behavior in previous field experiments, indicating that S42IL-121 may be an attractive donor for breeding of drought tolerant barley cultivars.

  6. High-throughput phenotyping to detect drought tolerance QTL in wild barley introgression lines

    KAUST Repository

    Honsdorf, Nora

    2014-05-13

    Drought is one of the most severe stresses, endangering crop yields worldwide. In order to select drought tolerant genotypes, access to exotic germplasm and efficient phenotyping protocols are needed. In this study the high-throughput phenotyping platform "The Plant Accelerator", Adelaide, Australia, was used to screen a set of 47 juvenile (six week old) wild barley introgression lines (S42ILs) for drought stress responses. The kinetics of growth development was evaluated under early drought stress and well watered treatments. High correlation (r = 0.98) between image based biomass estimates and actual biomass was demonstrated, and the suitability of the system to accurately and non-destructively estimate biomass was validated. Subsequently, quantitative trait loci (QTL) were located, which contributed to the genetic control of growth under drought stress. In total, 44 QTL for eleven out of 14 investigated traits were mapped, which for example controlled growth rate and water use efficiency. The correspondence of those QTL with QTL previously identified in field trials is shown. For instance, six out of eight QTL controlling plant height were also found in previous field and glasshouse studies with the same introgression lines. This indicates that phenotyping juvenile plants may assist in predicting adult plant performance. In addition, favorable wild barley alleles for growth and biomass parameters were detected, for instance, a QTL that increased biomass by approximately 36%. In particular, introgression line S42IL-121 revealed improved growth under drought stress compared to the control Scarlett. The introgression line showed a similar behavior in previous field experiments, indicating that S42IL-121 may be an attractive donor for breeding of drought tolerant barley cultivars. © 2014 Honsdorf et al.

  7. A REVERBERATION LAG FOR THE HIGH-IONIZATION COMPONENT OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION IN THE NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 Mrk 335

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grier, C. J.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; Martini, Paul; Zu, Y.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B. J.; Stanek, K. Z.; Araya Salvo, C.; Beatty, T. G.; Bird, J. C. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Denney, K. D. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, One Park Place South SE, Suite 700, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Sergeev, S. G.; Borman, G. A. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny Crimea 98409 (Ukraine); Kaspi, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Bord, D. J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The University of Michigan-Dearborn, 4901 Evergreen Rd, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); Che, X. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 41809 (United States); Chen, C.; Cohen, S. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); and others

    2012-01-15

    We present the first results from a detailed analysis of photometric and spectrophotometric data on the narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy Mrk 335, collected over a 120 day span in the fall of 2010. From these data we measure the lag in the He II {lambda}4686 broad emission line relative to the optical continuum to be 2.7 {+-} 0.6 days and the lag in the H{beta}{lambda}4861 broad emission line to be 13.9 {+-} 0.9 days. Combined with the line width, the He II lag yields a black hole mass M{sub BH} = (2.6 {+-} 0.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }. This measurement is consistent with measurements made using the H{beta}{lambda}4861 line, suggesting that the He II emission originates in the same structure as H{beta}, but at a much smaller radius. This constitutes the first robust lag measurement for a high-ionization line in an NLS1 galaxy and supports a scenario in which the He II emission originates from gas in virial motion rather than outflow.

  8. High-speed adaptive optics line scan confocal retinal imaging for human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yuhua

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Continuous and rapid eye movement causes significant intraframe distortion in adaptive optics high resolution retinal imaging. To minimize this artifact, we developed a high speed adaptive optics line scan confocal retinal imaging system. Methods A high speed line camera was employed to acquire retinal image and custom adaptive optics was developed to compensate the wave aberration of the human eye’s optics. The spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio were assessed in model eye and in living human eye. The improvement of imaging fidelity was estimated by reduction of intra-frame distortion of retinal images acquired in the living human eyes with frame rates at 30 frames/second (FPS), 100 FPS, and 200 FPS. Results The device produced retinal image with cellular level resolution at 200 FPS with a digitization of 512×512 pixels/frame in the living human eye. Cone photoreceptors in the central fovea and rod photoreceptors near the fovea were resolved in three human subjects in normal chorioretinal health. Compared with retinal images acquired at 30 FPS, the intra-frame distortion in images taken at 200 FPS was reduced by 50.9% to 79.7%. Conclusions We demonstrated the feasibility of acquiring high resolution retinal images in the living human eye at a speed that minimizes retinal motion artifact. This device may facilitate research involving subjects with nystagmus or unsteady fixation due to central vision loss. PMID:28257458

  9. High-speed adaptive optics line scan confocal retinal imaging for human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Gu, Boyu; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yuhua

    2017-01-01

    Continuous and rapid eye movement causes significant intraframe distortion in adaptive optics high resolution retinal imaging. To minimize this artifact, we developed a high speed adaptive optics line scan confocal retinal imaging system. A high speed line camera was employed to acquire retinal image and custom adaptive optics was developed to compensate the wave aberration of the human eye's optics. The spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio were assessed in model eye and in living human eye. The improvement of imaging fidelity was estimated by reduction of intra-frame distortion of retinal images acquired in the living human eyes with frame rates at 30 frames/second (FPS), 100 FPS, and 200 FPS. The device produced retinal image with cellular level resolution at 200 FPS with a digitization of 512×512 pixels/frame in the living human eye. Cone photoreceptors in the central fovea and rod photoreceptors near the fovea were resolved in three human subjects in normal chorioretinal health. Compared with retinal images acquired at 30 FPS, the intra-frame distortion in images taken at 200 FPS was reduced by 50.9% to 79.7%. We demonstrated the feasibility of acquiring high resolution retinal images in the living human eye at a speed that minimizes retinal motion artifact. This device may facilitate research involving subjects with nystagmus or unsteady fixation due to central vision loss.

  10. High-Resolution Transfer Printing of Graphene Lines for Fully Printed, Flexible Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Donghoon; Mahajan, Ankit; Secor, Ethan B; Hersam, Mark C; Francis, Lorraine F; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2017-07-25

    Pristine graphene inks show great promise for flexible printed electronics due to their high electrical conductivity and robust mechanical, chemical, and environmental stability. While traditional liquid-phase printing methods can produce graphene patterns with a resolution of ∼30 μm, more precise techniques are required for improved device performance and integration density. A high-resolution transfer printing method is developed here capable of printing conductive graphene patterns on plastic with line width and spacing as small as 3.2 and 1 μm, respectively. The core of this method lies in the design of a graphene ink and its integration with a thermally robust mold that enables annealing at up to ∼250 °C for precise, high-performance graphene patterns. These patterns exhibit excellent electrical and mechanical properties, enabling favorable operation as electrodes in fully printed electrolyte-gated transistors and inverters with stable performance even following cyclic bending to a strain of 1%. The high resolution coupled with excellent control over the line edge roughness to below 25 nm enables aggressive scaling of transistor dimensions, offering a compelling route for the scalable manufacturing of flexible nanoelectronic devices.

  11. Self-organized growth of nanoparticles on a surface patterned by a buried dislocation network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, F; Renaud, G; Letoublon, A; Lazzari, R; Mottet, C; Goniakowski, J

    2005-10-28

    The self-organized growth of Co nanoparticles is achieved at room temperature on an inhomogenously strained Ag(001) surface arising from an underlying square misfit dislocation network of 10 nm periodicity buried at the interface between a 5 nm-thick Ag film and a MgO(001) substrate. This is revealed by in situ grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. Simulations of the data performed in the distorted wave Born approximation framework demonstrate that the Co clusters grow above the dislocation crossing lines. This is confirmed by molecular dynamic simulations indicating preferential Co adsorption on tensile sites.

  12. Results of a monitoring pilot with a permanent buried multicomponent seismic array at Ketzin

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    To monitor the migration of the injected CO2 in the Ketzin project (Germany) a permanently buried multi-component seismic array has been installed in August 2009. Since then the array has been continuously recording passive seismic data. Additionally an active seismic survey resulting in a 230 m long 2D seismic line roughly passing over the monitoring well Ktzi 202/2007 has been acquired in November 2009. This relatively small set-up is meant as a pre-screening study to demonstrate the added ...

  13. Highly Ionized Fe-K Absorption Line from Cygnus X-1 in the High/Soft State Observed with Suzaku

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, S; Mineshige, S; Ueda, Y; Kubota, A; Gandhi, P; Done, C; Noda, H; Yoshikawa, A; Makishima, K

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of a transient He-like Fe K alpha absorption line in Suzaku observations of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1 on 2011 October 5 near superior conjunction during the high/soft state, which enable us to map the full evolution from the start and the end of the episodic accretion phenomena or dips for the first time. We model the X-ray spectra during the event and trace their evolution. The absorption line is rather weak in the first half of the observation, but instantly deepens for ~10 ks, and weakens thereafter. The overall change in equivalent width is a factor of ~3, peaking at an orbital phase of ~0.08. This is evidence that the companion stellar wind feeding the black hole is clumpy. By analyzing the line with a Voigt profile, it is found to be consistent with a slightly redshifted Fe XXV transition, or possibly a mixture of several species less ionized than Fe XXV. The data may be explained by a clump located at a distance of ~10^(10-12) cm with a density of ~10^((-13)-(-11)) g cm^-...

  14. Departure of high temperature iron lines from the equilibrium state in flaring solar plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kawate, Tomoko; Jess, David B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify if the assumption of ionization equilibrium and a Maxwellian electron energy distribution is valid in flaring solar plasmas. We analyze the 2014 December 20 X1.8 flare, in which the \\ion{Fe}{xxi} 187~\\AA, \\ion{Fe}{xxii} 253~\\AA, \\ion{Fe}{xxiii} 263~\\AA\\ and \\ion{Fe}{xxiv} 255~\\AA\\ emission lines were simultaneously observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer onboard the Hinode satellite. Intensity ratios among these high temperature Fe lines are compared and departures from isothermal conditions and ionization equilibrium examined. Temperatures derived from intensity ratios involving these four lines show significant discrepancies at the flare footpoints in the impulsive phase, and at the looptop in the gradual phase. Among these, the temperature derived from the \\ion{Fe}{xxii}/\\ion{Fe}{xxiv} intensity ratio is the lowest, which cannot be explained if we assume a Maxwellian electron distribution and ionization equilibrium, even in the case of a multi-thermal structure. This re...

  15. A computational method to help identify and measure metal lines in high resolution QSO spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Heng Shi; David Tytler; Jin-Liang Hou; David Kirkman; Jeffery Lee; Benjamin Ou

    2011-01-01

    A computational code is developed to help identify metal absorption lines in high resolution QSO spectra,especially in the Lyα forest.The input to the code includes a list of line central wavelengths,column densities and Doppler widths.The code then searches for candidate metal absorption systems and assesses the probability that each system could be real.The framework of the strategy we employ is described in detail and we discuss how to estimate the errors in line profile fitting that are essential to identification.A series of artificial spectra is constructed to calibrate the performance of the code.Due to the effects of blending and noise on Voigt profile fitting,the completeness of the identification depends on the column density of absorbers.For intermediate and strong artificial metal absorbers,more than 90% could be confirmed by the code.The results of applying the code to the real spectra of QSOs HS0757+5218 and Q0100+1300 are also presented.

  16. Assessment of surge arrester failure rate and application studies in Hellenic high voltage transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, C.A.; Fotis, G.P.; Gonos, I.F.; Stathopulos, I.A. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, High Voltage Laboratory, 9 Iroon Politechniou St., Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece); Ekonomou, L. [A.S.PE.T.E. - School of Pedagogical and Technological Education, Department of Electrical Engineering Educators, N. Heraklion, 141 21 Athens (Greece)

    2010-02-15

    The use of transmission line surge arresters to improve the lightning performance of transmission lines is becoming more common. Especially in areas with high soil resistivity and ground flash density, surge arresters constitute the most effective protection mean. In this paper a methodology for assessing the surge arrester failure rate based on the electrogeometrical model is presented. Critical currents that exceed arresters rated energy stress were estimated by the use of a simulation tool. The methodology is applied on operating Hellenic transmission lines of 150 kV. Several case studies are analyzed by installing surge arresters on different intervals, in relation to the region's tower footing resistance and the ground flash density. The obtained results are compared with real records of outage rate showing the effectiveness of the surge arresters in the reduction of the recorded failure rate. The presented methodology can be proved valuable to the studies of electric power systems designers intending in a more effective lightning protection, reducing the operational costs and providing continuity of service. (author)

  17. Narrow-line, tunable, high-power diode laser pump for DPAL applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rajiv; Merchen, David; Stapleton, Dean; Irwin, David; Humble, Chuck; Patterson, Steve; Kissel, Heiko; Biesenbach, Jens

    2013-05-01

    We report on a high-power diode laser pump source for diode-pumped alkali lasers (DPAL), specifically rubidium alkali vapor lasers at 780nm, delivering up to 100W/bar with FWHM spectral line width of 0.06nm (~30GHz). This pump is based on a micro-channel water-cooled stack with collimation in both-axes. Wavelength-locking of the output spectrum allows absorption in one of the very narrow resonance lines of the atomic rubidium alkali vapor. To achieve these results, research was conducted to deliver the highest performance on all key components of the product from the diode laser bar which produces the optical power at 780nm to the external Bragg gratings which narrow the spectrum line width. We highlight the advancements in the epitaxy, device design, beam collimation, grating selection, alignment, tunability and thermal control that enable realization of this novel pump-source for DPALs. Design trade-offs will be presented.

  18. A high-content platform to characterise human induced pluripotent stem cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leha, Andreas; Moens, Nathalie; Meleckyte, Ruta; Culley, Oliver J.; Gervasio, Mia K.; Kerz, Maximilian; Reimer, Andreas; Cain, Stuart A.; Streeter, Ian; Folarin, Amos; Stegle, Oliver; Kielty, Cay M.; Durbin, Richard; Watt, Fiona M.; Danovi, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide invaluable opportunities for future cell therapies as well as for studying human development, modelling diseases and discovering therapeutics. In order to realise the potential of iPSCs, it is crucial to comprehensively characterise cells generated from large cohorts of healthy and diseased individuals. The human iPSC initiative (HipSci) is assessing a large panel of cell lines to define cell phenotypes, dissect inter- and intra-line and donor variability and identify its key determinant components. Here we report the establishment of a high-content platform for phenotypic analysis of human iPSC lines. In the described assay, cells are dissociated and seeded as single cells onto 96-well plates coated with fibronectin at three different concentrations. This method allows assessment of cell number, proliferation, morphology and intercellular adhesion. Altogether, our strategy delivers robust quantification of phenotypic diversity within complex cell populations facilitating future identification of the genetic, biological and technical determinants of variance. Approaches such as the one described can be used to benchmark iPSCs from multiple donors and create novel platforms that can readily be tailored for disease modelling and drug discovery. PMID:26608109

  19. High-resolution observations of gamma-ray line emission from SN 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandie, W. G.; Nakano, G. H.; Chase, L. F., Jr.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Wilson, R. B.; Paciesas, W. S.; Lasche, G. P.

    1988-11-01

    A balloon-borne gamma-ray spectrometer was flown from Alice springs, Australia, 1987 October 29 - 31, nominally 250 days after the supernova event. High-resolution data, typically 2.5 keV at 1.33 MeV, were obtained for two transits of the supernova. A significant net flux of gamma rays with energy 847 keV was observed from the direction of SN 1987A on each transit. No prominent gamma-ray features were seen at other energies. A preliminary estimate of the line flux is (5.1±1.7)×10-4photons cm-2s-1. The net flux observed in the first supernova transit extends from 838 keV to 850 keV and may be evidence of dynamical broadening of the 847 keV line. The total excess flux from 838 keV to 850 keV corresponds to (1.0±0.28)×10-3photons cm-2s-1. This line may be interpreted as emission from the first excited state of 56Fe due to the radioactive decay of 56Co.

  20. Analysis of Gene Expression in the K562-n High Tumorigenitic Human Leukemia Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuqing Lü; Xiaoping Xu; Fang Xia; JianMin Wang

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The human leukemia K562-n cell line displays much higher tumorigenic actively in nude mice compared with its parental K562 cell line. The molecular mechanism of the differences in tumorigenicity between K562-n and K562 in nude mice was examined.METHODS The differences in gene expression between K562 and K562-n cells were analyzed by using cDNA microarrays.RESULTS Among the12,800 genes examined, there was a significant difference in expression of 139 genes between K562-n and K562 cells.Eighty-five of these genes have been registered in the GeneBank and 54are unknown. The genes accessible from the GeneBank include:1)oncogenes and tumor-supressor genes; 2) genes related to transcription regulation, the cell cycle and apoptosis; 3) genes related to the cytoskeleton and cytokinetics; 4) genes related to metabolism and transport; 5) genes related to immune function. There were also some differently expressed genes with mixed functions.CONCLUSION There are many genes differentially expressed between K562-n and K562 cells .The high tumorigenicity of the human leukemia K562-n cell line in nude mice might be related to its specific geneexpression profile.

  1. Experimental and numerical study of high order Stokes lines in Brillouin-erbium fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Yijun [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province 518055 (China); College of Physics Science and Engineering Technology, Yichun University, Yichun, Jiangxi Province 336000 (China); Yao, Yong, E-mail: yaoyong@hit.edu.cn; Xiao, Jun Jun; Yang, Yanfu; Tian, Jiajun; Liu, Chao [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province 518055 (China)

    2014-01-28

    We experimentally study the dependences of high-order Stokes lines on the erbium-doped fiber (EDF) pump power P{sub EDF}, the Brillouin pump (BP) power P{sub BP}, and its working wavelength in a multiwavelength Brillouin erbium-doped fiber laser (MBEFL). By using the rate and propagation equations, and the coupled wave equations of stimulated Brillouin scattering, we establish a lumped model to describe the MBEFL. Numerical simulations show that the number of Stokes lines can be increased by decreasing the spacing between the BP wavelength and the EDF peak gain or P{sub BP} as long as it is larger than a critical value P{sub BP}{sup (cr)}=1.7 mW, or by increasing P{sub EDF} without reaching a saturation value P{sub EDF}{sup (cr)}=250 mW. However, when P{sub BP} and P{sub EDF} are varied beyond P{sub BP}{sup (cr)} and P{sub EDF}{sup (cr)}, respectively, the number of Stokes lines is reduced, accompanied by some self-lasing cavity modes. These results by numerical simulation are consistent with experimental observations from the MBEFL.

  2. Determination of the electronic density of states near buried interfaces: Application to Co/Cu multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A.; Sthör, J.; Wiell, T.

    1996-01-01

    High-resolution L(3) x-ray absorption and emission spectra of Co and Cu in Co/Cu multilayers are shown to provide unique information on the occupied and unoccupied density of d states near buried interfaces. The d bands of both Co and Cu interfacial layers are shown to be considerably narrowed re...... relative to the bulk metals, and for Cu interface layers the d density of states is found to be enhanced near the Fermi level. The experimental results are confirmed by self-consistent electronic structure calculations.......High-resolution L(3) x-ray absorption and emission spectra of Co and Cu in Co/Cu multilayers are shown to provide unique information on the occupied and unoccupied density of d states near buried interfaces. The d bands of both Co and Cu interfacial layers are shown to be considerably narrowed...

  3. Selective oxidation of buried AlGaAs for fabrication of vertical-cavity lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choquette, K.D.; Geib, K.M.; Chui, H.C.; Hou, H.Q. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photonics Research Dept.; Hull, R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science

    1996-06-01

    The authors discuss the selective conversion of buried layers of AlGaAs to a stable oxide and the implementation of this oxide into high performance vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). The rate of lateral oxidation is shown to be linear with an Arrhenius temperature dependence. The measured activation energies vary with Al composition, providing a high degree of oxidation selectivity between AlGaAs alloys. Thus buried oxide layers can be selectively fabricated within the VCSEL through small compositional variations in the AlGaAs layers. The oxidation of AlGaAs alloys, as opposed to AlAs, is found to provide robust processing of reliable lasers. The insulating and low refractive index oxide provides enhanced electrical and optical confinement for ultralow threshold currents in oxide-apertured VCSELs.

  4. HIGHLY IONIZED Fe-K ABSORPTION LINE FROM CYGNUS X-1 IN THE HIGH/SOFT STATE OBSERVED WITH SUZAKU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, S.; Yoshikawa, A.; Makishima, K. [Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Torii, S.; Noda, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mineshige, S. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ueda, Y. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kubota, A. [Department of Electronic Information Systems, Shibaura Institute of Technology, 307 Fukasaku, Minuma-ku, Saitama-shi, Saitama 337-8570 (Japan); Gandhi, P. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamiharas, 229-8510 Kanagawa (Japan); Done, C. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-20

    We present observations of a transient He-like Fe K{alpha} absorption line in Suzaku observations of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1 on 2011 October 5 near superior conjunction during the high/soft state, which enable us to map the full evolution from the start to the end of the episodic accretion phenomena or dips for the first time. We model the X-ray spectra during the event and trace their evolution. The absorption line is rather weak in the first half of the observation, but instantly deepens for {approx}10 ks, and weakens thereafter. The overall change in equivalent width is a factor of {approx}3, peaking at an orbital phase of {approx}0.08. This is evidence that the companion stellar wind feeding the black hole is clumpy. By analyzing the line with a Voigt profile, it is found to be consistent with a slightly redshifted Fe XXV transition, or possibly a mixture of several species less ionized than Fe XXV. The data may be explained by a clump located at a distance of {approx}10{sup 10-12} cm with a density of {approx}10{sup (-13)-(-11)} g cm{sup -3}, which accretes onto and/or transits the line of sight to the black hole, causing an instant decrease in the observed degree of ionization and/or an increase in density of the accreting matter. Continued monitoring for individual events with future X-ray calorimeter missions such as ASTRO-H and AXSIO will allow us to map out the accretion environment in detail and how it changes between the various accretion states.

  5. CLASH: Extreme Emission Line Galaxies and Their Implication on Selection of High-Redshift Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xingxing; Wang, Junxian; Ford, Holland; Lemze, Doron; Moustakas, John; Shu, Xinwen; Van der Wel, Arjen; Zitrin, Adi; Frye, Brenda L; Postman, Marc; Bartelmann, Matthias; Benitez, Narciso; Bradley, Larry; Broadhurst, Tom; Coe, Dan; Donahue, Megan; Infante, Leopoldo; Kelson, Daniel; Koekemoer, Anton; Lahav, Ofer; Medezinski, Elinor; Moustakas, Leonidas; Rosati, Piero; Seitz, Stella; Umetsu, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    We utilize the CLASH (Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble) observations of 25 clusters to search for extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs). The selections are carried out in two central bands: F105W (Y105) and F125W (J125), as the flux of the central bands could be enhanced by the presence of [O III] 4959, 5007 at redshift of about 0.93-1.14 and 1.57-1.79, respectively. The multi-band observations help to constrain the equivalent widths of emission lines. Thanks to cluster lensing, we are able to identify 52 candidates down to an intrinsic limiting magnitude of 28.5 and to a rest-frame [O III] 4959,5007 equivalent width of about 3737 angstrom. Our samples include a number of EELGs at lower luminosities that are missed in other surveys, and the extremely high equivalent width can be only found in such faint galaxies. These EELGs can mimic the dropout feature similar to that of high redshift galaxies and contaminate the color-color selection of high redshift galaxies when the S/N ratio is limited ...

  6. Calculation Model for the Propagation of Audible Noise from High Voltage Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuebao; CUI Xiang; LU Tiebing; HE Jiamei

    2013-01-01

    Audible noise from high voltage transmission lines' corona discharge has become one of the decisive factors affecting design of high voltage transmission lines,thus it is very important to study the spatial propagation characteristics of audible noise for its accurate prediction.A calculation model for the propagation of audible noise is presented in this paper,which is based on the basic equation of the sound wave and can involve the influences of the atmosphere absorption and ground effects.The effects of different ground impedances and the atmospheric attenuation on the distribution of sound pressure level are discussed in this paper.The results show that the atmospheric absorption may increase the attenuation of the audible noise,and the ground surface affects both the amplitude and phase of the sound.The spatial distribution fluctuates considering the ground effects.The atmospheric attenuation and the ground effect are closely related to the frequency of the noise.In the frequency range of the audible noise,the influence of atmospheric attenuation on the spatial propagation characteristics is more obvious in high frequency while ground has significant influences in low frequency.

  7. CLASH: EXTREME EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON SELECTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xingxing; Wang, Junxian; Shu, Xinwen [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zheng, Wei; Ford, Holland; Lemze, Doron [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Van der Wel, Arjen [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Zitrin, Adi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Frye, Brenda L. [Steward Observatory/Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Bartelmann, Matthias [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P. O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Benítez, Narciso [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huétor 24, Granada E-18008 (Spain); Broadhurst, Tom [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Basque Country UPV/EHU E-Bilbao (Spain); Donahue, Megan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Infante, Leopoldo, E-mail: hxx@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Departamento de Astronoía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, V. Mackenna 4860 Santiago 22 (Chile); and others

    2015-03-01

    We utilize the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble observations of 25 clusters to search for extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs). The selections are carried out in two central bands: F105W (Y {sub 105}) and F125W (J {sub 125}), as the flux of the central bands could be enhanced by the presence of [O III] λλ4959, 5007 at redshifts of ∼0.93-1.14 and 1.57-1.79, respectively. The multiband observations help to constrain the equivalent widths (EWs) of emission lines. Thanks to cluster lensing, we are able to identify 52 candidates down to an intrinsic limiting magnitude of 28.5 and to a rest-frame [O III] λλ4959, 5007 EW of ≅ 3700 Å. Our samples include a number of EELGs at lower luminosities that are missed in other surveys, and the extremely high EW can only be found in such faint galaxies. These EELGs can mimic a dropout feature similar to that of high-redshift galaxies and contaminate the color-color selection of high-redshift galaxies when the signal-to-noise ratio is limited or the band coverage is incomplete.

  8. Parametric analysis of hollow conductor parallel and coaxial transmission lines for high frequency space power distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, K. S.; Renz, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    A parametric analysis was performed of transmission cables for transmitting electrical power at high voltage (up to 1000 V) and high frequency (10 to 30 kHz) for high power (100 kW or more) space missions. Large diameter (5 to 30 mm) hollow conductors were considered in closely spaced coaxial configurations and in parallel lines. Formulas were derived to calculate inductance and resistance for these conductors. Curves of cable conductance, mass, inductance, capacitance, resistance, power loss, and temperature were plotted for various conductor diameters, conductor thickness, and alternating current frequencies. An example 5 mm diameter coaxial cable with 0.5 mm conductor thickness was calculated to transmit 100 kW at 1000 Vac, 50 m with a power loss of 1900 W, an inductance of 1.45 micron and a capacitance of 0.07 micron-F. The computer programs written for this analysis are listed in the appendix.

  9. Design of a lightweight telescope with highly stable line of sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anees; Wright, Robert H.; Baker, Todd A.

    1999-09-01

    The weight and line of sight (LOS) stability are very critical in telescopes used for remote sensing and imaging in the presence of high dynamic loads and vibrations. A high stiffness and low-density material such as beryllium is ideally suited for such applications in spite of its high cost. This paper presents the design of an all-beryllium off-axis telescope in which the three diamond-machined mirrors are pinned and bolted to an extremely lightweight and stiff support structure. A number of design and fabrication techniques were employed to minimize the cost of material and fabrication. The importance of machining tolerances for optimizing the cost and yield of mirrors is also described.

  10. On-line radiochemical assay for monoamine oxidase utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissinen, E.; Linko-Loeppoenen SMae; Maennistoe P4

    1984-12-01

    A fast and sensitive assay for the determination of monoamine oxidase activity was developed. The method is based on the separation and quantitation of /sup 14/C-labeled assay products by high-performance liquid chromatography, which is interfaced directly into a flow-through radioactivity detector. This allows on-line quantitation of the radioactive compounds with picomole sensitivity. The method makes possible the complete separation and detection of the deaminated products of monoamine oxidase A and B substrates benzylamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine, respectively. This assay has been applied to the measurement of monoamine oxidase A and B activities in rat brain.

  11. Methodology for the assessment of the impact of existing high voltage lines in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumper, Andreas [Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Departament d' Enginyeria Electrica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, EU d' Enginyeria Tecnica Industrial de Barcelona, Comte d' Urgell, 187, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC) (Spain); Boix-Aragones, Oriol; Bergas-Jane, Joan [Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Departament d' Enginyeria Electrica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, ETS d' Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2. 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Villafafila-Robles, Roberto; Ramirez-Pisco, Rodrigo [Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Departament d' Enginyeria Electrica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, EU d' Enginyeria Tecnica Industrial de Barcelona, Comte d' Urgell, 187, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents a methodology for the assessment of the impact of existing high voltage lines in urban areas. This methodology is based on the numeric evaluation of several impacts which are combined with weight factors. The novelty is that it opens up the possibility of citizen participation, basically in the way in which impacts and weighting factors are determined. The proposed methodology has been applied first in the municipality of Rubi, a mid-sized town near Barcelona, and later on in several municipalities in the Catalonia region in Spain. The results were used to prioritise mitigation action in the Catalonia Energy Plan. (author)

  12. Development of a low-energy, high-brightness $\\mu^+$ beam line

    CERN Document Server

    Eggenberger, A; Wichmann, G

    2016-01-01

    We are developing a beam line which compresses the phase space of a standard surface $\\mu^+$ beam by 10 orders of magnitude with an efficiency of $10^{-3}$. Phase space compression occurs in a He gas target and consists of three consecutive stages: Transverse (perpendicular to the beam axis) compression, longitudinal compression and re-extraction into vacuum. Transverse compression was observed for the first time and longitudinal compression has been measured to occur within 2.5 $\\mu$s with high efficiency.

  13. Velocity measurement technique for high-speed targets based on digital fine spectral line tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Shuliang; Yuan Qi

    2006-01-01

    Target velocity and acceleration are two of the most important features for identification of warheads and decoys in ballistic missile defense phased array radar systems. Velocity compensation is also the necessary step for one-dimensional range profile imaging. According to the high-velocity characteristics of ballistic objects and the low data rate of phased array radars with multiple target tracking, a fine spectral line digital velocity tracking frame is presented and a new method is developed to extract velocity error and resolve the velocity ambiguity in the measurement loop. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  14. Diffraction line-shapes, Fermi surface nesting, and quantum criticality in antiferromagnetic chromium at high pressure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, R.; Feng, Y.; Rosenbaum, T. F.; Harvard Univ.; Univ. of Chicago

    2010-05-01

    We explore the behavior of the nested bandstructure of chromium as a function of temperature and pressure to the point where magnetism disappears. X-ray diffraction measurements of the charge order parameter suggest that the nesting condition is maintained at high pressure, where the spin density wave ground state is destabilized by a continuous quantum phase transition. By comparing diffraction line-shapes measured throughout the temperature-pressure phase diagram we are able to identify and describe three regimes: thermal near-critical, weak coupling ground state, and quantum critical.

  15. Analysis of severe feather pecking behavior in a high feather pecking selection line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, R; Kjaer, J B; Abreu, G C G

    2009-01-01

    Even though feather pecking (FP) in laying hens has been extensively studied, a good solution to prevent chickens from this behavior under commercial circumstances has not been found. Selection against FP behavior is possible, but for a more effective selection across different populations......, it is necessary to characterize the genetic mechanism associated with this behavior. In this study, we use a high FP selection line, which has been selected for 8 generations. We present evidence of the presence of a major dominant allele affecting the FP behavior by using an argument based on the presence...

  16. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  17. Super-Low-Frequency Spectrum Analysis for Buried Faults in Coalfield%煤田隐伏断层的超低频频谱特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈理; 秦其明; 甄广伟; 王楠; 白琰冰; 陈超

    2013-01-01

    Based on the super-low-frequency (SLF) electromagnetic detection technology,the advanced detection for the buried fault in the coalfield is still at the exploratory stage,while the technology has a strong practical significance for production and design of the coal mine.Firstly,in this paper,the SLF electromagnetic detection signals were collected in study area.Spectrum analysis of SLF signal by wavelet transform can remove high-frequency noise.Secondly,the profile of the measuring line across the fault was analyzed and interpreted geologically.Accordingly SLF spectrum characteristics of the buried fault could be researched.Finally,combined with the geological and seismic data,the characteristics and distribution of fault structures can be verified in the mining area.The results show that:the buried fault could be detected quickly and effectively by SLF electromagnetic detection.Hence,SLF electromagnetic detection technology is an effective method for buried fault detection.%利用超低频电磁探测技术开展煤田隐伏断层超前探测研究目前仍处于探索阶段,但该技术在煤矿生产设计方面具有较强的实际意义.本文首先通过实地布设测线,采集超低频电磁探测信号,利用小波变换对超低频信号进行频谱分析,去除高频噪声;然后,分析横穿断层的测线剖面图,进行地质解译,研究隐伏断层的超低频频谱特征;最后,结合研究区地质和地震资料,对比验证矿区断层构造的特征与分布.结果表明:超低频电磁探测能快速探明隐伏断层信息,是一种辅助探测煤田隐伏断层的有效方法.

  18. An outbreak of horseshoe crab poisoning in Chon Buri, Thailand: clinical, toxicologic and therapeutic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanapongkul, J; Kungsuwan, A; Tantisiriwan, V; Punthawangkun, C; Krittayapoositpot, P

    1996-12-01

    In 1994-1996, an outbreak of horseshoe crab poisoning by eating toxic eggs of the horseshoe crab Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda affected over 100 persons in Chon Buri which located on the eastern coast of Thailand. We discuss clinical description and management of this first major outbreak. The responsible toxin has been partially purified by means of ultrafiltration and high performance liquid chromatography. The horseshoe crab toxin is identified as tetrodotoxin (TTX) and anhydro TTX.

  19. Bioanalytical Applications of Fluorescence Line-Narrowing and Non-Line-Narrowing Spectroscopy Interfaced with Capillary Electrophoresis and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Kenneth Paul [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are widely used analytical separation techniques with many applications in chemical, biochemical, and biomedical sciences. Conventional analyte identification in these techniques is based on retention/migration times of standards; requiring a high degree of reproducibility, availability of reliable standards, and absence of coelution. From this, several new information-rich detection methods (also known as hyphenated techniques) are being explored that would be capable of providing unambiguous on-line identification of separating analytes in CE and HPLC. As further discussed, a number of such on-line detection methods have shown considerable success, including Raman, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), and fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy (FLNS). In this thesis, the feasibility and potential of combining the highly sensitive and selective laser-based detection method of FLNS with analytical separation techniques are discussed and presented. A summary of previously demonstrated FLNS detection interfaced with chromatography and electrophoresis is given, and recent results from on-line FLNS detection in CE (CE-FLNS), and the new combination of HPLC-FLNS, are shown.

  20. Bioanalytical Applications of Fluorescence Line-Narrowing and Non-Line-Narrowing Spectroscopy Interfaced with Capillary Electrophoresis and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Paul Roberts

    2002-06-27

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are widely used analytical separation techniques with many applications in chemical, biochemical, and biomedical sciences. Conventional analyte identification in these techniques is based on retention/migration times of standards; requiring a high degree of reproducibility, availability of reliable standards, and absence of coelution. From this, several new information-rich detection methods (also known as hyphenated techniques) are being explored that would be capable of providing unambiguous on-line identification of separating analytes in CE and HPLC. As further discussed, a number of such on-line detection methods have shown considerable success, including Raman, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), and fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy (FLNS). In this thesis, the feasibility and potential of combining the highly sensitive and selective laser-based detection method of FLNS with analytical separation techniques are discussed and presented. A summary of previously demonstrated FLNS detection interfaced with chromatography and electrophoresis is given, and recent results from on-line FLNS detection in CE (CE-FLNS), and the new combination of HPLC-FLNS, are shown.

  1. In situ chemical state analysis of buried polymer/metal adhesive interface by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, Kenichi, E-mail: ozawa.k.ab@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Kakubo, Takashi; Shimizu, Katsunori; Amino, Naoya [The Yokohama Rubber Co., Ltd., Oiwake, Hiratsuka 254-8601 (Japan); Mase, Kazuhiko [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Ikenaga, Eiji; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Kinoshita, Toyohiko; Oji, Hiroshi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), SPring-8, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Chemical state analysis of the buried rubber/brass interface is conducted by HAXPES. • Ultrathin rubber films are prepared on the brass surface by two methods. • A high density of Cu{sub 2}S is found on the rubber side of the buried adhesive layer. • The chemical states of the buried and exposed interfaces are compared. - Abstract: Chemical state analysis of adhesive interfaces is important to understand an adhesion mechanism between two different materials. Although photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is an ideal tool for such an analysis, the adhesive interfaces must be exposed to the surface because PES is essentially a surface sensitive technique. However, an in situ observation is possible by hard X-ray PES (HAXPES) owing to its large probing depth. In the present study, HAXPES is applied to investigate the adhesive interface between rubber and brass without exposing the interface. It is demonstrated that copper sulfides formed at the buried rubber/brass interface are distinguished from S-containing species in the rubber overlayer. The chemical state of the buried interface is compared with that of the “exposed” interface prepared by so-called a filter-paper method.

  2. The velocity of the expanding by-products and soil layer on top of a buried landmine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snyman, I.M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses high-speed video images of the PHOTRON APX-RS high-speed camera to determine the velocity of the expanding volume of by-products of a buried landmine. The study analyses three experiments done with the Scientifically Instrumented...

  3. Buried Quaternary Valleys In NW Europe - Aquifers and Drilling Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuse, M.; Lykke-Andersen, H.; Piotrowski, J.

    Buried Quaternary valleys are extremely widespread in the formerly glaciated, low- land areas of NW Europe (Huuse &Lykke-Andersen 2000, Fig. 4). The valleys may be several hundred metres deep, some kilometres across and few to several tens of kilometres long. Most of the deep valleys have irregular length profiles with sills and basins, unlike standard subaerial river systems. We interpret these as overdeepened valleys, formed mainly by subglacial meltwater erosion. Buried valleys located on- shore often provide sheltered reservoirs of clean groundwater, and much attention is presently focused on locating onshore valleys and quantifying their potential as groundwater aquifers. In nearshore areas, buried valleys may be a risk factor by pro- viding pathways of salt-water intrusion of onshore groundwater aquifers. Far offshore, buried valleys are located in the shallow subsurface above the prolific oil and gas fields of the central North Sea. Here, the valleys pose a risk for drilling operations by hosting shallow gas and potentially unstable sediments. The central North Sea is now largely covered by 3D seismic data, which often image the buried valleys in a level of de- tail much greater than that available onshore. Hence offshore valleys imaged by 3D seismic data may be used as analogues for groundwater reservoirs onshore NW Eu- rope. Here, we present examples of buried valleys from onshore, nearshore and far offshore locations, to illustrate how genetically and morphologically identical valleys may benefit or hamper the exploitation of subsurface accummulations of groundwater and hydrocarbons. Huuse, M. &Lykke-Andersen, H. 2000. Buried Quaternary valleys in the eastern Dan- ish North Sea: morphology and origin. Quaternary Science Reviews 19, 1233-1253.

  4. A STUDY OF MULTI-GENE EXPRESSION IN THE HIGHLY METASTASIZING HUMAN OVARIAN CANCER CELL LINE HO-8910PM AND ITS MOTHER CELL LINE HO-8910

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Xinghao; Xu Shenhua; Wu Xiongwei; Zhang Gu; Qian Lijuan; Gao Yongliang

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To investigate multi-gene expression in the highly metastasizing human ovarian cancer cell line HO8910PM and its mother cell line HO-8910. Method: The expression of 9 kinds of gene products in HO-8910PM and its mother cell line HO-8910 was detected by S-P immunohistochemical method. Result: Eight kinds oncogene products showed various degrees of positive expression in both HO-8910PM and HO-8910 cell lines except gene bax. The expression of P53, Cyclin D1, CD44v6 and EGFR in HO-8910PM was stronger than that in HO-8910. However, the expression of P16, nm23 in HO8910PM was weaker than that in HO-8910. There was no significant difference on the expression of C-erbB-2 and bcl-2 between the two cell lines. Conclusion: Stronger invasive and metastatic patential is found in HO-8910PM than that in HO-8910. Carcinogenesis is a result of multioncogene and multiple step process cooperation.

  5. Phosphoproteomic Analysis of the Highly-Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line, MHCC97-H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Tian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a major cause for lethal liver cancer. Signaling pathways associated with cancer progression are frequently reconfigured by aberrant phosphorylation of key proteins. To capture the key phosphorylation events in HCC metastasis, we established a methodology by an off-line high-pH HPLC separation strategy combined with multi-step IMAC and LC–MS/MS to study the phosphoproteome of a metastatic HCC cell line, MHCC97-H (high metastasis. In total, 6593 phosphopeptides with 6420 phosphorylation sites (p-sites of 2930 phosphoproteins were identified. Statistical analysis of gene ontology (GO categories for the identified phosphoproteins showed that several of the biological processes, such as transcriptional regulation, mRNA processing and RNA splicing, were over-represented. Further analysis of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG annotations demonstrated that phosphoproteins in multiple pathways, such as spliceosome, the insulin signaling pathway and the cell cycle, were significantly enriched. In particular, we compared our dataset with a previously published phosphoproteome in a normal liver sample, and the results revealed that a number of proteins in the spliceosome pathway, such as U2 small nuclear RNA Auxiliary Factor 2 (U2AF2, Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4A-III (EIF4A3, Cell Division Cycle 5-Like (CDC5L and Survival Motor Neuron Domain Containing 1 (SMNDC1, were exclusively identified as phosphoproteins only in the MHCC97-H cell line. These results indicated that the phosphorylation of spliceosome proteins may participate in the metastasis of HCC by regulating mRNA processing and RNA splicing.

  6. High-speed, digitally refocused retinal imaging with line-field parallel swept source OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechtig, Daniel J.; Kumar, Abhishek; Ginner, Laurin; Drexler, Wolfgang; Leitgeb, Rainer A.

    2015-03-01

    MHz OCT allows mitigating undesired influence of motion artifacts during retinal assessment, but comes in state-of-the-art point scanning OCT at the price of increased system complexity. By changing the paradigm from scanning to parallel OCT for in vivo retinal imaging the three-dimensional (3D) acquisition time is reduced without a trade-off between speed, sensitivity and technological requirements. Furthermore, the intrinsic phase stability allows for applying digital refocusing methods increasing the in-focus imaging depth range. Line field parallel interferometric imaging (LPSI) is utilizing a commercially available swept source, a single-axis galvo-scanner and a line scan camera for recording 3D data with up to 1MHz A-scan rate. Besides line-focus illumination and parallel detection, we mitigate the necessity for high-speed sensor and laser technology by holographic full-range imaging, which allows for increasing the imaging speed by low sampling of the optical spectrum. High B-scan rates up to 1kHz further allow for implementation of lable-free optical angiography in 3D by calculating the inter B-scan speckle variance. We achieve a detection sensitivity of 93.5 (96.5) dB at an equivalent A-scan rate of 1 (0.6) MHz and present 3D in vivo retinal structural and functional imaging utilizing digital refocusing. Our results demonstrate for the first time competitive imaging sensitivity, resolution and speed with a parallel OCT modality. LPSI is in fact currently the fastest OCT device applied to retinal imaging and operating at a central wavelength window around 800 nm with a detection sensitivity of higher than 93.5 dB.

  7. Logical optical line terminal technologies towards flexible and highly reliable metro- and access-integrated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Satoru; Sato, Takehiro; Yamanaka, Naoaki

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, flexible and highly reliable metro and access integrated networks with network virtualization and software defined networking technologies will be presented. Logical optical line terminal (L-OLT) technologies and active optical distribution networks (ODNs) are the key to introduce flexibility and high reliability into the metro and access integrated networks. In the Elastic Lambda Aggregation Network (EλAN) project which was started in 2012, a concept of the programmable optical line terminal (P-OLT) has been proposed. A role of the P-OLT is providing multiple network services that have different protocols and quality of service requirements by single OLT box. Accommodated services will be Internet access, mobile front-haul/back-haul, data-center access, and leased line. L-OLTs are configured within the P-OLT box to support the functions required for each network service. Multiple P-OLTs and programmable optical network units (P-ONUs) are connected by the active ODN. Optical access paths which have flexible capacity are set on the ODN to provide network services from L-OLT to logical ONUs (L-ONUs). The L-OLT to L-ONU path on the active ODN provides a logical connection. Therefore, introducing virtualization technologies becomes possible. One example is moving an L-OLT from one P-OLT to another P-OLT like a virtual machine. This movement is called L-OLT migration. The L-OLT migration provides flexible and reliable network functions such as energy saving by aggregating L-OLTs to a limited number of P-OLTs, and network wide optical access path restoration. Other L-OLT virtualization technologies and experimental results will be also discussed in the paper.

  8. Modelling the effect of buried valleys on groundwater flow: case study in Ventspils vicinity, Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delina, Aija; Popovs, Konrads; Bikse, Janis; Retike, Inga; Babre, Alise; Kalvane, Gunta

    2015-04-01

    encourage groundwater recharge from shallower aquifers. Modelling results with and without valleys shows that buried valleys affect piezometric head in narrow zone around valley. Sand and gravel filled buried valleys recharges confined aquifer with relatively "new" water, thus creating high vulnerability zones in the study area. This research is supported by European Regional Development Fund project Nr.2013/0054/2DP/2.1.1.1.0/13/APIA/VIAA/007 and NRP project EVIDENnT project "Groundwater and climate scenarios" subproject "Groundwater Research". References: Virbulis, J., Timuhins, A., Klints, I., Seņņikovs, J., Bethers, U., Popovs, K. 2012. Script based MOSYS system for the generation of a three dimensional geological structure and the calculation of groundwater flow: case study of the Baltic Artesian Basin. In: Highlights of groundwater research in the Baltic Artesian Basin. University of Latvia, Riga, pp. 53-74.

  9. Measurement and Modeling of Personal Exposure to the Electric and Magnetic Fields in the Vicinity of High Voltage Power Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Tourab, Wafa; Babouri, Abdesselam

    2015-01-01

    Background This work presents an experimental and modeling study of the electromagnetic environment in the vicinity of a high voltage substation located in eastern Algeria (Annaba city) specified with a very high population density. The effects of electromagnetic fields emanating from the coupled multi-lines high voltage power systems (MLHV) on the health of the workers and people living in proximity of substations has been analyzed. Methods Experimental Measurements for the Multi-lines power...

  10. Compact rat-race ring coupler with meander high-impedance transmission line and port impedance matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel compact rat-race ring coupler with meander high-impedance transmission line and port impedance matching is presented in this Letter. First, a ring coupler with high port impedance is designed using meander lines. Secondly, an impedance matching section is designed to match the high port impedance to ordinary 50 Ω. The proposed coupler effectively reduces occupied area to 16.8% of conventional one. The design is validated both by simulation and measurement.

  11. Development of high-speed overhead contact line systems for tunnels; Entwicklung von Hochgeschwindigkeits-Oberleitungsanlagen im Tunnel. Beispiel Re 330 der Deutschen Bahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessun, H. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH Power Systems, Muenchen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The high performance overhead contact line Re 330 of Deutsche Bahn is already in service on lines where no tunnels exist. The presentation shows assemblies, special developed for the use of tunnels, with regard to the line Nuernberg - Ingolstadt. (orig.)

  12. Cryogenic Fiber Optic Sensors for Superconducting Magnets and Power Transmission Lines in High Energy Physics Applications

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081689; Bajko, Marta

    In the framework of the Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL - LHC), a remarkable R&D effort is now ongoing at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in order to develop a new generation of accelerator magnets and superconducting power transmission lines. The magnet technology will be based on Nb3Sn enabling to operate in the 11 - 13 T range. In parallel, in order to preserve the power converters from the increasing radiation level, high power transmission lines are foreseen to feed the magnets from free - radiation zones. These will be based on high temperature superconductors cooled down with helium gas in the range 5 - 30 K. The new technologies will require advanced design and fabrication approaches as well as adapted instrumentation for monitoring both the R&D phase and operation. Resistive sensors have been used so far for voltage, temperature and strain monitoring but their integration still suffers from the number of electrical wires and the complex compensation o...

  13. High-resolution IUE observations of interstellar absorption lines in the Vela supernova remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, E. B.; Wallerstein, G.; Silk, J.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of 45 stars in the vicinity of the Vela supernova remnant were recorded by the short-wavelength echelle spectrograph aboard the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). Over one-third of the stars show interstellar absorption lines at large radial velocities (greater than 60 km/s). The mapping of these high-velocity components in the sky suggests the motions are chaotic, rather than from a coherent expansion of the remnant material. In accord with earlier conclusions from Copernicus data, the gas at high velocity exhibits higher than normal ionization and shows substantially less depletion of nonvolatile elements than normal interstellar material at low velocities. Relatively strong lines from neutral carbon in the two excited fine-structure states indicate that the neutral clouds within the remnant have had their pressures enhanced by the passage of the blast wave from the supernova. Also, the remnant seems to show a significant enhancement in the abundances of low-velocity Si IV, C IV, and N V over those found in the general interstellar medium.

  14. Device to generate high purity hydroxide solution in-line for ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Hiroto; Higo, Yuji; Ishii, Mizuo; Maruyama, Noboru; Yamazaki, Shigeo

    2016-05-06

    Herein, we report a new device that generates a high-purity hydroxide solution in line. The device's container has three compartments that are isolated from each other by two cation exchange (CE) membranes. In each end of the container, an electrode is installed. The three compartments are filled with ion exchange resins. A bipolar boundary is a composite boundary comprising anion- and cation-exchangers. This device has two bipolar boundaries, which are used to separate the location of hydroxide solution generation from the location where water is electrolyzed. Therefore, it can produce high-purity hydroxide solutions that are free from gases and anionic impurities. The hydroxide solution is generated on the basis of an electrokinetic phenomenon at the surfaces of ion-exchange resins and membranes in an electric field; NaOH concentration can be controlled at rates from 0.01 to 100mM per 1mL/min by adjusting the electrical current (0-200mA) applied to the device. As the generated solution is used as an eluent for a suppressed anion chromatography, the electrical conductivity of the effluent from the suppressor is as low as that of ultra-pure water. Thus, the noise of the base-line electrical conductivity is improved, and so the detection limit of anions on the sub-ng/mL order can be achieved.

  15. Dash line glass- and sapphire-cutting with high power USP laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchik, Konstantin; Chassagne, Bruno; Javaux-Léger, Clémentine; Hönninger, Clemens; Mottay, Eric; Kling, Rainer; Lopez, John

    2016-03-01

    Glass cutting is a subject of high interest for flat panel display and consumer electronics industries. Among laser-based, water jet-based and diamond tool-based existing solutions, ultra-short pulses (USP) appear as a promising technology since this laser technology has the unique capacity to produce highly localized bulk modification owing to non-linear absorption. The cutting using USP lasers could be performed either by full ablation which is slow and generates a lot of dust, by controlled fracture propagation which is slow as well and may lead to path deviation, by stealth dicing which produces rough sidewalls, or by self-breaking induced by in-volume laser irradiation. The laser treatment is often continuous which is not necessary to perform glass cutting and may lead to over-exposure. In this paper we report on single pass glass and sapphire cutting using an USP laser (20W @200kHz or 8W@2MHz) using dash line laser treatment along the cutting trajectory. In-volume energy deposition was done along the glass thickness owing to a Bessel beam. The results will be discussed in terms of sidewall profile and roughness, path deviation, rim sharpness, energy dose and feed rate. Dash line treatment enables to tune the energy deposition and to produce the cutting effect but with a narrower heat affected zone, a better sidewall quality and a more accurate trajectory control of the cutting path.

  16. High Transferability of Homoeolog-Specific Markers between Bread Wheat and Newly Synthesized Hexaploid Wheat Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Deying; Luo, Jiangtao; Li, Zenglin; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Lianquan; Ning, Shunzong; Yuan, Zhongwei; Zheng, Youliang; Hao, Ming; Liu, Dengcai

    2016-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) has a complex allohexaploid genome, which makes it difficult to differentiate between the homoeologous sequences and assign them to the chromosome A, B, or D subgenomes. The chromosome-based draft genome sequence of the ‘Chinese Spring’ common wheat cultivar enables the large-scale development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers specific for homoeologs. Based on high-confidence ‘Chinese Spring’ genes with known functions, we developed 183 putative homoeolog-specific markers for chromosomes 4B and 7B. These markers were used in PCR assays for the 4B and 7B nullisomes and their euploid synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) line that was newly generated from a hybridization between Triticum turgidum (AABB) and the wild diploid species Aegilops tauschii (DD). Up to 64% of the markers for chromosomes 4B or 7B in the SHW background were confirmed to be homoeolog-specific. Thus, these markers were highly transferable between the ‘Chinese Spring’ bread wheat and SHW lines. Homoeolog-specific markers designed using genes with known functions may be useful for genetic investigations involving homoeologous chromosome tracking and homoeolog expression and interaction analyses. PMID:27611704

  17. 3D Buried Utility Location Using A Marching-Cross-Section Algorithm for Multi-Sensor Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxu Dou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of accurately locating buried utility segments by fusing data from multiple sensors using a novel Marching-Cross-Section (MCS algorithm. Five types of sensors are used in this work: Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR, Passive Magnetic Fields (PMF, Magnetic Gradiometer (MG, Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (LFEM and Vibro-Acoustics (VA. As part of the MCS algorithm, a novel formulation of the extended Kalman Filter (EKF is proposed for marching existing utility tracks from a scan cross-section (scs to the next one; novel rules for initializing utilities based on hypothesized detections on the first scs and for associating predicted utility tracks with hypothesized detections in the following scss are introduced. Algorithms are proposed for generating virtual scan lines based on given hypothesized detections when different sensors do not share common scan lines, or when only the coordinates of the hypothesized detections are provided without any information of the actual survey scan lines. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated with both synthetic data and real data. The experimental results in this work demonstrate that the proposed MCS algorithm can locate multiple buried utility segments simultaneously, including both straight and curved utilities, and can separate intersecting segments. By using the probabilities of a hypothesized detection being a pipe or a cable together with its 3D coordinates, the MCS algorithm is able to discriminate a pipe and a cable close to each other. The MCS algorithm can be used for both post- and on-site processing. When it is used on site, the detected tracks on the current scs can help to determine the location and direction of the next scan line. The proposed “multi-utility multi-sensor” system has no limit to the number of buried utilities or the number of sensors, and the more sensor data used, the more buried utility segments can be detected with more accurate location

  18. Development of hard x-ray photoelectron SPLEED-based spectrometer applicable for probing of buried magnetic layer valence states

    CERN Document Server

    Kozina, Xeniya; Karel, Julie; Ouardi, Siham; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Schonhense, Gerd; Fecher, Gerhard H; Felser, Claudia; Ikenaga, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    A novel design of high-voltage compatible polarimeter for spin-resolved hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (Spin-HAXPES) went into operation at beamline BL09XU of SPring-8 in Hyogo, Japan. The detector is based on the well-established principle of electron diffraction from a W(001) single-crystal at a scattering energy of 103.5 eV. Its special feature is that it can be operated at a high negative bias potential up to 10 kV, necessary to access the HAXPES range. The polarimeter is operated behind a large hemispherical analyzer (Scienta R-4000). It was optimized for high transmission of the transfer optics. The exit plane of the analyzer contains a delay-line detector (20 mm dia.) for conventional multichannel intensity spectroscopy simultaneously with single-channel spin analysis. The performance of the combined setup is demonstrated by the first spin-resolved data for the valence-region of a FeCo functional layer of a tunneling device, buried beneath 3 nm of oxidic material. The well-structured spin polari...

  19. High-repetition-rate optical delay line using a micromirror array and galvanometer mirror for a terahertz system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Hideaki; Tani, Masahiko; Hangyo, Masanori

    2009-07-01

    We developed a high-repetition-rate optical delay line based on a micromirror array and galvanometer mirror for terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The micromirror array is fabricated by using the x-ray lithographic technology. The measurement of terahertz time-domain waveforms with the new optical delay line is demonstrated successfully up to 25 Hz.

  20. High accuracy tracking of 2D/3D curved line-structures by consecutive cross-section matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordmans, H.J.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    1998-01-01

    Curved 3D line-structures are found in domains such as angiography, cell biology and material science. This paper describes a new algorithm to track the line-structures with high subvoxel precision. Extra parameters determined for each cross-section are: local intensity, size, orientation and match

  1. The different origins of high- and low-ionization broad emission lines revealed by gravitational microlensing in the Einstein cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braibant, L.; Hutsemékers, D.; Sluse, D.; Anguita, T.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the kinematics and ionization structure of the broad emission line region of the gravitationally lensed quasar QSO2237+0305 (the Einstein cross) using differential microlensing in the high- and low-ionization broad emission lines. We combine visible and near-infrared spectra of the four images of the lensed quasar and detect a large-amplitude microlensing effect distorting the high-ionization CIV and low-ionization Hα line profiles in image A. While microlensing only magnifies the red wing of the Balmer line, it symmetrically magnifies the wings of the CIV emission line. Given that the same microlensing pattern magnifies both the high- and low-ionization broad emission line regions, these dissimilar distortions of the line profiles suggest that the high- and low-ionization regions are governed by different kinematics. Since this quasar is likely viewed at intermediate inclination, we argue that the differential magnification of the blue and red wings of Hα favors a flattened, virialized, low-ionization region whereas the symmetric microlensing effect measured in CIV can be reproduced by an emission line formed in a polar wind, without the need of fine-tuned caustic configurations. Based on observations made with the ESO-VLT, Paranal, Chile; Proposals 076.B-0197 and 076.B-0607 (PI: Courbin).

  2. Building America Case Study: Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House, Lady's Island, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval. The primary research question with buried ducts is potential condensation at the outer jacket of the duct insulation in humid climates during the cooling season. Current best practices for buried ducts rely on encapsulating the insulated ducts with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam insulation to control condensation and improve air sealing. The encapsulated buried duct concept has been analyzed and shown to be effective in hot-humid climates. The purpose of this project is to develop an alternative buried duct system that performs effectively as ducts in conditioned space - durable, energy efficient, and cost-effective - in a hot-humid climate (IECC warm-humid climate zone 3A) with three goals that distinguish this project: 1) Evaluation of design criteria for buried ducts that use common materials and do not rely on encapsulation using spray foam or disrupt traditional work sequences, 2) Establishing design criteria for compact ducts and incorporate those with the buried duct criteria to further reduce energy losses and control installed costs, and 3) Developing HVAC design guidance for performing accurate heating and cooling load calculations for compact buried ducts.

  3. Electron spectra line shape analysis of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and nanocrystalline diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, Beata; Zemek, Josef; Houdkova, Jana; Kromka, Alexander; Józwik, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The X-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy (XAES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) methods were applied in investigating samples of nanocrystalline diamond and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite of various C sp(2)/sp(3) ratios, crystallinity conditions and grain sizes. The composition at the surface was estimated from the XPS. The C sp(2)/sp(3) ratio was evaluated from the width of the XAES first derivative C KLL spectra and from fitting of XPS C 1s spectra into components. The pattern recognition (PR) method applied for analyzing the spectra line shapes exhibited high accuracy in distinguishing different carbon materials. The PR method was found to be a potentially useful approach for identification, especially important for technological applications in fields of materials engineering and for controlling the chemical reaction products during synthesis.

  4. A method for analyzing on-line video images of crystallization at high-solid concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wan; Cai Y.Ma; Xue Z.Wang

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that on-line video imaging is a very promising technique for monitoring crystallization processes. The bottleneck in applying the technique for real-time closed-loop control is considered as image analysis that needs to be robust, fast and able to handle varied image qualities due to temporal variations of operating conditions such as mixing and solid concentrations. Image analysis at high-solid concentrations turns out to be extremely challenging because crystals tend to overlap or attach to each other and the boundaries between the crystals are usually ambiguous. This paper presents an image segmentation algorithm that can effectively deal with images taken at high-solid concentrations. The method segments crystals attached to each other along the mostly related concave points on the contours of crystal blocks. The detailed procedure is introduced with application to crystallization of L-glutamic acid in a hot-stage reactor.

  5. Nano-strip grating lines self-organized by a high speed scanning CW laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Satoru; Ito, Takeshi; Akiyama, Kensuke; Yasui, Manabu; Kato, Chihiro; Tanaka, Satomi; Hirabayashi, Yasuo [Kanagawa Industrial Technology Center, Kanagawa Prefectural Government, 705-1 Shimo-Imaizumi, Ebina, Kanagawa 243-0435 (Japan); Mastuno, Akira; Nire, Takashi [Phoeton Corp., 3050 Okada, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0021 (Japan); Funakubo, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Mamoru, E-mail: satoru@kanagawa-iri.go.jp [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan)

    2011-04-29

    After a laser annealing experiment on Si wafer, we found an asymmetric sheet resistance on the surface of the wafer. Periodic nano-strip grating lines (nano-SGLs) were self-organized along the trace of one-time scanning of the continuous wave (CW) laser. Depending on laser power, the nano-trench formed with a period ranging from 500 to 800 nm with a flat trough between trench structures. This simple method of combining the scanning laser with high scanning speed of 300 m min{sup -1} promises a large area of nanostructure fabrication with a high output. As a demonstration of the versatile method, concentric circles were drawn on silicon substrate rotated by a personal computer (PC) cooling fan. Even with such a simple system, the nano-SGL showed iridescence from the concentric circles.

  6. Viscous flow lobes in central Taylor Valley, Antarctica: Origin as remnant buried glacial ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, Kate M.; Marchant, David R.; Kowalewski, Douglas E.; Head, James W., III

    2010-08-01

    Viscous flow lobes are common throughout the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica. These features have been described as rock glaciers, gelifluction lobes, solifluction lobes, talus mobilized by pore ice and/or segregation ice, and debris-covered glaciers. We investigate the origin, modification, and flow of a 2-km-long lobe (East Stocking Lobe or ESL) along the north wall of central Taylor Valley using field mapping techniques, shallow seismic surveys, time-dependent displacement surveys, and isotopic analyses of buried-ice samples. On the basis of these integrated analyses, we show that the ESL is cored with remnant glacier ice, most probably derived from an advance of nearby Stocking Glacier ˜ 130 kyr BP. Seismic data, coupled with results from ice-flow modeling assuming plastic flow of clean ice, suggest that the buried core of glacier ice is ˜ 14- to 30-m thick. Near its terminus, the ESL flows at a rate of ˜ 2.4 to 6.7 mm a - 1 . The loose drift that caps the buried ice (typically analyses of samples from the upper 30 cm of the ice lie on a slope of ˜ 5.8 (when plotted on a δD vs. δ18O graph), well below the local meteoric water line of 7.75, suggesting modification by freeze/thaw processes and evaporation/sublimation. Measured air and soil temperatures show that intermittent melting is most likely possible during summer months where buried ice is ≤ 35 cm below the ground surface. Morphological comparisons with ice-cored deposits in upland regions of the Dry Valleys, e.g., Mullins and Beacon Valleys (30 km inland and ˜ 500 m higher in elevation), and near the coast (40 km distant and ˜ 500 m lower) reveal marked contrasts in the style of near-surface ice degradation and cryoturbation. From these morphological comparisons, we infer that buried-ice deposits in the stable upland zone have not experienced the relatively warm climate conditions now found at the ESL and at lower elevations in the Dry Valleys region (e.g. sustained summertime

  7. ExoMol molecular line lists XIX: high-accuracy computed hot line lists for H218O and H217O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyansky, Oleg L.; Kyuberis, Aleksandra A.; Lodi, Lorenzo; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Ovsyannikov, Roman I.; Zobov, Nikolai F.

    2017-04-01

    Hot line lists for two isotopologues of water, H218O and H217O, are presented. The calculations employ newly constructed potential energy surfaces (PES), which take advantage of a novel method for using the large set of experimental energy levels for H216O to give high-quality predictions for H218O and H217O. This procedure greatly extends the energy range for which a PES can be accurately determined, allowing an accurate prediction of higher lying energy levels than are currently known from direct laboratory measurements. This PES is combined with a high-accuracy, ab initio dipole moment surface of water in the computation of all energy levels, transition frequencies and associated Einstein A coefficients for states with rotational excitation up to J = 50 and energies up to 30 000 cm-1. The resulting HotWat78 line lists complement the well-used BT2 H216O line list. Full line lists are made available online as Supporting Information and at www.exomol.com.

  8. Birefringence measurement of glass ion-exchanged waveguides: burying depth or cover layer influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamon, D.; Garayt, J. P.; Jordan, E.; Parsy, F.; Ghibaudo, E.; Neveu, S.; Broquin, J.-E.; Royer, F.

    2016-02-01

    This paper deals with an experimental non-destructive technique for the measurement of polarization behavior of integrated optical waveguides. It is based on a high resolution polarimeter associated to an ellipsometric-type calibration which allows determining the full state of polarization of the output light. A magneto-optic perturbation is also added to generate TE/TM mode beating, whose spatial period is directly linked to the modal TE/TM birefringence. This equipment is first qualified by the measurement of modal birefringence in totally or partially buried ion exchanged waveguides. The results show that the value of the birefringence varies as a function of the diffusion aperture width or with the burying depth. By adding a magneto-optical cover layer, consisting in magnetic nanoparticles doped silica matrix obtained by a sol gel process 1, we evidence a huge increase of the beating magnitude and a decrease of the modal birefringence.

  9. CMOS buried quad p-n junction photodetector for multi-wavelength analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Charles; Courcier, Thierry; Pittet, Patrick; Martel, Stéphane; Ouellet, Luc; Lu, Guo-Neng; Aimez, Vincent; Charette, Paul G

    2012-01-30

    This paper presents a buried quad p-n junction (BQJ) photodetector fabricated with a HV (high-voltage) CMOS process. Multiple buried junction photodetectors are wavelength-sensitive devices developed for spectral analysis applications where a compact integrated solution is preferred over systems involving bulk optics or a spectrometer due to physical size limitations. The BQJ device presented here is designed for chip-based biochemical analyses using simultaneous fluorescence labeling of multiple analytes such as with advanced labs-on-chip or miniaturized photonics-based biosensors. Modeling and experimental measurements of the spectral response of the device are presented. A matrix-based method for estimating individual spectral components in a compound spectrum is described. The device and analysis method are validated via a test setup using individually modulated LEDs to simulate light from 4-component fluorescence emission.

  10. Nanophotonic devices on thin buried oxide Silicon-On-Insulator substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Sridaran, Suresh

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a silicon photonic platform using thin buried oxide silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates using localized substrate removal. We show high confinement silicon strip waveguides, micro-ring resonators and nanotapers using this technology. Propagation losses for the waveguides using the cutback method are 3.88 dB/cm for the quasi-TE mode and 5.06 dB/cm for the quasi-TM mode. Ring resonators with a loaded quality factor (Q) of 46,500 for the quasi-TM mode and intrinsic Q of 148,000 for the quasi-TE mode have been obtained. This process will enable the integration of photonic structures with thin buried oxide SOI based electronics.

  11. Prediction Technology of Buried Water-Bearing Structures in Coal Mines Using Transient Electromagnetic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhi-hai; YUE Jian-hua; LIU Shu-cai

    2007-01-01

    Buried water-conducting and water-bearing structures in front of the driving head may easily lead to water bursts in coal mines. Therefore, it is very important for the safety of production to make an accurate and timely forecast about water bursts. Based on the smoke ring effect of transient electromagnetic fields, the principle of transient electromagnetic method used in detecting buried water-bearing structures in coal mines in advance, is discussed. Small multi-turn loop configurations used in coal mines are proposed and a field procedure of semicircular sector scanning is presented. The application of this method in one coal mine indicates that the technology has many advantages compared with others. The method is inexpensive, highly accurate and efficient. Suggestions are presented for future solutions to some remaining problems.

  12. Chicken lines divergent for low or high abdominal fat deposition: a relevant model to study the regulation of energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baéza, E; Le Bihan-Duval, E

    2013-06-01

    Divergent selection of chickens for low or high abdominal fat (AF) but similar BW at 63 days of age was undertaken in 1977. The selection programme was conducted over seven successive generations. The difference between lines was then maintained constant at about twice the AF in the fat line as in the lean line. The aims of the first studies on these divergent chicken lines were to describe the growth, body composition and reproductive performance in young and adult birds. The lines were then used to improve the understanding of the relationship between fatness and energy and protein metabolism in the liver, muscle and adipose tissues, as well as the regulation of such metabolism at hormonal, gene and hypothalamic levels. The effects on muscle energy metabolism in relation to meat quality parameters were also described. This paper reviews the main results obtained with these lines.

  13. Design of a large acceptance, high efficiency energy selection system for the ELIMAIA beam-line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, F.; Maggiore, M.; Andó, L.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Allegra, L.; Amato, A.; Gallo, G.; Korn, G.; Leanza, R.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.

    2016-08-01

    A magnetic chicane based on four electromagnetic dipoles is going to be realized by INFN-LNS to be used as an Energy Selection System (ESS) for laser driven proton beams up to 300 MeV and C6+ up to 70 MeV/u. The system will provide, as output, ion beams with a contrallable energy spread varying from 5% up to 20% according to the aperture slit size. Moreover, it has a very wide acceptance in order to ensure a very high transmission efficiency and, in principle, it has been designed to be used also as an active energy modulator. This system is the core element of the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical and Multidisciplinary applications) beam transport, dosimetry and irradiation line that will be developed by INFN-LNS (It) and installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility in Prague (Cz). ELIMED will be the first user's open transport beam-line where a controlled laser-driven ion beam will be used for multidisciplinary research. The definition of well specified characteristics, both in terms of performance and field quality, of the magnetic chicane is crucial for the system realization, for the accurate study of the beam dynamics and for the proper matching with the Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs) used as a collection system already designed. Here, the design of the magnetic chicane is described in details together with the adopted solutions in order to realize a robust system form the magnetic point of view. Moreover, the first preliminary transport simulations are also described showing the good performance of the whole beam line (PMQs+ESS).

  14. Different Responses of Two Highly Permissive Cell Lines Upon HCV Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Honghe Chen; Rongjuan Pei; Xinwen Chen

    2013-01-01

    The construction of the first infectious clone JFH-1 speeds up the research on hepatitis C virus (HCV).However,Huh7 cell line was the only highly permissive cell line for HCV infection and only a few clones were fully permissive.In this study,two different fully permissive clones of Huh7 cells,Huh7.5.1 and Huh7-Lunet-CD81 (Lunet-CD81) cells were compared for their responses upon HCV infection.The virus replication level was found slightly higher in Huh7.5.1 cells than that in Lunet-CD81 cells.Viability of Huh7.5.1 cells but not of Lunet-CD81 cells was reduced significantly after HCV infection.Further analysis showed that the cell cycle of infected Huh7.5.1 cells was arrested at G1 phase.The G1/S transition was blocked by HCV infection in Huh7.5.1 cells as shown by the cell cycle synchronization analysis.Genes related to cell cycle regulation was modified by HCV infection and gene interaction analysis in GeneSpring GX in Direct Interactions mode highlighted 31 genes.In conclusion,the responses of those two cell lines were different upon HCV infection.HCV infection blocked G1/S transition and cell cycle progress,thus reduced the cell viability in Huh7.5.1 cells but not in Lunet-CD81 cells.Lunet-CD81 cells might be suitable for long term infection studies of HCV.

  15. Replication and explorations of high-order epistasis using a large advanced intercross line pedigree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Pettersson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Dissection of the genetic architecture of complex traits persists as a major challenge in biology; despite considerable efforts, much remains unclear including the role and importance of genetic interactions. This study provides empirical evidence for a strong and persistent contribution of both second- and third-order epistatic interactions to long-term selection response for body weight in two divergently selected chicken lines. We earlier reported a network of interacting loci with large effects on body weight in an F(2 intercross between these high- and low-body weight lines. Here, most pair-wise interactions in the network are replicated in an independent eight-generation advanced intercross line (AIL. The original report showed an important contribution of capacitating epistasis to growth, meaning that the genotype at a hub in the network releases the effects of one or several peripheral loci. After fine-mapping of the loci in the AIL, we show that these interactions were persistent over time. The replication of five of six originally reported epistatic loci, as well as the capacitating epistasis, provides strong empirical evidence that the originally observed epistasis is of biological importance and is a contributor in the genetic architecture of this population. The stability of genetic interaction mechanisms over time indicates a non-transient role of epistasis on phenotypic change. Third-order epistasis was for the first time examined in this study and was shown to make an important contribution to growth, which suggests that the genetic architecture of growth is more complex than can be explained by two-locus interactions only. Our results illustrate the importance of designing studies that facilitate exploration of epistasis in populations for obtaining a comprehensive understanding of the genetics underlying a complex trait.

  16. Research on the Parameter Optimization of Lines Connecting Main Line and Arrival -departure Line in High -speed Railway Station Yard%高速铁路站场正线与到发线间线路优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏庆朝; 尹国栋; 时瑾; 来琳

    2015-01-01

    Research purposes:With numerous railway lines laid in the yard,high -speed railway station should not only meet the operation requirements of train to pass in high speed,but also satisfy the demand of high -speed train to arrival,departure and turn -back in station yard.For the influence of speed reduction of train and station arrangement, radius of curve on arrival -departure line is much less than that of curve on main line,and parameter selection of lines connecting main line and arrival -departure line affects the travel quality of train directly.Referring to existing researches,and based on the dynamic theory and wheel -rail contact mode,dynamic analysis model was established, considering the running conditions of train between the main line and the arrival -departure line in high -speed railway station yard.Using the established model,effects on travelling safety and stability of train aroused by length variation of intermediate straight line and transition line connecting turnout on main line and curve on arrival -departure line behind turnout were calculated.Accordingly,theoretical basis is provided for the parameter optimization of lines connecting arrival -departure line and main line in high -speed railway station yard. Research conclusions:Based on related researches on the matching relation of superelevation and transition curve length with circular curve radius,required calculation parameters were selected,and calculations on the relation between travelling quality of train and parameter variation of connection lines between main line and arrival -departure line indicate that:(1 )To meet the demand of traveling stability,intermediate straight line with length not less than 9 m was proposed to be set to connect turnout on main line and curve on arrival -departure line in high -speed railway station yard.(2)The increase of transition curve length has rarely influence on easing vehicle vibration on circular curve as the length of transition curve

  17. Magnetic dichroism in angular resolved hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy from buried magnetic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ViolBarbosa, Carlos E.; Ouardi, Siham [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Fecher, Gerhard H., E-mail: fecher@cpfs.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Ebke, Daniel; Felser, Claudia [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: ► We show the feasibility of angular resolved MCD in photospectroscopy. ► Wide-acceptance lens system allows a fixed incident light angle in the experiment. ► Bulk-sensitive HAXPES-MCDAD was used to study buried layers. ► Performance tools as Scalasca and Paraver are used to debug the applications. -- Abstract: This work reports on the measurement of magnetic dichroism in angular-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy from in-plane magnetized buried thin films. The high bulk sensitivity of hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) in combination with circularly polarized radiation enables the investigation of the magnetic properties of buried layers. Angular distributions of high kinetic energy (7–8 keV) photoelectrons in a range of about 60° were recorded in parallel to the energy distribution. Depending on purpose, energy and angular resolutions of 150–250 meV and 0.17–2° can be accomplished simultaneously in such experiments. Experiments were performed on exchange-biased magnetic layers covered by thin oxide films. More specifically, the angular distribution of photoelectrons from the ferromagnetic layer Co{sub 2}FeAl layer grown on MnIr exchange-biasing layer was investigated where the magnetic structure is buried beneath a MgO layer. Pronounced magnetic dichroism is found in the Co and Fe 2p states for all angles of emission. A slightly increased magnetic dichroism was observed for normal emission in agreement with theoretical considerations.

  18. Attribute-driven transfer learning for detecting novel buried threats with ground-penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Kenneth A.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2016-05-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technology is an effective method of detecting buried explosive threats. The system uses a binary classifier to distinguish "targets", or buried threats, from "nontargets" arising from system prescreener false alarms; this classifier is trained on a dataset of previously-observed buried threat types. However, the threat environment is not static, and new threat types that appear must be effectively detected even if they are not highly similar to every previously-observed type. Gathering a new dataset that includes a new threat type is expensive and time-consuming; minimizing the amount of new data required to effectively detect the new type is therefore valuable. This research aims to reduce the number of training examples needed to effectively detect new types using transfer learning, which leverages previous learning tasks to accelerate and improve new ones. Further, new types have attribute data, such as composition, components, construction, and size, which can be observed without GPR and typically are not explicitly included in the learning process. Since attribute tags for buried threats determine many aspects of their GPR representation, a new threat type's attributes can be highly relevant to the transfer-learning process. In this work, attribute data is used to drive transfer learning, both by using attributes to select relevant dataset examples for classifier fusion, and by extending a relevance vector machine (RVM) model to perform intelligent attribute clustering and selection. Classification performance results for both the attribute-only case and the low-data case are presented, using a dataset containing a variety of threat types.

  19. FTIR and RBS study of ion-beam synthesized buried silicon oxide layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, A.P. [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400098 (India); Yadav, A.D. [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400098 (India)], E-mail: adyadav@physics.mu.ac.in; Dubey, S.K. [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400098 (India); Panigrahi, B.K.; Nair, K.G.M. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2008-04-15

    Single crystal silicon samples were implanted at 140 keV by oxygen ({sup 16}O{sup +}) ion beam to fluence levels of 1.0 x 10{sup 17}, 2.5 x 10{sup 17} and 5.0 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2} to synthesize buried silicon oxide insulating layers by SIMOX (separation by implanted oxygen) process at room temperature and at high temperature (325 deg. C). The structure and composition of the ion-beam synthesized buried silicon oxide layers were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) techniques. The FTIR spectra of implanted samples reveal absorption in the wavenumber range 1250-750 cm{sup -1} corresponding to the stretching vibration of Si-O bonds indicating the formation of silicon oxide. The integrated absorption band intensity is found to increase with increase in the ion fluence. The absorption peak was rather board for 325 deg. C implanted sample. The FTIR studies show that the structures of ion-beam synthesized buried oxide layers are strongly dependent on total ion fluence. The RBS measurements show that the thickness of the buried oxide layer increases with increase in the oxygen fluence. However, the thickness of the top silicon layer was found to decrease with increase in the ion fluence. The total oxygen fluence estimated from the RBS data is found to be in good agreement with the implanted oxygen fluence. The high temperature implantation leads to increase in the concentration of the oxide formation compared to room temperature implantation.

  20. Research on Stress and Strength of High Strength Reinforced Concrete Drilling Shaft Lining in Thick Top Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Zhi-shu; CHANG Hua; RONG Chuan-xin

    2007-01-01

    High strength reinforced concrete drilling shaft linings have been adopted to solve the difficult problem of supporting coal drilling shafts penetrating through thick top soils. Through model experiments the stress and strength of such shaft linings are studied. The test results indicate that the load bearing capacity of the shaft lining is very high and that the main factors affecting the load bearing capacity are the concrete strength, the ratio of lining thickness to inner radius and the reinforcement ratio. Based on the limit equilibrium conditions and the strength theory of concrete under multi-axial compressive stressed state, a formula for calculating the load-bearing capacity of a high strength reinforced concrete shaft lining was obtained. Because the concrete in a shaft lining is in a multi-axial compressive stress state the compressive strength increases to a great extent compared to uni-axial loading. Based on experiment a formula for the gain factor in compressive strength was obtained: it can be used in the structural design of the shaft lining. These results have provided a basis for sound engineering practice when designing this kind of shaft lining structure.

  1. Ionization energy shift of characteristic K x-ray lines from high-Z materials for plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Słabkowska, K.; Szymańska, E.; Polasik, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, Nicholas Copernicus University, 87-100 Toruń (Poland); Pereira, N. R. [Ecopulse, Inc., 7844 Vervain Ct, Springfield, Virginia 22152 (United States); Rzadkiewicz, J. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Seely, J. F. [Artep, Inc., 2922 Excelsior Springs Ct, Ellicott, Maryland 21042 (United States); Weber, B. V.; Schumer, J. W. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    The energy of the characteristic x-rays emitted by high atomic number atoms in a plasma that contains energetic electrons depends on the atom's ionization. For tungsten, the ionization energy shift of the L-lines has recently been used to diagnose the plasma's ionization; the change in energy of a K-line has been measured for iridium and observed for ytterbium. Here, we present detailed computations of the ionization energy shift to K-lines of these and an additional element, dysprosium; for these atoms, some K-lines nearly coincide in energy with K-edges of slightly lower Z atoms so that a change in transmission behind a K-edge filter betrays a change in energy. The ionization energy shift of such high-energy K-lines may enable a unique diagnostic when the plasma is inside an otherwise opaque enclosure such as hohlraums used on the National Ignition Facility.

  2. Combining Ability and Heterosis Between High Strength Lines and Transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) Bollworm-Resistant Lines in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zheng-sheng; LI Xian-bi; XIAO Yue-hua; LUO Ming; LIU Da-jun; HUANG Shun-li; ZHANG Feng-xin

    2003-01-01

    To analyse the combining ability and heterosis between high-strength lines and transgenic Btbollworm-resistant lines in upland cotton, 5 high-strength lines were crossed as female lines with 12 transgenicBt bollworm-resistant lines according to NCII design. It was demonstrated that the compositions of variance invarious traits were quite different. For seed cotton yield, lint yield, boll numbers per plant and boll weight,the dominant (special combining ability) effects were the major effects, accounting for 87.38, 84.40, 80.04and 64.46 % of the total phenotypic variances, respectively, while for fibre strength and micronaire value, theadditive (general combining ability) effects had the major effects, with a ratio of additive variance to pheno-typic variance of 78.85 and 43.80 %. As for lint percent and 2. 5 % span length, the dominant and additivevariances had similar effects, in phenotypic variances (54.94 and 40. 11% for lint percent, 45.76and42.49% for 2.5% span length, respectively). The mid-parent heterosis (Hpm), surpassing parent heterosis(Hpb) and competitive heterosis (Hck) for seed cotton yield and lint yield were both extremely significant.For fibre properties, the Hck and Hpm of 2.5 % fibre span length were extremely significant, the Hck of fibrestrength was significant, and the favorable negative Hck of micronaire was also extremely significant. The in-crements of hybrid over common variety were 17 % for lint yield and fibre strength, 7 % for fibre span length,and 4% for fineness.

  3. High-throughput viability assay using an autonomously bioluminescent cell line with a bacterial Lux reporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Bradley; Thorne, Natasha; Aguisanda, Francis; Southall, Noel; McKew, John C; Zheng, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Cell viability assays are extensively used to determine cell health, evaluate growth conditions, and assess compound cytotoxicity. Most existing assays are endpoint assays, in which data are collected at one time point after termination of the experiment. The time point at which toxicity of a compound is evident, however, depends on the mechanism of that compound. An ideal cell viability assay allows the determination of compound toxicity kinetically without having to terminate the assay prematurely. We optimized and validated a reagent-addition-free cell viability assay using an autoluminescent HEK293 cell line that stably expresses bacterial luciferase and all substrates necessary for bioluminescence. This cell viability assay can be used for real-time, long-term measurement of compound cytotoxicity in live cells with a signal-to-basal ratio of 20- to 200-fold and Z-factors of ~0.6 after 24-, 48- 72-, or 96-h incubation with compound. We also found that the potencies of nine cytotoxic compounds correlated well with those measured by four other commonly used cell viability assays. The results demonstrated that this kinetic cell viability assay using the HEK293(lux) autoluminescent cell line is useful for high-throughput evaluation of compound cytotoxicity.

  4. In-line microfluidic integration of photonic crystal fibres as a highly sensitive refractometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuang; Tse, Ming-Leung Vincent; Liu, Zhengyong; Guan, Bai-Ou; Zhang, A Ping; Lu, Chao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2014-11-07

    Photonic crystal fibres appear to be an ideal platform for the realisation of novel optofluidic devices and sensors due to their waveguide nature and microstructured architecture. In this paper, we present the fabrication and characterisation of an in-line photonic crystal fibre microfluidic refractometer enabled by a C-shaped fibre. The C-shaped fibre spliced in-between the photonic crystal fibre and the single-mode fibre allows simultaneous in-line optical signal delivery and analyte fluid feeding. Through an arc discharge pre-treatment technique, we successfully achieve selective exploitation of only the central two channels of the photonic crystal fibre for microfluidic sensing. After constructing a Sagnac interferometer, a highly sensitive refractometer with a sensitivity of 8699 nm per RIU was achieved experimentally; this agrees very well with the theoretical value of 8675 nm per RIU. As a demonstration for label-free optical sensing application, the refractometer was used to measure the concentration of NaCl solution with a sensitivity of 15.08 nm/(1 wt%) and a detection limit of 2.3 × 10(-3) wt% (23 ppm).

  5. Orbit error correction on the high energy beam transport line at the KHIMA accelerator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chawon; Yim, Heejoong; Hahn, Garam; An, Dong Hyun

    2016-09-01

    For the purpose of treatment of various cancers and medical research, a synchrotron based medical machine has been developed under the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project and is scheduled for use to treat patient at the beginning of 2018. The KHIMA synchrotron is designed to accelerate and extract carbon ion (proton) beams with various energies from 110 to 430 MeV/u (60 to 230 MeV). Studies on the lattice design and beam optics for the High Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) line at the KHIMA accelerator system have been carried out using the WinAgile and the MAD-X codes. Because magnetic field errors and misalignments introduce deviations from the design parameters, these error sources should be treated explicitly, and the sensitivity of the machine's lattice to different individual error sources should be considered. Various types of errors, both static and dynamic, have been taken into account and have been consequentially corrected with a dedicated correction algorithm by using the MAD-X program. Based on the error analysis, the optimized correction setup is decided, and the specifications for the correcting magnets of the HEBT lines are determined.

  6. Research on Measurement System of High-Frequency Parameters for Line Traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensi Cao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The composing of high frequency line trap of power system is briefly introduced, A new method based on improved voltage meter method is presented, which can measure the frequency-impedance characteristic of the line trap of power system. A new testing arithmetic is presented based on the correlation principle, Cross-correlation functions of the two measured signals are directly computed and some properties about correlation and sine function are adopted to separate the useful signals from the part noises,so the measurement accuracy is improved, A group of practical formulas for calculating the impedance and resistive component is summarized ,the MATLAB simulation of the arithmetic is presented . Using DSP chip TMS320LF2407 and A/D chip THS12082 as the core of the measurement system, its software and hardware are designed. Analyze the Given K-type broadband tuning traps which has typical parameters. Experimental results and theoretical analysis demonstrate the measurement system can obtain a precision of better than 1% and has a good ability of anti-jamming.

  7. Herschel/HIFI observation of highly excited rotational lines of HNC toward IRC +10 216

    CERN Document Server

    Daniel, F; Cernicharo, J; De Beck, E; Lombaert, R; Decin, L; Kahane, C; Guélin, M; Müller, H S P

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection in emission of various highly excited rotational transitions of HNC (J = 6-5 through J =12-11) toward the carbon-star envelope IRC +10 216 using the HIFI instrument on-board the Herschel Space Observatory. Observations of the J = 1-0 and J = 3-2 lines of HNC with the IRAM 30-m telescope are also presented. The lines observed with HIFI have upper level energies corresponding to temperatures between 90 and 340 degrees Kelvin, and trace a warm and smaller circumstellar region than that seen in the interferometric maps of the J = 1-0 transition, whose emission extends up to a radius of 20". After a detailed chemical and radiative transfer modeling, we find that the presence of HNC in the circumstellar envelope of IRC +10 216 is consistent with formation from the precursor ion HCNH+, which in turn is produced through several proton transfer reactions which are triggered by the cosmic-ray ionization. We also find that the radiative pumping through 21 um photons to the first excited state of ...

  8. A two-layer optimization model for high-speed railway line planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li WANG; Li-min JIA; Yong QIN; Jie XU; Wen-ring MO

    2011-01-01

    Line planning is the first important strategic element in the railway operation planning process,which will directly affect the successive planning to determine the efficiency of the whole railway system.A two-layer optimization model is proposed within a simulation framework to deal with the high-speed railway (HSR) line planning problem.In the model,the top layer aims at achieving an optimal stop-schedule set with the service frequencies,and is formulated as a nonlinear program,solved by genetic algorithm.The objective of top layer is to minimize the total operation cost and unserved passenger volume.Given a specific stop-schedule,the bottom layer focuses on weighted passenger flow assignment,formulated as a mixed integer program with the objective of maximizing the served passenger volume and minimizing the total travel time for all passengers.The case study on Taiwan HSR shows that the proposed two-layer model is better than the existing techniques.In addition,this model is also illustrated with the Beijing-Shanghai HSR in China.The result shows that the two-layer optimization model can reduce computation complexity and that an optimal set of stop-schedules can always be generated with less calculation time.

  9. Using Line Profiles to Test the Fraternity of Type Ia Supernovae at High and Low Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Stéphane; Dessart, Luc; Leibundgut, Bruno; Branch, David; Höflich, Peter; Tonry, John L.; Matheson, Thomas; Foley, Ryan J.; Chornock, Ryan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Sollerman, Jesper; Spyromilio, Jason; Kirshner, Robert P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Aguilera, Claudio; Barris, Brian; Becker, Andrew C.; Challis, Peter; Covarrubias, Ricardo; Davis, Tamara M.; Garnavich, Peter; Hicken, Malcolm; Jha, Saurabh; Krisciunas, Kevin; Li, Weidong; Miceli, Anthony; Miknaitis, Gajus; Pignata, Giuliano; Prieto, Jose Luis; Rest, Armin; Riess, Adam G.; Salvo, Maria Elena; Schmidt, Brian P.; Smith, R. Chris; Stubbs, Christopher W.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2006-03-01

    Using archival data of low-redshift (zdatabases) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and recent observations of high-redshift (0.161.7] SNe Ia, which are also subluminous. In addition, we give the first direct evidence in two high-z SN Ia spectra of a double-absorption feature in Ca II λ3945, an event also observed, although infrequently, in low-redshift SN Ia spectra (6 out of 22 SNe Ia in our local sample). Moreover, echoing the recent studies of Dessart & Hillier in the context of Type II supernovae (SNe II), we see similar P Cygni line profiles in our large sample of SN Ia spectra. First, the magnitude of the velocity location at maximum profile absorption may underestimate that at the continuum photosphere, as observed, for example, in the optically thinner line S II λ5640. Second, we report for the first time the unambiguous and systematic intrinsic blueshift of peak emission of optical P Cygni line profiles in SN Ia spectra, by as much as 8000 km s-1. All the high-z SNe Ia analyzed in this paper were discovered and followed up by the ESSENCE collaboration and are now publicly available. Based in part on observations obtained at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF); the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO program 170.A-0519) the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by AURA under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership (the NSF [United States], the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council [United Kingdom], the National Research Council [Canada], CONICYT [Chile], the Australian Research Council [Australia], CNPq [Brazil], and CONICET [Argentina]) (programs GN-2002B-Q-14, GN-2003B-Q-11, and GS-2003B-Q-11) the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory; the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of

  10. 埋地钢质管道交流干扰测试与评价%Testing and Assement of AC Interference on Buried Steel Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新华; 陈振华; 何仁洋

    2011-01-01

    高压交流输电线路及交流电气化铁路对与其临近铺设的埋地钢质管道会引起交流干扰,产生交流腐蚀,并对阴极保护系统的安全运行带来不利影响.因此,埋地钢质管道中交流干扰的检测与评估是必要的.国内外对于埋地金属管道受交流干扰的测试与分析,主要围绕交流干扰电压、交流电流密度、腐蚀速率等参数的测试来开展.在交流干扰及阴极保护有效性评价方面,国外以交流电流密度及交/直流电流密度比为主要参量.本工作通过对交流干扰下的管地电位信号时频特征研究,得出管地电位信号时频特征与交流干扰源频率存在一致性,为检测和判定埋地钢质管道上的交流干扰提供了一定的依据.%AC interference on buried steel pipelines can cause AC corrosion and destroy cathodic protection (CP) system when pipelines are layed down near a high voltage AC power transmission line or electric railway. So, it is necessary to the test and assess the AC interference from the high voltage AC power transmission lines or electric railway. The test and assessment parameters of AC interference at home and abroad are mainly concerned with the AC voltage, AC current density, corrosion rate, AC/DC density ratio and so on. By studying time-frequency domain characteristics of pipe-to-soil potential signal of buried steel pipelines, there is consistency between the time frequency of pipe-to-soil potential signal and frequency of AC interference source, thus provides a basis for test and judgment of AC interference on buried steel pipelines.

  11. Technical Characteristics of the Construction ofQinhuangdao-Shenyang Passenger Special Line and the Inspiration for High-speed Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    jinShouhua; ChenXiufang

    2004-01-01

    In this article,the features of design and cionstruction of Qinhuangdao-Shenyang passenger special line in railroad foundation,tracks,and bridges are described as the reference in high-speed railway construction.

  12. Integrative fitting of absorption line profiles with high accuracy, robustness, and speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrotzki, Julian; Habig, Jan Christoph; Ebert, Volker

    2014-08-01

    The principle of the integrative evaluation of absorption line profiles relies on the numeric integration of absorption line signals to retrieve absorber concentrations, e.g., of trace gases. Thus, it is a fast and robust technique. However, previous implementations of the integrative evaluation principle showed shortcomings in terms of accuracy and the lack of a fit quality indicator. This has motivated the development of an advanced integrative (AI) fitting algorithm. The AI fitting algorithm retains the advantages of previous integrative implementations—robustness and speed—and is able to achieve high accuracy by introduction of a novel iterative fitting process. A comparison of the AI fitting algorithm with the widely used Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) fitting algorithm indicates that the AI algorithm has advantages in terms of robustness due to its independence from appropriately chosen start values for the initialization of the fitting process. In addition, the AI fitting algorithm shows speed advantages typically resulting in a factor of three to four shorter computational times on a standard personal computer. The LM algorithm on the other hand retains advantages in terms of a much higher flexibility, as the AI fitting algorithm is restricted to the evaluation of single absorption lines with precomputed line width. Comparing both fitting algorithms for the specific application of in situ laser hygrometry at 1,370 nm using direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) suggests that the accuracy of the AI algorithm is equivalent to that of the LM algorithm. For example, a signal-to-noise ratio of 80 and better typically yields a deviation of TDLAS hygrometry at the aerosol and cloud chamber aerosol interactions and dynamics in the atmosphere (AIDA)—a unique large-scale facility to study atmospheric processes. The robustness of the AI fitting algorithm has been validated for typical AIDA conditions encompassing strong transmission fluctuations

  13. Buried waste integrated demonstration FY 94 deployment plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R.A.; Walker, S.; Garcia, M.M.

    1994-05-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The fiscal year (FY) 1994 effort will fund thirty-eight technologies in five areas of buried waste site remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, treatment, and containment/stabilization. This document is the basic operational planning document for deployment of all BWID projects. Discussed in this document are the BWID preparations for INEL field demonstrations, INEL laboratory demonstrations, non-INEL demonstrations, and paper studies. Each technology performing tests will prepare a test plan to detail the specific procedures, objectives, and tasks of each test. Therefore, information specific to testing each technology is intentionally omitted from this document.

  14. Autonomous robotic platforms for locating radio sources buried under rubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasu, A. S.; Anchidin, L.; Tamas, R.; Paun, M.; Danisor, A.; Petrescu, T.

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with the use of autonomous robotic platforms able to locate radio signal sources such as mobile phones, buried under collapsed buildings as a result of earthquakes, natural disasters, terrorism, war, etc. This technique relies on averaging position data resulting from a propagation model implemented on the platform and the data acquired by robotic platforms at the disaster site. That allows us to calculate the approximate position of radio sources buried under the rubble. Based on measurements, a radio map of the disaster site is made, very useful for locating victims and for guiding specific rubble lifting machinery, by assuming that there is a victim next to a mobile device detected by the robotic platform; by knowing the approximate position, the lifting machinery does not risk to further hurt the victims. Moreover, by knowing the positions of the victims, the reaction time is decreased, and the chances of survival for the victims buried under the rubble, are obviously increased.

  15. End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Department`s needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications.

  16. Heating and cooling potential of buried pipes in southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, Marc O.; Santos, Gerson H. dos; Freire, Roberto Z.; Mendes, Nathan [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Parana (PUC-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Sistemas Termicos], e-mail: mabadie@univ-lr.fr, e-mail: gerson.santos@pucpr.br, e-mail: rozafre@terra.com.br; Mendes, Nathan [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana (PUCPR/CCET), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Thermal Systems Laboratory - LST], e-mail: nathan.mendes@pucpr.br

    2006-07-01

    The present numerical study aims to evaluate the heating and cooling potential of buried pipes in three cities of South Brazil i.e. Curitiba, Florianopolis and Porto-Alegre. In a first part, ground temperatures at the buried pipe location (between 1 and 3 m depth) are calculated by both a simplified model and a three-dimensional volume-finite code (SOLUM). Then, a prototypical house and its buried pipe are modeled with a building energy simulation tool (TRNSYS) to evaluate the positive and negative effects of such system on thermal comfort and heating and cooling energy. Results show that this passive system is particularly efficient in Curitiba, can reduce energy consumption in Porto Alegre and is not well-adapted to Florianopolis. (author)

  17. Damage Assessment for Buried Structures Against Internal Blast Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Guowei; HUANG Xin; LI Jianchun

    2008-01-01

    The soil-structure interaction(SSI)decoupling is applied to simplify buried structure against internal blast lpad as spring effect.Shear failure.bending failure and Combined failure modes are considered based on five transverse velocity profiles for the rigid-plastic structural element.The critical equations for shear and bending failure are derived respectively.Pressure impulse diagrams are accordingly developed to assess damage of the buried structures against internal blast lpad.Cornparison is done to show influences of soil-structure interaction and shear to-bending strength ratio of a structural element.A case study is conducted to show the application of damage assessment to a reinforced concrete beam element of buried structure.

  18. On-line Monitoring System based on Vibration Signal of High Voltage Circuit Breaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Fu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available High voltage circuit breaker is one of the most important switch apparatus in electrical power system. It play a role in the switch control, which can be used to switch the operating mode during normal operation (the equipment run or quit. In order to ensure the normal operation of the grid, it can be removed quickly when a malfunction on the device or circuit. Real-time online monitoring of high voltage circuit breaker can understand the running status, master the operation characteristics and its tend of development. As early as possible find the potential faults then take preventive measures timely, so as to ensure the reliable operation of power system. Online monitoring of high voltage circuit breakers can reduce the premature or unnecessary maintenance and maintenance cost, improve pertinence of the maintenance firstly. Secondly, it can improve the life of the switching device and improve the reliability of electric power system significantly. In this paper, on-line monitoring system based on vibration signal of high voltage circuit breaker is presented

  19. Transmission line pulse system for avalanche characterization of high power semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Michele; Ascione, Giovanni; De Falco, Giuseppe; Maresca, Luca; De Laurentis, Martina; Irace, Andrea; Breglio, Giovanni

    2013-05-01

    Because of the increasing in power density of electronic devices for medium and high power application, reliabilty of these devices is of great interest. Understanding the avalanche behaviour of a power device has become very important in these last years because it gives an indication of the maximum energy ratings which can be seen as an index of the device ruggedness. A good description of this behaviour is given by the static IV blocking characteristc. In order to avoid self heating, very relevant in high power devices, very short pulses of current have to be used, whose value can change from few milliamps up to tens of amps. The most used method to generate short pulses is the TLP (Transmission Line Pulse) test, which is based on charging the equivalent capacitance of a transmission line to high value of voltage and subsequently discharging it onto a load. This circuit let to obtain very short square pulses but it is mostly used for evaluate the ESD capability of semiconductor and, in this environment, it generates pulses of low amplitude which are not high enough to characterize the avalanche behaviour of high power devices . Advanced TLP circuit able to generate high current are usually very expensive and often suffer of distorption of the output pulse. In this article is proposed a simple, low cost circuit, based on a boosted-TLP configuration, which is capable to produce very square pulses of about one hundreds of nanosecond with amplitude up to some tens of amps. A prototype is implemented which can produce pulses up to 20A of amplitude with 200 ns of duration which can characterize power devices up to 1600V of breakdown voltage. Usage of microcontroller based logic make the circuit very flexible. Results of SPICE simulation are provided, together with experimental results. To prove the effectiveness of the circuit, the I-V blocking characteristics of two commercial devices, namely a 600V PowerMOS and a 1200V Trench-IGBT, are measured at different

  20. The different origins of high- and low-ionization broad emission lines revealed by gravitational microlensing in the Einstein cross

    CERN Document Server

    Braibant, Lorraine; Sluse, Dominique; Anguita, Timo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the kinematics and ionization structure of the broad emission line region of the gravitationally lensed quasar QSO2237+0305 (the Einstein cross) using differential microlensing in the high- and low-ionization broad emission lines. We combine visible and near-infrared spectra of the four images of the lensed quasar and detect a large-amplitude microlensing effect distorting the high-ionization CIV and low-ionization H$\\alpha$ line profiles in image A. While microlensing only magnifies the red wing of the Balmer line, it symmetrically magnifies the wings of the CIV emission line. Given that the same microlensing pattern magnifies both the high- and low-ionization broad emission line regions, these dissimilar distortions of the line profiles suggest that the high- and low-ionization regions are governed by different kinematics. Since this quasar is likely viewed at intermediate inclination, we argue that the differential magnification of the blue and red wings of H$\\alpha$ favors a flattened, viri...

  1. Numerical modelling of ground vibration caused by elevated high-speed railway lines considering structure-soil-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucinskas, Paulius; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Persson, Kent

    2016-01-01

    Construction of high speed railway lines has been an increasing trend in recent years. Countries like Denmark and Sweden plan to expand and upgrade their railways to accommodate high-speed traffic. To benefit from the full potential of the reduced commuting times, these lines must pass through...... densely populated urban areas with the collateral effect of increased noise and vibrations levels. This paper aims to quantify the vibrations levels in the area surrounding an elevated railway line built as a multi-span bridge structure. The proposed model employs finite-element analysis to model...

  2. High-throughput sequencing reveals differing immune responses in the intestinal mucosa of two inbred lines afflicted with necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Anh Duc; Hong, Yeong Ho; Lillehoj, Hyun S

    2015-08-15

    We investigated the necrotic enteritis (NE)-induced transcripts of immune-related genes in the intestinal mucosa of two highly inbred White Leghorn chicken lines, line 6.3 and line 7.2, which share the same MHC haplotype and show different levels of NE susceptibility using high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. NE was induced by the previously described co-infection model using Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens. The RNA-Seq generated over 38 million sequence reads for Marek's disease (MD)-resistant line 6.3 and over 40 million reads for the MD-susceptible line 7.2. Alignment of these sequences with the Gallus gallus genome database revealed the expression of over 29,900 gene transcripts induced by NE in these two lines, among which 7,841 genes were significantly upregulated and 2,919 genes were downregulated in line 6.3 chickens and 6,043 genes were significantly upregulated and 2,764 genes were downregulated in NE-induced line 7.2 compared with their uninfected controls. Analysis of 560 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using the gene ontology database revealed annotations for 246 biological processes, 215 molecular functions, and 81 cellular components. Among the 53 cytokines and 96 cytokine receptors, 15 cytokines and 29 cytokine receptors were highly expressed in line 6.3, whereas the expression of 15 cytokines and 15 cytokine receptors was higher in line 7.2 than in line 6.3 (fold change ≥ 2, p<0.01). In a hierarchical cluster analysis of novel mRNAs, the novel mRNA transcriptome showed higher expression in line 6.3 than in line 7.2, which is consistent with the expression profile of immune-related target genes. In qRT-PCR and RNA-Seq analysis, all the genes examined showed similar responses to NE (correlation coefficient R=0.85-0.89, p<0.01) in both lines 6.3 and 7.2. This study is the first report describing NE-induced DEGs and novel transcriptomes using RNA-seq data from two inbred chicken lines showing different levels of NE

  3. EUV magnetic-dipole lines from highly-charged high-Z ions with an open 3d shell

    CERN Document Server

    Osin, D; Reader, J; Ralchenko, Yu

    2012-01-01

    The electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology was used to produce highly-charged ions of hafnium, tantalum and gold with an open 3d shell. The extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from these ions were recorded with a flat-field grazing-incidence spectrometer in the wavelength range of 4.5 nm to 25 nm. A total of 133 new spectral lines, primarily due to magnetic-dipole transitions within the ground-state $3d^n$ configurations of the Co-like to K-like ions, were identified by comparing energy-dependent experimental spectra with a detailed collisional-radiative modeling of the EBIT plasma.

  4. Chemistry in isolation: High CCH/HCO+ line ratio in the AMIGA galaxy CIG 638

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, S; Aladro, R; Espada, D; Argudo-Fernandez, M; Kramer, C; Scott, T C

    2014-01-01

    Multi-molecule observations towards an increasing variety of galaxies have been showing that the relative molecular abundances are affected by the type of activity. However, these studies are biased towards bright active galaxies, which are typically in interaction. We study the molecular composition of one of the most isolated galaxies in the local Universe where the physical and chemical properties of their molecular clouds have been determined by intrinsic mechanisms. We present 3 mm broad band observations of the galaxy CIG 638, extracted from the AMIGA sample of isolated galaxies. The emission of the J=1-0 transitions of CCH, HCN, HCO+, and HNC are detected. Integrated intensity ratios between these line are compared with similar observations from the literature towards active galaxies including starburst galaxies (SB), active galactic nuclei (AGN), luminous infrared galaxies (LIRG), and GMCs in M33. A significantly high ratio of CCH with respect to HCN, HCO+, and HNC is found towards CIG 638 when compar...

  5. High stability interleaved fiber Michelson interferometer for on-line precision displacement measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Chen, Xianfeng; Zhang, Lin

    2009-11-01

    A self-reference fiber Michelson interferometer measurement system, which employs fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) as in-fiber reflective mirrors and interleaves together two fiber Michelson interferometers that share the common-interferometric-optical path, is presented. One of the fiber interferometers is used to stabilise the system by the use of an electronic feedback loop to compensate the influences resulting from the environmental disturbances, while the other one is used to perform the measurement task. The influences resulting from the environmental disturbances have been eliminated by the compensating action of the electronic feedback loop, this makes the system suitable for on-line precision measurement. By means of the homodyne phase-tracking technique, the linearity of the measurement results of displacement measurements has been very high.

  6. The Single Minute Exchange of Die Methodology in a High-Mix Processing Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filla Jan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of turbulence in the economic environment, enterprises must react flexibly to the changing demands of their customers. Thus, a changeover process is required. If an enterprise has a large product portfolio, there are basically only two process options; to integrate production into large batches or to change the production programme frequently. Frequent changes associated with the changeover process of machinery are optimized by using the SMED method. The main goal of this paper is to apply SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Die to a High-Mix processing line. The case study is undertaken in a flat glass processing company which manufactures hundreds of types of products. The results of the case study demonstrate that it is possible to save up to 30% annually of the time currently spent on changeovers.

  7. FeII/MgII Emission Line Ratio in High Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, M.; Hamann, F.; Appenzeller, I.

    2003-01-01

    We present results of the analysis of near infrared spectroscopic observations of 6 high-redshift quasars (z > 4), emphasizing the measurement of the ultraviolet FeII/MgII emission line strength in order to estimate the beginning of intense star formation in the early universe. To investigate...... the evolution of the FeII/MgII ratio over a wider range in cosmic time, we measured this ratio for composite quasar spectra which cover a redshift range of 0 4 quasars must have started already at an epoch corresponding to z_f = 6 to 9, when the age of the universe was ~0.5 Gyr (H_o = 72 km/s/Mpc, Omega_M = 0...

  8. Longitudinal type-line optimization of high-speed train for low aerodynamic noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖友刚; 杨群; 孙亮; 时彧

    2014-01-01

    The basic head shape of high-speed train is determined by its longitudinal type-line (LTL), so it is crucial to optimize its aerodynamic performance. Based on the parametric modeling of LTL constructed by non-uniform relational B-spline (NURBS) and the fluctuation pressure obtained by large eddy simulation (LES), the Kriging surrogate model (KSM) of LTL was constructed for low aerodynamic noise, and the accuracy of the KSM was improved gradually by adding the sample point with maximum expected improvement (EI) and the optimal point from optimization. The optimal objective was searched with genetic algorithm (GA). The results show that the total fluctuation pressure level (FPL) of the optimal LTL can be 8.7 dB less than that of original one, and the shape optimization method is feasible for low aerodynamic noise design.

  9. Finding sex partners on-line: a new high-risk practice among older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strombeck, Rita

    2003-06-01

    By the year 2004, it is estimated that more than 34 million older Americans will be Internet users. The revolution in mass communication has changed the way people of all ages interact. Studies indicate that love and romance rate very high among the concerns of older adults using the Internet, and older adults are using it to meet other people. Numerous web sites targeting older adults include channels for developing personal relationships. Although studies suggest that individuals who seek out sex partners on the Internet may be at increased risk for contracting sexually transmitted diseases, very little is known about the attitudes and behaviors of older adults who seek and find sexual partners on-line. Because the number of older Internet users is predicted to grow exponentially as baby boomers age, research is needed about the Internet attitudes and practices of older adults.

  10. Characteristics of a four element gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line array high power microwave source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. M.; Reale, D. V.; Krile, J. T.; Garcia, R. S.; Cravey, W. H.; Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.; Mankowski, J. J.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a solid-state four element array gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave system is presented as well as a detailed description of its subsystems and general output capabilities. This frequency agile S-band source is easily adjusted from 2-4 GHz by way of a DC driven biasing magnetic field and is capable of generating electric fields of 7.8 kV/m at 10 m correlating to 4.2 MW of RF power with pulse repetition frequencies up to 1 kHz. Beam steering of the array at angles of ±16.7° is also demonstrated, and the associated general radiation pattern is detailed.

  11. High resolution catalogue of emission lines in the spectra of comet C/2002 C1 Ikeya-Zhang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capria, M. T.; Cremonese, G.; de Sanctis, M. C.; Buzzoni, A.

    2003-04-01

    The comet C/2002 C1 Ikeya-Zhang was observed at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo in Canary Islands with the echelle spectrograph SARG during the night 19-20 of April 2002. One echelle spectrum composed by 55 orders covering the spectral range from 462 to 792 nm with R=57000 was acquired. The observations were performed in the frame of a program aimed to collect, catalogue and identify cometary emission lines in the optical part of the spectral range. In this range many important lines of daughters molecules and ions can be found; most of these lines were detected many times with low resolution spectroscopy, but the cataloguing with high resolution spectroscopy was done until now for few comets, and many lines still remain unidentified. We present here a first version of our catalogue, in which the line identification, based on wavelength coincidence only, is made using as starting line lists the ones compiled by Brown et al. [1] and Cochran and Cochran [2]. The O(1S) and O(1D) metastable lines are also clearly visible in our spectra and well separated from the other cometary and telluric lines, so we present also a preliminary estimate of the ratio of the green and red lines. [1] M.E. Brown et al. (1996) AJ, 112. [2] A. Cochran and D. Cochran (2002) Icarus, 157.

  12. Preservation of high glycolytic phenotype by establishing new acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines at physiologic oxygen concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheard, Michael A., E-mail: msheard@chla.usc.edu [Developmental Therapeutics Program, USC-CHLA Institute for Pediatric Clinical Research, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Ghent, Matthew V., E-mail: mattghent@gmail.com [Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Health Sciences Campus, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Cabral, Daniel J., E-mail: dcabral14@gmail.com [Cancer Center and Departments of Cell Biology & Biochemistry, Pharmacology & Neuroscience, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430 (United States); Lee, Joanne C., E-mail: joannebarnhart@gmail.com [Cancer Center and Departments of Cell Biology & Biochemistry, Pharmacology & Neuroscience, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430 (United States); Khankaldyyan, Vazgen, E-mail: khangaldian@yahoo.com [Developmental Therapeutics Program, USC-CHLA Institute for Pediatric Clinical Research, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Ji, Lingyun, E-mail: lingyun.ji@med.usc.edu [Developmental Therapeutics Program, USC-CHLA Institute for Pediatric Clinical Research, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Wu, Samuel Q., E-mail: swu@chla.usc.edu [Medical Genetics, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Kang, Min H., E-mail: min.kang@ttuhsc.edu [Cancer Center and Departments of Cell Biology & Biochemistry, Pharmacology & Neuroscience, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    Cancer cells typically exhibit increased glycolysis and decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and they continue to exhibit some elevation in glycolysis even under aerobic conditions. However, it is unclear whether cancer cell lines employ a high level of glycolysis comparable to that of the original cancers from which they were derived, even if their culture conditions are changed to physiologically relevant oxygen concentrations. From three childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients we established three new pairs of cell lines in both atmospheric (20%) and physiologic (bone marrow level, 5%) oxygen concentrations. Cell lines established in 20% oxygen exhibited lower proliferation, survival, expression of glycolysis genes, glucose consumption, and lactate production. Interestingly, the effects of oxygen concentration used during cell line initiation were only partially reversible when established cell cultures were switched from one oxygen concentration to another for eight weeks. These observations indicate that ALL cell lines established at atmospheric oxygen concentration can exhibit relatively low levels of glycolysis and these levels are semi-permanent, suggesting that physiologic oxygen concentrations may be needed from the time of cell line initiation to preserve the high level of glycolysis commonly exhibited by leukemias in vivo. - Highlights: • Establishing new ALL cell lines in 5% oxygen resulted in higher glycolytic expression and function. • Establishing new ALL cell lines in 5% oxygen resulted in higher proliferation and lower cell death. • The divergent metabolic phenotypes selected in 5% and 20% oxygen are semi-permanent.

  13. Oxygen lines in solar granulation. I. Testing 3D models against new observations with high spatial and spectral resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Tiago M D; Asplund, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Aims: we seek to provide additional tests of the line formation of theoretical 3D solar photosphere models. In particular, we set out to test the spatially-resolved line formation at several viewing angles, from the solar disk-centre to the limb and focusing on atomic oxygen lines. The purpose of these tests is to provide additional information on whether the 3D model is suitable to derive the solar oxygen abundance. We also aim to empirically constrain the NLTE recipes for neutral hydrogen collisions, using the spatially-resolved observations of the OI 777 nm lines. Methods: using the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope we obtained high-spatial-resolution observations of five atomic oxygen lines (along with lines for other species) for five positions on the solar disk. These observations have a high spatial and spectral resolution, and a continuum intensity contrast up to 9% at 615 nm. The theoretical line profiles were computed using the 3D model, with a full 3D NLTE treatment for oxygen and LTE for the other lines...

  14. Seed longevity of Eragrostis plana Nees buried in natural grassland soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Borges de Medeiros

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the seed longevity of Eragrostis plana Nees buried at different soil depths, in a natural-grassland area in the Pampa biome (46 m altitude, 30º05´S and 51º40´W of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The experimental design was a split-plot type in complete blocks with two factors: seeds buried at five different depth levels (soil surface and 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 cm and seven exhumation dates. The blocks were allocated in natural grassland grazed by cattle, allocated in a 12-m-long transection. Fifty-four permeable nylon bags filled with 100 seeds in each division, with five vertical divisions, were buried in each row. Seven exhumation dates were used: the first on October 14, 2003 and the last on January 14, 2006. The percentage of viable seeds of E. plana, collected at seven exhumation times and set at different depths in the soil horizon, were described by simple negative exponential equations. Based on the model, the percentage of viable seeds collected at the five depths, (soil surface and 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 cm, after 2.5 years of burial, were 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 7.4 and 22.1%, respectively. Increase in depth is directly associated with physical and physiological seed integrity of E. plana. Negative simple exponential equations can be used to predict seed longevity of E. plana buried in nylon bags. This invader species accumulates soil seed-bank of high longevity.

  15. Buried wire gage for wall shear stress measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, V. S.; Rose, W. C.

    1978-01-01

    A buried wire gage for measuring wall shear stress in fluid flow was studied and further developed. Several methods of making this relatively new type of gage were examined to arrive at a successful technique that is well-suited for wind-tunnel testing. A series of measurements was made to demonstrate the adequacy of a two-point calibration procedure for these gages. The buried wire gage is also demonstrated to be ideally suited for quantitative measurement of wall shear stress in wind-tunnel testing.

  16. Gnathostoma infection in Nakhon Nayok and Prachin Buri, Central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojekittikhun, Wichit; Chaiyasith, Tossapon; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Pubampen, Somchit; Maipanich, Wanna; Tungtrongchitr, Rungsunn

    2002-09-01

    Gnathostoma infection in Nakhon Nayok and Prachin Buri Provinces, Central Thailand, was investigated. The prevalence and intensity of infection of swamp eels were determined; dog fecal samples and fresh-water copepods were examined for evidence of infection. The overall prevalence of eel infection was 38.1% (117/307) in Nakhon Nayok and 24.0% (74/308) in Prachin Buri--the former rate being significantly higher than the latter. Most of the positive Nalkhon Nayok eels (53.8%) harbored only 1-9 larvae; only one eel bore more than 50 larvae. In Prachin Buri, 67.6% of the positive eels harbored 1-9 larvae; again, only one eel bore more than 50 larvae. The mean number of 11.0 +/- 10.4 larvae/eel in Nakhon Nayok was not significantly different from that of Prachin Buri (9.3 +/- 11.4). A total of 1,292 gnathostome larvae were recovered from 307 eels in Nakhon Nayok. Of these, 52.3% had accumulated in the liver and 47.7% had spread throughout the muscles. In eels from Prachin Buri, 50.6% and 49.4% of the total of 688 larvae (from 308 eels) were found in the liver and muscles, respectively. The larvae preferred encysting in ventral of muscles rather than dorsal part; they preferred the middle portion to the anterior and posterior portions. The average length of gnathostome larvae recovered from Nakhon Nayok eels was 4.0 +/- 0.5 mm (range 2.5-5.1 mm) and the average body width was 0.40 +/- 0.05 mm (range 0.29-0.51 mm). Those from eels in Prachin Buri were 3.9 +/- 0.5 mm (range 2.2-5.1 mm) and 0.34 +/- 0.05 mm (range 0.20-0.48 mm), respectively. The mean body length and width of the larvae from eels in Nakhon Nayok were significantly greater than those of the larvae from eels in Prachin Buri. In Ban Phrao, Nakhon Nayok, none of the first 44 fecal specimens examined was positive. Of the second (68) and the third (70) specimens, one (1.5%) and two (2.9%) samples were positive. However, six months after the third fecal collection, no eggs were found. In Tha Ngam, Prachin Buri, no

  17. Comparison of broadband and hyperspectral thermal infrared imaging of buried threat objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFee, John E.; Achal, Steve B.; Diaz, Alejandra U.; Faust, Anthony A.

    2013-06-01

    Previous research by many groups has shown that broad-band thermal infrared (TIR) imagers can detect buried explosive threat devices, such as unexploded ordnance (UXO), landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Broad-band detection measures the apparent temperature - an average over the wave band of the product of the true soil surface temperature and the emissivity. Broad-band detection suffers from inconsistent performance (low signal, high clutter rates), due in part to diurnal variations, environmental and meteorological conditions, and soil surface effects. It has been suggested that hyperspectral TIR imaging might have improved performance since it can, in principle, allow extraction of the wavelength-dependent emissivity and the true soil surface temperature. This would allow the surface disturbance effects to be separated from the soil column (bulk) effects. A significant, and as yet unanswered, question is whether hyperspectral TIR images provide better detection capability (higher probability of detection and/or lower false alarm rate) than do broad-band thermal images. TIR hyperspectral image data of threat objects, buried and surface-laid in bare soil, were obtained in arid, desert-like conditions over full diurnal cycles for several days. Regions of interest containing threat objects and backgrounds were extracted throughout the time period. Simulated broad-band images were derived from the hyperspectral images. The diurnal variation of the images was studied. Hyperspectral was found to provide some advantage over broad-band imaging in detection of buried threat objects for the limited data set studied.

  18. A Very Large Population of Likely Buried Impact Basins in the Northern Lowlands of Mars Revealed by MOLA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H. V.; Shockey, K. M.; Frey, E. L.; Roark, J. H.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.

    2001-01-01

    High resolution Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data have revealed a large number of subdued quasi-circular depressions (QCDs) >50 km diameter in the northern lowlands of Mars which are generally not visible in Viking imagery and which may be buried ancient impact basins. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Spatial and Temporal Variations of the Firn Line Altitudes in the Asian High Mountains over the Past Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Guo, Z.; Wu, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Variations of the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of one glacier could determine the glacier's behaviors, i.e., advance, stable, retreat, or disappeared. In the Asian High Mountains, there exist a huge number of glaciers, but only few monitoring glaciers. This means that we could only obtain the ELA data sets from these few monitoring glaciers in the region, which restrained our understanding for the spatial distribution pattern of the ELA. Considering that the firn line altitude can indicate the equilibrium line altitude, we may investigate the variations of the firn line altitudes on many glaciers to understand the spatial and temporal variation characteristics of the ELA in the Asian High Mountains. Albedo of the firn is usually larger than that of the glacier ice. This phenomenon can be used to discern the location of the firn line on a glacier in remote sensing image. By using the Landsat TM/ETM+ data, HJ-1A/B data and DEM data, we obtained the firn line altitudes on more than 3000 glaciers in the Asian High Mountains, and found that the highest firn line altitude, over 6000 m a.s.l., was located in the Qiangtang area, which imply that the Indian monsoon moisture cause the firn line altitudes lower to the south of the Qiangtang area, in other words, the Qiangtang area is the northern boundary of the Indian monsoon. The firn line altitude was lower than 5200 m a.s.l. in the southeast Tibetan Plateau while lower than 3500 m a.s.l. in the Altai Mountains in 2010. Over the past decade, the firn line altitudes increased by about 30 to 300 m in different areas of the Tibetan Plateau, but decreased by about 80 m in the Altai Mountains.

  20. Breeding Rice Restorer Lines with High Resistance to Bacterial Blight by Using Molecular Marker-Assisted Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Qi-ming; WANG Shi-quan; ZHENG Ai-ping; ZHANG Hong-yu; LI Ping

    2006-01-01

    Two bacterial blight (BB) resistance genes, Xa21 and Xa4, from IRBB24 were introduced into hybrid rice restorer line Mianhui 725, which is highly susceptible to BB, by using hybridization and molecular marker-assisted selection technology. Four homologous restorer lines were obtained through testing the R target genes with molecular markers and analyzing parental genetic background. Inoculation of the four lines and their hybrids with the specific strains of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, P1, P6 and seven representative strains of Chinese pathotype, C Ⅰ -CⅦ, showed that all of the four lines and their hybrids were highly resistant and presented broad resistance-spectrum to BB. The hybrids of G46A / R207-2 displayed good agronomic characters and high yield potential, and R207-2 was named Shuhui 207.

  1. Research on cost control and management in high voltage transmission line construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobin

    2017-05-01

    Enterprises. The cost control is of vital importance to the construction enterprises. It is the key to the profitability of the transmission line project, which is related to the survival and development of the electric power construction enterprises. Due to the long construction line, complex and changeable construction terrain as well as large construction costs of transmission line, it is difficult for us to take accurate and effective cost control on the project implementation of entire transmission line. Therefore, the cost control of transmission line project is a complicated and arduous task. It is of great theoretical and practical significance to study the cost control scheme of transmission line project by a more scientific and efficient way. Based on the characteristics of the construction project of the transmission line project, this paper analyzes the construction cost structure of the transmission line project and the current cost control problem of the transmission line project, and demonstrates the necessity and feasibility of studying the cost control scheme of the transmission line project more accurately. In this way, the dynamic cycle cost control process including plan, implementation, feedback, correction, modification and re-implement is achieved to realize the accurate and effective cost control of entire electric power transmission line project.

  2. Beam Diagnostics Instrumentation for the High Energy Beam Transport Line of I.P.H.I.

    CERN Document Server

    Ausset, P; Coacolo, J L; Lesrel, J; Maymon, J N; Olivier, A; Rouviere, N; Solal-Cohen, M; Vatrinet, L; Yaniche, J F

    2005-01-01

    I.P.H.I. is a High Intensity Proton Injector under construction at Saclay (C.N.R.S/ I.N.2P.3; C.E.A. / D.A.P.N.I.A and C.E.R.N. collaboration). An E.C.R. produces a 100 keV, 100 mA C.W. proton beam which will be accelerated at 3 MeV by a 4 vanes R.F.Q. operating at 352.2 MHz. Finally, a High Energy Beam Transport Line (H.E.B.T.) will deliver the beam to a beam stopper and will be equipped with appropriate beam diagnostics to carry intensity; centroïd beam transverse position, transverse beam profiles, beam energy and energy spread measurements for the commissioning of I.P.H.I. These beam diagnostics will operate under both pulsed and C.W. operation. Transverse beam profile measurements will be acquired under low and high duty factor pulsed beam operation using a slow wire scanner and a C.C.D. camera to image the beam-induced fluorescence. The beam instrumentation of the H.E.B.T. is reviewed and preliminary obtained transverse profile measurements at 100 keV are described.

  3. Beam diagnostics instrumentation for the high energy beam transfer line of I.P.H.I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausset, P.; Berthelot, S.; Coacolo, J.L.; Lesrel, J.; Maymon, J.N.; Olivier, A.; Rouviere, N.; Solal, M.; Vatrinet, L.; Yaniche, J.F. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, (IN2P3/CNRS) 91 - Orsay (France); Belyaev, G.; Roudskoy, I. [I.T.E.P. Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    I.P.H.I. is a High Intensity Proton Injector under construction at Saclay. An E.C.R. source produces a 100 keV, 100 mA C.W. proton beam which will be accelerated at 3 MeV by a 4 vanes R.F.Q. operating at 352.2 MHz. Finally, a High Energy Beam Transport Line (H.E.B.T.) will deliver the beam to a beam stopper and will be equipped with appropriate beam diagnostics to carry intensity, centroid beam transverse position, transverse beam profiles, beam energy and energy spread measurements for the commissioning of I.P.H.I. These beam diagnostics will operate under both pulsed and C.W. operation. Transverse beam profile measurements will be acquired under low and high duty factor pulsed beam operation using a slow wire scanner and a C.C.D. camera to image the beam-induced fluorescence. The beam instrumentation of the H.E.B.T. is reviewed and preliminary obtained transverse profile measurements at 100 keV are described. (authors)

  4. The programme for constructing high-speed railway lines in Poland; Das Programm zum Bau der Hochgeschwindigkeitsstrecken in Polen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raczynski, Jan; Pomykala, Agata [PKP Polish Railways Lines High Speed Railway Centre, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    The programme currently undergoing implementation for the construction of high-speed railway lines in Poland forms a key element in the restructuring of Polish railways, aimed at their modernisation and inclusion in the European system. The railway of the future is going to meet the necessary standards and quality to satisfy the expectations of society and business. The key decision launching the construction programme was the Cabinet Resolution of 19 December 2008 (no. 276/2008) establishing a trans-regional strategy for developing high-speed transport in Poland. The preparatory work already underway is intended to make it possible for actual construction work on the first high-speed line with a design speed of 350 km/h connecting Warszawa, Lodz, Wroclaw and Poznan to begin in 2014. At the same time, modernisation is planned for the E65 line going south (known as the Central Railway Line or CMK) to bring it into line with high-speed parameters and extending from Warszawa to Krakow and Katowice and from there on to Polish-Czech border. By 2020, nearly 1000 km of high-speed lines ought to have been launched in Poland. (orig.)

  5. Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Observations of High-Velocity Interstellar Absorption-Line Profiles in the Carina Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walborn, Nolan R.; Danks, Anthony C.; Vieira, Gladys; Landsman, Wayne B.

    2002-06-01

    An atlas of ultraviolet interstellar absorption-line profiles toward four stars in the Carina Nebula is presented. The observations have been made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, with a resolving power of 114,000. Low-ionization, high-ionization, and excited-state lines from a wide array of chemical species are included. Extensive measurements of radial velocities, velocity dispersions, and column densities of individual components in these profiles are also given. The unprecedented capabilities of STIS reveal many more velocity components than previously known; most of the high-velocity components in previous observations with the International Ultraviolet Explorer are now resolved into multiple subcomponents, and even higher velocities are seen. The great range of line strengths available permits the detection of the low-velocity components in the weakest lines, and progressively higher velocities in stronger lines (in which the low-velocity components become completely blended). The weak and high-ionization lines trace global structure in the H II region, while the strong low-ionization lines show intricate high-velocity structure that likely originates relatively near to the O stars observed. The extreme velocities found in the low-ionization lines toward these four stars are -388 and +127 km s-1, with 23-26 resolved components in each. Some components in different stars may be related, but many are different in each line of sight. A remarkably well-defined Routly-Spitzer effect is found in this region. Temporal variations toward one star observed twice have already been reported. These measurements will be used in subsequent astrophysical analyses to further constrain the origins of the phenomena. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract

  6. High resolution study of the ν2 and ν5 rovibrational fundamental bands of thionyl chloride: Interplay of an evolutionary algorithm and a line-by-line analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roucou, Anthony; Dhont, Guillaume; Cuisset, Arnaud; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Thorwirth, Sven; Fontanari, Daniele; Meerts, W. Leo

    2017-08-01

    The ν2 and ν5 fundamental bands of thionyl chloride (SOCl2) were measured in the 420 cm-1-550 cm-1 region using the FT-far-IR spectrometer exploiting synchrotron radiation on the AILES beamline at SOLEIL. A straightforward line-by-line analysis is complicated by the high congestion of the spectrum due to both the high density of SOCl2 rovibrational bands and the presence of the ν2 fundamental band of sulfur dioxide produced by hydrolysis of SOCl2 with residual water. To overcome this difficulty, our assignment procedure for the main isotopologues 32S16O35Cl2 and 32S16O35Cl37Cl alternates between a direct fit of the spectrum, via a global optimization technique, and a traditional line-by-line analysis. The global optimization, based on an evolutionary algorithm, produces rotational constants and band centers that serve as useful starting values for the subsequent spectroscopic analysis. This work helped to identify the pure rotational submillimeter spectrum of 32S16O35Cl2 in the v2=1 and v5=1 vibrational states of Martin-Drumel et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 144, 084305 (2016)]. As a by-product, the rotational transitions of the v4=1 far-IR inactive state were identified in the submillimeter spectrum. A global fit gathering all the microwave, submillimeter, and far-IR data of thionyl chloride has been performed, showing that no major perturbation of rovibrational energy levels occurs for the main isotopologue of the molecule.

  7. A high-resolution survey of interstellar Na I D1 lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Daniel E.; Hobbs, L. M.; Kulkarni, Varsha P.

    1994-01-01

    We present high-resolution (0.5 km/s) spectra, obtained with the McDonald Observatory 2.7 m coude echelle spectrograph, of interstellar Na I D1 absorption toward 38 bright stars. Numerous narrow, closely blended absorption components, showing resolved Na I hyperfine structure, are evident in these spectra; such narrow components appear in both low halo and quite local gas, as well as in gas toward more distant disk stars. We have used the method of profile fitting in an attempt to determine column densities, line widths, and velocities for the individual interstellar clouds contributing to the observed absorption lines. The resulting sample of 276 clouds is significantly larger, and likely more complete, than several previous samples of 'individual' interstellar clouds, and allows more precise investigation of various statistical properties. We find that the cloud column density (N) and line width parameter (b) are not correlated, for 0.3 km/s approximately less than b approximately less than 1.5 km/s and 10.0/sq cm approximately less than log (N(Na I)) approximately less than 11.6/sq cm. The median b is about 0.73 km/s, the median log N is about 11.09/sq cm, and the median separation between adjacent components is about 2.0 km/s. All these are overestimates of the true median values, however, due to our inability to completely resolve all the component structure present in some cases; even at a resolution of 0.5 km/s, we may have discerned only 60% of the full number of individual components actually present. The one-dimensional dispersion of component velocities, in the local standard of rest, is approximately 8.6 km/s; the distribution of velocities is broader and displaced to more negative velocities for the weaker components. If 80 K is a representative temperature for the interstellar clouds seen in Na I absorption, then at least 38% (and probably the majority) of the clouds have subsonic internal turbulent motions. The range in N(H I) observed at a given N

  8. Solar Flare Chromospheric Line Emission: Comparison Between IBIS High-resolution Observations and Radiative Hydrodynamic Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Petrosian, Vahé; Dalda, Alberto Sainz; Liu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Solar flares involve impulsive energy release, which results in enhanced radiation in a broad spectral and at a wide height range. In particular, line emission from the chromosphere (lower atmosphere) can provide critical diagnostics of plasma heating processes. Thus, a direct comparison between high-resolution spectroscopic observations and advanced numerical modeling results can be extremely valuable, but has not been attempted so far. We present in this paper such a self-consistent investigation of an M3.0 flare observed by the Dunn Solar Telescope's (DST) Interferometric Bi-dimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) on 2011 September 24 that we have modeled with the radiative hydrodynamic code RADYN (Carlsson & Stein 1992, 1997; Abbett & Hawley 1999; Allred et al. 2005). We obtained images and spectra of the flaring region with IBIS in H$\\alpha$ 6563 \\AA\\ and Ca II 8542 \\AA, and with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager (RHESSI) in X-rays. The latter was used to infer the non-thermal elect...

  9. The High Energy view of the Broad Line Radio Galaxy 3C 111

    CERN Document Server

    Ballo, L; Reeves, J N; Sambruna, R M; Tombesi, F

    2011-01-01

    We present the analysis of Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations of the broad-line radio galaxy (BLRG) 3C 111. Its high energy emission shows variability, a harder continuum with respect to the radio quiet AGN population, and weak reflection features. Suzaku found the source in a minimum flux level; a comparison with the XMM-Newton data implies an increase of a factor of 2.5 in the 0.5-10 keV flux, in the 6 months separating the two observations. The iron K complex is detected in both datasets, with rather low equivalent width(s). The intensity of the iron K complex does not respond to the change in continuum flux. An ultra-fast, high-ionization outflowing gas is clearly detected in the XIS data; the absorber is most likely unstable. Indeed, during the XMM-Newton observation, which was 6 months after, the absorber was not detected. No clear roll-over in the hard X-ray emission is detected, probably due to the emergence of the jet as a dominant component in the hard X-ray band, as suggested by the detection above...

  10. Low-cost and high-speed optical mark reader based on an intelligent line camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussmann, Stephan; Chan, Leona; Fung, Celine; Albrecht, Martin

    2003-08-01

    Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) is thoroughly reliable and highly efficient provided that high standards are maintained at both the planning and implementation stages. It is necessary to ensure that OMR forms are designed with due attention to data integrity checks, the best use is made of features built into the OMR, used data integrity is checked before the data is processed and data is validated before it is processed. This paper describes the design and implementation of an OMR prototype system for marking multiple-choice tests automatically. Parameter testing is carried out before the platform and the multiple-choice answer sheet has been designed. Position recognition and position verification methods have been developed and implemented in an intelligent line scan camera. The position recognition process is implemented into a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), whereas the verification process is implemented into a micro-controller. The verified results are then sent to the Graphical User Interface (GUI) for answers checking and statistical analysis. At the end of the paper the proposed OMR system will be compared with commercially available system on the market.

  11. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Simon Musyoka; Nezami, Behtash Ghazi; Obukwelu, Blessing; Anitha, Mallappa; Marri, Smitha; Fu, Ping; Epperson, Monica F; Le, Ngoc-Anh; Shanmugam, Malathy; Sitaraman, Shanthi V; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Anania, Frank A; Srinivasan, Shanthi

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic with limited effective treatments. The neurotrophic factor glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was recently shown to enhance β-cell mass and improve glucose control in rodents. Its role in obesity is, however, not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the ability of GDNF to protect against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. GDNF transgenic (Tg) mice that overexpress GDNF under the control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter and wild-type (WT) littermates were maintained on a HFD or regular rodent diet for 11 wk, and weight gain, energy expenditure, and insulin sensitivity were monitored. Differentiated mouse brown adipocytes and 3T3-L1 white adipocytes were used to study the effects of GDNF in vitro. Tg mice resisted the HFD-induced weight gain, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia, and hepatic steatosis seen in WT mice despite similar food intake and activity levels. They exhibited significantly (PGDNF enhanced β-adrenergic-mediated cAMP release in brown adipocytes and suppressed lipid accumulation in differentiated 3T3L-1 cells through a p38MAPK signaling pathway. Our studies demonstrate a novel role for GDNF in the regulation of high-fat diet-induced obesity through increased energy expenditure. They show that GDNF and its receptor agonists may be potential targets for the treatment or prevention of obesity.

  12. Different patterns of respiration in rat lines selectively bred for high or low anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Carnevali

    Full Text Available In humans, there is unequivocal evidence of an association between anxiety states and altered respiratory function. Despite this, the link between anxiety and respiration has been poorly evaluated in experimental animals. The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that genetic lines of rats that differ largely in their anxiety level would display matching alterations in respiration. To reach this goal, respiration was recorded in high-anxiety behavior (HAB, n = 10 and low-anxiety behavior (LAB, n = 10 male rats using whole-body plethysmography. In resting state, respiratory rate was higher in HABs (85 ± 2 cycles per minute, cpm than LABs (67 ± 2 cpm, p<0.05. During initial testing into the plethysmograph and during a restraint test, HAB rats spent less time at high-frequency sniffing compared to LAB rats. In addition, HAB rats did not habituate in terms of respiratory response to repetitive acoustic stressful stimuli. Finally, HAB rats exhibited a larger incidence of sighs during free exploration of the plethysmograph and under stress conditions. We conclude that: i HAB rats showed respiratory changes (elevated resting respiratory rate, reduced sniffing in novel environment, increased incidence of sighs, and no habituation of the respiratory response to repetitive stimuli that resemble those observed in anxious and panic patients, and ii respiratory patterns may represent a promising way for assessing anxiety states in preclinical studies.

  13. Very High Excitation Lines of H2 in the Orion Molecular Cloud Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geballe, T. R.; Burton, M. G.; Pike, R. E.

    2017-03-01

    Vibration-rotation lines of H2 from highly excited levels approaching the dissociation limit have been detected at a number of locations in the shocked gas of the Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC-1), including in a Herbig-Haro object near the tip of one of the OMC-1 “fingers.” Population diagrams show that, while the excited H2 is almost entirely at a kinetic temperature of ˜1800 K (typical for vibrationally shock-excited H2), as in the previously reported case of Herbig-Haro object HH 7 up to a few percent of the H2 is at a kinetic temperature of ˜5000 K. The location with the largest fraction of hot H2 is the Herbig-Haro object, where the outflowing material is moving at a higher speed than at the other locations. Although theoretical work is required for a better understanding of the 5000 K H2 (including how it cools), its existence and the apparent dependence of its abundance relative to that of the cooler component on the relative velocities of the outflow and the surrounding ambient gas appear broadly consistent with it having recently reformed. The existence of this high-temperature H2 appears to be a common characteristic of shock-excited molecular gas.

  14. High power microwave beam steering based on gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanchenko, I. V., E-mail: riv@lfe.hcei.tsc.ru; Rostov, V. V.; Gunin, A. V.; Konev, V. Yu. [Institute of high current electronics SB RAS, Akademichesky 2/3, 634055, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-07

    We demonstrate electronically controlled beam steering by high power RF pulses produced by two gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs) connected to a one high voltage driver. Each NLTL is capable of producing several ns RF pulses with peak power from 50 to 700 MW (6% standard deviation) at frequencies from 0.5 to 1.7 GHz (1% standard deviation) with 100 Hz repetition rate. Using a helix antenna allows irradiating of RF pulses with almost circular polarization and 350 MW maximum peak power, which corresponds to 350 kV effective potential of radiation. At the installation of two identical channels, we demonstrate the possibility of beam steering within ±15° in the horizontal plane by coherent RF pulses with circular polarization at 1.0 GHz center frequency. Fourfold increase in the power flux density for in-phase irradiation of RF pulses is confirmed by comparison with one-channel operation.

  15. Detection of Buried Mines and Unexploded Ordnance (UXO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-20

    Confederate forces used black powder and buried artillery shells to attack advancing Union units. Major General William Tecumseh Sherman countered these...AK-2-2539 6. AUTHOR(S) David Heberlein, Bohdan Balko, Isaac Chappell , John Biddle 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S

  16. Modeling of the Uplift Response of Buried Pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choobbasti, Asskar Janalizadeh; Vahdatirad, Mohammadjavad; Firouzianbandpey, Sarah;

    2009-01-01

    Over the years, researchers have tried to understand the complex behavior of buried pipelines subjected to ground ruptures due to landslides, earthquakes, faults and uplift forces in shallow trenches. In an attempt to understand this complex behavior, an experimental investigation program has been...

  17. Buried nodules from the central Indian Ocean basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.

    Indian Ocean. Mar. Geol.92, p. 115- 125. Usui, A. and Ito, T. (1994). Fossil manganese deposits buried within DSDP /ODP cores, Legs 1-126. Mar. geol. 119, p. 111-136. Von Stackelberg, U. (1984). Significance of bentic organisms for the growth...

  18. Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging of Buried Metallic Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, A. Burak; Meincke, Peter

    2001-01-01

    During the past decade there has been considerable research on ground penetrating radar (GPR) tomography for detecting objects such as pipes, cables, mines and barrels buried under the surface of the Earth. While the earlier researches were all based on the assumption of a homogeneous background...

  19. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Technology Preparedness and Status Report Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacker, P.B.; Bonnenberg, R.W.; Cannon, P.G.; Hyde, R.A.; Watson, L.R.

    1994-04-01

    A Technology Preparedness and Status Report is required for each Technical Task Plan funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. This document provides guidance for the preparation of that report. Major sections of the report will include a subset of the need for the technology, objectives of the demonstration, technology description and readiness evaluation, demonstration requirements, and preparedness checklist and action plan.

  20. Piezometric biosensors for anti-apoptotic protein survivin based on buried positive-potential barrier and immobilized monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobiecka, Magdalena; Chalupa, Agata; Dworakowska, Beata

    2016-10-15

    The anti-apoptotic protein survivin (Sur) plays an important role in the regulation of cell division and inducing the chemotherapeutic drug resistance. The Sur protein and its mRNA have recently been studied as cancer biomarkers and potential targets for cancer therapy. In this work, we have focused on the design of immunosensors for the detection of Sur based on buried positive-potential barrier layer structure and anti-survivin antibody. The modification of solid AuQC piezoelectrodes was monitored by recording the resonance frequency shift and electrochemical measurements during each step of the sensor preparation. Our results indicate that the immunosensor with covalently bound monoclonal anti-survivin antibody can detect Sur with the limit of detection, LOD=1.7nM (S/N=3σ). The immunosensor applicability for the analysis of real samples was assessed by testing samples of cell lysate solutions obtained from human astrocytoma (glioblastoma) U-87MG cell line, with the experiments performed using the standard addition method. The good linearity of the calibration curves for PBS and lysate solutions at low Sur concentrations confirm the high specificity of the proposed biosensor and good discrimination against nonspecific interactions with lysate components. The calculations indicate that there is still room to increase the Sur capture capacity for Sur while miniaturizing the sensor. The important advantage of the sensor is that it can be reused by a simple regeneration procedure.

  1. The Buried Starburst in the Interacting Galaxy II Zw 096 as Revealed by the Spitzer Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Inami, Hanae; Surace, J A; Mazzarella, J M; Evans, A S; Sanders, D B; Howell, J H; Petric, A; Vavilkin, T; Iwasawa, K; Haan, S; Murphy, E J; Stierwalt, S; Appleton, P N; Barnes, J E; Bothun, G; Bridge, C R; Chan, B; Charmandaris, V; Frayer, D T; Kewley, L J; Kim, D C; Lord, S; Madore, B F; Marshall, J A; Matsuhara, H; Melbourne, J E; Rich, J; Schulz, B; Spoon, H W W; Sturm, E; U, V; Veilleux, S; Xu, K

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of data from the Spitzer Space Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra X-ray Observatory, and AKARI Infrared Astronomy Satellite is presented for the z=0.036 merging galaxy system II Zw 096 (CGCG 448-020). Because II Zw 096 has an infrared luminosity of log(L_IR/L_sun) = 11.94, it is classified as a Luminous Infrared Galaxy (LIRG), and was observed as part of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS). The Spitzer data suggest that 80% of the total infrared luminosity comes from an extremely compact, red source not associated with the nuclei of the merging galaxies. The Spitzer mid-infrared spectra indicate no high-ionization lines from a buried active galactic nucleus in this source. The strong detection of the 3.3 micron and 6.2 micron PAH emission features in the AKARI and Spitzer spectra also implies that the energy source of II Zw 096 is a starburst. Based on Spitzer infrared imaging and AKARI near-infrared spectroscopy, the star formation rate is estimated to be 120 M_sun/yr and ...

  2. High Resolution Imagery and Three-line Array Imagery Automatic Registration for China’s TH-1 Satellite Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    An automatic image registration method of high resolution (HR) imagery and three-line array imagery for China’s TH-1 mapping satellite is invented. The 2m resolution HR imagery is normalized to 5m resolution three-line array imagery firstly. Then using precise point prediction model (P3M) matching method, thousands of correspondent points can be matched. Based on these matched points, feature points collected on HR imagery can be converted onto three-line array imagery automatically. Conseque...

  3. Efficient production of a gene mutant cell line through integrating TALENs and high-throughput cell cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changhong; Fan, Yu; Li, Juan; Wang, Gancheng; Zhang, Hanshuo; Xi, Jianzhong Jeff

    2015-02-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are becoming powerful DNA-targeting tools in a variety of mammalian cells and model organisms. However, generating a stable cell line with specific gene mutations in a simple and rapid manner remains a challenging task. Here, we report a new method to efficiently produce monoclonal cells using integrated TALE nuclease technology and a series of high-throughput cell cloning approaches. Following this method, we obtained three mTOR mutant 293T cell lines within 2 months, which included one homozygous mutant line.

  4. High-throughput RNA sequencing-based virome analysis of 50 lymphoma cell lines from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Subing; Strong, Michael J; Wang, Xia; Moss, Walter N; Concha, Monica; Lin, Zhen; O'Grady, Tina; Baddoo, Melody; Fewell, Claire; Renne, Rolf; Flemington, Erik K

    2015-01-01

    Using high-throughput RNA sequencing data from 50 common lymphoma cell culture models from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia project, we performed an unbiased global interrogation for the presence of a panel of 740 viruses and strains known to infect human and other mammalian cells. This led to the findings of previously identified infections by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). In addition, we also found a previously unreported infection of one cell line (DEL) with a murine leukemia virus. High expression of murine leukemia virus (MuLV) transcripts was observed in DEL cells, and we identified four transcriptionally active integration sites, one being in the TNFRSF6B gene. We also found low levels of MuLV reads in a number of other cell lines and provided evidence suggesting cross-contamination during sequencing. Analysis of HTLV-1 integrations in two cell lines, HuT 102 and MJ, identified 14 and 66 transcriptionally active integration sites with potentially activating integrations in immune regulatory genes, including interleukin-15 (IL-15), IL-6ST, STAT5B, HIVEP1, and IL-9R. Although KSHV and EBV do not typically integrate into the genome, we investigated a previously identified integration of EBV into the BACH2 locus in Raji cells. This analysis identified a BACH2 disruption mechanism involving splice donor sequestration. Through viral gene expression analysis, we detected expression of stable intronic RNAs from the EBV BamHI W repeats that may be part of long transcripts spanning the repeat region. We also observed transcripts at the EBV vIL-10 locus exclusively in the Hodgkin's lymphoma cell line, Hs 611.T, the expression of which were uncoupled from other lytic genes. Assessment of the KSHV viral transcriptome in BCP-1 cells showed expression of the viral immune regulators, K2/vIL-6, K4/vIL-8-like vCCL1, and K5/E2-ubiquitin ligase 1 that was significantly higher than expression of

  5. Study of criterion for assuring the effectiveness of cathodic protection of buried steel pipelines being interfered with alternative current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X.; Jiang, G.; Qiu, Y.; Tang, H. [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Zhang, G.; Jin, X.; Xiang, Z. [Huazhong Natural Gas Subsidiary of PetroChina Pipeline Company, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Z. [Dwell Company Limited, PetroChina Engineering Company, Ltd, Beijing (China)

    2012-06-15

    Interference of alternative current (AC) on corrosion of X65 steel was investigated in soil. It was observed that the unfavorable effect of interfering AC was able to be effectively inhibited by increasing the direct current density of the cathodic protection (CP) system. A clear correlation was established between the CP current density and the tolerable AC current density. This led to a new criterion for assuring the effectiveness of CP of buried pipelines being interfered with AC. Field experimental results on a buried pipeline running below a 500 kV transmission line showed that the criterion could satisfactorily predict the risk of AC interfering on the CP system. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Review of Concrete Biodeterioration in Relation to Buried Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, C; Berry, C.

    2012-10-15

    Long-term storage of low level radioactive material in below ground concrete disposal units (DUs) (Saltstone Disposal Facility) is a means of depositing wastes generated from nuclear operations of the U.S. Department of Energy. Based on the currently modeled degradation mechanisms, possible microbial induced effects on the structural integrity of buried low level wastes must be addressed. Previous international efforts related to microbial impacts on concrete structures that house low level radioactive waste showed that microbial activity can play a significant role in the process of concrete degradation and ultimately structural deterioration. This literature review examines the recent research in this field and is focused on specific parameters that are applicable to modeling and prediction of the fate of concrete vaults housing stored wastes and the wastes themselves. Rates of concrete biodegradation vary with the environmental conditions, illustrating a need to understand the bioavailability of key compounds involved in microbial activity. Specific parameters require pH and osmotic pressure to be within a certain range to allow for microbial growth as well as the availability and abundance of energy sources like components involved in sulfur, iron and nitrogen oxidation. Carbon flow and availability are also factors to consider in predicting concrete biodegradation. The results of this review suggest that microbial activity in Saltstone, (grouted low level radioactive waste) is unlikely due to very high pH and osmotic pressure. Biodegradation of the concrete vaults housing the radioactive waste however, is a possibility. The rate and degree of concrete biodegradation is dependent on numerous physical, chemical and biological parameters. Results from this review point to parameters to focus on for modeling activities and also, possible options for mitigation that would minimize concrete biodegradation. In addition, key chemical components that drive microbial

  7. Buried bumper syndrome: A complication of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrany, Jiri; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kopacova, Marcela; Bures, Jan

    2016-01-14

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a widely used method of nutrition delivery for patients with long-term insufficiency of oral intake. The PEG complication rate varies from 0.4% to 22.5% of cases, with minor complications being three times more frequent. Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is a severe complication of this method, in which the internal fixation device migrates alongside the tract of the stoma outside the stomach. Excessive compression of tissue between the external and internal fixation device of the gastrostomy tube is considered the main etiological factor leading to BBS. Incidence of BBS is estimated at around 1% (0.3%-2.4%). Inability to insert, loss of patency and leakage around the PEG tube are considered to be a typical symptomatic triad. Gastroscopy is indicated in all cases in which BBS is suspected. The depth of disc migration in relation to the lamina muscularis propria of the stomach is critical for further therapy and can be estimated by endoscopic or transabdominal ultrasound. BBS can be complicated by gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation, peritonitis, intra-abdominal and abdominal wall abscesses, or phlegmon, and these complications can lead to fatal outcomes. The most important preventive measure is adequate positioning of the external bolster. A conservative approach should be applied only in patients with high operative risk and dismal prognosis. Choice of the method of release is based on the type of the PEG set and depth of disc migration. A disc retained inside the stomach and completely covered by the overgrowing tissue can be released using some type of endoscopic dissection technique (needle knife, argon plasma coagulation, or papillotome through the cannula). Proper patient selection and dissection of the overgrowing tissue are the major determinants for successful endoscopic therapy. A disc localized out of the stomach (lamina muscularis propria) should be treated by a surgeon.

  8. A high-yielding, generic fed-batch process for recombinant antibody production of GS-engineered cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Li; Zhao, Liang; Sun, Yating;

    2009-01-01

    An animal component-free and chemically defined fed-batch process for GS-engineered cell lines producing recombinant antibodies has been developed. The fed-batch process relied on supplying sufficient nutrients to match their consumption, simultaneously minimizing the accumulation of byproducts....... This generic and high-yielding fed-batch process would shorten development time, and ensure process stability, thereby facilitating the manufacture of therapeutic antibodies by GS-engineered cell lines....

  9. Combination of FACS and homologous recombination for the generation of stable and high-expression engineered cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shi

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cell line generation requires several months and involves screening of over several hundred cell clones for high productivity before dozens are selected as candidate cell lines. Here, we have designed a new strategy for the generation of stable and high-expression cell lines by combining homologous recombination (HR and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. High expression was indicated by the expression of secreted green fluorescent protein (SEGFP. Parental cell lines with the highest expression of SEGFP were then selected by FACS and identified by stability analysis. Consequently, HR vectors were constructed using the cassette for SEGFP as the HR region. After transfecting the HR vector, the cells with negative SEGFP expression were enriched by FACS. The complete exchange between SEGFP and target gene (TNFR-Fc cassettes was demonstrated by DNA analysis. Compared with the traditional method, by integrating the cassette containing the gene of interest into the pre-selected site, the highest producing cells secreted a more than 8-fold higher titer of target protein. Hence, this new strategy can be applied to isolated stable cell lines with desirable expression of any gene of interest. The stable cell lines can rapidly produce proteins for researching protein structure and function and are even applicable in drug discovery.

  10. RELATION BETWEEN PORE MODEL AND CENTER-LINE TEMPERATURE IN HIGH BURN-UP UO2 PELLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwardi Suwardi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Relation between pore model and center-line temperature of high burn up UO2 Pellet. Temperature distribution has been evaluated by using different model of pore distribution. Typical data of power distribution and coolant data have been chosen in this study. Different core model and core distribution model have been studied for related temperature, in correlation with high burn up thermal properties. Finite element combined finite different adapted from Saturn-1 has been used for calculating the temperature distribution. The center-line temperature for different pore model and related discussion is presented.   Keywords: pore model, high burn up, UO2 pellet, centerline temperature.

  11. Effects of Military Traffic on Buried, High-Pressure Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    Observation Pit Samples, 3/7/83 Weight, g Yw Yd wSample No. Material Wet Dry Water pcf pLf Percent 3 Backfill 380.27 343.49 36.28 79 72 10.5 10 Virgin...content, surface material, roadway crown Weight (g) w Sample No. Location Wet Dry Water Percent 103 5 ft south of pipe 268.6 256.9 11.7 4.6 133 Directly...tubes, oven dry, roadway crown Sample Weight (g) Yw Yd w No. Location Wet Dry Water pcf pcf Percent 183 5 ft south of pipe 550.8 533.9 16.9 114.7 111.2

  12. Bearing and Range Estimation Algorithm for Buried Object in Underwater Acoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Han

    2009-01-01

    (DOA of objects and objects-sensors distances, is used in MUSIC algorithm instead of classical model. The influence of the depth of buried objects is discussed. Finally, the numerical results are given in the case of buried cylindrical shells.

  13. The Issues of Reactive Power Compensation in High-voltage Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Lubośny

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the selection of compensation shunt reactors for a double-circuit 400 kV transmission line using the example of the newly built Elk Bis – Alytus transmission line. The analysis takes into account various conditions of the power system. The published results relate to voltage levels in steady states and during switching processes and short circuits.

  14. 76 FR 26183 - Safety Zone; Repair of High Voltage Transmission Lines to Logan International Airport, Saugus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... to Logan International Airport, Saugus River, Saugus, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... transmission lines to Logan Airport. This safety zone is required to provide for the safety of life on... Lines to Logan International Airport, Saugus River, Saugus, Massachusetts, in the Federal Register...

  15. On the Analysis Methods for the Time Domain and Frequency Domain Response of a Buried Objects*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Dragan; Šesnić, Silvestar; Cvetković, Mario

    2014-05-01

    There has been a continuous interest in the analysis of ground-penetrating radar systems and related applications in civil engineering [1]. Consequently, a deeper insight of scattering phenomena occurring in a lossy half-space, as well as the development of sophisticated numerical methods based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, Finite Element Method (FEM), Boundary Element Method (BEM), Method of Moments (MoM) and various hybrid methods, is required, e.g. [2], [3]. The present paper deals with certain techniques for time and frequency domain analysis, respectively, of buried conducting and dielectric objects. Time domain analysis is related to the assessment of a transient response of a horizontal straight thin wire buried in a lossy half-space using a rigorous antenna theory (AT) approach. The AT approach is based on the space-time integral equation of the Pocklington type (time domain electric field integral equation for thin wires). The influence of the earth-air interface is taken into account via the simplified reflection coefficient arising from the Modified Image Theory (MIT). The obtained results for the transient current induced along the electrode due to the transmitted plane wave excitation are compared to the numerical results calculated via an approximate transmission line (TL) approach and the AT approach based on the space-frequency variant of the Pocklington integro-differential approach, respectively. It is worth noting that the space-frequency Pocklington equation is numerically solved via the Galerkin-Bubnov variant of the Indirect Boundary Element Method (GB-IBEM) and the corresponding transient response is obtained by the aid of inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT). The results calculated by means of different approaches agree satisfactorily. Frequency domain analysis is related to the assessment of frequency domain response of dielectric sphere using the full wave model based on the set of coupled electric field integral

  16. Extraction of Roof Lines from High-Resolution Images by a Grouping Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Poz, A. P.; Fernandes, V. J. M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a method for extracting groups of straight lines that represent roof boundaries and roof ridgelines from highresolution aerial images using corresponding Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) roof polyhedrons as initial approximations. The proposed method is based on two main steps. First, straight lines that are candidates to represent roof ridgelines and roof boundaries of a building are extracted from the aerial image. Second, a group of straight lines that represent roof boundaries and roof ridgelines of a selected building is obtained through the optimization of a Markov Random Field (MRF)-based energy function using the genetic algorithm optimization method. The formulation of this energy function considers several attributes, such as the proximity of the extracted straight lines to the corresponding projected ALS-derived roof polyhedron and the rectangularity (extracted straight lines that intersect at nearly 90°). Experimental results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  17. Determining the location of buried plastic water pipes from measurements of ground surface vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggleton, J. M.; Brennan, M. J.; Gao, Y.

    2011-09-01

    ‘Mapping the Underworld' is a UK-based project, which aims to create a multi-sensor device that combines complementary technologies for remote buried utility service detection and location. One of the technologies to be incorporated in the device is low-frequency vibro-acoustics, and techniques for detecting buried infrastructure, in particular plastic water pipes, are being investigated. One of the proposed techniques involves excitation of the pipe at some known location with concurrent vibrational mapping of the ground surface in order to infer the location of the remainder of the pipe. In this paper, measurements made on a dedicated pipe rig are reported. Frequency response measurements relating vibrational velocity on the ground to the input excitation were acquired. Contour plots of the unwrapped phase revealed the location of the pipe to within 0.1-0.2 m. Magnitude contour plots revealed the excitation point and also the location of the pipe end. By examining the unwrapped phase gradients along a line above the pipe, it was possible to identify the wave-type within the pipe responsible for the ground surface vibration. Furthermore, changes in the ground surface phase speed computed using this method enabled the location of the end of the pipe to be confirmed.

  18. High-resolution absorption spectroscopy of the OH 2Pi 3/2 ground state line

    CERN Document Server

    Wiesemeyer, Helmut; Heyminck, Stefan; Karl, Jacobs; Menten, Karl; Neufeld, David; Requena-Torres, Miguel Angel; Stutzki, Jürgen; 10.1051/0004-6361/201218915

    2012-01-01

    The chemical composition of the interstellar medium is determined by gas phase chemistry, assisted by grain surface reactions, and by shock chemistry. The aim of this study is to measure the abundance of the hydroxyl radical (OH) in diffuse spiral arm clouds as a contribution to our understanding of the underlying network of chemical reactions. Owing to their high critical density, the ground states of light hydrides provide a tool to directly estimate column densities by means of absorption spectroscopy against bright background sources. We observed onboard the SOFIA observatory the 2Pi3/2, J = 5/2 3/2 2.5 THz line of ground-state OH in the diffuse clouds of the Carina-Sagittarius spiral arm. OH column densities in the spiral arm clouds along the sightlines to W49N, W51 and G34.26+0.15 were found to be of the order of 10^14 cm^-2, which corresponds to a fractional abundance of 10^-7 to 10^-8, which is comparable to that of H_2O. The absorption spectra of both species have similar velocity components, and the...

  19. Environmental justice: a contrary finding for the case of high-voltage electric power transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenberg, Daniel; Greenberg, Michael R; Harris, Gerald

    2010-05-01

    Environmental justice is the consideration of whether minority and/or lower-income residents in a geographic area are likely to have disproportionately higher exposures to environmental toxins than those living elsewhere. Such situations have been identified for a variety of factors, such as air pollution, hazardous waste, water quality, noise, residential crowding, and housing quality. This study investigates the application of this concept to high-voltage electric power transmission lines (HVTL), which some perceive as a health risk because of the magnetic fields they generate, and also as esthetically unpleasing. We mapped all 345 kV and higher voltage HVTL in New York State and extracted and summarized proximate US Census sociodemographic and housing characteristic data into four categories on the basis of distances from HVTL. Contrary to our expectation, people living within 2000 ft from HVTL were more likely to be exposed to magnetic fields, white, of higher income, more educated and home owners, than those living farther away, particularly in urban areas. Possible explanations for these patterns include the desire for the open space created by the rights-of-way, the preference for new homes/subdivisions that are often located near HVTL, and moving closer to HVTL before EMFs were considered a risk. This study suggests that environmental justice may not apply to all environmental risk factors and that one must be cautious in generalizing. In addition, it shows the utility of geographical information system methodology for summarizing information from extremely large populations, often a challenge in epidemiology.

  20. Throughput Optimal On-Line Algorithms for Advanced Resource Reservation in Ultra High-Speed Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Reuven; Starobinski, David

    2007-01-01

    Advanced channel reservation is emerging as an important feature of ultra high-speed networks requiring the transfer of large files. Applications include scientific data transfers and database backup. In this paper, we present two new, on-line algorithms for advanced reservation, called BatchAll and BatchLim, that are guaranteed to achieve optimal throughput performance, based on multi-commodity flow arguments. Both algorithms are shown to have polynomial-time complexity and provable bounds on the maximum delay for 1+epsilon bandwidth augmented networks. The BatchLim algorithm returns the completion time of a connection immediately as a request is placed, but at the expense of a slightly looser competitive ratio than that of BatchAll. We also present a simple approach that limits the number of parallel paths used by the algorithms while provably bounding the maximum reduction factor in the transmission throughput. We show that, although the number of different paths can be exponentially large, the actual numb...

  1. Microstructure, Composition, and Impact Toughness Across the Fusion Line of High-Strength Bainitic Steel Weldments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Liangyun; Kong, Xiangwei; Chang, Zhiyuan; Qiu, Chunlin; Zhao, Dewen

    2017-09-01

    This paper analyzed the evolution of microstructure, composition, and impact toughness across the fusion line of high-strength bainitic steel weldments with different heat inputs. The main purpose was to develop a convenient method to evaluate the HAZ toughness quickly. The compositions of HAZ were insensitive to higher contents of alloy elements ( e.g., Ni, Mo) in the weld metal because their diffusion distance is very short into the HAZ. The weld metal contained predominantly acicular ferrite at any a heat input, whereas the main microstructures in the HAZ changed from lath martensite/bainite to upper bainite with the increasing heat input. The evolution of HAZ toughness in relation to microstructural changes can be revealed clearly combined with the impact load curve and fracture morphology, although the results of impact tests do not show an obvious change with heat input because the position of Charpy V notch contains the weld metal, HAZ as well as a part of base metal. As a result, based on the bead-on-plate welding tests, the welding parameter affecting the HAZ toughness can be evaluated rapidly.

  2. Optimization of solenoid based low energy beam transport line for high current H+ beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, R.; Singh, P.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Roy, S.; Krishnagopal, S.

    2015-02-01

    A 20 MeV, 30 mA CW proton linac is being developed at BARC, Mumbai. This linac will consist of an ECR ion source followed by a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and Drift tube Linac (DTL). The low energy beam transport (LEBT) line is used to match the beam from the ion source to the RFQ with minimum beam loss and increase in emittance. The LEBT is also used to eliminate the unwanted ions like H2+ and H3+ from entering the RFQ. In addition, space charge compensation is required for transportation of such high beam currents. All this requires careful design and optimization. Detailed beam dynamics simulations have been done to optimize the design of the LEBT using the Particle-in-cell code TRACEWIN. We find that with careful optimization it is possible to transport a 30 mA CW proton beam through the LEBT with 100% transmission and minimal emittance blow up, while at the same time suppressing unwanted species H2+ and H3+ to less than 3.3% of the total beam current.

  3. Orbit Error Correction on the High Energy Beam Transport Line at the KHIMA Accelerator System

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Chawon; Hahn, Garam; An, Dong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    For the purpose of treatment of various cancer and medical research, the synchrotron based medical machine under the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project have been conducted and is going to treat the patient at the beginning of 2018. The KHIMA synchrotron is designed to accelerate and extract the carbon ion (proton) beam with various energy range, 110 up to 430 MeV/u (60 up to 230 MeV). A lattice design and beam optics studies for the High Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) line at the KHIMA accelerator system have been carried out with WinAgile and the MAD-X codes. Because the magnetic eld errors and the mis-alignments introduce to the deviations from the design parameters, these error sources should be treated explicitly and the sensitivity of the machine's lattice to di erent individual error sources is considered. Various types of errors which are static and dynamic one have been taken into account and have been consequentially corrected with a dedicated correction algorithm by using the MAD-X pr...

  4. Broad Absorption Line Quasars with Redshifted Troughs: High-Velocity Infall or Rotationally Dominated Outflows?

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Patrick B; Petitjean, P; Paris, I; Ak, N Filiz; Shen, Yue; Gibson, R R; Aubourg, E; Anderson, S F; Schneider, D P; Bizyaev, D; Brinkmann, J; Malanushenko, E; Malanushenko, V; Myers, A D; Oravetz, D J; Ross, N P; Shelden, A; Simmons, A E; Streblyanska, A; Weaver, B A; York, D G

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey of seventeen broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with high-ionization troughs that include absorption redshifted relative to the quasar rest frame. The redshifted troughs extend to velocities up to v=12,000 km/s and the trough widths exceed 3000 km/s in all but one case. Approximately 1 in 1000 BAL quasars with blueshifted C IV absorption also has redshifted C IV absorption; objects with C IV absorption present only at redshifted velocities are roughly four times rarer. In more than half of our objects, redshifted absorption is seen in C II or Al III as well as C IV, making low-ionization absorption at least ten times more common among BAL quasars with redshifted troughs than among standard BAL quasars. However, the C IV absorption equivalent widths in our objects are on average smaller than those of standard BAL quasars with low-ionization absorption. We consider several possible ways of generatin...

  5. A thru-reflect-line calibration for measuring the characteristics of high power LDMOS transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shuai; Li Ke; Jiang Yibo; Cong Mifang; Du Huan; Han Zhengsheng

    2013-01-01

    The impedance and output power measurements of LDMOS transistors are always a problem due to their low impedance and lead widths.An improved thru-reflect-line (TRL) calibration algorithm for measuring the characteristics of L-band high power LDMOS transistors is presented.According to the TRL algorithm,the individual two-port S parameters of each fixture half can be obtained.By de-embedding these S parameters of the test fixture,an accurate calibration can be made.The improved TRL calibration algorithm is successfully utilized to measure the characteristics of an L-band LDMOS transistor with a 90 mm gate width.The impedance of the transistor is obtained,and output power at 1 dB compression point can reach as much as 109.4 W at 1.2 GHz,achieving 1.2 W/mm power density.From the results,it is seen that the presented TRL calibration algorithm works well.

  6. Cosine-Modulated Multitone for Very-High-Speed Digital Subscriber Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lekun

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of cosine-modulated filter banks (CMFBs for multicarrier modulation in the application of very-high-speed digital subscriber lines (VDSLs is studied. We refer to this modulation technique as cosine-modulated multitone (CMT. CMT has the same transmitter structure as discrete wavelet multitone (DWMT. However, the receiver structure in CMT is different from its DWMT counterpart. DWMT uses linear combiner equalizers, which typically have more than 20 taps per subcarrier. CMT, on the other hand, adopts a receiver structure that uses only two taps per subcarrier for equalization. This paper has the following contributions. (i A modification that reduces the computational complexity of the receiver structure of CMT is proposed. (ii Although traditionally CMFBs are designed to satisfy perfect-reconstruction (PR property, in transmultiplexing applications, the presence of channel destroys the PR property of the filter bank, and thus other criteria of filter design should be adopted. We propose one such method. (iii Through extensive computer simulations, we compare CMT with zipper discrete multitone (z-DMT and filtered multitone (FMT, the two modulation techniques that have been included in the VDSL draft standard. Comparisons are made in terms of computational complexity, transmission latency, achievable bit rate, and resistance to radio ingress noise.

  7. High-J Rotational Lines of 13C Isotopologues of HCO^+ Measured by Using Evenson-Type Tunable FIR Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mari; Oishi, Ryo; Moriwaki, Yoshiki; Matsushima, Fusakazu; Amano, Takayoshi

    2015-06-01

    Frequencies of high-J rotational lines of HCO^+ and its isotopologues have been measured precisely by using an Evenson-type spectrometer in Toyama. The tunable far-infrared spectrometer (TuFIR in short) is based on synthesizing terahertz radiation from two mid-infrared CO_2 laser lines and one microwave source. Study of the isotopologues containing H or D, 12C, and 16O were reported last year. In the present work, isotopologues of H or D, 13C, and 16O have been studied. The HCO^+ ions are produced by discharging a 13CO, H_2 (or D_2), and Ar mixture in an extended negative glow discharge cell cooled with liquid nitrogen. Because the low-J rotational lines have been investigated by other groups, our present study was focussed mainly to the measurements of higher-J rotational lines. Currently we have observed the lines J + 1 ← J(J=11, 13-21) for H13CO^+, and J + 1 ← J (J=13-18, 20-22, 24-25) for D13CO^+. Molecular contstants for these isotopologues (B, D, H, L) have been modified. From the analysis of the intensity of each rotational line, we estimate the rotational temperature to be as low as 140K. This low temperature makes it difficult to measure yet higher-J lines. Measurement of other isotopogues such as those containing oxygen isotopes is now in preparation.

  8. Lightweight, Ultra-High-Temperature, CMC-Lined Carbon/Carbon Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Matthew J.; Ramachandran, Gautham; Williams, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    C/C were shown to perform well at temperatures exceeding 3,500 F (.1,925 C). The melt-infiltrated CMC-lined C/C composites offered a lower density than Cf/SiC. The melt-infiltrated composites offer greater use temperature than Cf/SiC because of the more refractory ceramic matrices and the C/C substructure provides greater high-temperature strength. The progress made in this work will allow multiple high-temperature components used in oxidizing environments to take advantage of the low density and high strength of C/C combined with the high-temperature oxidation resistance of melt-infiltrated CMCs.

  9. Meat quality and muscle fibre type characteristics of Southdown Rams from high and low backfat selection lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadim, I T; Purchas, R W; Davies, A S; Rae, A L; Barton, R A

    1993-01-01

    Characteristics of the meat of 15-18-month Southdown rams from lines selected for high or low backfat depths (assessed ultrasonically at position C over the last rib) were compared. Half of the carcasses were electrically stimulated (ES) and within each carcass post-mortem treatments chosen to produce effects on meat tenderness were ageing periods of 1 or 15 days (Semimembranosus), early or delayed chilling (Biceps femoris), and trimming of the s.c. fat cover (Longissimus dorsi). These treatments had the expected effects on shear values, but the sizes of the effects were little affected by selection line or ES treatment. Selection line did not have any direct effects on shear values, reflectance values at several wavelengths, waterholding capacity, cooking loss or sarcomere length. The Semitendinosus muscle had a higher proportion of predominantly oxidative fibres for the high-backfat line, based on succinic dehydrogenase activity (P < 0·05), but there was no line difference in alkaline-stable ATPase activity in the same muscle. Muscle fibre diameter was similar for the two lines.

  10. Efficient and reproducible generation of high-expressing, stable human cell lines without need for antibiotic selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewes Helmut

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cell lines are the most innovative choice of host cell for production of biopharmaceuticals since they allow for authentic posttranslational modification of therapeutic proteins. We present a new method for generating high and stable protein expressing cell lines based on human amniocytes without the requirement of antibiotic selection. Results Primary amniocytes from routine amniocentesis samples can be efficiently transformed with adenoviral functions resulting in stable human cell lines. Cotransfection of the primary human amniocytes with a plasmid expressing adenoviral E1 functions plus a second plasmid containing a gene of interest resulted in permanent cell lines expressing up to 30 pg/cell/day of a fully glycosylated and sialylated protein. Expression of the gene of interest is very stable for more than 90 passages and, importantly, was achieved in the absence of any antibiotic selection. Conclusion We describe an improved method for developing high protein expressing stable human cell lines. These cell lines are of non-tumor origin, they are immortalized by a function not oncogenic in human and they are from an ethically accepted and easily accessible cell source. Since the cell can be easily adapted to growth in serum-free and chemically defined medium they fulfill the requirements of biopharmaceutical production processes.

  11. Application of high-performance concrete in Singapore's north-east and Changi MRT lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nmai, C.K. [Master Builders Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Seow, K.H. [MBT Singapore Pte Ltd., Singapore (Singapore); Khor, E.L. [Nishimatsu Construction Co. Ltd., Singapore (Singapore); Robery, P. [Maunsell Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    In 1996 the Singapore Government announced that it would expand the mass transit system in the country by building a north-east line from the south of the island to new towns of Hougang, Sengkang and Punggol in northeastern Singapore, requiring the line to pass through an underground tunnel for about 20 km. This would involve precasting segments of the tunnel-lining. This paper presented information on the development of the high-performance concrete mixtures used for the tunnel-lining portions of the line. It also presented production issues, quality control measures that have been implemented to ensure compliance with the specifications, and the impact of high-performance concrete on the production process. The precast tunnel lining segments require the use of high-performance concrete with a maximum water-cementitious material ratio of 0.45, a minimum 28 day compressive strength of 60 MPa, and a maximum rapid chloride permeability value of 1000 coulombs. The specifications also included the use of high yield bars with a fused epoxy coating to solve corrosion problems. The specification required a maximum of 5 per cent silica fume by mass of cement and 10 L per cubic metre of a 30 per cent solution of calcium nitrite corrosion inhibitor to meet the design service life of 100 years. The benefits in the production of the tunnel-lining segments included early demolding and increased mold turnover, as well as the elimination of steam curing and less damage to the units during handling, lifting and stacking in the early ages. The overall benefit was as higher production rate. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. Effect of Backpacking and Internal Pressurization on Stresses Transmitted to Buried Cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various aspects of the behavior of buried cylinders associated with backpacking , internal pressurization, and slippage at the interface are...considered. Parametric curves are presented for horizontally and vertically buried cylinders with and without backpacking . Four configurations of statically...loaded, horizontally buried cylinders were considered: no backpacking , rectangular backpacking placed above the cylinder, backpacking placed around

  13. Enhanced surface plasmon polariton propagation length using a buried metal grating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, J.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Gomez Casado, A.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2011-01-01

    We report an enhancement in the propagation length of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on a metallic grating when the grating is buried in the substrate. A template-stripping technique has been used to fabricate the buried grating. Near-field measurements on the buried and an exposed grating show

  14. High time resolution PFISR and optical observations of naturally enhanced ion acoustic lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Michell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Observations of naturally enhanced ion acoustic lines (NEIALs taken with the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR using a mode with very high time resolution are presented. The auroral event took place over Poker Flat, Alaska on 8 February 2007 at 09:35 UT (~22:00 MLT, and the radar data are complemented by common-volume high-resolution auroral imaging. The NEIALs occurred during only one of the standard 15-s integration periods. The raw data of this time show very intermittent NEIALs which occur only during a few very short time intervals (≤1 s within the 15-s period. The time sampling of the raw data, ~19 ms on average, allows study of the time development of the NEIALs, though there are indications that even finer time resolution would be of interest. The analysis is based on the assumption that the NEIAL returns are the result of Bragg scattering from ion-acoustic waves that have been enhanced significantly above thermal levels. The spectra of the raw data indicate that although the up- and down-shifted shoulders can both become enhanced at the same time, (within 19 ms, they are most often enhanced individually. The overall power in the up-and down-shifted shoulders is approximately equal throughout the event, with the exception of one time, when very large up-shifted power was observed with no corresponding down-shifted power. This indicates that during the 480 μs pulse, the strongly enhanced ion-acoustic waves were only traveling downward and not upward. The exact time that the NEIALs occurred was when the radar beam was on the boundary of a fast-moving (~10 km/s, bright auroral structure, as seen in the high resolution auroral imaging of the magnetic zenith. When viewed with high time resolution, the occurrence of NEIALs is associated with rapid changes in auroral luminosity within the radar field of view due to fast-moving auroral fine structures.

  15. Extensive Sampling of Forest Carbon using High Density Power Line Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, H. M.; Chen, Q.; Dye, D. G.; Hungate, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    unmanaged areas, using high point density lidar collected over transmission line corridors. The lidar metric of quadratic mean height guided our selection of field plots spanning the full range from low to high levels of aboveground biomass across the study region. Before model selection, we minimized two of the major sources of errors in lidar calibration: variance in tree allometry across landscapes and plot edge effects (spatial mismatch between field measurements and lidar points). We tested an assortment of model selection techniques and goodness of fit measures for deriving forest structural metrics of interest. For example, we obtained an R-squared value for aboveground biomass (Mg/ha) of 0.9 using stepwise regression. The forest metrics obtained are being used in the next stage of the project to parameterize biogeochemical models linking terrestrial carbon pools and atmospheric greenhouse gas exchanges.

  16. A High Galactic Latitude HI 21 cm-line Absorption Survey using the GMRT: I. Observations and Spectra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rekhesh Mohan; K. S. Dwarakanath; G. Srinivasan

    2004-09-01

    We have used the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) to measure the Galactic HI 21-cm line absorption towards 102 extragalactic radio continuum sources, located at high (|| > 15°) Galactic latitudes. The Declination coverage of the present survey is ≳ -45°. With a mean rms optical depth of ∼ 0.003, this is the most sensitive Galactic HI 21-cm line absorption survey to date. To supplement the absorption data, we have extracted the HI 21-cm line emission profiles towards these 102 lines of sight from the Leiden Dwingeloo Survey of Galactic neutral hydrogen. We have carried out a Gaussian fitting analysis to identify the discrete absorption and emission components in these profiles. In this paper, we present the spectra and the components. A subsequent paper will discuss the interpretation of these results.

  17. Controlled research utilizing a basic all-metal detector in the search for buried firearms and miscellaneous weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezos, Mary M; Schultz, John J; Murdock, Ronald A; Smith, Stephen A

    2010-02-25

    Incorporating geophysical technologies into forensic investigations has become a growing practice. Oftentimes, forensic professionals rely on basic metal detectors to assist their efforts during metallic weapons searches. This has created a need for controlled research in the area of weapons searches, specifically to formulate guidelines for geophysical methods that may be appropriate for locating weapons that have been discarded or buried by criminals attempting to conceal their involvement in a crime. Controlled research allows not only for testing of geophysical equipment, but also for updating search methodologies. This research project was designed to demonstrate the utility of an all-metal detector for locating a buried metallic weapon through detecting and identifying specific types of buried metal targets. Controlled testing of 32 buried targets which represented a variety of sizes and metallic compositions included 16 decommissioned street-level firearms, 6 pieces of assorted scrap metals, and 10 blunt or bladed weapons. While all forensic targets included in the project were detected with the basic all-metal detector, the size of the weapon and surface area were the two variables that affected maximum depth of detection, particularly with the firearm sample. For example, when using a High setting the largest firearms were detected at a maximum depth of 55 cm, but the majority of the remaining targets were only detected at a maximum depth of 40 cm or less. Overall, the all-metal detector proved to be a very good general purpose metal detector best suited for detecting metallic items at shallow depths.

  18. Effect of Faulting on Ordovician Carbonate Buried-Hill Reservoir Beds in Hetianhe Gas Field,Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Xiuxiang; Bai Zhongkai; Li Jianjiao; Wang Weiguang; Fu Hui; Wang Qinghua

    2008-01-01

    Ordovician carbonate buried-hill reservoir beds in the Hetianhe (和田河) gas field,located in the Mazhatage (玛扎塔格) structural belt on the southern margin of the Bachu (巴楚) faulted uplift,southwestern Tarim basin,were studied.Based on field survey,core and slice observation,the general characteristics of carbonate buried-hill reservoir beds and specifically Ordovician carbonate buried-hill reservoir beds in the Hetianhe gas field were discussed.The karst zone of the reservoir beds in Hetianhe gas field was divided into superficial karst zone,vertical infiltration karst zone,lower subsurface flow karst zone,and deep sluggish flow zone from top to bottom.The effects of faulting on Ordovician carbonate buried-hill reservoir beds in the Hetianhe gas field were obvious.The faulting intensified the karstification and increased the depth of denudation.Faulting and subsequent fracture growth modified the reservoir beds and improved the physical property and quality of the reservoir beds.Moreover,faulting enhanced the development of the dissolution holes and fractures and increased the thickness of the effective reservoir beds.Meanwhile,faulting made the high porosity-permeability carbonate belts,which created conditions for the hydrocarbon accumulation,develop near the fault zone.

  19. Hydraulic relationships between buried valley sediments of the glacial drift and adjacent bedrock formations in northeastern Ohio, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Wondwosen Mekonnen; Eckstein, Yoram

    2014-08-01

    Buried valleys are ancient river or stream valleys that predate the recent glaciation and since have been filled with glacial till and/or outwash. Outwash deposits are known to store and transmit large amounts of groundwater. In addition to their intrinsic hydraulic properties, their productivity depends on their hydraulic relationships with the adjacent bedrock formations. These relationships are examined using a steady-state three-dimensional groundwater flow model through a section of a buried valley in northeastern Ohio, USA. The flow domain was divided into five hydrostratigraphic units: low-conductivity (K) till, high-K outwash, and three bedrock units (Pottsville Formation, Cuyahoga Group and Berea Sandstone). The model input was prepared using the data from well logs and drilling reports of residential water wells. The model was calibrated using observed heads with mean residual head error of 0.3 m. The calibrated model was used to quantify flux between the buried valley and bedrock formations. Mass balance was calculated to within an error of 2-3 %. Mass balance of the buried valley layer indicates that it receives 1.6 Mm3/year (≈40 % of the total inflow) from the adjacent bedrock aquifers: Pottsville Formation contributes 0.96 Mm3/year (60 %) while the Berea Sandstone 0.64 Mm3/year (40 %).

  20. Silicon buried channels for pixel detector cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscardin, M., E-mail: boscardi@fbk.eu [Fondazione Bruno Kessler Trento, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Conci, P.; Crivellari, M.; Ronchin, S. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler Trento, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Bettarini, S. [Universitá di Pisa, L.go B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Pisa, L.go B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bosi, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Pisa, L.go B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    The support and cooling structures add important contributions to the thickness, in radiation length, of vertex detectors. In order to minimize the material budget of pixel sensors, we developed a new approach to integrate the cooling into the silicon devices. The microchannels are formed in silicon using isotropic SF{sub 6} plasma etching in a DRIE (deep reactive ion etcher) equipment. Due to their peculiar profiles, the channels can be sealed by a layer of a PECVD silicon oxide. We have realized on a silicon wafer microchannels with different geometries and hydraulic diameters. We describe the main fabrication steps of microchannels with focus on the channel definition. The experimental results are reported on the thermal characterization of several prototypes, using a mixture of glycol and water as a liquid coolant. The prototypes have shown high cooling efficiency and high-pressure breaking strength.