WorldWideScience

Sample records for high breast mass

  1. Breast Mass in a Rubens Painting

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    Davide Lazzeri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Deformity of the breast and axilla observed in famous paintings is a fascinating field for the medico-artists. The attempt of a retrospective diagnosis of breast tumors is highly challenging. This paper deals with a Rubens painting portraying the heroine Judith with a visible but previously unreported left breast mass. Though speculative, the present medico-artistic diagnosis is of a tumor likely to be of benign nature. It is of interest that the present case is the sixth breast disease discovered in Rubens’s works.

  2. Breast Mass in a Rubens Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Davide; Lippi, Donatella; Castello, Manuel Francisco; Weisz, George M

    2016-04-19

    Deformity of the breast and axilla observed in famous paintings is a fascinating field for the medico-artists. The attempt of a retrospective diagnosis of breast tumors is highly challenging. This paper deals with a Rubens painting portraying the heroine Judith with a visible but previously unreported left breast mass. Though speculative, the present medico-artistic diagnosis is of a tumor likely to be of benign nature. It is of interest that the present case is the sixth breast disease discovered in Rubens's works.

  3. Ultrasound characterization of breast masses

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    Gokhale, Sudheer

    2009-01-01

    A lump in the breast is a cause of great concern. High frequency, high-resolution USG helps in its evaluation. This is exemplified in women with dense breast tissue where USG is useful in detecting small breast cancers that are not seen on mammography. Several studies in the past have addressed the issue of differentiating benign from malignant lesions in the breast. The American College of Radiology has also brought out a BIRADS-US classification system for categorizing focal breast lesions. PMID:19881096

  4. Screening of Breast Mass in Iraqi Females: Al-Kindy Hospital Breast Clinic

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    Wijdan Akram

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study is to present the findings of a retrospective analysis in females with breast mass, the character of the women and the risk factors of breast cancer at Al-Kindy Breast Clinic Center. Approach: Data were collected during 2 months period using special form of questioner. The total number of studied sample was 60, which includes female patients living in Baghdad. Results: The highest prevalence of developing breast mass at age group 36-45 years, the majority of these women are housewives (81.7%, about (31.7% of the included sample were illiterate and only 10% graduated from college. (58.3% of the studied sample did not use contraception, while (30% of patients with breast mass had breast feeding on the other hand (70% did not had breast feeding, by self examination, (11.7% could not found the mass by themselves, (28.3% had a mass in the right breast, (50% had a mass in the left breast while (10% had the mass in both breasts. Conclusion: The study showed a high level of practice of breast-self examination among women in the sample under consideration, breast masses were more occurring at the third and fourth decades of life, the number of children may affect the development of breast mass and combined oral contraceptive has small increased risk of breast mass.

  5. Using ductoscopy to detect breast mass at an early stage.

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    Sparks, Carol A

    2002-11-01

    Using a new procedure termed fiberoptic ductoscopy, a surgeon can visualize a patient's breast mammary ducts directly with a 0.9-mm scope. Eighty-five percent of breast cancers are thought to originate in the epithelial lining of the mammary ducts. The hope is that this new technique will allow surgeons to detect breast cancer in high-risk patients before a mass is felt or seen via mammography.

  6. Mystery of bilateral breast masses

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    Nausheen Khan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma (LMS is an uncommon malignant tumour of smooth muscle origin. It arises in the gastro intestinal tract, retroperitoneum, urinary bladder, uterus and soft tissue. Peritoneal leiomyosarcomatosis (PL is defined as a peritoneal dissemination of a primary sarcoma. We present a case of leiomyosarcomatosis with wide spread dissemination including involvement of both breasts.

  7. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yan; Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or enviro......BACKGROUND: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic...... or environmental factors. METHODS: We applied Mendelian randomization to evaluate the association between BMI and risk of breast cancer occurrence using data from two large breast cancer consortia. We created a weighted BMI genetic score comprising 84 BMI-associated genetic variants to predicted BMI. We evaluated...... genetically predicted BMI in association with breast cancer risk using individual-level data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) (cases  =  46,325, controls  =  42,482). We further evaluated the association between genetically predicted BMI and breast cancer risk using summary statistics from...

  8. Association between body mass index and breast density using digital mammography

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    Kim, Mi Young [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwa Sun [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Ansan University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    It is well known that low body mass index and younger age are associated with high breast density. Mammographic dense breast has been reported both as a cause of false-negative findings on mammography and as an indicator of increased breast cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between breast density and body mass index. Furthermore, we considered proper screening method of breast cancer in Korean women. The study was performed on 496 women who underwent health checkup in a university hospital. Age and body mass index were negatively associated with breast density respectively. In postmenopausal women, age and body mass index showed statistically significant association with breast density. Therefore, we should consider sensitive additional method for breast cancer screening especially in younger age and underweight women.

  9. Multiple diagnostic approaches to palpable breast mass

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    Chin, Soo Yil; Kim, Kie Hwan; Moon, Nan Mo; Kim, Yong Kyu; Jang, Ja June [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    The combination of the various diagnostic methods of palpable breast mass has improved the diagnostic accuracy. From September 1983 to August 1985 pathologically proven 85 patients with palpable breast masses examined with x-ray mammography, ultrasonography, penumomammography and aspiration cytology at Korea Cancer Center Hospital were analyzed. The diagnostic accuracies of each methods were 77.6% of mammogram, 74.1% of ultrasonogram, 90.5% of penumomammogram and 92.4% of aspiration cytology. Pneumomammograms was accomplished without difficulty or complication and depicted more clearly delineated mass with various pathognomonic findings; air-ductal pattern in fibroadenoma (90.4%) and cystosarcoma phylloides (100%), air-halo in fibrocystic disease (14.2%), fibroadenoma (100%), cystosarcoma phylloides (100%), air-cystogram in cystic type of fibrocystic disease (100%) and vaculoar pattern or irregular air collection without retained peripheral gas in carcinoma.

  10. Automated multimodal segmentation of an abnormal breast mass in mammogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubha, Angeline Sp; Rachel, Minnita; Anburajan, Micheal

    2016-06-01

    A lot of computer-aided diagnosis systems have been attempted to segment automatically breast mass from a mammogram and to classify the mass as benign and malignant quantitatively. This study aimed to develop an automated computer-aided diagnosis system to evaluate the disease with high accuracy using the proposed multimodal segmentation algorithm when compared to an abnormal breast mass region outlined in mammogram by radiologists of American College of Radiology as "standard." In this study, a total number of 150 mammograms were downloaded from the DDSM database for screening mammography. Based on the available diagnostic report, the studied data were classified as follows: (1) Group I: normal (n = 50, mean ± SD age = 55 ± 8 years), (2) Group II: benign breast cancer (n = 50, mean ± SD age = 58 ± 11 years), and (3) Group III: malignant breast cancer (n = 50, mean ± SD age = 58±9 years). It was found that the proposed multimodal segmentation algorithm processed all the mammograms of different mass types, density, shapes, size, margin, calcification type, and distortion successfully, and it segmented the mass automatically with high accuracy. In this study, a computer-aided diagnosis system was developed to segment the breast mass automatically in a mammogram with high accuracy of 96%. The sensitivity and specificity of the system were found to be 94% and 97%, respectively, when compared to abnormal region outlined in mammogram by radiologists of American College of Radiology as standard.

  11. Diabetic mastopathy as a radiographically occult palpable breast mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanarajasingam, Uma; Chen, Beiyun; Tortorelli, Cindy L; Jakub, James W; Ghosh, Karthik

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic mastopathy is an uncommon, benign disease of the breast that can occur in women with diabetes and clinically mimic breast cancer. We describe a patient with long-standing type 1 diabetes who presented with a palpable breast mass with negative imaging findings on mammography, ultrasonography, and breast MRI. Surgical biopsy and histopathology confirmed diabetic mastopathy. We use this case to highlight the recognition, radiographic features, pathology, and management of this benign breast condition and emphasize that, in diabetic patients, the differential diagnosis of a new breast mass should include diabetic mastopathy.

  12. Diabetic Mastopathy as a Radiographically Occult Palpable Breast Mass

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    Uma Thanarajasingam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic mastopathy is an uncommon, benign disease of the breast that can occur in women with diabetes and clinically mimic breast cancer. We describe a patient with long-standing type 1 diabetes who presented with a palpable breast mass with negative imaging findings on mammography, ultrasonography, and breast MRI. Surgical biopsy and histopathology confirmed diabetic mastopathy. We use this case to highlight the recognition, radiographic features, pathology, and management of this benign breast condition and emphasize that, in diabetic patients, the differential diagnosis of a new breast mass should include diabetic mastopathy.

  13. Evaluation of mycotoxins and their metabolites in human breast milk using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

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    Rubert, Josep; León, Nuria; Sáez, Carmen; Martins, Claudia P B; Godula, Michal; Yusà, Vicent; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, José Miguel; Soler, Carla

    2014-04-11

    Humans can be exposed to mycotoxins through the food chain. Mycotoxins are mainly found as contaminants in food and could be subsequently excreted via biological fluids such as urine or human breast milk in native or metabolised form. Since breast milk is usually supposed as the only food for new-borns, the occurrence of mycotoxins in thirty-five human milk samples was evaluated by a newly developed method based on QuEChERS extraction and UHPLC-HRMS detection. The method described here allows the detection of target mycotoxins in order to determine the quality of this initial feeding. The method has been fully validated, with recoveries ranging from 64% to 93% and relative standard deviations (RSD, %) being lower than 20%. Using the method described, non-metabolised mycotoxins such as ZEA, NEO, NIV, ENA, ENA1, ENB, ENB1 and metabolites, such as ZEA metabolites, HT-2, DOM and T-2 triol were detected in human milk samples. Results obtained help to estimate the exposure of mothers and infants to mycotoxins. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first work describing the simultaneous detection, quantification and screening of mycotoxins and their metabolites in human mature milk.

  14. High-throughput hacking of the methylation patterns in breast cancer by in vitro transcription and thymidine-specific cleavage mass array on MALDI-TOF silico-chip.

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    Radpour, Ramin; Haghighi, Mahdi Montazer; Fan, Alex Xiu-Cheng; Torbati, Peyman Mohammadi; Hahn, Sinuhe; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Zhong, Xiao Yan

    2008-11-01

    Over the last decade, the rapidly expanding interest in the involvement of DNA methylation in developmental mechanisms, human diseases, and malignancies has highlighted the need for an accurate, quantitative, and high-throughput assay. Existing methods are limited and are often too laborious for high-throughput analysis or inadequate for quantitative analysis of methylation. Recently, a MassCLEAVE assay has been developed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry to analyze base-specific methylation patterns after bisulfite conversion. To find an efficient and more cost-effective high-throughput method for analyzing the methylation profile in breast cancer, we developed a method that allows for the simultaneous detection of multiple target CpG residues by using thymidine-specific cleavage mass array on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight silicon chips. We used this novel quantitative approach for the analysis of DNA methylation patterns of four tumor suppressor genes in 96 breast tissue samples from 48 patients with breast cancer. Each individual contributed a breast cancer specimen and corresponding adjacent normal tissue. We evaluated the accuracy of the approach and implemented critical improvements in experimental design.

  15. Diabetic Mastopathy as a Radiographically Occult Palpable Breast Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Uma Thanarajasingam; Beiyun Chen; Tortorelli, Cindy L.; Jakub, James W.; Karthik Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic mastopathy is an uncommon, benign disease of the breast that can occur in women with diabetes and clinically mimic breast cancer. We describe a patient with long-standing type 1 diabetes who presented with a palpable breast mass with negative imaging findings on mammography, ultrasonography, and breast MRI. Surgical biopsy and histopathology confirmed diabetic mastopathy. We use this case to highlight the recognition, radiographic features, pathology, and management of this benign br...

  16. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia presenting as bilateral breast masses

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    Edison, Michele N.; Letter, Haley P. [Florida Hospital, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States); University of Central Florida, College of Medicine, Orlando, FL (United States); O' Dell, M.C. [University of Central Florida, College of Medicine, Orlando, FL (United States); Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pediatric Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Scherer, Kurt; Williams, Jennifer L. [Florida Hospital, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States); University of Central Florida, College of Medicine, Orlando, FL (United States); Florida State University, College of Medicine, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2017-01-15

    An 8-year-old girl presented with bilateral breast masses and was subsequently diagnosed with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a rare myelodysplastic syndrome that typically presents in boys younger than 3 years of age with splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and skin findings. Bilateral breast masses in a child are rare and, as such, present a diagnostic dilemma due to the relative paucity of cases in the literature. We present a case of granulocytic sarcoma of the breasts in a patient with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. The authors hope that increased reporting and research regarding pediatric breast masses will help create awareness for such cases. (orig.)

  17. Cavernous Hemangioma as A Palpable Breast Mass: A Case Report

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    Jung, Tae Seok; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young; Moon, Hee Jung; Cha, Yoon Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Cavernous hemangioma of the breast is rare, and if manifested as a focal palpable mass of the breast, it should be differentiated from angiosarcoma and other breast malignancies. We described a case of a 54-year-old woman with apalpable breast mass confirmed as a cavernous hemangioma. This lesion presented as a hyperdense mass on mammography and a hypoechoicmass with internal calcifications on ultrasonography. The calcifications exhibited a round shape and central lucency, making themphleboliths. Phlebolithsisare characteristic findings in soft tissue hemangiomas, and finding them during a mammography helps to identify hemangiomas

  18. 高频超声、乳腺X线检查及乳腺血氧功能成像在乳腺肿块诊断中的价值%The clinical value of high frequency ultrasound, mammography and breast blood-oxygen function imaging system in diagnosis of breast masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑一君; 张渊; 单君; 施秀荣; 贾瑱熙; 江泉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the diagnostic value of high frequency ultrasound,mammography and breast blood-oxygen function imaging system in diagnosis of breast masses.Methods The images of 89 breast masses by high frequency ultrasound,mammography and breast blood-oxygen function imaging system were reviewed.The study compared the sensibilities and specificities of the three methods in the masses and analyzed their cause of missed diagnosis.Results The sensitivity of the diagnosis of breast cancer by high frequency ultrasound,mammography and breast blood-oxygen function imaging system were 80.00%,70.00% and 50.00%,respectively.The specificity of the diagnosis of breast cancer by them were 94.94%,98.73% and 97.47%,respectively.There were sigmfiacant differences in diagnosis of breast benign lesion among the high frequency ultrasound,mammography and breast blood-oxygen function imaging system.The sensitivity of high frequency ultrasound in detecting fibroadenoma of breast was 98.11% higher than the other methods.Mammography was insensitive to the benign breast lesions,but its specificity was high.Conclusions High frequency ultrasound,mammography and breast blood-oxygen function imaging system are the highly effective diagnostic tool for breast cancer,but the diagnostic value of mammography and breast blood-oxygen in breast fibroadenoma and in cystic disease of breast aren' t high.Breast blood-oxygen function imaging system can enhance the accuracy of the diagnosis of mammary inflammation.%目的 比较高频超声、乳腺X线检查以及乳腺血氧功能成像在乳腺肿块诊断中的价值.方法 回顾性分析高频超声、乳腺X线检查及乳腺血氧功能成像在89例乳腺肿块中的诊断结果,比较它们诊断各类乳腺病变的敏感性和特异性,并分析漏诊原因.结果 高频超声、乳腺X线检查以及乳腺血氧功能成像对乳腺癌的敏感性分别为80.00%、70.00%、50.00%;特异性分别为94.94%、98.73

  19. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Presented as Multiple Breast Masses

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    Bayrak, Ilkay Koray; Yalin, Turkay; Ozmen, Zafer; Aksoz, Tolga; Doughanji, Roula [Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun (Turkmenistan)

    2009-10-15

    Breast metastases in cases leukemia are very rare and occur primarily in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. We report the involvement of breast metastases in a 30-year-old woman with acute T cell lymphoblastic leukemia. The patient's mammograms revealed an extremely dense pattern with ill-defined, denser mass-like lesions in both breasts. A bilateral breast ultrasonographic evaluation revealed lobular-shaped and partly ill-defined hypoechoic masses with a multi-septated nodular (mottled) appearance.

  20. Label-free detection of breast masses using multiphoton microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiufeng Wu

    Full Text Available Histopathology forms the gold standard for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM has been proposed to be a potentially powerful adjunct to current histopathological techniques. A label-free imaging based on two- photon excited fluorescence and second-harmonic generation is developed for differentiating normal breast tissues, benign, as well as breast cancer tissues. Human breast biopsies (including human normal breast tissues, benign as well as breast cancer tissues that are first imaged (fresh, unfixed, and unstained with MPM and are then processed for routine H-E histopathology. Our results suggest that the MPM images, obtained from these unprocessed biopsies, can readily distinguish between benign lesions and breast cancers. In the tissues of breast cancers, MPM showed that the tumor cells displayed marked cellular and nuclear pleomorphism. The tumor cells, characterized by irregular size and shape, enlarged nuclei, and increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, infiltrated into disrupted connective tissue, leading to the loss of second-harmonic generation signals. For breast cancer, MPM diagnosis was 100% correct because the tissues of breast cancers did not have second-harmonic generation signals in MPM imaging. On the contrary, in benign breast masses, second-harmonic generation signals could be seen easily in MPM imaging. These observations indicate that MPM could be an important potential tool to provide label-free noninvasive diagnostic impressions that can guide surgeon in biopsy and patient management.

  1. The relationships between breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density with body mass index, body fat mass and ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariyah, N.; Pathy, N. B.; Taib, N. A. M.; Rahmat, K.; Judy, C. W.; Fadzil, F.; Lau, S.; Ng, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    It has been shown that breast density and obesity are related to breast cancer risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships of breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density (VBD) with body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass (BFM) for the three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indian) in Malaysia. We collected raw digital mammograms from 2450 women acquired on three digital mammography systems. The mammograms were analysed using Volpara software to obtain breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Body weight, BMI and BFM of the women were measured using a body composition analyser. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of increased overall breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Indians have highest breast volume and breast dense volume followed by Malays and Chinese. While Chinese are highest in VBD, followed by Malay and Indian. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing BMI and BFM were independent predictors of increased overall breast volume and dense volume. Moreover, BMI and BFM were independently and inversely related to VBD.

  2. Body mass index associated with genome-wide methylation in breast tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair, Brionna Y; Xu, Zongli; Kirk, Erin L; Harlid, Sophia; Sandhu, Rupninder; Robinson, Whitney R; Wu, Michael C; Olshan, Andrew F; Conway, Kathleen; Taylor, Jack A; Troester, Melissa A

    2015-06-01

    Gene expression studies indicate that body mass index (BMI) is associated with molecular pathways involved in inflammation, insulin-like growth factor activation, and other carcinogenic processes in breast tissue. The goal of this study was to determine whether BMI is associated with gene methylation in breast tissue and to identify pathways that are commonly methylated in association with high BMI. Epigenome-wide methylation profiles were determined using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array in the non-diseased breast tissue of 81 women undergoing breast surgery between 2009 and 2013 at the University of North Carolina Hospitals. Multivariable, robust linear regression was performed to identify methylation sites associated with BMI at a false discovery rate q value breast tissue and may influence epigenetic pathways involved in inflammatory and other carcinogenic processes.

  3. Detection and Description of Small Breast Masses by Residents Trained Using a Standardized Clinical Breast Exam Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Donald F.; Prouser, Nancy C.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We evaluated the effect of standardized clinical breast examination (CBE) training on residents’ ability to detect a 3-mm breast mass in a silicone breast model. METHODS In this nonrandomized controlled trial, 75 first year residents (R1s) at 8 family medicine, internal medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology training programs received the intervention and second year residents (R2s) did not. Trained residency faculty taught R1s vertical strip, three-pressure method (VS3PM) CBE using a standardized curriculum, including a 1- to 2-hour online self-study with video and 2.5-hour practicum using silicone models and a trained patient surrogate. RESULTS Solitary mass detection: 84% by R1s, 46% by R2s (RR = 1.82, 95%CI = 1.36, 2.43, P < 0.0001). Of those finding a mass, 62% of R1s and 10% of R2s used at least 5 of 8 standardized descriptors (RR = 6.19, 95%CI = 2.06, 18.59, P = 0.001). R1s false positive findings were not statistically different from R2s (P = 0.54). Both the use of VS3PM and total time spent on CBE were independently highly predictive of finding the mass in either group. CONCLUSIONS Most untrained primary care residents are not proficient in CBE. Standardized VS3PM CBE training improves the ability to detect and describe a small mass in a silicone breast model. Better CBE training for residents may improve the early detection of breast cancer. PMID:18058184

  4. THE VALUE OF ULTRASOUND MAMMOGRAPHY IN PALPABLE BREAST MASSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOORD, JC; VANDERVLIET, AM; THYN, CJP; MAK, B; HOOGEBOOM, GJ

    1991-01-01

    Between January 1987 and May 1988 a prospective study was carried out on 232 women with a palpable breast mass. They underwent physical examination, x-ray mammography and ultrasound mammography. The results of each study were interpreted independently by separate observers, and consensus was achieve

  5. Breast MRI in high risk patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I.M. Obdeijn (Inge-Marie)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract In this thesis we address various indications of breast MRI, with the emphasis on the value of MRI in screening of women with high genetic risk for breast cancer, and especially in BRCA1 mutation carriers. We showed that in the era of up-to-date MRI expertise and digital

  6. Non-mass-like lesions on breast ultrasonography: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Takayoshi

    2012-10-01

    This article reviews various non-mass-like ultrasonography (US) findings of the breast and the sonographic-pathologic correlation with Doppler techniques, elastography, and MRI. High-resolution US allows for identification of small, clinically occult non-mass-like US findings. Ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive lobular carcinoma usually manifest as a non-mass-like lesion on US. It is useful to classify non-mass-like lesions on US in a similar manner to the classification of non-mass-like enhancement on MRI.

  7. Mass eigendetection and the benefits of introducing breast density information

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    Freixenet, J.; Oliver, A.; Llado, X.; Marti, R.; Marti, J. [Inst. of Informatics and Applications, Univ. of Girona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of this paper is to present a novel algorithm for mass detection in a mammographic computer-aided diagnosis system. Four key points provide the novelty of our approach: (1) the use of eingenanalysis for describing variation in mass shape and size: (2) a Bayesian formulation providing a mathematical sound framework, flexible enough to include additional information; (3) the use of two dimensional PCA for false positive reduction; and (4) the incorporation of breast density information, an internal feature of the breasts closely related to the performance of most mass detection algorithms and which, in contrast, has not been considered in existing approaches. The robustness and the database independence of our approach are shown by the fact that different databases are used for training and testing procedures. (orig.)

  8. Breast Cancer Mimic: Cutaneous B-Cell Lymphoma Presenting as an Isolated Breast Mass

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    Margaret Taghavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma typically localizes to the skin, and dissemination to internal organs is rare. Lymphomatous involvement of the breasts is also rare. We describe the clinical and radiological findings of an unusual case of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma presenting as an isolated breast mass without associated skin changes. Case Presentation: The patient was a 55-year-old Caucasian female who initially presented with cutaneous B-cell lymphoma around her eyes and forehead with recurrence involving the skin between her breasts. Three years after terminating treatment due to a lack of symptoms, she presented for an annual screening mammogram that found a new mass in her upper inner right breast without imaging signs of cutaneous extension. On physical examination, there were no corresponding skin findings. Due to the suspicious imaging features of the mass that caused concern for primary breast malignancy, she underwent a core biopsy which revealed cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. Conclusion: When evaluating patients with a systemic disease who present with findings atypical for that process, it is important to still consider the systemic disease as a potential etiology, particularly with lymphoma given its reputation as a great mimicker.

  9. Computer Aided Detection of Breast Density and Mass, and Visualization of Other Breast Anatomical Regions on Mammograms Using Graph Cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiza Saidin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer mostly arises from the glandular (dense region of the breast. Consequently, breast density has been found to be a strong indicator for breast cancer risk. Therefore, there is a need to develop a system which can segment or classify dense breast areas. In a dense breast, the sensitivity of mammography for the early detection of breast cancer is reduced. It is difficult to detect a mass in a breast that is dense. Therefore, a computerized method to separate the existence of a mass from the glandular tissues becomes an important task. Moreover, if the segmentation results provide more precise demarcation enabling the visualization of the breast anatomical regions, it could also assist in the detection of architectural distortion or asymmetry. This study attempts to segment the dense areas of the breast and the existence of a mass and to visualize other breast regions (skin-air interface, uncompressed fat, compressed fat, and glandular in a system. The graph cuts (GC segmentation technique is proposed. Multiselection of seed labels has been chosen to provide the hard constraint for segmentation of the different parts. The results are promising. A strong correlation ( was observed between the segmented dense breast areas detected and radiological ground truth.

  10. Comparison between mammography and ultrasonography for palpable breast mass: focusing fibroadenoma and breast cancer

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    Kim, Do Kyun; Koh, Mi Kyung; Choi, Chul Soon; Chung, Soo Young; Yi, Jeong Geun; Yoon, Dae Young; Kim, Ho Chul; Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of mammography and breast ultrasonography between fibroadenoma and palpable breast cancer and to evaluate the feasibility of ultrasonography as a primary diagnostic modality to differentiate between these two tumor types. In 36 cases of fibroadenoma and 35 of breast cancer, all palpable and pathologically-proven, the diagnostic accuracy of mammography and ultrasonography was retros-pectively analysed. In fibroadenoma cases, the diagnostic accuracy of mammography and ultrasonography was 53% and 80%, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant(p=3D0.0162). In cases of breast cancer, the corresponding figures were 74% and 82%, respectively;the difference was not statistically signigicant(p-0.55). Overall, the diagnostic accuracy of mammography and ultrasonog-raphy was 63% and 82%, respectively, and this difference was statistically significant(p=3D0.0164). The total diagnostic accuracy of both studies was 90%, and this was signigicantly different(p=3D0.044) from that of ultrasonography(82%). In patients who have clinically palpable breast masses, ultrasonography can be recommended as the primary diagnostic modality, though for other breast lesions, mammography is the recommended primary modality.=20.

  11. Are irregular hypoechoic breast masses on ultrasound always malignancies?: A Pictorial essay

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    Kim, Youe Ree; Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hye Won [Wonkwang University Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Irregular hypoechoic masses in the breast do not always indicate malignancies. Many benign breast diseases present with irregular hypoechoic masses that can mimic carcinoma on ultrasonography. Some of these diseases such as inflammation and trauma-related breast lesions could be suspected from a patient's symptoms and personal history. Careful ultrasonographic examination and biopsy could help to differentiate these from malignancies.

  12. The simulation of 3D mass models in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaheen, Eman, E-mail: eman.shaheen@uzleuven.be; De Keyzer, Frederik; Bosmans, Hilde; Ongeval, Chantal Van [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C. [National Coordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: This work proposes a new method of building 3D breast mass models with different morphological shapes and describes the validation of the realism of their appearance after simulation into 2D digital mammograms and breast tomosynthesis images. Methods: Twenty-five contrast enhanced MRI breast lesions were collected and each mass was manually segmented in the three orthogonal views: sagittal, coronal, and transversal. The segmented models were combined, resampled to have isotropic voxel sizes, triangularly meshed, and scaled to different sizes. These masses were referred to as nonspiculated masses and were then used as nuclei onto which spicules were grown with an iterative branching algorithm forming a total of 30 spiculated masses. These 55 mass models were projected into 2D projection images to obtain mammograms after image processing and into tomographic sequences of projection images, which were then reconstructed to form 3D tomosynthesis datasets. The realism of the appearance of these mass models was assessed by five radiologists via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis when compared to 54 real masses. All lesions were also given a breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) score. The data sets of 2D mammography and tomosynthesis were read separately. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used for the interrater observer agreement assessment for the BIRADS scores per modality. Further paired analysis, using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, of the BIRADS assessment between 2D and tomosynthesis was separately performed for the real masses and for the simulated masses. Results: The area under the ROC curves, averaged over all observers, was 0.54 (95% confidence interval [0.50, 0.66]) for the 2D study, and 0.67 (95% confidence interval [0.55, 0.79]) for the tomosynthesis study. According to the BIRADS scores, the nonspiculated and the spiculated masses varied in their degrees of malignancy from normal (BIRADS 1) to highly

  13. The simulation of 3D mass models in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Eman; De Keyzer, Frederik; Bosmans, Hilde; Dance, David R; Young, Kenneth C; Van Ongeval, Chantal

    2014-08-01

    This work proposes a new method of building 3D breast mass models with different morphological shapes and describes the validation of the realism of their appearance after simulation into 2D digital mammograms and breast tomosynthesis images. Twenty-five contrast enhanced MRI breast lesions were collected and each mass was manually segmented in the three orthogonal views: sagittal, coronal, and transversal. The segmented models were combined, resampled to have isotropic voxel sizes, triangularly meshed, and scaled to different sizes. These masses were referred to as nonspiculated masses and were then used as nuclei onto which spicules were grown with an iterative branching algorithm forming a total of 30 spiculated masses. These 55 mass models were projected into 2D projection images to obtain mammograms after image processing and into tomographic sequences of projection images, which were then reconstructed to form 3D tomosynthesis datasets. The realism of the appearance of these mass models was assessed by five radiologists via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis when compared to 54 real masses. All lesions were also given a breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) score. The data sets of 2D mammography and tomosynthesis were read separately. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used for the interrater observer agreement assessment for the BIRADS scores per modality. Further paired analysis, using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, of the BIRADS assessment between 2D and tomosynthesis was separately performed for the real masses and for the simulated masses. The area under the ROC curves, averaged over all observers, was 0.54 (95% confidence interval [0.50, 0.66]) for the 2D study, and 0.67 (95% confidence interval [0.55, 0.79]) for the tomosynthesis study. According to the BIRADS scores, the nonspiculated and the spiculated masses varied in their degrees of malignancy from normal (BIRADS 1) to highly suggestive for malignancy (BIRADS 5

  14. Mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) identified proteomic biosignatures of breast cancer in proximal fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Stephen A.; He, Jianbo; Lu, Ming; Souda, Puneet; Saxton, Romaine E.; Faull, Kym F.; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Chang, Helena R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary We have begun an early phase of biomarker discovery in three clinically important types of breast cancer using a panel of human cell lines: HER2 positive, HER2 negative and hormone receptor positive and triple negative (HER2−, ER−, PR−). We identified and characterized the most abundant secreted, sloughed, or leaked proteins released into serum free media from these breast cancer cell lines using a combination of protein fractionation methods before LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 249 proteins were detected in the proximal fluid of 7 breast cancer cell lines. The expression of a selected group of high abundance and/or breast cancer specific potential biomarkers including thromobospondin 1, galectin-3 binding protein, cathepsin D, vimentin, zinc-α2-glycoprotein, CD44, and EGFR from the breast cancer cell lines and in their culture media were further validated by Western blot analysis. Interestingly, mass spectrometry identified a cathepsin D protein single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) by alanine to valine replacement from the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Comparison of each cell line media proteome displayed unique and consistent biosignatures regardless of the individual group classifications demonstrating the potential for stratification of breast cancer. Based on the cell line media proteome, predictive Tree software was able to categorize each cell line as HER2 positive, HER2 negative and hormone receptor positive and triple negative based on only two proteins, muscle fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase and keratin 19. In addition, the predictive Tree software clearly identified MCF-7 cell line overexpresing the HER2 receptor with the SNP cathepsin D biomarker. PMID:22934887

  15. Mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) identified proteomic biosignatures of breast cancer in proximal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Stephen A; He, Jianbo; Lu, Ming; Souda, Puneet; Saxton, Romaine E; Faull, Kym F; Whitelegge, Julian P; Chang, Helena R

    2012-10-05

    We have begun an early phase of biomarker discovery in three clinically important types of breast cancer using a panel of human cell lines: HER2 positive, hormone receptor positive and HER2 negative, and triple negative (HER2-, ER-, PR-). We identified and characterized the most abundant secreted, sloughed, or leaked proteins released into serum free media from these breast cancer cell lines using a combination of protein fractionation methods before LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 249 proteins were detected in the proximal fluid of 7 breast cancer cell lines. The expression of a selected group of high abundance and/or breast cancer-specific potential biomarkers including thromobospondin 1, galectin-3 binding protein, cathepsin D, vimentin, zinc-α2-glycoprotein, CD44, and EGFR from the breast cancer cell lines and in their culture media were further validated by Western blot analysis. Interestingly, mass spectrometry identified a cathepsin D protein single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) by alanine to valine replacement from the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Comparison of each cell line media proteome displayed unique and consistent biosignatures regardless of the individual group classifications, demonstrating the potential for stratification of breast cancer. On the basis of the cell line media proteome, predictive Tree software was able to categorize each cell line as HER2 positive, HER2 negative, and hormone receptor positive and triple negative based on only two proteins, muscle fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase and keratin 19. In addition, the predictive Tree software clearly identified MCF-7 cell line overexpresing the HER2 receptor with the SNP cathepsin D biomarker.

  16. Significance of nuclear morphometry in cytological aspirates of breast masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalhan Shivani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy globally. Cytological evaluation in breast lesions is largely subjective. Gradual progression of cells from normal to invasive involves nuclear changes that need to be viewed objectively. Aims : This study aims to apply nuclear morphometry on cytological breast aspirates. It evaluates its utility in differentiating benign vs. malignant lesions and correlates it with cytologic grading in malignant cases. Setting and Design : Nuclear morphometric parameters of malignant and benign cases were compared. Parameters of malignant cases were correlated with cytologic grading. Materials and Methods : Cytology was used to categorize aspirates from breast lumps into malignant (53 cases and benign (29 cases. One hundred cells per case in both groups were mapped on DEBEL Cytoscan and six geometrical and three textural parameters obtained were compared. In malignant cases, morphometry was correlated with Robinson′s cytologic grading, which was further correlated in tissue sections (45 cases with modified Scarff-Bloom-Richardson histologic grading. Statistical Analysis : Students "t"-test was applied for comparison between benign and malignant cases. One-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni′s post hoc comparison was applied to compare the three cytologic grades. Results were considered significant when P<0.05. Results : Nuclear morphometry successfully differentiated between benign and malignant aspirates and correlated significantly with cytologic grades. Morphometry was especially useful in the diagnosis of atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ. Useful parameters were mean nuclear area, long axis, short axis and total run length. Cytohistologic correlation was 83.3%, 88.9% and 88.9% for cytological grades 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Conclusions : Nuclear morphometry was thus a useful objective tool in the evaluation of breast masses.

  17. Classification of breast masses by ultrasonic Nakagami imaging: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Liao, Yin-Yin

    2008-11-01

    Ultrasound is an important clinical tool in noninvasive diagnoses of breast cancer. The Nakagami statistical parameter estimated from the ultrasonic backscattered envelope has been demonstrated to be useful in complementing conventional B-mode scans when classifying breast masses. However, the shadowing effect caused by certain high-attenuation tumors in the B-mode image makes the tumor contour unclear, and thus it is more difficult to choose an appropriate region of interest from which to collect tumor data for estimating the Nakagami parameter. This study explored the feasibility of using the Nakagami parametric image to overcome the shadowing effect for visualizing the properties of breast masses. Experiments were performed on a breast-mimicking phantom and on some typical clinical cases for cysts, fat and tumors (fibroadenoma) (n = 18) in order to explore the performance of the Nakagami image under ideal and practical conditions. The experimental results showed that the Nakagami image pixels (i.e. the local Nakagami parameter) in the cyst, tumor and fat are 0.21 ± 0.01, 0.65 ± 0.05 and 0.98 ± 0.07, respectively, for six independent phantom measurements, and 0.14 ± 0.03, 0.67 ± 0.11 and 0.89 ± 0.08, respectively, for clinical experiments. This suggests that the Nakagami image is able to classify various breast masses (p < 0.005) although the clinical results from tumors of different cases have a larger variance that may be caused by the complexity of real breast tissues. In particular, unlike the B-mode image, the Nakagami image is not subject to significant shadowing effects, making it useful to complement the B-mode image to describe the tumor contour for identifying the tumor-related region when the shadowing effect is stronger or a low system gain is used.

  18. Classification of breast masses by ultrasonic Nakagami imaging: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, P-H; Chang, C-C [Division of Mechanics, Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, 128, Section 2, Academia Road, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Yeh, C-K; Liao, Y-Y [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: mechang@gate.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: ckyeh@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2008-11-07

    Ultrasound is an important clinical tool in noninvasive diagnoses of breast cancer. The Nakagami statistical parameter estimated from the ultrasonic backscattered envelope has been demonstrated to be useful in complementing conventional B-mode scans when classifying breast masses. However, the shadowing effect caused by certain high-attenuation tumors in the B-mode image makes the tumor contour unclear, and thus it is more difficult to choose an appropriate region of interest from which to collect tumor data for estimating the Nakagami parameter. This study explored the feasibility of using the Nakagami parametric image to overcome the shadowing effect for visualizing the properties of breast masses. Experiments were performed on a breast-mimicking phantom and on some typical clinical cases for cysts, fat and tumors (fibroadenoma) (n = 18) in order to explore the performance of the Nakagami image under ideal and practical conditions. The experimental results showed that the Nakagami image pixels (i.e. the local Nakagami parameter) in the cyst, tumor and fat are 0.21 {+-} 0.01, 0.65 {+-} 0.05 and 0.98 {+-} 0.07, respectively, for six independent phantom measurements, and 0.14 {+-} 0.03, 0.67 {+-} 0.11 and 0.89 {+-} 0.08, respectively, for clinical experiments. This suggests that the Nakagami image is able to classify various breast masses (p < 0.005) although the clinical results from tumors of different cases have a larger variance that may be caused by the complexity of real breast tissues. In particular, unlike the B-mode image, the Nakagami image is not subject to significant shadowing effects, making it useful to complement the B-mode image to describe the tumor contour for identifying the tumor-related region when the shadowing effect is stronger or a low system gain is used.

  19. A Malignant Mass in the Breast Is Not Always Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Selcukbiricik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year-old woman presented to the Internal Medicine Clinic with complaints of abdominal pain and constipation which had begun 3 months earlier. A colonoscopy was performed, and wall thickening of the sigmoid colon was detected. A biopsy of the sigmoid colon revealed a poorly differentiated, mucin-producing adenocarcinoma with a signet-ring pattern. No distant metastasis was detected. The patient was treated with chemotherapy consisting of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin. One and a half years later, a painless mass, which was not fixed to the skin, measuring 1 cm in diameter, was found in the lower outer quadrant of the left breast. A core biopsy of the mass was performed, and a histopathological report confirmed metastasis to the breast from mucinous adenocarcinoma of an intestinal primary.

  20. Weight, height, body mass index and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahdaninia Mariam

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women in Iran have a relatively high body mass index. To investigate whether the condition contributes to excess breast cancer cases, a case-control study was conducted to assess the relationships between anthropometric variables and breast cancer risk in Tehran, Iran. Methods All incident cases of breast cancer in the Iranian Centre for Breast Cancer (ICBC were identified through the case records. Eligible cases were all postmenopausal women with histological confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer during 1996 to year 2000. Controls were randomly selected postmenopausal women attending the ICBC for clinical breast examination during the same period. The body mass index (BMI was calculated based on weights and heights as measured by the ICBC nursing staff. Both tests for trend and logistic regression analysis were performed to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals as measures of relative risk. Results In all, 116 breast cancer cases and 116 controls were studied. There were no significant differences between cases and control with regard to most independent variables studied. However, a significant difference was observed between cases and controls indicating that the mean BMI was higher in cases as compared to controls (P = 0.004. Performing logistic regression analysis while controlling for age, age at menopause, family history of breast cancer and parity, the results showed that women with a BMI in the obese range had a three fold increased risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR = 3.21, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.15–8.47]. Conclusion The results suggest that obesity in postmenopausal women could increase risk of breast cancer and it merits further investigation in populations such as Iran where it seems that many women are short in height, and have a relatively high body mass index.

  1. Optimization of a Breast Mass Classifier for Computer-Aided Ultrasound Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrè, M. P.; Galperin, M.; Contro, G.; Omid, N.; Olson, L.

    The goal of this research was to optimize performance of a Computer-Aided Diagnostic system to identify, analyze and compare breast masses based on parameters measured in the ultrasound image. We compared case-based reasoning using Relative Similarity to an Artificial Neural Network in order to implement an objective form of the ACR BIRADS scheme to describe and score breast masses. The image feature set was reduced to nine including margins, shape, echogenicity, echo texture, orientation and posterior acoustic attenuation. Both classifiers performed well with a high ROC AZ although RS performed significantly better than the ANN in Specificity, PPV and achieved the goal of very high Specificity without a reduction in Sensitivity. Compared to a preliminary version of the RS classifier this optimized version of RS has significantly higher AZ (0.96 vs. 0.93)

  2. Cone beam breast CT with multiplanar and three dimensional visualization in differentiating breast masses compared with mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Binghui [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Tenth People' s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhang, Xiaohua [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Cai, Weixing [Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Conover, David [Koning Corporation, West Henrietta, NY 14586 (United States); Ning, Ruola, E-mail: ruola_ning@urmc.rochester.edu [Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Objective: This pilot study was to evaluate cone beam breast computed tomography (CBBCT) with multiplanar and three dimensional (3D) visualization in differentiating breast masses in comparison with two-view mammograms. Methods: Sixty-five consecutive female patients (67 breasts) were scanned by CBBCT after conventional two-view mammography (Hologic, Motarget, compression factor 0.8). For CBBCT imaging, three hundred (1024 × 768 × 16 b) two-dimensional (2D) projection images were acquired by rotating the x-ray tube and a flat panel detector (FPD) 360 degree around one breast. Three-dimensional CBBCT images were reconstructed from the 2D projections. Visage CS 3.0 and Amira 5.2.2 were used to visualize reconstructed CBBCT images. Results: Eighty-five breast masses in this study were evaluated and categorized under the breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) according to plain CBBCT images and two-view mammograms, respectively, prior to biopsy. BI-RADS category of each breast was compared with biopsy histopathology. The results showed that CBBCT with multiplanar and 3D visualization would be helpful to identify the margin and characteristics of breast masses. The category variance ratios for CBBCT under the BI-RADS were 23.5% for malignant tumors (MTs) and 27.3% for benign lesions in comparison with pathology, which were evidently closer to the histopathology results than those of two-view mammograms, p value <0.01. With the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) of CBBCT was 0.911, larger than that (AUC 0.827) of two-view mammograms, p value <0.01. Conclusion: CBBCT will be a distinctive noninvasive technology in differentiating and categorizing breast masses under BI-RADS. CBBCT may be considerably more effective to identify breast masses, especially some small, uncertain or multifocal masses than conventional two-view mammography.

  3. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  4. Alterations of the exo- and endometabolite profiles in breast cancer cell lines: A mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmann, Lucas; Schlimpert, Manuel; Hirschfeld, Marc; Erbes, Thalia; Neubauer, Hans; Stickeler, Elmar; Kammerer, Bernd

    2016-06-21

    In recent years, knowledge about metabolite changes which are characteristic for the physiologic state of cancer cells has been acquired by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Distinct molecularly characterized breast cancer cell lines provide an unbiased and standardized in vitro tumor model reflecting the heterogeneity of the disease. Tandem mass spectrometry is a widely applied analytical platform and highly sensitive technique for analysis of complex biological samples. Endo- and exometabolite analysis of the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, -453 and BT-474 as well as the breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A has been performed using two different analytical platforms: UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF based on a scheduled precursor list has been applied for highlighting of significant differences between cell lines and HPLC-ESI-QqQ using multiple reaction monitoring has been utilized for a targeted approach focusing on RNA metabolism and interconnected pathways, respectively. Statistical analysis enabled a clear discrimination of the breast epithelial from the breast cancer cell lines. As an effect of oxidative stress, a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio has been detected in breast cancer cell lines. The triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 showed an elevation in nicotinamide, 1-ribosyl-nicotinamide and NAD+ reflecting the increased energy demand in triple negative breast cancer, which has a more aggressive clinical course than other forms of breast cancer. Obtained distinct metabolite pattern could be correlated with distinct molecular characteristics of breast cancer cells. Results and methodology of this preliminary in vitro study could be transferred to in vivo studies with breast cancer patients.

  5. Birth weight, childhood body mass index, and height in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Bihrmann, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density (MD) mediates an association of birth weight...

  6. Breast MRI in high risk patients

    OpenAIRE

    Obdeijn, Inge-Marie

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract In this thesis we address various indications of breast MRI, with the emphasis on the value of MRI in screening of women with high genetic risk for breast cancer, and especially in BRCA1 mutation carriers. We showed that in the era of up-to-date MRI expertise and digital mammography the screening efficacy is improved. However, the additional value of mammography over MRI is little while at the same time BRCA carriers are more sensitive the risks of low dose radiation ...

  7. Usefulness of sonography in women less than 35 years old with palpable breast masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Chung, Hyun Ung; Park, Jin Gyoon; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Kim, Jae Kyu; Chung, Hyon De [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    To assess the usefulness of sonography in the evaluation of palpable mass in patients less than 35 years old,the breast sonograms and mammograms of 105 histopathologically proved cases were retrospectively reviewed. Breast parenchymal patterns on mammogram, sensitivity of sonography and mammography in the diagnosis of palpable breast masses, and sonographic findings of breast masses were analyzed. Grade IV breast parenchymal pattern was demonstrated in 44 of 76 mammogram (57.9%). The incidence of Grade IV pattern increased, as the patients' age became younger. The sensitivity of sonography (81.3%) was higher than that of mammography (45.3%) in the evaluation of the benign breast lesions. However, the sensitivity of both modalities were nearly equal (66.7% and 58.3% respectively) in the evaluation of the breast cancers. Sonographic findings of fibroadenoma included oval,well defined border, smooth contour, weak homogeneous internal echoes, posterior sonic enhancement, and bilateral shadows. On the other hand, breast cancer exhibited poorly defined border, irregular contour, and inhomogeneous hypoechoic mass with posterior sonic attenuation. In summary, sonography was useful in the evaluation of the palpable breast mass in women less than 35 years old. Choreoathetotic sonographic findings might help the differential diagnosis of breast masses

  8. An ensemble-based approach for breast mass classification in mammography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Patricia B.; Papa, João. P.; Romero, Roseli A. F.

    2017-03-01

    Mammography analysis is an important tool that helps detecting breast cancer at the very early stages of the disease, thus increasing the quality of life of hundreds of thousands of patients worldwide. In Computer-Aided Detection systems, the identification of mammograms with and without masses (without clinical findings) is highly needed to reduce the false positive rates regarding the automatic selection of regions of interest that may contain some suspicious content. In this work, the introduce a variant of the Optimum-Path Forest (OPF) classifier for breast mass identification, as well as we employed an ensemble-based approach that can enhance the effectiveness of individual classifiers aiming at dealing with the aforementioned purpose. The experimental results also comprise the naïve OPF and a traditional neural network, being the most accurate results obtained through the ensemble of classifiers, with an accuracy nearly to 86%.

  9. Classification of breast masses by ultrasonic Nakagami imaging: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Liao, Yin-Yin

    2008-11-07

    Ultrasound is an important clinical tool in noninvasive diagnoses of breast cancer. The Nakagami statistical parameter estimated from the ultrasonic backscattered envelope has been demonstrated to be useful in complementing conventional B-mode scans when classifying breast masses. However, the shadowing effect caused by certain high-attenuation tumors in the B-mode image makes the tumor contour unclear, and thus it is more difficult to choose an appropriate region of interest from which to collect tumor data for estimating the Nakagami parameter. This study explored the feasibility of using the Nakagami parametric image to overcome the shadowing effect for visualizing the properties of breast masses. Experiments were performed on a breast-mimicking phantom and on some typical clinical cases for cysts, fat and tumors (fibroadenoma) (n = 18) in order to explore the performance of the Nakagami image under ideal and practical conditions. The experimental results showed that the Nakagami image pixels (i.e. the local Nakagami parameter) in the cyst, tumor and fat are 0.21 +/- 0.01, 0.65 +/- 0.05 and 0.98 +/- 0.07, respectively, for six independent phantom measurements, and 0.14 +/- 0.03, 0.67 +/- 0.11 and 0.89 +/- 0.08, respectively, for clinical experiments. This suggests that the Nakagami image is able to classify various breast masses (p Nakagami image is not subject to significant shadowing effects, making it useful to complement the B-mode image to describe the tumor contour for identifying the tumor-related region when the shadowing effect is stronger or a low system gain is used.

  10. Breast mass classification on mammograms using radial local ternary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Hara, Takeshi; Endo, Tokiko; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Textural features can be useful in differentiating between benign and malignant breast lesions on mammograms. Unlike previous computerized schemes, which relied largely on shape and margin features based on manual contours of masses, textural features can be determined from regions of interest (ROIs) without precise lesion segmentation. In this study, therefore, we investigated an ROI-based feature, namely, radial local ternary patterns (RLTP), which takes into account the direction of edge patterns with respect to the center of masses for classification of ROIs for benign and malignant masses. Using an artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF) classifiers, the classification abilities of RLTP were compared with those of the regular local ternary patterns (LTP), rotation invariant uniform (RIU2) LTP, texture features based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), and wavelet features. The performance was evaluated with 376 ROIs including 181 malignant and 195 benign masses. The highest areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves among three classifiers were 0.90, 0.77, 0.78, 0.86, and 0.83 for RLTP, LTP, RIU2-LTP, GLCM, and wavelet features, respectively. The results indicate the usefulness of the proposed texture features for distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions and the superiority of the radial patterns compared with the conventional rotation invariant patterns.

  11. A modified triple test for palpable breast masses: the value of ultrasound and core needle biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Christina J; Al-Mubarak, Ghada; Homer, Marc J; Goldkamp, Allison; Samenfeld-Specht, Marja; Lee, Yoojin; Logvinenko, Tanya; Rothschild, Janice G; Graham, Roger A

    2013-03-01

    The original triple test score (TTS)--clinical examination, mammogram, and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy--has long been used to evaluate palpable breast masses. We modified the original TTS to include ultrasound (US) and core biopsy to determine their role in evaluating palpable breast masses. A retrospective chart review of 320 female patients was performed. We developed a modified triple test score (mTTS) that included physical examination, mammogram and/or US, and FNA and/or core biopsy. For the examination and imaging score, 1-3 points were given for low, moderate, or high suspicion. Biopsy scores were characterized as benign, atypical, or malignant. Final outcome was determined by open biopsy or follow-up greater than 1 year. Physical examination was 92% accurate (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-0.96, p core biopsy changed the scores of 24 patients; only three changed clinical management. For patients with a palpable breast mass and a mTTS score of 3-4, no further assessment is necessary. Those with a mTTS of 8-9 can proceed to definitive therapy. Patients with a mTTS of 5-7 require further assessment. US and/or core biopsy added little to the accuracy or predictive value of the original TTS.

  12. Awareness of breast cancer risk factors and practice of breast self examination among high school students in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Çetinkaya Aynur; Özmen Dilek; Karayurt Özgül

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Young breast cancer patients have a lower rate of survival than old breast cancer patients due to being diagnosed at advanced stages. Breast self-examination makes women more "breast aware", which in turn may lead to an earlier diagnosis of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge and practice of breast self-examination and to determine knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer among high school students. Methods This is a descriptive and cro...

  13. Detection and characterization of breast masses with ultrasound tomography: clinical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Li, Cuiping; Rama, Olsi; Bey-Knight, Lisa; Schmidt, Steven; Lupinacci, Jessica

    2009-02-01

    We report on a continuing assessment of the in-vivo performance of an operator independent breast imaging device based on the principles of acoustic tomography. This study highlights the feasibility of mass characterization using criteria derived from reflection, sound speed and attenuation imaging. The data were collected with a clinical prototype at the Karmanos Cancer Institute in Detroit MI from patients recruited at our breast center. Tomographic sets of images were constructed from the data and used to form 3-D image stacks corresponding to the volume of the breast. Masses were identified independently by either ultrasound or biopsy and their locations determined from conventional mammography and ultrasound exams. The nature of the mass and its location were used to assess the feasibility of our prototype to detect and characterize masses in a case-following scenario. Our techniques generated whole breast reflection images as well as images of the acoustic parameters of sound speed and attenuation. The combination of these images reveals major breast anatomy, including fat, parenchyma, fibrous stroma and masses. The three types of images are intrinsically co-registered because the reconstructions are performed using a common data set acquired by the prototype. Fusion imaging, utilizing thresholding, is shown to visualize mass characterization and facilitates separation of cancer from benign masses. These initial results indicate that operatorindependent whole-breast imaging and the detection and a characterization of cancerous breast masses are feasible using acoustic tomography techniques.

  14. High Amplitude Secondary Mass Drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DYCK,CHRISTOPHER WILLIAM; ALLEN,JAMES J.; HUBER,ROBERT JOHN; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.

    2000-07-06

    In this paper we describe a high amplitude electrostatic drive for surface micromachined mechanical oscillators that may be suitable for vibratory gyroscopes. It is an advanced design of a previously reported dual mass oscillator (Dyck, et. al., 1999). The structure is a 2 degree-of-freedom, parallel-plate driven motion amplifier, termed the secondary mass drive oscillator (SMD oscillator). During each cycle the device contacts the drive plates, generating large electrostatic forces. Peak-to-peak amplitudes of 54 {micro}m have been obtained by operating the structure in air with an applied voltage of 11 V. We describe the structure, present the analysis and design equations, and show recent results that have been obtained, including frequency response data, power dissipation, and out-of- plane motion.

  15. Impact of body mass index on breast cancer in accordance with the life-stage of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiko eSuzuki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of epidemiological evidence suggests that the impact of body weight on breast cancer risk should be heterogeneous throughout the life stage of women. At birth, high weight has been positively associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.While, the body mass index (a relative body weight; BMI kg/m2 has been inversely associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal women. The inverse trend had been observed in both Western and Asian population, with a relatively lower percentage of obesity and higher percentage of leanness, suggested that the inverse trend could be explained not only due to the protective impact due to obesity, but also the increased risk of breast cancer due to leanness.Among postmenopausal women, however, an elevated BMI has been positively associated with the development of breast cancer, particularly in the cases of estrogen receptor positive (ER+ and progesterone receptor positive (PR+ tumors. Currently, the mechanisms underlying the heterogeneous impacts between BMI on breast cancer risk and the life stage of women remain poorly understood. We reviewed several proposed biological mechanisms that may contribute to the various impacts of relative body weight on breast cancer risk across life-stage. We also discussed the impact of BMI upon the outcome of endocrine therapy, particularly for aromatase inhibitor, in breast cancer patients. To prevent breast cancer incidence and recurrence, the desirable BMI of women may differ throughout their life-stage. To define the underlying mechanism for the various impacts of BMI in the context of breast cancer across various female life stages, further studies will be required.

  16. Fingerprinting Breast Cancer vs. Normal Mammary Cells by Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingjing; Sinues, Pablo Martinez-Lozano; Hollmén, Maija; Li, Xue; Detmar, Michael; Zenobi, Renato

    2014-06-01

    There is increasing interest in the development of noninvasive diagnostic methods for early cancer detection, to improve the survival rate and quality of life of cancer patients. Identification of volatile metabolic compounds may provide an approach for noninvasive early diagnosis of malignant diseases. Here we analyzed the volatile metabolic signature of human breast cancer cell lines versus normal human mammary cells. Volatile compounds in the headspace of conditioned culture medium were directly fingerprinted by secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The mass spectra were subsequently treated statistically to identify discriminating features between normal vs. cancerous cell types. We were able to classify different samples by using feature selection followed by principal component analysis (PCA). Additionally, high-resolution mass spectrometry allowed us to propose their chemical structures for some of the most discriminating molecules. We conclude that cancerous cells can release a characteristic odor whose constituents may be used as disease markers.

  17. Using breast milk to assess breast cancer risk: the role of mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sallie S; Aslebagh, Roshanak; Ngounou Wetie, Armand G; Sturgeon, Susan R; Darie, Costel C; Arcaro, Kathleen F

    2014-01-01

    Although mammography and treatment advances have led to declines in breast cancer mortality in the United States, breast cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Breast cancer in young women is associated with increased mortality and current methods of detecting breast cancers in this group of women have known limitations. Tools for accurately assessing personal breast cancer risk in young women are needed to identify those women who would benefit the most from earlier intervention. Proteomic analysis of breast milk could identify biomarkers of breast cancer risk and provide a tool for identifying women at increased risk. A preliminary analysis of milk from four women provides a proof of concept for using breast milk to assess breast cancer risk.

  18. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast with heterologous high-grade angiosarcoma

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    Ghassan Tranesh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Phyllodes tumors (PTs account for <3% of fibroepithelial breast lesions and for 0.3% to 1.0% of primary breast tumors. They occur predominantly in middle-aged women (mean age range, 40–50 years. PTs can be categorized into benign, borderline, and malignant; the first 2 categories are distinguished only by degree of cellular atypia and mitotic activity. Malignant PTs are more frequent among persons of Hispanic ethnicity, especially those born in Central America or South America. Heterologous sarcomatous elements may be present in malignant PTs, predominantly liposarcoma and rarely fibrosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma. Breast angiosarcoma (BA is a rare heterologous, sarcomatous element that may arise secondary to malignant PT. We report a 47-year-old woman with no history of previous surgery or radiation therapy who presented to the emergency department with a painful right breast mass. She admittedly noticed the right breast mass for many years; however, recently it increased in size. Mammography and ultrasonography identified a partially cystic mass. Core needle biopsy showed dense hyalinized fibrous tissue with old blood clots, suggestive of infarcted fibroadenoma. The patient received antibiotics and analgesics; however, she reported intractable pain and a worsening skin rash of her right breast. Chest computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a doubling in mass size, with pectoralis major muscle involvement. Incisional biopsy showed malignant PT with heterologous high-grade angiosarcoma. The diagnosis of angiosarcoma was confirmed through immunoreactivity for CD31, FLI1, and ERG immunostains.

  19. The unusual ultrasound features of a breast cholesterol granuloma manifesting as an intracystic mass: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hye Shin; Kim, Sun Mi; Yun, Bo La; Kim, Mi Sun; Jang, Mijung; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Sung-Won; Kang, Eunyoung; Choi, Hye Young

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol granuloma of the breast is a rare, benign disease. Here, we present the unique ultrasonographic findings of breast cholesterol granuloma manifesting as an intracystic mass. The findings of this case report may help expand existing knowledge regarding differential diagnosis of intracystic breast masses, which are found on ultrasonographic examination.

  20. Image guided versus palpation guided core needle biopsy of palpable breast masses: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smriti Hari

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in palpable breast masses, image guided biopsy was superior to palpation guided biopsy in terms of sensitivity, false negative rate and repeat biopsy rates.

  1. Myiasis secondary to Sermatobia hominis (human botfly) presenting as a long-standing breast mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, D G

    1999-09-01

    A case of a 54-year-old woman who presented with a breast mass is reported. Histologically, a chronic granulomatous inflammatory response was observed. The response was associated with an organism diagnosed as a fly larva, Dermatobia hominis (human botfly). The incidence of myiasis, infestation by fly larvae, presenting as a long-standing breast mass and mimicking a neoplasm is extremely rare, especially in the United States.

  2. Breast mass detection in tomosynthesis projection images using information-theoretic similarity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Swatee; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to study Computer Aided Detection (CADe) of breast masses for digital tomosynthesis. It is believed that tomosynthesis will show improvement over conventional mammography in detection and characterization of breast masses by removing overlapping dense fibroglandular tissue. This study used the 60 human subject cases collected as part of on-going clinical trials at Duke University. Raw projections images were used to identify suspicious regions in the algorithm's high-sensitivity, low-specificity stage using a Difference of Gaussian (DoG) filter. The filtered images were thresholded to yield initial CADe hits that were then shifted and added to yield a 3D distribution of suspicious regions. These were further summed in the depth direction to yield a flattened probability map of suspicious hits for ease of scoring. To reduce false positives, we developed an algorithm based on information theory where similarity metrics were calculated using knowledge databases consisting of tomosynthesis regions of interest (ROIs) obtained from projection images. We evaluated 5 similarity metrics to test the false positive reduction performance of our algorithm, specifically joint entropy, mutual information, Jensen difference divergence, symmetric Kullback-Liebler divergence, and conditional entropy. The best performance was achieved using the joint entropy similarity metric, resulting in ROC A z of 0.87 +/- 0.01. As a whole, the CADe system can detect breast masses in this data set with 79% sensitivity and 6.8 false positives per scan. In comparison, the original radiologists performed with only 65% sensitivity when using mammography alone, and 91% sensitivity when using tomosynthesis alone.

  3. Breast density estimation from high spectral and spatial resolution MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Weiss, William A; Medved, Milica; Abe, Hiroyuki; Newstead, Gillian M; Karczmar, Gregory S; Giger, Maryellen L

    2016-10-01

    A three-dimensional breast density estimation method is presented for high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MR imaging. Twenty-two patients were recruited (under an Institutional Review Board--approved Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant protocol) for high-risk breast cancer screening. Each patient received standard-of-care clinical digital x-ray mammograms and MR scans, as well as HiSS scans. The algorithm for breast density estimation includes breast mask generating, breast skin removal, and breast percentage density calculation. The inter- and intra-user variabilities of the HiSS-based density estimation were determined using correlation analysis and limits of agreement. Correlation analysis was also performed between the HiSS-based density estimation and radiologists' breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) density ratings. A correlation coefficient of 0.91 ([Formula: see text]) was obtained between left and right breast density estimations. An interclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 ([Formula: see text]) indicated high reliability for the inter-user variability of the HiSS-based breast density estimations. A moderate correlation coefficient of 0.55 ([Formula: see text]) was observed between HiSS-based breast density estimations and radiologists' BI-RADS. In summary, an objective density estimation method using HiSS spectral data from breast MRI was developed. The high reproducibility with low inter- and low intra-user variabilities shown in this preliminary study suggest that such a HiSS-based density metric may be potentially beneficial in programs requiring breast density such as in breast cancer risk assessment and monitoring effects of therapy.

  4. Invasive Micropapillary Carcinoma in Breast Presented as Hyperechoic Mass with Coarse Macrocalcifications: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Sun; Seo, Bo Kyung; Song, Sung Eun; Kim, Young Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyu Ran [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Ok Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Invasive micropapillary carcinoma is a rare, clinically aggressive variant of invasive ductal carcinoma. Imaging findings of invasive micropapillary carcinoma are not specific, and associated microcalcifications are frequent. Our case presented with unique radiological features: a mass with coarse macrocalcifications on mammography and breast computed tomography and a hyperechoic mass on breast ultrasound. Macrocalcifications and hyperechogenicity are not usual malignant characteristics. We report here on our experience with a 55-year-old woman who had invasive micropapillary carcinoma in the breast with unique radiological and pathological findings.

  5. The Role of Ultrasound Guided FNAB (Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of Nonpalpable Breast Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haghighi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Because of the high inci-dence and mortality rate of breast cancers, and high survival rate of patients after detecting masses smaller than 1cm, it is important to do tissue sampling with imaging guidance. Our goal was to determine the role of sonoguided FNAB as a first step to avoid the more invasive and expensive unnecessary core or excisional biopsies. Materials and Methods: This was an observational study. Our cases included the patients referred to our clinic from 1998-2004 to get FNAB for their nonpal-pable breast masses that had been found in imaging and were visible with Ultrasound and classified in cat 3 or 4 BIRads. The number of cases was 500. The in-strument used was ESaote EU4 with 10 MHZ probe. The results of cytological tests were collected and classified into three groups known as: 1-Benign (negative 2-Malignant (positive 3-Indeterminate Our gold standard was excisional biopsy with three years follow up. Results: Sono and mammo guided FNA, core biopsy and needle localization biopsy are three ways to reach nonpalpable breast lesions. According to other studies, the overall accuracy for imaging guided core biopsy is %97 without FP and for FNA is %77 with %5 FP. An inadequate amount of sample is reported in 32% of sonoguided FNAs but in our study, it was not significant. We had normal breast tissue in %2 (n=10 of our cases and they did not develop malig-nancy in three years follow up. The cost of FNA is very low compared with the other two procedures. Also our NPV was %100 and three fourth of our cases had benign pathology (negative for malignancy. Conclusion: According to our results doing FNA as the first step for cat 3 and 4 masses and R/O of malig-nancy in most patients can save money and time. Core biopsy could be reserved only for the other one fourth of patients.

  6. Awareness of breast cancer risk factors and practice of breast self examination among high school students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayurt, Ozgül; Ozmen, Dilek; Cetinkaya, Aynur Cakmakçi

    2008-10-17

    Young breast cancer patients have a lower rate of survival than old breast cancer patients due to being diagnosed at advanced stages. Breast self-examination makes women more "breast aware", which in turn may lead to an earlier diagnosis of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge and practice of breast self-examination and to determine knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer among high school students. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. It was conducted in a high school in Manisa, Turkey. The study sample included 718 female high school students. A socio-demographic characteristics data form, knowledge of breast self examination and risk factors for breast cancer form and breast self examination practice form were used to collect data. The female high school students had insufficient knowledge about breast self-examination and a low percentage of students reported that they had performed breast self examination monthly. The most common reason for not doing breast self- examination was "not knowing how to perform breast self-examination" (98.5%). Most of the students had little knowledge of the risk factors for breast cancer. The most widely known risk factor by the students was personal history of breast cancer (68.7%). There was a significant relation between breast self-examination practice and age, school grade, knowledge about breast cancer and knowledge about breast self- examination. There is a need to increase knowledge of adolescent females about the risks of breast cancer and benefits of early detection. In fact, health care professionals can develop effective breast health care programs and help young women to acquire good health habits.

  7. Awareness of breast cancer risk factors and practice of breast self examination among high school students in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetinkaya Aynur

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young breast cancer patients have a lower rate of survival than old breast cancer patients due to being diagnosed at advanced stages. Breast self-examination makes women more "breast aware", which in turn may lead to an earlier diagnosis of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge and practice of breast self-examination and to determine knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer among high school students. Methods This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. It was conducted in a high school in Manisa, Turkey. The study sample included 718 female high school students. A socio-demographic characteristics data form, knowledge of breast self examination and risk factors for breast cancer form and breast self examination practice form were used to collect data. Results The female high school students had insufficient knowledge about breast self-examination and a low percentage of students reported that they had performed breast self examination monthly. The most common reason for not doing breast self- examination was "not knowing how to perform breast self-examination" (98.5%. Most of the students had little knowledge of the risk factors for breast cancer. The most widely known risk factor by the students was personal history of breast cancer (68.7%. There was a significant relation between breast self-examination practice and age, school grade, knowledge about breast cancer and knowledge about breast self- examination. Conclusion There is a need to increase knowledge of adolescent females about the risks of breast cancer and benefits of early detection. In fact, health care professionals can develop effective breast health care programs and help young women to acquire good health habits.

  8. Qualitative pattern classification of shear wave elastography for breast masses: How it correlates to quantitative measurements

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    Yoon, Jung Hyun, E-mail: lvjenny0417@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Kyung Hee, E-mail: yourheeya@cha.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Kyoung, E-mail: AA40501@cha.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Tae, E-mail: jtlee@cha.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-01

    Objective: To determine the correlation of qualitative shear wave elastography (SWE) pattern classification to quantitative SWE measurements and whether it is representative of quantitative SWE values with similar performances. Methods: From October 2012 to January 2013, 267 breast masses of 236 women (mean age: 45.12 ± 10.54 years, range: 21–88 years) who had undergone ultrasonography (US), SWE, and subsequent biopsy were included. US BI-RADS final assessment and qualitative and quantitative SWE measurements were recorded. Correlation between pattern classification and mean elasticity, maximum elasticity, elasticity ratio and standard deviation were evaluated. Diagnostic performances of grayscale US, SWE parameters, and US combined to SWE values were calculated and compared. Results: Of the 267 breast masses, 208 (77.9%) were benign and 59 (22.1%) were malignant. Pattern classifications significantly correlated with all quantitative SWE measurements, showing highest correlation with maximum elasticity, r = 0.721 (P < 0.001). Sensitivity was significantly decreased in US combined to SWE measurements to grayscale US: 69.5–89.8% to 100.0%, while specificity was significantly improved: 62.5–81.7% to 13.9% (P < 0.001). Area under the ROC curve (A{sub z}) did not show significant differences between grayscale US to US combined to SWE (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Pattern classification shows high correlation to maximum stiffness and may be representative of quantitative SWE values. When combined to grayscale US, SWE improves specificity of US.

  9. Educational differences in postmenopausal breast cancer--quantifying indirect effects through health behaviors, body mass index and reproductive patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise; Diderichsen, Finn; Keiding, Niels; Prescott, Eva; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2013-01-01

    Studying mechanisms underlying social inequality in postmenopausal breast cancer is important in order to develop prevention strategies. Standard methods for investigating indirect effects, by comparing crude models to adjusted, are often biased. We applied a new method enabling the decomposition of the effect of educational level on breast cancer incidence into indirect effects through reproductive patterns (parity and age at first birth), body mass index and health behavior (alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and hormone therapy use). The study was based on a pooled cohort of 6 studies from the Copenhagen area including 33,562 women (1,733 breast cancer cases) aged 50-70 years at baseline. The crude absolute rate of breast cancer was 399 cases per 100,000 person-years. A high educational level compared to low was associated with 74 (95% CI 22-125) extra breast cancer cases per 100,000 person-years at risk. Of these, 26% (95% CI 14%-69%) could be attributed to alcohol consumption. Similar effects were observed for age at first birth (32%; 95% CI 10%-257%), parity (19%; 95%CI 10%-45%), and hormone therapy use (10%; 95% CI 6%-18%). Educational level modified the effect of physical activity on breast cancer. In conclusion, this analysis suggests that a substantial number of the excess postmenopausal breast cancer events among women with a high educational level compared to a low can be attributed to differences in alcohol consumption, use of hormone therapy, and reproductive patterns. Women of high educational level may be more vulnerable to physical inactivity compared to women of low educational level.

  10. Mass spectrometry-based serum proteome pattern analysis in molecular diagnostics of early stage breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stobiecki Maciej

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometric analysis of the blood proteome is an emerging method of clinical proteomics. The approach exploiting multi-protein/peptide sets (fingerprints detected by mass spectrometry that reflect overall features of a specimen's proteome, termed proteome pattern analysis, have been already shown in several studies to have applicability in cancer diagnostics. We aimed to identify serum proteome patterns specific for early stage breast cancer patients using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry. Methods Blood samples were collected before the start of therapy in a group of 92 patients diagnosed at stages I and II of the disease, and in a group of age-matched healthy controls (104 women. Serum specimens were purified and the low-molecular-weight proteome fraction was examined using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry after removal of albumin and other high-molecular-weight serum proteins. Protein ions registered in a mass range between 2,000 and 10,000 Da were analyzed using a new bioinformatic tool created in our group, which included modeling spectra as a sum of Gaussian bell-shaped curves. Results We have identified features of serum proteome patterns that were significantly different between blood samples of healthy individuals and early stage breast cancer patients. The classifier built of three spectral components that differentiated controls and cancer patients had 83% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Spectral components (i.e., protein ions that were the most frequent in such classifiers had approximate m/z values of 2303, 2866 and 3579 Da (a biomarker built from these three components showed 88% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Of note, we did not find a significant correlation between features of serum proteome patterns and established prognostic or predictive factors like tumor size, nodal involvement, histopathological grade, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. In addition, we observed a significantly (p = 0

  11. Effect of body mass index on clinical and morphological characteristics of triple negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Schepotin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Triple negative breast cancer phenotype characterized by a more aggressive than other molecular types of tumor. In addition to non-modifiable clinical and pathological factors of aggressiveness of triple negative breast cancer is caused by potentially modifiable lifestyle (obesity, alcohol consumption, hypodynamia etc.. In this study we investigated the relationship between body mass index at diagnosis, clinical and morphological outcome predictors, and the impact of obesity on overall and disease-free survival of patients with triple negative breast cancer.

  12. Predicting the Severity of Breast Masses with Ensemble of Bayesian Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa M. Elsayad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study evaluated two different Bayesian classifiers; tree augmented Naive Bayes and Markov blanket estimation networks in order to build an ensemble model for prediction the severity of breast masses. The objective of the proposed algorithm was to help physicians in their decisions to perform a breast biopsy on a suspicious lesion seen in a mammogram image or to perform a short term follow-up examination instead. While, mammography is the most effective and available tool for breast cancer screening, mammograms do not detect all breast cancers. Also, a small portion of mammograms show that a cancer could probably be present when it is not (called a false-positive result. Approach: Apply ensemble of Bayesian classifiers to predict the severity of breast masses. Bayesian classifiers had been selected as they were able to produce probability estimates rather than predictions. These estimated allow predictions to be ranked and their expected costs to be minimized. The proposed ensemble used the confidence scores where the highest confidence wins to combine the predictions of individual classifiers. Results: The prediction accuracies of Bayesian ensemble was benchmarked against the well-known multilayer perceptron neural network and the ensemble had achieved a remarkable performance with 91.83% accuracy on training subset and 90.63% of test one and outperformed the neural network model. Conclusion: Experimental results showed that the Bayesian classifiers are competitive techniques in the problem of prediction the severity of breast masses.

  13. Simple rules for ultrasonographic subcategorization of BI-RADS{sup ®}-US 4 breast masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jales, Rodrigo Menezes, E-mail: rodrigoj@hotmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas – Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Sarian, Luís Otavio, E-mail: luis.sarian@gmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas – Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Torresan, Renato, E-mail: torresan@terra.com.br [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas – Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Marussi, Emílio Francisco, E-mail: efmarussi@uol.com.br [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas – Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Álvares, Beatriz Regina, E-mail: alvaresb@terra.com.br [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas – Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Derchain, Sophie, E-mail: derchain@fcm.unicamp.br [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas – Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: To evaluate an objective method for ultrasonographic (US) subcategorization of BI-RADS{sup ®}-US 4 breast masses based on clear and simple rules in order for woman to benefit from a more complete and homogeneous breast mass analysis. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we selected 330 women, with 339 US breast masses, classified as BI-RADS{sup ®}-US 4. Three physicians experienced in breast imaging independently reviewed all US images, assessing mass shape, margins, orientation, echo texture and vascularity. These experts further subdivided the masses into subcategories 4a, 4b and 4c, according to simple US rules. Inter-observer agreement was calculated for US features categories and for final subcategory assessment. We also estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) for BI-RADS{sup ®}-US subcategories 4a, 4b and 4c assigned by each of the three observers. Results: Pathological examination of all masses confirmed 144 (42%) malignant and 195 (58%) benign tumors. Moderate agreement was obtained for mass shape, margins, vascularity and for final BI-RADS{sup ®}-US 4 subcategory. Substantial agreement was obtained for the description of mass orientation and echo texture. The PPV for subcategories 4a, 4b and 4c were, 17%, 45% and 85%, respectively, for the first observer and 20%, 38% and 79% and 17%, 40% and 85% for the other two observers. Conclusion: Standardization of a US subcategorization of BI-RADS{sup ®}-US 4 breast masses seems to be feasible, with substantial inter-observer agreement and progressive increase in the PPV in the subcategories 4a, 4b and 4c, provided that clear and simple classification rules are defined.

  14. The Study for Results of Complex Cystic Breast Masses by Biopsy on Ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hye Kyoung [Dept. of Radiology, Yangji General Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health College, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    We examined the roles of Ultrasonography conductors by analyzing the results of tissue biopsy of complex cystic masse under the guidance of breast US. This study was performed to a group of 178 who showed breast US indicating complex cystic masses among 342 patients who were definitely diagnosed by tissue biopsies and operations in our hospital from June 30th, 2003 to June 30th, 2007. The evaluation of tissues around, calcification, the distribution state of blood flow were excluded from the analysis subjects and logic 200 made by GE corporation and gun for core biopsy(Kimal corp., K7/MBD23) were used in this study. The biopsy results of 178 subjects showed FCC (fibrocystic change)(n=56 : 31.4%), Fibrosis (n=41 : 23.0%), Fibroadenoma (n=20 : 11.2%), Epithelial hyperplasia (n=17 : 9.6%), Carcinoma (n=15 : 8.4%), Fibroadipose (n=8 : 4.5%), Sclerosing adenosis (n=7 : 3.9%), Duct ectasia (n=5 : 2.8%), Papiloma (n=5 : 2.8%), and Fat necrosis (n=1 : 0.6%), Hemangioma (n=1 : 0.6%), Abscess (n=1 : 0.6%), Dystrophic calcification(n=1 : 0.6%). The US showed that the results of the tissue biopsy of complex cystic masses were mostly carcinoma(8.4%). Most of them were benign and only 9.6% of epithelial hyperplasia which has high progression rate into malignant tumors epidemically showed malignancy. Most of them were included in the spectrum of fibrous cystic nodule. Even though these results are confirmed, further studies are required. As a result, a nodule which is not certified by US should be right to take the tissue biopsy, but if it's difficult due to patients or another reasons, re-check tests in three months are required. And systemic ultrasonography evaluation should be well recognized to conduct more careful and specific tests.

  15. High Mass Accuracy and High Mass Resolving Power FT-ICR Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry for Biological Tissue Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Donald F; Leach, Franklin E; Robinson, Errol W; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-01

    Biological tissue imaging by secondary ion mass spectrometry has seen rapid development with the commercial availability of polyatomic primary ion sources. Endogenous lipids and other small bio-molecules can now be routinely mapped on the sub-micrometer scale. Such experiments are typically performed on time-of-flight mass spectrometers for high sensitivity and high repetition rate imaging. However, such mass analyzers lack the mass resolving power to ensure separation of isobaric ions and the mass accuracy for elemental formula assignment based on exact mass measurement. We have recently reported a secondary ion mass spectrometer with the combination of a C60 primary ion gun with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) for high mass resolving power, high mass measurement accuracy and tandem mass spectrometry capabilities. In this work, high specificity and high sensitivity secondary ion FT-ICR MS was applied to chemical imaging of biological tissue. An entire rat brain tissu...

  16. Clinical options for women at high risk for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, L C; Sellers, T A; Schaid, D J; Nayfield, S; Grant, C S; Bjoraker, J A; Woods, J; Couch, F

    1999-10-01

    Women at hereditary risk of breast cancer face a difficult clinical decision. Each of the options available to them has unique advantages and disadvantages that are summarized in Table 9. Many components enter a high-risk woman's decision: her objective risk of breast cancer; clinical features, such as the consistency of breast tissue and resultant ease of examination; breast density on mammography; personal characteristics, including her experience with cancer within her family; her role and [table: see text] responsibilities within her own nuclear family; her values and goals; her experiences with the medical system; and her subjective assessment of risk. It is generally believed that women significantly overestimate their risk of breast cancer. Thus, it is vital that a woman at risk have access to a genetic counselor who can provide accurate assessment of her risk. Women should be encouraged to take time to understand their risk level and the advantages and disadvantages of the options before them.

  17. Performance of shear wave elastography for differentiation of benign and malignant solid breast masses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiling Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To perform a meta-analysis assessing the ability of shear wave elastography (SWE to identify malignant breast masses. METHODS: PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the ISI Web of Knowledge were searched for studies evaluating the accuracy of SWE for identifying malignant breast masses. The diagnostic accuracy of SWE was evaluated according to sensitivity, specificity, and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC curves. An analysis was also performed according to the SWE mode used: supersonic shear imaging (SSI and the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI technique. The clinical utility of SWE for identifying malignant breast masses was evaluated using analysis of Fagan plot. RESULTS: A total of 9 studies, including 1888 women and 2000 breast masses, were analyzed. Summary sensitivities and specificities were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.94 and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.75-0.87 by SSI and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.81-0.94 and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.84-0.95 by ARFI, respectively. The HSROCs for SSI and ARFI were 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94 and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.93-0.97, respectively. SSI and ARFI were both very informative, with probabilities of 83% and 91%, respectively, for correctly differentiating between benign and malignant breast masses following a "positive" measurement (over the threshold value and probabilities of disease as low as 10% and 11%, respectively, following a "negative" measurement (below the threshold value when the pre-test probability was 50%. CONCLUSIONS: SWE could be used as a good identification tool for the classification of breast masses.

  18. Incidental breast masses detected by computed tomography: are any imaging features predictive of malignancy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Gareth.Porter@phnt.swest.nhs.uk; Steel, J.; Paisley, K.; Watkins, R. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Holgate, C. [Department of Histopathology, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    Aim: To review the outcome of further assessment of breast abnormalities detected incidentally by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and to determine whether any MDCT imaging features were predictive of malignancy. Material and methods: The outcome of 34 patients referred to the Primrose Breast Care Unit with breast abnormalities detected incidentally using MDCT was prospectively recorded. Women with a known diagnosis of breast cancer were excluded. CT imaging features and histological diagnoses were recorded and the correlation assessed using Fisher's exact test. Results: Of the 34 referred patients a malignant diagnosis was noted in 11 (32%). There were 10 breast malignancies (seven invasive ductal carcinomas, one invasive lobular carcinoma, two metastatic lesions) and one axillary lymphoma. CT features suggestive of breast malignancy were spiculation [6/10 (60%) versus 0/24 (0%) p = 0.0002] and associated axillary lymphadenopathy [3/10 (33%) versus 0/20 (0%) p = 0.030]. Conversely, a well-defined mass was suggestive of benign disease [10/24 (42%) versus 0/10 (0%); p = 0.015]. Associated calcification, ill-definition, heterogeneity, size, and multiplicity of lesions were not useful discriminating CT features. There was a non-significant trend for lesions in involuted breasts to be more frequently malignant than in dense breasts [6/14 (43%) versus 4/20 (20%) p = 0.11]. Conclusion: In the present series there was a significant rate (32%) of malignancy in patients referred to the breast clinic with CT-detected incidental breast lesions. The CT features of spiculation or axillary lymphadenopathy are strongly suggestive of malignancy.

  19. Sugary, High-Fat Western Diet Tied to Denser Breast Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High-Fat Western Diet Tied to Denser Breast Tissue Previous research has linked higher density to increased ... Western-style diet may develop more dense breast tissue, possibly increasing their risk for breast cancer, Spanish ...

  20. Breast reconstruction after bilateral prophylactic mastectomy in women at high risk for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldor, Liron; Spiegel, Aldona

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown the effectiveness of bilateral prophylactic mastectomies (BPM) at reducing the risk of developing breast cancer in women by more than 90%. A growing number of women at high risk for breast cancer are electing to undergo prophylactic mastectomy as part of a risk reduction strategy. This unique group of women frequently chooses to undergo reconstructive surgery as a part of their immediate treatment plan. Breast reconstruction after BPM has profound physiological and emotional impact on body image, sexuality, and quality of life. These factors should be taken into consideration and addressed when consulting the patient prior to BPM and reconstructive surgery. The timing of reconstructive surgery, the type of mastectomy performed, the reconstructive modalities available, and the possibility to preserve the nipple-areola complex, should all be discussed with the patient prior to surgery. In this article, we review our experience and the current existing literature on breast reconstruction for high-risk women after BPM.

  1. Diagnostic Yield of High-Resolution Breast Sonography in Detecting Microcalcifications Compared to Mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ahmadinejad

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Mammography remains the most suitable screening test in detecting microcalcifications as the earliest manifestation of breast malignancy. By means of highfrequency transducers yielding high-resolution breast imaging, some researchers have reported that ultrasonography is capable of depicting microcalcifications in the breast tissue. Therefore, this study has been designed to compare the diagnostic yield of high-resolution"nbreast ultrasonography (HRS versus conventional mammography."nPatients and Methods: Seventy-four consecutive patients who had breast microcalcifications (hyperdense foci < 0.5mm according to standard mammograms, without a prior history of breast disease, surgery, biopsy, chest wall radiation or systemic chemotherapy were enrolled. Considering mammograms as a reference, 46 patients without a mass, voluntarily underwent high-resolution bilateral breast ultrasonography."nResults: The mean age was 50.7±10 years (range, 35-85 years. The upper outer quadrant of the breast was the commonest place where microcalcifications were detected (36.9%. A relative frequency of 45.7% was reported for microcalcifications with breast imaging reporting"nand data system (BIRADS score 3. An overall 82.6% diagnostic yield was discovered for HRS in detecting microcalcifications; it detected all microcalcifications with BIRADS score 4 and 5, but 57.1% and 90.5% of microcalcifications with BIRADS score 2 and 3, respectively. Cluster microcalcification was the most common pattern (43.5%."nConclusion: Considering the 82.6% diagnostic yield of HRS compared to mammography, it can be proposed as the surrogate modality in locating microcalcifications in procedures such as biopsies and hook-wiring, with the advantage of reducing radiation exposure. HRS may be the future screening modality as a result of feasibility, safety, compliance and accuracy.

  2. Hydrophobic Fractionation Enhances Novel Protein Detection by Mass Spectrometry in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Whelan, Stephen A.; He, Jianbo; Saxton, Romaine E.; Faull, Kym F.; Chang, Helena R.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely believed that discovery of specific, sensitive and reliable tumor biomarkers can improve the treatment of cancer. The goal of this study was to develop a novel fractionation protocol targeting hydrophobic proteins as possible cancer cell membrane biomarkers. Hydrophobic proteins of breast cancer tissues and cell lines were enriched by polymeric reverse phase columns. The retained proteins were eluted and digested for peptide identification by nano-liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry using a hybrid linear ion-trap Orbitrap. Hundreds of proteins were identified from each of these three specimens: tumors, normal breast tissue, and breast cancer cell lines. Many of the identified proteins defined key cellular functions. Protein profiles of cancer and normal tissues from the same patient were systematically examined and compared. Stem cell markers were overexpressed in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) compared with non-TNBC samples. Because breast cancer stem cells are known to be resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, and can be the source of metastasis frequently seen in patients with TNBC, our study may provide evidence of molecules promoting the aggressiveness of TNBC. The initial results obtained using a combination of hydrophobic fractionation and nano-LC mass spectrometry analysis of these proteins appear promising in the discovery of potential cancer biomarkers. When sufficiently refined, this approach may prove useful for early detection and better treatment of breast cancer. PMID:20596302

  3. High Fat Diet-induced Breast Cancer Model in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Meng-Ju; Chang, Chun-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has been linked to breast cancer progression but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Being overweight or obese for a woman at the time she is diagnosed with breast cancer is linked to a high risk of recurrence regardless of treatment factors. In rodents, high body weight is also associated with increased incidence of spontaneous and chemically induced tumors. To study the complex interaction between the mammary epithelia and the microenvironment, with a focus on the mechanism un...

  4. Classification of breast masses in ultrasonic B scans using Nakagami and K distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, P M [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Dumane, Vishruta A [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); George, Thomas [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104(United States); Piccoli, Catherine W [Division of Ultrasound, Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, 19107 (United States); Reid, John M [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Forsberg, Flemming [Division of Ultrasound, Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, 19107 (United States); Goldberg, Barry B [Division of Ultrasound, Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, 19107 (United States)

    2003-07-21

    Classification of breast masses in greyscale ultrasound images is undertaken using a multiparameter approach. Five parameters reflecting the non-Rayleigh nature of the backscattered echo were used. These parameters, based mostly on the Nakagami and K distributions, were extracted from the envelope of the echoes at the site, boundary, spiculated region and shadow of the mass. They were combined to create a linear discriminant. The performance of this discriminant for the classification of breast masses was studied using a data set consisting of 70 benign and 29 malignant cases. The A{sub z} value for the discriminant was 0.96 {+-} 0.02, showing great promise in the classification of masses into benign and malignant ones. The discriminant was combined with the level of suspicion values of the radiologist leading to an A{sub z} value of 0.97 {+-} 0.014. The parameters used here can be calculated with minimal clinical intervention, so the method proposed here may therefore be easily implemented in an automated fashion. These results also support the recent reports suggesting that ultrasound may help as an adjunct to mammography in breast cancer diagnostics to enhance the classification of breast masses.

  5. Studies of breast masses in Korean woman using tungsten anode mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, C. O.; Oh, K. K.; Lee, K. S. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    Mammography is the oldest and most popular method in the diagnosis of breast disease and received the special attention as the powerful instrument in early detection of breast cancer. In Korea, the mammography has not been widely used, yet, but nowadays, increasing incidence of breast cancer and good prognosis after early detection and proper treatment need the clinical application of mammography for management of patient with breast disease and for the detection of occult cancer. The technique obtaining the good quality film is essential for improving the diagnostic accuracy of mammography in breast disease and in general, excellent film radiographs of breast can be obtained with proper combination of Kvp, processing, selection of fine grained film, fine focus tube and compression. In present study, radiographic technique was used in which 36-40 Kvp and 200 mAs were derived from a small focus Tungsten Anode tube. Medio-lateral and Cranio-caudad view were taken using Acryl compression device, which was specially designed by authors in order to properly examine the small, dense breasts of Korean women. Non-screen fine grained mammographic films was used and processing was manual.The materials consisted of 150 cases of mammography performed at Yonsei University Medical College, Severance Hospital, since January, 1978. We analyzed the diagnostic accuracy of mammography and mammographic findings in pathologically confirmed 39 cases. The conclusions are as follows: 1. Because women are sensitive to her breast changes, mammography is very useful not only in diagnosis of breast disease and early detection of cancer, but also management of patients with breast symptom and sign. 2. We obtained the relatively good quality film and high diagnostic accuracy with our own method, using conventional Tungsten Anode tube, compression device and hand processing. 3. We also applied specimen radiography in diagnosis of breast disease, which was helpful in verification of the adequacy

  6. Postmenopausal breast cancer risk and interactions between body mass index, menopausal hormone therapy use, and vitamin D supplementation: Evidence from the E3N cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeau, Claire; Fournier, Agnès; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2016-11-15

    Experimental studies suggest protective effects of vitamin D on breast carcinogenesis, but epidemiological evidence is not conclusive. Body mass index (BMI) has been shown to modulate the effect of supplementation on the vitamin D status, but its potential influence on the relationship with breast cancer risk has been little studied. We investigated a potential interaction between BMI and vitamin D supplementation on breast cancer risk while considering an already reported interaction between vitamin D supplementation and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use. Vitamin D supplementation was prospectively investigated in 57,403 postmenopausal women from the French E3N cohort including 2,482 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2008. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) for primary invasive breast cancer and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox models. Among MHT ever users, vitamin D supplementation was associated with decreased breast cancer risk, similarly across BMI strata (Phomogeneity  = 0.83). Among MHT never users, ever vitamin D supplementation was associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk in women with baseline BMI breast cancer risk in MHT users, but draw attention on a potential risk in postmenopausal women not exposed to high exogenous or endogenous hormones, i.e. non-overweight MHT-non users, especially in the present context of increasing vitamin D supplement use and decreasing MHT use.

  7. [Breast cancer mass screening in the Province of Liege. Results after 8 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordenne, W; Parmentier, J C; Delleuze, J M

    2000-08-01

    Breast cancer mass screening by mobile units started in 1992 in the Province of Liège (Belgium). This project is developed for rural areas and interests all women between 40-69 years old not regularly X-rayed in traditional breast cancer diagnosis centers. Despite lots of efforts population participation is low (25%). Nevertheless, the experiment results are encouraging: in a series of 31,443 women, 213 cancers were diagnosed, corresponding to a rate of 6.9/1000, 75% of which are of good prognosis. After an 8 years experiment, it is hoped that the population concerned becomes more sensitive to this mass screening project and one should expect a better collaboration with the other actors in the field of breast diseases diagnosis.

  8. Reproducibility of mass spectrometry based protein profiles for diagnosis of breast cancer across clinical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne Kjærgaard; Vach, Werner; Jørgensen, Per E;

    2008-01-01

    Serum protein profiling by mass spectrometry has achieved attention as a promising technology in oncoproteomics. We performed a systematic review of published reports on protein profiling as a diagnostic tool for breast cancer. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and COCHRANE databases were searched for original...... studies reporting discriminatory protein peaks for breast cancer as either protein identity or as m/ z values in the period from January 1995 to October 2006. To address the important aspect of reproducibility of mass spectrometry data across different clinical studies, we compared the published lists....... Although the studies revealed a considerable heterogeneity in relation to experimental design, biological variation, preanalytical conditions, methods of computational data analysis, and analytical reproducibility of profiles, we found that 45% of peaks previously reported to correlate with breast cancer...

  9. Predicting reattendance at a high-risk breast cancer clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormseth, Sarah R; Wellisch, David K; Aréchiga, Adam E; Draper, Taylor L

    2015-10-01

    The research about follow-up patterns of women attending high-risk breast-cancer clinics is sparse. This study sought to profile daughters of breast-cancer patients who are likely to return versus those unlikely to return for follow-up care in a high-risk clinic. Our investigation included 131 patients attending the UCLA Revlon Breast Center High Risk Clinic. Predictor variables included age, computed breast-cancer risk, participants' perceived personal risk, clinically significant depressive symptomatology (CES-D score ≥ 16), current level of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and survival status of participants' mothers (survived or passed away from breast cancer). A greater likelihood of reattendance was associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.07, p = 0.004), computed breast-cancer risk (AOR = 1.10, p = 0.017), absence of depressive symptomatology (AOR = 0.25, p = 0.009), past psychiatric diagnosis (AOR = 3.14, p = 0.029), and maternal loss to breast cancer (AOR = 2.59, p = 0.034). Also, an interaction was found between mother's survival and perceived risk (p = 0.019), such that reattendance was associated with higher perceived risk among participants whose mothers survived (AOR = 1.04, p = 0.002), but not those whose mothers died (AOR = 0.99, p = 0.685). Furthermore, a nonlinear inverted "U" relationship was observed between state anxiety and reattendance (p = 0.037); participants with moderate anxiety were more likely to reattend than those with low or high anxiety levels. Demographic, medical, and psychosocial factors were found to be independently associated with reattendance to a high-risk breast-cancer clinic. Explication of the profiles of women who may or may not reattend may serve to inform the development and implementation of interventions to increase the likelihood of follow-up care.

  10. Risk of Breast Cancer in Relation to Combined Effects of Hormone Therapy, Body Mass Index, and Alcohol Use, by Hormone-receptor Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Tjonneland, Anne; Keiding, Niels;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption, increased body mass index (BMI), and hormone therapy are risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer, but their combined effects are not well understood. Because hormone therapy is effective for the relief of menopausal symptoms, the identification of "high...... therapy users across all BMI strata (P for interaction = 0.003). A markedly higher risk of breast cancer was also observed for alcohol combined with hormone therapy use compared with abstinent nonusers (P for interaction = 0.02). These effects were primarily restricted to ER-positive cases. Combined...... effects of hormone therapy/high BMI and hormone therapy/alcohol on serum estradiol and testosterone supported the hypothesis of a hormonal pathway linking these exposures to breast cancer. CONCLUSION: These analyses suggest an increased risk of breast cancer associated with hormone therapy use-a risk...

  11. Local binary pattern texture-based classification of solid masses in ultrasound breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Monica M. S.; Sehgal, Chandra M.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2012-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality among women. Ultrasound examination can be used to assess breast masses, complementarily to mammography. Ultrasound images reveal tissue information in its echoic patterns. Therefore, pattern recognition techniques can facilitate classification of lesions and thereby reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies. Our hypothesis was that image texture features on the boundary of a lesion and its vicinity can be used to classify masses. We have used intensity-independent and rotation-invariant texture features, known as Local Binary Patterns (LBP). The classifier selected was K-nearest neighbors. Our breast ultrasound image database consisted of 100 patient images (50 benign and 50 malignant cases). The determination of whether the mass was benign or malignant was done through biopsy and pathology assessment. The training set consisted of sixty images, randomly chosen from the database of 100 patients. The testing set consisted of forty images to be classified. The results with a multi-fold cross validation of 100 iterations produced a robust evaluation. The highest performance was observed for feature LBP with 24 symmetrically distributed neighbors over a circle of radius 3 (LBP24,3) with an accuracy rate of 81.0%. We also investigated an approach with a score of malignancy assigned to the images in the test set. This approach provided an ROC curve with Az of 0.803. The analysis of texture features over the boundary of solid masses showed promise for malignancy classification in ultrasound breast images.

  12. Comparative evaluation of support vector machine classification for computer aided detection of breast masses in mammography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesniak, J.M.; Hupse, R.; Blanc, R.; Karssemeijer, N.; Sz\\'ekely, G.

    2012-01-01

    False positive (FP) marks represent an obstacle for effective use of computer-aided detection (CADe) of breast masses in mammography. Typically, the problem can be approached either by developing more discriminative features or by employing different classifier designs. In this paper, the usage of s

  13. Radiologists' performance in the detection of benign and malignant masses with 3D automated breast ultrasound (ABUS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jung Min [Department of Radiology and Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@radcom.snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology and Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology and Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Seon [Department of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Hanyang University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul National Universtiy Boramea Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    Objectives: To retrospectively evaluate the detection performance of benign and malignant breast masses using 3D volume data obtained by ABUS and to determine lesion variables which affect detectability. Methods: Between November and December of 2007, bilateral whole breast US images were obtained using ABUS in 67 consecutive women who were scheduled to undergo US-guided needle biopsy due to suspicious breast masses. Twenty-four invasive ductal cancers in 23 breasts, 46 benign breast lesions in 44 breasts and 38 normal breasts were included. Three breast radiologists (experience range, 8-16 years) who did not perform the examinations and were blinded to the histology independently reviewed the ABUS data of the 105 breasts to detect suspicious solid masses with pathology as the standard of reference. Sensitivity and specificity in detecting benign and malignant masses were calculated, and lesion characteristics affecting detectability were analyzed. Results: Sensitivities for benign and malignant mass detections were 65.2% (30/46), 95.8% (23/24) for reader 1 (p = 0.007), 66.7% (31/46), 87.5% (21/24) for reader 2 (p = 0.087), and 56.3% (24/46), 91.7% (22/24), for reader 3 (p = 0.001), respectively. Logistic analysis showed that mass size (odds ratio, 95% CI; 1.12, 1.02-1.24), surrounding tissue changes (odds ratio, 95% CI; 0.11, 0.02-0.47), and shape of the mass (odds ratio, 95% CI; 3.12, 1.02-9.55) were the variables associated with detectability at ABUS. Conclusion: In reader studies using ABUS data, significantly higher sensitivity was noted for malignant breast masses than for benign masses.

  14. Mother and Infant Body Mass Index, Breast Milk Leptin and Their Serum Leptin Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Sardo, Allegra; Rossi, Lorenza; Benetti, Stefania; Savino, Andrea; Silvestro, Leandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates correlations between mother and infant Body Mass Index (BMI), their serum leptin values and breast milk leptin concentration in early infancy. Subjects and Methods: We determined serum leptin values in 58 healthy infants and leptin values in their mothers’ breast milk, using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Infant and maternal anthropometrics were measured. Results: Median leptin concentration was 3.9 ng/mL (interquartile range (IQR): 2.75) in infant serum, 4.27 ng/mL (IQR: 5.62) in maternal serum and 0.89 ng/mL (IQR: 1.32) in breast milk. Median maternal BMI and weight were 24 kg/m2 (IQR: 4.41) and 64 kg (IQR: 15). Median infant BMI was 15.80 kg/cm2 (IQR: 4.02), while average weight was 5.130 kg (IQR: 1.627). Infants serum leptin values positively correlated with infants’ BMI (p = 0.001; r = 0.213) and breast milk leptin (p = 0.03; r = 0.285). Maternal serum leptin values positively correlated with maternal BMI (p = 0.000, r = 0.449) and breast milk leptin ones (p = 0.026; r = 0.322). Conclusion: Breast milk leptin and maternal BMI could influence infant serum leptin values. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the role of genetics and environment on infant leptin production and risk of obesity later in life. PMID:27338468

  15. Mother and Infant Body Mass Index, Breast Milk Leptin and Their Serum Leptin Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Savino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study investigates correlations between mother and infant Body Mass Index (BMI, their serum leptin values and breast milk leptin concentration in early infancy. Subjects and Methods: We determined serum leptin values in 58 healthy infants and leptin values in their mothers’ breast milk, using radioimmunoassay (RIA. Infant and maternal anthropometrics were measured. Results: Median leptin concentration was 3.9 ng/mL (interquartile range (IQR: 2.75 in infant serum, 4.27 ng/mL (IQR: 5.62 in maternal serum and 0.89 ng/mL (IQR: 1.32 in breast milk. Median maternal BMI and weight were 24 kg/m2 (IQR: 4.41 and 64 kg (IQR: 15. Median infant BMI was 15.80 kg/cm2 (IQR: 4.02, while average weight was 5.130 kg (IQR: 1.627. Infants serum leptin values positively correlated with infants’ BMI (p = 0.001; r = 0.213 and breast milk leptin (p = 0.03; r = 0.285. Maternal serum leptin values positively correlated with maternal BMI (p = 0.000, r = 0.449 and breast milk leptin ones (p = 0.026; r = 0.322. Conclusion: Breast milk leptin and maternal BMI could influence infant serum leptin values. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the role of genetics and environment on infant leptin production and risk of obesity later in life.

  16. Mass Spectrometry-Based Quantitative Metabolomics Revealed a Distinct Lipid Profile in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Yen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer accounts for the largest number of newly diagnosed cases in female cancer patients. Although mammography is a powerful screening tool, about 20% of breast cancer cases cannot be detected by this method. New diagnostic biomarkers for breast cancer are necessary. Here, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantitative metabolomics method to analyze plasma samples from 55 breast cancer patients and 25 healthy controls. A number of 30 patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls were used as a training dataset to establish a diagnostic model and to identify potential biomarkers. The remaining samples were used as a validation dataset to evaluate the predictive accuracy for the established model. Distinct separation was obtained from an orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA model with good prediction accuracy. Based on this analysis, 39 differentiating metabolites were identified, including significantly lower levels of lysophosphatidylcholines and higher levels of sphingomyelins in the plasma samples obtained from breast cancer patients compared with healthy controls. Using logical regression, a diagnostic equation based on three metabolites (lysoPC a C16:0, PC ae C42:5 and PC aa C34:2 successfully differentiated breast cancer patients from healthy controls, with a sensitivity of 98.1% and a specificity of 96.0%.

  17. High lib mRNA expression in breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Kazuki; Hata, Mitsumi; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2004-06-30

    Lib, first identified as a novel beta-amyloid responsive gene in rat astrocytes, has an extracellular domain of 15 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) followed by a transmembrane domain and a short cytoplasmic region. It is a distinctly inducible gene and is thought to play a key role in inflammatory states via the LRR extracellular motif, an ideal structural framework for protein-protein and protein-matrix interactions. To evaluate potential roles of Lib, we screened various tumors for Lib expression. Lib mRNA expression was high and uniquely expressed in breast tumor tissues, compared to paired normal breast tissues. Lib mRNA was localized in the ductal carcinoma cells and Lib protein displayed a homophilic association on the surface of cultured cells. These data suggest that Lib may play a role in the progression of breast carcinomas and may be a diagnostic marker for breast tumors.

  18. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk: Mendelian Randomization Analyses of Data from 145,000 Women of European Descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Milne, Roger L; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Dunning, Allison; Bojesen, Stig E; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Beckmann, Matthias W; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Benitez, Javier; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Casey, Graham; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Czene, Kamila; Devilee, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Dumont, Martine; Fasching, Peter A; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Fostira, Florentia; Gammon, Marilie; Giles, Graham G; Guénel, Pascal; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamann, Ute; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Jakubowska, Anna; Jasmine, Farzana; Jenkins, Mark; John, Esther M; Johnson, Nichola; Jones, Michael E; Kabisch, Maria; Kibriya, Muhammad; Knight, Julia A; Koppert, Linetta B; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, Eunjung; Li, Jingmei; Lindblom, Annika; Luben, Robert; Lubinski, Jan; Malone, Kathi E; Mannermaa, Arto; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; McLean, Catriona; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Meindl, Alfons; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Olson, Janet E; Perez, Jose I A; Perkins, Barbara; Peterlongo, Paolo; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Pylkäs, Katri; Rudolph, Anja; Santella, Regina; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schmutzler, Rita K; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Shrubsole, Martha J; Southey, Melissa C; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Toland, Amanda E; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Ursin, Giske; Van Der Luijt, Rob B; Verhoef, Senno; Whittemore, Alice S; Winqvist, Robert; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Shilin; Hall, Per; Simard, Jacques; Kraft, Peter; Pharoah, Paul; Hunter, David; Easton, Douglas F; Zheng, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or environmental factors. We applied Mendelian randomization to evaluate the association between BMI and risk of breast cancer occurrence using data from two large breast cancer consortia. We created a weighted BMI genetic score comprising 84 BMI-associated genetic variants to predicted BMI. We evaluated genetically predicted BMI in association with breast cancer risk using individual-level data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) (cases  =  46,325, controls  =  42,482). We further evaluated the association between genetically predicted BMI and breast cancer risk using summary statistics from 16,003 cases and 41,335 controls from the Discovery, Biology, and Risk of Inherited Variants in Breast Cancer (DRIVE) Project. Because most studies measured BMI after cancer diagnosis, we could not conduct a parallel analysis to adequately evaluate the association of measured BMI with breast cancer risk prospectively. In the BCAC data, genetically predicted BMI was found to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR]  =  0.65 per 5 kg/m2 increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56-0.75, p = 3.32 × 10-10). The associations were similar for both premenopausal (OR   =   0.44, 95% CI:0.31-0.62, p  =  9.91 × 10-8) and postmenopausal breast cancer (OR  =  0.57, 95% CI: 0.46-0.71, p  =  1.88 × 10-8). This association was replicated in the data from the DRIVE consortium (OR  =  0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.84, p   =   1.64 × 10-7). Single marker analyses identified 17 of the 84 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in association with breast cancer risk at p BMI was associated with reduced breast

  19. Comparison of computerized mass detection in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) mammograms and conventional mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Heang-Ping; Wei, Jun; Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Helvie, Mark A.

    2009-02-01

    We are developing a CAD system for mass detection on digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) mammograms. In this study, we compared the detection accuracy on DBT and conventional screen-film mammograms (SFMs). DBT mammograms were acquired with a GE prototype system at the University of Michigan. 47 cases containing the CC- and MLO-view DBT mammograms of the breast with a biopsy-proven mass and the corresponding two-view SFMs of the same breast were collected. Subjective judgment showed that the masses were much more conspicuous on DBT slices than on SFMs. The CAD system for DBT includes two parallel processes, one performs mass detection in the reconstructed DBT volume, and the other in the projection view (PV) images. The mass likelihood scores estimated for each mass candidate in the two processes are merged to differentiate masses and false positives (FPs). For detection on SFMs, we previously developed a dual system approach by fusing two single CAD systems optimized for detection of average and subtle masses, respectively. A trained neural network is used to merge the mass likelihood scores of the two single systems to reduce FPs. At the case-based sensitivities of 80% and 85%, mass detection in the DBT volume resulted in an average of 0.72 and 1.06 FPs/view, and detection in the SFMs yielded 0.94 and 1.67 FPs/view, respectively. The difference fell short of statistical significance (p=0.07) by JAFROC analysis. Study is underway to collect a larger data set and to further improve the DBT CAD system.

  20. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk: Mendelian Randomization Analyses of Data from 145,000 Women of European Descent

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yansong; Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Milne, Roger L; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Dunning, Allison; Bojesen, Stig E; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L

    2016-01-01

    Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or environmental factors.

  1. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk : Mendelian Randomization Analyses of Data from 145,000 Women of European Descent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Yan; Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Milne, Roger L; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Dunning, Allison; Bojesen, Stig E; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Beckmann, Matthias W; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Benitez, Javier; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Casey, Graham; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Czene, Kamila; Devilee, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Dumont, Martine; Fasching, Peter A; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Fostira, Florentia; Gammon, Marilie; Giles, Graham G; Guénel, Pascal; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamann, Ute; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Jakubowska, Anna; Jasmine, Farzana; Jenkins, Mark; John, Esther M; Johnson, Nichola; Jones, Michael E; Kabisch, Maria; Kibriya, Muhammad; Knight, Julia A; Koppert, Linetta B; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, Eunjung; Li, Jingmei; Lindblom, Annika; Luben, Robert; Lubinski, Jan; Malone, Kathi E; Mannermaa, Arto; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; McLean, Catriona; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Meindl, Alfons; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Olson, Janet E; Perez, Jose I A; Perkins, Barbara; Peterlongo, Paolo; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Pylkäs, Katri; Rudolph, Anja; Santella, Regina; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schmutzler, Rita K; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Shrubsole, Martha J; Southey, Melissa C; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Toland, Amanda E; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Ursin, Giske; Van Der Luijt, Rob B; Verhoef, Senno; Whittemore, Alice S; Winqvist, Robert; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Shilin; Hall, Per; Simard, Jacques; Kraft, Peter; Pharoah, Paul; Hunter, David; Easton, Douglas F; Zheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or environme

  2. Quantification of αS1-casein in breast milk using a targeted mass spectrometry-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altendorfer, Irina; König, Simone; Braukmann, Achim; Saenger, Thorsten; Bleck, Ellen; Vordenbäumen, Stefan; Kubiak, Anna; Schneider, Matthias; Jose, Joachim

    2015-01-25

    The caseins comprise a milk protein fraction of high nutritional value and, as more recently discovered, of immunologic relevance. In particular, αS1-casein (CSN1S1) is of interest being a potential autoantigen. So far, the concentration of caseins in human milk was primarily determined by indirect methods. The aim of this study was to directly measure the CSN1S1 content in breast milk using mass spectrometry (MS). The quantification was based on tryptic CSN1S1 peptides with the best response in liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS analysis. Targeted experiments allowed both specific and sensitive detection at the low fmol level. For this pilot study, twenty breast milk samples of the first week post-partum were analyzed and contained between 3 and 540μg/ml CSN1S1. Limitations of CSN1S1 quantification are discussed.

  3. Clinical application of S-Detect to breast masses on ultrasonography: A study evaluating the diagnostic performance and agreement with a dedicated breast radiologist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Wook; Kim, Eun Kyung; Yoon, Jung Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Mi Kyung [Dept. of Research Affairs, Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of S-Detect when applied to breast ultrasonography (US), and the agreement with an experienced radiologist specializing in breast imaging. From June to August 2015, 192 breast masses in 175 women were included. US features of the breast masses were retrospectively analyzed by a radiologist who specializes in breast imaging and S-Detect, according to the fourth edition of the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon and final assessment categories. Final assessments from S-Detect were in dichotomized form: possibly benign and possibly malignant. Kappa statistics were used to analyze the agreement between the radiologist and S-Detect. Diagnostic performance of the radiologist and S-Detect was calculated, including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value, accuracy, and area under the receiving operator characteristics curve. Of the 192 breast masses, 72 (37.5%) were malignant, and 120 (62.5%) were benign. Benign masses among category 4a had higher rates of possibly benign assessment on S-Detect for the radiologist, 63.5% to 36.5%, respectively (P=0.797). When the cutoff was set at category 4a, the specificity, PPV, and accuracy was significantly higher in S-Detect compared to the radiologist (all P<0.05), with a higher area under the receiver operator characteristics curve of 0.725 compared to 0.653 (P=0.038). Moderate agreement (k=0.58) was seen in the final assessment between the radiologist and S-Detect. S-Detect may be used as an additional diagnostic tool to improve the specificity of breast US in clinical practice, and guide in decision making for breast masses detected on US.

  4. High Mass Accuracy and High Mass Resolving Power FT-ICR Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry for Biological Tissue Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Donald F.; Kiss, Andras; Leach, Franklin E.; Robinson, Errol W.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2013-07-01

    Biological tissue imaging by secondary ion mass spectrometry has seen rapid development with the commercial availability of polyatomic primary ion sources. Endogenous lipids and other small bio-molecules can now be routinely mapped on the micrometer scale. Such experiments are typically performed on time-of-flight mass spectrometers for high sensitivity and high repetition rate imaging. However, such mass analyzers lack the mass resolving power to ensure separation of isobaric ions and the mass accuracy for exact mass elemental formula assignment. We have recently reported a secondary ion mass spectrometer with the combination of a C60 primary ion gun with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) for high mass resolving power, high mass measurement accuracy and tandem mass spectrometry capabilities. In this work, high specificity and high sensitivity secondary ion FT-ICR MS was applied to chemical imaging of biological tissue. An entire rat brain tissue was measured with 150 μm spatial resolution (75 μm primary ion spot size) with mass resolving power (m/Δm50%) of 67,500 (at m/z 750) and root-mean-square measurement accuracy less than two parts-per-million for intact phospholipids, small molecules and fragments. For the first time, ultra-high mass resolving power SIMS has been demonstrated, with m/Δm50% > 3,000,000. Higher spatial resolution capabilities of the platform were tested at a spatial resolution of 20 μm. The results represent order of magnitude improvements in mass resolving power and mass measurement accuracy for SIMS imaging and the promise of the platform for ultra-high mass resolving power and high spatial resolution imaging.

  5. Latent feature representation with depth directional long-term recurrent learning for breast masses in digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hoe; Kim, Seong Tae; Chang, Jung Min; Ro, Yong Man

    2017-02-01

    Characterization of masses in computer-aided detection systems for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an important step to reduce false positive (FP) rates. To effectively differentiate masses from FPs in DBT, discriminative mass feature representation is required. In this paper, we propose a new latent feature representation boosted by depth directional long-term recurrent learning for characterizing malignant masses. The proposed network is designed to encode mass characteristics in two parts. First, 2D spatial image characteristics of DBT slices are encoded as a slice feature representation by convolutional neural network (CNN). Then, depth directional characteristics of masses among the slice feature representations are encoded by the proposed depth directional long-term recurrent learning. In addition, to further improve the class discriminability of latent feature representation, we have devised three objective functions aiming to (a) minimize classification error, (b) minimize intra-class variation within the same class, and (c) preserve feature representation consistency in a central slice. Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed latent feature representation achieves a higher level of classification performance in terms of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the ROC curve values compared to performance with feature representation learned by conventional CNN and hand-crafted features.

  6. Latent feature representation with depth directional long-term recurrent learning for breast masses in digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hoe; Kim, Seong Tae; Chang, Jung Min; Ro, Yong Man

    2017-02-07

    Characterization of masses in computer-aided detection systems for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an important step to reduce false positive (FP) rates. To effectively differentiate masses from FPs in DBT, discriminative mass feature representation is required. In this paper, we propose a new latent feature representation boosted by depth directional long-term recurrent learning for characterizing malignant masses. The proposed network is designed to encode mass characteristics in two parts. First, 2D spatial image characteristics of DBT slices are encoded as a slice feature representation by convolutional neural network (CNN). Then, depth directional characteristics of masses among the slice feature representations are encoded by the proposed depth directional long-term recurrent learning. In addition, to further improve the class discriminability of latent feature representation, we have devised three objective functions aiming to (a) minimize classification error, (b) minimize intra-class variation within the same class, and (c) preserve feature representation consistency in a central slice. Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed latent feature representation achieves a higher level of classification performance in terms of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the ROC curve values compared to performance with feature representation learned by conventional CNN and hand-crafted features.

  7. Association between body mass index and risk of breast cancer among females of north India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahavir; Jangra, Babita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, breast cancer is most common cancer among women. In India and other developing countries, breast carcinoma ranks second only to cervical carcinoma among women. Although studies have been done globally, to find association between BMI and breast cancer, very few studies in India document any such association. Purpose: To find out the association between BMI and breast cancer. Materials and Methods: A Case-control study was done from August 2009 - July 2010 in the wards of General Surgery and Oncosurgery at Pt.B.D.Sharma, PGIMS Rohtak, Haryana. A total of 128 histopathologically confirmed new cases of breast cancer during the study period were taken as cases. Equal number of controls was selected by simple random sampling. Controls were matched for age with range of ±2 years. Subjects were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire after obtaining written informed consent. Data were analyzed by applying appropriate statistical tests using SPSS version 17. Results: Age group of the cases was 25 - 78 years, while that of the controls was 24 - 79 years. Proportion of cases and controls living in rural areas were more than those living in urban areas. A significant association of breast cancer cases was found with high BMI and high fat intake Conclusion: Obesity and high fat intake are the significant risk factors, which are modifiable. So women should be encouraged to take care of all these factors. Maximum cases presented in late stages so public awareness of this fatal disease must be developed. PMID:24455581

  8. Association between body mass index and risk of breast cancer among females of north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahavir Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide, breast cancer is most common cancer among women. In India and other developing countries, breast carcinoma ranks second only to cervical carcinoma among women. Although studies have been done globally, to find association between BMI and breast cancer, very few studies in India document any such association. Purpose: To find out the association between BMI and breast cancer. Materials and Methods: A Case-control study was done from August 2009 - July 2010 in the wards of General Surgery and Oncosurgery at Pt.B.D.Sharma, PGIMS Rohtak, Haryana. A total of 128 histopathologically confirmed new cases of breast cancer during the study period were taken as cases. Equal number of controls was selected by simple random sampling. Controls were matched for age with range of ±2 years. Subjects were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire after obtaining written informed consent. Data were analyzed by applying appropriate statistical tests using SPSS version 17. Results: Age group of the cases was 25 - 78 years, while that of the controls was 24 - 79 years. Proportion of cases and controls living in rural areas were more than those living in urban areas. A significant association of breast cancer cases was found with high BMI and high fat intake Conclusion: Obesity and high fat intake are the significant risk factors, which are modifiable. So women should be encouraged to take care of all these factors. Maximum cases presented in late stages so public awareness of this fatal disease must be developed.

  9. Interobserver and Intraobserver Agreement of Sonographic BIRADS Lexicon in the Assessment of Breast Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elverici, Eda; Zengin, Betul; Nurdan Barca, Ayse; Didem Yilmaz, Pinar; Alimli, Aysegul; Araz, Levent

    2013-09-01

    BI-RADS was first developed in 1993 for mammography and in 2003 it was redesigned for ultrasonography (US). If the observer agreement is high, the method used in the classification of lesion would be reproducible. The aim of this study is to evaluate the inter- and intraobserver agreement of sonographic BI-RADS lexicon in the categorization and feature characterization of nonpalpable breast lesions. We included 223 patients with 245 nonpalpable breast lesions who underwent ultrasound-guided wire needle localization. Two radiologists retrospectively described each lesion using sonographic BI-RADS descriptors and final assessment. The observers were blinded to mammographic images, medical history and pathologic results. Inter- and intraobserver agreement was assessed using Kappa (κ) agreement coefficient. The interobserver agreement for sonographic descriptors changed between fair and substantial. The highest agreement was detected for mass orientation (κ=0.66). The lowest agreement was found in the margin (κ=0.33). The interobserver agreement for BI-RADS final category was found as fair (κ=0.35). The intraobserver agreement for sonographic descriptors changed between substantial and almost perfect. The intraobserver agreement of BI-RADS result category was found as substantial for observer 1 (κ=0.64) and excellent for observer 2 (κ=0.83). Our results demonstrated that each observer was self-consistent in interpreting US BI-RADS classification, while interobserver agreement was relatively poor. Although it has been ten years since the description of sonographic BI-RADS lexicon, further training and periodic performance evaluations would probably help to achieve better agreement among radiologists.

  10. High-resolution imaging without iteration: a fast and robust method for breast ultrasound tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huthwaite, P; Simonetti, F

    2011-09-01

    Breast ultrasound tomography has the potential to improve the cost, safety, and reliability of breast cancer screening and diagnosis over the gold-standard of mammography. Vital to achieving this potential is the development of imaging algorithms to unravel the complex anatomy of the breast and its mechanical properties. The solution most commonly relied upon is time-of-flight tomography, but this exhibits low resolution due to the presence of diffraction effects. Iterative full-wave inversion methods present one solution to achieve higher resolution, but these are slow and are not guaranteed to converge to the correct solution. Presented here is HARBUT, the hybrid algorithm for robust breast ultrasound tomography, which utilizes the complementary strengths of time-of-flight and diffraction tomography resulting in a direct, fast, robust and accurate high resolution method of reconstructing the sound speed through the breast. The algorithm is shown to produce accurate reconstructions with realistic data from a complex three-dimensional simulation, with masses as small as 4 mm being clearly visible.

  11. High-resolution breast tomography at high energy: a feasibility study of phase contrast imaging on a whole breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztrókay, A.; Diemoz, P. C.; Schlossbauer, T.; Brun, E.; Bamberg, F.; Mayr, D.; Reiser, M. F.; Bravin, A.; Coan, P.

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies on phase contrast imaging (PCI) mammography have demonstrated an enhancement of breast morphology and cancerous tissue visualization compared to conventional imaging. We show here the first results of the PCI analyser-based imaging (ABI) in computed tomography (CT) mode on whole and large (>12 cm) tumour-bearing breast tissues. We demonstrate in this work the capability of the technique of working at high x-ray energies and producing high-contrast images of large and complex specimens. One entire breast of an 80-year-old woman with invasive ductal cancer was imaged using ABI-CT with monochromatic 70 keV x-rays and an area detector of 92×92 µm2 pixel size. Sagittal slices were reconstructed from the acquired data, and compared to corresponding histological sections. Comparison with conventional absorption-based CT was also performed. Five blinded radiologists quantitatively evaluated the visual aspects of the ABI-CT images with respect to sharpness, soft tissue contrast, tissue boundaries and the discrimination of different structures/tissues. ABI-CT excellently depicted the entire 3D architecture of the breast volume by providing high-resolution and high-contrast images of the normal and cancerous breast tissues. These results are an important step in the evolution of PCI-CT towards its clinical implementation.

  12. Evaluation of different aspects of power Doppler sonography in differentiating and prognostication of breast masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Sirous

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We conducted our study on 1110 patients with breast masses in order to investigate different aspects of power Doppler sonography (PDS for differentiating between benign and malignant breast lesions and their prognostication. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on the women who were referred to the sonography units of University Hospitals for breast sonography and had a BIRADS-3 mass or higher in gray scale sonography. Then, PDS was performed for all the patients. Vascularization, number of vessels, resistance index (RI, pulsatility index (PI, and vascularization patterns were evaluated for all the lesions. We compared our radiologic findings concerning different histopathologic and hormonal aspects of the lesions. Results: The differences between mean vascular density in malignant lesions concerning size of the tumor, histological grade, stage, and hormone receptor status were statistically significant. Although, there was an overlap between benign and malignant values. A resistive index (RI value higher than 0.83 as a sign for malignancy had sensitivity equal to 75% and specificity equal to 97% (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively. A PI value higher than 1.6 has a sensitivity and specificity value of 70% and 98%, respectively, as a malignancy sign (P = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively. Conclusion: It seems that while malignant tumors have significantly higher number of vessels in comparison to benign one, since the number of vessels overlap between benign and malignant tumors, this aspect has little clinical usefulness in distinguishing or prognostication of breast masses. In contrast RI, PI, and vascularization pattern have an ability to differentiate and predict the prognosis of breast lesions.

  13. Diagnostic performance and color overlay pattern in shear wave elastography (SWE) for palpable breast mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiyoon; Woo, Ok Hee; Shin, Hye Seon; Cho, Kyu Ran; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Kang, Eun Young

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of SWE in palpable breast mass and to compare with color overlay pattern in SWE with conventional US and quantitative SWE for assessing palpable breast mass. SWE and conventional breast US were performed in 133 women with 156 palpable breast lesions (81 benign, 75 malignant) between August 2013 to June 2014. Either pathology or periodic imaging surveillance more than 2 years was a reference standard. Existence of previous image was blinded to performing radiologists. US BI-RADS final assessment, qualitative and quantitative SWE measurements were evaluated. Diagnostic performances of grayscale US, SWE and US combined to SWE were calculated and compared. Correlation between pattern classification and quantitative SWE was evaluated. Both color overlay pattern and quantitative SWE improved the specificity of conventional US, from 81.48% to 96.30% (p=0.0005), without improvement in sensitivity. Color overlay pattern was significantly related to all quantitative SWE parameters and malignancy rate (poverlay pattern was between 2 and 3. Emax with optimal cutoff at 45.1 kPa showed the highest Az value, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy among other quantitative SWE parameters (poverlay pattern and pathology (poverlay pattern classification is more quick and easy and may represent quantitative SWE measurements with similar diagnostic performances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High and low mammographic density human breast tissues maintain histological differential in murine tissue engineering chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, G L; Huang, D; Lin, S J; Huo, C; Blick, T; Henderson, M A; Hill, P; Cawson, J; Morrison, W A; Campbell, I G; Hopper, J L; Southey, M C; Haviv, I; Thompson, E W

    2012-08-01

    Mammographic density (MD) is the area of breast tissue that appears radiologically white on mammography. Although high MD is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, independent of BRCA1/2 mutation status, the molecular basis of high MD and its associated breast cancer risk is poorly understood. MD studies will benefit from an animal model, where hormonal, gene and drug perturbations on MD can be measured in a preclinical context. High and low MD tissues were selectively sampled by stereotactic biopsy from operative specimens of high-risk women undergoing prophylactic mastectomy. The high and low MD tissues were transferred into separate vascularised biochambers in the groins of SCID mice. Chamber material was harvested after 6 weeks for histological analyses and immunohistochemistry for cytokeratins, vimentin and a human-specific mitochondrial antigen. Within-individual analysis was performed in replicate mice, eliminating confounding by age, body mass index and process-related factors, and comparisons were made to the parental human tissue. Maintenance of differential MD post-propagation was assessed radiographically. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the preservation of human glandular and stromal components in the murine biochambers, with maintenance of radiographic MD differential. Propagated high MD regions had higher stromal (p = 0.0002) and lower adipose (p = 0.0006) composition, reflecting the findings in the original human breast tissue, although glands appeared small and non-complex in both high and low MD groups. No significant differences were observed in glandular area (p = 0.4) or count (p = 0.4) between high and low MD biochamber tissues. Human mammary glandular and stromal tissues were viably maintained in murine biochambers, with preservation of differential radiographic density and histological features. Our study provides a murine model for future studies into the biomolecular basis of MD as a risk factor for breast cancer.

  15. Optimized generation of high resolution breast anthropomorphic software phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrajac, David D.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Bakic, Predrag R. [Computer and Information Sciences Department, Delaware State University, Dover, Delaware 19901 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: The authors present an efficient method for generating anthropomorphic software breast phantoms with high spatial resolution. Employing the same region growing principles as in their previous algorithm for breast anatomy simulation, the present method has been optimized for computational complexity to allow for fast generation of the large number of phantoms required in virtual clinical trials of breast imaging. Methods: The new breast anatomy simulation method performs a direct calculation of the Cooper's ligaments (i.e., the borders between simulated adipose compartments). The calculation corresponds to quadratic decision boundaries of a maximum a posteriori classifier. The method is multiscale due to the use of octree-based recursive partitioning of the phantom volume. The method also provides user-control of the thickness of the simulated Cooper's ligaments and skin. Results: Using the proposed method, the authors have generated phantoms with voxel size in the range of (25-1000 {mu}m){sup 3}/voxel. The power regression of the simulation time as a function of the reciprocal voxel size yielded a log-log slope of 1.95 (compared to a slope of 4.53 of our previous region growing algorithm). Conclusions: A new algorithm for computer simulation of breast anatomy has been proposed that allows for fast generation of high resolution anthropomorphic software phantoms.

  16. Photon-initiated processes at high mass

    CERN Document Server

    Harland-Lang, L A; Ryskin, M G

    2016-01-01

    We consider the influence of photon-initiated processes on high-mass particle production. We discuss in detail the photon PDF at relatively high parton $x$, relevant to such processes, and evaluate its uncertainties. In particular we show that, as the dominant contribution to the input photon distribution is due to coherent photon emission, at phenomenologically relevant scales the photon PDF is already well determined in this region, with the corresponding uncertainties under good control. We then demonstrate the implications of this result for the example processes of high-mass lepton and $W$ boson pair production at the LHC and FCC. While for the former process the photon-initiated contribution is expected to be small, in the latter case we find that it is potentially significant, in particular at larger masses.

  17. Highly multiparametric analysis by mass cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry; Baranov, Vladimir; Nitz, Mark; Winnik, Mitchell A; Tanner, Scott

    2010-09-30

    This review paper describes a new technology, mass cytometry, that addresses applications typically run by flow cytometer analyzers, but extends the capability to highly multiparametric analysis. The detection technology is based on atomic mass spectrometry. It offers quantitation, specificity and dynamic range of mass spectrometry in a format that is familiar to flow cytometry practitioners. The mass cytometer does not require compensation, allowing the application of statistical techniques; this has been impossible given the constraints of fluorescence noise with traditional cytometry instruments. Instead of "colors" the mass cytometer "reads" the stable isotope tags attached to antibodies using metal-chelating labeling reagents. Because there are many available stable isotopes, and the mass spectrometer provides exquisite resolution between detection channels, many parameters can be measured as easily as one. For example, in a single tube the technique allows for the ready detection and characterization of the major cell subsets in blood or bone marrow. Here we describe mass cytometric immunophenotyping of human leukemia cell lines and leukemia patient samples, differential cell analysis of normal peripheral and umbilical cord blood; intracellular protein identification and metal-encoded bead arrays.

  18. Extracorporeal High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment for Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuiZhu; FengWu; WenzhiChen; YoudeCao; JinBai; ZhibiaoWang

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical safety and efficacy of using highintensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy, for breast cancer, and to select the appropriate methods in evaluating the therapeutic effects.METHODS A total of 24 patients with breast cancer underwent HIFU treatment 1-2 weeks before receiving modified radical mastectomy. During and after HIFU therapy, changes in blood pressure, breath, pulse and peripheral blood oxygen saturation were monitored. At the same time, the damage of the skin and tissue produced by HIFU at the target region was evaluated as well. Surgically excised samples were used for pathological examinations to evaluate the HIFU-induced destruction of the targeted tissue. Three patients received Tc-ECT and 1 MRI examinations before and after HIFU.RESULTS HIFU treatment had no apparent influence on either the tissue nearby the target or on vital signs of the patients. Pathological, tc-ECT and MRI examinations demonstrated that targeted tissue showed complete coagulative necrosis.CONCLUSION Under the guidance of real-time ultrasonic imaging, HIFU can effectively and safely destroy the breast cancer mass and 99MTc-ECT and MRI examination can be utilized to evaluate the therapeutic effects.HIFU may become one of the options for breast cancer therapy in the future.

  19. Segmentation techniques evaluation based on a single compact breast mass classification scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheus, Bruno R. N.; Marcomini, Karem D.; Schiabel, Homero

    2016-03-01

    In this work some segmentation techniques are evaluated by using a simple centroid-based classification system regarding breast mass delineation in digital mammography images. The aim is to determine the best one for future CADx developments. Six techniques were tested: Otsu, SOM, EICAMM, Fuzzy C-Means, K-Means and Level-Set. All of them were applied to segment 317 mammography images from DDSM database. A single compact set of attributes was extracted and two centroids were defined, one for malignant and another for benign cases. The final classification was based on proximity with a given centroid and the best results were presented by the Level-Set technique with a 68.1% of Accuracy, which indicates this method as the most promising for breast masses segmentation aiming a more precise interpretation in schemes CADx.

  20. Temporal Subtraction of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Images for Improved Mass Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    number of low-dose cone-beam projection images", Medical Physics 30 (3), 365 (2003). 9 E.A. Sickles, W.N. Weber, H.B. Galvin, S.H. Ominsky, and R.A...temporal pairs of mammograms for interval change analysis--local affine transformation for improved localization", Medical Physics 28 (6), 1070 (2001...aided classification of malignant and benign breast masses", Medical Physics 28 (11), 2309 (2001). 25 K. Marias, C. Behrenbruch, S. Parbhoo, A

  1. Epidermal cyst of the breast simulating a benign solid mass: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sun Yang; Shim, Jeong Yeon [Pochon CHA University College of Medicine, Pochon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Ki Keun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-15

    Epidermal cysts are benign epithelial cysts occurring within the skin. Epidermal cysts are not uncommonly found in the skin of the breast, but rare in the nipple and subareolar area. There have been only a few radiologic reports. We report a case of a 40 year old woman with an incidentally discovered epidermal cyst, located in the subareolar area, and this lesion was radiologically resembled a benign solid mass.

  2. High serum uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Cai-Feng; Feng, Pin-Ning; Yao, Zhen-Rong; Yu, Xue-Gao; Lin, Wen-Bin; Qian, Yuan-Min; Guo, Yun-Miao; Li, Lai-Sheng; Liu, Min

    2017-08-26

    Uric acid is a product of purine metabolism. Recently, uric acid has gained much attraction in cancer. In this study, we aim to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of serum uric acid concentration in breast cancer patients. A total of 443 female patients with histopathologically diagnosed breast cancer were included. After a mean follow-up time of 56months, survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method. To further evaluate the prognostic significance of uric acid concentrations, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were applied. Of the clinicopathological parameters, uric acid concentration was associated with age, body mass index, ER status and PR status. Univariate analysis identified that patients with increased uric acid concentration had a significantly inferior overall survival (HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.15-3.94, p=0.016). In multivariate analysis, we found that high uric acid concentration is an independent prognostic factor predicting death, but insufficient to predict local relapse or distant metastasis. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that high uric acid concentration is related to the poor overall survival (p=0.013). High uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer, and might serve as a potential marker for appropriate management of breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of small breast masses using a compartment model analysis on dynamic MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Osamu; Morishita, Shoji; Kido, Taeko; Kitajima, Mika; Okamura, Kenji; Fukuda, Seiji [Kumamoto Rosai Hospital, Yatsushiro (Japan); Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Mutsumasa

    1998-07-01

    To differentiate between malignant and benign breast masses using a compartmental analysis, 55 patients with breast masses (fibroadenoma, n=22; invasive ductal carcinoma, n=29; noninvasive ductal carcinoma, n=8) underwent Gd-DTPA enhanced dynamic MR imaging. Dynamic MR images obtained using two-dimensional fat-saturated fast multiplanar corrupted gradient echo technique over 10 minutes following bolus injection of Gd-DTPA. The triexponential concentration curve of Gd-DTPA was fitted to a theoretical model based on compartmental analysis. Using this method, the transfer constant (or permeability surface product per unit volume of component k) and f{sub 3}/f{sub 1}=f were measured, where f{sub 1} represents tumor vessel volume and f{sub 3} represents extracellular volume. The k value was significantly greater (p<0.01) for malignant tumors, and the k value seen in cases of noninvasive ductal carcinoma was less than that for invasive ductal carcinoma. The f value was significantly smaller (p<0.01) for malignant tumors, whereas the f value for noninvasive ductal carcinoma was not significantly different from that for invasive ductal carcinoma. We believe that this type of compartmental analysis may be of value for the evaluation of breast masses. (author)

  4. Breast cancer outcomes in a population with high prevalence of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlevic, Vincent C; Mowad, Ronald; Miller, J Karen; Darensburg, Nicholas A; Li, Benjamin D L; Kim, Roger H

    2015-10-01

    Obesity has been associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. However, most previous studies examined populations with relatively low proportions of obese patients. Given that forecasts predict obesity rates to exceed 50% by 2030, it is important to examine breast cancer outcomes in populations with higher rates of obesity. We hypothesized that obesity, as measured by body mass index (BMI), is associated with decreased overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with invasive breast cancer in a population with a high prevalence of obesity. A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was conducted on patients treated for invasive breast cancer at an academic medical center between 1997 and 2013. BMI was calculated from each patient's height and weight at the time of diagnosis. Patients were categorized as normal (BMI obese (BMI >30 kg/m(2)), as per the definitions established by the World Health Organization. The end points of overall survival and disease-free survival were analyzed. A total of 523 patients with invasive breast cancer were included for analysis. Based on BMI, 87 (16%) were categorized as normal, 150 (29%) were overweight, and 286 (55%) were obese. The median follow-up was 49 mo. There were 16 deaths (18.4%) in normal patients, 25 (16.7 %) in overweight patients, and 45 (15.7%) in obese patients (P = 0.84). By Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, there were no differences in overall survival (P = 0.49) or in disease-free survival (P = 0.33) among the three groups. Obesity is not associated with decreased overall or disease-free survival in a patient population with a high prevalence of obesity. These findings suggest that there may be other factors that contribute to the poor prognosis of obese breast cancer patients observed in populations with lower rates of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A sensitive and efficient method for determination of N-acetylhexosamines and N-acetylneuraminic acid in breast milk and milk-based products by high-performance liquid chromatography via UV detection and mass spectrometry identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuanxiang, Wu; Lian, Xia; Lijie, Liu; Fengli, Qu; Zhiwei, Sun; Xianen, Zhao; Jinmao, You

    2016-02-01

    A sensitive and efficient method of high performance liquid chromatography using 1-(2-naphthyl)-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (NMP) as pre-column derivatization reagent coupled with UV detection (HPLC-UV) and online mass spectrometry identification was established for determination of the most common N-Acetylhexosamines (N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc)) and N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac). In order to obtain the highest liberation level of the three monosaccharides without destruction of Neu5Ac or conversion of GlcNAc/GalNAc to GlcN/GalN in the hydrolysis procedure, the pivotal parameters affecting the liberation of N-acetylhexosamines/Neu5Ac from sample were investigated with response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimized condition, maximum yield was obtained. The effects of key parameters on derivatization, separation and detection were also investigated. At optimized conditions, three monosaccharides were labeled fast and entirely, and all derivatives exhibited a good baseline resolution and high detection sensitivity. The developed method was linear over the calibration range 0.25-12μM, with R(2)>0.9991. The detection limits of the method were between 0.48 and 2.01pmol. Intra- and inter-day precisions for the three monosaccharides (GlcNAc, GalNAc and Neu5Ac) were found to be in the range of 3.07-4.02% and 3.69-4.67%, respectively. Individual monosaccharide recovery from spiked milk was in the range of 81%-97%. The sensitivity of the method, the facility of the derivatization procedure and the reliability of the hydrolysis conditions suggest the proposed method has a high potential for utilization in routine trace N-acetylhexosamines and Neu5Ac analysis in biological samples.

  6. Aluminum nanocantilevers for high sensitivity mass sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Zachary James; Boisen, Anja

    2005-01-01

    We have fabricated Al nanocantilevers using a simple, one mask contact UV lithography technique with lateral and vertical dimensions under 500 and 100 nm, respectively. These devices are demonstrated as highly sensitive mass sensors by measuring their dynamic properties. Furthermore, it is shown ...

  7. MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Breast Cancer with a Dedicated Breast Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merckel, Laura G., E-mail: L.G.Merckel-2@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Bartels, Lambertus W., E-mail: W.Bartels@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute (Netherlands); Koehler, Max O., E-mail: max.kohler@philips.com [Philips Healthcare (Finland); Bongard, H. J. G. Desiree van den, E-mail: D.vandenBongard@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiotherapy (Netherlands); Deckers, Roel, E-mail: R.Deckers-2@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute (Netherlands); Mali, Willem P. Th. M., E-mail: W.Mali@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Binkert, Christoph A., E-mail: Christoph.Binkert@ksw.ch [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology (Switzerland); Moonen, Chrit T., E-mail: C.Moonen@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute (Netherlands); Gilhuijs, Kenneth G. A., E-mail: K.G.A.Gilhuijs@umcutrecht.nl; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den, E-mail: mbosch@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    Optimizing the treatment of breast cancer remains a major topic of interest. In current clinical practice, breast-conserving therapy is the standard of care for patients with localized breast cancer. Technological developments have fueled interest in less invasive breast cancer treatment. Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a completely noninvasive ablation technique. Focused beams of ultrasound are used for ablation of the target lesion without disrupting the skin and subcutaneous tissues in the beam path. MRI is an excellent imaging method for tumor targeting, treatment monitoring, and evaluation of treatment results. The combination of HIFU and MR imaging offers an opportunity for image-guided ablation of breast cancer. Previous studies of MR-HIFU in breast cancer patients reported a limited efficacy, which hampered the clinical translation of this technique. These prior studies were performed without an MR-HIFU system specifically developed for breast cancer treatment. In this article, a novel and dedicated MR-HIFU breast platform is presented. This system has been designed for safe and effective MR-HIFU ablation of breast cancer. Furthermore, both clinical and technical challenges are discussed, which have to be solved before MR-HIFU ablation of breast cancer can be implemented in routine clinical practice.

  8. Association of Different MRI BIRADS Descriptors With Malignancy in Non Mass-Like Breast Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gity, Masoumeh; Ghazi Moghadam, Koosha; Jalali, Amir Hossein; Shakiba, Madjid

    2014-12-01

    Several studies on the diagnostic efficacy of MRI has not real consensus for the accuracy of MRI characteristics in non mass like breast lesions, and the number of malignant lesions in different studies is insufficient. In this study we aimed to analyze the diagnostic role of MRI BIRADS features for diagnosis of malignancy in non mass like breast lesions. All patients with positive findings (BIRADS 3, 4, 5), which had either biopsy proved pathology or follow-up MRI data at least for 12 months were included in the study. Finally, 213 breasts MRI that showed non mass like enhancing lesions among our patients were assessed in study. One experienced breast radiologist who was unaware of any clinical information or the histopathologic diagnosis evaluated all images retrospectively. The morphologic parameters evaluated consisted of distribution modifiers and pattern of internal enhancement. The kinetic enhancement parameters were assessed as showing washout, plateau, or persistent patterns. In the enhancement kinetic analysis, thew most worrisome curve type in each lesion was considered for interpretation, if it was more than 2% enhancement. We have evaluated the visual findings by comparison of the signal intensity on the first and third dynamic series. Data for the study were extracted from the breast MRI database and analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical software. Totally 188 patients had 213 non mass like lesions. Mean age of the patients was 44.9 ± 8.3 years (24-63). Totally 46 of lesions were malignant (21.6%). The most common BIRADS score was 4 (116; 54.5%). The most prevalent feature of distribution, internal enhancement and curve type were focal (59.2%), clumped (27.2%) and washout (34.3%). Distribution of different subgroups of MR BIRADS features was different among benign and malignant lesions (All Pvalues BIRADS (4,5) for diagnosis of malignancy was 100%. Specificity of segmental or ductal linear distribution in diagnosis of malignancy was 81

  9. Body mass index, PAM50 subtype, recurrence, and survival among patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Kwan, Marilyn L; Kushi, Lawrence H; Chen, Wendy Y; Weltzien, Erin K; Castillo, Adrienne L; Sweeney, Carol; Bernard, Philip S; Caan, Bette J

    2017-07-01

    Studies of obesity and survival among patients with breast cancer produce conflicting results, possibly because of heterogeneity by molecular subtype. This study examined whether the association of body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis with breast cancer recurrence and survival varied across subtypes defined by PAM50 (Prediction Analysis of Microarray 50) gene expression. Included were 1559 Kaiser Permanente Northern California members ages 18 to 79 years who had PAM50 assays and were diagnosed with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage I through III breast cancer from 1996 to 2013. Patients reported weight and height. Cox regression models were adjusted for age, menopause, race/ethnicity, stage, and chemotherapy. Over a median of 9 years (maximum, 19 years), 378 women developed recurrent disease, and 312 died from breast cancer. Overall, BMI was not associated with breast cancer recurrence or survival when controlling for subtype (eg, the hazard ratio per 5 kg/m(2) of BMI was 1.05 [95% confidence interval, 0.95-1.15] for breast cancer-specific death). However, associations varied by subtype. Among women with luminal A cancers, those who had class II/III obesity, but not class I obesity or overweight, had worse outcomes. When women who had a BMI ≥35 kg/m(2) were compared with those who had a BMI from 18.5 to breast cancer-specific death and 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.54) for recurrence. There was no association within luminal B, basal-like or human epidermal growth factor over-expressing subtypes. Among patients who had accurately classified breast cancer subtypes based on gene expression, a BMI ≥35 kg/m(2) was adversely associated with outcomes only among those who had luminal A cancers. Research is needed into whether tailoring recommendations for weight management to tumor characteristics will improve outcomes. Cancer 2017;123:2535-42. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  10. Differential diagnosis of breast masses in South Korean premenopausal women using diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leproux, Anaïs; Kim, You Me; Min, Jun Won; McLaren, Christine E.; Chen, Wen-Pin; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Lee, Seung-ha; Chung, Phil-Sang; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-07-01

    Young patients with dense breasts have a relatively low-positive biopsy rate for breast cancer (˜1 in 7). South Korean women have higher breast density than Westerners. We investigated the benefit of using a functional and metabolic imaging technique, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI), to help the standard of care imaging tools to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in premenopausal Korean women. DOSI uses near-infrared light to measure breast tissue composition by quantifying tissue concentrations of water (ctH2O), bulk lipid (ctLipid), deoxygenated (ctHHb), and oxygenated (ctHbO2) hemoglobin. DOSI spectral signatures specific to abnormal tissue and absent in healthy tissue were also used to form a malignancy index. This study included 19 premenopausal subjects (average age 41±9), corresponding to 11 benign and 10 malignant lesions. Elevated lesion to normal ratio of ctH2O, ctHHb, ctHbO2, total hemoglobin (THb=ctHHb+ctHbO2), and tissue optical index (ctHHb×ctH2O/ctLipid) were observed in the malignant lesions compared to the benign lesions (p90% sensitivity and specificity. Malignant lesions showed significantly higher metabolism and perfusion than benign lesions. DOSI spectral features showed high discriminatory power for distinguishing malignant and benign lesions in dense breasts of the Korean population.

  11. Percutaneous Excision of a Benign Breast Mass Using Ultrasound-guided, Vacuum-assisted Core Biopsy:A Review of 197 Cases with Long Term Follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hoi Soo; Han, Heon; Kim, Sam Soo; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Lee, Ji Won; Kim, Hyoung Rae [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jin Hee; Lee, Hyun; Koh, Sung Hye [Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Mi [Bundang Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    To assess long term results of excising benign masses using ultrasound (US)-guided, vacuum-assisted core biopsy (Mammotome). We enrolled 163 patients (197 masses) receiving US guided excision using vacuum-assisted core biopsy and follow-up sonography in this retrospective study. The masses were category 3 as determined by ultrasound imaging according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) (n=145) or pathologically confirmed as benign masses by a previous core-needle biopsy although category 4a and 4b (n = 52). Pathology, the presence of hematoma and residual tissue, as well as scar formation were assessed. We diagnosed 190 (96.5%) benign masses, 4 (2.0%) malignant masses, and 3 (1.5%) high-risk lesions. Most (176 masses, 91.2%) were excised completely as demonstrated by the follow-up ultrasound examination. Scar changes were minimal (68.7%) or moderate (31.3%), with regression in 53%. US-guided excision using vacuum-assisted core biopsy is effective for the removal of benign breast masses. The majority of scars are minimal, with good cosmetic effect. However, subsequent excision should be done for malignant masses or phyllodes tumor because radiologic absence does not guarantee complete removal

  12. Exemestane Reduces Breast Cancer Risk in High-Risk Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical trial results presented at the 2011 ASCO annual meeting showed that the aromatase inhibitor exemestane—used to treat early and advanced breast cancer—substantially reduced the risk of invasive breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women.

  13. An ATLAS high mass dijet event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Experiment

    2014-01-01

    A high mass dijet event: two high-pT jets with invariant mass 2.8 TeV. A track pT cut of 2.5 GeV has been applied for the display. 1st jet (ordered by pT): pT = 310 GeV, y = -2.0, φ = -0.2 2nd jet: pT = 280 GeV, y = 2.5, φ = 2.9 3rd jet: pT = 14 GeV, y = -0.9, φ = -1.0 Jet momenta are calibrated according to the "EM+JES" scheme. Event collected on 5 August 2010.

  14. A dried blood spot mass spectrometry metabolomic approach for rapid breast cancer detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Q

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Qingjun Wang,1,2,* Tao Sun,3,* Yunfeng Cao,1,2,4,5 Peng Gao,2,4,6 Jun Dong,2,4 Yanhua Fang,2 Zhongze Fang,2 Xiaoyu Sun,2 Zhitu Zhu1,2 1Oncology Department 2, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, 2Personalized Treatment and Diagnosis Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University and Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jinzhou, 3Department of Internal Medicine 1, Cancer Hospital of China Medical University, Liaoning Cancer Hospital & Insititute, Shenyang, 4CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, 5Key Laboratory of Contraceptives and Devices Research (NPFPC, Shanghai Engineer and Technology Research Center of Reproductive Health Drug and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, Shanghai, 6Clinical Laboratory, Dalian Sixth People’s Hospital, Dalian, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Breast cancer (BC is still a lethal threat to women worldwide. An accurate screening and diagnosis strategy performed in an easy-to-operate manner is highly warranted in clinical perspective. Besides the routinely focused protein markers, blood is full of small molecular metabolites with diverse structures and properties. This study aimed to screen metabolite markers with BC diagnosis potentials.Methods: A dried blood spot-based direct infusion mass spectrometry (MS metabolomic analysis was conducted for BC and non-BC differentiation. The targeted analytes included 23 amino acids and 26 acylcarnitines.Results: Multivariate analysis screened out 21 BC-related metabolites in the blood. Regression analysis generated a diagnosis model consisting of parameters Pip, Asn, Pro, C14:1/C16, Phe/Tyr, and Gly/Ala. Tested with another set of BC and non-BC samples, this model showed a sensitivity of 92.2% and a specificity

  15. Occult Breast Cancer: Scintimammography with High-Resolution Breast-specific Gamma Camera in Women at High Risk for Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel F. Brem; Jocelyn A. Rapelyea; , Gilat Zisman; Kevin Mohtashemi; Joyce Raub; Christine B. Teal; Stan Majewski; Benjamin L. Welch

    2005-08-01

    To prospectively evaluate a high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera for depicting occult breast cancer in women at high risk for breast cancer but with normal mammographic and physical examination findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent were obtained. The study was HIPAA compliant. Ninety-four high-risk women (age range, 36-78 years; mean, 55 years) with normal mammographic (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System [BI-RADS] 1 or 2) and physical examination findings were evaluated with scintimammography. After injection with 25-30 mCi (925-1110 MBq) of technetium 99m sestamibi, patients were imaged with a high-resolution small-field-of-view breast-specific gamma camera in craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique projections. Scintimammograms were prospectively classified according to focal radiotracer uptake as normal (score of 1), with no focal or diffuse uptake; benign (score of 2), with minimal patchy uptake; probably benign (score of 3), with scattered patchy uptake; probably abnormal (score of 4), with mild focal radiotracer uptake; and abnormal (score of 5), with marked focal radiotracer uptake. Mammographic breast density was categorized according to BI-RADS criteria. Patients with normal scintimammograms (scores of 1, 2, or 3) were followed up for 1 year with an annual mammogram, physical examination, and repeat scintimammography. Patients with abnormal scintimammograms (scores of 4 or 5) underwent ultrasonography (US), and those with focal hypoechoic lesions underwent biopsy. If no lesion was found during US, patients were followed up with scintimammography. Specific pathologic findings were compared with scintimammographic findings. RESULTS: Of 94 women, 78 (83%) had normal scintimammograms (score of 1, 2, or 3) at initial examination and 16 (17%) had abnormal scintimammograms (score of 4 or 5). Fourteen (88%) of the 16 patients had either benign findings at biopsy or no focal abnormality at US; in two

  16. The Relationship Between Breast Feeding and Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure in Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Behjati-Ardakani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is generally accepted that breast feeding has a beneficial effect on the health of infants and children. The evidence that breast feeding protects against obesity is inconclusive also the influence of breast feeding on blood pressure in later life is uncertain. The major aim of this study was to assess the association between method of infant breast feeding and components of the body mass index and blood pressure in pre-school children. Materials & Methods: In a cohort study, a total of 800 pre-school children, 359 (47.2% males, and 402 (52.8% females, born in 2003 in Yazd, Iran were selected based on a systematic stratified random model. Of eight hundred questionnaires sent, 761 (95% were returned to the investigators. At 6 years, blood pressure was measured on the right arm at rest. Body mass index (BMI was calculated by dividing the weight in kilograms by the square of height in meters (kg/m2.Data on infants feeding were collected respectively during first two years of life .Data were managed and analyzed using SPSS (SPSS, Inc, version 13.0 Results: Of the 761 subjects included in this study, 452 (59.4% were exclusively breast fed, 136 (17.9% were bottle fed and 173 (22.7% were partially breast fed. Body mass index was not significantly different between bottle feeding, partial and exclusive breast feeding groups (P=0.398 ..No relationship was found between method and duration of breast feeding, and systolic blood pressure (P=0.244, diastolic blood pressure (P=0.781 and mean blood pressure (P=0.483. Conclusion: We did not find association between method of infant feeding, duration of breast feeding and systolic, diastolic mean blood pressures and also with body mass index

  17. Usefulness limitation of 3D-ultrasound diagnosis of breast masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Yong Seok; Chung, Soo Young; Yang, Ik; Lee, Kyung Won; Kim, Hong Dae; Shin, Sang Joon; Chung, Bong Wha [College of Medicine, Hallym Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-01

    To compare 3D ultrasound (3D-US) with 2D ultrasound (2D-US) in terms of their usefulness and limitations in the diagnosis of breast masses. We obtained 2D and 3D US images of 37 breast lesions present in 20 cases of fibroadenoma, nine of cancer, and eight of fibrocystic disease proven in a total of 26 cases [ fibroadenoma (n=13), breast cancer (n=9), fibrocystic disease (n=4)] by histologic examination, and by clinical evaluation and clinical evaluation with sonographic imaging in eleven. When comparing 3D and 2D-US images we had no prior information regarding detection rate according to the size of lesions, whether or not internal and boundary echo patterns could be interpreted, accurate differentiation between tumorous and non-tumorous lesions, or the accuracy with which benign and malignant tumors could be differentiated. For lesions of 1 cm or less in diameter the detection rate of 3D-US was lower than that of 2D-US, but for lesions over 1 cm there was no difference between the two modalities. In fibroadenoma and breast cancer, 3D-US was more useful than 2D-US for the evaluation of both internal and boundary echo, but with fibrocystic disease and in the diagnosis of tumor/non-tumor, there was no significant difference. In breast cancer, however, 3D-US more accurately determined malignancy, and in fibroadenoma, because of the pseudospicule revealed by 3D-US, this modality was less exact in determining benignancy. In the evaluation of internal and boundary echo in breast mass diagnosis, 3D-US was more useful than its 2D counterpart. For lesions of 1 cm or less in diameter, however, the detection rate of 3D-US was more useful than its 2D counterpart. For lesions of 1 cm or less in diameter, however, the detection rate of 3D-US was low, and since in some benign cases a pseudospicule was apparent, the possibility of confusion with malignancy arose. For these reasons, the usefulness of 3D-US was limited.

  18. High-colour and mass hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luest, D. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Sektion Physik); Papantonopoulos, E.; Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1985-08-01

    We present a model based on the gauge group G=Gsub(HC).Gsub(S).SU(2)sub(L).U(1), where the hypercolour gauge group Gsub(HC) is responsible for the dynamical breaking of the strong group Gsub(S) to SU(3)sub(C) of QCD. Chiral symmetry breaking of high-colour representations produces dynamical breaking of the electroweak SU(2)sub(L).U(1) gauge group. Fermion masses and flavour mixing are dynamically generated from the condensations of high-colour representations. A phenomenological analysis of the model is also presented.

  19. SPIRAL2/DESIR high resolution mass separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtukian-Nieto, T., E-mail: kurtukia@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Baartman, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada); Blank, B.; Chiron, T. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Davids, C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Delalee, F. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Duval, M. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); El Abbeir, S.; Fournier, A. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Lunney, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Université de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Méot, F. [BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York (United States); Serani, L. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Stodel, M.-H.; Varenne, F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); and others

    2013-12-15

    DESIR is the low-energy part of the SPIRAL2 ISOL facility under construction at GANIL. DESIR includes a high-resolution mass separator (HRS) with a designed resolving power m/Δm of 31,000 for a 1 π-mm-mrad beam emittance, obtained using a high-intensity beam cooling device. The proposed design consists of two 90-degree magnetic dipoles, complemented by electrostatic quadrupoles, sextupoles, and a multipole, arranged in a symmetric configuration to minimize aberrations. A detailed description of the design and results of extensive simulations are given.

  20. Automated detection of masses on whole breast volume ultrasound scanner: false positive reduction using deep convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Yuya; Muramatsu, Chisako; Kobayashi, Hironobu; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer screening with mammography and ultrasonography is expected to improve sensitivity compared with mammography alone, especially for women with dense breast. An automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) provides the operator-independent whole breast data which facilitate double reading and comparison with past exams, contralateral breast, and multimodality images. However, large volumetric data in screening practice increase radiologists' workload. Therefore, our goal is to develop a computer-aided detection scheme of breast masses in ABVS data for assisting radiologists' diagnosis and comparison with mammographic findings. In this study, false positive (FP) reduction scheme using deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) was investigated. For training DCNN, true positive and FP samples were obtained from the result of our initial mass detection scheme using the vector convergence filter. Regions of interest including the detected regions were extracted from the multiplanar reconstraction slices. We investigated methods to select effective FP samples for training the DCNN. Based on the free response receiver operating characteristic analysis, simple random sampling from the entire candidates was most effective in this study. Using DCNN, the number of FPs could be reduced by 60%, while retaining 90% of true masses. The result indicates the potential usefulness of DCNN for FP reduction in automated mass detection on ABVS images.

  1. Prone Whole-Breast Irradiation Using Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in Women Undergoing Breast Conservation for Early Disease Yields High Rates of Excellent to Good Cosmetic Outcomes in Patients With Large and/or Pendulous Breasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergom, Carmen; Kelly, Tracy; Morrow, Natalya; Wilson, J. Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Walker, Alonzo [Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Xiang Qun; Ahn, Kwang Woo [Division of Biostatistics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); White, Julia, E-mail: jwhite@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To report our institution's experience using prone positioning for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver post-lumpectomy whole breast irradiation (WBI) in a cohort of women with large and/or pendulous breasts, to determine the rate of acute and late toxicities and, more specifically, cosmetic outcomes. We hypothesized that using 3D-CRT for WBI in the prone position would reduce or eliminate patient and breast size as negative prognostic indicators for toxicities associated with WBI. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2006, 110 cases were treated with prone WBI using 3D-CRT. The lumpectomy, breast target volumes, heart, and lung were contoured on all computed tomography scans. A dose of 45-50 Gy was prescribed to the breast volume using standard fractionation schemes. The planning goals were {>=}95% of prescription to 95% of the breast volume, and 100% of boost dose to 95% of lumpectomy planning target volume. Toxicities and cosmesis were prospectively scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects Version 3.0 and the Harvard Scale. The median follow-up was 40 months. Results: The median body mass index (BMI) was 33.6 kg/m{sup 2}, and median breast volume was 1396 cm{sup 3}. The worst toxicity encountered during radiation was Grade 3 dermatitis in 5% of our patient population. Moist desquamation occurred in 16% of patients, with only 2% of patients with moist desquamation outside the inframammary/axillary folds. Eleven percent of patients had Grade {>=}2 late toxicities, including Grade 3 induration/fibrosis in 2%. Excellent to good cosmesis was achieved in 89%. Higher BMI was associated with moist desquamation and breast pain, but BMI and breast volume did not impact fibrosis or excellent to good cosmesis. Conclusion: In patients with higher BMI and/or large-pendulous breasts, delivering prone WBI using 3D-CRT results in favorable toxicity profiles and high excellent to good cosmesis rates. Higher BMI was

  2. Disk Accretion Onto High-Mass Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Lubow, S H; Artymowicz, P

    1999-01-01

    We analyze the nonlinear, two-dimensional response of a gaseous, viscous protoplanetary disk to the presence of a planet of one Jupiter mass (1 M_J) and greater that orbits a 1 solar mass star by using the ZEUS hydrodynamics code with high resolution near the planet's Roche lobe. The planet is assumed to be in a circular orbit about the central star and is not allowed to migrate. A gap is formed about the orbit of the planet, but there is a nonaxisymmetric flow through the gap and onto the planet. The gap partitions the disk into an inner (outer) disk that extends inside (outside) the planet's orbit. For a 1 M_J planet and typical disk parameters, the accretion through the gap onto the planet is highly efficient. For typical disk parameters, the mass doubling time scale is less than 10^5 years, considerably shorter than the disk lifetime. Following shocks near the L1 and L2 Lagrange points, disk material enters the Roche lobe in the form of two gas streams. Shocks occur within the Roche lobe as the gas stream...

  3. High resolution functional photoacoustic tomography of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoqi; Yao, Lei; Xi, Lei; Jiang, Huabei, E-mail: hjiang@bme.ufl.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Heldermon, Coy D. [Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of functional photoacoustic tomography (fPAT) for high resolution detection and characterization of breast cancer and to demonstrate for the first time quantitative hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation images of breasts that were formed with model-based reconstruction of tomographic photoacoustic data. Methods: The study was HIPAA compliant and was approved by the university institutional review board. Written informed consents were obtained from all the participants. Ten cases, including six cancer and four healthy (mean age = 50 yr; age range = 41–66 yr), were examined. Functional images of breast tissue including absolute total hemoglobin concentration (Hb{sub T}) and oxygen saturation (StO{sub 2}%) were obtained by fPAT and cross validated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) readings and/or histopathology. Results: Hb{sub T} and StO{sub 2}% maps from all six pathology-confirmed cancer cases (60%) show clear detection of tumor, while MR images indicate clear detection of tumor for five of six cancer cases; one small tumor was read as near-complete-resolution by MRI. The average Hb{sub T} and StO{sub 2}% value of suspicious lesion area for the cancer cases was 61.6 ± 18.9 μM/l and 67.5% ± 5.2% compared to 25.6 ± 7.4 μM/l and 65.2% ± 3.8% for background normal tissue. Conclusions: fPAT has the potential to be a significant add-on in breast cancer detection and characterization as it provides submillimeter resolution functional images of breast lesions.

  4. Is there a correlation between the presence of a spiculated mass on mammogram and luminal a subtype breast cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Song; Wu, Xiao Dong; Xu, Wen Jian; Lin, Qing; Liu, Xue Jun; Li, Ying [The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao (China)

    2016-11-15

    To determine whether the appearance of a spiculated mass on a mammogram is associated with luminal A subtype breast cancer and the factors that may influence the presence or absence of the spiculated mass. Three hundred seventeen (317) patients who underwent image-guided or surgical biopsy between December 2014 and April 2015 were included in the study. Radiologists conducted retrospective assessments of the presence of spiculated masses according to the criteria of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. We used combinations of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki67 as surrogate markers to identify molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Pearson chi-square test was employed to measure statistical significance of correlations. Furthermore, we built a bi-variate logistic regression model to quantify the relative contribution of the factors that may influence the presence or absence of the spiculated mass. Seventy-one percent (71%) of the spiculated masses were classified as luminal A. Masses classified as luminal A were 10.3 times more likely to be presented as spiculated mass on a mammogram than all other subtypes. Patients with low Ki67 index (< 14%) and HER2 negative were most likely to present with a spiculated mass on their mammograms (p <0.001) than others. The hormone receptor status (ER and PR), pathology grade, overall breast composition, were all associated with the presence of a spiculated mass, but with less weight in contribution than Ki67 and HER2. We observed an association between the luminal A subtype of invasive breast cancer and the presence of a spiculated mass on a mammogram. It is hypothesized that lower Ki67 index and HER2 negativity may be the most significant factors in the presence of a spiculated mass.

  5. High precision mass measurements for wine metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Witting, Michael; Gougeon, Régis; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    An overview of the critical steps for the non-targeted Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-ToF-MS) analysis of wine chemistry is given, ranging from the study design, data preprocessing and statistical analyses, to markers identification. UPLC-Q-ToF-MS data was enhanced by the alignment of exact mass data from FTICR-MS, and marker peaks were identified using UPLC-Q-ToF-MS². In combination with multivariate statistical tools and the annotation of peaks with metabolites from relevant databases, this analytical process provides a fine description of the chemical complexity of wines, as exemplified in the case of red (Pinot noir) and white (Chardonnay) wines from various geographic origins in Burgundy.

  6. Characterization of benign and malignant solid breast masses: comparison of conventional US and tissue harmonic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Joo Hee; Moon, Woo Kyung; Cho, Nariya; Kim, Sun Mi; Park, Seong Ho; Han, Boo-Kyung; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Park, Jeong Mi; Im, Jung-Gi

    2007-01-01

    To prospectively compare the diagnostic performance of radiologists by using conventional ultrasonography (US) and tissue harmonic imaging for the differentiation of benign from malignant solid breast masses, with histologic results used as the reference standard. The study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Images were obtained with conventional US and tissue harmonic imaging in 88 patients (age range, 25-67 years; mean age, 45 years) with 91 solid breast masses (30 cancers and 61 benign lesions) before excisional or needle biopsy. Three experienced radiologists, who did not perform the examinations, independently analyzed the US findings and provided a level of suspicion to indicate the probability of malignancy. Results were evaluated by using kappa statistics and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Regarding the descriptions of US findings, echogenicity (kappa=0.205) was the most discordant between conventional US and tissue harmonic imaging, followed by margin (kappa=0.495), lesion boundary (kappa=0.495), calcifications (kappa=0.537), posterior acoustic transmission (kappa=0.546), echotexture (kappa=0.586), shape (kappa=0.591), and orientation (kappa=0.594). The area under the ROC curve (Az) for conventional US and tissue harmonic imaging was 0.84 and 0.79, respectively, for reader 1; 0.88 and 0.85, respectively, for reader 2; and 0.91 and 0.89, respectively, for reader 3. The overall Az value for the three readers was 0.88 for conventional US and 0.84 for tissue harmonic imaging (95% confidence interval: -0.0950, 0.1646; P=.595). The performance of the radiologists with respect to the characterization of solid breast masses as benign or malignant was not significantly improved with tissue harmonic imaging. Copyright (c) RSNA, 2006.

  7. Associations of breast-feeding patterns and introduction of solid foods with childhood bone mass: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hooven, Edith H; Gharsalli, Mounira; Heppe, Denise H M; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-03-28

    Breast-feeding has been associated with later bone health, but results from previous studies are inconsistent. We examined the associations of breast-feeding patterns and timing of introduction of solids with bone mass at the age of 6 years in a prospective cohort study among 4919 children. We collected information about duration and exclusiveness of breast-feeding and timing of introduction of any solids with postnatal questionnaires. A total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed at 6 years of age, and bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), area-adjusted BMC (aBMC) and bone area (BA) were analysed. Compared with children who were ever breast-fed, those never breast-fed had lower BMD (-4·62 mg/cm2; 95 % CI -8·28, -0·97), BMC (-8·08 g; 95 % CI -12·45, -3·71) and BA (-7·03 cm2; 95 % CI -12·55, -1·52) at 6 years of age. Among all breast-fed children, those who were breast-fed non-exclusively in the first 4 months had higher BMD (2·91 mg/cm2; 95 % CI 0·41, 5·41) and aBMC (3·97 g; 95 % CI 1·30, 6·64) and lower BA (-4·45 cm2; 95 % CI -8·28, -0·61) compared with children breast-fed exclusively for at least 4 months. Compared with introduction of solids between 4 and 5 months, introduction feeding compared with never breast-feeding is associated with higher bone mass in 6-year-old children, but exclusive breast-feeding for 4 months or longer was not positively associated with bone outcomes.

  8. [Consensus Meeting of Course Directors in Breast Imaging, 9 May 2009, in Frankfurt am Main - Topic: Masses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Schimpfle, M P; Heindel, W; Kettritz, U; Schulz-Wendtland, R; Bick, U

    2010-08-01

    Fourteen directors of breast imaging courses met on behalf of the German Society of Radiology to discuss the actual standards of the diagnosis of masses. Open questions on the fields of mammography, breast ultrasound and breast MRI were elucidated by a presentation of one of the 14 panel members, followed by an electronic anonymous voting. Beside of the panel members, more than 300 participants of the consensus meeting contributed their opinions by electronic voting. Answers with definite majorities (> 75 %), answers with narrow majorities and those with missing majorities were discriminated from each other. The opinions of the plenum were compared to the majorities of the podium and showed only a few critical differences. Due to unequivocal majorities seven answers to important questions concerning the diagnosis of masses can lead to a further standardization of breast cancer diagnosis.

  9. Computer aided diagnosis for breast masses detection on a telemammography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Arturo J; Souto, Miguel; Tahoces, Pablo G; Vidal, Juan J

    2003-01-01

    A Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) scheme for breast masses detection has been developed and integrated as a part of a telemammography system. This work derives from the close cooperation between the Laboratory for Radiologic Image Research of the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain) and the company Intelsis Sistemas Inteligentes (Santiago de Compostela, Spain). This cooperation has been supported by funds from different projects, mainly from the European Union, the Spanish Health Administration, and the Galician Public Health's Service. As a result, a first prototype is ready to begin a demonstration project.

  10. Intra-observer agreement in single and joint double readings of contrast-enhanced breast MRI screening for women with high genetic breast cancer risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine intra-observer reliability (IR for lesion detection on contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance images (MRI for screening women at high risk of breast cancer in single and joint double readings, without case selection. Methods: Contrast-enhanced breast MRIs were interpreted twice by the same independent reader and twice in joint readings. IR was assessed for lesion detection, normal MRI identification, mass, non-mass like enhancements (NMLE and focus characterisation, and BI-RADS assessment. Results: MRI examinations for 124 breasts, 65 women (mean age 43.4y were retrospectively reviewed with 110 lesions identified. Abnormal BIRADS (3-5 classifications were found for 52.3% in single readings and 58.5% in joint readings. Seven biopsies were performed for 4 histologically confirmed cancers. IR for BI-RADS classifications was good for single (0.63, 95% CI: 0.49-0.77, and joint readings (0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.93. IR for background parenchymal enhancement (BPE was moderate across single (0.53, 95% CI: 0.40-0.65 and joint readings (0.44, 95% CI: 0.33-0.56. IR for BI-RADS category according to each enhancement was poor for single (0.27, 95% CI: 0.10-0.44, and higher for joint readings, (0.58, 95% CI: 0.43-0.72. Conclusions: IR in BI-RADS breast assessments or BI-RADS lesion assessments are better with joint reading in screening for women with high genetic risks, in particular for abnormal MRI (BI-RADS 3, 4 and 5.

  11. Partial tear of pectoralis major muscle masquerading as a breast mass in an 87-year-old woman. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povoski, S.P. [Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Inst., The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Surgery; Spigos, D.G. [The Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Inst. of The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2002-11-01

    We report on a case of a partial tear of the pectoralis major muscle mimicking a breast mass in an elderly patient. Breast MR was useful in identifying the traumatic muscular injury and in demonstrating the lack of any intraparenchymal breast lesion.

  12. Value of Strain Elastography Ultrasound in Differentiation of Breast Masses and Histopathologic Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabey, Aysun Okar; Arıbal, Erkin; Ergelen, Rabia; Kaya, Handan

    2014-01-01

    Objective US elastography is an emerging technique that can be used during breast US examination. The increasing awareness of breast cancer led to an increase in mammography and breast US examinations. The specificity of these techniques is not high enough to prevent unnecessary biopsies. There is still a need for a more specific technique that can overcome this problem. This study aimed to evaluate the value of strain elastography in breast lesions. Materials and Methods In this study, 110 lesions of 96 patients were evaluated with strain elastography. Five score system was used for lesion scoring. The histopathologic results of lesions were obtained and were accepted as gold standard. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the technique were calculated. Histopathologic and strain elastography results were correlated. Results The sensitivity of US strain elastography was calculated as 83%, the specificity as 89%, the positive predictive value as 79% and the negative predictive value as 91%. There were no score 1 lesions. All score 2 lesions were benign. Score 5 had the highest true positivity rate. Conclusion We believe that ultrasound elastography is an effective imaging technique that can be used as an adjunct for differential diagnosis, prior to the decision to biopsy a lesion in certain cases.

  13. Combination Immunotherapy for the Treatment of High-Risk HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    have withdrawn. Blood samples for immunologic monitoring are being collected in support of specific aims 2 and 3. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast cancer ...inflammatory breast cancer (MD Anderson Cancer Center Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Program Seed Grant)  New active grant o Immunologic ...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0109 TITLE: Combination Immunotherapy for the Treatment of High-Risk HER2-Positive Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL

  14. 'Her shape' intervention programme for obese women with high breast adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliana, Norsham; Shahar, Suzana; Sahar, Mohd Azmani; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Noah, Rahim Md

    2017-03-01

    Nutrition and physical activity interventions is beneficial in reversing obesity. However far too little attention has been paid to the effect of these interventions on breast tissues. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the effect of a home-based dietary and physical activity intervention (the Her Shape Program) on metabolic parameters, blood biomarkers and adiposity at the breast. A randomized controlled study was conducted on obese women with high breast adiposity (<0.1 Sm-1), aged 40-60 years in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Subjects were assigned to intervention (n=16) and control group (n=15). Intervention group received a home based health education package with close monitoring weekly, personal diet consultation and physical training in group. Assessment was ascertained at three time points; baseline, weeks 8 and 16. Outcome measures were the energy intake, physical activity, body composition, blood tests, blood biomarkers and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) quantitative values. Analyses were done using 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. All subjects completed the program without any drop-out. The HSI group had 100% compliance towards the intervention program; their energy intake was reduced for approximately 35% and their activity score was increased for approximately 11%. A significant interaction effect was found in body weight, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol/HDL, vitamin C intake and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) (p<0.05). Interestingly, their EIT extremum values were also significantly increased indicating a reduction of breast adiposity. The intervention program was successful in improving body composition, physical activities, MMP9 and breast adipose tissue composition.

  15. A similarity study between the query mass and retrieved masses using decision tree content-based image retrieval (DTCBIR) CADx system for characterization of ultrasound breast mass images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Chong; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Sahiner, Berkman; Helvie, Mark; Paramagul, Chintana; Nees, Alexis V.

    2012-03-01

    We are developing a Decision Tree Content-Based Image Retrieval (DTCBIR) CADx scheme to assist radiologists in characterization of breast masses on ultrasound (US) images. Three DTCBIR configurations, including decision tree with boosting (DTb), decision tree with full leaf features (DTL), and decision tree with selected leaf features (DTLs) were compared. For DTb, the features of a query mass were combined first into a merged feature score and then masses with similar scores were retrieved. For DTL and DTLs, similar masses were retrieved based on the Euclidean distance between the feature vector of the query and those of the selected references. For each DTCBIR configuration, we investigated the use of the full feature set and the subset of features selected by the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and simplex optimization method, resulting in six retrieval methods. Among the six methods, we selected five, DTb-lda, DTL-lda, DTb-full, DTL-full and DTLs-full, for the observer study. For a query mass, three most similar masses were retrieved with each method and were presented to the radiologists in random order. Three MQSA radiologists rated the similarity between the query mass and the computer-retrieved masses using a ninepoint similarity scale (1=very dissimilar, 9=very similar). For DTb-lda, DTL-lda, DTb-full, DTL-full and DTLs-full, the average Az values were 0.90+/-0.03, 0.85+/-0.04, 0.87+/-0.04, 0.79+/-0.05 and 0.71+/-0.06, respectively, and the average similarity ratings were 5.00, 5.41, 4.96, 5.33 and 5.13, respectively. Although the DTb measures had the best classification performance among the DTCBIRs studied, and DTLs had the worst performance, DTLs-full obtained higher similarity ratings than the DTb measures.

  16. Breast Tissue Composition and Immunophenotype and Its Relationship with Mammographic Density in Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Min B Pang

    Full Text Available To investigate the cellular and immunophenotypic basis of mammographic density in women at high risk of breast cancer.Mammograms and targeted breast biopsies were accrued from 24 women at high risk of breast cancer. Mammographic density was classified into Wolfe categories and ranked by increasing density. The histological composition and immunophenotypic profile were quantified from digitized haematoxylin and eosin-stained and immunohistochemically-stained (ERα, ERβ, PgR, HER2, Ki-67, and CD31 slides and correlated to mammographic density.Increasing mammographic density was significantly correlated with increased fibrous stroma proportion (rs (22 = 0.5226, p = 0.0088 and significantly inversely associated with adipose tissue proportion (rs (22 = -0.5409, p = 0.0064. Contrary to previous reports, stromal expression of ERα was common (19/20 cases, 95%. There was significantly higher stromal PgR expression in mammographically-dense breasts (p=0.026.The proportion of stroma and fat underlies mammographic density in women at high risk of breast cancer. Increased expression of PgR in the stroma of mammographically dense breasts and frequent and unexpected presence of stromal ERα expression raises the possibility that hormone receptor expression in breast stroma may have a role in mediating the effects of exogenous hormonal therapy on mammographic density.

  17. Breast Tissue Composition and Immunophenotype and Its Relationship with Mammographic Density in Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jia-Min B; Byrne, David J; Takano, Elena A; Jene, Nicholas; Petelin, Lara; McKinley, Joanne; Poliness, Catherine; Saunders, Christobel; Taylor, Donna; Mitchell, Gillian; Fox, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the cellular and immunophenotypic basis of mammographic density in women at high risk of breast cancer. Mammograms and targeted breast biopsies were accrued from 24 women at high risk of breast cancer. Mammographic density was classified into Wolfe categories and ranked by increasing density. The histological composition and immunophenotypic profile were quantified from digitized haematoxylin and eosin-stained and immunohistochemically-stained (ERα, ERβ, PgR, HER2, Ki-67, and CD31) slides and correlated to mammographic density. Increasing mammographic density was significantly correlated with increased fibrous stroma proportion (rs (22) = 0.5226, p = 0.0088) and significantly inversely associated with adipose tissue proportion (rs (22) = -0.5409, p = 0.0064). Contrary to previous reports, stromal expression of ERα was common (19/20 cases, 95%). There was significantly higher stromal PgR expression in mammographically-dense breasts (p=0.026). The proportion of stroma and fat underlies mammographic density in women at high risk of breast cancer. Increased expression of PgR in the stroma of mammographically dense breasts and frequent and unexpected presence of stromal ERα expression raises the possibility that hormone receptor expression in breast stroma may have a role in mediating the effects of exogenous hormonal therapy on mammographic density.

  18. Body mass index and survival after diagnosis of invasive breast cancer: a study based on the Japanese National Clinical Database-Breast Cancer Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Masaaki; Tomotaki, Ai; Miyata, Hiroaki; Iwamoto, Takayuki; Niikura, Naoki; Anan, Keisei; Hayashi, Naoki; Aogi, Kenjiro; Ishida, Takanori; Masuoka, Hideji; Iijima, Kotaro; Masuda, Shinobu; Tsugawa, Koichiro; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Nakamura, Seigo; Tokuda, Yutaka

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have reported the association between body mass index (BMI) and outcome among Asian breast cancer patients. We analyzed data for 20,090 female invasive breast cancer patients who had been followed-up for a median period of 6.7 years entered in the National Clinical Database-Breast Cancer Registry between 2004 and 2006. We used mainly the WHO criteria for BMI (kg/m(2) ) categories; cause, 937 breast cancer-specific deaths, and 2433 recurrences were observed. Obesity was associated with an increased risk of all-cause (HR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.16-1.83) and breast cancer-specific death (HR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.11-1.93) for all patients, and with all-cause (HR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.13-1.92) and breast cancer-specific death (HR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.13-2.20) for postmenopausal patients. Being underweight was associated with an increased risk of all-cause death for all (HR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.16-1.71) and for postmenopausal patients (HR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.15-1.84). With regard to subtype and menopausal status, obesity was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer-specific death for all cases of luminal B tumor (HR: 2.59; 95% CI: 1.51-4.43; Pheterogeneity of Luminal B vs. Triple negative = 0.016) and for postmenopausal patients with luminal B tumor (HR: 3.24; 95% CI: 1.71-6.17). Being obese or underweight is associated with a higher risk of death among female breast cancer patients in Japan.

  19. Relation between Breast Cancer and High Glycemic Index or Glycemic Load: A Meta-analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullie, Patrick; Koechlin, Alice; Boniol, Mathieu; Autier, Philippe; Boyle, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest form of cancer in women worldwide. It has been suggested that chronic hyperinsulinemia associated with insulin resistance plays a role in breast cancer etiology. To test the hyperinsulinemia hypothesis, a dietary pattern associated with a high glycemic index and glycemic load, both proxies for chronic hyperinsulinemia, should be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. A meta-analysis restricted to prospective cohort studies was undertaken using a random effects model with tests for statistical significance, publication bias and heterogeneity. The metric for analysis was the risk of breast cancer in the highest relative to the lowest glycemic index and glycemic load dietary pattern. A dietary pattern with a high glycemic index was associated with a summary relative risk (SRR) of 1.05 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.11), and a high glycemic load with a SRR of 1.06 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.13). Adjustments for body mass index [BMI], physical activity and other lifestyle factors did not influence the SRR, nor did menopausal status and estrogen receptor status of the tumor. In conclusion, the current evidence supports a modest association between a dietary pattern with high glycemic index or glycemic load and the risk of breast cancer.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF THE BREAST MASSES WITH DIAGNOSTIC MAMMOGRAPHY AND FNAC CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Diagnostic mammography is the basic imaging study employed to evaluate breast abnormalities. Our objective was to assess the role of diagnostic mammography in characterizing the breast lumps in correlation with cytopathology. STUDY DESIGN This prospective study of 63 patients of breast lumps and related complaints in the age group of 18-65 years, was done over a period of two years. Two standard radiological views Craniocaudal (CC and Mediolateral Oblique (MLO were taken. Additional views and ultrasound was done as and when required. Reporting of mammograms was done using standard ACR BIRADS 4th edition (2003 Lexicon followed by cytopathological correlation. RESULTS In 63 patients with 70 lesions, 44 were proved cytopathological benign and 19 were malignant; 3 male patients were also included. Lump was the commonest presenting complaint. Left breast and superolateral quadrant with the axillary tail region was more frequently affected. Infiltrating ductal Ca (17.14% was commonest malignant lesion and fibroadenoma the commonest benign lesion (30%; 21 patients were categorized in BIRADS 3, 19 in BIRADS 1, 6 in BIRADS 2, 12 in BIRADS 4 and 5 in BIRADS 5 categories. In BIRADS 1, 2, 3 which were benign category, 43 were true negative, but 3 patients were pathologically malignant and hence false negative. Similarly, out of 17 malignant cases in BIRADS 4 and 5, 1 was false positive and 16 proved to be true positive. The statistical analysis was done and parameters calculated. CONCLUSION Diagnostic mammography is highly sensitive and accurate in detection and characterization of breast lumps, especially the malignant and the ACR-BIRADS lexicon proved useful in uniform mammography reporting and consistency in lesion classification.

  1. Three-dimensional intrafractional motion of breast during tangential breast irradiation monitored with high-sampling frequency using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Rumiko; Shimizu, Shinichi; Taguchi, Hiroshi; Katoh, Norio; Fujino, Masaharu; Onimaru, Rikiya; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Katoh, Fumi; Omatsu, Tokuhiko; Ishikawa, Masayori; Shirato, Hiroki

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the three-dimensional intrafraction motion of the breast during tangential breast irradiation using a real-time tracking radiotherapy (RT) system with a high-sampling frequency. A total of 17 patients with breast cancer who had received breast conservation RT were included in this study. A 2.0-mm gold marker was placed on the skin near the nipple of the breast for RT. A fluoroscopic real-time tumor-tracking RT system was used to monitor the marker. The range of motion of each patient was calculated in three directions. The mean +/- standard deviation of the range of respiratory motion was 1.0 +/- 0.6 mm (median, 0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] of the marker position, 0.4-2.6), 1.3 +/- 0.5 mm (median, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.5-2.5), and 2.6 +/- 1.4 (median, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.0-6.9) for the right-left, craniocaudal, and anteroposterior direction, respectively. No correlation was found between the range of motion and the body mass index or respiratory function. The mean +/- standard deviation of the absolute value of the baseline shift in the right-left, craniocaudal, and anteroposterior direction was 0.2 +/- 0.2 mm (range, 0.0-0.8 mm), 0.3 +/- 0.2 mm (range, 0.0-0.7 mm), and 0.8 +/- 0.7 mm (range, 0.1-1.8 mm), respectively. Both the range of motion and the baseline shift were within a few millimeters in each direction. As long as the conventional wedge-pair technique and the proper immobilization are used, the intrafraction three-dimensional change in the breast surface did not much influence the dose distribution.

  2. Quantifying the Role of Circulating Unconjugated Estradiol in Mediating the Body Mass Index-Breast Cancer Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, Catherine; Fuhrman, Barbara J; Boyd-Morin, Jennifer; Genkinger, Jeanine M; Gail, Mitchell H; Hoover, Robert N; Ziegler, Regina G

    2016-01-01

    Higher body mass index (BMI) and circulating estrogen levels each increase postmenopausal breast cancer risk, particularly estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) tumors. Higher BMI also increases estrogen production. We estimated the proportion of the BMI-ER(+) breast cancer association mediated through estrogen in a case-control study nested within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Participants included 143 women with invasive ER(+) breast cancer and 268 matched controls, all postmenopausal and never having used hormone therapy at baseline. We used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to measure 15 estrogens and estrogen metabolites in baseline serum. We calculated BMI from self-reported height and weight at baseline. We estimated the mediating effect of unconjugated estradiol on the BMI-ER(+) breast cancer association using Aalen additive hazards and Cox regression models. All estrogens and estrogen metabolites were statistically significantly correlated with BMI, with unconjugated estradiol most strongly correlated [Pearson correlation (r) = 0.45]. Approximately 7% to 10% of the effect of overweight, 12% to 15% of the effect of obesity, and 19% to 20% of the effect of a 5 kg/m(2) BMI increase on ER(+) breast cancer risk was mediated through unconjugated estradiol. The BMI-breast cancer association, once adjusted for unconjugated estradiol, was not modified by further adjustment for two metabolic ratios statistically significantly associated with both breast cancer and BMI. Circulating unconjugated estradiol levels partially mediate the BMI-breast cancer association, but other potentially important estrogen mediators (e.g., bioavailable estradiol) were not evaluated. Further research is required to identify mechanisms underlying the BMI-breast cancer association. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Red Fluorescent Protein in Breast Tumor Xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Kamila; Jiang, Lu; Post, Harm; Winnard, Paul T.; Greenwood, Tiffany R.; Raman, Venu; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.; Heeren, Ron M. A.; Glunde, Kristine

    2013-05-01

    Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) in combination with electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is a powerful technique for visualization and identification of a variety of different biomolecules directly from thin tissue sections. As commonly used tools for molecular reporting, fluorescent proteins are molecular reporter tools that have enabled the elucidation of a multitude of biological pathways and processes. To combine these two approaches, we have performed targeted MS analysis and MALDI-MSI visualization of a tandem dimer (td)Tomato red fluorescent protein, which was expressed exclusively in the hypoxic regions of a breast tumor xenograft model. For the first time, a fluorescent protein has been visualized by both optical microscopy and MALDI-MSI. Visualization of tdTomato by MALDI-MSI directly from breast tumor tissue sections will allow us to simultaneously detect and subsequently identify novel molecules present in hypoxic regions of the tumor. MS and MALDI-MSI of fluorescent proteins, as exemplified in our study, is useful for studies in which the advantages of MS and MSI will benefit from the combination with molecular approaches that use fluorescent proteins as reporters.

  4. Redefining the Breast Cancer Exosome Proteome by Tandem Mass Tag Quantitative Proteomics and Multivariate Cluster Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David J; Fondrie, William E; Liao, Zhongping; Hanson, Phyllis I; Fulton, Amy; Mao, Li; Yang, Austin J

    2015-10-20

    Exosomes are microvesicles of endocytic origin constitutively released by multiple cell types into the extracellular environment. With evidence that exosomes can be detected in the blood of patients with various malignancies, the development of a platform that uses exosomes as a diagnostic tool has been proposed. However, it has been difficult to truly define the exosome proteome due to the challenge of discerning contaminant proteins that may be identified via mass spectrometry using various exosome enrichment strategies. To better define the exosome proteome in breast cancer, we incorporated a combination of Tandem-Mass-Tag (TMT) quantitative proteomics approach and Support Vector Machine (SVM) cluster analysis of three conditioned media derived fractions corresponding to a 10 000g cellular debris pellet, a 100 000g crude exosome pellet, and an Optiprep enriched exosome pellet. The quantitative analysis identified 2 179 proteins in all three fractions, with known exosomal cargo proteins displaying at least a 2-fold enrichment in the exosome fraction based on the TMT protein ratios. Employing SVM cluster analysis allowed for the classification 251 proteins as "true" exosomal cargo proteins. This study provides a robust and vigorous framework for the future development of using exosomes as a potential multiprotein marker phenotyping tool that could be useful in breast cancer diagnosis and monitoring disease progression.

  5. Effect of slice thickness on detectability in breast CT using a prewhitened matched filter and simulated mass lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Nathan J.; Abbey, Craig K.; Yang, Kai; Boone, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Dedicated breast CT (bCT) is an emerging technology with the potential to improve the detection of breast cancer in screening and diagnostic capacities. Typically, the 3D volume reconstructed from the scanner is displayed as sectional images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of section thickness on the detectability of simulated masses using a prewhitened matched filter (PWMF) as a model observer. Methods: A breast CT scanner has been designed and fabricated in the authors’ laboratory with more than 200 women imaged in IRB-approved phase I and phase II trials to date. Of these, 151 bilateral data sets were selected on the basis of low artifact content, sufficient breast coverage, and excluding cases with breast implants. BIRADS breast density ratings were available for 144 of these patients. Spherical mass lesions of diameter 1, 2, 3, 5, 11, and 15 mm were mathematically generated and embedded at random locations within the parenchymal region of each bCT volume. Microcalcifications were not simulated in this study. For each viewing plane (sagittal, axial, and coronal) and section thickness (ranging from 0.3 to 44 mm), section images of the breast parenchyma containing the lesion were generated from the reconstructed bCT data sets by averaging voxels over the length of the section. Using signal known exactly (SKE) model observer methodology, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed on each generated projected image using a PWMF based model observer. ROC curves were generated for each breast data set, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was evaluated as well as the sensitivity at 95% specificity. Results: For all lesion sizes, performance rises modestly to a peak before falling off substantially as section thickness increases over the range of the study. We find that the optimal section thickness tracks the size of the lesion to be detected linearly with a small positive offset and slopes ranging from 0

  6. Breast mass segmentation in digital mammography based on pulse coupled neural network and level set method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weiying; Ma, Yide; Li, Yunsong

    2015-05-01

    A novel approach to mammographic image segmentation, termed as PCNN-based level set algorithm, is presented in this paper. Just as its name implies, a method based on pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) in conjunction with the variational level set method for medical image segmentation. To date, little work has been done on detecting the initial zero level set contours based on PCNN algorithm for latterly level set evolution. When all the pixels of the input image are fired by PCNN, the small pixel value will be a much more refined segmentation. In mammographic image, the breast tumor presents big pixel value. Additionally, the mammographic image with predominantly dark region, so that we firstly obtain the negative of mammographic image with predominantly dark region except the breast tumor before all the pixels of an input image are fired by PCNN. Therefore, in here, PCNN algorithm is employed to achieve mammary-specific, initial mass contour detection. After that, the initial contours are all extracted. We define the extracted contours as the initial zero level set contours for automatic mass segmentation by variational level set in mammographic image analysis. What's more, a new proposed algorithm improves external energy of variational level set method in terms of mammographic images in low contrast. In accordance with the gray scale of mass region in mammographic image is higher than the region surrounded, so the Laplace operator is used to modify external energy, which could make the bright spot becoming much brighter than the surrounded pixels in the image. A preliminary evaluation of the proposed method performs on a known public database namely MIAS, rather than synthetic images. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed approach can potentially obtain better masses detection results in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Ultimately, this algorithm could lead to increase both sensitivity and specificity of the physicians' interpretation of

  7. Changes in mammographic density over time in breast cancer cases and women at high risk for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Meghan E; Reimers, Laura L; Quante, Anne S; Crew, Katherine D; Whiffen, Amy; Terry, Mary Beth

    2014-10-01

    High mammographic breast density is one of the strongest intermediate markers of breast cancer risk, and decreases in density over time have been associated with decreases in breast cancer risk. Using repeated measures of mammographic density in a cohort of high-risk women, the Women at Risk (WAR) cohort at Columbia University Medical Center (N = 2670), we examined whether changes in prediagnostic mammographic density differed among 85 prospectively-ascertained breast cancer cases and 85 age-matched controls, using a nested case-control design. Median age at first mammogram was 51 years (range, 29-77 years), with a median of 4 years between first and second prediagnostic mammogram (range, 1-15 years). Using linear regression with change in percent density as the outcome, we found that in women who did not go on to be diagnosed with breast cancer, change in percent density decreased as time between first and second mammogram increased (β = -1.62% per year, p = 0.004). However, in women who did go on to be diagnosed with breast cancer, there was no overall change in percent density associated with time between first and second mammogram (β = 0.29% per year, p = 0.61); the change over time was statistically significantly different between cases versus controls (p breast cancer risk.

  8. Bilateral axillary masses mimicking as accessory breast with multiple fibroadenoma and bilateral gigantomastia in HIV-positive patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saumya; Mishra, Anand K; Tewari, S; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2013-06-24

    Accessory breast is a rare entity that can present as asymptomatic masses or can cause symptoms like heaviness, pain, restriction of arm movement and limitation in daily pursuits with allied apprehension and anxiety for the patient. We present a case of bilateral axillary masses mimicking as accessory breast with multiple fibroadenoma in a 28 years, nulliparous, Indian woman who is HIV positive, which proves to be a diagnostic dilemma. Excisional biopsy was diagnostic. The rarity of such cases imposes challenges on the management in terms of diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic options.

  9. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk: Mendelian Randomization Analyses of Data from 145,000 Women of European Descent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or environmental factors.We applied Mendelian randomization to evaluate the association between BMI and risk of breast cancer occurrence using data from two large breast cancer consortia. We created a weighted BMI genetic score comprising 84 BMI-associated genetic variants to predicted BMI. We evaluated genetically predicted BMI in association with breast cancer risk using individual-level data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC (cases  =  46,325, controls  =  42,482. We further evaluated the association between genetically predicted BMI and breast cancer risk using summary statistics from 16,003 cases and 41,335 controls from the Discovery, Biology, and Risk of Inherited Variants in Breast Cancer (DRIVE Project. Because most studies measured BMI after cancer diagnosis, we could not conduct a parallel analysis to adequately evaluate the association of measured BMI with breast cancer risk prospectively.In the BCAC data, genetically predicted BMI was found to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR]  =  0.65 per 5 kg/m2 increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56-0.75, p = 3.32 × 10-10. The associations were similar for both premenopausal (OR   =   0.44, 95% CI:0.31-0.62, p  =  9.91 × 10-8 and postmenopausal breast cancer (OR  =  0.57, 95% CI: 0.46-0.71, p  =  1.88 × 10-8. This association was replicated in the data from the DRIVE consortium (OR  =  0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.84, p   =   1.64 × 10-7. Single marker analyses identified 17 of the 84 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in association with breast cancer risk at p < 0.05; for 16 of them, the

  10. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk: Mendelian Randomization Analyses of Data from 145,000 Women of European Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Milne, Roger L.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Dunning, Allison; Bojesen, Stig E.; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Benitez, Javier; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Casey, Graham; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J.; Cross, Simon S.; Czene, Kamila; Dörk, Thilo; Dumont, Martine; Fasching, Peter A.; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Fostira, Florentia; Gammon, Marilie; Giles, Graham G.; Guénel, Pascal; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hamann, Ute; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hopper, John L.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jasmine, Farzana; Jenkins, Mark; John, Esther M.; Johnson, Nichola; Jones, Michael E.; Kabisch, Maria; Knight, Julia A.; Koppert, Linetta B.; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, Eunjung; Li, Jingmei; Lindblom, Annika; Lubinski, Jan; Malone, Kathi E.; Mannermaa, Arto; Margolin, Sara; McLean, Catriona; Meindl, Alfons; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Olson, Janet E.; Perez, Jose I. A.; Perkins, Barbara; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Pylkäs, Katri; Rudolph, Anja; Santella, Regina; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Southey, Melissa C.; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Toland, Amanda E.; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Ursin, Giske; Van Der Luijt, Rob B.; Verhoef, Senno; Whittemore, Alice S.; Winqvist, Robert; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Shilin; Hall, Per; Simard, Jacques; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David; Easton, Douglas F.; Zheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or environmental factors. Methods We applied Mendelian randomization to evaluate the association between BMI and risk of breast cancer occurrence using data from two large breast cancer consortia. We created a weighted BMI genetic score comprising 84 BMI-associated genetic variants to predicted BMI. We evaluated genetically predicted BMI in association with breast cancer risk using individual-level data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) (cases  =  46,325, controls  =  42,482). We further evaluated the association between genetically predicted BMI and breast cancer risk using summary statistics from 16,003 cases and 41,335 controls from the Discovery, Biology, and Risk of Inherited Variants in Breast Cancer (DRIVE) Project. Because most studies measured BMI after cancer diagnosis, we could not conduct a parallel analysis to adequately evaluate the association of measured BMI with breast cancer risk prospectively. Results In the BCAC data, genetically predicted BMI was found to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR]  =  0.65 per 5 kg/m2 increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56–0.75, p = 3.32 × 10−10). The associations were similar for both premenopausal (OR   =   0.44, 95% CI:0.31–0.62, p  =  9.91 × 10−8) and postmenopausal breast cancer (OR  =  0.57, 95% CI: 0.46–0.71, p  =  1.88 × 10−8). This association was replicated in the data from the DRIVE consortium (OR  =  0.72, 95% CI: 0.60–0.84, p   =   1.64 × 10−7). Single marker analyses identified 17 of the 84 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in association with breast cancer risk at p

  11. High-throughput proteomic analysis of human infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somiari, Richard I; Sullivan, Anthony; Russell, Stephen; Somiari, Stella; Hu, Hai; Jordan, Rick; George, Alisha; Katenhusen, Richard; Buchowiecka, Alicja; Arciero, Cletus; Brzeski, Henry; Hooke, Jeff; Shriver, Craig

    2003-10-01

    Large-scale proteomics will play a critical role in the rapid display, identification and validation of new protein targets, and elucidation of the underlying molecular events that are associated with disease development, progression and severity. However, because the proteome of most organisms are significantly more complex than the genome, the comprehensive analysis of protein expression changes will require an analytical effort beyond the capacity of standard laboratory equipment. We describe the first high-throughput proteomic analysis of human breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDCA) using OCT (optimal cutting temperature) embedded biopsies, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) technology and a fully automated spot handling workstation. Total proteins from four breast IDCAs (Stage I, IIA, IIB and IIIA) were individually compared to protein from non-neoplastic tissue obtained from a female donor with no personal or family history of breast cancer. We detected differences in protein abundance that ranged from 14.8% in stage I IDCA versus normal, to 30.6% in stage IIB IDCA versus normal. A total of 524 proteins that showed > or = three-fold difference in abundance between IDCA and normal tissue were picked, processed and identified by mass spectrometry. Out of the proteins picked, approximately 80% were unambiguously assigned identities by matrix-assisted laser desorbtion/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in the first pass. Bioinformatics tools were also used to mine databases to determine if the identified proteins are involved in important pathways and/or interact with other proteins. Gelsolin, vinculin, lumican, alpha-1-antitrypsin, heat shock protein-60, cytokeratin-18, transferrin, enolase-1 and beta-actin, showed differential abundance between IDCA and normal tissue, but the trend was not consistent in all samples. Out of the proteins with database hits, only heat shock

  12. Precision mass measurements of highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Bale, J. C.; Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Ettenauer, S.; Frekers, D.; Gallant, A. T.; Grossheim, A.; Lennarz, A.; Mane, E.; MacDonald, T. D.; Schultz, B. E.; Simon, M. C.; Simon, V. V.; Dilling, J.

    2012-10-01

    The reputation of Penning trap mass spectrometry for accuracy and precision was established with singly charged ions (SCI); however, the achievable precision and resolving power can be extended by using highly charged ions (HCI). The TITAN facility has demonstrated these enhancements for long-lived (T1/2>=50 ms) isobars and low-lying isomers, including ^71Ge^21+, ^74Rb^8+, ^78Rb^8+, and ^98Rb^15+. The Q-value of ^71Ge enters into the neutrino cross section, and the use of HCI reduced the resolving power required to distinguish the isobars from 3 x 10^5 to 20. The precision achieved in the measurement of ^74Rb^8+, a superallowed β-emitter and candidate to test the CVC hypothesis, rivaled earlier measurements with SCI in a fraction of the time. The 111.19(22) keV isomeric state in ^78Rb was resolved from the ground state. Mass measurements of neutron-rich Rb and Sr isotopes near A = 100 aid in determining the r-process pathway. Advanced ion manipulation techniques and recent results will be presented.

  13. Do mothers with high sodium levels in their breast milk have high depression and anxiety scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serim Demirgoren, Burcu; Ozbek, Aylin; Ormen, Murat; Kavurma, Canem; Ozer, Esra; Aydın, Adem

    2017-04-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the possible association of high breast milk sodium levels with postpartum depression and anxiety. Methods A total of 150 mothers and their healthy, exclusively breastfed newborns aged 8 to 15 days were recruited. Mothers were asked to complete scales for evaluation of postnatal depression and anxiety following an interview for consent and sociodemographic data collection. Breast milk samples were obtained to measure sodium and potassium (K) levels. Results Forty-nine mothers had higher than expected breast milk Na concentrations and a high Na/K ratio. These mothers scored significantly higher on the scales of postnatal depression and state anxiety ( P = 0.018 and P = 0.048, respectively). Conclusions This study shows that compared to normal breast milk Na levels and Na/K ratio, high breast milk Na and high Na/K ratio, with possible serious consequences in infants, are associated with maternal depressive and anxious symptoms in the postpartum period.

  14. The role of conventional and functional MRI in diagnosis of breast masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef Hammad Teama

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: DCE-MRI of the breast had a higher sensitivity for breast cancer detection and more accurate in delineation of the disease extension. The breast MRI with three parameters (DCE-MRI, DWI, and MRS increased the diagnostic accuracy of the breast cancer.

  15. Proteomic analysis of estrogen response of premalignant human breast cells using a 2-D liquid separation/mass mapping technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia; Zhu, Kan; Lubman, David M; Miller, Fred R; Shekhar, Malthy P V; Gerard, Brigitte; Barder, Timothy J

    2006-07-01

    A 2-D liquid-phase separation method based on chromatofocusing and nonporous silica RP-HPLC followed by ESI-TOF-MS was used to analyze proteins in whole cell lysates from estrogen-treated and untreated premalignant, estrogen-responsive cell line MCF10AT1 cells. 2-D mass maps in the pH range 4.6-6.0 were generated with good correlation to theoretical M(r) values for intact proteins. Proteins were identified based on intact M(r), pI and PMF, or MS/MS sequencing. About 300 unique proteins were identified and 120 proteins in mass range 5-75 kDa were quantified upon treatment of estrogen. Around 40 proteins were found to be more highly expressed (>four-fold) and 17 were down-regulated (>four-fold) in treated cells. In our study, we found that many altered proteins have characteristics consistent with the development of a malignant phenotype. Some of them have a role in the ras pathway or play an important role in signal pathways. These changed proteins might be essential in the estrogen regulation mechanism. Our study highlights the use of the MCF10AT1 cell line to examine estrogen-induced changes in premalignant breast cells and the ability of the 2-D mass mapping technique to quantitatively study protein expression changes on a proteomic scale.

  16. Interaction between body mass index and hormone-receptor status as a prognostic factor in lymph-node-positive breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Il Yong; Park, Yu Rang; Min, Yul Ha; Lee, Yura; Yoon, Tae In; Sohn, Guiyun; Lee, Sae Byul; Kim, Jisun; Kim, Hee Jeong; Ko, Beom Seok; Son, Byung Ho; Ahn, Sei Hyun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the body mass index (BMI) at a breast cancer diagnosis and various factors including the hormone-receptor, menopause, and lymph-node status, and identify if there is a specific patient subgroup for which the BMI has an effect on the breast cancer prognosis. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 8,742 patients with non-metastatic invasive breast cancer from the research database of Asan Medical Center. The overall survival (OS) and breast-cancer-specific survival (BCSS) outcomes were compared among BMI groups using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional-hazards regression models with an interaction term. There was a significant interaction between BMI and hormone-receptor status for the OS (P = 0.029), and BCSS (P = 0.013) in lymph-node-positive breast cancers. Obesity in hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer showed a poorer OS (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.92 to 2.48) and significantly poorer BCSS (HR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.08 to 2.99). In contrast, a high BMI in hormone-receptor-negative breast cancer revealed a better OS (HR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.16 to 1.19) and BCSS (HR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.19 to 1.44). Being underweight (BMI < 18.50 kg/m2) with hormone-receptor-negative breast cancer was associated with a significantly worse OS (HR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.00–3.95) and BCSS (HR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.12–4.47). There was no significant interaction found between the BMI and hormone-receptor status in the lymph-node-negative setting, and BMI did not interact with the menopause status in any subgroup. In conclusion, BMI interacts with the hormone-receptor status in a lymph-node-positive setting, thereby playing a role in the prognosis of breast cancer. PMID:28248981

  17. HIGH-INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND CASTRATION FOR BREAST CANCER PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书文; 和新盈; 石景森; 赵东利; 李明众; 王诚; 薛文华

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of external high-intensity focused ultrasound(HIFU) castration for breast cancerous patients after mastectomy if they are at a high risk of recurrence. Methods: We recruited 52 consecutive patients with primary operable breast cancer who were treated with mastectomy with excision of regional lymph nodes. Patients were positive for ER and PR immuno- cytochemical staining, node-positive, un-menopause, over 40 years old and were divided into two groups randomly. For castration, 26 patients received one or two times of HIFU treatment within five days, and the other patients received radiotherapy with DT 18Gy/9 f/11days. During and after the treatment, local changes and systemic response of the patients were observed. Results: After 1 month treatment, levels of serum E1 and E2 were significantly decreased compared to before treatment in HIFU groups (P<0.01 and P<0.001). The same changes were occurred in radiotherapy(RT) groups (P<0.05 and P<0.01). The levels of serum E1 or E2 in RT groups were higher than in HIFU groups (P<0.05). The symptom distribution of 'climacteric syndrome' of HIFU groups were significantly different from RT groups (P<0.01). The follow-up time was 4 months. The incidence of amenorrhea was 100% in all patients. No serious complications were seen. The temperature, pulse, blood pressure, and respiratory rate of the patients were almost normal. Conclusion: We have shown that the use of HIFU in the castrating of patients with breast cancer is feasible, safe and effective. This technology may provide a rapid noninvasive alterative to conventional bilateral oophorectomy or RT castration.

  18. Towards Visual-Search Model Observers for Mass Detection in Breast Tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Beverly A; Das, Mini; Gifford, Howard C

    2013-03-21

    We are investigating human-observer models that perform clinically realistic detection and localization tasks as a means of making reliable assessments of digital breast tomosynthesis images. The channelized non-prewhitening (CNPW) observer uses the background known exactly task for localization and detection. Visual-search observer models attempt to replicate the search patterns of trained radiologists. The visual-search observer described in this paper utilizes a two-phase approach, with an initial holistic search followed by directed analysis and decision making. Gradient template matching is used for the holistic search, and the CNPW observer is used for analysis and decision making. Spherical masses were embedded into anthropomorphic breast phantoms, and simulated projections were made using ray-tracing and a serial cascade model. A localization ROC study was performed on these images using the visual-search model observer and the CNPW observer. Observer performance from the two computer observers was compared to human observer performance. The visual-search observer was able to produce area under the LROC curve values similar to those from human observers; however, more research is needed to increase the robustness of the algorithm.

  19. Ultrasonographic evaluation of fibroadenoma in the breast: primary signs of mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Choon Sik; Kim, Mi Hye; Ahn, Chang Soo; Oh, Ki Keun [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-01-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonomammographic findings of breast fibroadenoma. We evaluated the ultrasonographic findings of histopathologically proved 135 fibroadenomas in 103 patients from January 1986 to September 1990, retrospectively. The ultrasonographic examinations were performed with a hand held linear array 5MHz transducer (Acuson 128(USA). Aloka 650, 280(Japan)). Asonopad was also used during the examinations. The common ultrasonographic findings of fibroadenomas usually showed smooth contour in 120 lesions(88.9%), oval or round shape in 114 lesions(84.4%), uniform homogeneous echogenecity in 106 lesions(78.5%), intermediate hypoechoic internal echo pattern in 105 lesions(77.8%), thin boundary echo in 117 lesions(86.7%), lateral shadowings in 97 lesions(72%), and posterior acoustic enhancement in 56 lesions(41%). The longitudinal/transverse ratio of fibroadenoma was revealed between 0.2 and 1.14 (mean 0.58) and usually under 1.0 (68.9%). Finally, most of fibroadenomas are easily diagnosed by ultrasonography but if differential diagnosis from malignant breast mass is difficult due to atypical appearance, other combined modalities such as filmmammography, fine needle aspiration biopsy and MRI are necessary.

  20. Developing a discrimination rule between breast cancer patients and controls using proteomics mass spectrometric data: A three-step approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidema, A.G.; Nagelkerke, N.

    2008-01-01

    To discriminate between breast cancer patients and controls, we used a three-step approach to obtain our decision rule. First, we ranked the mass/charge values using random forests, because it generates importance indices that take possible interactions into account. We observed that the top ranked

  1. Detection of Metastatic Breast and Thyroid Cancer in Lymph Nodes by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jialing; Feider, Clara L.; Nagi, Chandandeep; Yu, Wendong; Carter, Stacey A.; Suliburk, James; Cao, Hop S. Tran; Eberlin, Livia S.

    2017-02-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry has been widely applied to image lipids and metabolites in primary cancer tissues with the purpose of detecting and understanding metabolic changes associated with cancer development and progression. Here, we report the use of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) to image metastatic breast and thyroid cancer in human lymph node tissues. Our results show clear alterations in lipid and metabolite distributions detected in the mass spectra profiles from 42 samples of metastatic thyroid tumors, metastatic breast tumors, and normal lymph node tissues. 2D DESI-MS ion images of selected molecular species allowed discrimination and visualization of specific histologic features within tissue sections, including regions of metastatic cancer, adjacent normal lymph node, and fibrosis or adipose tissues, which strongly correlated with pathologic findings. In thyroid cancer metastasis, increased relative abundances of ceramides and glycerophosphoinisitols were observed. In breast cancer metastasis, increased relative abundances of various fatty acids and specific glycerophospholipids were seen. Trends in the alterations in fatty acyl chain composition of lipid species were also observed through detailed mass spectra evaluation and chemical identification of molecular species. The results obtained demonstrate DESI-MSI as a potential clinical tool for the detection of breast and thyroid cancer metastasis in lymph nodes, although further validation is needed.

  2. Detection of Metastatic Breast and Thyroid Cancer in Lymph Nodes by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jialing; Feider, Clara L.; Nagi, Chandandeep; Yu, Wendong; Carter, Stacey A.; Suliburk, James; Cao, Hop S. Tran; Eberlin, Livia S.

    2017-06-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry has been widely applied to image lipids and metabolites in primary cancer tissues with the purpose of detecting and understanding metabolic changes associated with cancer development and progression. Here, we report the use of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) to image metastatic breast and thyroid cancer in human lymph node tissues. Our results show clear alterations in lipid and metabolite distributions detected in the mass spectra profiles from 42 samples of metastatic thyroid tumors, metastatic breast tumors, and normal lymph node tissues. 2D DESI-MS ion images of selected molecular species allowed discrimination and visualization of specific histologic features within tissue sections, including regions of metastatic cancer, adjacent normal lymph node, and fibrosis or adipose tissues, which strongly correlated with pathologic findings. In thyroid cancer metastasis, increased relative abundances of ceramides and glycerophosphoinisitols were observed. In breast cancer metastasis, increased relative abundances of various fatty acids and specific glycerophospholipids were seen. Trends in the alterations in fatty acyl chain composition of lipid species were also observed through detailed mass spectra evaluation and chemical identification of molecular species. The results obtained demonstrate DESI-MSI as a potential clinical tool for the detection of breast and thyroid cancer metastasis in lymph nodes, although further validation is needed. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Modeling of errors in Nakagami imaging: illustration on breast mass characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrue, Aymeric; Noble, J Alison

    2014-05-01

    Nakagami imaging is an attractive tissue characterization method, as the parameter estimated at each location is related to properties of the tissues. The application to clinical ultrasound images is problematic, as the estimation of the parameters is disturbed by the presence of complex structures. We propose to consider separately the different aspects potentially affecting the value of the Nakagami parameters and quantify their effects on the estimation. This framework is applied to the classification of breast masses. Quantitative parameters are computed on two groups of ultrasound images of benign and malignant tumors. A statistical analysis of the result indicated that the previously observed difference between average values of the Nakagami parameters is explained mostly by estimation errors. In the future, new methods for reliable computation of Nakagami parameters need to be developed, and factors of error should be considered in studies using Nakagami parameters.

  4. Localization of tamoxifen in human breast cancer tumors by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Végvári, Ákos; Shavkunov, Alexander S; Fehniger, Thomas E; Grabau, Dorthe; Niméus, Emma; Marko-Varga, György

    2016-03-01

    Tamoxifen is used in endocrine treatment of breast cancer to inhibit estrogen signaling. A set of stratified ER-positive and ER-negative tumor sections was subjected to manual deposition of tamoxifen solution in order to investigate its spatial distribution upon exposure to interaction within thin tissue sections. The localization of tamoxifen in tumor sections was assessed by matrix assisted laser deposition/ionization mass spectrometry imaging. The images of extracted ion maps were analyzed for comparison of signal intensity distributions. The precursor ion of tamoxifen (m/z 372.233) displayed heterogeneous signal intensity distributions in histological compartments of tumor tissue sections. The levels of tamoxifen in tumor cells compared with stroma were higher in ER-positive tissues, whereas ER-negative tissue sections showed lower signal intensities in tumor cells. The experimental model was successfully applied on frozen tumor samples allowing for differentiation between ER groups based on distribution of tamoxifen.

  5. In vivo imaging of human breast cancer mouse model with high level expression of calcium sensing receptor at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baio, Gabriella; Fabbi, Marina; Emionite, Laura; Cilli, Michele; Salvi, Sandra; Ghedin, Piero; Prato, Sabina; Carbotti, Grazia; Tagliafico, Alberto; Truini, Mauro; Neumaier, Carlo Emanuele

    2012-03-01

    To demonstrate that manganese can visualise calcium sensing receptor (CaSR)-expressing cells in a human breast cancer murine model, as assessed by clinical 3T magnetic resonance (MR). Human MDA-MB-231-Luc or MCF7-Luc breast cancer cells were orthotopically grown in NOD/SCID mice to a minimum mass of 5 mm. Mice were evaluated on T1-weighted sequences before and after intravenous injection of MnCl(2). To block the CaSR-activated Ca(2+) channels, verapamil was injected at the tumour site 5 min before Mn(2+) administration. CaSR expression in vivo was studied by immunohistochemistry. Contrast enhancement was observed at the tumour periphery 10 min after Mn(2+) administration, and further increased up to 40 min. In verapamil-treated mice, no contrast enhancement was observed. CaSR was strongly expressed at the tumour periphery. Manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging can visualise CaSR-expressing breast cancer cells in vivo, opening up possibilities for a new MR contrast agent. • Manganese contrast agents helped demonstrate breast cancer cells in an animal model. • Enhancement was most marked in cells with high calcium sensing receptor expression. • Manganese uptake was related to the distribution of CaSR within the tumour. • Manganese MRI may become useful to investigate human breast cancer.

  6. Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk According to Postmenopausal Estrogen-Progestin Use and Hormone Receptor Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsell, Mark F.; Sprague, Brian L.; Berry, Donald A.; Chisholm, Gary; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2014-01-01

    To assess the joint relationships among body mass index, menopausal status, and breast cancer according to breast cancer subtype and estrogen-progestin medication use, we conducted a meta-analysis of 89 epidemiologic reports published in English during 1980–2012 identified through a systematic search of bibliographic databases. Pooled analysis yielded a summary risk ratio of 0.78 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67, 0.92) for hormone receptor–positive premenopausal breast cancer associated with obesity (body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) ≥30 compared with Obesity was associated with a summary risk ratio of 1.39 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.70) for receptor-positive postmenopausal breast cancer. For receptor-negative breast cancer, the summary risk ratios of 1.06 (95% CI: 0.70, 1.60) and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.22) associated with obesity were null for both premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. Elevated postmenopausal breast cancer risk ratios associated with obesity were limited to women who never took estrogen-progestin therapy, with risk ratios of 1.42 (95% CI: 1.30, 1.55) among never users and 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) among users; too few studies were available to examine this relationship according to receptor subtype. Future research is needed to confirm whether obesity is unrelated to receptor-negative breast cancer in populations of postmenopausal women with low prevalence of hormone medication use. PMID:24375928

  7. Performance evaluation of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García Hernández, Trinitat, E-mail: mtrinitat@eresa.com; Vicedo González, Aurora; Brualla González, Luis; Granero Cabañero, Domingo [Department of Medical Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Ferrer Rebolleda, Jose; Sánchez Jurado, Raúl; Puig Cozar Santiago, Maria del [Department of Nuclear Medicine, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Roselló Ferrando, Joan [Department of Medical Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Valencia 46010 (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: Early stage breast cancers may not be visible on a whole-body PET scan. To overcome whole-body PET limitations, several dedicated breast positron emission tomography (DbPET) systems have emerged nowadays aiming to improve spatial resolution. In this work the authors evaluate the performance of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner (Mammi-PET, Oncovision). Methods: Global status, uniformity, sensitivity, energy, and spatial resolution were measured. Spheres of different sizes (2.5, 4, 5, and 6 mm diameter) and various 18 fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) activity concentrations were randomly inserted in a gelatine breast phantom developed at our institution. Several lesion-to-background ratios (LBR) were simulated, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 30:1, and 50:1. Images were reconstructed using different voxel sizes. The ability of experienced reporters to detect spheres was tested as a function of acquisition time, LBR, sphere size, and matrix reconstruction voxel size. For comparison, phantoms were scanned in the DbPET camera and in a whole body PET (WB-PET). Two patients who just underwent WB-PET/CT exams were imaged with the DbPET system and the images were compared. Results: The measured absolute peak sensitivity was 2.0%. The energy resolution was 24.0% ± 1%. The integral and differential uniformity were 10% and 6% in the total field of view (FOV) and 9% and 5% in the central FOV, respectively. The measured spatial resolution was 2.0, 1.9, and 1.7 mm in the radial, tangential, and axial directions. The system exhibited very good detectability for spheres ≥4 mm and LBR ≥10 with a sphere detection of 100% when acquisition time was set >3 min/bed. For LBR = 5 and acquisition time of 7 min the detectability was 100% for spheres of 6 mm and 75% for spheres of 5, 4, and 2.5 mm. Lesion WB-PET detectability was only comparable to the DbPET camera for lesion sizes ≥5 mm when acquisition time was >3 min and LBR > 10. Conclusions: The DbPET has a good

  8. Association between body mass index and risk of breast cancer among females of north India

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, breast cancer is most common cancer among women. In India and other developing countries, breast carcinoma ranks second only to cervical carcinoma among women. Although studies have been done globally, to find association between BMI and breast cancer, very few studies in India document any such association. Purpose: To find out the association between BMI and breast cancer. Materials and Methods: A Case-control study was done from August 2009 - July 2010 in the wards o...

  9. An interactive system for computer-aided diagnosis of breast masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingwei; Li, Lihua; Liu, Wei; Xu, Weidong; Lederman, Dror; Zheng, Bin

    2012-10-01

    Although mammography is the only clinically accepted imaging modality for screening the general population to detect breast cancer, interpreting mammograms is difficult with lower sensitivity and specificity. To provide radiologists "a visual aid" in interpreting mammograms, we developed and tested an interactive system for computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) of mass-like cancers. Using this system, an observer can view CAD-cued mass regions depicted on one image and then query any suspicious regions (either cued or not cued by CAD). CAD scheme automatically segments the suspicious region or accepts manually defined region and computes a set of image features. Using content-based image retrieval (CBIR) algorithm, CAD searches for a set of reference images depicting "abnormalities" similar to the queried region. Based on image retrieval results and a decision algorithm, a classification score is assigned to the queried region. In this study, a reference database with 1,800 malignant mass regions and 1,800 benign and CAD-generated false-positive regions was used. A modified CBIR algorithm with a new function of stretching the attributes in the multi-dimensional space and decision scheme was optimized using a genetic algorithm. Using a leave-one-out testing method to classify suspicious mass regions, we compared the classification performance using two CBIR algorithms with either equally weighted or optimally stretched attributes. Using the modified CBIR algorithm, the area under receiver operating characteristic curve was significantly increased from 0.865 ± 0.006 to 0.897 ± 0.005 (p interactive CAD system with a large reference database and achieving improved performance.

  10. The role of the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO in breast cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Surbhi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has been shown to increase breast cancer risk. FTO is a novel gene which has been identified through genome wide association studies (GWAS to be related to obesity. Our objective was to evaluate tissue expression of FTO in breast and the role of FTO SNPs in predicting breast cancer risk. Methods We performed a case-control study of 354 breast cancer cases and 364 controls. This study was conducted at Northwestern University. We examined the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of intron 1 of FTO in breast cancer risk. We genotyped cases and controls for four SNPs: rs7206790, rs8047395, rs9939609 and rs1477196. We also evaluated tissue expression of FTO in normal and malignant breast tissue. Results We found that all SNPs were significantly associated with breast cancer risk with rs1477196 showing the strongest association. We showed that FTO is expressed both in normal and malignant breast tissue. We found that FTO genotypes provided powerful classifiers to predict breast cancer risk and a model with epistatic interactions further improved the prediction accuracy with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves of 0.68. Conclusion In conclusion we have shown a significant expression of FTO in malignant and normal breast tissue and that FTO SNPs in intron 1 are significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Furthermore, these FTO SNPs are powerful classifiers in predicting breast cancer risk.

  11. High expression of REGγ is associated with metastasis and poor prognosis of patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Fan; Liang, Yan; Bi, Jiong; Chen, Li; Zhang, Fan; Cui, Youhong; Bian, Xiuwu; Jiang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    REGgamma (REGγ) has been recently found in several types of human cancer, however, its clinical significance in metastasis and prognosis of breast cancer remains unknown. In this study, immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis were performed to evaluate REGγ expression in both mouse and human breast cancer specimens. We found that in MMTV-PyMT mice, 14 out of 20 (70%) mouse mammary carcinomas were REGγ positive, which was significantly higher than control (0/20, 0%, P breast cancer tissues with the paired peritumoural normal breast tissues and 140 breast benign disease tissue samples showed that REGγ was undetectable in normal breast tissues and nonmetastatic axillary lymph nodes (ALNs), whereas 111 out of 136 (81.6%) breast cancer tissue samples were REGγ positive, which was significantly higher than breast benign disease tissues (9/140, 6.4%, P breast cancer (OR = 4.369, P = 0.008). Our results suggest that the high expression of REGγ might predict metastasis and poor prognosis in breast cancer.

  12. Computer-aided detection (CAD) of breast masses in mammography: combined detection and ensemble classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Dae Hoe; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Ro, Yong Man

    2014-07-01

    We propose a novel computer-aided detection (CAD) framework of breast masses in mammography. To increase detection sensitivity for various types of mammographic masses, we propose the combined use of different detection algorithms. In particular, we develop a region-of-interest combination mechanism that integrates detection information gained from unsupervised and supervised detection algorithms. Also, to significantly reduce the number of false-positive (FP) detections, the new ensemble classification algorithm is developed. Extensive experiments have been conducted on a benchmark mammogram database. Results show that our combined detection approach can considerably improve the detection sensitivity with a small loss of FP rate, compared to representative detection algorithms previously developed for mammographic CAD systems. The proposed ensemble classification solution also has a dramatic impact on the reduction of FP detections; as much as 70% (from 15 to 4.5 per image) at only cost of 4.6% sensitivity loss (from 90.0% to 85.4%). Moreover, our proposed CAD method performs as well or better (70.7% and 80.0% per 1.5 and 3.5 FPs per image respectively) than the results of mammography CAD algorithms previously reported in the literature.

  13. High Mass Star Formation. III. The Functional Form of the Submillimeter Clump Mass Function

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, M A; Reid, Michael A.; Wilson, Christine D.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the mass function of cold, dusty clumps in 11 low- and high-mass star-forming regions. Using a homogeneous fitting technique, we analyze the shape of each region's clump mass function and examine the commonalities among them. We find that the submillimeter continuum clump mass function in low-mass star-forming regions is typically best fit by a lognormal distribution, while that in high-mass star-forming regions is better fit by a double power law. A single power law clump mass distribution is ruled out in all cases. Fitting all of the regions with a double power law, we find the mean power law exponent at the high-mass end of each mass function is alpha_high = -2.4+/-0.1, consistent with the Salpeter result of alpha = -2.35. We find no region-to-region trend in alpha_high with the mass scale of the clumps in a given region, as characterized by their median mass. Similarly, non non-parametric tests show that the shape of the clump mass function does not change much from region to region, despit...

  14. A Massive, Prestellar Clump Hosting no High-Mass Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, P.; Jackson, J. M.; Zhang, Q.; Foster, J.; Guzmán, A.

    2015-12-01

    We observed a high-mass, prestellar clump in dust continuum with SMA (3.5″) and in NH3 line emission with JVLA (2″). We find no core with sufficient mass to form high-mass stars at the current evolutionary stage. In order to form high-mass stars, the embedded cores need to accrete a significant amount of mass over time which is consistent with some models of high-mass star formation. We also find that the gas in the cores is transonic or mildly supersonic. The embedded cores are sub-virialized, which is inconsistent with some models of high-mass star formation unless strong magnetic fields of ˜1 mG are present.

  15. [Variations in the diagnostic confirmation process between breast cancer mass screening units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natal, Carmen; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Torá-Rocamora, Isabel; Tardón, Adonina; Castells, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    To analyse variations in the diagnostic confirmation process between screening units, variations in the outcome of each episode and the relationship between the use of the different diagnostic confirmation tests and the lesion detection rate. Observational study of variability of the standardised use of diagnostic and lesion detection tests in 34 breast cancer mass screening units participating in early-detection programmes in three Spanish regions from 2002-2011. The diagnostic test variation ratio in percentiles 25-75 ranged from 1.68 (further appointments) to 3.39 (fine-needle aspiration). The variation ratio in detection rates of benign lesions, ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive cancer were 2.79, 1.99 and 1.36, respectively. A positive relationship between rates of testing and detection rates was found with fine-needle aspiration-benign lesions (R(2): 0.53), fine-needle aspiration-invasive carcinoma (R(2): 0 28), core biopsy-benign lesions (R(2): 0.64), core biopsy-ductal carcinoma in situ (R(2): 0.61) and core biopsy-invasive carcinoma (R(2): 0.48). Variation in the use of invasive tests between the breast cancer screening units participating in early-detection programmes was found to be significantly higher than variations in lesion detection. Units which conducted more fine-needle aspiration tests had higher benign lesion detection rates, while units that conducted more core biopsies detected more benign lesions and cancer. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of The Value of Core Needle Biopsy in The Diagnosis of a Breast Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieh Sadat Fattahi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Core needle biopsy (CNB with histological findings is regarded as one of the most important diagnostic measures that make preoperative assessment and planning for appropriate treatment possible. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of core biopsy results in our patients with benign and malignant breast lumps, especially for borderline breast lesions, by using a classification method.Methods: In this study, 116 patients who were referred to the Surgery Clinic of Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran with breast lump and underwent diagnostic procedures such as mammography and ultrasound were selected. Core needle biopsy (Tru-cut #14 or 16 was performed. After that, excisional biopsy was done. The benign, malignant and unspecified samples obtained by core needle biopsy were evaluated with the samples of the surgical and pathological findings. Then, false positive, false negative, sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the core needle biopsy method were calculated. Also, the National Health Service Breast Screening Program (NHSBSP classification was employed.Results: The mean age of the participants in this study was 39±13.13 years and the mean tumor size was 2.7 cm. An average of 3.35 biopsies was taken from all patients. Most of the pathology samples taken from CNB and excisional biopsy were compatible with invasive ductal carcinoma. Of the B type classifications, B5 was the most frequent in both methods. Borderline lesions B3 and B4 had a change in their category after surgery. About 2.5% of the samples in core biopsy were inadequate. Skin bruising was the most common core biopsy complication reported. While, the most common complication of excisional biopsy was hematoma. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the core needle biopsy procedure compared with excisional biopsy was 95.5%, 92.6%, 100%, 100%, and 91

  17. MRI surveillance for women with dense breasts and a previous breast cancer and/or high risk lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Michelle; Al-Attar, Hyder; Warner, Ellen; Martel, Anne L; Balasingham, Sharmila; Zhang, Liying; Lipton, Joseph H; Curpen, Belinda

    2017-08-01

    The role of surveillance breast MRI for women with mammographically dense breasts, a personal history of breast cancer (BC), atypical hyperplasia (AH), or lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is unclear. We estimated the performance of annual surveillance MRI in women with a combination of these risk factors. We performed a retrospective review of the clinical, radiological, and pathological parameters of women who received annual concurrent surveillance breast MRI and mammography between 04/2013 and 12/2015 and fulfilled all of the following criteria: 1) age <70; 2) prior diagnosis of AH, LCIS or BC; 3) heterogeneously or extremely dense breast(s); and 4) did not qualify for our provincial breast MRI high risk screening program. This study included 198 patients (266 MRI exams). MRI detected 15 cancers: 11 invasive stage I and 4 in-situ. All but 1 were mammographically occult and there were no interval cancers. The cancer detection rate (CDR) and false positive (FP) rate were 6.1% and 21% for round one and 4.7% and 12.5% for round two, respectively. Not being on anti-estrogen therapy and having a 1st degree relative with BC significantly increased the likelihood of tumor detection. The CDR and FP rate of surveillance MRI in this study were comparable to those reported for women with BRCA mutations. The addition of annual MRI to mammography should be considered for surveillance of women with a combination of these risk factors, particularly if they have a family history of BC and are not on anti-estrogen therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Role of Ultrasographic Elastography in the Differential Diagnosis of Breast Masses and Its Contribution to Classical Ultrasonographic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaðtu, Mehmet; Turan, Eren; Turan, Çiðdem Öztürk

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to understand the role of ultrasonographic elastography method in the differentiation of breast masses and to assess its contribution to classic ultrasonographic evaluation. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, 76 breast masses in 76 patients were firstly evaluated by conventional ultrasonography (U.S.) and scored according to breast imaging report and data systems (BIRADS) and then evaluated with the Elastographic method during the same session between January and December 2013 in our hospital’s Radiology Department. Findings were compared with pathological results. In statistical evaluation of the data, independent sample t tests were used for variables between groups. Results The mean strain ratio of benign masses was 2.48±1.605 and strain score was 2.307±1.327. The mean strain ratio of malignant masses was 5.546±1.434 and strain score was 4.458±0.721. The most frequent benign masses were fibroadenoma and fibrocystic lesions. The most common malignant lesion was invasive ductal carcinoma. When the cut-off value for strain ratio was accepted as 4.009 in receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis for the differential diagnosis of malignant breast masses, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated as 83.8%, 76.9%, 62.3%, and 90.7%, respectively. When the limit value of strain patterns was accepted as scores 4 and 5, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were calculated as 42.7%, 94.2%, 77.2%, and 78%, respectively. When conventional ultrasonography (U.S.) findings were considered together with the elastographic strain ratios the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 87.5%, 71.1%, 58.3% and 92.5%, respectively. Conclusion Elastography is not a method that can replace conventional breast ultrasound for detecting breast cancer, however it may be an adjunct to conventional ultrasound by increasing its diagnostic power. PMID:28331660

  19. High-performance broad-band spectroscopy for breast cancer risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Blackmore, Kristina; Dick, Samantha; Lilge, Lothar

    2005-09-01

    Medical diagnostics and screening are becoming increasingly demanding applications for spectroscopy. Although for many years the demand was satisfied with traditional spectrometers, analysis of complex biological samples has created a need for instruments capable of detecting small differences between samples. One such application is the measurement of absorbance of broad spectrum illumination by breast tissue, in order to quantify the breast tissue density. Studies have shown that breast cancer risk is closely associated with the measurement of radiographic breast density measurement. Using signal attenuation in transillumination spectroscopy in the 550-1100nm spectral range to measure breast density, has the potential to reduce the frequency of ionizing radiation, or making the test accessible to younger women; lower the cost and make the procedure more comfortable for the patient. In order to determine breast density, small spectral variances over a total attenuation of up to 8 OD have to be detected with the spectrophotometer. For this, a high performance system has been developed. The system uses Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) transmission grating, a 2D detector array for simultaneous registration of the whole spectrum with high signal to noise ratio, dedicated optical system specifically optimized for spectroscopic applications and many other improvements. The signal to noise ratio exceeding 50,000 for a single data acquisition eliminates the need for nitrogen cooled detectors and provides sufficient information to predict breast tissue density. Current studies employing transillumination breast spectroscopy (TIBS) relating to breast cancer risk assessment and monitoring are described.

  20. MRI-guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound of Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckel, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a promising technique for completely noninvasive tumor ablation. This thesis focuses on its application for the treatment of patients with breast cancer. The first part of the thesis describes the role of breast MRI for

  1. A computer-aided diagnosis system for breast DCE-MRI at high spatiotemporal resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmis, M.U.; Gubern-Merida, A.; Vreemann, S.; Karssemeijer, N.; Mann, R.; Platel, B.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: With novel MRI sequences, high spatiotemporal resolution has become available in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) of the breast. Since benign structures in the breast can show enhancement similar to malignancies in DCE-MRI, characterization of detected lesions

  2. MRI-guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound of Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckel, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a promising technique for completely noninvasive tumor ablation. This thesis focuses on its application for the treatment of patients with breast cancer. The first part of the thesis describes the role of breast MRI for

  3. Anastrozole for prevention of breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women (IBIS-II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuzick, Jack; Sestak, Ivana; Forbes, John F

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aromatase inhibitors effectively prevent breast cancer recurrence and development of new contralateral tumours in postmenopausal women. We assessed the efficacy and safety of the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole for prevention of breast cancer in postmenopausal women who are at high ri...

  4. High mass dijet and ttbar resonance searches

    CERN Document Server

    Melnitchouk, Alex

    2008-01-01

    We present searches for dijet and ttbar mass resonances using between 0.68 and 2.1 fb-1 of Tevatron Run II data collected by the CDF and D0 detectors. No evidence of new physics is found, and 95% C.L. limits are set on a number of new physics hypotheses, such as excited quark, Randal-Sundrum graviton, Z', W', color-octet technirho, axigluon and flavor-universal coloron, E6 diquark, quark compositeness, ADD and TeV-1-sized LED, massive gluon.

  5. Comparison of thallium-201 scan and Tc-99m sestamibi scan in the differential diagnosis of breast mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Ihn Ho; Won, Kyu Jang; Lee, Hyung Woo; Lee, Soon Jung [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    We performed this study to compare Tl-201 and Tc-99m MIBI scans for the differentiation of malignant from benign breast mass. Thirty-eight female patients underwent Tl-201 breast scan and thirty-two of them also underwent Tc-99m MIBI scan of the breast. After intravenous injection of 74-111 MBq of Tl-201, early (10 minutes) and delayed (3 hours) images were obtained. Then, 555-740 MBq of Tc-99m MIBI was injected and images after 30 minutes were obtained. We compared Tl-201 and Tc-99m MIBI scans with pathologic results. Twenty-three patients were confirmed to have infiltrating duct carcinoma and fifteen patients to have benign breast mass by excisonal biopsy. The sensitivity of early and delayed Tl-201 scan and Tc-99m MIBI scan in the detection of malignant breast lesion were 100% (23/23), 82% (18/22), and 90% (18/20), respectively. The sensitivity of early Tl-201 scan was significantly higher than that of delayed Tl-201 scan, (p<0.05). The specificity of early and delayed Tl-201 scan and Tc-99m MIBI scan were 73% (11/15), 73% (11/15) and 83% (10/12), respectively (p: not significant). Three patients out of nine with fibroadenoma and one patient with atypical duct hyperplasia were false positive in both early and delayed Tl-201 scans. The size of fibroadenoma with false positive in early and delayed Tl-201 scan (4 cases) was larger than that of 11 fibroadenoma with true negative scan (p<0.01). Metastatic axillary lymph node involvement was present in fifteen patients. The sensitivity to detect metastatic nodes was 38% (5/13) for early Tl-201 images, 15% (2/13) for delayed Tl-201 images, 58% (7/12) for Tc-99m MIBI planar images and 67% (4/6) for Tc-99m MIBI SPECT. The sensitivity of Tc-99m MIBI planar or SPECT was significantly higher than that of delayed Tl-201 images (p<0.05). Early Tl-201 and Tc-99m MIBI scan are useful noninvasive methods to differentiate malignant from benign mass of breast. Tc-99m MIBI scan was sensitive in detecting axillary lymph node

  6. Ductal carcinoma in situ diagnosed using an ultrasound-guided 14-gauge core needle biopsy of breast masses: can underestimation be predicted preoperatively?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hee Park

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: We found a 30.4% rate of DCIS underestimation in breast masses based on a US-14G-CNB. The presence of abnormal lymph nodes as detected on axillary ultrasound may be useful to preoperatively predict underestimation.

  7. Molecule-Specific Imaging Analysis of Carcinogens in Breast Cancer Cells Using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quong, J N; Knize, M G; Kulp, K S; Wu, K J

    2003-08-19

    Imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) is used to study the localization of heterocyclic amines in MCF7 line of human breast cancer cells. The detection sensitivities of a model rodent mutagen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were determined. Following an established criteria for the determination of status of freeze-fracture cells, the distribution of PhIP in the MCF7 cells are reported.

  8. Study of the Effect of Breast Tissue Density on Detection of Masses in Mammograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. García-Manso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the parameters that are usually stored for mammograms is the BI-RADS density, which gives an idea of the breast tissue composition. In this work, we study the effect of BI-RADS density in our ongoing project for developing an image-based CAD system to detect masses in mammograms. This system consists of two stages. First, a blind feature extraction is performed for regions of interest (ROIs, using Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Next, in the second stage, those features form the input vectors to a classifier, neural network, or SVM classifier. To train and test our system, the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM was used. The results obtained show that the maximum variation in the performance of our system considering only prototypes obtained from mammograms with a concrete value of density (both for training and test is about 7%, yielding the best values for density equal to 1, and the worst for density equal to 4, for both classifiers. Finally, with the overall results (i.e., using prototypes from mammograms with all the possible values of densities, we obtained a difference in performance that is only 2% lower than the maximum, also for both classifiers.

  9. A psychological profile of depressed and nondepressed women at high risk for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellisch, D K; Lindberg, N M

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the difference on several demographic and psychosocial variables between women at high risk for breast cancer above and below the cut-off point of a depression measure (Center for Epidemiological Study Depression Scale). Data are presented for 430 consecutive patients from the UCLA Revlon Breast Center High Risk Clinic. Women scoring above the depression cut-off point were younger, had more relatives with breast cancer, reported more symptoms of anxiety, and had more self-perceived vulnerability to breast cancer. In addition, women above the depression cut-off point were more likely to be single, childless, to have not viewed the results of the surgical treatment of their relative, and to feel more anxiety regarding screening practices (mammography, pap smears, and breast self-examinations).

  10. Searches for high mass BSM scalars

    CERN Document Server

    Nam, Kyungwook

    2017-01-01

    Searches for BSM particles using the 126 GeV Higgs boson have been carried out with the CMS detector at LHC, based on pp collision data collected at centre-of-mass energies of 7, 8, and 13 TeV. The talk presents the latest results and gives a brief review of earlier results. A search for heavy resonances decaying to Zgamma is presented. This search is based on the data collected with the CMS detector at 13 TeV. The search strategy is to look for an excess above the non-resonant Standard Model background in the Zgamma invariant mass spectrum. The background is extracted directly from data and compared with the signal expected to be produced by hypothetical scalar resonances. While the HH production within the Standard Model is very small and essentially out of the experimental reach within the LHC Run II, several theories foresee an enhancement that can be already probed with the available data. The latest searches for resonant and non-resonant Higgs pair production, made using 13 TeV pp collisions data recor...

  11. High-Precision Mass Measurements of Exotic Nuclei with the Triple-Trap Mass Spectrometer Isoltrap

    CERN Multimedia

    Blaum, K; Zuber, K T; Stanja, J

    2002-01-01

    The masses of close to 200 short-lived nuclides have already been measured with the mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP with a relative precision between 1$\\times$10$^{-7}$ and 1$\\times$10^{-8}$. The installatin of a radio-frequency quadrupole trap increased the overall efficiency by two orders of magnitude which is at present about 1%. In a recent upgrade, we installed a carbon cluster laser ion source, which will allow us to use carbon clusters as mass references for absolute mass measurements. Due to these improvements and the high reliability of ISOLTRAP we are now able to perform accurate high-precision mass measurements all over the nuclear chart. We propose therefore mass measurements on light, medium and heavy nuclides on both sides of the valley of stability in the coming four years. ISOLTRAP is presently the only instrument capable of the high precision required for many of the proposed studies.

  12. Magnetic Field Structure in a High-mass System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuther, H.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Rao, R.; van der Tak, F. F. S.

    2010-01-01

    To characterize the magnetic field structure of the outflow and core region within a prototypical high-mass star-forming region, we analyzed polarized CO(3-2)-for the first time observed with the Submillimeter Array-as well as 880 mu m submillimeter continuum emission from the high-mass outflow/disk

  13. High level of HBV DNA virus in the breast milk seems not to contraindicate breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Montoya-Ferrer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Concerns of possible risk of mother to child HBV transmission through breastfeeding arouse when mothers present high levels of HBV DNA in breast milk. Here we describe the case of an HIV-HBV coinfected mother who presents a highly replicative HBV infection postdelivery and showed high level of HBV DNA in breast milk. Despite cumulative exposure to HBV infectious particles during breastfeeding, the child, who had been correctly vaccinated, was not infected by HBV.

  14. The negative predictive value of ultrasound-guided 14-gauge core needle biopsy of breast masses: a validation study of 339 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Charlie; Lewis, Darrell R; Nasute, Paola; Hayes, Malcolm; Warren, Linda J; Gordon, Paula B

    2012-10-31

    To determine the negative predictive value of sonographically guided 14-gauge core needle biopsy of breast masses, with detailed analysis of any false-negative cases. We reviewed 669 cases of sonographically guided 14-gauge core needle biopsies that had benign pathologic findings. Given a benign pathology on core biopsy, true-negatives had either benign pathology on surgical excision or at least 2 years of stable imaging and/or clinical follow-up; false-negatives had malignant histology on surgical excision. Follow-up was available for 339 breast lesions; 117 were confirmed to be benign via surgical excision, and 220 were stable after 2 years or more of imaging or clinical follow-up (mean follow-up time 33.1 months, range 24-64 months). The negative predictive value was determined to be 99.4%. There were 2 false-negative cases, giving a false-negative rate of 0.1%. There was no delay in diagnosis in either case because the radiologist noted discordance between imaging and core biopsy pathology, and recommended surgical excision despite the benign core biopsy pathology. Sonographically guided 14-gauge core needle biopsy provides a high negative predictive value in assessing breast lesions. Radiologic/pathologic correlation should be performed to avoid delay in the diagnosis of carcinoma.

  15. Association of high obesity with PAM50 breast cancer intrinsic subtypes and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Marilyn L; Kroenke, Candyce H; Sweeney, Carol; Bernard, Philip S; Weltzien, Erin K; Castillo, Adrienne; Factor, Rachel E; Maxfield, Kaylynn S; Stijleman, Inge J; Kushi, Lawrence H; Quesenberry, Charles P; Habel, Laurel A; Caan, Bette J

    2015-04-14

    Invasive breast cancers are now commonly classified using gene expression into biologically and clinically distinct tumor subtypes. However, the role of obesity in breast tumor gene expression and intrinsic subtype is unknown. Early-stage breast cancer (BC) patients (n = 1,676) were sampled from two prospective cohorts. The PAM50 qRT-PCR assay was used to: a) assess tumor gene expression levels for ESR1, PGR, ERBB2, and 10 proliferation genes and b) classify tumors into intrinsic subtype (Luminal A, Luminal B, Basal-like, HER2-enriched, Normal-like). Body mass index (BMI) around BC diagnosis (kg/m(2)) was categorized as: underweight (obese (30-34), and highly obese (≥35). In a cross-sectional analysis, we evaluated associations of BMI with gene expression using linear regression models, and associations of BMI with non-Luminal A intrinsic subtypes, compared with Luminal A subtype, using multinomial logistic regression. Statistical significance tests were two-sided. Highly obese women had tumors with higher expression of proliferation genes compared with normal weight women (adjusted mean difference = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.71), yet mildly obese (adjusted mean difference = 0.16; 95% CI: -0.06, 0.38) and overweight (adjusted mean difference = 0.18; 95% CI: -0.01, 0.36) women did not. This association was stronger in postmenopausal women (p for interaction = 0.06). Being highly obese, however, was inversely associated with ESR1 expression (adjusted mean difference = -0.95; 95% CI: -1.47, -0.42) compared with being normal weight, whereas being mildly obese and overweight were not. In addition, women with Basal-like and Luminal B subtypes, relative to those with Luminal A subtype, were more likely to be highly obese, compared with normal-weight. ER expression may not increase correspondingly with increasing degree of obesity. Highly obese patients are more likely to have tumor subtypes associated with high proliferation and poorer prognosis.

  16. Effect of body mass index on breast cancer during premenopausal and postmenopausal periods: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Cheraghi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There is no universal consensus on the relationship between body mass index (BMI and breast cancer. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the overall effect of overweight and obesity on breast cancer risk during pre- and post-menopausal period. DATA SOURCES: All major electronic databases were searched until April 2012 including Web of Knowledge, Medline, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. Furthermore, the reference lists and related scientific conference databases were searched. REVIEW METHODS: All prospective cohort and case-control studies investigating the association between BMI and breast cancer were retrieved irrespective of publication date and language. Women were assessed irrespective of age, race and marital status. The exposure of interest was BMI. The primary outcome of interest was all kinds of breast cancers confirmed pathologically. Study quality was assessed using the checklist of STROBE. Study selection and data extraction were performed by two authors separately. The effect measure of choice was risk ratio (RR(i and rate ratio (RR(a for cohort studies and odds ratio (OR in case-control studies. RESULTS: Of 9163 retrieved studies, 50 studies were included in meta-analysis including 15 cohort studies involving 2,104,203 subjects and 3,414,806 person-years and 35 case-control studies involving 71,216 subjects. There was an inverse but non-significant correlation between BMI and breast cancer risk during premenopausal period: OR = 0.93 (95% CI 0.86, 1.02; RR(i = 0.97 (95% CI 0.82, 1.16; and RR(a = 0.99 (95% CI 0.94, 1.05, but a direct and significant correlation during postmenopausal period: OR = 1.15 (95% CI 1.07, 1.24; RR(i = 1.16 (95% CI 1.08, 1.25; and RR(a = 0.98 (95% CI 0.88, 1.09. CONCLUSION: The results of this meta-analysis showed that body mass index has no significant effect on the incidence of breast cancer during premenopausal period. On the other hand, overweight and obesity may have a minimal effect on

  17. CORRELATION OF BREAST CANCER AND SERUM HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL LEVEL: A SINGLE CENTRE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common site specific cancer in women. Lots of etiological factors have been suggested regarding its causation. The risk is influenced by obesity, parity, exogenous and endogenous hormones, exposure to chemicals and radiation and many more. Various studies suggest that as HDL-C seems to be cardio protective, it is also protective for breast cancer. Serum HDL-C levels are found to be low in breast cancer patients. We studied this hypothesis in local population of Southern Rajasthan and nearby region to see if low serum HDL-C is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. We studied serum HDL-C level in 50 female patients of breast cancer along with their menopausal status and compared it to their respective controls. We found that breast cancer patients had significantly low level of serum HDL-C and presented in advanced stage of cancer. It supports that low serum HDL-C level is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. So one should think about those dietary and lifestyle measures, which maintain high serum HDL-C level so that it might become preventive measure for breast cancer.

  18. High grade angiosarcoma fifteen years after breast conservation therapy with radiation therapy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Boyan, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Secondary breast angiosarcoma diagnosis requires frequent follow ups and a high index of suspicion. With mastectomy giving the best chance of treatment in these cases, early detection is crucial in this rare sequela.

  19. Teaching Breast and Testicular Self-Exams: Evaluation of a High School Curriculum Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Stephen L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A high school curriculum project was developed to teach students about the importance of breast and testicular self-examination. Questionnaires were used to evaluate the project. Results are discussed. (DF)

  20. Mass spectrometry for high-throughput metabolomics analysis of urine

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelrazig, Salah M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Direct electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (direct ESI-MS), by omitting the chromatographic step, has great potential for application as a high-throughput approach for untargeted urine metabolomics analysis compared to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The rapid development and technical innovations revealed in the field of ambient ionisation MS such as nanoelectrospray ionisation (nanoESI) chip-based infusion and liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA...

  1. Comparative value of 99mTc-sestamibi scintimammography and sonography in the diagnostic workup of breast masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, A J; Klingensmith, W C; Parker, S H; Stavros, A T; Sutherland, J D; Aldrete, K D

    2000-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relative roles of 99mTc-sestamibi scintimammography and sonography in the evaluation of breast lesions that are indeterminate or suspicious on mammography or clinical examination. Twenty-five patients with 33 biopsy-proven breast lesions underwent both scintimammography and sonography. Lesions were categorized as benign or requiring biopsy on the basis of the absence or presence of a focus of increased activity on scintimammography and the shape, orientation, and echogenicity of the lesion on sonography. Sensitivity and specificity in detecting breast cancer were 92% and 95%, respectively, for scintimammography and 100% and 48%, respectively, for sonography. The higher specificity of scintimammography was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Although the overall accuracy of 99mTc-sestamibi scintimammography in the diagnosis of breast cancer was high, it has several disadvantages in comparison with sonography. Scintimammography has a slightly higher false-negative rate for breast cancer, is unable to reveal cysts, is more expensive, takes longer to perform, and involves ionizing radiation. For these reasons, scintimammography with 99mTc-sestamibi is unlikely to either replace sonography or be frequently used in addition to sonography.

  2. Patterns of nonmasslike enhancement at screening breast MR imaging of high-risk premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giess, Catherine S; Raza, Sughra; Birdwell, Robyn L

    2013-01-01

    Current U.S. recommendations for breast cancer screening of women with at least a 20%-25% lifetime risk of developing breast cancer include contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the breasts. The cancer detection rate in high-risk women undergoing screening MR imaging is approximately 10 times higher than that in normal-risk women undergoing screening mammography. Many of these high-risk women commence MR imaging screening while they are premenopausal, when the breasts are most influenced by cyclical hormonal changes. Healthy premenopausal breast tissue enhances in a cyclical and variable manner. This enhancement is described as background enhancement. Typically, enhancement of normal breast tissue occurs in a symmetric and diffuse pattern, and there is little diagnostic difficulty in classifying it as normal background parenchymal enhancement. However, sometimes the pattern is more focal, asymmetric, or regional. It may then be described as nonmasslike enhancement, an observation associated with both benign and malignant breast pathologic conditions. A review of the morphologic features and internal enhancement patterns in normal but nondiffuse background enhancement and abnormal nonmasslike enhancement in high-risk premenopausal women can help improve interpretive specificity and decrease false-positive interpretations. MR imaging pitfalls and interpretation strategies for localized background enhancement and pathologic nonmasslike enhancement in this high-risk population are highlighted. In evaluating nonmasslike enhancement, the use of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon to perform careful analysis of morphologic features, along with an understanding of the role and limitations of kinetic information, will help balance early breast cancer detection against false-positive interpretation.

  3. High-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, H-Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry for fundamental studies in metrology and atomic, nuclear and particle physics requires extreme sensitivity and efficiency as well as ultimate resolving power and accuracy. An overview will be given on the global status of high-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental physics and metrology. Three quite different examples of modern mass spectrometric experiments in physics are presented: (i) the retardation spectrometer KATRIN at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, employing electrostatic filtering in combination with magnetic-adiabatic collimation-the biggest mass spectrometer for determining the smallest mass, i.e. the mass of the electron anti-neutrino, (ii) the Experimental Cooler-Storage Ring at GSI-a mass spectrometer of medium size, relative to other accelerators, for determining medium-heavy masses and (iii) the Penning trap facility, SHIPTRAP, at GSI-the smallest mass spectrometer for determining the heaviest masses, those of super-heavy elements. Finally, a short view into the future will address the GSI project HITRAP at GSI for fundamental studies with highly-charged ions.

  4. High-accuracy mass determination of unstable nuclei with a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The mass of a nucleus is its most fundamental property. A systematic study of nuclear masses as a function of neutron and proton number allows the observation of collective and single-particle effects in nuclear structure. Accurate mass data are the most basic test of nuclear models and are essential for their improvement. This is especially important for the astrophysical study of nuclear synthesis. In order to achieve the required high accuracy, the mass of ions captured in a Penning trap is determined via their cyclotron frequency $ \

  5. Development of a method for the determination of cocaine, cocaethylene and norcocaine in human breast milk using liquid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Gabriela de Oliveira; Belitsky, Íris Tikkanen; Loddi, Silvana; Rodrigues de Oliveira, Carolina Dizioli; Zucoloto, Alexandre Dias; Fruchtengarten, Ligia Veras Gimenez; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2016-08-01

    Most licit and illicit substances consumed by the nursing mother might be excreted in breast milk, which may cause potential short and long term harmful effects for the breastfed infant. The extraction of substances from this matrix represents an analytical challenge due to its high protein and fat content as well as the fact that its composition changes during postpartum period. The aim of the present study was to develop a liquid phase microextraction (LPME) method for detection of the active substances: cocaine (COC), cocaethylene (CE) and norcocaine (NCOC) in human breast milk using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Validation was performed working on spiked human breast milk samples. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were of 6 and 12ng/mL, respectively, for all analytes. Calibration curves were linear over a concentration range of 12.0ng/mL-1000ng/mL (r(2)=0.99). No interferences were noticed at the retention times of interest. Within-run and between-run precision was always less or equal to 15 as % relative standard deviation, and bias ranged from 3 to 18%. Forty six milk samples were analyzed. Only one sample was confirmed to be COC positive (138ng/mL) and another one presented COC concentration near the LOD (6ng/mL). This method has shown to be a reliable alternative for the determination of cocaine, cocaethylene and norcocaine in human breast milk in the fields of clinical and forensic toxicology. LPME extraction procedure demonstrated to be a rather promising, low cost and environmental-friendly technique for the purpose of this study.

  6. Non-mass-like breast lesions at ultrasonography: Feature analysis and BI-RADS assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kai-Hsiung [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hsu, Hsian-He, E-mail: hsianhe@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yu, Jyh-Cherng [Department of Surgery, Division of General Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Peng, Yi-Jen [Department of Pathology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tung, Ho-Jui [Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chu, Chi-Ming [Section of Health Informatics, Institute of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center and University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Tsun-Hou; Chang, Wei-Chou; Wu, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Pang; Hsu, Giu-Cheng [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The positive predictive value of an NML lesion on ultrasound ranges from 10 to 79%. • A sizable number of NML malignant lesions are pure DCIS or ILC. • Biopsy is indicated for histopathological diagnosis when an ultrasound NML lesion is recognized. - Abstract: Objective: To analyze the features of non-mass-like (NML) breast lesions on ultrasound (US) and determine their corresponding malignancy rate and to stratify these lesion patterns according to US BI-RADS categories. Materials and methods: One hundred sixty-four consecutive lesions were retrospectively classified into four types according to the US features, the corresponding positive predictive values (PPVs) were obtained. Clinical, imaging, and histopathological findings were reviewed. Results: Among the 164 lesions, 39 (24%) were classified as type Ia, 14 (8%) as type Ib, 39 (24%) as type IIa, 19 (12%) as type IIb, 19 (12%) as type III, and 34 (21%) as type IV. The PPVs for malignancy were 21% for type Ia, 79% for type Ib, 10% for type IIa, 58% for type IIb, 16% for type III, and 21% for type IV. All NML lesions were classified as BI-RADS category 4a (type IIa), 4b (type Ia, III and IV) and 4c (type Ib and IIb) according to their PPVs. There was a significantly higher frequency of malignancy among lesions of type Ib and type IIb compared with the other types (P < 0.01 for each). Lesions with associated calcifications, presence of abnormal axillary nodes, or a mammographic finding of suspected malignancy had a higher probability of malignancy (P < 0.05 for each). Conclusion: US is useful in clarifying the indication for biopsy of NML lesions. The types of US classifications used in our study establish reliable references for the NML patterns when stratified according to the BI-RADS categories.

  7. MRI screening for breast cancer in women at high risk; is the Australian breast MRI screening access program addressing the needs of women at high risk of breast cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenberg, Tess [Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Familial Cancer Centre, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Mitchell, Gillian [Familial Cancer Centre, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Taylor, Donna [School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Department of Radiology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); BreastScreen Western Australia, Adelaide Terrace, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Saunders, Christobel [School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Department of General Surgery, St John of God Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening of women under 50 years old at high familial risk of breast cancer was given interim funding by Medicare in 2009 on the basis that a review would be undertaken. An updated literature review has been undertaken by the Medical Services Advisory Committee but there has been no assessment of the quality of the screening or other screening outcomes. This review examines the evidence basis of breast MRI screening and how this fits within an Australian context with the purpose of informing future modifications to the provision of Medicare-funded breast MRI screening in Australia. Issues discussed will include selection of high-risk women, the options for MRI screening frequency and measuring the outcomes of screening.

  8. High-precision masses of neutron-deficient rubidium isotopes using a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerbauer, A G; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Bollen, G; Guénaut, C; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kluge, H J; Lunney, D; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L; Weber, C; Yazidjian, C

    2007-01-01

    The atomic masses of the neutron-deficient radioactive rubidium isotopes $^{74-77,79,80,83}$Rb have been measured with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. Using the time-of-flight cyclotron resonance technique, relative mass uncertainties ranging from $1.6 \\times 10^{-8}$ to $5.6 \\times 10^{-8}$ were achieved. In all cases, the mass precision was significantly improved as compared with the prior Atomic-Mass Evaluation; no significant deviations from the literature values were observed. The exotic nuclide $^{74}$Rb with a half-life of only 65 ms, is the shortest-lived nuclide on which a high-precision mass measurement in a Penning trap has been carried out. The significance of these measurements for a check of the conserved-vector-current hypothesis of the weak interaction and the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix is discussed.

  9. Neuropeptide Y Y1 receptors meditate targeted delivery of anticancer drug with encapsulated nanoparticles to breast cancer cells with high selectivity and its potential for breast cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Shen, Zheyu; Ma, Xuehua; Ren, Wenzhi; Xiang, Lingchao; Gong, An; Xia, Tian; Guo, Junming; Wu, Aiguo

    2015-03-11

    By enabling nanoparticle-based drug delivery system to actively target cancer cells with high selectivity, active targeted molecules have attracted great attention in the application of nanoparticles for anticancer drug delivery. However, the clinical application of most active targeted molecules in breast cancer therapy is limited, due to the low expression of their receptors in breast tumors or coexpression in the normal and tumor breast tissues. Here, a neuropeptide Y Y1 receptors ligand PNBL-NPY, as a novel targeted molecule, is conjugated with anticancer drug doxorubicin encapsulating albumin nanoparticles to investigate the effect of Y1 receptors on the delivery of drug-loaded nanoparticles to breast cancer cells and its potential for breast cancer therapy. The PNBL-NPY can actively recognize and bind to the Y1 receptors that are significantly overexpressed on the surface of the breast cancer cells, and the drug-loaded nanoparticles are delivered directly into the cancer cells through internalization. This system is highly selective and able to distinguish the breast cancer cells from the normal cells, due to normal breast cells that express Y2 receptors only. It is anticipated that this study may provide a guidance in the development of Y1 receptor-based nanoparticulate drug delivery system for a safer and more efficient breast cancer therapy.

  10. Educational Differences in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer - Quantifying Indirect Effects through Health Behaviors, Body Mass Index and Reproductive Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise;

    2013-01-01

    of the effect of educational level on breast cancer incidence into indirect effects through reproductive patterns (parity and age at first birth), body mass index and health behavior (alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and hormone therapy use). The study was based on a pooled cohort of 6 studies from......-years at risk. Of these, 26% (95% CI 14%-69%) could be attributed to alcohol consumption. Similar effects were observed for age at first birth (32%; 95% CI 10%-257%), parity (19%; 95%CI 10%-45%), and hormone therapy use (10%; 95% CI 6%-18%). Educational level modified the effect of physical activity on breast...... educational level may be more vulnerable to physical inactivity compared to women of low educational level....

  11. MALDI-mass spectrometric imaging revealing hypoxia-driven lipids and proteins in a breast tumor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jiang; Chughtai, Kamila; Purvine, Samuel O.; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.; Raman, Venu; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ronald M.; Glunde, Kristine

    2015-06-16

    Hypoxic areas are a common feature of rapidly growing malignant tumors and their metastases, and are typically spatially heterogeneous. Hypoxia has a strong impact on tumor cell biology and contributes to tumor progression in multiple ways. To date, only a few molecular key players in tumor hypoxia, such as for example hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), have been discovered. The distribution of biomolecules is frequently heterogeneous in the tumor volume, and may be driven by hypoxia and HIF-1α. Understanding the spatially heterogeneous hypoxic response of tumors is critical. Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) provides a unique way of imaging biomolecular distributions in tissue sections with high spectral and spatial resolution. In this paper, breast tumor xenografts grown from MDA-MB-231-HRE-tdTomato cells, with a red fluorescent tdTomato protein construct under the control of a hypoxia response element (HRE)-containing promoter driven by HIF-1α, were used to detect the spatial distribution of hypoxic regions. We elucidated the 3D spatial relationship between hypoxic regions and the localization of small molecules, metabolites, lipids, and proteins by using principal component analysis – linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) on 3D rendered MSI volume data from MDA-MB-231-HRE-tdTomato breast tumor xenografts. In this study we identified hypoxia-regulated proteins active in several distinct pathways such as glucose metabolism, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, protein folding, translation/ribosome, splicesome, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, hemoglobin chaperone, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, detoxification of reactive oxygen species, aurora B signaling/apoptotic execution phase, the RAS signaling pathway, the FAS signaling pathway/caspase cascade in apoptosis and telomere stress induced senescence. In parallel we also identified co-localization of hypoxic regions and various lipid species such as PC(16:0/18:1), PC(16:0/18:2), PC(18:0/18:1), PC

  12. θ13 and the Higgs Mass from High Scale Supersymmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chun; ZHAO Zhen-Hua

    2013-01-01

    In the framework in which supersymmetry is used for understanding fermion masses rather than stabilizing the electroweak scale,we elaborate on the phenomenological analysis for the neutrino physics.A relatively large sin θ13(∽)0.13 is naturally obtained.The model further predicts vanishingly small CP violation in neutrino oscillations.While the high scale supersymmetry generically results in a Higgs mass of about 141 GeV,our model reduces this mass to 126 GeV via introducing SU(2)L triplet fields which make the electroweak vacuum metastable (with a safe lifetime) and also contribute to neutrino masses.

  13. Task-Based Modeling of a 5k Ultra-High-Resolution Medical Imaging System for Digital Breast Tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chumin; Kanicki, Jerzy

    2017-09-01

    High-resolution, low-noise X-ray detectors based on CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) technology have demonstrated superior imaging performance for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). This paper presents a task-based model for a high-resolution medical imaging system to evaluate its ability to detect simulated microcalcifications and masses as lesions for breast cancer. A 3-D cascaded system analysis for a 50- [Formula: see text] pixel pitch CMOS APS X-ray detector was integrated with an object task function, a medical imaging display model, and the human eye contrast sensitivity function to calculate the detectability index and area under the ROC curve (AUC). It was demonstrated that the display pixel pitch and zoom factor should be optimized to improve the AUC for detecting small microcalcifications. In addition, detector electronic noise of smaller than 300 e(-) and a high display maximum luminance (>1000 cd/cm (2)) are desirable to distinguish microcalcifications of [Formula: see text] in size. For low contrast mass detection, a medical imaging display with a minimum of 12-bit gray levels is recommended to realize accurate luminance levels. A wide projection angle range of greater than ±30° in combination with the image gray level magnification could improve the mass detectability especially when the anatomical background noise is high. On the other hand, a narrower projection angle range below ±20° can improve the small, high contrast object detection. Due to the low mass contrast and luminance, the ambient luminance should be controlled below 5 cd/ [Formula: see text]. Task-based modeling provides important firsthand imaging performance of the high-resolution CMOS-based medical imaging system that is still at early stage development for DBT. The modeling results could guide the prototype design and clinical studies in the future.

  14. Associations between body mass index and molecular subtypes as well as other clinical characteristics of breast cancer in Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen FY

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fei-Yu Chen, Hui-Ying Ou, Shou-Man Wang, Yu-Hui Wu, Guo-Jiao Yan, Li-Li Tang Department of Breast Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha City, Hunan Province, People's Republic of China Background: Several studies have shown a positive association between body mass index (BMI and the development of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women; however, the associations between BMI groups and molecular subtypes have yet to be well defined in premenopausal breast cancer patients. Methods: A total of 2465 female breast cancer patients diagnosed at our institution were recruited for this study. Clinicopathologic information (including age, body height and weight, as well as tumor subtypes and stages was collected; analyses of these characteristics and the associations between them were performed. Results: A total of 1951 cases were included in the study. The mean age was 47.3 years, the majority of patients were of normal weight, premenopausal, had stage 2 cancer, and did not present with positive nodes. The prevalence of the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+, and triple-negative subtypes were 57.8%, 11.6%, 6.1%, and 24.5%, respectively. There were significant differences in the clinicopathologic features among BMI groups in premenopausal patients. The case-only odds ratio (OR analysis revealed that normal weight patients tended to have luminal B cancer (OR = 1.4, P = 0.206, and overweight and obese patients tended to have triple-negative cancer in premenopausal patients (OR = 2.8, OR = 3.7, respectively; P < 0.001. Conclusion: In Chinese women, breast cancer came with these characteristics: young mean age (premenopause, luminal A subtype, and the majority of them were within a normal weight range. In premenopausal patients, underweight patients tended to have luminal A, lower human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+ expression, stage 1 and no positive node cancer. However

  15. Counseling women at high risk for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanek, M E

    1990-01-01

    Cancer risk analysis is a relatively new clinical service that has developed as more precise information has become available regarding specific risk factors. Both epidemiological and genetic factors contribute substantially to the identification of women at higher risk for developing breast cancer. The definition of what constitutes risk, an understanding of which factors influence risk, and the ability to present risk information clearly are critical features. In addition to providing information about risk and assessing each woman's perception of risk, the emotional issues must be addressed. The focus of intervention should center upon the benefits of early detection, assessment of breast self-examination skills, individualized breast cancer screening recommendations, such as mammography and physical exams, and recommendations for life style changes for possible prevention.

  16. High-mass Higgs searches at ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Scott; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Several theories beyond the Standard Model, like the 2HDM, predict the existence of high mass neutral and charged Higgs particles. In this presentation the latest ATLAS and CMS results on these searches will be discussed.

  17. Detection of breast cancer by soft-copy reading of digital mammograms: comparison between a routine image-processing parameter and high-contrast parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitani, Takeshi; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Soeda, Hiroyasu; Matsuo, Yoshio; Okafuji, Takashi; Sakai, Shuji; Setoguchi, Taro; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu; Ishii, Nobuhide; Honda, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies have reported the clinical usefulness of the soft-copy reading of mammograms. However, image-processing parameters for soft-copy reading of digital mammograms have not been established. To compare observer performance in detecting breast cancer by soft-copy reading of digital mammograms using a routine image-processing parameter versus each of several high-contrast parameters. The mammograms of 154 breasts, including 48 abnormal breasts with breast cancer and 106 normal breasts, were examined. Cancers were classified into 34 mass-dominant cancers, 11 microcalcification-dominant cancers, two cancers showing only architectural distortion, and one cancer without abnormal findings. All mammograms were performed using a computed radiography (CR) system. Each image was processed using GA (1.2), which was the contrast parameter recommended by the manufacturer for hard-copy film, GA (1.4), GA (1.6), and GA (1.8). These images were displayed on 5-megapixel (M) liquid-crystal display monitors. Five experienced radiologists classified them into BI-RADS category 1-2 or 3-5, and were also asked to rate the images on a scale of 0 to 100 for the likelihood of the presence of masses and microcalcifications in each breast. In mass-dominant cancers of dense breast tissue, the mean sensitivities of GA (1.2), GA (1.4), GA (1.6), and GA (1.8) were 32.7, 38.2, 36.4, and 40.0, and the A(Z) values were 0.67, 0.73, 0.71, and 0.73, respectively; in microcalcification-dominant cancers, the mean sensitivities were 80.0, 74.5, 80.0, and 78.2, respectively; however, there were no significant differences among them. High-contrast parameters tended to show relatively high sensitivity and A(Z) values in the detection of masses in dense breast tissue, but relatively low sensitivity for microcalcifications.

  18. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Highly Reactive Glycosyl Halides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajos Kovács

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Highly reactive glycosyl chlorides and bromides have been analysed by a routine mass spectrometric method using electrospray ionization and lithium salt adduct-forming agents in anhydrous acetonitrile solution, providing salient lithiated molecular ions [M+Li]+, [2M+Li]+ etc. The role of other adduct-forming salts has also been evaluated. The lithium salt method is useful for accurate mass determination of these highly sensitive compounds.

  19. Analysis of KLLN as a high-penetrance breast cancer predisposition gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ella R; Gorringe, Kylie L; Choong, David Y H; Eccles, Diana M; Mitchell, Gillian; Campbell, Ian G

    2012-07-01

    KLLN is a p53 target gene with DNA binding function and represents a highly plausible candidate breast cancer predisposition gene. We screened for predisposing variants in 860 high-risk breast cancer families using high resolution melt analysis. A germline c.339_340delAG variant predicted to cause premature termination of the protein after 57 alternative amino acid residues was identified in 3/860 families who tested negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and in 1/84 sporadic breast cancer cases. However, the variant was also detected in 2/182 families with known BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and in 2/464 non-cancer controls. Furthermore, loss of the mutant allele was detected in 2/2 breast tumors. Our data suggest that pathogenic mutations in KLLN are rare in breast cancer families and the c.339_340delAG variant does not represent a high-penetrance breast cancer risk allele.

  20. Identification of novel high-frequency DNA methylation changes in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared M Ordway

    Full Text Available Recent data have revealed that epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation and chromatin structure changes, are among the earliest molecular abnormalities to occur during tumorigenesis. The inherent thermodynamic stability of cytosine methylation and the apparent high specificity of the alterations for disease may accelerate the development of powerful molecular diagnostics for cancer. We report a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation alterations in breast cancer. The approach efficiently identified a large collection of novel differentially DNA methylated loci (approximately 200, a subset of which was independently validated across a panel of over 230 clinical samples. The differential cytosine methylation events were independent of patient age, tumor stage, estrogen receptor status or family history of breast cancer. The power of the global approach for discovery is underscored by the identification of a single differentially methylated locus, associated with the GHSR gene, capable of distinguishing infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma from normal and benign breast tissues with a sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 96%, respectively. Notably, the frequency of these molecular abnormalities in breast tumors substantially exceeds the frequency of any other single genetic or epigenetic change reported to date. The discovery of over 50 novel DNA methylation-based biomarkers of breast cancer may provide new routes for development of DNA methylation-based diagnostics and prognostics, as well as reveal epigenetically regulated mechanism involved in breast tumorigenesis.

  1. High Resolution Studies of Mass Loss from Massive Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Michael F.; Gull, Theodore R.; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Richardson, Noel; Madura, Thomas; Post Russell, Christopher Michael; Teodoro, Mairan; Nichols, Joy S.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Shenar, Tomer; Pablo, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Mass loss from hot luminous single and binary stars has a significant, perhaps decisive, effect on their evolution. The combination of X-ray observations of hot shocked gas embedded in the stellar winds and high-resolution optical/UV spectra of the cooler mass in the outflow provides unique ways to study the unstable process by which massive stars lose mass both through continuous stellar winds and rare, impulsive, large-scale mass ejections. The ability to obtain coordinated observations with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) and the Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) and other X-ray observatories has allowed, for the first time, studies of resolved line emisssion over the temperature range of 104- 108K, and has provided observations to confront numerical dynamical models in three dimensions. Such observations advance our knowledge of mass-loss asymmetries, spatial and temporal variabilities, and the fundamental underlying physics of the hot shocked outflow, providing more realistic constraints on the amount of mass lost by different luminous stars in a variety of evolutionary stages. We discuss the impact that these joint observational studies have had on our understanding of dynamical mass outflows from massive stars, with particular emphasis on two important massive binaries, Delta Ori Aa, a linchpin of the mass luminosity relation for upper HRD main sequence stars, and the supermassive colliding wind binary Eta Carinae.

  2. Automated data processing of high-resolution mass spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    There has been an almost explosive growth in performance and applications of Electrospray Ionization (ESI) Time of Flight (TOF) mass spectrometry, which today is one of the most efficient tools for screening of metabolites in complex bio-samples. Most efficiently ESI-MS can be used by directly...... infusion of crude extracts into the source taking advantage of the high sensitivity, high mass resolution and accuracy and the limited fragmentation. Unfortunately, there has not been a comparable development in the data processing techniques to fully exploit gain in high resolution and accuracy...... and mass axis on to a fixed one-dimensional array, we obtain a vector that can be used directly as input in multivariate statistics or library search methods. We demonstrate that both cluster- and discriminant analysis as well as PCA (and related methods) can be applied directly on mass spectra from direct...

  3. The High-Mass Stellar Initial Mass Function in M31 Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, Daniel R; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Dolphin, Andrew E; Beerman, Lori C; Williams, Benjamin F; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Rix, Hans-Walter; Hogg, David W; Fouesneau, Morgan; Johnson, Benjamin D; Bell, Eric F; Boyer, Martha L; Gouliermis, Dimitrios; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kalirai, Jason S; Lewis, Alexia R; Seth, Anil C; Skillman, Evan D

    2015-01-01

    We have undertaken the largest systematic study of the high-mass stellar initial mass function (IMF) to date using the optical color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of 85 resolved, young (4 Myr 2 Msun. For the ensemble of clusters, the distribution of stellar MF slopes is best described by $\\Gamma=+1.45^{+0.03}_{-0.06}$ with a very small intrinsic scatter. The data also imply no significant dependencies of the MF slope on cluster age, mass, and size, providing direct observational evidence that the measured MF represents the IMF. This analysis implies that the high-mass IMF slope in M31 clusters is universal with a slope ($\\Gamma=+1.45^{+0.03}_{-0.06}$) that is steeper than the canonical Kroupa (+1.30) and Salpeter (+1.35) values. Using our inference model on select Milky Way (MW) and LMC high-mass IMF studies from the literature, we find $\\Gamma_{\\rm MW} \\sim+1.15\\pm0.1$ and $\\Gamma_{\\rm LMC} \\sim+1.3\\pm0.1$, both with intrinsic scatter of ~0.3-0.4 dex. Thus, while the high-mass IMF in the Local Group may be unive...

  4. Quantitative breast MRI radiomics for cancer risk assessment and the monitoring of high-risk populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Kayla R.; Li, Hui; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2016-03-01

    Breast density is routinely assessed qualitatively in screening mammography. However, it is challenging to quantitatively determine a 3D density from a 2D image such as a mammogram. Furthermore, dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is used more frequently in the screening of high-risk populations. The purpose of our study is to segment parenchyma and to quantitatively determine volumetric breast density on pre-contrast axial DCE-MRI images (i.e., non-contrast) using a semi-automated quantitative approach. In this study, we retroactively examined 3D DCE-MRI images taken for breast cancer screening of a high-risk population. We analyzed 66 cases with ages between 28 and 76 (mean 48.8, standard deviation 10.8). DCE-MRIs were obtained on a Philips 3.0 T scanner. Our semi-automated DCE-MRI algorithm includes: (a) segmentation of breast tissue from non-breast tissue using fuzzy cmeans clustering (b) separation of dense and fatty tissues using Otsu's method, and (c) calculation of volumetric density as the ratio of dense voxels to total breast voxels. We examined the relationship between pre-contrast DCE-MRI density and clinical BI-RADS density obtained from radiology reports, and obtained a statistically significant correlation [Spearman ρ-value of 0.66 (p < 0.0001)]. Our method within precision medicine may be useful for monitoring high-risk populations.

  5. Backscattering analysis of high frequency ultrasonic imaging for ultrasound-guided breast biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Thomas; Akiyama, Takahiro; Lee, Changyang; Martin, Sue E.; Shung, K. Kirk

    2017-03-01

    A new ultrasound-guided breast biopsy technique is proposed. The technique utilizes conventional ultrasound guidance coupled with a high frequency embedded ultrasound array located within the biopsy needle to improve the accuracy in breast cancer diagnosis.1 The array within the needle is intended to be used to detect micro- calcifications indicative of early breast cancers such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Backscattering analysis has the potential to characterize tissues to improve localization of lesions. This paper describes initial results of the application of backscattering analysis of breast biopsy tissue specimens and shows the usefulness of high frequency ultrasound for the new biopsy related technique. Ultrasound echoes of ex-vivo breast biopsy tissue specimens were acquired by using a single-element transducer with a bandwidth from 41 MHz to 88 MHz utilizing a UBM methodology, and the backscattering coefficients were calculated. These values as well as B-mode image data were mapped in 2D and matched with each pathology image for the identification of tissue type for the comparison to the pathology images corresponding to each plane. Microcalcifications were significantly distinguished from normal tissue. Adenocarcinoma was also successfully differentiated from adipose tissue. These results indicate that backscattering analysis is able to quantitatively distinguish tissues into normal and abnormal, which should help radiologists locate abnormal areas during the proposed ultrasound-guided breast biopsy with high frequency ultrasound.

  6. Breast cancer size estimation with MRI in BRCA mutation carriers and other high risk patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, R.M., E-mail: r.mann@rad.umcn.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bult, P., E-mail: p.bult@path.umcn.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Pathology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Laarhoven, H.W.M. van, E-mail: h.vanlaarhoven@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Department of Medical Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Medical Oncology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Span, P.N., E-mail: p.span@rther.umcn.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Schlooz, M., E-mail: m.schlooz@chir.umcn.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Surgery, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Veltman, J., E-mail: j.veltman@zgt.nl [Hospital group Twente (ZGT), Department of Radiology, Almelo (Netherlands); Hoogerbrugge, N., E-mail: n.hoogerbrugge@gen.umcn.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Human Genetics, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    Objective: To assess the value of breast MRI in size assessment of breast cancers in high risk patients, including those with a BRCA 1 or 2 mutation. Guidelines recommend invariably breast MRI screening for these patients and therapy is thus based on these findings. However, the accuracy of breast MRI for staging purposes is only tested in sporadic cancers. Methods: We assessed concordance of radiologic staging using MRI with histopathology in 49 tumors in 46 high risk patients (23 BRCA1, 12 BRCA2 and 11 Non-BRCA patients). The size of the total tumor area (TTA) was compared to pathology. In invasive carcinomas (n = 45) the size of the largest focus (LF) was also addressed. Results: Correlation of MRI measurements with pathology was 0.862 for TTA and 0.793 for LF. TTA was underestimated in 8(16%), overestimated in 5(10%), and correctly measured in 36(73%) cases. LF was underestimated in 4(9%), overestimated in 5(11%), and correctly measured in 36(80%) cases. Impact of BRCA 1 or 2 mutations on the quality of size estimation was not observed. Conclusions: Tumor size estimation using breast MRI in high risk patients is comparable to its performance in sporadic cancers. Therefore, breast MRI can safely be used for treatment planning.

  7. Resolving the Birth of High-Mass Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    New observations may help us to learn more about the birth of high-mass star systems. For the first time, scientists have imaged a very young, high-mass binary system and resolved the individual disks that surround each star and the binary.Massive MultiplesIts unusually common for high-mass stars to be discovered in multiple-star systems. More than 80% of all O-type stars which have masses greater than 16 times that of the Sun are in close multiple systems, compared with a multiplicity fraction of only 20% for stars of 3 solar masses, for instance.Reconstructed VLTI observations of the two components of the high-mass binary IRAS17216-3801. [Adapted from Kraus et al. 2017]Why do more massive stars preferentially form in multiple-star systems? Many different models of high-mass star formation have been invoked to explain this observation, but before we can better understand the process, we need better observations. In particular, past observations have placed few constraints on the architecture and disk structure of early high-mass stars.Conveniently, a team of scientists led by Stefan Kraus (University of Exeter) may have found exactly what we need: a high-mass protobinary that is still in the process of forming. Using ESOs Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), Kraus and collaborators have captured the first observations of a very young, high-mass binary system in which the circumbinary disk and the two circumstellar dust disks could all be spatially resolved.Clues from Resolved DisksThe VLTI near-infrared observations reveal that IRAS17216-3801, originally thought to be a single high-mass star, is instead a close binary separated by only 170 AU. Its two components are both surrounded by disks from which the protostars are actively accreting mass, and both of these circumstellar disks are strongly misaligned with respect to the separation vector of the binary. This confirms that the system is very young, as tidal forces havent yet had time to align the disks

  8. Sensitivity of BRCA1/2 testing in high-risk breast/ovarian/male breast cancer families: little contribution of comprehensive RNA/NGS panel testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Helen; Wallis, Yvonne; van Veen, Elke M; Lalloo, Fiona; Reay, Kim; Smith, Philip; Wallace, Andrew J; Bowers, Naomi; Newman, William G; Evans, D Gareth

    2016-11-01

    The sensitivity of testing BRCA1 and BRCA2 remains unresolved as the frequency of deep intronic splicing variants has not been defined in high-risk familial breast/ovarian cancer families. This variant category is reported at significant frequency in other tumour predisposition genes, including NF1 and MSH2. We carried out comprehensive whole gene RNA analysis on 45 high-risk breast/ovary and male breast cancer families with no identified pathogenic variant on exonic sequencing and copy number analysis of BRCA1/2. In addition, we undertook variant screening of a 10-gene high/moderate risk breast/ovarian cancer panel by next-generation sequencing. DNA testing identified the causative variant in 50/56 (89%) breast/ovarian/male breast cancer families with Manchester scores of ≥50 with two variants being confirmed to affect splicing on RNA analysis. RNA sequencing of BRCA1/BRCA2 on 45 individuals from high-risk families identified no deep intronic variants and did not suggest loss of RNA expression as a cause of lost sensitivity. Panel testing in 42 samples identified a known RAD51D variant, a high-risk ATM variant in another breast ovary family and a truncating CHEK2 mutation. Current exonic sequencing and copy number analysis variant detection methods of BRCA1/2 have high sensitivity in high-risk breast/ovarian cancer families. Sequence analysis of RNA does not identify any variants undetected by current analysis of BRCA1/2. However, RNA analysis clarified the pathogenicity of variants of unknown significance detected by current methods. The low diagnostic uplift achieved through sequence analysis of the other known breast/ovarian cancer susceptibility genes indicates that further high-risk genes remain to be identified.

  9. Highly adaptable triple-negative breast cancer cells as a functional model for testing anticancer agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balraj Singh

    Full Text Available A major obstacle in developing effective therapies against solid tumors stems from an inability to adequately model the rare subpopulation of panresistant cancer cells that may often drive the disease. We describe a strategy for optimally modeling highly abnormal and highly adaptable human triple-negative breast cancer cells, and evaluating therapies for their ability to eradicate such cells. To overcome the shortcomings often associated with cell culture models, we incorporated several features in our model including a selection of highly adaptable cancer cells based on their ability to survive a metabolic challenge. We have previously shown that metabolically adaptable cancer cells efficiently metastasize to multiple organs in nude mice. Here we show that the cancer cells modeled in our system feature an embryo-like gene expression and amplification of the fat mass and obesity associated gene FTO. We also provide evidence of upregulation of ZEB1 and downregulation of GRHL2 indicating increased epithelial to mesenchymal transition in metabolically adaptable cancer cells. Our results obtained with a variety of anticancer agents support the validity of the model of realistic panresistance and suggest that it could be used for developing anticancer agents that would overcome panresistance.

  10. Visually assessed colour overlay features in shear-wave elastography for breast masses: quantification and diagnostic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gweon, Hye Mi; Youk, Ji Hyun; Son, Eun Ju; Kim, Jeong-Ah

    2013-03-01

    To determine whether colour overlay features can be quantified by the standard deviation (SD) of the elasticity measured in shear-wave elastography (SWE) and to evaluate the diagnostic performance for breast masses. One hundred thirty-three breast lesions in 119 consecutive women who underwent SWE before US-guided core needle biopsy or surgical excision were analysed. SWE colour overlay features were assessed using two different colour overlay pattern classifications. Quantitative SD of the elasticity value was measured with the region of interest including the whole breast lesion. For the four-colour overlay pattern, the area under the ROC curve (Az) was 0.947; with a cutoff point between pattern 2 and 3, sensitivity and specificity were 94.4 % and 81.4 %. According to the homogeneity of the elasticity, the Az was 0.887; with a cutoff point between reasonably homogeneous and heterogeneous, sensitivity and specificity were 86.1 % and 82.5 %. For the SD of the elasticity, the Az was 0.944; with a cutoff point of 12.1, sensitivity and specificity were 88.9 % and 89.7 %. The colour overlay features showed significant correlations with the quantitative SD of the elasticity (P overlay features and the SD of the elasticity in SWE showed excellent diagnostic performance and showed good correlations between them.

  11. Impact of Body Mass Index and Weight Fluctuation on Lymphedema Risk in Patients Treated for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammallo, Lauren S.; Miller, Cynthia L.; Singer, Marybeth; Horick, Nora K.; Skolny, Melissa N.; Specht, Michelle C.; O'Toole, Jean; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying risk factors for lymphedema in patients treated for breast cancer has become increasingly important given the current lack of standardization surrounding diagnosis and treatment. Reports on the association of body mass index (BMI) and weight change with lymphedema risk are conflicting. We sought to examine the impact of pre-operative BMI and post-treatment weight change on the incidence of lymphedema. Methods From 2005-2011, 787 newly-diagnosed breast cancer patients underwent prospective arm volume measurements with a Perometer pre- and post-operatively. BMI was calculated from same-day weight and height measurements. Lymphedema was defined as a relative volume change (RVC) of ≥10%. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between lymphedema risk and pre-operative BMI, weight change, and other demographic and treatment factors. Results By multivariate analysis, a pre-operative BMI ≥30 was significantly associated with an increased risk of lymphedema compared to a pre-operative BMI lymphedema compared to patients with a pre-operative BMIlymphedema (HR: 1.97, p = lymphedema, whereas a BMI of 25-lymphedema. Patients with a pre-operative BMI≥30 and those who experience large weight fluctuations during and after treatment for breast cancer should be considered at higher-risk for lymphedema. Close monitoring or early intervention to ensure optimal treatment of the condition may be appropriate for these patients. PMID:24122390

  12. Bone mass and breast milk calcium concentration are associated with vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Flávia F; Cabello, Giselda M K; Mendonça, Laura M C; Donangelo, Carmen M

    2008-02-01

    Lactation-associated bone loss has been reported in adolescent mothers. Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene may contribute to differences in the physiologic skeletal response to lactation in these mothers. We evaluated the influence of VDR gene polymorphisms ApaI, BsmI, and TaqI on bone mass, bone and calcium-related hormones, and breast milk calcium of lactating adolescents with habitually low calcium intake. Total body bone mineral content (TBMC), total body bone mineral density (TBMD), lumbar spine BMD (LSBMD), serum hormones [intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF1), prolactin, and estradiol), and breast milk calcium were measured in 40 lactating Brazilian adolescents (15-18 y), and compared by VDR genotype subgroups after adjustment for calcium intake and postmenarcheal and lactational periods. TBMD and LSBMD Z scores were -0.55 +/- 1.01 and -1.15 +/- 1.48, respectively. LSBMD was higher (21%; P milk calcium and serum iPTH were higher (24 and 80%, respectively; P milk calcium are significantly associated with VDR genotypes in lactating Brazilian adolescents. Those with aa and tt genotypes had a better bone status and those with bb genotype had greater breast milk calcium.

  13. Body Mass Index at Diagnosis and Breast Cancer Survival Prognosis in Clinical Trial Populations from NRG Oncology/NSABP B-30, B-31, B-34, and B-38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, Reena S; Swain, Sandra M; Costantino, Joseph P; Rastogi, Priya; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon; Anderson, Stewart J; Tang, Gong; Geyer, Charles E; Lembersky, Barry C; Romond, Edward H; Paterson, Alexander H G; Wolmark, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) has been associated with breast cancer outcomes. However, few studies used clinical trial settings where treatments and outcomes are consistently evaluated and documented. There are also limited data assessing how patient/disease characteristics and treatment may alter the BMI-breast cancer association. We evaluated 15,538 breast cancer participants from four NSABP protocols. B-34 studied early-stage breast cancer patients (N = 3,311); B-30 and B-38 included node-positive breast cancer patients (N = 5,265 and 4,860); and B-31 studied node-positive and HER2-positive breast cancer patients (N = 2,102). We used Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate adjusted hazards ratios (HR) for risk of death and recurrence, and conducted separate analyses by estrogen receptor (ER) status and treatment group. In B-30, increased BMI was significantly related to survival. Compared with BMI BMI 25 to 29.9 and 1.18 for BMI ≥ 30 (P = 0.02). Separate analyses indicated the significant relationship was only in ER-positive disease (P = 0.002) and the subgroup treated with doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (P = 0.005). There were no significant trends across BMI for the other three trials. Similar results were found for recurrence. Increased BMI was significantly related to recurrence in B-30 (P = 0.03); and the significant relationship was only in ER-positive breast cancers (P = 0.001). Recurrence was also significant among ER-positive disease in B-38 (P = 0.03). In our investigation, we did not find a consistent relationship between BMI at diagnosis and breast cancer recurrence or death. This work demonstrates that the heterogeneity of breast cancer between different breast cancer populations and the different therapies used to treat them may modify any association that exists between BMI and breast cancer outcome. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Evaluation of kinetic entropy of breast masses initially found on MRI using whole-lesion curve distribution data: Comparison with the standard kinetic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimauchi, Akiko [University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Tohoku University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Abe, Hiroyuki; Schacht, David V.; Yulei, Jian; Pineda, Federico D.; Jansen, Sanaz A.; Ganesh, Rajiv; Newstead, Gillian M. [University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-08-15

    To quantify kinetic heterogeneity of breast masses that were initially detected with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, using whole-lesion kinetic distribution data obtained from computer-aided evaluation (CAE), and to compare that with standard kinetic curve analysis. Clinical MR images from 2006 to 2011 with breast masses initially detected with MRI were evaluated with CAE. The relative frequencies of six kinetic patterns (medium-persistent, medium-plateau, medium-washout, rapid-persistent, rapid-plateau, rapid-washout) within the entire lesion were used to calculate kinetic entropy (KE), a quantitative measure of enhancement pattern heterogeneity. Initial uptake (IU) and signal enhancement ratio (SER) were obtained from the most-suspicious kinetic curve. Mann-Whitney U test and ROC analysis were conducted for differentiation of malignant and benign masses. Forty benign and 37 malignant masses comprised the case set. IU and SER were not significantly different between malignant and benign masses, whereas KE was significantly greater for malignant than benign masses (p = 0.748, p = 0.083, and p < 0.0001, respectively). Areas under ROC curve for IU, SER, and KE were 0.479, 0.615, and 0.662, respectively. Quantification of kinetic heterogeneity of whole-lesion time-curve data with KE has the potential to improve differentiation of malignant from benign breast masses on breast MRI. (orig.)

  15. Associations between body mass index and molecular subtypes as well as other clinical characteristics of breast cancer in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei-Yu; Ou, Hui-Ying; Wang, Shou-Man; Wu, Yu-Hui; Yan, Guo-Jiao; Tang, Li-Li

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown a positive association between body mass index (BMI) and the development of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women; however, the associations between BMI groups and molecular subtypes have yet to be well defined in premenopausal breast cancer patients. A total of 2465 female breast cancer patients diagnosed at our institution were recruited for this study. Clinicopathologic information (including age, body height and weight, as well as tumor subtypes and stages) was collected; analyses of these characteristics and the associations between them were performed. A total of 1951 cases were included in the study. The mean age was 47.3 years, the majority of patients were of normal weight, premenopausal, had stage 2 cancer, and did not present with positive nodes. The prevalence of the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+, and triple-negative subtypes were 57.8%, 11.6%, 6.1%, and 24.5%, respectively. There were significant differences in the clinicopathologic features among BMI groups in premenopausal patients. The case-only odds ratio (OR) analysis revealed that normal weight patients tended to have luminal B cancer (OR = 1.4, P = 0.206), and overweight and obese patients tended to have triple-negative cancer in premenopausal patients (OR = 2.8, OR = 3.7, respectively; P < 0.001). IN CHINESE WOMEN, BREAST CANCER CAME WITH THESE CHARACTERISTICS: young mean age (premenopause), luminal A subtype, and the majority of them were within a normal weight range. In premenopausal patients, underweight patients tended to have luminal A, lower human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+ expression, stage 1 and no positive node cancer. However, overweight and obese patients tended to have a triple-negative, stage 3, and lymph node metastatic cancer.

  16. Implications of the absence of high-mass radion signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Aqeel; Dillon, Barry M.; Grzadkowski, Bohdan; Gunion, John F.; Jiang, Yun

    2017-05-01

    Given the disappearance of the 750 GeV diphoton LHC signal and the absence of signals at high mass in this and other channels, significant constraints on the mixed Higgs-radion of the five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum model arise. By combining all channels, these constraints place a significant radion-mass-dependent lower bound on the radion vacuum expectation value that is fairly independent of the amount of Higgs radion mixing.

  17. Yeast expression proteomics by high-resolution mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Tobias C; Olsen, Jesper Velgaard; Mann, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    -translational controls contribute majorly to regulation of protein abundance, for example in heat shock stress response. The development of new sample preparation methods, high-resolution mass spectrometry and novel bioinfomatic tools close this gap and allow the global quantitation of the yeast proteome under different...... conditions. Here, we provide background information on proteomics by mass-spectrometry and describe the practice of a comprehensive yeast proteome analysis....

  18. Masses of Neutron Stars in High-Mass X-ray Binaries with Optical Astrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Tomsick, John A

    2010-01-01

    Determining the type of matter that is inside a neutron star (NS) has been a long-standing goal of astrophysics. Despite this, most of the NS equations of state (EOS) that predict maximum masses in the range 1.4-2.8 solar masses are still viable. Most of the precise NS mass measurements that have been made to date show values close to 1.4 solar masses, but a reliable measurement of an over-massive NS would constrain the EOS possibilities. Here, we investigate how optical astrometry at the microarcsecond level can be used to map out the orbits of High-Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs), leading to tight constraints on NS masses. While previous studies by Unwin and co-workers and Tomsick and co-workers discuss the fact that the future Space Interferometry Mission should be capable of making such measurements, the current work describes detailed simulations for 6 HMXB systems, including predicted constraints on all orbital parameters. We find that the direct NS masses can be measured to an accuracy of 2.5% (1-sigma) in...

  19. Breast Cancer Susceptibility Genes in High Risk Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    232-7. 32. Deapen D, Escalante A, Weinrib L, et al. A revised estimate of twin concordance in systemic lupus erythematosus [see comments]. Arthritis...duplicates do not have identical genotype and the cause for the discordancy ( systematic or isolated) will be determined. A second level of QC is provided...AM, Healey CS, Pharoah PD, Teare MD, Ponder BA, Easton DF. A systematic review of genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiology

  20. Combined use of fine needle aspiration cytology and full field digital mammography in preoperative assessment of breast masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanan Zhang; Junsheng Li; Zhenling Ji; Wenhao Tang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of these two methods and focus on the analysis and management of the false-negative cases.Methods: Results of full field digital mammography (FFDM) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC)were obtained and analyzed from a consecutive of 102 women with palpable breast masses, results were correlated with the histopathological findings.Results: Of the 102 cases, malignancy was confirmed in 43 cases (42.16%) by final pathological examination, the sensitivity and specificity of cancer detection with FNA cytology was 90.7% (39/43) and 89.8% (53/59), respectively, the whole accuracy was 90.2% (92/102), with a positive predictive value of 86.7% (39/45) and a negative predictive value of 93.0% (53/57).FFDM gave a sensitivity of 88.4% (38/43), specificity of 83.1% (49/59), and whole accuracy 85.3% (87/102), the positive predictive value and negative predictive value was 79.2% (38/48) and 90.7% (49/54), respectively.All the FNAC-negative cancer cases were suggestive of malignancy by FFDM findings, however, the benign cases which presentas equivocal finding by FNA cytology, could not be ruled out the presence of malignancy.Conclusion: FNAC and FFDM both are accurate, effective and economical diagnostic modalities, combined use of these two methods can reduced the misdiagnosis rate of breast masses.

  1. High expression of FOXR2 in breast cancer correlates with poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haiping; He, Wenshan; Huang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Huiqiong; Huang, Tao

    2016-05-01

    Forkhead box protein R2 (FOXR2) is associated with human central nervous system neoplasms. However, the expression level of FOXR2 in breast cancer specimens remains largely unknown. To identify whether FOXR2 can serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining were utilized to detect the expression of FOXR2. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of FOXR2 in breast cancer samples were novelty higher compared to non-tumorous breast tissues. IHC results revealed FOXR2 expression was significantly correlated to classifications tumor size (p = 0.007) and Ki-67 (p = 0.019). The patients with high expression of FOXR2 had a significantly poor prognosis compared to those of low expression (p = 0.003), especially in the patients with tumor size ≥2 cm (p = 0.006) and lymph node metastasis status (p = 0.004). Furthermore, multivariate analysis indicated that FOXR2 expression was an independent prognostic factor for breast cancer patients (p = 0.035). This study first identifies that FOXR2 may be an important molecular marker for diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer.

  2. Down-regulation of p73 correlates with high histological grade in Japanese with breast carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Cai-wen; Izo Kimijima; Toru Otake; Rikiya Abe; Seiichi Takenoshita; ZHANG Guo-jun

    2011-01-01

    Background p73, a homologue of p53, has been located at chromosome 1 p36-33, a region of frequently observed loss of heterozygosity in breast cancers. The objective of the present study was to investigate the function of p73 in Japanese with breast cancers. Methods Sixty Japanese patients with breast cancer were assessed by polymerase chain reaction single strand confirmation polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing to detect the p73 allele. p73 mRNA levels were also determined in 40 out of 60 patients by reverse-transcriptional polymerase chain reaction. Results We analyzed the entire open reading frame of the p73 gene by polymerase chain reaction single strand confirmation polymorphism and sequencing, and failed to identify any mutations of p73 in the encoding regions detected.Loss of heterozygosity of p73 was infrequent and only found in 9% of breast carcinomas. We revealed a few polymorphisms with a frequency of 13%-29%, which had been reported previously. Down-regulation of p73 mRNA expression was observed in tumor tissues in comparison to the normal breast tissues. A significant inverse correlation was found between p73 transcripts and high histological grade, suggesting that down-regulated p73 expression could be related to poor prognosis in those patients. Conclusion Our results suggest that p73 may serve as a tumor suppressor gene and its expression plays a role in tumorigenesis in Japanese patients with breast cancer.

  3. High chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 expression correlates with poor outcome in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nicholas C; Nien, Pei-Yung; Yokoyama, Kazunari K; Chu, Pei-Yi; Hou, Ming-Feng

    2013-11-15

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), a transmembrane proteoglycan originally identified in melanoma cells, has been reported to be expressed in breast cancer cells. This study was performed to examine the expression and significance of CSPG4 in a cohort of breast cancer patients. Immunohistochemical analysis of CSPG4 was performed on tissue microarrays constructed from tissue specimens from 240 breast cancer patients. CSPG4 staining was correlated with clinical and pathological characteristics, overall survival (OS), and disease recurrence. Contradicting to a previous report, our results showed that high CSPG4 expression was not related to triple-negative status of breast cancer patients. The Kaplan-Meier method showed that high CSPG4 expression was significantly associated with shorter time to recurrence (TTR). Patients with high CSPG4 expression had poorer OS and shorter TTR in a multivariate survival analysis after adjustment for stage, tumor grade, expression of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, and HER2 overexpression. This study showed that high CSPG4 expression correlates with disease recurrence and OS in breast cancers.

  4. Star formation and mass assembly in high redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Santini, P; Grazian, A; Salimbeni, S; Fiore, F; Fontanot, F; Boutsia, K; Castellano, M; Cristiani, S; De Santis, C; Gallozzi, S; Giallongo, E; Menci, N; Nonino, M; Paris, D; Pentericci, L; Vanzella, E

    2009-01-01

    We study the star formation and the mass assembly process of 0.30.3, the SFR is well correlated with stellar mass, and this relationship seems to steepen with redshift (using IR-based SFRs); b) The contribution to the global SFRD by massive galaxies increases with redshift up to ~2.5, faster than for galaxies of lower mass, but appears to flatten at higher z; c) Despite this increase, the most important contributors to the SFRD at any z are galaxies around, or immediately below, the characteristic stellar mass; d) At z~2, massive galaxies are actively star-forming, with a median SFR 300 Msun/yr. During this epoch, they assemble a substantial part of their final stellar mass; e) The SSFR shows a clear bimodal distribution. The analysis of the SFRD and the SSFR seems to sup port the downsizing scenario, according to which high mass galaxies have formed their stars earlier and faster than their low mass counterparts. A comparison with recent theoretical models shows that they follow the global increase of the SS...

  5. The influence of obesity on survival in early, high-risk breast cancer: results from the randomized SUCCESS A trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widschwendter, Peter; Friedl, Thomas Wp; Schwentner, Lukas; DeGregorio, Nikolaus; Jaeger, Bernadette; Schramm, Amelie; Bekes, Inga; Deniz, Miriam; Lato, Krisztian; Weissenbacher, Tobias; Kost, Bernd; Andergassen, Ulrich; Jueckstock, Julia; Neugebauer, Julia; Trapp, Elisabeth; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Schrader, Ines; Rack, Brigitte; Janni, Wolfgang; Scholz, Christoph

    2015-09-18

    Obese breast cancer patients have worse prognosis than normal weight patients, but the level at which obesity is prognostically unfavorable is unclear. This retrospective analysis was performed using data from the SUCCESS A trial, in which 3754 patients with high-risk early breast cancer were randomized to anthracycline- and taxane-based chemotherapy with or without gemcitabine. Patients were classified as underweight/normal weight (body mass index (BMI) obese (BMI 30.0-34.9), moderately obese (BMI 35.0-39.9) and severely obese (BMI ≥ 40.0), and the effect of BMI on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) was evaluated (median follow-up 65 months). In addition, subgroup analyses were conducted to assess the effect of BMI in luminal A-like, luminal B-like, HER2 (human epidermal growth factor 2)-positive and triple-negative tumors. Multivariate analyses revealed an independent prognostic effect of BMI on DFS (p = 0.001) and OS (p = 0.005). Compared with underweight/normal weight patients, severely obese patients had worse DFS (hazard ratio (HR) 2.70, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.71-4.28, p obese, slightly obese and overweight patients did not differ from underweight/normal weight patients with regard to DFS or OS. Subgroup analyses showed a similar significant effect of BMI on DFS and OS in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), but not in patients with other tumor subtypes. Severe obesity (BMI ≥ 40) significantly worsens prognosis in early breast cancer patients, particularly for triple-negative tumors. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02181101 . Registered September 2005.

  6. Post-surgical highly sensitive C-reactive protein and prognosis in early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibau, Ariadna; Ennis, Marguerite; Goodwin, Pamela J

    2013-10-01

    Obesity, associated with inflammation, has been linked to poor prognosis in breast cancer. Research investigating the potential role of C-reactive protein (CRP), an obesity-associated systemic marker of inflammation, as a mediator of adverse prognostic effects of obesity has yielded inconsistent results. We examined the association of highly sensitive CRP (hsCRP) with obesity-related factors and breast cancer outcome. A cohort of 535 non-diabetic women diagnosed with T1-3, N0-1, M0 breast cancer, was assembled between 1989 and 1996 and followed prospectively. Circulating levels of hsCRP were analyzed on blood obtained postoperatively, prior to systemic therapy, in 501 women. Correlations and prognostic associations were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (r) and Cox models. hsCRP was significantly correlated with body mass index (r = 0.60), insulin (r = 0.44), leptin (r = 0.54), and lipids, but not T or N stage, grade or estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor. At a median follow-up of 12 years, hsCRP was not associated with distant disease-free survival or overall survival in univariable [Q4 vs. Q1 hazard ratio (HR) 1.03, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.69-1.52, P = 0.9 and HR 1.27, 95 % CI 0.86-1.86, P = 0.24, respectively] or multivariable [Q4 vs Q1 HR 1.02, 95 % CI 0.66-1.59, P = 0.93 and HR 1.17, 95 % CI 0.76-1.81, P = 0.48 respectively] analyses. hsCRP was associated with age, comorbidities, and the insulin resistance syndrome but not with breast cancer outcome.

  7. Is it useful for distinguishing between benign and malignant solid breast masses?: diagnostic criteria of Japan society of ultrasonics in medicine (JSUM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Kim, Sun Hee; Chung, Chun Phil [Maryknoll Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness and the most accurate element of the diagnostic criteria of the Japan Society of Ultrasonics in medicine (JSUM, Nov. 1989) for distinguishing between benign and malignant solid breast masses on the US. We analyzed the ultrasonic findings of histopathologically proved 51 fibroadenomas, 12 fibrocystic disease, and 39 breast cancers in relation to the diagnostic criteria of the JSUM (shape, border, boundary echo, internal echo, posterior echo, lateral echo, and depth/width ratio). The number of cases of fibroadenoma, fibrocystic disease, and breast cancer corresponding to the diagnostic criteria was in the shape (26/51, 5/12, 33/39), border (41/51, 9/12, 29/39), boundary echo (48/51, 12/12, 27/39) internal echo (43/51, 9/12, 24/39), posterior echo (32/51, 3/12, 21/39), and lateral shadowing (15/51, 1/12, 35/39). All diagnostic criterias showed statistical significance for differentiation of benign/malignant breast mass on the US (Chi-square test: {rho} < 0.05). The order of accuracy was boundary echo, internal echo, and border. The mean of depth/width ratio was 0.54 {+-} 0.15, 0.52 {+-} 0.12, and 0.69 {+-} 0.21 in fibroadenoma, fibrocystic disease, and breast cancer respectively and it had statistical significance for differentiation of benign/malignant breast mass on the US (ANOVA test: {rho} = 0.0002). The diagnostic criteria of JSUM is effective for differentiation of benign/malignant breast solid masses on the US and has accuracy in the order of boundary echo, internal echo, and border. Depth/width ratio also has statistical significance.

  8. The PNL high-transmission three-stage mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffels, J. J.; Ells, D. R.; Bond, L. A.; Freedman, P. A.; Tattersall, B. N.; Lagergren, C. R.

    1992-12-01

    We have constructed a three-stage isotope-ratio mass spectrometer of unique ion-optical design that achieves high ion transmission efficiency and high abundance sensitivity. The spectrometer has tandem 90 deg deflection magnets with boundaries 18 deg off normal. The magnet drift lengths are 1.48 times the 27-cm radius of deflection. This extended geometry gives a mass dispersion equivalent to a 40-cm-radius magnet with normal boundaries. The first magnet renders the ion beam parallel in the vertical plane and provides a focus in the horizontal plane of mass dispersion. The second magnet brings the beam to a stigmatic focus. This novel ion-optical design gives 100 percent transmission without the need for intermediate focusing lenses. It also provides a 16 percent increase in mass resolution over the traditional tandem geometry with normal magnet boundaries. Complete transmission of ions is maintained through a third-stage cylindrical electric sector of 38-cm radius, which provides increased isotope-abundance sensitivity. The isotope-abundance sensitivity of the new mass spectrometer is an order of magnitude better than similar instruments with normal magnet boundaries. This is because the vertical focusing of the ion beam prevents ion scattering from the top and bottom of the flight tube. The measured values of the isotope-abundance sensitivity one-half mass unit away from the rhenium ion peaks at masses 185 and 187 are M - 1/2 = (6.5 +/- 0.5)(10)(exp -10) and M + 1/2 = (3.1 +/- 0.8)(10)(exp -10). By extrapolation, the uranium isotope-abundance sensitivity is M - 1 = 1(10)(exp -10). Construction of the instrument was facilitated by using standard commercial mass spectrometer components.

  9. Fasting glucose and body mass index as predictors of activity in breast cancer patients treated with everolimus-exemestane: The EverExt study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzuti, Laura; Marchetti, Paolo; Natoli, Clara; Gamucci, Teresa; Santini, Daniele; Scinto, Angelo Fedele; Iezzi, Laura; Mentuccia, Lucia; D'Onofrio, Loretta; Botticelli, Andrea; Moscetti, Luca; Sperati, Francesca; Botti, Claudio; Ferranti, Francesca; Buglioni, Simonetta; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Filippo, Simona Di; Lauro, Luigi di; Sergi, Domenico; Catenaro, Teresa; Tomao, Silverio; Giordano, Antonio; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello; Barba, Maddalena; Vici, Patrizia

    2017-09-06

    Evidence on everolimus in breast cancer has placed hyperglycemia among the most common high grade adverse events. Anthropometrics and biomarkers of glucose metabolism were investigated in a observational study of 102 postmenopausal, HR + HER2- metastatic breast cancer patients treated with everolimus-exemestane in first and subsequent lines. Best overall response (BR) and clinical benefit rate (CBR) were assessed across subgroups defined upon fasting glucose (FG) and body mass index (BMI). Survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Survival predictors were tested in Cox models. Median follow up was 12.4 months (1.0-41.0). The overall cohort showed increasing levels of FG and decreasing BMI (p < 0.001). Lower FG fasting glucose at BR was more commonly associated with C/PR or SD compared with PD (p < 0.001). We also observed a somewhat higher BMI associated with better response (p = 0.052). More patients in the lowest FG category achieved clinical benefit compared to the highest (p < 0.001), while no relevant differences emerged for BMI. Fasting glucose at re-assessment was also predictive of PFS (p = 0.037), as confirmed in models including BMI and line of therapy (p = 0.049). Treatment discontinuation was significantly associated with changes in FG (p = 0.014). Further research is warranted to corroborate these findings and clarify the underlying mechanisms.

  10. Extending the Planetary Mass Function to Earth Mass by Microlensing at Moderately High Magnification

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Fumio; Barnard, Ellen; Baudrey, Julie; Botzler, Christine; Douchin, Dimitri; Freeman, Matthew; Larsen, Patricia; Niemiec, Anna; Perrott, Yvette; Philpott, Lydia; Rattenbury, Nicholas; Yock, Philip

    2013-01-01

    A measurement by microlensing of the planetary mass function of planets with masses ranging from 5M_E to 10M_J and orbital radii from 0.5 to 10 AU was reported recently. A strategy for extending the mass range down to (1-3)M_E is proposed here. This entails monitoring the peaks of a few tens of microlensing events with moderately high magnifications with 1-2m class telescopes. Planets of a few Earth masses are found to produce deviations of ~ 5% to the peaks of microlensing light curves with durations ~ (0.7-3)hr in events with magnification ~ 100 if the projected separation of the planet lies in the annular region (0.85-1.2)r_E. Similar deviations are produced by Earth mass planets in the annular region (0.95-1.05)r_E. It is possible that sub-Earths could be detected very close to the Einstein ring if they are sufficiently abundant, and also planetary systems with more than one low mass planet.

  11. The association between body mass index and immunohistochemical subtypes in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Suleyman; Erdem, Gokmen U; Karatas, Fatih; Aytekin, Aydin; Sever, Ali R; Ozisik, Yavuz; Altundag, Kadri

    2017-04-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is defined as a poor prognostic factor in patients with breast cancer (BC). However, there are controversial results regarding the various effects of BMI on BC, hence the exact pathophysiology of the relation between obesity and BC is still under debate, and remains unclear. This paper aims to investigate the association between BMI at presentation and BC subtypes defined according to the immunohistochemical classification in both premenopausal and postmenopausal patients with BC. This study is a retrospective and explorative analysis of the 3767 female BC patients from a single center. All patients' BMI at the time of initial diagnosis and tumor demographics were recorded. BMI was stratified into 3 groups as normal-weighted (BMI BMI = 25-29.9 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). Immunohistochemical classification of the tumors was categorized into 4 groups as follows; luminal-like, HER2/luminal-like, HER2-like, and triple-negative according to the ER/PR and HER2 status. Distribution of Immunohistochemical subtypes, tumor characteristics, and overall survival (OS) analysis were evaluated according to the BMI groups in both premenopausal and postmenopausal patients. Median BMI of premenopausal and postmenopausal patients was 25.5 (kg/m(2)) and 28.8 (kg/m(2)), respectively (P BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) compared to BMI BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) had less common luminal-like subtype (P = 0.033) and more frequently presented with higher tumor stage (P = 0.012) and tumor grade (P = 0.004) compared to patients with BMI BMI BMI ≥25 kg/m(2). Premenopausal obese patients with triple-negative (P = 0.001) and luminal-like subtype (P = 0.002) had significantly shorter OS duration compared to overweight counterparts. HER2/luminal-like subtype was found to be significantly greater in postmenopausal overweight patients (P = 0.005). However, BMI had no any other significant effect on survival and immunohistochemical subtypes in postmenopausal patients

  12. Evaluation the consistency of location of moist desquamation and skin high dose area for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy after breast conservative surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Min; Huang, Eng-Yen; Liang, Ji-An; Meng, Fan-Yun; Chang, Gia-Hsin; Tsao, Min-Jen

    2013-03-06

    To evaluate whether the location of moist desquamation matches high dose area for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after breast conservative surgery. One hundred and nine breast cancer patients were enrolled to this study. Their highest skin dose area (the hot spot) was estimated from the treatment planning. We divided the irradiated field into breast; sternal/parasternal; axillary; and inframammary fold areas. The location for moist desquamation was recorded to see if it matches the hot spot. We also analyzed other possible risk factors which may be related to the moist desquamation. Forty-eight patients with 65 locations developed moist desquamation during the RT course. Patients with larger breast sizes and easy to sweat are two independent risk factors for moist desquamation. The distribution of moist desquamation occurred most in the axillary area. All nine patients with the hot spots located at the axillary area developed moist desquamation at the axillary area, and six out of seven patients with the hot spots located at the inframammary fold developed moist desquamation there. The majority of patients with moist desquamation over the breast or sternal/parasternal areas had the hot spots located at these areas. For a patient with moist desquamation, if a hot spot is located at the axillary or inframammary fold areas, it is very likely to have moist desquamation occur there. On the other hand, if moist desquamation occurs over the breast or sternal/parasternal areas, we can highly expect these two areas are also the hot spot locations.

  13. A novel method for monitoring high-risk breast cancer with tumor markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sölétormos, G; Nielsen, D; Schiøler, V

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An early and reliable diagnosis of metastatic spread has increased interest in serum tumor markers. This study investigated the ability of CA 15.3, CEA, and TPA to identify, predict, and exclude metastases in bone/viscera during adjuvant treatment and follow-up of high-risk breast...... cancer. METHODS: Ninety females with high-risk breast cancer were included in the study. Response evaluation was based upon clinical examination, x-rays or histology and elaborated marker criteria. RESULTS: During the marker monitoring period, metastases in four patients were confined to skin or lymph...

  14. FORMALDEHYDE MASERS: EXCLUSIVE TRACERS OF HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araya, E. D.; Brown, J. E. [Western Illinois University, Physics Department, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Olmi, L. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Ortiz, J. Morales [University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus, Physical Sciences Department, P.O. Box 23323, San Juan, PR 00931 (United States); Hofner, P.; Creech-Eakman, M. J. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Physics Department, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 3-72, 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Linz, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    The detection of four formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) maser regions toward young high-mass stellar objects in the last decade, in addition to the three previously known regions, calls for an investigation of whether H{sub 2}CO masers are an exclusive tracer of young high-mass stellar objects. We report the first survey specifically focused on the search for 6 cm H{sub 2}CO masers toward non high-mass star-forming regions (non HMSFRs). The observations were conducted with the 305 m Arecibo Telescope toward 25 low-mass star-forming regions, 15 planetary nebulae and post-AGB stars, and 31 late-type stars. We detected no H{sub 2}CO emission in our sample of non HMSFRs. To check for the association between high-mass star formation and H{sub 2}CO masers, we also conducted a survey toward 22 high-mass star-forming regions from a Hi-GAL (Herschel infrared Galactic Plane Survey) sample known to harbor 6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH masers. We detected a new 6 cm H{sub 2}CO emission line in G32.74−0.07. This work provides further evidence that supports an exclusive association between H{sub 2}CO masers and young regions of high-mass star formation. Furthermore, we detected H{sub 2}CO absorption toward all Hi-GAL sources, and toward 24 low-mass star-forming regions. We also conducted a simultaneous survey for OH (4660, 4750, 4765 MHz), H110α (4874 MHz), HCOOH (4916 MHz), CH{sub 3}OH (5005 MHz), and CH{sub 2}NH (5289 MHz) toward 68 of the sources in our sample of non HMSFRs. With the exception of the detection of a 4765 MHz OH line toward a pre-planetary nebula (IRAS 04395+3601), we detected no other spectral line to an upper limit of 15 mJy for most sources.

  15. High-Precision Direct Mass Determination of Unstable Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The extension of systematic high-precision measurements of the nuclear mass to nuclei far from the valley of $\\beta$ stability is of great interest in nuclear physics and astrophysics. The mass, or binding energy, is a fundamental gross property and a key input parameter for nuclear matter calculations. It is also a sensitive probe for collective and single-particle effects in nuclear structure. \\\\ \\\\ For such purposes, nuclear masses need to be known to an accuracy of about 10$^{-7}$ (i.e. $\\Delta$M~$\\leq$~10~keV for A~=~100). To resolve a particular mass from its nuclear isomers and isobars, resolving power of 10$^6$ are often required. To achieve this, the ions delivered by the on-line mass separator ISOLDE are confined in a Penning quadrupole trap. This trap is placed in the very homogeneous and stable magnetic field of a superconducting magnet. Here, the cyclotron frequency and hence the mass are determined. \\\\ \\\\ The first measurements using this new technique have been completed for a long chain of Cs ...

  16. Mass accretion flows in the high-mass star forming complex NGC 6334

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Schilke, P.; Zernickel, A.; Schmiedeke, A.; Möller, Th.; Qin, S.-L.

    2016-05-01

    The formation of high-mass stars is one of the major topics of astrophysical research, in particular the process of accretion from large-scale clouds down to small-scale cores. We have selected the nearby, filamentary, high-mass star forming complex NGC 6334 to study the gas velocity at different scales and probe the infall rates onto the protostellar cores embedded in the NGC 6334-I and I(N) clusters. This study makes use of single-dish and interferometric submillimeter observations, complemented with 3D numerical non-LTE radiative transfer modeling. We measure a mass accretion rate of 10-5 M⊙ yr-1 throughout the filament increasing up to 10-3 M⊙ yr-1 towards the densest regions where high-mass stars are forming. At smaller scales, our 3D model is consistent with accretion rates of 10-3 M⊙ yr-1 towards the clusters, and 10-4 M⊙ yr-1 onto the protostars.

  17. Low Masses and High Redshifts: The Evolution of the Mass-Metallicity Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, Alaina; Dominguez, Alberto; Malkan, Matthew; Martin, Crystal L; Siana, Brian; Atek, Hakim; Bedregal, Alejandro G; Colbert, James W; Rafelski, Marc; Ross, Nathaniel; Teplitz, Harry; Bunker, Andrew J; Dressler, Alan; Hathi, Nimish; Masters, Daniel; McCarthy, Patrick; Straughn, Amber

    2013-01-01

    We present the first robust measurement of the high redshift mass-metallicity (MZ) relation at 10^{8}10^{9.5} M_{\\sun} and z~2.3. Within the statistical uncertainties, our MZ relation agrees with the z~2.3 result, particularly since our somewhat higher metallicities (by around 0.1 dex) are qualitatively consistent with the lower mean redshift z=1.76 of our sample. For the masses probed by our data, the MZ relation shows a steep slope which is suggestive of feedback from energy-driven winds, and a cosmological downsizing evolution where high mass galaxies reach the local MZ relation at earlier times. In addition, we show that our sample falls on an extrapolation of the star-forming main sequence (the SFR-M_{*} relation) at this redshift. This result indicates that grism emission-line selected samples do not have preferentially high SFRs. Finally, we report no evidence for evolution of the mass-metallicity-SFR plane; our stack-averaged measurements show excellent agreement with the local relation.

  18. Monitoring breast masses with ultrasound tomography in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupinacci, Jessica; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Wang, Ding; Li, Cuiping; Schmidt, Steven; Ranger, Bryan; West, Erik; Szczepanski, Amy; Rama, Olsi; Bey-Knight, Lisa; Myc, Lukasz

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate changes in biomechanical properties of breast cancer lesions in response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Nine patients were examined repeatedly throughout their treatment, using an experimental prototype based on the principles of ultrasound tomography. The study was HIPAA compliant, approved by the Institutional Review Board, and performed after obtaining the requisite informed consent. Images of reflection, sound speed and attenuation, representing the entire volume of the breast, were reconstructed from the exam data and analyzed for time-dependent changes during the treatment period. It was found that changes in tumor properties could be measured in all cases. Furthermore, changes in sound speed were found to vary strongly from patient to patient. A comparison of the sound speed response curves with pathological findings suggests that complete responders exhibit distinctly different responses as measured by sound speed. These preliminary results were used to define a cut-point for predicting response. Subsequently, a prospective prediction of the treatment response of a new patient was made correctly. We hypothesize that changes in the biomechanical properties of breast cancers, as measured by sound speed, can predict response. Future studies will focus on testing this hypothesis and defining and quantifying markers of response.

  19. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestal, Marvin L.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews techniques for online coupling of high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry, emphasizing those suitable for application to nonvolatile samples. Also summarizes the present status, strengths, and weaknesses of various techniques and discusses potential applications of recently developed techniques for combined liquid…

  20. Search for high mass Higgs bosons using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    K\\"oneke, Karsten; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Several theories beyond the Standard Model, like the EWS or 2HDM models, predict the existence of high mass Higgs particles, which could decay into final states with Weak bosons. In this presentation the latest ATLAS results on these searches will be discussed, using about 10 fb-1 of p-p collisions at 13 TeV.

  1. Aluminum nano-cantilevers for high sensitivity mass sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Zachary James; Boisen, Anja

    2005-01-01

    We have fabricated Al nano-cantilevers using a very simple one mask contact UV lithography technique with lateral dimensions under 500 nm and vertical dimensions of approximately 100 nm. These devices are demonstrated as highly sensitive mass sensors by measuring their dynamic properties. Further...

  2. Hydrogen Fluoride in High-mass Star-forming Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emprechtinger, M.; Monje, R. R.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Lis, D. C.; Neufeld, D.; Phillips, T. G.; Ceccarelli, C.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen fluoride (HF) has been established to be an excellent tracer of molecular hydrogen in diffuse clouds. In denser environments, however, the HF abundance has been shown to be approximately two orders of magnitude lower. We present Herschel/HIFI observations of HF J = 1-0 toward two high-mass

  3. Molecular line tracers of high-mass star forming regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagy, Zsofia; Van der Tak, Floris; Ossenkopf, Volker; Bergin, Edwin; Black, John; Faure, Alexandre; Fuller, Gary; Gerin, Maryvonne; Goicoechea, Javier; Joblin, Christine; Le Bourlot, Jacques; Le Petit, Franck; Makai, Zoltan; Plume, Rene; Roellig, Markus; Spaans, Marco; Tolls, Volker

    2013-01-01

    High-mass stars influence their environment in different ways including feedback via their FUV radiation. The penetration of FUV photons into molecular clouds creates Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs) with different chemical layers where the mainly ionized medium changes into mainly molecular. Differe

  4. Search for high mass bosonic resonances with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Carminati, Leonardo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Several theories beyond the Standard Model, like the EWS or 2HDM models, predict the existence of high mass Higgs particles, which could decay into final states with Weak bosons. In this presentation the latest ATLAS results on these searches will be discussed, using about 36 fb-1 of p-p collisions at 13 TeV.

  5. Anxiety and compliance among women at high risk for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, N M; Wellisch, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between symptoms of depression and general anxiety, patient's feelings of vulnerability to cancer, the anxiety experienced specifically in relation to various cancer-screeningprocedures, and compliance with these procedures among women atfamilial risk for breast cancer The data were obtained from 430 patients from the High Risk Clinic at the UCLA Revlon Breast Center who completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and answered questions about their perceived vulnerability to breast cancer; the anxiety they experienced regarding undergoing pap smear tests, mammograms, and breast self-examinations (BSEs); and their compliance with these cancer-screening procedures. Correlations were used to estimate the association between feelings of anxiety and compliance. We found that women attending programs targeting those at familial risk for breast cancer suffer from significant symptoms of general anxiety. General anxiety was found to be related to anxiety regarding specific screening practices but not to women's perceived vulnerability to cancer In general, neither general nor screening-specific anxiety were found to be related to patients 'compliance with screening practices; however, significant associations were found between patient's feelings of anxiety regarding BSEs and their actual performing them. BSE appears to be the only procedure for which compliance is negatively associated with procedure-specific anxiety. We offer possible explanations for this relation and discuss the possible psychological impact that recommendations regarding BSEs may have on highly anxious at-risk women.

  6. High Resolution Mass Spectrometry of Polyfluorinated Polyether-Based Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimzon, Ian Ken; Trier, Xenia; Frömel, Tobias; Helmus, Rick; Knepper, Thomas P.; de Voogt, Pim

    2016-02-01

    High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was successfully applied to elucidate the structure of a polyfluorinated polyether (PFPE)-based formulation. The mass spectrum generated from direct injection into the MS was examined by identifying the different repeating units manually and with the aid of an instrument data processor. Highly accurate mass spectral data enabled the calculation of higher-order mass defects. The different plots of MW and the nth-order mass defects (up to n = 3) could aid in assessing the structure of the different repeating units and estimating their absolute and relative number per molecule. The three major repeating units were -C2H4O-, -C2F4O-, and -CF2O-. Tandem MS was used to identify the end groups that appeared to be phosphates, as well as the possible distribution of the repeating units. Reversed-phase HPLC separated of the polymer molecules on the basis of number of nonpolar repeating units. The elucidated structure resembles the structure in the published manufacturer technical data. This analytical approach to the characterization of a PFPE-based formulation can serve as a guide in analyzing not just other PFPE-based formulations but also other fluorinated and non-fluorinated polymers. The information from MS is essential in studying the physico-chemical properties of PFPEs and can help in assessing the risks they pose to the environment and to human health.

  7. SIEMENS ADVANCED QUANTRA FTICR MASS SPECTROMETER FOR ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION AT LOW MASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, W; Laura Tovo, L

    2008-07-08

    The Siemens Advanced Quantra Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was evaluated as an alternative instrument to large double focusing mass spectrometers for gas analysis. High resolution mass spectrometers capable of resolving the common mass isomers of the hydrogen isotopes are used to provide data for accurate loading of reservoirs and to monitor separation of tritium, deuterium, and helium. Conventional double focusing magnetic sector instruments have a resolution that is limited to about 5000. The Siemens FTICR instrument achieves resolution beyond 400,000 and could possibly resolve the tritium ion from the helium-3 ion, which differ by the weight of an electron, 0.00549 amu. Working with Y-12 and LANL, SRNL requested Siemens to modify their commercial Quantra system for low mass analysis. To achieve the required performance, Siemens had to increase the available waveform operating frequency from 5 MHz to 40 MHz and completely redesign the control electronics and software. However, they were able to use the previous ion trap, magnet, passive pump, and piezo-electric pulsed inlet valve design. NNSA invested $1M in this project and acquired four systems, two for Y-12 and one each for SRNL and LANL. Siemens claimed a $10M investment in the Quantra systems. The new Siemens Advanced Quantra demonstrated phenomenal resolution in the low mass range. Resolution greater than 400,000 was achieved for mass 2. The new spectrometer had a useful working mass range to 500 Daltons. However, experiments found that a continuous single scan from low mass to high was not possible. Two useful working ranges were established covering masses 1 to 6 and masses 12 to 500 for our studies. A compromise performance condition enabled masses 1 to 45 to be surveyed. The instrument was found to have a dynamic range of about three orders of magnitude and quantitative analysis is expected to be limited to around 5 percent without using complex fitting algorithms

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis of mass-like lesion in breast MRI: differential analysis of the 3-D morphology between benign and malignant tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Hao; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Wu, Tsung-Ju; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the value of using 3-D breast MRI morphologic features to differentiate benign and malignant breast lesions. The 3-D morphological features extracted from breast MRI were used to analyze the malignant likelihood of tumor from ninety-five solid breast masses (44 benign and 51 malignant) of 82 patients. Each mass-like lesion was examined with regards to three categories of morphologic features, including texture-based gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) feature, shape, and ellipsoid fitting features. For obtaining a robust combination of features from different categories, the biserial correlation coefficient (|r(pb)|)≧0.4 was used as the feature selection criterion. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate performance and Student's t-test to verify the classification accuracy. The combination of the selected 3-D morphological features, including conventional compactness, radius, spiculation, surface ratio, volume covering ratio, number of inside angular regions, sum of number of inside and outside angular regions, showed an accuracy of 88.42% (84/95), sensitivity of 88.24% (45/51), and specificity of 88.64% (39/44), respectively. The AZ value was 0.8926 for these seven combined morphological features. In conclusion, 3-D MR morphological features specified by GLCM, tumor shape and ellipsoid fitting were useful for differentiating benign and malignant breast masses.

  9. Value of high-frequency ultrasonography with virtual touch tissue quantification in diagnosis of breast pure mucinous carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Shi; Guang Yang; Jialing Wu; Wenlin Xu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to analyze the characters of breast pure mucinous carcinomas on highfrequency ultrasonography with virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ). Methods: A total of 12 patients (with breast pure mucinous carcinomas) and a group of 30 patients (with adenofibroma of breast) underwent breast examination with high-frequency ultrasonography to analyze the characters of images, and with VTQ to analyze the elastic character. Results: In the conventional ultrasound imaging, statistical differences were found between two groups in the shape, the boundary and the internal echo of the lesions. In the VTQ, the mean of shearing wave speed (Vs) in pure mucinous carcinomas was less than in adenofibroma of breast. Conclusion: Conventional high-frequency ultrasonography combining with VTQ have significant value in diagnosis of breast pure mucinous carcinoma.

  10. Clinically and mammographically occult breast lesions: detection and classification with high-resolution sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchberger, W; Niehoff, A; Obrist, P; DeKoekkoek-Doll, P; Dünser, M

    2000-08-01

    With recent significant advances in ultrasound technology, the potential of high-resolution sonography to improve the sensitivity of cancer diagnosis in women with dense breasts has become a matter of interest for breast imagers. To determine how often physician-performed high-resolution sonography can detect nonpalpable breast cancers that are not revealed by mammography, 8,970 women with breast density grades 2 through 4 underwent high-resolution sonography as an adjunct to mammography. All sonographically detected, clinically and mammographically occult breast lesions that were not simple cysts were prospectively classified into benign, indeterminate, or malignant categories. Diagnoses were confirmed by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration, core-needle biopsy, or surgical biopsy. In 8,103 women with normal findings at mammography and physical examination, 32 cancers and 330 benign lesions were detected in 273 patients with sonography only. Eight additional cancers were found in 867 patients with a malignant (n = 5) or a benign (n = 3) palpable or mammographically detected index lesion. The overall prevalence of cancers detected with screening sonography was 0.41%, and the proportion of sonographically detected cancers to the total number of nonpalpable cancers was 22%. The mean size of invasive cancers detected only by sonography was 9.1 mm, and was not statistically different from the mean size of invasive cancers detected by mammography. The sensitivity of prospective sonographic classification for malignancy was 100%, and the specificity was 31%. In conclusion, the use of high-resolution sonography as an adjunct to mammography in women with dense breasts may lead to detection of a significant number of otherwise occult cancers that are no different in size from nonpalpable mammographically detected cancers. Prospective classification of these lesions based on sonographic characteristics resulted in an acceptable benign-to-malignant biopsy rate of 6.3:1.

  11. Next Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer Tissue Specimens for Enhanced Clinical Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH- 14-1-0192 TITLE: Next-Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer...DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Next-Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer Tissue

  12. Diagnosis of breast masses from dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MR: a machine learning approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmin Cai

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI is increasingly used for breast cancer diagnosis as supplementary to conventional imaging techniques. Combining of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI of morphology and kinetic features from DCE-MRI to improve the discrimination power of malignant from benign breast masses is rarely reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised of 234 female patients with 85 benign and 149 malignant lesions. Four distinct groups of features, coupling with pathological tests, were estimated to comprehensively characterize the pictorial properties of each lesion, which was obtained by a semi-automated segmentation method. Classical machine learning scheme including feature subset selection and various classification schemes were employed to build prognostic model, which served as a foundation for evaluating the combined effects of the multi-sided features for predicting of the types of lesions. Various measurements including cross validation and receiver operating characteristics were used to quantify the diagnostic performances of each feature as well as their combination. RESULTS: Seven features were all found to be statistically different between the malignant and the benign groups and their combination has achieved the highest classification accuracy. The seven features include one pathological variable of age, one morphological variable of slope, three texture features of entropy, inverse difference and information correlation, one kinetic feature of SER and one DWI feature of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC. Together with the selected diagnostic features, various classical classification schemes were used to test their discrimination power through cross validation scheme. The averaged measurements of sensitivity, specificity, AUC and accuracy are 0.85, 0.89, 90.9% and 0.93, respectively. CONCLUSION: Multi-sided variables which characterize the morphological, kinetic, pathological

  13. Lesión nodular de mama de crecimiento rápido A Nodular and Fast Growing Breast Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Sáenz-Batalla

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La hiperplasia estromal seudoangiomatosa es un hallazgo histológico benigno, relativamente infrecuente, caracterizada por aumento de la densidad mamaria, proliferación de fibras colágeno y del estroma que forma pseudoespacios capilares vacíos anastomosados entre sí. La etiología no es clara, pero tiene una marcada influencia hormonal. Tanto clínica como radiológicamente puede semejar lesiones benignas y malignas. La histología es fundamental para hacer el diagnóstico definitivo. Se reporta el caso clínico de una mujer herediana de 40 años con una masa mamaria derecha, deformante, asimétrica, de crecimiento rápido, dolorosa y multirecidivante, que finalmente resolvió con una mastectomía subcutánea.Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast is a rare benign disease, which was described by Vuitch in 1986. The etiology is not clear, but an hormonal influence has been demonstrated. To confirm the diagnosis, a biopsy is required primarily to distinguish a malignant disease like low grade angyosarcoma, a fibroadenoma or a Philloides tumor; these entities are similar in their clinical and imaging features. We present herein the case of a 40 year old female that presented with a fast growing, painful, recurrent breast mass, initially treated as fibrocystic breast disease but the histopathology later demonstrated the lesion to be a pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, which is very infrequent. Finally she underwent a sucutaneuos mastectomy, and the diagnosis was again confirmed. An extensive review of current literature confirmed that mastectomy is better, especially in cases with diffuse and recurrent tumors.

  14. Highly Mass-Sensitive Thin Film Plate Acoustic Resonators (FPAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arapan, Lilia; Alexieva, Gergana; Avramov, Ivan D.; Radeva, Ekaterina; Strashilov, Vesseline; Katardjiev, Ilia; Yantchev, Ventsislav

    2011-01-01

    The mass sensitivity of thin aluminum nitride (AlN) film S0 Lamb wave resonators is theoretically and experimentally studied. Theoretical predictions based on modal and finite elements method analysis are experimentally verified. Here, two-port 888 MHz synchronous FPARs are micromachined and subsequently coated with hexamethyl-disiloxane(HMDSO)-plasma-polymerized thin films of various thicknesses. Systematic data on frequency shift and insertion loss versus film thickness are presented. FPARs demonstrate high mass-loading sensitivity as well as good tolerance towards the HMDSO viscous losses. Initial measurements in gas phase environment are further presented. PMID:22163994

  15. Highly mass-sensitive thin film plate acoustic resonators (FPAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arapan, Lilia; Alexieva, Gergana; Avramov, Ivan D; Radeva, Ekaterina; Strashilov, Vesseline; Katardjiev, Ilia; Yantchev, Ventsislav

    2011-01-01

    The mass sensitivity of thin aluminum nitride (AlN) film S0 Lamb wave resonators is theoretically and experimentally studied. Theoretical predictions based on modal and finite elements method analysis are experimentally verified. Here, two-port 888 MHz synchronous FPARs are micromachined and subsequently coated with hexamethyl-disiloxane(HMDSO)-plasma-polymerized thin films of various thicknesses. Systematic data on frequency shift and insertion loss versus film thickness are presented. FPARs demonstrate high mass-loading sensitivity as well as good tolerance towards the HMDSO viscous losses. Initial measurements in gas phase environment are further presented.

  16. An ATLAS event with a high mass dijet system

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Experiment

    2014-01-01

    Event with a high mass dijet system: the invariant mass of the two highest-pT jets is 2.55 TeV. The highest pT jet has a pT of 420 GeV, and an eta of -1.51, the second leading jet has pT of 320 GeV and an eta of 2.32. Jet momenta are calibrated according to the "EM+JES" scheme. No other jets are found with pT above 20 GeV. Event collected on 4 July 2010.

  17. Building and managing high performance, scalable, commodity mass storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekashman, John

    1998-01-01

    The NAS Systems Division has recently embarked on a significant new way of handling the mass storage problem. One of the basic goals of this new development are to build systems at very large capacity and high performance, yet have the advantages of commodity products. The central design philosophy is to build storage systems the way the Internet was built. Competitive, survivable, expandable, and wide open. The thrust of this paper is to describe the motivation for this effort, what we mean by commodity mass storage, what the implications are for a facility that performs such an action, and where we think it will lead.

  18. APEX survey of southern high mass star forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Hieret, C; Menten, K M; Schilke, P; Thorwirth, S; Wyrowski, F

    2007-01-01

    A systematic study of a large sample of sources, covering a wide range in galactocentric distances, masses and luminosities, is a fast and efficient way of obtaining a good overview of the different stages of high-mass star formation. With these goals in mind, we have started a survey of 40 color selected IRAS sources south of -20 degrees declination with the APEX telescope on Chajnantor, Chile. Our first APEX results already demonstrate that the selection criteria were successful, since some of the sources are very rich in molecular lines.

  19. High and low mass Axion Haloscopes at UWA

    CERN Document Server

    McAllister, Ben T; Ivanov, Eugene N; Tobar, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    We consider the design of a haloscope experiment (ORGAN) to probe for axions at 26.6 GHz. The motivation for this search is to perform the first direct test of a result which claims a possible axion signal at this frequency. There are many technical issues and optimisations that must be considered in the design of a high mass axion haloscope. We discuss the current status of the ORGAN experiment, as well as its future. We also discuss low mass axion haloscopes employing lumped 3D LC resonators.

  20. Highly Mass-Sensitive Thin Film Plate Acoustic Resonators (FPAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ventsislav Yantchev

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The mass sensitivity of thin aluminum nitride (AlN film S0 Lamb wave resonators is theoretically and experimentally studied. Theoretical predictions based on modal and finite elements method analysis are experimentally verified. Here, two-port 888 MHz synchronous FPARs are micromachined and subsequently coated with hexamethyl-disiloxane(HMDSO-plasma-polymerized thin films of various thicknesses. Systematic data on frequency shift and insertion loss versus film thickness are presented. FPARs demonstrate high mass-loading sensitivity as well as good tolerance towards the HMDSO viscous losses. Initial measurements in gas phase environment are further presented.

  1. Body mass index and survival in women with breast cancer—systematic literature review and meta-analysis of 82 follow-up studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, D. S. M.; Vieira, A. R.; Aune, D.; Bandera, E. V.; Greenwood, D. C.; McTiernan, A.; Navarro Rosenblatt, D.; Thune, I.; Vieira, R.; Norat, T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Positive association between obesity and survival after breast cancer was demonstrated in previous meta-analyses of published data, but only the results for the comparison of obese versus non-obese was summarised. Methods We systematically searched in MEDLINE and EMBASE for follow-up studies of breast cancer survivors with body mass index (BMI) before and after diagnosis, and total and cause-specific mortality until June 2013, as part of the World Cancer Research Fund Continuous Update Project. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to explore the magnitude and the shape of the associations. Results Eighty-two studies, including 213 075 breast cancer survivors with 41 477 deaths (23 182 from breast cancer) were identified. For BMI before diagnosis, compared with normal weight women, the summary relative risks (RRs) of total mortality were 1.41 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29–1.53] for obese (BMI >30.0), 1.07 (95 CI 1.02–1.12) for overweight (BMI 25.0–obese women, the summary RRs were 1.75 (95% CI 1.26–2.41) for pre-menopausal and 1.34 (95% CI 1.18–1.53) for post-menopausal breast cancer. For each 5 kg/m2 increment of BMI before, breast cancer mortality were observed, respectively. Conclusions Obesity is associated with poorer overall and breast cancer survival in pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer, regardless of when BMI is ascertained. Being overweight is also related to a higher risk of mortality. Randomised clinical trials are needed to test interventions for weight loss and maintenance on survival in women with breast cancer. PMID:24769692

  2. A high-resolution record of Greenland mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Malcolm; Leeson, Amber; Shepherd, Andrew; Briggs, Kate; Armitage, Thomas W. K.; Hogg, Anna; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Broeke, Michiel; Noël, Brice; Berg, Willem Jan; Ligtenberg, Stefan; Horwath, Martin; Groh, Andreas; Muir, Alan; Gilbert, Lin

    2016-07-01

    We map recent Greenland Ice Sheet elevation change at high spatial (5 km) and temporal (monthly) resolution using CryoSat-2 altimetry. After correcting for the impact of changing snowpack properties associated with unprecedented surface melting in 2012, we find good agreement (3 cm/yr bias) with airborne measurements. With the aid of regional climate and firn modeling, we compute high spatial and temporal resolution records of Greenland mass evolution, which correlate (R = 0.96) with monthly satellite gravimetry and reveal glacier dynamic imbalance. During 2011-2014, Greenland mass loss averaged 269 ± 51 Gt/yr. Atmospherically driven losses were widespread, with surface melt variability driving large fluctuations in the annual mass deficit. Terminus regions of five dynamically thinning glaciers, which constitute less than 1% of Greenland's area, contributed more than 12% of the net ice loss. This high-resolution record demonstrates that mass deficits extending over small spatial and temporal scales have made a relatively large contribution to recent ice sheet imbalance.

  3. Value of Micropure Technology with Ultrasonography in Detecting Micro-calcification of Breast Masses%超声Micropure技术检测乳腺肿块微钙化的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗志群; 隋秀芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the clinical value of micropure technology with ultrasonography in detecting mi-cro-calcification of breast masses. Methods:87 breast masses were examined with high-frequency ultrasound and Mi-cropure technology,compared the ability in the detection micro calcification in breast benign, malignant tumors be-tween the two methods.Results:53 micro-calcification were detected by MicroPure imaging technology in patients with malignant tumor of breast,while 37 micro-calcification were detected by high frequency ultrasound in 87 breast masses, there was significant differences (P<0.05). 5 micro-calcification cases were detected in 21 benign breast masses (23.81%), and 48 micro-calcification cases were detected in 66 malignant masses(72.73%), with significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). In 5 cases of benign micro-calcifications detected, 3 cases were scat-tered, 2 cases were less calcification. While in 48 cases detected micro-calcification in malignant masses, 30 cases of micro-calcification clusters (62.50%), 16 cases were scattered in the distribution (33.33%), 2 cases were less calcifi-cation (4.17%).Conclusions:The ability of ultrasonic Micropure technology showing breast microcalcification was stronger than conventional ultrasound. With or without micro-calcification, and the distribution characteristics of mi-cro-calcification in breast masses, may help to differentiate the nature of the lesions.%目的:探讨超声Micropure技术检测乳腺肿块中微钙化的临床应用价值。方法:对某医院87例乳腺超声检查发现的乳腺肿块,与术后病理结果对比,比较Micropure技术与常规超声在检测乳腺良、恶性肿块微钙化方面的差异。结果:87例乳腺病灶中,常规超声检查37例显示微钙化(占42.52%),使用Micropure技术53例显示微钙化(占60.92%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。良性组21例检出5例微钙化(23.81%),恶性组66例检出48

  4. A new matching algorithm for high resolution mass spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Edberg; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    We present a new matching algorithm designed to compare high-resolution spectra. Whereas existing methods are bound to compare fixed intervals of ion masses, the accurate mass spectrum (AMS) distance method presented here is independent of any alignment. Based on the Jeffreys-Matusitas (JM......) distance, a difference between observed peaks across pairs of spectra can be calculated, and used to find a unique correspondence between the peaks. The method takes into account that there may be differences in resolution of the spectra. The algorithm is used for indexing in a database containing 80...... accurate mass spectra from an analysis of extracts of 80 isolates representing the nine closely related species in the Penicillium series Viridicata. Using this algorithm we can obtain a retrieval performance of approximate to97-98% that is comparable with the best of the existing methods (e.g., the dot...

  5. Women at high risk of breast cancer: Molecular characteristics, clinical presentation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleibl, Zdenek; Kristensen, Vessela N

    2016-08-01

    The presence of breast cancer in any first-degree female relative in general nearly doubles the risk for a proband and the risk gradually increases with the number of affected relatives. Current advances in molecular oncology and oncogenetics may enable the identification of high-risk individuals with breast-cancer predisposition. The best-known forms of hereditary breast cancer (HBC) are caused by mutations in the high-penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. Other genes, including PTEN, TP53, STK11/LKB1, CDH1, PALB2, CHEK2, ATM, MRE11, RAD50, NBS1, BRIP1, FANCA, FANCC, FANCM, RAD51, RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, and XRCC2 have been described as high- or moderate-penetrance breast cancer-susceptibility genes. The majority of breast cancer-susceptibility genes code for tumor suppressor proteins that are involved in critical processes of DNA repair pathways. This is of particular importance for those women who, due to their increased risk of breast cancer, may be subjected to more frequent screening but due to their repair deficiency might be at the risk of developing radiation-induced malignancies. It has been proven that cancers arising from the most frequent BRCA1 gene mutation carriers differ significantly from the sporadic disease of age-matched controls in their histopathological appearances and molecular characteristics. The increased depth of mutation detection brought by next-generation sequencing and a better understanding of the mechanisms through which these mutations cause the disease will bring novel insights in terms of oncological prevention, diagnostics, and therapeutic options for HBC patients.

  6. Insights into high mass star formation from methanol maser observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Hontas Freeman

    2013-06-01

    We present high angular resolution data on Class I and Class II methanol masers, together with other tracers of star formation like H2O masers, ultracompact (UC) ionized hydrogen (H II) regions, and 4.5 um infrared sources, taken from the literature. The aim is to study what these data tell us about the process of high mass star formation; in particular, whether disk-outflow systems are compatible with the morphology exhibited by Class I and Class II methanol masers. Stars form in the dense cores inside molecular clouds, and while the process of the formation of stars like our Sun is reasonably well understood, details of the formation of stars with masses eight times that of our Sun or greater, the so-called high mass stars, remain a mystery. Being compact and bright sources, masers provide an excellent way to observe high mass star forming regions. In particular, Class II methanol masers are found exclusively in high mass star forming regions. Based on the positions of the Class I and II methanol and H2O masers, UCHII regions and 4.5 um infrared sources, and the center velocities (vLSR) of the Class I methanol and H2O masers, compared to the vLSR of the Class II methanol masers, we propose three disk-outflow models that may be traced by methanol masers. In all three models, we have located the Class II methanol maser near the protostar, and the Class I methanol maser in the outflow, as is known from observations during the last twenty years. In our first model, the H2O masers trace the linear extent of the outflow. In our second model, the H2O masers are located in a circumstellar disk. In our third model, the H2O masers are located in one or more outflows near the terminating shock where the outflow impacts the ambient interstellar medium. Together, these models reiterate the utility of coordinated high angular resolution observations of high mass star forming regions in maser lines and associated star formation tracers.

  7. Mammographic breast density and breast cancer risk: interactions of percent density, absolute dense, and non-dense areas with breast cancer risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghjyan, Lusine; Colditz, Graham A; Rosner, Bernard; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2015-02-01

    We investigated if associations of breast density and breast cancer differ according to the level of other known breast cancer risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), age at menarche, parity, age at first child's birth, age at menopause, alcohol consumption, a family history of breast cancer, a history of benign breast disease, and physical activity. This study included 1,044 postmenopausal incident breast cancer cases diagnosed within the Nurses' Health Study cohort and 1,794 matched controls. Percent breast density, absolute dense, and non-dense areas were measured from digitized film images with computerized techniques. Information on breast cancer risk factors was obtained prospectively from biennial questionnaires. Percent breast density was more strongly associated with breast cancer risk in current postmenopausal hormone users (≥50 vs. 10 %: OR 5.34, 95 % CI 3.36-8.49) as compared to women with past (OR 2.69, 95 % CI 1.32-5.49) or no hormone history (OR 2.57, 95 % CI 1.18-5.60, p-interaction = 0.03). Non-dense area was inversely associated with breast cancer risk in parous women, but not in women without children (p-interaction = 0.03). Associations of density with breast cancer risk did not differ by the levels of BMI, age at menarche, parity, age at first child's birth, age at menopause, alcohol consumption, a family history of breast cancer, a history of benign breast disease, and physical activity. Women with dense breasts, who currently use menopausal hormone therapy are at a particularly high risk of breast cancer. Most breast cancer risk factors do not modify the association between mammographic breast density and breast cancer risk.

  8. "Live High-Train High" increases hemoglobin mass in Olympic swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonne, Thomas Christian; Lundby, Carsten; Jørgensen, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether 3-4 weeks of classical "Live High-Train High" (LHTH) altitude training increases swim-specific VO2max through increased hemoglobin mass (Hbmass).......This study tested whether 3-4 weeks of classical "Live High-Train High" (LHTH) altitude training increases swim-specific VO2max through increased hemoglobin mass (Hbmass)....

  9. Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Membranes for Detection of High-Mass Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Park, J.; Aksamija, Z.; Arbulu, M.; Blick, R. H.

    2016-12-01

    Mechanical resonators realized on the nanoscale by now offer applications in mass sensing of biomolecules with extraordinary sensitivity. The general idea is that perfect mechanical mass sensors should be of extremely small size to achieve zepto- or yoctogram sensitivity in weighing single molecules similar to a classical scale. However, the small effective size and long response time for weighing biomolecules with a cantilever restricts their usefulness as a high-throughput method. Commercial mass spectrometry (MS), on the other hand, such as electrospray ionization and matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization (MALDI) time of flight (TOF) and their charge-amplifying detectors are the gold standards to which nanomechanical resonators have to live up to. These two methods rely on the ionization and acceleration of biomolecules and the following ion detection after a mass selection step, such as TOF. The principle we describe here for ion detection is based on the conversion of kinetic energy of the biomolecules into thermal excitation of chemical vapor deposition diamond nanomembranes via phonons followed by phonon-mediated detection via field emission of thermally emitted electrons. We fabricate ultrathin diamond membranes with large lateral dimensions for MALDI TOF MS of high-mass proteins. These diamond membranes are realized by straightforward etching methods based on semiconductor processing. With a minimal thickness of 100 nm and cross sections of up to 400 ×400 μ m2 , the membranes offer extreme aspect ratios. Ion detection is demonstrated in MALDI TOF analysis over a broad range from insulin to albumin. The resulting data in detection show much enhanced resolution as compared to existing detectors, which can offer better sensitivity and overall performance in resolving protein masses.

  10. Fucosyltransferase 8 expression in breast cancer patients: A high throughput tissue microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Liling; Han, Cuicui; Li, Zubin; Li, Xin; Liu, Deshui; Liu, Shulin; Yu, Haitao

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expression of fucosyltransferase 8 (FUT8) in breast cancer tissue and to investigate the relationship between this marker with tumor progression and its applicability to differential diagnosis. An immunohistochemical study was performed for FUT8 using the tissue microarray technique. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of FUT8 in the tissue were also tested by real-time PCR and Western blot. There was a significant difference in cytoplasmic expression of FUT8 between breast cancer tissue and matched normal tissue (ptissues ranging from negative, weak positive, positive and strong positive were 2.7%, 40.2%, 54% and 3.2%, respectively. High FUT8 protein expression correlated with lymphatic metastasis (p=0.008) and with stage status (p=0.039). We detected that reduced FUT8 expression correlated with disease-free survival (p=0.02) and overall survival (p=0.04) of breast cancer patients. Expression of FUT8 can stratify breast cancer tissue and may be considered a prognostic marker for breast cancer patients.

  11. Tailored, interactive soap operas for breast cancer education of high-risk Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibaja, M L; Kingery, P; Neff, N E; Smith, Q; Bowman, J; Holcomb, J D

    2000-01-01

    While Hispanic women have lower rates of breast cancer than do women of other ethnic groups, they are the least likely to undergo screening examinations. This study evaluated a culturally sensitive and linguistically appropriate, tailored, computer-based, educational program for early detection of breast cancer aimed at high-risk Hispanic women. Spanish-speaking Hispanic women from an inner-city community health clinic were recruited and randomly assigned either to a computer intervention with an interactive soap-opera format (n = 118) or to a comparison group (n = 60). Pre- and posttests were used to identify any change in breast-cancer-related knowledge and beliefs. Both younger (18-40 years old) and older (41-65 years old) women in the intervention group demonstrated significant increases in their breast cancer screening knowledge and beliefs as compared with the younger and older women in the comparison group (n soap operas that are linguistically and culturally appropriate are effective in increasing breast cancer screening knowledge and beliefs among underserved Spanish-speaking Hispanic women.

  12. Retinol and α-Tocopherol in the Breast Milk of Women after a High-Risk Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sámano, Reyna; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Hernández, Rosa M.; Ramírez, Cristina; Flores Quijano, María E.; Espíndola-Polis, José M.; Veruete, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is scant information about whether, after a high-risk pregnancy, breast milk provides enough vitamins for assuring satisfactory bodily reserves in newborns. Objective: To comparatively evaluate, in women with high-risk and normal pregnancy, the concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in breast milk. Methods: This cross-sectional, analytical study was evaluated with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Informed consent was signed by 95 mothers with a high-risk pregnancy and 32 mothers with a normal pregnancy. From the mothers with a high-risk pregnancy were obtained: 23 samples of colostrum, 24 of transitional milk, and 48 of mature milk. From the normal pregnancy group, 32 mature milk samples were collected. Pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI) and the gestational weight gain were noted. Models of logistic regression were constructed to identify the variables related to a low concentration of either retinol or α-tocopherol in breast milk. Results: The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in mature milk was 60 (interquartile range (IQR), 41–90) and 276 (103–450) μg/dL, respectively, for the high-risk pregnancy group, and 76 (65–91) and 673 (454–866) µg/dL, respectively, for the normal pregnancy group (p = 0.001). The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol was similar in the subgroups of mothers with different disorders during gestation. A clear correlation was found between a greater pregestational weight and a lower concentration of retinol (Rho = –0.280, p = 0.006), and between α-tocopherol and retinol in all cases (Rho = 0.463, p = 0.001). Among women having a high-risk pregnancy, those delivering prematurely rather than carrying their pregnancy to term had a reduced concentration of retinol (54 (37–78) vs. 70 (49–106) µg/dL; p = 0.002) and a tendency to a lower concentration of α-tocopherol in breast milk (185 (75–410) vs. 339 (160–500) µg/dL; p = 0.053). Compared to mothers with a

  13. Retinol and α-Tocopherol in the Breast Milk of Women after a High-Risk Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Sámano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is scant information about whether, after a high-risk pregnancy, breast milk provides enough vitamins for assuring satisfactory bodily reserves in newborns. Objective: To comparatively evaluate, in women with high-risk and normal pregnancy, the concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in breast milk. Methods: This cross-sectional, analytical study was evaluated with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Informed consent was signed by 95 mothers with a high-risk pregnancy and 32 mothers with a normal pregnancy. From the mothers with a high-risk pregnancy were obtained: 23 samples of colostrum, 24 of transitional milk, and 48 of mature milk. From the normal pregnancy group, 32 mature milk samples were collected. Pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI and the gestational weight gain were noted. Models of logistic regression were constructed to identify the variables related to a low concentration of either retinol or α-tocopherol in breast milk. Results: The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in mature milk was 60 (interquartile range (IQR, 41–90 and 276 (103–450 μg/dL, respectively, for the high-risk pregnancy group, and 76 (65–91 and 673 (454–866 µg/dL, respectively, for the normal pregnancy group (p = 0.001. The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol was similar in the subgroups of mothers with different disorders during gestation. A clear correlation was found between a greater pregestational weight and a lower concentration of retinol (Rho = –0.280, p = 0.006, and between α-tocopherol and retinol in all cases (Rho = 0.463, p = 0.001. Among women having a high-risk pregnancy, those delivering prematurely rather than carrying their pregnancy to term had a reduced concentration of retinol (54 (37–78 vs. 70 (49–106 µg/dL; p = 0.002 and a tendency to a lower concentration of α-tocopherol in breast milk (185 (75–410 vs. 339 (160–500 µg/dL; p = 0.053. Compared to mothers with

  14. Quantitative proteomics using the high resolution accurate mass capabilities of the quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallien, Sebastien; Domon, Bruno

    2014-08-01

    High resolution/accurate mass hybrid mass spectrometers have considerably advanced shotgun proteomics and the recent introduction of fast sequencing capabilities has expanded its use for targeted approaches. More specifically, the quadrupole-orbitrap instrument has a unique configuration and its new features enable a wide range of experiments. An overview of the analytical capabilities of this instrument is presented, with a focus on its application to quantitative analyses. The high resolution, the trapping capability and the versatility of the instrument have allowed quantitative proteomic workflows to be redefined and new data acquisition schemes to be developed. The initial proteomic applications have shown an improvement of the analytical performance. However, as quantification relies on ion trapping, instead of ion beam, further refinement of the technique can be expected.

  15. Urine estrogen profiles in European countries with high or low breast cancer rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macmahon, B.; Andersen, A.P.; Brown, J.; Cole, P.; Dewaard, V.; Kauraniemi, T.; Ravhinar, B.; Stormby, N.; Trichopoulos, D.; Westlund, K.

    1980-01-01

    Urine estrogens of women in two age groups, 15 18 and 30-39, were measured in four northern European countries where breast cancer rates are high, two southern European countries where they are low, and in Finland, a northern country where incidence rates are comparable to those of the southern coun

  16. Mass spectrometry improvement on an high current ion implanter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, J.G., E-mail: jgabriel@deea.isel.ipl.pt [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa and Centro de Fisica Nuclear of the University of Lisbon, Rua Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1, 1959-007 Lisbon (Portugal); Alegria, F.C., E-mail: falegria@lx.it.pt [Instituto Superior Tecnico/Technical University of Lisbon and Instituto de Telecomunicacoes, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Redondo, L.M., E-mail: lmredondo@deea.isel.ipl.pt [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa and Centro de Fisica Nuclear of the University of Lisbon, Rua Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1, 1959-007 Lisbon (Portugal); Rocha, J., E-mail: jrocha@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Alves, E., E-mail: ealves@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2011-12-15

    The development of accurate mass spectrometry, enabling the identification of all the ions extracted from the ion source in a high current implanter is described. The spectrometry system uses two signals (x-y graphic), one proportional to the magnetic field (x-axes), taken from the high-voltage potential with an optic fiber system, and the other proportional to the beam current intensity (y-axes), taken from a beam-stop. The ion beam mass register in a mass spectrum of all the elements magnetically analyzed with the same radius and defined by a pair of analyzing slits as a function of their beam intensity is presented. The developed system uses a PC to control the displaying of the extracted beam mass spectrum, and also recording of all data acquired for posterior analysis. The operator uses a LabVIEW code that enables the interfacing between an I/O board and the ion implanter. The experimental results from an ion implantation experiment are shown.

  17. Applications of ambient mass spectrometry in high-throughput screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Ping; Feng, Bao-Sheng; Yang, Jian-Wang; Chang, Cui-Lan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Hu-Wei

    2013-06-07

    The development of rapid screening and identification techniques is of great importance for drug discovery, doping control, forensic identification, food safety and quality control. Ambient mass spectrometry (AMS) allows rapid and direct analysis of various samples in open air with little sample preparation. Recently, its applications in high-throughput screening have been in rapid progress. During the past decade, various ambient ionization techniques have been developed and applied in high-throughput screening. This review discusses typical applications of AMS, including DESI (desorption electrospray ionization), DART (direct analysis in real time), EESI (extractive electrospray ionization), etc., in high-throughput screening (HTS).

  18. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of dying from breast cancer. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) in women with a high risk of breast ... a mammogram , the breast is placed between 2 plates that are pressed together. Pressing the breast helps ...

  19. Identification of Potential Glycoprotein Biomarkers in Estrogen Receptor Positive (ER+ and Negative (ER- Human Breast Cancer Tissues by LC-LTQ/FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan M. Semaan, Xu Wang, Alan G. Marshall, Qing-Xiang Amy Sang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second most fatal cancer in American women. To increase the life expectancy of patients with breast cancer new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and drug targets must be identified. A change in the glycosylation on a glycoprotein often causes a change in the function of that glycoprotein; such a phenomenon is correlated with cancerous transformation. Thus, glycoproteins in human breast cancer estrogen receptor positive (ER+ tissues and those in the more advanced stage of breast cancer, estrogen receptor negative (ER- tissues, were compared. Glycoproteins showing differences in glycosylation were examined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis with double staining (glyco- and total protein staining and identified by reversed-phase nano-liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid linear quadrupole ion trap/ Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Among the identified glycosylated proteins are alpha 1 acid glycoprotein, alpha-1-antitrypsin, calmodulin, and superoxide dismutase mitochondrial precursor that were further verified by Western blotting for both ER+ and ER- human breast tissues. Results show the presence of a possible glycosylation difference in alpha-1-antitrypsin, a potential tumor-derived biomarker for breast cancer progression, which was expressed highest in the ER- samples.

  20. Investigation on location-dependent detectability of a small mass for digital breast tomosynthesis evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changwoo; Baek, Jongduk; Park, Subok

    2016-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an emerging imaging modality for improved breast cancer detection and diagnosis [1-5]. Numerous efforts have been made to find quantitative metrics associated with mammographic image quality assessment, such as the exponent β of anatomical noise power spectrum, glandularity, contrast noise ratio, etc. [6-8]. In addition, with the use of Fourier-domain detectability for a task-based assessment of DBT, a stationarity assumption on reconstructed image statistics was often made [9-11], resulting in the use of multiple regions-of-interest (ROIs) from different locations in order to increase sample size. While all these metrics provide some information on mammographic image characteristics and signal detection, the relationship between these metrics and detectability in DBT evaluation has not been fully understood. In this work, we investigated spatial-domain detectability trends and levels as a function of the number of slices Ns at three different ROI locations on the same image slice, where background statistics differ in terms of the aforementioned metrics. Detectabilities for the three ROI locations were calculated using multi-slice channelized Hotelling observers with 2D/3D Laguerre-Gauss channels. Our simulation results show that detectability levels and trends as a function of Ns vary across these three ROI locations. They also show that the exponent β, mean glandularity, and mean attenuation coefficient vary across the three ROI locations but they do not necessarily predict the ranking of detectability levels and trends across these ROI locations.

  1. Monitoring breast masses with ultrasound tomography in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupinacci, Jessica; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Wang, Ding; Li, Cuiping; Schmidt, Steven; Rama, Olsi; Bey-Knight, Lisa; Myc, Lukasz

    2009-02-01

    As part of an ongoing assessment of the in-vivo performance of a operator independent breast imaging device, based on acoustic tomography, we report on new results obtained with patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Five patients were examined with the prototype on multiple occasions corresponding in time to their chemotherapy sessions. Images of reflection, sound speed and attenuation, representing the entire volume of the breast, were reconstructed from the exam data and analyzed for time-dependent changes during the treatment period. It was found that changes in acoustic properties of the tumors could be measured directly from the images. The measured properties include reflectivity, sound speed and attenuation, leading to measurable changes in the volume, shape and internal attributes of the tumors. These measurements were used to monitor the response of the tumors to the therapy with the long term goal of correlating results with pathological and clinical outcomes. Comparisons with tumor size changes based on traditional US and MRI indicates potential for accurate, quantifiable tracking of tumor volume. Furthermore, our tentative results also show declines in internal properties of the tumors, possibly relating to a reduction in tissue stiffness and/or density. Future work will include an expansion of the study to a larger cohort of patients for determining the statistical significance of our findings.

  2. High Multiplicity Searches at the LHC Using Jet Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, Anson; /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Izaguirre, Eder; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Lisanti, Mariangela; /Princeton U.; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2012-04-24

    This article introduces a new class of searches for physics beyond the Standard Model that improves the sensitivity to signals with high jet multiplicity. The proposed searches gain access to high multiplicity signals by reclustering events into large-radius, or 'fat', jets and by requiring that each event has multiple massive jets. This technique is applied to supersymmetric scenarios in which gluinos are pair-produced and then subsequently decay to final states with either moderate quantities of missing energy or final states without missing energy. In each of these scenarios, the use of jet mass improves the estimated reach in gluino mass by 20% to 50% over current LHC searches.

  3. High cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with breast milk dioxin concentrations in Vietnamese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Teruhiko; Dao, Tung Van; Ho, Manh Dung; Duc Dang, Nhu; Pham, Ngoc Thien; Okamoto, Rie; Pham, Tai The; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Honma, Seijiro; Le, Son Ke; Nguyen, Hung Ngoc

    2014-01-01

    Dioxin (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins+polychlorinated dibenzofurans) is one of the most toxic chemical substances known. Although it is suspected to cause endocrine disruption, very few epidemiological studies have been carried out on its effects on human steroid hormones. The aim of this study was to elucidate the association of dioxin exposure with steroid hormone levels in the saliva and serum of Vietnamese women. Two areas, namely Phu Cat (hot spot) and Kim Bang (nonexposed area), were selected for the study. The study subjects consisted of 51 and 58 women respectively. Saliva, blood, and breast milk samples were collected from the subjects in both the areas. Cortisol, cortisone, DHEA, androstenedione, estrone, and estradiol levels in serum and saliva were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; dioxin concentrations in breast milk were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dioxin concentrations in the breast milk of women from the dioxin hot spot were three to four times higher than those in the breast milk of women from the nonexposed area. Good correlations were found between the levels of six steroid hormones in saliva and those in serum respectively. Salivary and serum cortisol and cortisone levels in women from the dioxin hot spot were significantly higher than those in women from the nonexposed area (P<0.001) and those in all the subjects were positively associated with dioxin concentrations in Vietnamese women (P<0.01). These results suggest that dioxin influences steroidogenesis in humans. Saliva samples can be used for hormone analysis and are therefore excellent specimens in epidemiological studies.

  4. LOW MASSES AND HIGH REDSHIFTS: THE EVOLUTION OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Alaina; Straughn, Amber [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Scarlata, Claudia; Bedregal, Alejandro G. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Domínguez, Alberto; Siana, Brian; Masters, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Malkan, Matthew; Ross, Nathaniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Martin, Crystal L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d' astrophysique, École Polytechniuqe Fédérale de Lausanne, Observatoire de Sauverny, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Colbert, James W.; Rafelski, Marc [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Teplitz, Harry [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bunker, Andrew J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Dressler, Alan; Hathi, Nimish; McCarthy, Patrick, E-mail: alaina.henry@nasa.gov [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    We present the first robust measurement of the high redshift mass-metallicity (MZ) relation at 10{sup 8} ∼< M/M {sub ☉} ∼< 10{sup 10}, obtained by stacking spectra of 83 emission-line galaxies with secure redshifts between 1.3 ∼< z ∼< 2.3. For these redshifts, infrared grism spectroscopy with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 is sensitive to the R {sub 23} metallicity diagnostic: ([O II] λλ3726, 3729 + [O III] λλ4959, 5007)/Hβ. Using spectra stacked in four mass quartiles, we find a MZ relation that declines significantly with decreasing mass, extending from 12+log(O/H) = 8.8 at M = 10{sup 9.8} M {sub ☉}, to 12+log(O/H) = 8.2 at M = 10{sup 8.2} M {sub ☉}. After correcting for systematic offsets between metallicity indicators, we compare our MZ relation to measurements from the stacked spectra of galaxies with M ∼> 10{sup 9.5} M {sub ☉} and z ∼ 2.3. Within the statistical uncertainties, our MZ relation agrees with the z ∼ 2.3 result, particularly since our somewhat higher metallicities (by around 0.1 dex) are qualitatively consistent with the lower mean redshift (z = 1.76) of our sample. For the masses probed by our data, the MZ relation shows a steep slope which is suggestive of feedback from energy-driven winds, and a cosmological downsizing evolution where high mass galaxies reach the local MZ relation at earlier times. In addition, we show that our sample falls on an extrapolation of the star-forming main sequence (the SFR-M {sub *} relation) at this redshift. This result indicates that grism emission-line selected samples do not have preferentially high star formation rates (SFRs). Finally, we report no evidence for evolution of the mass-metallicity-SFR plane; our stack-averaged measurements show excellent agreement with the local relation.

  5. Characterization of masses in digital breast tomosynthesis: Comparison of machine learning in projection views and reconstructed slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Heang-Ping; Wu Yita; Sahiner, Berkman; Wei, Jun; Helvie, Mark A.; Zhang Yiheng; Moore, Richard H.; Kopans, Daniel B.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Way, Ted [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: In digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), quasi-three-dimensional (3D) structural information is reconstructed from a small number of 2D projection view (PV) mammograms acquired over a limited angular range. The authors developed preliminary computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) methods for classification of malignant and benign masses and compared the effectiveness of analyzing lesion characteristics in the reconstructed DBT slices and in the PVs. Methods: A data set of MLO view DBT of 99 patients containing 107 masses (56 malignant and 51 benign) was collected at the Massachusetts General Hospital with IRB approval. The DBTs were obtained with a GE prototype system which acquired 11 PVs over a 50 deg. arc. The authors reconstructed the DBTs at 1 mm slice interval using a simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique. The region of interest (ROI) containing the mass was marked by a radiologist in the DBT volume and the corresponding ROIs on the PVs were derived based on the imaging geometry. The subsequent processes were fully automated. For classification of masses using the DBT-slice approach, the mass on each slice was segmented by an active contour model initialized with adaptive k-means clustering. A spiculation likelihood map was generated by analysis of the gradient directions around the mass margin and spiculation features were extracted from the map. The rubber band straightening transform (RBST) was applied to a band of pixels around the segmented mass boundary. The RBST image was enhanced by Sobel filtering in the horizontal and vertical directions, from which run-length statistics texture features were extracted. Morphological features including those from the normalized radial length were designed to describe the mass shape. A feature space composed of the spiculation features, texture features, and morphological features extracted from the central slice alone and seven feature spaces obtained by averaging the corresponding features from three to 19

  6. High-mass Higgs searches at ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Scott; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Several theories beyond the Standard Model, such as the two-Higgs doublet model, predict the existence of high-mass neutral and charged Higgs particles. The ATLAS and CMS experiments have completed an extensive program of searches for such particles using the ~ 3 fb^-1 of sqrt(s)=13 TeV data recorded during 2015. This note summarizes a selection of these results.

  7. High mass searches in CMS and ATLAS arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Swagata

    The latest results of high mass searches for new physics in a variety of final states from the CMS and ATLAS collaborations are presented. These searches are based on $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV proton-proton collisions data at the LHC collected in the year 2016 and 2015. No excess above expectation from Standard Model processes are observed and exclusion limits are set at the 95% confidence level on various benchmark models.

  8. High-mass diffraction in the QCD dipole picture

    CERN Document Server

    Bialas, A; Peschanski, R

    1998-01-01

    Using the QCD dipole picture of the BFKL pomeron, the cross-section of single diffractive dissociation of virtual photons at high energy and large diffractively excited masses is calculated. The calculation takes into account the full impact-parameter phase-space and thus allows to obtain an exact value of the triple BFKL Pomeron vertex. It appears large enough to compensate the perturbative 6-gluon coupling factor (alpha/pi)^3 thus suggesting a rather appreciable diffractive cross-section.

  9. Sensitivity of HAWC to high-mass dark matter annihilations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Alfaro, R.; Alvarez, C.; Álvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Ayala Solares, H. A.; Barber, A. S.; Baughman, B. M.; Bautista-Elivar, N.; Becerra Gonzalez, J.; Belmont, E.; BenZvi, S. Y.; Berley, D.; Bonilla Rosales, M.; Braun, J.; Caballero-Lopez, R. A.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Carramiñana, A.; Castillo, M.; Cotti, U.; Cotzomi, J.; de la Fuente, E.; De León, C.; DeYoung, T.; Diaz Hernandez, R.; Diaz-Cruz, L.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dingus, B. L.; DuVernois, M. A.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Fiorino, D. W.; Fraija, N.; Galindo, A.; Garfias, F.; González, M. M.; Goodman, J. A.; Grabski, V.; Gussert, M.; Hampel-Arias, Z.; Harding, J. P.; Hui, C. M.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Imran, A.; Iriarte, A.; Karn, P.; Kieda, D.; Kunde, G. J.; Lara, A.; Lauer, R. J.; Lee, W. H.; Lennarz, D.; León Vargas, H.; Linares, E. C.; Linnemann, J. T.; Longo, M.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Marinelli, A.; Martinez, H.; Martinez, O.; Martínez-Castro, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; McEnery, J.; Mendoza Torres, E.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P.; Moreno, E.; Mostafá, M.; Nellen, L.; Newbold, M.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Oceguera-Becerra, T.; Patricelli, B.; Pelayo, R.; Pérez-Pérez, E. G.; Pretz, J.; Rivière, C.; Rosa-González, D.; Ryan, J.; Salazar, H.; Salesa, F.; Sanchez, F. E.; Sandoval, A.; Schneider, M.; Silich, S.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, A. J.; Sparks Woodle, K.; Springer, R. W.; Taboada, I.; Toale, P. A.; Tollefson, K.; Torres, I.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Villaseñor, L.; Weisgarber, T.; Westerhoff, S.; Wisher, I. G.; Wood, J.; Yodh, G. B.; Younk, P. W.; Zaborov, D.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, H.; Abazajian, K. N.; Milagro Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a wide field-of-view detector sensitive to gamma rays of 100 GeV to a few hundred TeV. Located in central Mexico at 19° North latitude and 4100 m above sea level, HAWC will observe gamma rays and cosmic rays with an array of water Cherenkov detectors. The full HAWC array is scheduled to be operational in Spring 2015. In this paper, we study the HAWC sensitivity to the gamma-ray signatures of high-mass (multi-TeV) dark matter annihilation. The HAWC observatory will be sensitive to diverse searches for dark matter annihilation, including annihilation from extended dark matter sources, the diffuse gamma-ray emission from dark matter annihilation, and gamma-ray emission from nonluminous dark matter subhalos. Here we consider the HAWC sensitivity to a subset of these sources, including dwarf galaxies, the M31 galaxy, the Virgo cluster, and the Galactic center. We simulate the HAWC response to gamma rays from these sources in several well-motivated dark matter annihilation channels. If no gamma-ray excess is observed, we show the limits HAWC can place on the dark matter cross section from these sources. In particular, in the case of dark matter annihilation into gauge bosons, HAWC will be able to detect a narrow range of dark matter masses to cross sections below thermal. HAWC should also be sensitive to nonthermal cross sections for masses up to nearly 1000 TeV. The constraints placed by HAWC on the dark matter cross section from known sources should be competitive with current limits in the mass range where HAWC has similar sensitivity. HAWC can additionally explore higher dark matter masses than are currently constrained.

  10. Investigation of the high mass Drell Yan spectrum with ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thomas A.

    2010-09-14

    The Large Hadron Collider started data taking at the end of 2009 and an integrated luminosity of 1fb{sup -1} is hoped for by the end of 2011. A precise measurement of the high mass Drell Yan spectrum offers a good opportunity for a model independent search for new physics. The muon channel is well suited for this, due to the clean signature and the good muon identification in the Muon Spectrometer. Previous studies at high dimuon masses neglected all background contributions. This study investigated the impact of background on the Drell Yan spectrum and it was found that t anti t decays are the most important contribution. Various selection cuts to suppress those background contributions were studied. A method to take systematic uncertainties into account, whilst optimising these selection cuts, has been developed. It was shown that two additional selection cuts based on b-tagging and Missing Transverse Energy (E{sub T}) will reduce the overall uncertainty for a bin from 200 GeV to 300 GeV from 19.1% to 17.2% for an integrated luminosity of 50 pb{sup -1}. An important aspect of this analysis is to ensure that the efficiency for all selection cuts remains stable at very high dimuon masses of up to 1 TeV. This is not the case for the conventional missing E{sub T}, so a derived variable has been introduced and tested. (orig.)

  11. Investigation of the high mass Drell Yan spectrum with ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thomas A.

    2010-09-14

    The Large Hadron Collider started data taking at the end of 2009 and an integrated luminosity of 1fb{sup -1} is hoped for by the end of 2011. A precise measurement of the high mass Drell Yan spectrum offers a good opportunity for a model independent search for new physics. The muon channel is well suited for this, due to the clean signature and the good muon identification in the Muon Spectrometer. Previous studies at high dimuon masses neglected all background contributions. This study investigated the impact of background on the Drell Yan spectrum and it was found that t anti t decays are the most important contribution. Various selection cuts to suppress those background contributions were studied. A method to take systematic uncertainties into account, whilst optimising these selection cuts, has been developed. It was shown that two additional selection cuts based on b-tagging and Missing Transverse Energy (E{sub T}) will reduce the overall uncertainty for a bin from 200 GeV to 300 GeV from 19.1% to 17.2% for an integrated luminosity of 50 pb{sup -1}. An important aspect of this analysis is to ensure that the efficiency for all selection cuts remains stable at very high dimuon masses of up to 1 TeV. This is not the case for the conventional missing E{sub T}, so a derived variable has been introduced and tested. (orig.)

  12. MAGNETIC FIELDS IN HIGH-MASS INFRARED DARK CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai, T.; Kauffmann, J. [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tan, J. C. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Goldsmith, P. F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Carey, S. J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Menten, K. M., E-mail: tpillai.astro@gmail.com [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2015-01-20

    High-mass stars are cosmic engines known to dominate the energetics in the Milky Way and other galaxies. However, their formation is still not well understood. Massive, cold, dense clouds, often appearing as infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), are the nurseries of massive stars. No measurements of magnetic fields in IRDCs in a state prior to the onset of high-mass star formation (HMSF) have previously been available, and prevailing HMSF theories do not consider strong magnetic fields. Here, we report observations of magnetic fields in two of the most massive IRDCs in the Milky Way. We show that IRDCs G11.11–0.12 and G0.253+0.016 are strongly magnetized and that the strong magnetic field is as important as turbulence and gravity for HMSF. The main dense filament in G11.11–0.12 is perpendicular to the magnetic field, while the lower density filament merging onto the main filament is parallel to the magnetic field. The implied magnetic field is strong enough to suppress fragmentation sufficiently to allow HMSF. Other mechanisms reducing fragmentation, such as the entrapment of heating from young stars via high-mass surface densities, are not required to facilitate HMSF.

  13. Improvement of texture and palatability of chicken breast: effect of high hydrostatic pressure and sodium hydrogen carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabe, Kanae; Kim, Yun-Jung; Ohnuma, Shun; Ogoshi, Hiro; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nishiumi, Tadayuki

    2013-06-01

    Chicken breast is not preferred in Japan because it is not juicy. In this study, the effect of combined high pressure and sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) treatment on the texture and palatability of chicken breast was investigated. The sample used was broiler chicken breast. Meat samples were soaked in.0-.4 M NaHCO3 solution and then pressurized at 100-400 MPa. After pressurization, the samples were heated for 30 min at 80°C and cooled down in ice-cold water. High pressure and NaHCO3 treatment of broiler chicken breast resulted in increased water content, and decreased weight reduction and rupture stress. Moreover, meat exposed to 200 MPa pressurization and.3 M NaHCO3 treatment was judged tender, juicy and of good taste by sensory evaluation. The combination of high pressure and NaHCO3 treatment can be effectively used for broiler chicken breast production.

  14. A Novel Approach to Contrast-Enhanced Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Screening: High-Resolution Ultrafast Dynamic Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, R.M.; Mus, R.D.M.; Zelst, J. van; Geppert, C.; Karssemeijer, N.; Platel, B.

    2014-01-01

    The use of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as screening tool has been stalled by high examination costs. Scan protocols have lengthened to optimize specificity. Modern view-sharing sequences now enable ultrafast dynamic whole-breast MRI, allowing much shorter and more cost-effective procedur

  15. Fat suppression techniques for obtaining high resolution dynamic contrast enhanced bilateral breast MR images at 7 tesla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Velden, Tijl A; Schmitz, Alexander M Th; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G A

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare water selective excitation (WSE) and Dixon fat suppression in the context of high-resolution dynamic contrast enhanced MRI of the breast at 7 tesla. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers and one patient with a malignant breast lesion were scanned at 7 tesla. The MRI protocol...

  16. First pregnancy characteristics, postmenopausal breast density, and salivary sex hormone levels in a population at high risk for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Mockus

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions and general significance: While reproductive characteristics, in particular parity, generally demonstrated independent associations with postmenopausal breast density and E, P and DHEA levels, T levels showed concordant inverse associations with age-at-first birth and breast density. These findings suggest that reproductive effects and later life salivary sex steroid hormone levels may have independent effects on later life breast density and cancer risk.

  17. Nuclear Kaiso expression is associated with high grade and triple-negative invasive breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen F Vermeulen

    Full Text Available Kaiso is a BTB/POZ transcription factor that is ubiquitously expressed in multiple cell types and functions as a transcriptional repressor and activator. Little is known about Kaiso expression and localization in breast cancer. Here, we have related pathological features and molecular subtypes to Kaiso expression in 477 cases of human invasive breast cancer. Nuclear Kaiso was predominantly found in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC (p = 0.007, while cytoplasmic Kaiso expression was linked to invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC (p = 0.006. Although cytoplasmic Kaiso did not correlate to clinicopathological features, we found a significant correlation between nuclear Kaiso, high histological grade (p = 0.023, ERα negativity (p = 0.001, and the HER2-driven and basal/triple-negative breast cancers (p = 0.018. Interestingly, nuclear Kaiso was also abundant in BRCA1-associated breast cancer (p<0.001 and invasive breast cancer overexpressing EGFR (p = 0.019. We observed a correlation between nuclear Kaiso and membrane-localized E-cadherin and p120-catenin (p120 (p<0.01. In contrast, cytoplasmic p120 strongly correlated with loss of E-cadherin and low nuclear Kaiso (p = 0.005. We could confirm these findings in human ILC cells and cell lines derived from conditional mouse models of ILC. Moreover, we present functional data that substantiate a mechanism whereby E-cadherin controls p120-mediated relief of Kaiso-dependent gene repression. In conclusion, our data indicate that nuclear Kaiso is common in clinically aggressive ductal breast cancer, while cytoplasmic Kaiso and a p120-mediated relief of Kaiso-dependent transcriptional repression characterize ILC.

  18. Associations of Breast Density With Demographic, Reproductive, and Lifestyle Factors in a Developing Southeast Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung Yun Trieu, Phuong; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Peat, Jennifer K; Doan Do, Thuan; Brennan, Patrick C

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how breast density interacted with demographic, reproductive, and lifestyle features among Vietnamese women. Mammographic density and established risk factors for breast cancer were collected from 1651 women (345 cancer cases and 1306 normal cases) in Vietnam. The association of breast density categories with potential risk factors was investigated using Spearman's test for continuous variables and χ(2) tests for categorical variables. Independent factors associated with high breast density and breast cancer in specific density groupings were assessed using logistic regression. Results showed that high breast density was significantly associated with young age, low body mass index, low number of children, early age at having the last child, premenopausal status, and increased vegetable consumption. Reproductive factors were key agents associated with breast cancer for women with high breast density, which was not so evident for women with low breast density.

  19. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer include exposure to radiation, a family history of breast cancer, and having high estrogen levels, which can happen with diseases like cirrhosis or Klinefelter's syndrome. Treatment for male breast cancer is usually ...

  20. Guidelines for Follow-Up of Women at High Risk for Inherited Breast Cancer: Consensus Statement from the Biomed 2 Demonstration Programme on Inherited Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Møller

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocols for activity aiming at early diagnosis and treatment of inherited breast or breast-ovarian cancer have been reported. Available reports on outcome of such programmes are considered here. It is concluded that the ongoing activities should continue with minor modifications. Direct evidence of a survival benefit from breast and ovarian screening is not yet available. On the basis of expert opinion and preliminary results from intervention programmes indicating good detection rates for early breast cancers and 5-year survival concordant with early diagnosis, we propose that women at high risk for inherited breast cancer be offered genetic counselling, education in ‘breast awareness’ and annual mammography and clinical expert examination from around 30 years of age. Mammography every second year may be sufficient from 60 years on. BRCA1 mutation carriers may benefit from more frequent examinations and cancer risk may be reduced by oophorectomy before 40–50 years of age. We strongly advocate that all activities should be organized as multicentre studies subjected to continuous evaluation to measure the effects of the interventions on long-term mortality, to match management options more precisely to individual risks and to prepare the ground for studies on chemoprevention.

  1. Characterization of Cystic Breast Masses on Ultrasound: Comparative Study among Conventional, Tissue Harmonic, Compound, and a Combination of Tissue Harmonic and Compound Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Ji Yung; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Kyu Ran; Son, Gil Soo; Kim, Baek Hyun [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Young [Institute of Economics, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Ok Hee [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This prospective study was to compare the image quality and diagnostic performance of breast cystic masses by conventional and advanced ultrasound (US) techniques including tissue harmonic, compound, and the combination of these techniques. All 91 patients, collectively having 109 breast cystic masses were scanned using four US techniques (complicated cysts in 36, septated cysts in 33, and complex cysts in 40). Two breast radiologists independently assessed the image quality and possibility of malignancy. Image quality was evaluated in terms of contrast and clarity of the wall and internal echo pattern and then graded on a scale of 1 (poor) to grade 3 (satisfactory). The possibility of malignancy was graded on a scale of 1 (suggestive of benignancy) to 5 (suggestive of malignancy) using US images. The histopathological results and follow-up images were used as the reference standard for the assessment of diagnostic performance. Results were evaluated by Friedman's test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. In terms of image quality, a grade of 3 was significantly more frequent in the three advanced US techniques than conventional US (p < 0.05). For assessment of diagnostic performance, areas under the ROC curves in three advanced techniques were significantly higher than in conventional US (p < 0.05). Advanced US techniques including compound and tissue harmonic US techniques provide a better image quality in breast cystic masses and also improve the diagnostic performance compared with conventional US

  2. The impact of the Polish mass breast cancer screening program on prognosis in the Pomeranian Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokowski, Jarosław; Bartoszek, Krzystof; Kosowska, Anna; Kalinowski, Leszek; Jaśkiewicz, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mammographic screening results in diagnosis of less advanced breast cancer (BC). A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials confirmed that BC screening reduces mortality. In 2007, the National Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) was established in Poland with the crucial aim of reducing mortality from BC. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of participation in the NBCSP on prognosis. Material and methods A single institution, non-randomized retrospective study was undertaken. The study population comprised 643 patients with BC treated in the Department of Surgical Oncology (DSO) at the Medical University of Gdansk over a 4-year period, from 01.01.2007 until 31.12.2010. Patients were divided into two groups: group A – patients who participated in the NBCSP (n = 238, 37.0%); and group B – patients who did not participate in the NBCSP (n = 405, 63.0%). Results Statistical analysis revealed that group A displayed a less advanced AJCC stage (more patients in AJCC stage I, p = 0.002), lower tumor diameter (more patients with pT1, p = 0.006, and pT pNO, p = 0.01). From 2009 to 2010 the NBCSP revealed a statistically significant benefit – significantly more patients in stage 0 + I (60.7% vs. 48.8%, p = 0.018) and with tumors pT < 15 mm (48.8% vs. 35.1%, p = 0.011) were observed in group A. Conclusions The study results revealed the beneficial impact of the NBCSP. Superior prognostic factors and favorable staging were observed in women who participated in the NBCSP. PMID:28261300

  3. Protomagnetar and black hole formation in high-mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obergaulinger, M.; Aloy, M. Á.

    2017-07-01

    Using axisymmetric simulations coupling special relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), an approximate post-Newtonian gravitational potential and two-moment neutrino transport, we show different paths for the formation of either protomagnetars or stellar mass black holes. The fraction of prototypical stellar cores which should result in collapsars depends on a combination of several factors, among which the structure of the progenitor star and the profile of specific angular momentum are probably the foremost. Along with the implosion of the stellar core, we also obtain supernova-like explosions driven by neutrino heating and hydrodynamic instabilities or by magneto-rotational effects in cores of high-mass stars. In the latter case, highly collimated, mildly relativistic outflows are generated. We find that after a rather long post-collapse phase (lasting ≳1 s) black holes may form in cases both of successful and failed supernova-like explosions. A basic trend is that cores with a specific angular momentum smaller than that obtained by standard, one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations form black holes (and eventually collapsars). Complementary, protomagnetars result from stellar cores with the standard distribution of specific angular momentum obtained from prototypical stellar evolution calculations including magnetic torques and moderate to large mass-loss rates.

  4. Presumed prevalence analysis on suspected and highly suspected breast cancer lesions in São Paulo using BIRADS® criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Milani

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer screening programs are critical for early detection of breast cancer. Early detection is essential for diagnosing, treating and possibly curing breast cancer. Since there are no data on the incidence of breast cancer, nationally or regionally in Brazil, our aim was to assess women by means of mammography, to determine the prevalence of this disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: The study protocol was designed in collaboration between the Department of Diagnostic Imaging (DDI, Institute of Diagnostic Imaging (IDI and São Paulo Municipal Health Program. METHODS: A total of 139,945 Brazilian women were assessed by means of mammography between April 2002 and September 2004. Using the American College of Radiology (ACR criteria (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, BIRADS®, the prevalence of suspected and highly suspected breast lesions were determined. RESULTS: The prevalence of suspected (BIRADS® 4 and highly suspected (BIRADS® 5 lesions increased with age, especially after the fourth decade. Accordingly, BIRADS® 4 and BIRADS® 5 lesions were more prevalent in the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh decades. CONCLUSION: The presumed prevalence of suspected and highly suspected breast cancer lesions in the population of São Paulo was 0.6% and it is similar to the prevalence of breast cancer observed in other populations.

  5. Presumed prevalence analysis on suspected and highly suspected breast cancer lesions in São Paulo using BIRADS criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Vivian; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Finguerman, Flora; Pinotti, Marianne; Ribeiro, Celso Scazufka; Abdalla, Nitamar; Szejnfeld, Jacob

    2007-07-05

    Breast cancer screening programs are critical for early detection of breast cancer. Early detection is essential for diagnosing, treating and possibly curing breast cancer. Since there are no data on the incidence of breast cancer, nationally or regionally in Brazil, our aim was to assess women by means of mammography, to determine the prevalence of this disease. The study protocol was designed in collaboration between the Department of Diagnostic Imaging (DDI), Institute of Diagnostic Imaging (IDI) and São Paulo Municipal Health Program. A total of 139,945 Brazilian women were assessed by means of mammography between April 2002 and September 2004. Using the American College of Radiology (ACR) criteria (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, BIRADS), the prevalence of suspected and highly suspected breast lesions were determined. The prevalence of suspected (BIRADS 4) and highly suspected (BIRADS 5) lesions increased with age, especially after the fourth decade. Accordingly, BIRADS 4 and BIRADS 5 lesions were more prevalent in the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh decades. The presumed prevalence of suspected and highly suspected breast cancer lesions in the population of São Paulo was 0.6% and it is similar to the prevalence of breast cancer observed in other populations.

  6. The special case of complicated grief in women at high risk for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellisch, David K; Cohen, Marie M

    2010-03-01

    Exploration of complicated grief focusing on the relationship of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complicated grief in a population of women at high risk for developing breast cancer. Special reference is made to women who have experienced a material death. We reflected on the clinical attributes of the Revlon UCLA High Risk Clinic population in terms of their own perceived risk of developing breast cancer. For part of our population, their perceived risk was coupled with their reactions to the loss of their mothers to breast cancer. We compared and contrasted this pattern of reactions to those described by Licihtenthal et al. (2004) in their developmental review of complicated grief as a distinct disorder. We concluded that our population of women differed from Lichtenthal et al.'s (2004) model for complicated grief. Lichtenthal's group postulated that the key element of complicated grief involves the protracted nature of separation anxiety and distress and excludes PTSD. In our populations, the daughter with complicated grief experiences a combination of separation anxiety and a type of PTSD involving anxiety over the perceived certainty of her own future diagnosis of breast cancer. It was noteworthy that Lichtenthal's model population was composed of individuals caring for terminally ill spouses. Significantly, the spousal caretakers did not have an ongoing genetic link to their partners whereas our population is genetically linked. We postulate that this accounts for the unique presentation of complicated grief and ptsd in our population. We submit that this combination of complicated grief and PTSD requires a cognitive reframing of their perceived inevitability of developing breast cancer and desensitization techniques to help high risk women pursue preventative health care rather than avoiding it.

  7. Perceptions and opinions about male breast cancer and male breast self-examination: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed; Al-Naggar, Dhekra Hamoud

    2012-01-01

    While the relatively common nature of female breast cancer has resulted in a high level of general awareness, male breast cancer is still comparatively unknown to the general public and to healthcare professionals. The objective of this study is to explore the perceptions and opinions about male breast cancer and male breast self-examination among male university students. In-depth interviews were conducted among 36 male university students from the Management and Science University, Malaysia, selected by simple random sampling. The themes of the interview were: knowledge of male breast cancer and male breast self-examination, sources of knowledge and attitudes towards male BSE. The data obtained were classified into various categories and analyzed manually. The majority of participants mentioned that there is a low possibility for males to get breast cancer. They also believed that the cause of breast cancer among men is due to the carcinogens from cigarettes. The majority of participants mentioned that they know about breast self-examination from the mass media and that the presence of a lump in the breast is the main symptom of breast cancer in men. The majority of participants mentioned that they encourage their family members to practice breast self-examination but considered that BSE is not important for men because they have a low probability of getting breast cancer. Misconceptions regarding male breast cancer and breast self-examination among men still exist among male university students. Therefore special attention should be given to educate men about male breast cancer and male BSE.

  8. Intact MicroRNA Analysis Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullolli, Majlinda; Knouf, Emily; Arampatzidou, Maria; Tewari, Muneesh; Pitteri, Sharon J.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small single-stranded non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression, and play key roles in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes and in disease. New tools to analyze miRNAs will add understanding of the physiological origins and biological functions of this class of molecules. In this study, we investigate the utility of high resolution mass spectrometry for the analysis of miRNAs through proof-of-concept experiments. We demonstrate the ability of mass spectrometry to resolve and separate miRNAs and corresponding 3' variants in mixtures. The mass accuracy of the monoisotopic deprotonated peaks from various miRNAs is in the low ppm range. We compare fragmentation of miRNA by collision-induced dissociation (CID) and by higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) which yields similar sequence coverage from both methods but additional fragmentation by HCD versus CID. We measure the linear dynamic range, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation of miRNA loaded onto a C18 column. Lastly, we explore the use of data-dependent acquisition of MS/MS spectra of miRNA during online LC-MS and demonstrate that multiple charge states can be fragmented, yielding nearly full sequence coverage of miRNA on a chromatographic time scale. We conclude that high resolution mass spectrometry allows the separation and measurement of miRNAs in mixtures and a standard LC-MS setup can be adapted for online analysis of these molecules.

  9. Cosmetic Analysis Following Breast-Conserving Surgery and Adjuvant High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Prospective Clinical Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garsa, Adam A.; Ferraro, Daniel J.; DeWees, Todd [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Margenthaler, Julie A. [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Naughton, Michael [Department of Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Aft, Rebecca [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Department of Surgery, John Cochran Veterans Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Gillanders, William E.; Eberlein, Timothy [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Matesa, Melissa A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Zoberi, Imran, E-mail: izoberi@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate cosmetic outcomes in women treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation using high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2008, 151 patients with early-stage breast cancer were enrolled in a phase 2 prospective clinical trial. Eligible patients had stage Tis-T2 tumors of ≤3 cm that were excised with negative margins and with no nodal involvement. Patients received 3.4 Gy twice daily to a total dose of 34 Gy. Both the patients and the treating radiation oncologist qualitatively rated cosmesis as excellent, good, fair, or poor over time and ascribed a cause for changes in cosmesis. Cosmetic outcome was evaluated quantitatively by percentage of breast retraction assessment (pBRA). Patients also reported their satisfaction with treatment over time. Results: Median follow-up was 55 months. The rates of excellent-to-good cosmesis reported by patients and the treating radiation oncologist were 92% and 97% pretreatment, 91% and 97% at 3 to 4 months' follow-up, 87% and 94% at 2 years, and 92% and 94% at 3 years, respectively. Breast infection and adjuvant chemotherapy were independent predictors of a fair-to-poor cosmetic outcome at 3 years. Compared to pretreatment pBRA (7.35), there was no significant change in pBRA over time. The volume receiving more than 150 Gy (V150) was the only significant predictor of pBRA. The majority of patients (86.6%) were completely satisfied with their treatment. Conclusions: Patients and the treating physician reported a high rate of excellent-to-good cosmetic outcomes at all follow-up time points. Acute breast infection and chemotherapy were associated with worse cosmetic outcomes. Multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy does not significantly change breast size as measured by pBRA.

  10. Interactive breast mass segmentation using a convex active contour model with optimal threshold values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acho, Sussan Nkwenti; Rae, William Ian Duncombe

    2016-10-01

    A convex active contour model requires a predefined threshold value to determine the global solution for the best contour to use when doing mass segmentation. Fixed thresholds or manual tuning of threshold values for optimum mass boundary delineation are impracticable. A proposed method is presented to determine an optimized mass-specific threshold value for the convex active contour derived from the probability matrix of the mass with the particle swarm optimization method. We compared our results with the Chan-Vese segmentation and a published global segmentation model on masses detected on direct digital mammograms. The regional term of the convex active contour model maximizes the posterior partitioning probability for binary segmentation. Suppose the probability matrix is binary thresholded using the particle swarm optimization to obtain a value T1, we define the optimal threshold value for the global minimizer of the convex active contour as the mean intensity of all pixels whose probabilities are greater than T1. The mean Jaccard similarity indices were 0.89±0.07 for the proposed/Chan-Vese method and 0.88±0.06 for the proposed/published segmentation model. The mean Euclidean distance between Fourier descriptors of the segmented areas was 0.05±0.03 for the proposed/Chan-Vese method and 0.06±0.04 for the proposed/published segmentation model. This efficient method avoids problems of initial level set contour placement and contour re-initialization. Moreover, optimum segmentation results are realized for all masses improving on the fixed threshold value of 0.5 proposed elsewhere. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A virtual trial framework for quantifying the detectability of masses in breast tomosynthesis projection data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Stefano [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Bakic, Predrag R. [Radiology Department, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Myers, Kyle J.; Jennings, Robert J.; Park, Subok [Division of Imaging and Applied Mathematics, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, FDA, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a promising breast cancer screening tool that has already begun making inroads into clinical practice. However, there is ongoing debate over how to quantitatively evaluate and optimize these systems, because different definitions of image quality can lead to different optimal design strategies. Powerful and accurate tools are desired to extend our understanding of DBT system optimization and validate published design principles. Methods: The authors developed a virtual trial framework for task-specific DBT assessment that uses digital phantoms, open-source x-ray transport codes, and a projection-space, spatial-domain observer model for quantitative system evaluation. The authors considered evaluation of reconstruction algorithms as a separate problem and focused on the information content in the raw, unfiltered projection images. Specifically, the authors investigated the effects of scan angle and number of angular projections on detectability of a small (3 mm diameter) signal embedded in randomly-varying anatomical backgrounds. Detectability was measured by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). Experiments were repeated for three test cases where the detectability-limiting factor was anatomical variability, quantum noise, or electronic noise. The authors also juxtaposed the virtual trial framework with other published studies to illustrate its advantages and disadvantages. Results: The large number of variables in a virtual DBT study make it difficult to directly compare different authors' results, so each result must be interpreted within the context of the specific virtual trial framework. The following results apply to 25% density phantoms with 5.15 cm compressed thickness and 500 {mu}m{sup 3} voxels (larger 500 {mu}m{sup 2} detector pixels were used to avoid voxel-edge artifacts): 1. For raw, unfiltered projection images in the anatomical-variability-limited regime, AUC appeared to

  12. Breast Cancer Knowledge Among Male High School Students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amoudi, Samia; AlHomied, Moaiad Tariq Abdul-Aziz; AlSayegh, Nasser Youssef Nasser; Radi, Osama Naseem Ismail; Zagzoog, Mohammed Majed Suliman; Aloufi, Omar Faisal Mubarak; Al-Harbi, Abdullah Abdulkarim Ali; Tayeb, Safwan; Hassanien, Mohammed; Al-Ahwal, Mahmoud; Eldeek, Basem; Harakeh, Steve

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer (BC) accounts for 24 % of all women cancer cases diagnosed in Saudi Arabia each year. Awareness is extremely important in combating this disease. This study was undertaken to assess male high school students' response to BC. This cross-sectional survey was performed on male high school students across schools in Jeddah. A questionnaire gathered data on respondent demographics, beliefs about BC, BC risk factors, early screening methods, and role of men in BC. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 20. A total of 824 students participated, with an average age of 17.0 years. There was more than 50 % agreement that early detection of BC enhances the chances of recovery, that BC is treatable, and that clinical breast examination and breastfeeding provide protection from BC. Around half the survey population thought that BC was fatal and contagious. Fewer than 50 % thought that BC was inherited and related to smoking, consumption of contraceptive pills, repeated exposure to radiation, obesity, and wearing a bra and that breast tumors were all malignant and spread to different parts of the body. Others knew that mammograms should be performed periodically. A high percentage persuaded their relatives to have mammograms and provided them with psychological support. Knowledge of BC among male high school students in Saudi Arabia is still limited, and, therefore, programs and activities need to be established to increase awareness among high school students.

  13. Chemical Diversity in High-Mass Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Beuther, H; Bergin, E A; Sridharan, T K

    2008-01-01

    Massive star formation exhibits an extremely rich chemistry. However, not much evolutionary details are known yet, especially at high spatial resolution. Therefore, we synthesize previously published Submillimeter Array high-spatial-resolution spectral line observations toward four regions of high-mass star formation that are in various evolutionary stages with a range of luminosities. Estimating column densities and comparing the spatially resolved molecular emission allows us to characterize the chemical evolution in more detail. Furthermore, we model the chemical evolution of massive warm molecular cores to be directly compared with the data. The four regions reveal many different characteristics. While some of them, e.g., the detection rate of CH3OH, can be explained by variations of the average gas temperatures, other features are attributed to chemical effects. For example, C34S is observed mainly at the core-edges and not toward their centers because of temperature-selective desorption and successive g...

  14. Bio-mass utilization in high pressure cogeneration boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundinya, Sandeep; Maria Ambrose Raj, Y.; Sreeram, K.; Divakar Shetty A., S.

    2017-07-01

    Coal is widely used all over the world in almost all power plants. The dependence on coal has increased enormously as the demand for electricity has reached its peak. Coal being a non-renewable source is depleting fast. We being the engineers, it's our duty to conserve the natural resources and optimize the coal consumption. In this project, we have tried to optimize the bio-mass utilization in high pressure cogeneration boiler. The project was carried in Seshasayee Paper and Boards Limited, erode related to Boiler No:10 operating at steam pressure of 105 kscg and temperature of 510°C. Available bio-mass fuels in and around the mill premises are bagasse, bagasse pith, cane trash and chipper dust. In this project, we have found out the coal equivalent replacement by the above bio-mass fuel(s) to facilitate deciding on the optimized quantity of coal that can be replaced by biomass without modifying the existing design of the plant. The dominant fuel (coal) which could be displaced with the substitute biomass fuel had been individually (biomass) analyzed.

  15. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism and bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristou, Nicholaos I; Blair, Harry C; Kypreos, Kyriakos E; Papachristou, Dionysios J

    2017-05-01

    It is well appreciated that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and bone physiology and pathology are tightly linked. Studies, primarily in mouse models, have shown that dysfunctional and/or disturbed HDL can affect bone mass through many different ways. Specifically, reduced HDL levels have been associated with the development of an inflammatory microenvironment that affects the differentiation and function of osteoblasts. In addition, perturbation in metabolic pathways of HDL favors adipoblastic differentiation and restrains osteoblastic differentiation through, among others, the modification of specific bone-related chemokines and signaling cascades. Increased bone marrow adiposity also deteriorates bone osteoblastic function and thus bone synthesis, leading to reduced bone mass. In this review, we present the current knowledge and the future directions with regard to the HDL-bone mass connection. Unraveling the molecular phenomena that underline this connection will promote the deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of bone-related pathologies, such as osteoporosis or bone metastasis, and pave the way toward the development of novel and more effective therapies against these conditions. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Calibration of evolutionary diagnostics in high-mass star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Molinari, Sergio; Elia, Davide; Cesaroni, Riccardo; Testi, Leonardo; Robitaille, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary classification of massive clumps that are candidate progenitors of high-mass young stars and clusters relies on a variety of independent diagnostics based on observables from the near-infrared to the radio. A promising evolutionary indicator for massive and dense cluster-progenitor clumps is the L/M ratio between the bolometric luminosity and the mass of the clumps. With the aim of providing a quantitative calibration for this indicator we used SEPIA/APEX to obtain CH3C2H(12-11) observations, that is an excellent thermometer molecule probing densities > 10^5 cm^-3 , toward 51 dense clumps with M>1000 solar masses, and uniformly spanning -2 10 we detect all the clumps, with a gas temperature rising with Log(L/M), marking the appearance of a qualitatively different heating source within the clumps; such values are found towards clumps with UCHII counterparts, suggesting that the quantitative difference in T - L/M behaviour above L/M >10 is due to the first appearance of ZAMS stars in the clump...

  17. High resolution weak lensing mass mapping combining shear and flexion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanusse, F.; Starck, J.-L.; Leonard, A.; Pires, S.

    2016-06-01

    Aims: We propose a new mass mapping algorithm, specifically designed to recover small-scale information from a combination of gravitational shear and flexion. Including flexion allows us to supplement the shear on small scales in order to increase the sensitivity to substructures and the overall resolution of the convergence map without relying on strong lensing constraints. Methods: To preserve all available small scale information, we avoid any binning of the irregularly sampled input shear and flexion fields and treat the mass mapping problem as a general ill-posed inverse problem, which is regularised using a robust multi-scale wavelet sparsity prior. The resulting algorithm incorporates redshift, reduced shear, and reduced flexion measurements for individual galaxies and is made highly efficient by the use of fast Fourier estimators. Results: We tested our reconstruction method on a set of realistic weak lensing simulations corresponding to typical HST/ACS cluster observations and demonstrate our ability to recover substructures with the inclusion of flexion, which are otherwise lost if only shear information is used. In particular, we can detect substructures on the 15'' scale well outside of the critical region of the clusters. In addition, flexion also helps to constrain the shape of the central regions of the main dark matter halos. Our mass mapping software, called Glimpse2D, is made freely available at http://www.cosmostat.org/software/glimpse

  18. SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry of High-Density Lipoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaee Farhad

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL, one of the main plasma lipoproteins, serves as a docking station for proteins involved in inflammation, coagulation, and lipid metabolism. Methods To elucidate the protein composition of HDL, we employed SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a potential high-throughput proteomic candidate for protein profiling of HDL. HDL derived from normolipemic individuals was captured on PS20 protein-chips using covalently bound antibodies against apo A-I or A-II. Results After optimisation, on-chip capture of HDL particles directly from plasma or from pre-purified HDL resulted in comparable fingerprints confirming specific capture of HDL. Depending on the capture antibody some differences in the fingerprint were observed. The most detailed fingerprint was observed up to 50 kDa; approximately 95 peaks were detected in the 3–50 kDa molecular mass range. Between 50 and 160 kDa, 27 more peaks were detected. Conclusion Based on these results, SELDI-TOF MS may be a suitable high-throughput candidate for HDL protein profiling and marker search. This approach may be used to i investigate the underlying mechanisms that lead to increased atherothrombotic risk and ii to investigate the atherothrombotic state of an individual.

  19. RAID-M: A high performance RAID Matrix mass storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Peng; LI Sanli; Francis C.M.Lau; SHI Yao; HUANG Feng

    2005-01-01

    In the light of the increasingly serious I/O bottleneck problem, the paper puts forward a method named RAID-M (RAID Matrix) to build high performance mass storage from cheap PC components based on the idea of multi-channel I/O and parallel access.Theoretical analyses prove that different RAID-M configurations vary their performance,space utilization and reliability, meeting various application goals. Experiments show that both the sequential read performance and sequential write performance of a RAID-M prototype machine have broken through the limitation of 32 bit/33 MHz PCI bus.

  20. Population synthesis of high mass X-ray binaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Liang Lü; Chun-Hua Zhu; Zhao-Jun Wang

    2011-01-01

    By simulating the evolution of spin periods of magnetized neutron stars which interact with their environment in binary systems, we investigate the Galactic population of high mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). The number of HMXBs in the Galaxy is between 190 and 240, and their birthrate is from 5.9 × 10-5 yr-1 to 6.3 ×10-5 yr-1. Comparing the Corbet diagram (the positions of the spin periods vs. the orbital periods of HMXBs ) in our model with the associated observations, we find that the stellar wind structure and the process of matter transfer are very important for understanding HMXBs.

  1. Hormone therapy/adjuvant chemotherapy induced deleterious effects on the bone mass of breast cancer patients and the intervention of physiotherapy: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonezzer, T; Pereira, C M A P; Filho, U P; Marx, A

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, breast cancer has witnessed some notable improvements regarding early diagnosis and new therapeutical strategies, mainly because of the utilization of new drugs and systemic treatment protocols, which have had a direct impact in the increase of these patients' global survival rate. At the same time, it is an ever-growing concern among oncology professionals to identify and minimize as much as possible the effects of long-term toxicity resulting from cancer therapies. Within this context, physiotherapy fits as a preventive and rehabilitating factor regarding functional and skeletal alterations, deriving not only from the direct action of breast cancer, but also from the treatment to which these patients are submitted. The aim of this study was to revise the scientific literature on possible adjuvant chemotherapy-induced secondary deleterious effects on the bone mass of patients diagnosed with breast cancer, and also to revise the literature on the intervention of physiotherapy in cases of secondary bone mass loss caused by adjuvant chemotherapy in patients suffering from breast cancer. The research was carried out by consulting the following medical websites: Medicus Medline Index, Lilacs, Sciello, PubMed (National Library of Medicine), Google Academic and Capes (a Brazilian website for scientific information). The selection gathers articles written in different languages, English in special, published from January 1998 to October 2008. 24 studies explicitly mention chemotherapy-induced direct and/or indirect effects upon bone mass. Different authors refer to bone mass loss as one possible secondary deleterious effect resulting from adjuvant chemotherapy applied in breast cancer treatment. Nonetheless, no scientific articles were found on the subject of physiotherapy intervention aimed at patients in this specific condition. The results achieved in this revision study point out the possible chemotherapy-induced late deleterious effects on patients

  2. A New Approach to Develop Computer-Aided Diagnosis Scheme of Breast Mass Classification Using Deep Learning Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuchen; Yan, Shiju; Gundreddy, Rohith Reddy; Wang, Yunzhi; Cheng, Samuel; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2017-04-18

    To develop and test a deep learning based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme of mammograms for classifying between malignant and benign masses. An image dataset involving 560 regions of interest (ROIs) extracted from digital mammograms was used. After down-sampling each ROI from 512×512 to 64×64 pixel size, we applied an 8 layer deep learning network that involves 3 pairs of convolution-max-pooling layers for automatic feature extraction and a multiple layer perceptron (MLP) classifier for feature categorization to process ROIs. The 3 pairs of convolution layers contain 20, 10, and 5 feature maps, respectively. Each convolution layer is connected with a max-pooling layer to improve the feature robustness. The output of the sixth layer is fully connected with a MLP classifier, which is composed of one hidden layer and one logistic regression layer. The network then generates a classification score to predict the likelihood of ROI depicting a malignant mass. A four-fold cross validation method was applied to train and test this deep learning network. The results revealed that this CAD scheme yields an area under the receiver operation characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.696±0.044, 0.802±0.037, 0.836±0.036, and 0.822±0.035 for fold 1 to 4 testing datasets, respectively. The overall AUC of the entire dataset is 0.790±0.019. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a deep learning based CAD scheme to classify between malignant and benign breast masses without a lesion segmentation, image feature computation and selection process.

  3. A new, high-resolution global mass coral bleaching database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Simon D; Rickbeil, Gregory J M; Heron, Scott F

    2017-01-01

    Episodes of mass coral bleaching have been reported in recent decades and have raised concerns about the future of coral reefs on a warming planet. Despite the efforts to enhance and coordinate coral reef monitoring within and across countries, our knowledge of the geographic extent of mass coral bleaching over the past few decades is incomplete. Existing databases, like ReefBase, are limited by the voluntary nature of contributions, geographical biases in data collection, and the variations in the spatial scale of bleaching reports. In this study, we have developed the first-ever gridded, global-scale historical coral bleaching database. First, we conducted a targeted search for bleaching reports not included in ReefBase by personally contacting scientists and divers conducting monitoring in under-reported locations and by extracting data from the literature. This search increased the number of observed bleaching reports by 79%, from 4146 to 7429. Second, we employed spatial interpolation techniques to develop annual 0.04° × 0.04° latitude-longitude global maps of the probability that bleaching occurred for 1985 through 2010. Initial results indicate that the area of coral reefs with a more likely than not (>50%) or likely (>66%) probability of bleaching was eight times higher in the second half of the assessed time period, after the 1997/1998 El Niño. The results also indicate that annual maximum Degree Heating Weeks, a measure of thermal stress, for coral reefs with a high probability of bleaching increased over time. The database will help the scientific community more accurately assess the change in the frequency of mass coral bleaching events, validate methods of predicting mass coral bleaching, and test whether coral reefs are adjusting to rising ocean temperatures.

  4. Lectin chromatography/mass spectrometry discovery workflow identifies putative biomarkers of aggressive breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Penelope M; Schilling, Birgit; Niles, Richard K; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Li, Bensheng; Jung, Kwanyoung; Cho, Wonryeon; Braten, Miles; Inerowicz, Halina D; Williams, Katherine; Albertolle, Matthew; Held, Jason M; Iacovides, Demetris; Sorensen, Dylan J; Griffith, Obi L; Johansen, Eric; Zawadzka, Anna M; Cusack, Michael P; Allen, Simon; Gormley, Matthew; Hall, Steven C; Witkowska, H Ewa; Gray, Joe W; Regnier, Fred; Gibson, Bradford W; Fisher, Susan J

    2012-04-06

    We used a lectin chromatography/MS-based approach to screen conditioned medium from a panel of luminal (less aggressive) and triple negative (more aggressive) breast cancer cell lines (n=5/subtype). The samples were fractionated using the lectins Aleuria aurantia (AAL) and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA), which recognize fucose and sialic acid, respectively. The bound fractions were enzymatically N-deglycosylated and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. In total, we identified 533 glycoproteins, ∼90% of which were components of the cell surface or extracellular matrix. We observed 1011 glycosites, 100 of which were solely detected in ≥3 triple negative lines. Statistical analyses suggested that a number of these glycosites were triple negative-specific and thus potential biomarkers for this tumor subtype. An analysis of RNaseq data revealed that approximately half of the mRNAs encoding the protein scaffolds that carried potential biomarker glycosites were up-regulated in triple negative vs luminal cell lines, and that a number of genes encoding fucosyl- or sialyltransferases were differentially expressed between the two subtypes, suggesting that alterations in glycosylation may also drive candidate identification. Notably, the glycoproteins from which these putative biomarker candidates were derived are involved in cancer-related processes. Thus, they may represent novel therapeutic targets for this aggressive tumor subtype.

  5. “One-shot” analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their hydroxylated and methoxylated analogs in human breast milk and serum using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butryn, Deena M.; Gross, Michael S. [Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Chi, Lai-Har [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Schecter, Arnold [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville College of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Olson, James R. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Aga, Diana S., E-mail: dianaaga@buffalo.edu [Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)

    2015-09-10

    The presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their hydroxylated (OH-BDE) and methoxylated (MeO-BDE) analogs in humans is an area of high interest to scientists and the public due to their neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects. Consequently, there is a rise in the investigation of the occurrence of these three classes of compounds together in environmental matrices and in humans in order to understand their bioaccumulation patterns. Analysis of PBDEs, OH-BDEs, and MeO-BDEs using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can be accomplished simultaneously, but detection limits for PBDEs and MeO-BDEs in LC-MS is insufficient for trace level quantification. Therefore, fractionation steps of the phenolic (OH-BDEs) and neutral (PBDEs and MeO-BDEs) compounds during sample preparation are typically performed so that different analytical techniques can be used to achieve the needed sensitivities. However, this approach involves multiple injections, ultimately increasing analysis time. In this study, an analytical method was developed for a “one-shot” analysis of 12 PBDEs, 12 OH-BDEs, and 13 MeO-BDEs using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). This overall method includes simultaneous extraction of all analytes via pressurized liquid extraction followed by lipid removal steps to reduce matrix interferences. The OH-BDEs were derivatized using N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (TBDMS-MTFA), producing OH-TBDMS derivatives that can be analyzed together with PBDEs and MeO-BDEs by GC-MS/MS in “one shot” within a 25-min run time. The overall recoveries were generally higher than 65%, and the limits of detection ranged from 2 to 14 pg in both breast milk and serum matrices. The applicability of the method was successfully validated on four paired human breast milk and serum samples. The mean concentrations of total PBDEs, OH-BDEs, and MeO-BDEs in breast milk were 59, 2.2, and 0.57 ng g{sup −1} lipid

  6. Automated analysis of non-mass-enhancing lesions in breast MRI based on morphological, kinetic, and spatio-temporal moments and joint segmentation-motion compensation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Shutler, Jamie D.; Lobbes, Marc; Burgeth, Bernhard; Meyer-Bäse, Anke

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) represents an established method for the detection and diagnosis of breast lesions. While mass-like enhancing lesions can be easily categorized according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) MRI lexicon, a majority of diagnostically challenging lesions, the so called non-mass-like enhancing lesions, remain both qualitatively as well as quantitatively difficult to analyze. Thus, the evaluation of kinetic and/or morphological characteristics of non-masses represents a challenging task for an automated analysis and is of crucial importance for advancing current computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems. Compared to the well-characterized mass-enhancing lesions, non-masses have no well-defined and blurred tumor borders and a kinetic behavior that is not easily generalizable and thus discriminative for malignant and benign non-masses. To overcome these difficulties and pave the way for novel CAD systems for non-masses, we will evaluate several kinetic and morphological descriptors separately and a novel technique, the Zernike velocity moments, to capture the joint spatio-temporal behavior of these lesions, and additionally consider the impact of non-rigid motion compensation on a correct diagnosis.

  7. High resolution computed tomography findings on the lung of early breast-cancer patients treated by postoperative breast irradiation with a hypofractionated radiotherapy schedule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plataniotis G

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hypofractionated breast radiotherapy (RT, although convenient for patients and health care systems, could have a negative impact on normal tissues such as lung. Aims: To evaluate radiation-induced lung toxicity in early breast-cancer patients treated by hypofractionated RT. Settings and Design: We have been using the 42.5 Gy/16 fractions RT schedule since May 2003. As large fraction size is related to increased normal tissue toxicity we intended to investigate the possible radiation-induced lung toxicity to these patients, by performing high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT 6 months after the completion of the treatment. Methods and Material: A group of 30 consecutive early breast cancer patients (T1-2N0M0 have been treated by the above-mentioned RT schedule, using a pair of opposing tangential fields. The impact of chemotherapy and hormonotherapy and various breast size-related parameters on HRCT lung changes were investigated. Acute skin and breast tissue reactions were also recorded. Statistical analysis: used Correlation of numerical variables was investigated by Pearson correlation coefficient. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate correlation between HRCT findings (present vs absent with other variables. Results: Minimal HRCT findings were evident in 15/30 patients. These included small septal lines, linear and subpleural opacities and to a lesser extend, focal-ground glass opacification. The HRCT findings were positively correlated only to field separation (distance between the entrance points of the tangential beams on the breast (H.R.=1.33, 95% CI: 1.013-1.75. Conclusions: The short 16-fraction RT schedule for early breast-cancer patients appears to have a minor effect on the underlying lung parenchyma.

  8. Technical Note: Skin thickness measurements using high-resolution flat-panel cone-beam dedicated breast CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Linxi; Vedantham, Srinivasan; Karellas, Andrew [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States); O' Connell, Avice M. [Department of Radiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To determine the mean and range of location-averaged breast skin thickness using high-resolution dedicated breast CT for use in Monte Carlo-based estimation of normalized glandular dose coefficients. Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed image data from a clinical study investigating dedicated breast CT. An algorithm similar to that described by Huang et al.['The effect of skin thickness determined using breast CT on mammographic dosimetry,' Med. Phys. 35(4), 1199-1206 (2008)] was used to determine the skin thickness in 137 dedicated breast CT volumes from 136 women. The location-averaged mean breast skin thickness for each breast was estimated and the study population mean and range were determined. Pathology results were available for 132 women, and were used to investigate if the distribution of location-averaged mean breast skin thickness varied with pathology. The effect of surface fitting to account for breast curvature was also studied. Results: The study mean ({+-} interbreast SD) for breast skin thickness was 1.44 {+-} 0.25 mm (range: 0.87-2.34 mm), which was in excellent agreement with Huang et al. Based on pathology, pair-wise statistical analysis (Mann-Whitney test) indicated that at the 0.05 significance level, there were no significant difference in the location-averaged mean breast skin thickness distributions between the groups: benign vs malignant (p= 0.223), benign vs hyperplasia (p= 0.651), hyperplasia vs malignant (p= 0.229), and malignant vs nonmalignant (p= 0.172). Conclusions: Considering this study used a different clinical prototype system, and the study participants were from a different geographical location, the observed agreement between the two studies suggests that the choice of 1.45 mm thick skin layer comprising the epidermis and the dermis for breast dosimetry is appropriate. While some benign and malignant conditions could cause skin thickening, in this study cohort the location-averaged mean breast skin

  9. High male chimerism in the female breast shows quantitative links with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhimolea, Eugen; Denes, Viktoria; Lakk, Monika; Al-Bazzaz, Sana; Aziz-Zaman, Sonya; Pilichowska, Monika; Geck, Peter

    2013-08-15

    Clinical observations suggest that pregnancy provides protection against cancer. The mechanisms involved, however, remain unclear. Fetal cells are known to enter the mother's circulation during pregnancy and establish microchimerism. We investigated if pregnancy-related embryonic/fetal stem cell integration plays a role in breast cancer. A high-sensitivity Y-chromosome assay was developed to trace male allogeneic cells (from male fetus) in females. Fixed-embedded samples (n = 206) from both normal and breast cancer patients were screened for microchimerism. The results were combined with matching clinicopathological and histological parameters and processed statistically. The results show that in our samples (182 informative) more than half of healthy women (56%) carried male cells in their breast tissue for decades (n = 68), while only one out of five in the cancer sample pool (21%) (n = 114) (odds ratio = 4.75, CI at 95% 2.34-9.69; p = 0.0001). The data support the notion that a biological link may exist between chimerism and tissue-integrity. The correlation, however, is non-linear, since male microchimerism in excess ("hyperchimerism") is also involved in cancer. The data suggest a link between hyperchimerism and HER2-type cancers, while decreased chimerism ("hypochimerism") associates with ER/PR-positive (luminal-type) breast cancers. Chimerism levels that correlate with protection appear to be non-random and share densities with the mammary progenitor components of the stem cell lineage in the breast. The results suggest that protection may involve stem/progenitor level interactions and implicate novel quantitative mechanisms in chimerism biology. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  10. Social Cultural Influences on Breast Cancer Views and Breast Health Practices Among Chinese Women in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Chenyu; Beaver, Kinta; Campbell, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Incidence rates for breast cancer have increased significantly among Chinese women, accompanied by low utilization of breast screening and delay in symptom presentation. The aims of this study were to explore (1) views on breast cancer and breast health among Chinese women in the United Kingdom and (2) the potential influence of social and cultural context on views and screening behavior. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 22 Chinese women. Pertinent aspects of Grounded Theory methods, including simultaneous data collection and analysis, constant comparison, and memo writing, were used. Four themes emerged: cultural views on breast cancer, information sources and knowledge, breast screening practice, and views on healthcare services. The theme views on breast cancer had 3 subthemes: a fearful disease, taboo, and fatalism. Aspects of traditional Chinese culture had important influences on Chinese women's views on breast cancer. Self-care formed the most significant strategy to promote health and prevent illness. Although the study found high utilization of breast screening when offered, only 6 women reported breast awareness practices. This study found that traditional beliefs were not the sole determinant of breast health behavior. The way in which breast screening services are offered in the United Kingdom may reduce the significance of cultural views and shape individuals' health behavior. Findings indicate that information on breast awareness should be delivered to this group of women in Chinese by health professionals through Chinese mass media.

  11. Filament Fragmentation in High-Mass Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Beuther, H; Johnston, K; Henning, Th; Hacar, A; Kainulainen, J T

    2015-01-01

    Aims: We resolve the length-scales for filament formation and fragmentation (res. <=0.1pc), in particular the Jeans length and cylinder fragmentation scale. Methods: We observed the prototypical high-mass star-forming filament IRDC18223 with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) in the 3.2mm continuum and N2H+(1-0) line emission in a ten field mosaic at a spatial resolution of ~4'' (~14000AU). Results: The dust continuum emission resolves the filament into a chain of at least 12 relatively regularly spaced cores. The mean separation between cores is ~0.40(+-0.18)pc. While this is approximately consistent with the fragmentation of an infinite, isothermal, gravitationally bound gas cylinder, a high mass-to-length ratio of M/l~1000M_sun/pc requires additional turbulent and/or magnetic support against radial collapse of the filament. The N2H+(1-0) data reveal a velocity gradient perpendicular to the main filament. Although rotation of the filament cannot be excluded, the data are also consistent with the m...

  12. Mixed phase effects on high-mass twin stars

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Castillo, D E

    2014-01-01

    Recently it has been found that a certain class of hybrid star equations of state with a large latent heat (strong first order phase transition obtained by a Maxwell construction) between stiff hadronic hadronic and stiff quark matter phases allows for the appearance of a third family of compact stars (including "twins") at high mass of $\\sim 2 M_\\odot$. We investigate how robust this high-mass twin phenomenon is against a smoothing of the transition which would occur, e.g., due to pasta structures in the mixed phase. To this end we propose a simple construction of a pasta-like equation of state with a parameter that quantifies the degree of smoothing of the transition and could eventually be related to the surface tension of the pasta structures. It is interesting to note that the range of energy densities for the transition as well as the pressure at the onset of the transition of this class of hybrid star matter at zero temperature corresponds well to values of the same quantities found in finite temperatu...

  13. Magnetic Fields in High-Mass Infrared Dark Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Pillai, Thushara; Tan, Jonathan; Goldsmith, Paul; Carey, Sean; Menten, Karl

    2014-01-01

    High-mass Stars are cosmic engines known to dominate the energetics in the Milky Way and other galaxies. However, their formation is still not well understood. Massive, cold, dense clouds, often appearing as Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs), are the nurseries of massive stars. No measurements of magnetic fields in IRDCs in a state prior to the onset of high-mass star formation (HMSF) have previously been available, and prevailing HMSF theories do not consider strong magnetic fields. Here, we report observations of magnetic fields in two of the most massive IRDCs in the Milky Way. We show that IRDCs G11.11-0.12 and G0.253+0.016 are strongly magnetized and that the strong magnetic field is as important as turbulence and gravity for HMSF. The main dense filament in G11.11-0.12 is perpendicular to the magnetic field, while the lower density filament merging onto the main filament is parallel to the magnetic field. The implied magnetic field is strong enough to suppress fragmentation sufficiently to allow HMSF. Other ...

  14. Investigation of the High Mass Drell Yan Spectrum with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Thomas

    The Large Hadron Collider started data taking at the end of 009 and an integrated luminosity of 1 fb^-1 is hoped for by the end of 2011. A precise measurement of the high mass Drell Yan spectrum offers a good opportunity for a model independent search for new physics. The muon channel is well suited for this, due to the clean signature and the good muon identification in the Muon Spectrometer. Previous studies at high dimuon masses neglected all background contributions. This study investigated the impact of background on the Drell Yan spectrum and it was found that top antitop decays are the most important contribution. Various selection cuts to suppress those background contributions were studied. A method to take systematic uncertainties into account, whilst optimising these selection cuts, has been developed. It was shown that two additional selection cuts based on b-tagging and Missing Transverse Energy (MET) will reduce the overall uncertainty for a bin from 200 GeV to 300 GeV from 19.1% to 17.2% for an...

  15. Cancer screening with digital mammography for women at average risk for breast cancer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for women at high risk: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    SEARCHED THE FOLLOWING ELECTRONIC DATABASES: Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and The International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment database. The subject headings and keywords searched included breast cancer, breast neoplasms, mass screening, digital mammography, magnetic resonance imaging. The detailed search strategies can be viewed in Appendix 1. Included in this review are articles specific to screening and do not include evidence on diagnostic mammography. The search was further restricted to English-language articles published between January 1996 and April 2006. Excluded were case reports, comments, editorials, nonsystematic reviews, and letters. DIGITAL MAMMOGRAPHY: In total, 224 articles specific to DM screening were identified. These were examined against the inclusion/exclusion criteria described below, resulting in the selection and review of 5 health technology assessments (HTAs) (plus 1 update) and 4 articles specific to screening with DM. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING: In total, 193 articles specific to MRI were identified. These were examined against the inclusion/exclusion criteria described below, resulting in the selection and review of 2 HTAs and 7 articles specific to screening with MRI. The evaluation of the addition of FM to MRI in the screening of women at high risk for breast cancer was also conducted within the context of standard search procedures of the Medical Advisory Secretariat. as outlined above. The subject headings and keywords searched included the concepts of breast cancer, magnetic resonance imaging, mass screening, and high risk/predisposition to breast cancer. The search was further restricted to English-language articles published between September 2007 and January 15, 2010. Case reports, comments, editorials, nonsystematic reviews, and letters were not excluded. MRI PLUS MAMMOGRAPHY

  16. Quantifying ER Function Using High-Throughput Imaging in Breast and Other Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    and in the analysis of environmental endocrine disruptors . Methodology/Principal Findings. We report the development of a high throughput (HT) image... endocrine disruptors , demonstrated that nuclear translocation and nuclear “speckling” were linked with transcriptional output, and specific ligands were...also plays crucial roles in the development of breast cancer, and in some way, all endocrine -based treatments target ER_ (1). ER_ mediates estrogen

  17. Assessing interactions between the associations of common genetic susceptibility variants, reproductive history and body mass index with breast cancer risk in the breast cancer association consortium: a combined case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Roger L; Gaudet, Mia M; Spurdle, Amanda B; Fasching, Peter A; Couch, Fergus J; Benítez, Javier; Arias Pérez, José Ignacio; Zamora, M Pilar; Malats, Núria; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Gibson, Lorna J; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Figueroa, Jonine; Brinton, Louise; Sherman, Mark E; Lissowska, Jolanta; Hopper, John L; Dite, Gillian S; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C; Sigurdson, Alice J; Linet, Martha S; Schonfeld, Sara J; Freedman, D Michal; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Auvinen, Päivi; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; Knight, Julia A; Weerasooriya, Nayana; Cox, Angela; Reed, Malcolm Wr; Cross, Simon S; Dunning, Alison M; Ahmed, Shahana; Shah, Mitul; Brauch, Hiltrud; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brüning, Thomas; Lambrechts, Diether; Reumers, Joke; Smeets, Ann; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Irwanto, Astrid K; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Holland, Helene; Giles, Graham G; Baglietto, Laura; Severi, Gianluca; Bojensen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; John, Esther M; West, Dee W; Whittemore, Alice S; Vachon, Celine; Olson, Janet E; Fredericksen, Zachary; Kosel, Matthew; Hein, Rebecca; Vrieling, Alina; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Beckmann, Matthias W; Heusinger, Katharina; Ekici, Arif B; Haeberle, Lothar; Humphreys, Manjeet K; Morrison, Jonathan; Easton, Doug F; Pharoah, Paul D; García-Closas, Montserrat; Goode, Ellen L; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Several common breast cancer genetic susceptibility variants have recently been identified. We aimed to determine how these variants combine with a subset of other known risk factors to influence breast cancer risk in white women of European ancestry using case-control studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We evaluated two-way interactions between each of age at menarche, ever having had a live birth, number of live births, age at first birth and body mass index (BMI) and each of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (10q26-rs2981582 (FGFR2), 8q24-rs13281615, 11p15-rs3817198 (LSP1), 5q11-rs889312 (MAP3K1), 16q12-rs3803662 (TOX3), 2q35-rs13387042, 5p12-rs10941679 (MRPS30), 17q23-rs6504950 (COX11), 3p24-rs4973768 (SLC4A7), CASP8-rs17468277, TGFB1-rs1982073 and ESR1-rs3020314). Interactions were tested for by fitting logistic regression models including per-allele and linear trend main effects for SNPs and risk factors, respectively, and single-parameter interaction terms for linear departure from independent multiplicative effects. These analyses were applied to data for up to 26,349 invasive breast cancer cases and up to 32,208 controls from 21 case-control studies. No statistical evidence of interaction was observed beyond that expected by chance. Analyses were repeated using data from 11 population-based studies, and results were very similar. The relative risks for breast cancer associated with the common susceptibility variants identified to date do not appear to vary across women with different reproductive histories or body mass index (BMI). The assumption of multiplicative combined effects for these established genetic and other risk factors in risk prediction models appears justified.

  18. High risk human papillomavirus and Epstein Barr virus in human breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wendy K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV and mouse mammary tumour virus have been identified in human milk. High risk human papillomavirus (HPV sequences have been identified in breast cancer. The aim of this study is to determine if viral sequences are present in human milk from normal lactating women. Findings Standard (liquid and in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques were used to identify HPV and EBV in human milk samples from normal lactating Australian women who had no history of breast cancer. High risk human papillomavirus was identified in milk samples of 6 of 40 (15% from normal lactating women - sequencing on four samples showed three were HPV 16 and one was HPV 18. Epstein Barr virus was identified in fourteen samples (33%. Conclusion The presence of high risk HPV and EBV in human milk suggests the possibility of milk transmission of these viruses. However, given the rarity of viral associated malignancies in young people, it is possible but unlikely, that such transmission is associated with breast or other cancers.

  19. Nonpalpable breast cancer : mammographic and clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jae Seung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Cheon, Young Jik; Lee, Byung Chan [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    To evaluate the mammographic and clinical findings of nonpalpable breast cancer. Materials and Methods : In 28 of 607 breast cancer patients examined between January 1994 and April 1997, lesions were nonpalpable. We retrospectively analyzed the mammographic, clinical and pathologic features of 25 patients (28 lesions) whose mammograms we obtained. Results : Among these 25 patients (28 lesions) screening was abnormal in 22; other symptoms were bloody nipple discharge(n=4), and nipple eczema(n=2). The patients were 34-62 (mean 52)years old. Invasive ductal carcinoma(n=13), DCIS(ductal carcinoma in situ, n-12), Paget's disease (n=2), and LCIS(lobular carcinoma in situ, n=1) were found during surgery. Six of 28 lesions(21%) showed evidence of axillary nodal metastasis;the majority arose from the upper outer quadrant of the breast (n=21). The mammographic findings were mass (50%), (and mass with microcalcification, 11%); microcalcification(29%); asymmetrical density(14%); and normal (7%). According to the mammographic density of breast parenchyma, the major finding in the low density group(N1+P1) was mass(9/9), and in the high density group(P2+DY) was microcalcification (12/19). Conclusion : The most common mammographic findings of nonpalpable breast cancer were mass (50%) and microcalcification(29%). Its features varied according to the mammographic density of breast parenchyma;mass was the main finding in the low density group and microcalcification in the high density group.

  20. Relationship between body mass index and the expression of hormone receptors or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 with respect to breast cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ye Won; Kang, Su Hwan; Park, Min Ho; Lim, Woosung; Cho, Se Heun; Suh, Young Jin

    2015-11-06

    The association between body mass index (BMI) at the time of breast cancer diagnosis and the prognosis of breast cancer patients remains controversial. Furthermore, the association between BMI and prognosis with respect to different breast cancer subtypes is not clearly defined. We analyzed data from 41,021 invasive breast cancer patients between January 1988 and February 2008 from the Korean Breast Cancer Registry (KBCR) database. Overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox's proportional hazard regression model among all patients and specific breast cancer subtypes with respect to BMI categories. A U-shaped association between BMI and mortality was observed in the total cohort. Underweight and obese individuals exhibited worse OS (hazard ratio, 1.23 [95 % confidence interval {CI}, 1.05 to 1.44] and 1.29 [1.13 to 1.48], respectively) and BCSS (1.26 [1.03 to 1.54] and 1.21 [1.02 to 1.43], respectively) than normal-weight individuals. In the estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR)+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) - subgroup, obese individuals exhibited worse OS (1.48 [1.18 to 1.85]) and BCSS (1.31 [1.13 to 1.52]) than normal-weight individuals. Conversely, in the ER and PR-/HER2+ subgroup, underweight individuals exhibited worse OS (1.68 [1.12 to 2.47]) and BCSS (1.79 [1.11 to 2.90]) than normal-weight individuals. We observed a U-shaped relationship between BMI at diagnosis and poor OS and BCSS among all breast cancer patients. However, obesity in the ER and/or PR+/HER2- subgroup and underweight in the ER and PR-/HER2+ subgroup were poor prognostic factors. Therefore, BMI at diagnosis and breast cancer subtype should be considered simultaneously in various treatment decision processes and surveillance schedules.

  1. Clinical impact of IMPORT HIGH trial (CRUK/06/003) on breast radiotherapy practices in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurlionis, Laura; Kirby, Anna M; Locke, Imogen; Venables, Karen; Yarnold, John R; Titley, Jenny; Bliss, Judith; Coles, Charlotte E

    2015-01-01

    Objective: IMPORT HIGH is a multicentre randomized UK trial testing dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) after tumour excision in females with early breast cancer and higher than average local recurrence risk. A survey was carried out to investigate the impact of this trial on the adoption of advanced breast radiotherapy (RT) techniques in the UK. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to all 26 IMPORT HIGH recruiting RT centres to determine whether the trial has influenced non-trial breast RT techniques in terms of volume delineation, dosimetry, treatment delivery and verification. In order to compare the clinical practice of breast RT between IMPORT HIGH and non–IMPORT HIGH centres, parts of the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) breast RT audit result were used in this study. Results: 26/26 participating centres completed the questionnaire. After joining the trial, the number of centres routinely using tumour bed clips to guide whole-breast RT rose from 5 (19%) to 21 (81%). 20/26 (77%) centres now contour target volumes and organs at risk (OARs) in some or all patients compared with 14 (54%) before the trial. 14/26 (54%) centres offer inverse-planned IMRT for selected non-trial patients with breast cancer, and 10/14 (71%) have adopted the IMPORT HIGH trial protocol for target volume and OARs dose constraints. Only 2/26 (8%) centres used clip information routinely for breast treatment verification prior to IMPORT HIGH, a minority that has since risen to 7/26 (27%). Data on 1386 patients was included from the RCR audit. This suggested that more cases from IMPORT HIGH centres had surgical clips implanted (83 vs 67%), were treated using CT guided planning with full three-dimensional dose compensation (100 vs 75%), and were treated with photon boost RT (30 vs 8%). Conclusion: The study suggests that participation in the IMPORT HIGH trial has played an important part in providing the guidance and support networks needed for the safe integration of

  2. Regularized discriminate analysis for breast mass detection on full field digital mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun; Sahiner, Berkman; Zhang, Yiheng; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Zhou, Chuan; Ge, Jun; Wu, Yi-Ta

    2006-03-01

    In computer-aided detection (CAD) applications, an important step is to design a classifier for the differentiation of the abnormal from the normal structures. We have previously developed a stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method with simplex optimization for this purpose. In this study, our goal was to investigate the performance of a regularized discriminant analysis (RDA) classifier in combination with a feature selection method for classification of the masses and normal tissues detected on full field digital mammograms (FFDM). The feature selection scheme combined a forward stepwise feature selection process and a backward stepwise feature elimination process to obtain the best feature subset. An RDA classifier and an LDA classifier in combination with this new feature selection method were compared to an LDA classifier with stepwise feature selection. A data set of 130 patients containing 260 mammograms with 130 biopsy-proven masses was used. All cases had two mammographic views. The true locations of the masses were identified by experienced radiologists. To evaluate the performance of the classifiers, we randomly divided the data set into two independent sets of approximately equal size for training and testing. The training and testing were performed using the 2-fold cross validation method. The detection performance of the CAD system was assessed by free response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) analysis. The average test FROC curve was obtained by averaging the FP rates at the same sensitivity along the two corresponding test FROC curves from the 2-fold cross validation. At the case-based sensitivities of 90%, 80% and 70% on the test set, our RDA classifier with the new feature selection scheme achieved an FP rate of 1.8, 1.1, and 0.6 FPs/image, respectively, compared to 2.1, 1.4, and 0.8 FPs/image with stepwise LDA with simplex optimization. Our results indicate that RDA in combination with the sequential forward inclusion

  3. Breast ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, E

    1996-03-01

    In ultrasound, ultrasonic images are formed by means of echoes among tissues with different acoustic impedance. Acoustic impedance is the product of sound speed and bulk modulus. The bulk modulus expresses the elasticity of an object, and in the human body, the value is increased by conditions such as fibrosis and calcification. The sound speed is usually high in elastic tissues and low in water. In the body, it is lowest in the fatty tissue. Ultrasound echoes are strong on the surface of bones which are hard and have a high sound speed. In organs filled with air such as the lungs, the bulk modulus is low and the sound speed is extremely low at 340 m/s, which produce strong echoes (the sound speed in solid tissues is 1,530 m/s). Human tissue is constructed of units smaller than the ultrasonic beam, and it is necessary to understand back-scattering in order to understand the ultrasonic images of these tissues. When ultrasound passes through tissue, it is absorbed as thermal energy and attenuated. Fiber is a tissue with a high absorption and attenuation rate. When the rate increases, the posterior echoes are attenuated. However, in masses with a high water content such as cysts, the posterior echoes are accentuated. This phenomenon is an important, basic finding for determining the properties of tumors. Breast cancer can be classified into two types: stellate carcinoma and circumscribed carcinoma. Since stellate carcinoma is rich in fiber, the posterior echoes are attenuated or lacking. However, circumscribed carcinoma has a high cellularity and the posterior echoes are accentuated. The same tendency is also seen in benign tumors. In immature fibroadenomas, posterior echoes are accentuated, while in fibroadenomas with hyalinosis, the posterior echoes are attenuated. Therefore, if the fundamentals of this tissue characterization and the histological features are understood, reading of ultrasound becomes easy. Color Doppler has also been developed and has contributed

  4. Quantum dot nanoprobe-based high-content monitoring of notch pathway inhibition of breast cancer stem cell by capsaicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Yumi; Song, Joon Myong

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer is the major cause of cancer death for women worldwide. Breast cancer patients are treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Although chemotherapy and radiotherapy are applied, some cancer cells still survive. These cells, called cancer stem cell (CSC), exhibit special capabilities, such as drug and radio resistance. The remaining CSC can trigger cancer recurrence. Thus, it is critical to find an effective way to target CSC. Capsaicin has been reported to affect anticancer activity in many cancers. It also has been shown that capsaicin induces apoptosis in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. In this study, we demonstrate that capsaicin causes dose-dependent growth disruption in breast CSC and inhibits translocation of notch intracellular membrane domain (NICD) into the nucleus. MCF-7 cells were treated with capsaicin at various concentrations (5 μM, 10 μM, and 20 μM) for 24 h. After capsaicin treatment, it was found that the number of breast CSC (%) decreased as the treatment concentration of capsaicin increased. This result was also confirmed with FACS. NICD translocation to the nucleus and apoptotic cell death of breast CSC were concurrently observed at the single breast CSC level using highly sensitive quantum dot (Qdot)-antibody nanoprobes. The control breast CSCs without the capsaicin treatment were able to translocate NICD into the nucleus. On the other hand, translocation of NICD into the nucleus was not observed in capsaicin-treated cells. In addition, apoptotic cell death was caused when the breast CSC were treated with capsaicin at more than 10 μM. Although many studies have shown that capsaicin produces anticancer activity in cancer cell lines, the present result is the first report to demonstrate that capsaicin is capable of causing breast CSC apoptotic cell death via inhibiting its notch signaling pathway.

  5. High-elevation mass loss of Greenland increasing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. L.; Andersen, S. B.; Ahlstrøm, A. P.

    model. We compare the calculated mass losses between the two years integrated over the entire ice sheet, but also on a basin-by-basin level to investigate internal redistribution of mass between the basins over time. We find a ~3% mean increase in mass loss per year at the ~1600 m elevation of the flux......The Greenland Ice Sheet is losing mass at an accelerated pace. Presently, the mass loss is assumed to be distributed approximately equally between loss in the form of surface melt (surface mass balance, SMB) and solid ice discharge (iceberg calving, D) along the margins. As part of the PROMICE...

  6. Breast cancer detection using high-resolution breast PET compared to whole-body PET or PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinyak, Judith E. [Naviscan Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Berg, Wendie A. [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Magee-Womens Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Schilling, Kathy [Boca Raton Regional Hospital, Boca Raton, FL (United States); Madsen, Kathleen S. [Certus International, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States); Narayanan, Deepa [Naviscan Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Tartar, Marie [Scripps Clinic, Scripps Green Hospital, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2014-02-15

    To compare the performance characteristics of positron emission mammography (PEM) with those of whole-body PET (WBPET) and PET/CT in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. A total of 178 women consented to PEM for presurgical planning in an IRB-approved protocol and also underwent either WBPET (n = 69) or PET/CT (n = 109) imaging, as per usual care at three centers. Tumor detection sensitivity, positive predictive values, and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake were compared between the modalities. The effects of tumor size, type, and grade on detection were examined. The chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests were used to compare distributions between groups, and McNemar's test was used to compare distributions for paired data within subject groups, i.e. PEM versus WBPET or PEM versus PET/CT. The mean age of the women was 59 ± 12 years (median 60 years, range 26-89 years), with a mean invasive index tumor size of 1.6 ± 0.8 cm (median 1.5 cm, range 0.5-4.0 cm). PEM detected more index tumors (61/66, 92 %) than WBPET (37/66, 56 %; p < 0.001) or PET/CT (95/109, 87 % vs. 104/109, 95 % for PEM; p < 0.029). Sensitivity for the detection of additional ipsilateral malignancies was also greater with PEM (7/15, 47 %) than with WBPET (1/15, 6.7 %; p = 0.014) or PET/CT (3/23, 13 % vs. 13/23, 57 % for PEM; p = 0.003). Index tumor detection decreased with decreasing invasive tumor size for both WBPET (p = 0.002) and PET/CT (p < 0.001); PEM was not significantly affected (p = 0.20). FDG uptake, quantified in terms of maximum PEM uptake value, was lowest in ductal carcinoma in situ (median 1.5, range 0.7-3.0) and invasive lobular carcinoma (median 1.5, range 0.7-3.4), and highest in grade III invasive ductal carcinoma (median 3.1, range 1.4-12.9). PEM was more sensitive than either WBPET or PET/CT in showing index and additional ipsilateral breast tumors and remained highly sensitive for tumors smaller than 1 cm. (orig.)

  7. High resolution microendoscopy with structured illumination and Lugol's iodine staining for evaluation of breast cancer architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Jessica; Kyrish, Matthew; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Grant, Benjamin; Kuerer, Henry; Yang, Wei; Tkaczyk, Tomasz; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    Intraoperative margin assessment to evaluate resected tissue margins for neoplastic tissue is performed to prevent reoperations following breast-conserving surgery. High resolution microendoscopy (HRME) can rapidly acquire images of fresh tissue specimens, but is limited by low image contrast in tissues with high optical scattering. In this study we evaluated two techniques to reduce out-of-focus light: HRME image acquisition with structured illumination (SI-HRME) and topical application of Lugol's Iodine. Fresh breast tissue specimens from 19 patients were stained with proflavine alone or Lugol's Iodine and proflavine. Images of tissue specimens were acquired using a confocal microscope and an HRME system with and without structured illumination. Images were evaluated based on visual and quantitative assessment of image contrast. The highest mean contrast was measured in confocal images stained with proflavine. Contrast was significantly lower in HRME images stained with proflavine; however, incorporation of structured illumination significantly increased contrast in HRME images to levels comparable to that in confocal images. The addition of Lugol's Iodine did not increase mean contrast significantly for HRME or SI-HRME images. These findings suggest that structured illumination could potentially be used to increase contrast in HRME images of breast tissue for rapid image acquisition.

  8. Australian clinicians and chemoprevention for women at high familial risk for breast cancer

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    Keogh Louise A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Effective chemoprevention strategies exist for women at high risk for breast cancer, yet uptake is low. Physician recommendation is an important determinant of uptake, but little is known about clinicians' attitudes to chemoprevention. Methods Focus groups were conducted with clinicians at five Family Cancer Centers in three Australian states. Discussions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed thematically. Results Twenty three clinicians, including genetic counselors, clinical geneticists, medical oncologists, breast surgeons and gynaecologic oncologists, participated in six focus groups in 2007. The identified barriers to the discussion of the use of tamoxifen and raloxifene for chemoprevention pertained to issues of evidence (evidence for efficacy not strong enough, side-effects outweigh benefits, oophorectomy superior for mutation carriers, practice (drugs not approved for chemoprevention by regulatory authorities and not government subsidized, chemoprevention not endorsed in national guidelines and not many women ask about it, and perception (clinicians not knowledgeable about chemoprevention and women thought to be opposed to hormonal treatments. Conclusion The study demonstrated limited enthusiasm for discussing breast cancer chemoprevention as a management option for women at high familial risk. Several options for increasing the likelihood of clinicians discussing chemoprevention were identified; maintaining up to date national guidelines on management of these women and education of clinicians about the drugs themselves, the legality of "off-label" prescribing, and the actual costs of chemopreventive medications.

  9. Breast cancer survival in Germany: a population-based high resolution study from Saarland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleczek, Bernd; Jansen, Lina; Brenner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Population-based survival studies of breast cancer patients are commonly restricted to age- and stage-specific analyses. This study from Germany aimed at extending available population-based survival data on further prognostic cancer characteristics such as tumor grade, hormone receptor status and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2/neu) expression. Data from the population-based Saarland Cancer Registry including female patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2000 and 2009 were included. Period analysis methodology and regression modelling were used to obtain estimates of 5-year relative survival and tumor related excess risks in 2005-2009. Overall age standardized 5-year relative survival was 83%. In addition to age and stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status were independent predictors of 5-year relative survival. Detailed analyses by age, stage, morphology, tumor grade, hormone receptor status and HER2/neu expression consistently revealed lower survival of patients with high grade, hormone receptor negative or HER2/neu positive cancers and patients aged 70 years or older. This high resolution study extends available population-based survival data of breast cancer patients. Particular efforts should be made to overcome the persisting large survival deficits, which were observed for elderly patients in all clinical subgroups.

  10. The validation and clinical implementation of BRCAplus: a comprehensive high-risk breast cancer diagnostic assay.

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    Hansook Kim Chong

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women, with 10% of disease attributed to hereditary factors. Although BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for a high percentage of hereditary cases, there are more than 25 susceptibility genes that differentially impact the risk for breast cancer. Traditionally, germline testing for breast cancer was performed by Sanger dideoxy terminator sequencing in a reflexive manner, beginning with BRCA1 and BRCA2. The introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS has enabled the simultaneous testing of all genes implicated in breast cancer resulting in diagnostic labs offering large, comprehensive gene panels. However, some physicians prefer to only test for those genes in which established surveillance and treatment protocol exists. The NGS based BRCAplus test utilizes a custom tiled PCR based target enrichment design and bioinformatics pipeline coupled with array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH to identify mutations in the six high-risk genes: BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN, TP53, CDH1, and STK11. Validation of the assay with 250 previously characterized samples resulted in 100% detection of 3,025 known variants and analytical specificity of 99.99%. Analysis of the clinical performance of the first 3,000 BRCAplus samples referred for testing revealed an average coverage greater than 9,000X per target base pair resulting in excellent specificity and the sensitivity to detect low level mosaicism and allele-drop out. The unique design of the assay enabled the detection of pathogenic mutations missed by previous testing. With the abundance of NGS diagnostic tests being released, it is essential that clinicians understand the advantages and limitations of different test designs.

  11. High risk factors of brain metastases in 295 patients with advanced breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Min; L(U) Hui-min; LIU Zhen-zhen; LIU Hui; ZHANG Meng-wei; SUN Xi-bin; CUI Shu-de

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of brain metastases in patients with breast cancer is approximately 10%-16%,and survival after diagnosis of brain metastases is usually short.This study was designed to evaluate the risk factors associated with brain metastases in advanced breast cancer patients,with a view to help predict patient groups with high risk of brain metastases.Methods In total,295 patients with advanced breast cancer were evaluated.All patients were pathologically confirmed and metastatic lesions were confirmed pathologically or by imaging.All patients were examined at least once every 6 months with head CT or MRI.Patients showing symptoms underwent immediate inspection,and brain metastatic lesions were confirmed by head CT and/or MRI.Results At a median follow-up of 12 months from the occurrence of metastases,brain metastases had occurred in 49 patients (16.6%).In our univariate analysis,variables significantly related to increased risk of brain metastases were hormone receptor-negative tumors,epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive tumors,and multiple distant metastases.Patients with dominant tumor sites in soft tissue,or defined as Luminal A subtype,tended to have a lower risk of brain metastases than patients with visceral metastases,Luminal B subtype,triple-negative subtype or HER2-enriched subtype tumors.Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that factors such as Luminal B,triple-negative,and HER2-enriched subtypes are high risk factors for brain metastases.These data,therefore,provide pivotal clinical evidence towards a comprehensive understanding of the risk factors of brain metastases in advanced breast cancer patients.

  12. Investigating high-mass star formation through maser surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, S P; Cragg, D M; Sobolev, A M; Breen, S L; Godfrey, P D

    2007-01-01

    Interstellar masers are unique probes of the environments in which they arise. In studies of high-mass star formation their primary function has been as signposts of these regions and they have been used as probes of the kinematics and physical conditions in only a few sources. With a few notable exceptions, we know relatively little about the evolutionary phase the different maser species trace, nor their location with respect to other star formation tracers. While detailed studies of a small number of maser regions can reveal much about them, other information can only be obtained through large, systematic searches. In particular, such surveys are vital in efforts to determine an evolutionary sequence for the common maser species, and there is growing evidence that methanol masers may trace an earlier phase than the other common maser species of OH and water.

  13. High expression of Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway genes indicates a risk of recurrence of breast carcinoma

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    Jeng KS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kuo-Shyang Jeng,1 I-Shyan Sheen,2 Wen-Juei Jeng,2 Ming-Che Yu,3 Hsin-I Hsiau,3 Fang-Yu Chang31Department of Surgery, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Medical Center, Chang-Gung University, Tao-Yuan, 3Department of Medical Research, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Abnormal activation of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH signaling pathway contributing to carcinogenesis of some organs has been reported in the literature. We hypothesize that activation of the SHH pathway contributes to the recurrence of breast carcinoma.Methods: Fifty consecutive patients with invasive breast carcinoma following curative resection were enrolled in this prospective study. The ratios of messenger RNA (mRNA expression for Sonic Hedgehog (SHH, patched homolog-1 (PTCH-1, glioma-associated oncogene-1 (GLI-1, and smoothened (SMOH were measured between breast carcinoma tissue and paired noncancerous breast tissue. These ratios were compared with their clinicopathologic characteristics. These factors and the mRNA ratios were compared between patients with recurrence and those without recurrence.Results: The size of the invasive cancer correlated significantly with the ratio of SHH mRNA (P=0.001, that of PTCH-1 mRNA (P=0.005, and that of SMOH mRNA (P=0.021. Lymph node involvement correlated significantly with the ratio of SMOH mRNA (P=0.041. The correlation between Her-2 neu and the ratio of GLI-1 mRNA was statistically significant (P=0.012. Each ratio of mRNA of SHH, PTCH-1, GLI-1, and SMOH correlated significantly with cancer recurrence (P<0.001 for each.Conclusion: We suggest that high expression of SHH mRNA, PTCH-1 mRNA, GLI-1 mRNA, and SMOH mRNA in breast cancer tissue correlates with invasiveness and is a potential biomarker to predict postoperative recurrence.Keywords: SHH pathway, breast carcinoma, prediction, recurrence

  14. Circulating High-Molecular-Weight (HMW) Adiponectin Level Is Related with Breast Cancer Risk Better than Total Adiponectin: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming-ming; Duan, Xue-ning; Cui, Shu-de; Tian, Fu-guo; Cao, Xu-chen; Geng, Cui-zhi; Fan, Zhi-min; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Shu; Jiang, Hong-chuan; Zhang, Jian-guo; Jin, Feng; Tang, Jin-hai; Liang, Hong; Yang, Zhen-lin; Wang, Hai-bo; Wang, Qi-tang; Li, Guo-lou; Li, Liang; Zhu, Shi-guang; Zuo, Wen-shu; Liu, Li-yuan; Wang, Lu; Ma, Dan-dan; Liu, Shu-chen; Xiang, Yu-juan; Liu, Lu; Ye, Chun-miao; Zhou, Wen-zhong; Wang, Fei; Yu, Li-xiang; Ma, Zhong-bing; Yu, Zhi-gang

    2015-01-01

    The level of total adiponectin, a mixture of different adiponectin forms, has been reported associated with breast cancer risk with inconsistent results. Whether the different forms play different roles in breast cancer risk prediction is unclear. To examine this, we measured total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in a case-control study (1167 sets). Higher circulating HMW adiponectin was negatively associated with breast cancer risk after adjusting for menopausal status and family history of breast cancer (P=0.024). We analyzed the relationship between adiponectin and breast cancer risk in 6 subgroups. Higher circulating HMW adiponectin was also negatively associated with breast cancer risk (P=0.020, 0.014, 0.035) in the subgroups of postmenopausal women, negative family history of breast cancer, BMI>=24.0. Total adiponectin was positively associated with breast cancer (P=0.028) in the subgroup of BMIbreast cancer risk (P=0.034, 0.0116). This study showed different forms of circulating adiponectin levels might play different roles in breast cancer risk. A higher circulating HMW adiponectin is associated with a decreased breast cancer risk, especially in postmenopausal, without family history of breast cancer or BMI>=24.0 subgroups, whereas higher circulating HMW adiponectin levels is a risk factor in women with a family history of breast cancer. Further investigation of different forms of adiponectin on breast cancer risk is needed.

  15. Germline mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility gene PTEN are rare in high-risk non-BRCA1/2 French Canadian breast cancer families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénard, Frédéric; Labrie, Yvan; Ouellette, Geneviève; Beauparlant, Charles Joly; Bessette, Paul; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Laframboise, Rachel; Lépine, Jean; Lespérance, Bernard; Pichette, Roxane; Plante, Marie; Durocher, Francine

    2007-01-01

    Cowden syndrome is a disease associated with an increase in breast cancer susceptibility. Alleles in PTEN and other breast cancer susceptibility genes would be responsible for approximately 25% of the familial component of breast cancer risk, BRCA1 and BRCA2 being the two major genes responsible for this inherited risk. In order to evaluate the proportion of high-risk French Canadian non-BRCA1/BRCA2 breast/ovarian cancer families potentially harboring a PTEN germline mutation, the whole coding and flanking intronic sequences were analyzed in a series of 98 breast cancer cases. Although no germline mutation has been identified in the coding region, our study led to the identification of four intronic variants. Further investigations were performed to analyze the effect of these variants, alone and/or in combination, on splicing and PTEN protein levels. Despite suggestive evidence emerging from in silico analyses, the presence of these intronic variants do not seem to alter RNA splicing or PTEN protein levels. In addition, as loss of PTEN or part of it has been reported, Western blot analysis has also been performed. No major deletion could be identified in our cohort. Therefore, assuming a Poisson distribution for the frequency of deleterious mutation in our cohort, if the frequency of such deleterious mutation was 2%, we would have had a 90% or greater chance of observing at least one such mutation. These results suggest that PTEN germline mutations are rare and are unlikely to account for a significant proportion of familial breast cancer cases in the French Canadian population.

  16. A Prospective Longitudinal Clinical Trial Evaluating Quality of Life After Breast-Conserving Surgery and High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garsa, Adam A.; Ferraro, Daniel J.; DeWees, Todd A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Deshields, Teresa L. [Department of Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Margenthaler, Julie A.; Cyr, Amy E. [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Naughton, Michael [Department of Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Aft, Rebecca [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Department of Surgery, John Cochran Veterans Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Gillanders, William E.; Eberlein, Timothy [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Matesa, Melissa A.; Ochoa, Laura L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Zoberi, Imran, E-mail: izoberi@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To prospectively examine quality of life (QOL) of patients with early stage breast cancer treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between March 2004 and December 2008, 151 patients with early stage breast cancer were enrolled in a phase 2 prospective clinical trial. Eligible patients included those with Tis-T2 tumors measuring ≤3 cm excised with negative surgical margins and with no nodal involvement. Patients received 3.4 Gy twice daily to a total dose of 34 Gy. QOL was measured using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30, version 3.0, and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires. The QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires were evaluated during pretreatment and then at 6 to 8 weeks, 3 to 4 months, 6 to 8 months, and 1 and 2 years after treatment. Results: The median follow-up was 55 months. Breast symptom scores remained stable in the months after treatment, and they significantly improved 6 to 8 months after treatment. Scores for emotional functioning, social functioning, and future perspective showed significant improvement 2 years after treatment. Symptomatic fat necrosis was associated with several changes in QOL, including increased pain, breast symptoms, systemic treatment side effects, dyspnea, and fatigue, as well as decreased role functioning, emotional functioning, and social functioning. Conclusions: HDR multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy was well tolerated, with no significant detrimental effect on measured QOL scales/items through 2 years of follow-up. Compared to pretreatment scores, there was improvement in breast symptoms, emotional functioning, social functioning, and future perspective 2 years after treatment.

  17. Proteogenomic analysis of Mycobacterium smegmatis using high resolution mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthys Gerhardus Potgieter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBiochemical evidence is vital for accurate genome annotation. The integration of experimental data collected at the proteome level using high resolution mass spectrometry allows for improvements in genome annotation by providing evidence for novel gene models, while validating or modifying others. Here we report the results of a proteogenomic analysis of a reference strain of Mycobacterium smegmatis (mc2155, a fast growing model organism for the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis - the causative agent for Tuberculosis. By integrating high throughput LC/MS/MS proteomic data with genomic six frame translation and ab initio gene prediction databases, a total of 2887 ORFs were identified, including 2810 ORFs annotated to a Reference protein, and 63 ORFs not previously annotated to a Reference protein. Further, the translational start site (TSS was validated for 558 Reference proteome gene models, while upstream translational evidence was identified for 81. In addition, N-terminus derived peptide identifications allowed for downstream TSS modification of a further 24 gene models. We validated the existence of 6 previously described interrupted coding sequences at the peptide level, and provide evidence for 4 novel frameshift positions. Analysis of peptide posterior error probability (PEP scores indicates high-confidence novel peptide identifications and shows that the genome of M. smegmatis mc2155 is not yet fully annotated. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003500.

  18. High-Throughput Screening Using Mass Spectrometry within Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohman, Mattias; Wingfield, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In order to detect a biochemical analyte with a mass spectrometer (MS) it is necessary to ionize the analyte of interest. The analyte can be ionized by a number of different mechanisms, however, one common method is electrospray ionization (ESI). Droplets of analyte are sprayed through a highly charged field, the droplets pick up charge, and this is transferred to the analyte. High levels of salt in the assay buffer will potentially steal charge from the analyte and suppress the MS signal. In order to avoid this suppression of signal, salt is often removed from the sample prior to injection into the MS. Traditional ESI MS relies on liquid chromatography (LC) to remove the salt and reduce matrix effects, however, this is a lengthy process. Here we describe the use of RapidFire™ coupled to a triple-quadrupole MS for high-throughput screening. This system uses solid-phase extraction to de-salt samples prior to injection, reducing processing time such that a sample is injected into the MS ~every 10 s.

  19. HCN Polymers: Toward Structure Comprehension Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Jean-Yves; Thissen, Roland; Frisari, Ma; Vuitton, Veronique; Quirico, Eric; Le Roy, Léna; Fray, Nicolas; Cottin, Hervé; Horst, Sarah; Yelle, Roger

    A lot of solar system materials, including cometary ices and Titan aerosols, contain dark matter that can be interpreted as complex nitrogen bearing organic matter [1]. In laboratory experi-ments, HCN polymers are thus analogs of great interest. In fact they may be present in Titan atmosphere and in comet nuclei and then reprocessed as a CN distributed source [2], when ices began to sublimate and ejects from the nucleus organic matter grains [3]. The presence of HCN polymers is suggested because HCN molecule has been directly observed in 1P/Halley comet [4] and others. HCN polymers are also of prebiotic interest [5] as it can form amino acid under hydrolysis conditions. Even if they have been studied during the last decades, their chemical composition and structure are still poorly understood, and a great analytical effort has to be continued. In this way we present a high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and a high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MS/HRMS) analysis of HCN polymers. It was shown [6] that this is a suitable technique to elucidate composition and structure of the soluble part of tholins analogs of Titan's atmosphere aerosols. HCN polymers have never been studied by HRMS, thus we used a LTQ-Orbitrap XL high resolution mass spectrometer to analyse the HCN polymers. These are produced at LISA by direct polymerisation of pure liquid HCN, catalyzed by ammonia. HCN polymers have been completely dissolved in methanol and then injected in the mass spectrometer by ElectroSpray Ionization (ESI). This atmospheric pressure ionization process produces protonated or deprotonated ions, but it does not fragment molecules. Thus HRMS, allows a direct access to the stoechiometry of all the ionizable molecules present in the samples. Fragmentation analyses (MS/MS) of selected ions have also been performed. Thess analysis provide information about the different chemical fonctionnalities present in HCN poly-mers and also about their structure. Thus we are able to

  20. Robotic Mammosphere Assay for High-Throughput Screening in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, P A; Akrap, N; Söderberg, E M V; Harrison, H; Thomson, G J; Landberg, G

    2017-02-01

    In order to identify novel treatment principles specifically affecting cancer stem cells in triple-negative breast cancer, we have developed a high-throughput screening method based on the mammosphere and anoikis resistance assays allowing us to screen compounds using a functional readout. The assay was validated against manual protocols and through the use of positive controls, such as the response to hypoxia and treatment with the known cancer stem cell-targeting compound salinomycin. Manual and robotic procedures were compared and produced similar results in cell handling, cell cultures, and counting techniques, with no statistically significant difference produced from either method. The variance between samples processed manually versus robotically was no greater than 0.012, while Levene's test of significance was 0.2, indicating no significant difference between mammosphere data produced manually or robotically. Through the screening of 989 FDA-approved drugs and a follow-up screen assessing the antineoplastic subgroup, we have identified three therapeutic compounds with the ability to modulate the breast cancer stem cell fraction in the triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, highlighting their potential usage as stem cell-specific adjuvant treatments.

  1. Simulation study comparing high-purity germanium and cadmium zinc telluride detectors for breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D. L.; Peterson, T. E.

    2014-11-01

    We conducted simulations to compare the potential imaging performance for breast cancer detection with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) and Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) systems with 1% and 3.8% energy resolution at 140 keV, respectively. Using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) simulation package, we modelled both 5 mm-thick CZT and 10 mm-thick HPGe detectors with the same parallel-hole collimator for the imaging of a breast/torso phantom. Simulated energy spectra were generated, and planar images were created for various energy windows around the 140 keV photopeak. Relative sensitivity and scatter and the torso fractions were calculated along with tumour contrast and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Simulations showed that utilizing a ±1.25% energy window with an HPGe system better suppressed torso background and small-angle scattered photons than a comparable CZT system using a -5%/+10% energy window. Both systems provided statistically similar contrast and SNR, with HPGe providing higher relative sensitivity. Lowering the counts of HPGe images to match CZT count density still yielded equivalent contrast between HPGe and CZT. Thus, an HPGe system may provide equivalent breast imaging capability at lower injected radioactivity levels when acquiring for equal imaging time.

  2. Breast cancer detection using phase contrast diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qizhi; Li, Changqing; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Fajardo, Laurie L.; Jiang, Huabei

    2007-02-01

    In this report, a phase-contrast diffuse optical tomography system, which can measure the refractive indices of human breast masses in vivo, is described. To investigate the utility of phase-contrast diffuse optical tomography (PCDOT) for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses in humans, and to compare PCDOT with conventional diffuse optical tomography (DOT) for analysis of breast masses in humans. 35 breast masses were imaged in 33 patients (mean age = 51 years; range 22-80 years) using PCDOT. Images characterizing the tissue refractive index, absorption and scattering of breast masses were obtained with a finite element-based reconstruction algorithm. The accuracies of absorption and scattering images were compared with images of refractive index in light of the pathology results. Absorption and scattering images were unable to accurately discriminate benign from malignant lesions. Malignant lesions tended to have decreased refractive index allowing them to discriminate from benign lesions in most cases. The sensitivity, specificity, false positive value, and overall accuracy for refractive index were 81.8%, 70.8%, 29.2%, and 74.3%, respectively. Overall we show that benign and malignant breast masses in humans demonstrate different refractive index and differences in refractive index properties can be used to discriminate benign from malignant masses in patients with high accuracy. This opens up a new avenue for improved breast cancer detection using NIR diffusing light.

  3. Coverage of axillary lymph nodes with high tangential fields in breast radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alço, G; Iğdem, S I; Ercan, T; Dinçer, M; Sentürk, R; Atilla, S; Oral Zengin, F; Okkan, S

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the coverage of axillary nodal volumes with high tangent fields (HTF) in breast radiotherapy and to determine the utility of customised blocking. The treatment plans of 30 consecutive patients with early breast cancer were evaluated. The prescription dose was 50 Gy to the whole breast. Axillary level I-II lymph node volumes were delineated and the cranial border of the tangential fields was set just below the humeral head to create HTF. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were used to calculate the doses received by axillary nodal volumes. In a second planning set, HTF were modified with multileaf collimators (MLC-HTF) to obtain an adequate dose coverage of axillary nodes. The mean doses of the axillary nodes, the ipsilateral lung and heart were compared between the two plans (HTF vs MLC-HTF) using a paired sample t-test. The doses received by 95% of the breast volumes were not significantly different for the two plans. The doses received by 95% of the level I and II axillary volumes were 16.79 Gy and 11.59 Gy, respectively, for HTF, increasing to 47.2 Gy and 45.03 Gy, respectively, for MLC-HTF. Mean lung doses and per cent volume of the ipsilateral lung receiving 20 Gy (V20) were also increased from 6.47 Gy and 10.47%, respectively, for HTF, to 9.56 Gy and 16.77%, respectively, for MLC-HTF. Our results suggest that HTF do not adequately cover the level I and II axillary lymph node regions. Modification of HTF with MLC is necessary to obtain an adequate coverage of axillary levels without compromising healthy tissue in the majority of the patients.

  4. Calibration of Evolutionary Diagnostics in High-mass Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, S.; Merello, M.; Elia, D.; Cesaroni, R.; Testi, L.; Robitaille, T.

    2016-07-01

    The evolutionary classification of massive clumps that are candidate progenitors of high-mass young stars and clusters relies on a variety of independent diagnostics based on observables from the near-infrared to the radio. A promising evolutionary indicator for massive and dense cluster-progenitor clumps is the L/M ratio between the bolometric luminosity and the mass of the clumps. With the aim of providing a quantitative calibration for this indicator, we used SEPIA/APEX to obtain CH3C2H(J = 12-11) observations, which is an excellent thermometer molecule probing densities ≥slant {10}5 cm-3, toward 51 dense clumps with M≥slant 1000 M {}⊙ and uniformly spanning -2 ≲ Log(L/M) [L {}⊙ /M {}⊙ ] ≲ 2.3. We identify three distinct ranges of L/M that can be associated to three distinct phases of star formation in massive clumps. For L/M ≤slant 1 no clump is detected in CH3C2H, suggesting an inner envelope temperature below ˜30K. For 1 ≲ L/M ≲ 10 we detect 58% of the clumps with a temperature between ˜30 and ˜35 K independently from the exact value of L/M; such clumps are building up luminosity due to the formation of stars, but no star is yet able to significantly heat the inner clump regions. For L/M ≳ 10 we detect all the clumps with a gas temperature rising with Log(L/M), marking the appearance of a qualitatively different heating source within the clumps; such values are found toward clumps with UCH ii counterparts, suggesting that the quantitative difference in T versus L/M behavior above L/M ˜ 10 is due to the first appearance of ZAMS stars in the clumps.

  5. HYDROGEN FLUORIDE IN HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emprechtinger, M.; Monje, R. R.; Lis, D. C.; Phillips, T. G. [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Van der Tak, F. F. S.; Van der Wiel, M. H. D. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, NL-9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands); Neufeld, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ceccarelli, C., E-mail: emprecht@caltech.edu [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, F-38041 Grenoble (France)

    2012-09-10

    Hydrogen fluoride (HF) has been established to be an excellent tracer of molecular hydrogen in diffuse clouds. In denser environments, however, the HF abundance has been shown to be approximately two orders of magnitude lower. We present Herschel/HIFI observations of HF J = 1-0 toward two high-mass star formation sites, NGC 6334 I and AFGL 2591. In NGC 6334 I the HF line is seen in absorption in foreground clouds and the source itself, while in AFGL 2591 HF is partially in emission. We find an HF abundance with respect to H{sub 2} of 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} in the diffuse foreground clouds, whereas in the denser parts of NGC 6334 I we derive a lower limit on the HF abundance of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10}. Lower HF abundances in dense clouds are most likely caused by freezeout of HF molecules onto dust grains in high-density gas. In AFGL 2591, the view of the hot core is obstructed by absorption in the massive outflow, in which HF is also very abundant (3.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}) due to the desorption by sputtering. These observations provide further evidence that the chemistry of interstellar fluorine is controlled by freezeout onto gas grains.

  6. Hydrogen Fluoride in High-Mass Star-forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Emprechtinger, Martin; van der Tak, Floris F S; van der Wiel, Matthijs H D; Lis, Dariusz C; Neufeld, David; Phillips, Thomas G; Ceccarelli, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen fluoride has been established to be an excellent tracer of molecular hydrogen in diffuse clouds. In denser environments, however, the HF abundance has been shown to be approximately two orders of magnitude lower. We present Herschel/HIFI observations of HF J=1-0 toward two high-mass star formation sites, NGC6334 I and AFGL 2591. In NGC6334 I the HF line is seen in absorption in foreground clouds and the source itself, while in AFGL 2591 HF is partially in emission. We find an HF abundance with respect to H2 of 1.5e-8 in the diffuse foreground clouds, whereas in the denser parts of NGC6334 I, we derive a lower limit on the HF abundance of 5e-10. Lower HF abundances in dense clouds are most likely caused by freeze out of HF molecules onto dust grains in high-density gas. In AFGL 2591, the view of the hot core is obstructed by absorption in the massive outflow, in which HF is also very abundant 3.6e-8) due to the desorption by sputtering. These observations provide further evidence that the chemistry of...

  7. High-throughput mass spectrometric cytochrome P450 inhibition screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kheng B; Ozbal, Can C; Kassel, Daniel B

    2013-01-01

    We describe here a high-throughput assay to support rapid evaluation of drug discovery compounds for possible drug-drug interaction (DDI). Each compound is evaluated for its DDI potential by incubating over a range of eight concentrations and against a panel of six cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes: 1A2, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4. The method utilizes automated liquid handling for sample preparation, and online solid-phase extraction/tandem mass spectrometry (SPE/MS/MS) for sample analyses. The system is capable of generating two 96-well assay plates in 30 min, and completes the data acquisition and analysis of both plates in about 30 min. Many laboratories that perform the CYP inhibition screening automate only part of the processes leaving a throughput bottleneck within the workflow. The protocols described in this chapter are aimed to streamline the entire process from assay to data acquisition and processing by incorporating automation and utilizing high-precision instrument to maximize throughput and minimize bottleneck.

  8. High mass resolution time of flight mass spectrometer for measuring products in heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Jensen, Robert; Christensen, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    response. Gas analysis is performed with a time of flight mass spectrometer with a modified nude Bayard-Alpert ionization gauge as gas ionization source. The mass resolution of the time of flight mass spectrometer using the ion gauge as ionization source is estimated to m∕Δm > 2500. The system design...

  9. Evaluation of associations between common variation in mitotic regulatory pathways and risk of overall and high grade breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kristen N; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, V Shane; Cerhan, James; Vachon, Celine M; Olson, Janet E; Couch, Fergus J

    2011-09-01

    Mitotic regulatory pathways insure proper timing of mitotic entry, sister chromatid cohesion and separation, and cytokinesis. Disruption of this process results in inappropriate chromosome segregation and aneuploidy, and appears to contribute to cancer. Specifically, disregulation and somatic mutation of mitotic regulators has been observed in human cancers, and overexpression of mitotic regulators is common in aggressive and late stage tumors. However, the role of germline variation in mitotic pathways and risk of cancer is not well understood. We tested 1,084 haplotype-tagging and functional variants from 164 genes in mitotic regulatory pathways in 791 Caucasian women with breast cancer and 843 healthy controls for association with risk of overall and high grade breast cancer. Sixty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 40 genes were associated (P risk of breast cancer in a log-additive model. In addition, 60 SNPs were associated (P risk of high grade breast cancer. However, none of these associations were significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. In gene-level analyses, CDC25C, SCC1/RAD21, TLK2, and SMC6L1 were associated (P risk, CDC6, CDC27, SUMO3, RASSF1, KIF2, and CDC14A were associated with high grade breast cancer risk, and EIF3S10 and CDC25A were associated with both. Further investigation in breast and other cancers are needed to understand the influence of inherited variation in mitotic genes on tumor grade and cancer risk.

  10. High-frequency ultrasound for intraoperative margin assessments in breast conservation surgery: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Vern P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to breast imaging, ultrasound offers the potential for characterizing and distinguishing between benign and malignant breast tissues due to their different microstructures and material properties. The aim of this study was to determine if high-frequency ultrasound (20-80 MHz can provide pathology sensitive measurements for the ex vivo detection of cancer in margins during breast conservation surgery. Methods Ultrasonic tests were performed on resected margins and other tissues obtained from 17 patients, resulting in 34 specimens that were classified into 15 pathology categories. Pulse-echo and through-transmission measurements were acquired from a total of 57 sites on the specimens using two single-element 50-MHz transducers. Ultrasonic attenuation and sound speed were obtained from time-domain waveforms. The waveforms were further processed with fast Fourier transforms to provide ultrasonic spectra and cepstra. The ultrasonic measurements and pathology types were analyzed for correlations. The specimens were additionally re-classified into five pathology types to determine specificity and sensitivity values. Results The density of peaks in the ultrasonic spectra, a measure of spectral structure, showed significantly higher values for carcinomas and precancerous pathologies such as atypical ductal hyperplasia than for normal tissue. The slopes of the cepstra for non-malignant pathologies displayed significantly greater values that differentiated them from the normal and malignant tissues. The attenuation coefficients were sensitive to fat necrosis, fibroadenoma, and invasive lobular carcinoma. Specificities and sensitivities for differentiating pathologies from normal tissue were 100% and 86% for lobular carcinomas, 100% and 74% for ductal carcinomas, 80% and 82% for benign pathologies, and 80% and 100% for fat necrosis and adenomas. Specificities and sensitivities were also determined for differentiating each

  11. Searches for high-mass supersymmetry using masses of large-radius jets

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Results are reported from two searches for supersymmetric particles in final states with multiple jets, including several b-tagged jets, with and without large missing transverse momentum. The data sample corresponds to 2.3 fb − 1 (2.7 fb − 1 without missing transverse momentum) of pp collisions recorded by the CMS experiment at √ s = 13 TeV. The searches focus on processes with massive, high multiplicity final states, such as gluino pair production with the gluino decaying to top quarks and a neutralino, and gluino pair production with R-parity violating gluino decay to top, bottom and strange quarks. Both searches use the quantity M J , the sum of the masses of the large-radius jets, to discriminate between signal and background, establish control regions for other discriminating variables, and as a central piece of the background estimation. The observed event yields are consistent with the standard model expectations, and the results are interpreted in terms of limits on simplified supersymmetric mo...

  12. Quantifying Stellar Mass Loss with High Angular Resolution Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ridgway, Stephen; Creech-Eakman, Michelle; Elias, Nicholas; Howell, Steve; Hutter, Don; Karovska, Margarita; Ragland, Sam; Wishnow, Ed; Zhao, Ming

    2009-01-01

    Mass is constantly being recycled in the universe. One of the most powerful recycling paths is via stellar mass-loss. All stars exhibit mass loss with rates ranging from ~10(-14) to 10(-4) M(sun) yr-1, depending on spectral type, luminosity class, rotation rate, companion proximity, and evolutionary stage. The first generation of stars consisted mostly of hydrogen and helium. These shed material - via massive winds, planetary nebulae and supernova explosions - seeding the interstellar medium with heavier elements. Subsequent generations of stars incorporated this material, changing how stars burn and providing material for planet formation. An understanding of mass loss is critical for modeling individual stars as well as answering larger astrophysical questions. Understanding mass loss is essential for following the evolution of single stars, binaries, star clusters, and galaxies. Mass loss is one of our weakest areas in the modeling of fundamental stellar processes. In large part this is owing to lack of co...

  13. Extending and refining the mass surface around $^{208}$Pb by high-precision Penning-trap mass spectrometry with ISOLTRAP

    CERN Multimedia

    Herfurth, F; Stora, T; Blaum, K; Beck, D; Kowalska, M; Schwarz, S; Stanja, J; Herlert, A J; Yamaguchi, T

    We propose high-precision mass spectrometry of nuclides around the doubly magic $^{208}$Pb. On the neutron-rich side, we aim to extend the knowledge of Fr, At, Hg, and Au masses to study the robustness of the N = 126 shell closure and to provide mass data necessary for modeling the rapid-neutron-capture process. On the proton-rich side, we aim at high-resolution mass spectrometry of selected Au, At, and Fr isotopes to verify the predicted existence of very low-lying isomeric states. The proposal will make use of newly-available laser-ionization schemes for Au and At. Finally, the recently implemented multi-reflection time-of-flight mass separator for auxiliary isobaric purification now allows measurements which were not feasible before.

  14. Quantitative Proteome Analysis of Breast Cancer Cell Lines using 18O-Labeling and an Accurate Mass and Time Tag Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patwardhan, Anil J.; Strittmatter, Eric F.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Pallavicini, Maria

    2006-05-01

    Proteome comparison of cell lines derived from breast cancer and normal breast epithelium provide opportunities to identify differentially expressed proteins and pathways associated with specific phenotypes. We employed trypsin-catalyzed 16O/18O peptide labeling, FTI-CR mass spectrometry, and the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag strategy to calculate compare the relative protein abundances of hundreds of proteins simultaneously in non-cancer and cancer cell lines derived from breast tissue. A reference panel of cell lines was created to facilitate comparisons of relative protein abundance amongst multiple cell lines and across multiple experiments. A peptide database generated from multidimensional LC separations and MS/MS analysis was used to facilitate subsequent AMT tag-based peptide identifications. This peptide database represented a total of 2,299 proteins, including 514 that were quantified using the AMT tag and 16O/18O strategies. Eighty-six proteins showed at least a 3-fold protein abundance change between cancer and non-cancer cell lines. A comparison of protein expression profiles with previously published gene expression data revealed that 21 of these proteins also had >3-fold differences between the non-cancer and cancer cell lines at the transcriptional level. Clustering of protein abundance ratios revealed that several groups of proteins were differentially expressed between the cancer cell lines

  15. Magnetic resonance image-guided versus ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound in the treatment of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Li; Pei-Hong Wu

    2013-01-01

    Image-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been used for more than ten years,primarily in the treatment of liver and prostate cancers.HIFU has the advantages of precise cancer ablation and excellent protection of healthy tissue.Breast cancer is a common cancer in women.HIFU therapy,in combination with other therapies,has the potential to improve both oncologic and cosmetic outcomes for breast cancer patients by providing a curative therapy that conserves mammary shape.Currently,HIFU therapy is not commonly used in breast cancer treatment,and efforts to promote the application of HIFU is expected.In this article,we compare different image-guided models for HIFU and reviewed the status,drawbacks,and potential of HIFU therapy for breast cancer.

  16. A high protein moderate carbohydrate diet fed at discrete meals reduces early progression of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced breast tumorigenesis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singletary Keith W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in American women. Dietary factors are thought to have a strong influence on breast cancer incidence. This study utilized a meal-feeding protocol with female Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate effects of two ratios of carbohydrate:protein on promotion and early progression of breast tissue carcinomas. Mammary tumors were induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU at 52 d of age. Post-induction, animals were assigned to consume either a low protein high carbohydrate diet (LPHC; 15% and 60% of energy, respectively or a high protein moderate carbohydrate diet (HPMC; 35% and 40% of energy, respectively for 10 wk. Animals were fed 3 meals/day to mimic human absorption and metabolism patterns. The rate of palpable tumor incidence was reduced in HPMC relative to LPHC (12.9 ± 1.4%/wk vs. 18.2 ± 1.3%/wk. At 3 wk, post-prandial serum insulin was larger in the LPHC relative to HPMC (+136.4 ± 33.1 pmol/L vs. +38.1 ± 23.4 pmol/L, while at 10 wk there was a trend for post-prandial IGF-I to be increased in HPMC (P = 0.055. There were no differences in tumor latency, tumor surface area, or cumulative tumor mass between diet groups. The present study provides evidence that reducing the dietary carbohydrate:protein ratio attenuates the development of mammary tumors. These findings are consistent with reduced post-prandial insulin release potentially diminishing the proliferative environment required for breast cancer tumors to progress.

  17. Accretion in supergiant High Mass X-ray Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manousakis Antonios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Supergiant High Mass X-ray Binary systems (sgHMXBs consist of a massive, late type, star and a neutron star. The massive stars exhibits strong, radiatively driven, stellar winds. Wind accretion onto compact object triggers X-ray emission, which alters the stellar wind significantly. Hydrodynamic simulation has been used to study the neutron star - stellar wind interaction it two sgHMXBs: i A heavily obscured sgHMXB (IGR J17252–3616 discovered by INTEGRAL. To account for observable quantities (i.e., absorbing column density we have to assume a very slow wind terminal velocity of about 500 km/s and a rather massive neutron star. If confirmed in other obscured systems, this could provide a completely new stellar wind diagnostics. ii A classical sgHMXB (Vela X-1 has been studied in depth to understand the origin of the off-states observed in this system. Among many models used to account for this observed behavior (clumpy wind, gating mechanism we propose that self-organized criticality of the accretion stream is the likely reason for the observed behavior. In conclusion, the neutron star, in these two examples, acts very effciently as a probe to study stellar winds.

  18. Dispersal of Gaseous Circumstellar Discs around High-Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Y; Shen, Yue; Lou, Yu-Qing

    2006-01-01

    We study the dispersal of a gaseous disc surrounding a central high-mass stellar core once this circumstellar disc becomes fully ionized. If the stellar and surrounding EUV and X-ray radiations are so strong as to rapidly heat up and ionize the entire circumstellar disc as further facilitated by disc magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, a shock can be driven to travel outward in the fully ionized disc, behind which the disc expands and thins. For an extremely massive and powerful stellar core, the ionized gas pressure overwhelms the centrifugal and gravitational forces in the disc. In this limit, we construct self-similar shock solutions for such an expansion and depletion phase. As a significant amount of circumstellar gas being removed, the relic disc becomes vulnerable to strong stellar winds and fragments into clumps. We speculate that disc disappearance happens rapidly, perhaps on a timescale of $\\sim 10^3-10^4\\hbox{yr}$ once the disc becomes entirely ionized sometime after the onset of thermal nuclear ...

  19. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound in Small Renal Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rubio Briones

    2008-01-01

    Therapeutic results are controversial and from an clinical view, HIFU must be considered a technique under investigation at present time. Further research is needed to settle its real indications in the management of small renal masses; maybe technical improvements will certainly facilitate its use in the management of small renal masses in the near future.

  20. A fragmentation study of kaempferol using electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry at high mass resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Raymond E.; Miao, Xiu-Sheng

    2004-02-01

    A mass spectrometric method based on the combined use of electrospray ionization, collision-induced dissociation and tandem mass spectrometry at high mass resolution has been applied to an investigation of the structural characterization of protonated and deprotonated kaempferol (3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone). Low-energy product ion mass spectra of [M+H]+ ions showed simple fragmentations of the C ring that permitted characterization of the substituents in the A and B rings. In addition, four rearrangement reactions accompanied by losses of C2H2O, CHO[radical sign], CO, and H2O were observed. Low-energy product ion mass spectra of [M-H]- ions showed only four rearrangement reactions accompanied by losses of OH[radical sign], CO, CH2O, and C2H2O. The use of elevated cone voltages permitted observation of product ion mass spectra of selected primary and secondary fragment ions so that each fragment ion reported was observed as a direct product of its immediate precursor ion. Product ion mass spectra examined at high mass resolution allowed unambiguous determination of the elemental composition of fragment ions and resolution of two pairs of isobars. Fragmentation mechanisms and ion structures have been proposed.

  1. A High Precision, Optical Polarimeter to Measure Inclinations of High Mass X-Ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Wiktorowicz, Sloane J

    2008-01-01

    We present commissioning data for the POLISH instrument obtained on the Hale 5-m telescope. The goal of this high precision polarimeter is to constrain orbital inclination of high mass X-ray binaries and to therefore obtain independent mass estimates for their black hole companions. We have obtained photon shot noise limited precision on standard stars, and we have measured the polarization of bright stars at the part per million level on a nightly basis. Systematic effects have been reduced to less than 1% of the measured polarization for polarized sources and to the part per million level for weakly polarized sources. The high sensitivity of this instrument to asymmetry suggests that valuable contributions will be made in many other fields, including studies of extrasolar planets, debris disks, and stellar astrophysics.

  2. Firm, non-tender mass in right breast · worsening, nonproductive cough · pleuritic pain · Dx?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Trang D; Damania, Zubin; Tschetter, Clifford N; Lehman, Norman L

    2017-01-01

    Granulomatous lesions, such as foreign body granuloma, idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM), and sarcoidosis can mimic breast carcinoma. IGM is associated with elevated prolactin (eg, pregnancy or oral contraceptive use) and is usually subareolar. Infection, however, is also commonly subareolar.

  3. Does Skeletal Muscle Mass Influence Breast Cancer? Evaluating Mammary Tumorigenesis and Progression in Genetically Hyper-Muscular Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    preserve muscle in the end-stages of cancer, cancer cachexia . Up to 25% of breast cancer deaths may be attributed to muscle wasting from the complex... cachexia . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast cancer, skeletal muscle, myostatin, MPA, DMBA, Activin receptor, cachexia . 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...progress, we turned to another question relating skeletal muscle and cancer—pathological muscle wasting in cancer cachexia . (6) (7) (8) Cancer cachexia

  4. High fasting blood glucose and obesity significantly and independently increase risk of breast cancer death in hormone receptor-positive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicozzi, Pamela; Berrino, Franco; Sebastiani, Federica; Falcini, Fabio; Vattiato, Rosa; Cioccoloni, Francesca; Calagreti, Gioia; Fusco, Mario; Vitale, Maria Francesca; Tumino, Rosario; Sigona, Aurora; Budroni, Mario; Cesaraccio, Rosaria; Candela, Giuseppa; Scuderi, Tiziana; Zarcone, Maurizio; Campisi, Ildegarda; Sant, Milena

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effect of fasting blood glucose and body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis on risk of breast cancer death for cases diagnosed in five Italian cancer registries in 2003-2005 and followed up to the end of 2008. For 1607 Italian women (≥15 years) with information on BMI or blood glucose or diabetes, we analysed the risk of breast cancer death in relation to glucose tertiles (≤84.0, 84.1-94.0, >94.0 mg/dl) plus diabetic and unspecified categories; BMI tertiles (≤23.4, 23.5-27.3, >27.3 kg/m(2), unspecified), stage (T1-3N0M0, T1-3N+M0 plus T4anyNM0, M1, unspecified), oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) status (ER+PR+, ER-PR-, ER and PR unspecified, other), age, chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, using multiple regression models. Separate models for ER+PR+ and ER-PR- cases were also run. Patients often had T1-3N0M0, ER+PR+ cancers and received chemotherapy or endocrine therapy; only 6% were M1 and 17% ER-PR-. Diabetic patients were older and had more often high BMI (>27 kg/m(2)), ER-PR-, M1 cancers than other patients. For ER+PR+ cases, with adjustment for other variables, breast cancer mortality was higher in women with high BMI than those with BMI 23.5-27.3 kg/m(2) (hazard ratio (HR)=2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-6.9). Breast cancer mortality was also higher in women with high (>94 mg/dl) blood glucose compared to those with glucose 84.1-94.0mg/dl (HR=2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.7). Our results provide evidence that in ER+PR+ patients, high blood glucose and high BMI are independently associated with increased risk of breast cancer death. Detection and correction of these factors in such patients may improve prognosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High DRC Levels Are Associated with Let-7b Overexpression in Women with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnación, Jarline; Ortiz, Carmen; Vergne, Ralphdy; Vargas, Wanda; Coppola, Domenico; Matta, Jaime L

    2016-06-02

    Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) is a critical pathway involved in breast cancer (BC). We have previously published that a low DNA repair capacity (DRC) is associated with a higher risk of BC in Puerto Rican women. Let-7b belongs to a miRNA family with tumor suppressor activity that targets oncogenes. We isolated miRNAs from plasma of 153 Puerto Rican women with and without BC. DRC was measured in lymphocytes by means of a host cell reactivation assay. These women were divided into four groups according to their DRC level: High (>3.8%) and low (DRC and controls with high (n = 39) and low (n = 36) DRC. Epidemiologic data were collected at initial BC diagnosis and almost five years after diagnosis. A significant difference in Let-7b expression was found in BC patients with high DRC versus the remaining groups (p DRC during breast carcinogenesis. Our study is innovative because it provides the first evidence that Let-7b may play role in DRC regulation (through the NER repair pathway) in BC.

  6. High expression of miR-21 in tumor stroma correlates with increased cancer cell proliferation in human breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Lene; Balslev, Eva; Jørgensen, Stine

    2011-01-01

    Low-risk and high-risk breast cancer patients are stratified primarily according to their lymph node (LN) status and grading. However, some low-risk patients relapse, and some high-risk patients have a favorable clinical outcome, implying a need for better prognostic and predictive tests. Micro...... RNAs are often aberrantly expressed in cancer and microRNA-21 is upregulated in a variety of cancers, including breast cancer. High miR-21 levels have been associated with poor prognosis. To determine the cellular localization of miR-21 and to compare its expression levels with histopathological...... features, we performed in situ hybridization and semi-quantitative assessment of the miR-21 signal on 12 LN negative grade I (assumed low risk), and 12 LN positive grade II (high risk) breast cancers. miR-21 was predominantly seen in cancer associated fibroblast-like cells, with no difference in expression...

  7. The effect of preoperative serum triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels on the prognosis of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Tang, Hailin; Wang, Jin; Xie, Xinhua; Liu, Peng; Kong, Yanan; Ye, Feng; Shuang, Zeyu; Xie, Zeming; Xie, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    Although dyslipidemia has been documented to be associated with several types of cancer including breast cancer, it remains uncertainty the prognostic value of serum lipid in breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between the preoperative plasma lipid profile and the prognostic of breast cancer patients. The levels of preoperative serum lipid profile (including cholesterol [CHO], Triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], apolipoprotein A-I [ApoAI], and apolipoprotein B [ApoB]) and the clinical data were retrospectively collected and reviewed in 1044 breast cancer patients undergoing operation. Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were used in analyzing the overall survival [OS] and disease-free survival [DFS]. Combining the receiver-operating characteristic and Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that preoperative lower TG and HDL-C level were risk factors of breast cancer patients. In multivariate analyses, a decreased HDL-C level showed significant association with worse OS (HR: 0.528; 95% CI: 0.302-0.923; P = 0.025), whereas a decreased TG level showed significant association with worse DFS (HR: 0.569; 95% CI: 0.370-0.873; P = 0.010). Preoperative serum levels of TG and HDL-C may be independent factor to predict outcome in breast cancer patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of bromotryptophan and hydroxyproline modifications by high-resolution, high-accuracy precursor ion scanning utilizing fragment ions with mass-deficient mass tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Hanno; Mann, Matthias

    2002-12-15

    Protein modifications are often detected by precursor ion scanning. When quadrupole TOF mass spectrometers are used for precursor ion scanning with high-resolution, high-accuracy fragment ion selection, "reporter" ions are required to have a unique mass within +/-0.04 Da or less instead of +/-0.5 Da on triple quadrupole mass spectrometers, the traditional instrument used for precursor ion scanning. Thus, characteristic fragment ions can be utilized even if other fragment ions have the same nominal mass as long as the characteristic fragment ions are slightly mass deficient as compared to the other fragments, i.e., when they have an inherent mass-deficient mass tag. Here, the immonium ions of bromotryptophan and hydroxyproline are described as two fragment ions characteristic for tryptophan-brominated and proline-hydroxylated peptides, respectively. The "reporter" ion of trytophan-brominated peptides is highly mass deficient due to the presence of bromine, thereby allowing the selective detection of these species and the distinction from other dipeptidic a-, b-, and y-fragment ions by high-resolution, high-accuracy precursor ion scanning. This strategy also enables the differentiation between precursors giving rise to the oxygen-containing immonium ion of hydroxyproline and precursors of the immonium ions of near-ubiquitous leucine/isoleucine. Both immonium ions have the same nominal mass of 86 Da, but the exact masses differ by less than 0.04 Da. High-resolution, high-accuracy precursor ion scanning enabled the identification of proline-hydroxylated and tryptophan-brominated species and the directed analysis of species carrying these modifications in a highly complex Conus textile conotoxin mixture. This lead to the characterization of one novel C. textile conotoxin containing a bromotryptophan residue and one novel C. textile conotoxin carrying two hydroxyproline residues.

  9. Breast Cancer Suspicion in a Transgender Male-to-Female Patient on Hormone Replacement Therapy Presenting with Right Breast Mass: Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Presentation of a Rare Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystina Tongson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing use of hormonal therapy among male-to-female (MtF transgender individuals. This long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT renders MtF individuals a unique patient subgroup in terms of breast cancer risk. This case describes a MtF transgender who presented with a breast lesion concerning for malignancy following hormonal replacement therapy. The patient additionally had a strong family history of breast cancer. Final pathology revealed lobular hyperplasia in the setting of gynecomastia and pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH. Both pathology findings are rare in biological females, let alone in the setting of hormone replacement therapy in a MtF individual. While the number of reported cases of suspicious breast lesions in this population remains scarce, it presents both a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to the nature of the treatment course and the lack of research in this recently growing subgroup of patients.

  10. Glycation promoted by dynamic high pressure microfluidisation pretreatment revealed by high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoqin; Tu, Zongcai; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Qiuting; Hu, Yueming; Zhang, Lan; Niu, Peipei; Shi, Yan; Xiao, Hui

    2013-12-01

    The effect of dynamic high pressure microfluidisation (DHPM) pretreatment on the glycation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated. A detailed glycation map was obtained from high resolution mass spectrometry. Without DHPM pretreatment, only 7 glycation sites were identified, whereas the numbers were increased to 10, 11 and 11 when BSA-glucose was pretreated with DHPM at 50, 100 and 200 MPa, respectively, suggesting that DHPM pretreatment can significantly promote the Maillard reaction. Average degree of substitution per peptide molecule BSA (DSP) was used to further evaluate the glycation level under various DHPM conditions. All the DHPM pretreated samples exhibited elevated glycation level compared to the un-pretreated sample. With 100 MPa DHPM pretreatment, the protein showed the most significantly enhanced glycation extent. In addition, our results suggest that Maillard-type glycation followed by mass spectrometry analysis can be used to study the conformational changes when proteins are disturbed by external forces.

  11. Mass defect filter technique and its applications to drug metabolite identification by high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiying; Zhang, Donglu; Ray, Kenneth; Zhu, Mingshe

    2009-07-01

    Identification of drug metabolites by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) involves metabolite detection in biological matrixes and structural characterization based on product ion spectra. Traditionally, metabolite detection is accomplished primarily on the basis of predicted molecular masses or fragmentation patterns of metabolites using triple-quadrupole and ion trap mass spectrometers. Recently, a novel mass defect filter (MDF) technique has been developed, which enables high-resolution mass spectrometers to be utilized for detecting both predicted and unexpected drug metabolites based on narrow, well-defined mass defect ranges for these metabolites. This is a new approach that is completely different from, but complementary to, traditional molecular mass- or MS/MS fragmentation-based LC/MS approaches. This article reviews the mass defect patterns of various classes of drug metabolites and the basic principles of the MDF approach. Examples are given on the applications of the MDF technique to the detection of stable and chemically reactive metabolites in vitro and in vivo. Advantages, limitations, and future applications are also discussed on MDF and its combinations with other data mining techniques for the detection and identification of drug metabolites.

  12. The toxicity of radiotherapy following high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood serum cell support in high-risk breast cancer: a preliminary analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, E. van der; Schaake-Koning, C.C.E.; Zandwijk, N. van [Nederlands Kanker Inst. `Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis`, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    High-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow and/or peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) support is increasingly employed in the adjuvant treatment of high-risk breast cancer. Subsequent radiotherapy has been reported to be associated with morbidity and mortality resulting from pulmonary toxicity. In addition, the course of radiation therapy may be hampered by excess myelosuppression. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution to radiation-induced toxicity of a high-dose chemotherapy regimen (CTC) that incorporates cyclophosphamide, thiotepa and carboplatin, in patients with high-risk breast cancer. (author).

  13. Exome sequencing identifies highly recurrent MED12 somatic mutations in breast fibroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Weng Khong; Ong, Choon Kiat; Tan, Jing; Thike, Aye Aye; Ng, Cedric Chuan Young; Rajasegaran, Vikneswari; Myint, Swe Swe; Nagarajan, Sanjanaa; Nasir, Nur Diyana Md; McPherson, John R; Cutcutache, Ioana; Poore, Gregory; Tay, Su Ting; Ooi, Wei Siong; Tan, Veronique Kiak Mien; Hartman, Mikael; Ong, Kong Wee; Tan, Benita K T; Rozen, Steven G; Tan, Puay Hoon; Tan, Patrick; Teh, Bin Tean

    2014-08-01

    Fibroadenomas are the most common breast tumors in women under 30 (refs. 1,2). Exome sequencing of eight fibroadenomas with matching whole-blood samples revealed recurrent somatic mutations solely in MED12, which encodes a Mediator complex subunit. Targeted sequencing of an additional 90 fibroadenomas confirmed highly frequent MED12 exon 2 mutations (58/98, 59%) that are probably somatic, with 71% of mutations occurring in codon 44. Using laser capture microdissection, we show that MED12 fibroadenoma mutations are present in stromal but not epithelial mammary cells. Expression profiling of MED12-mutated and wild-type fibroadenomas revealed that MED12 mutations are associated with dysregulated estrogen signaling and extracellular matrix organization. The fibroadenoma MED12 mutation spectrum is nearly identical to that of previously reported MED12 lesions in uterine leiomyoma but not those of other tumors. Benign tumors of the breast and uterus, both of which are key target tissues of estrogen, may thus share a common genetic basis underpinned by highly frequent and specific MED12 mutations.

  14. Grape seed proanthocyanidins induce apoptosis and inhibit metastasis of highly metastatic breast carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantena, Sudheer K; Baliga, Manjeshwar S; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2006-08-01

    The strategies available for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer are limited. Dietary botanicals may have a better protective effect on this disease. We therefore investigated the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on a highly metastatic mouse mammary carcinoma cell line. In vitro treatment of breast cancer cells, 4T1, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468, with GSPs resulted in significant inhibition of cellular proliferation and viability, and induction of apoptosis in 4T1 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further analysis indicated an alteration in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 proteins in favor of apoptosis, and the knockdown of Bax using Bax siRNA transfection of 4T1 cells resulted in blocking of GSPs-induced apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis was associated with the release of cytochrome c, increased expression of Apaf-1 and activation of caspase 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) resulted in partial but significant inhibition of apoptosis in 4T1 cells suggesting the involvement of both caspase activation-dependent and activation-independent pathways in the apoptosis of 4T1 cells induced by GSPs. The effects of dietary GSPs were then examined using an in vivo model in which 4T1 cells were implanted subcutaneously in Balb/c mice. Dietary GSPs (0.2 and 0.5%, w/w) significantly inhibited the growth of the implanted 4T1 tumor cells and increased the ratio of Bax:Bcl-2 proteins, cytochrome c release, induction of Apaf-1 and activation of caspase 3 in the tumor microenvironment. Notably, the metastasis of tumor cells to the lungs was inhibited significantly and the survival of the mice enhanced. These data suggest that GSPs possess chemotherapeutic efficacy against breast cancer including inhibition of metastasis.

  15. Search for a high mass diphoton resonance using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Malek, Fairouz; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    High-mass states decaying into two photons are predicted in many extensions of the Standard Model (SM). The diphoton final state provides a clean experimental signature with good invariant mass resolution and moderate backgrounds. Searches for high-mass resonances decaying into two photons for a spin-0 or spin-2 state are presented. The latest ATLAS results using p-p collision data at 13 TeV and covering a large mass range are discussed.

  16. Consensus meeting of course directors in breast imaging, 9 May 2009, in Frankfurt am Main - Topic: Masses; Konsensustreffen der Kursleiter in der Mammadiagnostik am 9.5.2009 in Frankfurt am Main - Thema: Herdbefunde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Schimpfle, M.P. [Klinikum Frankfurt Hoechst (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Heindel, W. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Radiologie; Kettritz, U. [Mammographie-Referenzzentrum Berlin (Germany); Schulz-Wendtland, R. [Erlangen Univ. (Germany). Radiologie; Bick, U. [Charite Berlin (Germany). Radiologie

    2010-08-15

    Fourteen directors of breast imaging courses met on behalf of the German Society of Radiology to discuss the actual standards of the diagnosis of masses. Open questions on the fields of mammography, breast ultrasound and breast MRI were elucidated by a presentation of one of the 14 panel members, followed by an electronic anonymous voting. Beside of the panel members, more than 300 participants of the consensus meeting contributed their opinions by electronic voting. Answers with definite majorities (> 75 %), answers with narrow majorities and those with missing majorities were discriminated from each other. The opinions of the plenum were compared to the majorities of the podium and showed only a few critical differences. Due to unequivocal majorities seven answers to important questions concerning the diagnosis of masses can lead to a further standardization of breast cancer diagnosis. (orig.)

  17. Obesity in breast cancer--what is the risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, F R; Wootton, S; Jackson, A; Wiseman, M; Copson, E R; Cutress, R I

    2015-04-01

    Environmental factors influence breast cancer incidence and progression. High body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased risk of post-menopausal breast cancer and with poorer outcome in those with a history of breast cancer. High BMI is generally interpreted as excess adiposity (overweight or obesity) and the World Cancer Research Fund judged that the associations between BMI and incidence of breast cancer were due to body fatness. Although BMI is the most common measure used to characterise body composition, it cannot distinguish lean mass from fat mass, or characterise body fat distribution, and so individuals with the same BMI can have different body composition. In particular, the relation between BMI and lean or fat mass may differ between people with or without disease. The question therefore arises as to what aspect or aspects of body composition are causally linked to the poorer outcome of breast cancer patients with high BMI. This question is not addressed in the literature. Most studies have used BMI, without discussion of its shortcomings as a marker of body composition, leading to potentially important misinterpretation. In this article we review the different measurements used to characterise body composition in the literature, and how they relate to breast cancer risk and prognosis. Further research is required to better characterise the relation of body composition to breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. HIghMass - High HI Mass, HI-rich Galaxies at z~0: High-Resolution VLA Imaging of UGC 9037 and UGC 12506

    CERN Document Server

    Hallenbeck, Gregory; Spekkens, Kristine; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Brinchmann, Jarle; Chengalur, Jayaram; Hunt, Leslie K; Masters, Karen L; Saintonge, Amélie

    2014-01-01

    We present resolved HI observations of two galaxies, UGC 9037 and UGC 12506, members of a rare subset of galaxies detected by the ALFALFA extragalactic HI survey characterized by high HI mass and high gas fraction for their stellar masses. Both of these galaxies have M$_*>10^{10}$ M$_\\odot$ and M$_\\text{HI}>$ M$_*$, as well as typical star formation rates for their stellar masses. How can such galaxies have avoided consuming their massive gas reservoirs? From gas kinematics, stability, star formation, and dark matter distributions of the two galaxies, we infer two radically different histories. UGC 9037 has high central HI surface density ($>10$ M$_\\odot$ pc$^{-2}$). Its gas at most radii appears to be marginally unstable with non-circular flows across the disk. These properties are consistent with UGC 9037 having recently acquired its gas and that it will soon undergo major star formation. UGC 12506 has low surface densities of HI, and its gas is stable over most of the disk. We predict its gas to be HI-domi...

  19. Differing effects of mass and interpersonal communication on breast cancer risk estimates: an exploratory study of college students and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karyn Ogata; Denham, Bryan E; Springston, Jeffrey K

    2007-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that women tend to overestimate the percentage of all breast cancers that result from genetic predispositions, and this article examines the knowledge of college students, as well as their mothers, on this subject, applying uncertainty management (Brashers, 2001) as the theoretical framework. The authors build on the literature by studying (a) the types of media outlets college students and their mothers use for securing information, and (b) the types of articles and programs within those outlets that may affect risk perceptions. The authors also address associations between these mass communication measures and interpersonal sources of information in the context of risk estimation. Respondents exposed to media reports about the role of genetics in breast cancer, in addition to study participants who had discussed this role within the family, tended to overestimate measures of genetic risk. Conversely, those who had attended to media reports about screening practices tended to offer lower risk estimates, indicating that such reports may have positioned genetics as just one factor in the overall equation of breast cancer risk. The authors discuss the implications of these and other findings for communication scholars and health practitioners.

  20. High and low frequency subharmonic imaging of angiogenesis in a murine breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahibawkar, Manasi; Forsberg, Mark A; Gupta, Aditi; Jaffe, Samantha; Dulin, Kelly; Eisenbrey, John R; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G; Forsberg, Anya I; Dave, Jaydev K; Marshall, Andrew; Machado, Priscilla; Fox, Traci B; Liu, Ji-Bin; Forsberg, Flemming

    2015-09-01

    This project compared quantifiable measures of tumor vascularity obtained from contrast-enhanced high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) subharmonic ultrasound imaging (SHI) to 3 immunohistochemical markers of angiogenesis in a murine breast cancer model (since angiogenesis is an important marker of malignancy and the target of many novel cancer treatments). Nineteen athymic, nude, female rats were implanted with 5×10(6) breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) in the mammary fat pad. The contrast agent Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, N Billerica, MA) was injected in a tail vein (dose: 180μl/kg) and LF pulse-inversion SHI was performed with a modified Sonix RP scanner (Analogic Ultrasound, Richmond, BC, Canada) using a L9-4 linear array (transmitting/receiving at 8/4MHz in SHI mode) followed by HF imaging with a Vevo 2100 scanner (Visualsonics, Toronto, ON, Canada) using a MS250 linear array transmitting and receiving at 24MHz. The radiofrequency data was filtered using a 4th order IIR Butterworth bandpass filter (11-13MHz) to isolate the subharmonic signal. After the experiments, specimens were stained for endothelial cells (CD31), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Fractional tumor vascularity was calculated as contrast-enhanced pixels over all tumor pixels for SHI, while the relative area stained over total tumor area was calculated from specimens. Results were compared using linear regression analysis. Out of 19 rats, 16 showed tumor growth (84%) and 11 of them were successfully imaged. HF SHI demonstrated better resolution, but weaker signals than LF SHI (0.06±0.017 vs. 0.39±0.059; p<0.001). The strongest overall correlation in this breast cancer model was between HF SHI and VEGF (r=-0.38; p=0.03). In conclusion, quantifiable measures of tumor neovascularity derived from contrast-enhanced HF SHI appear to be a better method than LF SHI for monitoring angiogenesis in a murine xenograft model of breast cancer

  1. Direct Analysis of Leucine and Its Metabolites β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyric Acid, α-Ketoisocaproic Acid, and α-Hydroxyisocaproic Acid in Human Breast Milk by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehling, Stefan; Reddy, Todime M

    2015-09-02

    A direct, quantitative, and confirmatory method based on stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the analysis of leucine and metabolites β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric acid (HMB), α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC), and α-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA) in human breast milk. Chromatographic resolution was achieved between isobaric leucine and isoleucine. Accuracy and intermediate precision were 89-117% and breast milk composition and its effect on protein turnover in developing infants.

  2. Long-term dynamics of high mass ratio multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gongjie

    This thesis presents a series of studies on the dynamics of high mass ratio multiples, with applications to planetary systems orbiting stars and stellar systems orbiting supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Almost two thousand exoplanetary systems have recently been discovered, and their configurations gave rise to new puzzles to planetary formation theories. We studied the dynamics of planetary systems aiming to understand how the configuration of planetary system is sculptured and to probe the origin of planetary systems. First, we discussed hierarchical three-body dynamics, which can be applied to planets that are orbiting a star while perturbed by a planet or a star that is farther away. The perturbation from the farther object can flip the planetary orbits and produce counter orbiting hot Jupiters, which cannot be formed in the classical planetary formation theory. In addition, we have studied the scatter encounter of planetary systems in clusters, which produce eccentric and inclined planets. Moreover, we investigated the obliquity variation of planets, which can be applied to exoplanetary systems. The obliquity variation is important to the habitability of the exoplanets. The long term dynamics is also important to stellar systems orbiting SMBHs. SMBHs are common in the center of galaxies and lead to rich dynamical interactions with nearby stars. At the same time, dynamical features of the nearby stars reveal important properties of the SMBHs. The aforementioned hierarchical three-body dynamics can be applied to stars near SMBH binaries, which are natural consequences of galaxy mergers. We found that the distribution of stars surrounding one of the SMBHs results in a shape of torus due to the perturbation from the other SMBH, and the dynamical interactions contribute to an enhancement of tidal disruption rates, which can help identify the SMBH binaries. In addition, we investigated the heating of stars near SMBHs, where the heating of stars due to gravitational

  3. On the radiation problem of high mass stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

    2010-01-01

    A massive star is defined as one with mass greater than~8-10 M⊙.Central to the on-going debate on how these objects[massive stars]come into being is the so-called Radiation Problem.For nearly forty years,it has been argued that the radiation field emanating from massive stars is high enough to cause a global reversal of direct radial in-fall of material onto the nascent star.We argue that only in the case of a non-spinning isolated star does the gravitational field of the nascent star overcome the radiation field.An isolated non-spinning star is a non-spinning star without any circumstellar material around it,and the gravitational field beyond its surface is described exactly by Newton's inverse square law.The supposed fact that massive stars have a gravitational field that is much stronger than their radiation field is drawn from the analysis of an isolated massive star.In this case the gravitational field is much stronger than the radiation field.This conclusion has been erroneously extended to the case of massive stars enshrouded in gas and dust.We find that,for the case of a nonspinning gravitating body where we take into consideration the circumstellar material,at~8-10 M⊙,the radiation field will not reverse the radial in-fall of matter,but rather a stalemate between the radiation and gravitational field will be achieved,i.e.the infall is halted but not reversed.This picture is very different from the common picture that is projected and accepted in the popular literature where at~8-10 M⊙,all the circumstellar material,from the surface of the star right up to the edge of the molecular core,is expected to be swept away by the radiation field.We argue that massive stars should be able to start their normal stellar processes if the molecular core from which they form has some rotation,because a rotating core exhibits an Azimuthally Symmetric Gravitational Field which causes there to be an accretion disk and along this equatorial disk.The radiation

  4. High Mass Standard Model Higgs searches at the Tevatron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petridis Konstantinos A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of searches for the Standard Model Higgs boson decaying predominantly to W+W− pairs, at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 1.96 TeV, using up to 8.2 fb−1 of data collected with the CDF and D0 detectors at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The analysis techniques and the various channels considered are discussed. These searches result in exclusions across the Higgs mass range of 156.5< mH <173.7 GeV for CDF and 161< mH <170 GeV for D0.

  5. Searches for high mass Higgs bosons with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00009427; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Recent results from searches for heavy Higgs bosons, using the ATLAS detector at the CERN LHC are presented. The searches use proton–proton collision data collected during the second running period of the LHC (LHC Run-II), at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 /fb. The results are interpreted in a range of scenarios, including theories beyond the Standard Model of particle physics, and extend the upper limits set during LHC Run-I toward higher mass regions.

  6. High-mass dijet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, T; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Ahn, S H; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Barbi, M; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Bashkirov, V; Basile, M; Bauerdick, L A T; Bednarek, B; Behrens, U; Bell, M; Bellagamba, L; Benen, A; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bodmann, B; Bokel, C; Boogert, S; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Breitweg, J; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Brümmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carli, T; Carlin, R; Cartiglia, N; Catterall, C D; Chapin, D; Chekanov, S; Chiochia, V; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cirio, R; Cloth, P; Coldewey, C; Cole, J E; Collins-Tooth, C; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Cormack, C; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Costa, M; Crittenden, J; Cross, R; D'Agostini, Giulio; Dagan, S; Dal Corso, F; Danilov, P; Dannheim, D; De Pasquale, S; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Deshpande, Abhay A; Desler, K; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dolgoshein, B A; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Engelen, J; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Filges, D; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fox-Murphy, A; Fricke, U; Fusayasu, T; Gabareen, A; Galea, R; Gallo, E; García, G; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Genta, C; Gialas, I; Gilmore, J; Ginsburg, C M; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Göbel, F; Goers, S; Golubkov, Yu A; Goncalo, R; González, O; Göttlicher, P; Grabowska-Bold, I; Graciani, R; Grijpink, S; Grzelak, G; Gwenlan, C; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hanlon, S; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G F; Hayes, M E; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Helbich, M; Heusch, C A; Hilger, E; Hillert, S; Hirose, T; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Hughes, V W; Iacobucci, G; Iga, Y; Inuzuka, M; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Jelen, K; Jeoung, H Y; Jones, T W; Kananov, S; Kappes, A; Karshon, U; Katkov, I I; Katz, U F; Kcira, D; Kerger, R; Khein, L A; Kim, C L; Kim, J Y; Kind, O; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klimek, K; Koffeman, E; Kohno, T; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korotkova, N A; Korzhavina, I A; Kotanski, A; Kötz, U; Kowal, A M; Kowal, M; Kowalski, H; Kowalski, T; Krakauer, D A; Kreisel, A; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Labarga, L; Labes, H; Lammers, S; Lane, J B; Lee, J H; Lee, S B; Lee, S W; Lelas, D; Levchenko, B B; Levi, G; Levman, G M; Levy, A; Lightwood, M S; Lim, H; Lim, I T; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, X; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lopez-Duran Viani, A; Lukina, O Yu; Lupi, A; Ma, K J; Maddox, E; Magill, S; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Markun, P; Martens, J; Martin, J F; Martínez, M; Maselli, S; Massam, Thomas; Mastroberardino, A; Matsushita, T; Matsuzawa, K; Mattingly, M C K; McCubbin, N A; Mellado, B; Menary, S R; Metlica, F; Meyer, A; Milite, M; Miller, D B; Mindur, B; Mirea, A; Monaco, V; Moritz, M; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Nania, R; Nigro, A; Nishimura, T; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Ochs, A; Oh, B Y; Olkiewicz, K; Pac, M Y; Padhi, S; Paganis, S; Palmonari, F; Parenti, A; Park, I H; Park, S K; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Peroni, C; Pesci, A; Petrucci, M C; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Posocco, M; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Raach, H; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, I; Reeder, D D; Renner, R; Repond, J; Rigby, M; Robins, S; Rodrigues, E; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Ruske, O; Ruspa, M; Sabetfakhri, A; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Sar, G; Saull, P R B; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schagen, S; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schnurbusch, H; Sciulli, F; Scott, J; Selonke, F; Shche, L M; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smalska, B; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Solomin, A N; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Saint-Laurent, M G; Staiano, A; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stonjek, S; Stopa, P; Straub, P B; Suchkov, S; Surrow, B; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tandler, J; Tapper, A D; Tapper, R J; Tassi, E; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Tuning, N; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Umemori, K; Vázquez, M; Velthuis, J J; Vlasov, N N; Voss, K C; Walczak, R; Walker, R; Weber, A; Wessoleck, H; West, B J; Whitmore, J J; Wichmann, R; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wing, M; Wolf, G; Wölfle, S; Yamada, S; Yamashita, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Za, L; Zakrzewski, J A; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zichichi, A; Ziegler, A; Zotkin, S A; De Wolf, E; Del Peso, J

    2002-01-01

    Dijet differential cross sections for the reaction e+p -> e+ + jet + jet + X in the photoproduction regime have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 42.7 pb**{-1}. The cross sections are given for photon-proton centre-of-mass energies in the range 134 e+ Z0 X} < 5.9 pb. Upper limits on the photoproduction of new heavy resonances decaying into two jets are also presented for masses in the range between 60 GeV and 155 GeV.

  7. Mutation analysis and characterization of ATR sequence variants in breast cancer cases from high-risk French Canadian breast/ovarian cancer families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichette Roxane

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related (ATR is a member of the PIK-related family which plays, along with ATM, a central role in cell-cycle regulation. ATR has been shown to phosphorylate several tumor suppressors like BRCA1, CHEK1 and TP53. ATR appears as a good candidate breast cancer susceptibility gene and the current study was designed to screen for ATR germline mutations potentially involved in breast cancer predisposition. Methods ATR direct sequencing was performed using a fluorescent method while widely available programs were used for linkage disequilibrium (LD, haplotype analyses, and tagging SNP (tSNP identification. Expression analyses were carried out using real-time PCR. Results The complete sequence of all exons and flanking intronic sequences were analyzed in DNA samples from 54 individuals affected with breast cancer from non-BRCA1/2 high-risk French Canadian breast/ovarian families. Although no germline mutation has been identified in the coding region, we identified 41 sequence variants, including 16 coding variants, 3 of which are not reported in public databases. SNP haplotypes were established and tSNPs were identified in 73 healthy unrelated French Canadians, providing a valuable tool for further association studies involving the ATR gene, using large cohorts. Our analyses led to the identification of two novel alternative splice transcripts. In contrast to the transcript generated by an alternative splicing site in the intron 41, the one resulting from a deletion of 121 nucleotides in exon 33 is widely expressed, at significant but relatively low levels, in both normal and tumoral cells including normal breast and ovarian tissue. Conclusion Although no deleterious mutations were identified in the ATR gene, the current study provides an haplotype analysis of the ATR gene polymorphisms, which allowed the identification of a set of SNPs that could be used as tSNPs for large-scale association

  8. Study of High Mass Electron Pairs and High pT Phenomena

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment involves a modification of the apparatus used in R108, which extends the region of photon and electron detection to the entire azimuth, complementing the full azimuth charged particle detection already available. A five-fold increase in the acceptance for high mass e|+e|- pairs is thus achieved; the study of jets is also improved by extending the region of @g and @p|0 detection. An active converter consisting of lead glass and followed by a cathode strip read out MWPC is placed in front of each of the R108 lead glass arrays to improve @g/@p|0 discrimination. The modified apparatus is shown in the Figure. The specific physics aims of the experiment are: \\item 1) Search for high mass states decaying into e|+e|-. In a 3000-hour run the sensitivity is 2\\% of the @U cross-section for 10 detected events. \\item 2) Study of e|+e|- pair production above the @U mass. As well as the cross-section, the transverse momentum and rapidity distributions will be measured, providing a crucial test of QCD as appl...

  9. The High-Mass End of the Black Hole Mass Function: Mass Estimates in Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bonta', E Dalla; Corsini, E M; Miralda-Escude', J; Coccato, L; Sarzi, M; Pizzella, A; Beifiori, A

    2008-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging and spectroscopic observations of three Brightest Cluster Galaxies, Abell 1836-BCG, Abell 2052-BCG, and Abell 3565-BCG, obtained with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The data provide detailed information on the structure and mass profile of the stellar component, the dust optical depth, and the spatial distribution and kinematics of the ionized gas within the innermost region of each galaxy. Dynamical models, which account for the observed stellar mass profile and include the contribution of a central supermassive black hole (SBH), are constructed to reproduce the kinematics derived from the Halpha and [N II](lambda 6548,6583) emission lines. Secure SBH detection with M_bh=3.61(+0.41,-0.50)x10^9 M_sun and M_bh=1.34(+0.21,-0.19)x10^9 M_sun, respectively, are obtained for Abell 1836-BCG and Abell 3565-BCG, which show regular rotation curves and strong central velocity gradients. In the ...

  10. A novel approach to contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging for screening: high-resolution ultrafast dynamic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ritse M; Mus, Roel D; van Zelst, Jan; Geppert, Christian; Karssemeijer, Nico; Platel, Bram

    2014-09-01

    The use of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as screening tool has been stalled by high examination costs. Scan protocols have lengthened to optimize specificity. Modern view-sharing sequences now enable ultrafast dynamic whole-breast MRI, allowing much shorter and more cost-effective procedures. This study evaluates whether dynamic information from ultrafast breast MRI can be used to replace standard dynamic information to preserve accuracy. We interleaved 20 ultrafast time-resolved angiography with stochastic trajectory (TWIST) acquisitions (0.9 × 1 × 2.5 mm, temporal resolution, 4.3 seconds) during contrast inflow in a regular high-resolution dynamic MRI protocol. A total of 160 consecutive patients with 199 enhancing abnormalities (95 benign and 104 malignant) were included. The maximum slope of the relative enhancement versus time curve (MS) obtained from the TWIST and curve type obtained from the regular dynamic sequence as defined in the breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) lexicon were recorded. Diagnostic performance was compared using receiver operating characteristic analysis. All lesions were visible on both the TWIST and standard series. Maximum slope allows discrimination between benign and malignant disease with high accuracy (area under the curve, 0.829). Types of MS were defined in analogy to BIRADS curve types: MS type 3 implies a high risk of malignancy (MS >13.3%/s; specificity, 85%), MS type 2 yields intermediate risk (MS 6.4%/s), and MS type 1 implies a low risk (MS BIRADS curve type analysis does (area under the curve, 0.812 vs 0.692; P = 0.0061). Ultrafast dynamic breast MRI allows detection of breast lesions and classification with high accuracy using MS. This allows substantial shortening of scan protocols and hence reduces imaging costs, which is beneficial especially for screening.

  11. Determination of Trace Elements in High Purity Gold by High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hualin; HUANG Kelong; NIE Xidu; FU Liang

    2009-01-01

    Trace elements were determined in high purity gold by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(HR-ICP-MS).Sample were decomposed by aqua regia.To overcome some potentially problematic spectral interference,measurements were acquired in both medium and high resolution modes.The matrix effects due to the presence of excessive HCl and Au were evaluated.The optimum conditions for the determination was tested and discussed.The standard addition method was employed for quantitative analysis.The detection limits range from 0.01 μg/g to 0.28 μg/g depending on the elements.The method is accurate,quick and convenient.It has been applied to the determination of trace elements in high purity gold with satisfactory results.

  12. Breast cancer risk by breast density, menopause, and postmenopausal hormone therapy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlikowske, Karla; Cook, Andrea J; Buist, Diana S M; Cummings, Steve R; Vachon, Celine; Vacek, Pamela; Miglioretti, Diana L

    2010-08-20

    We determined whether the association between breast density and breast cancer risk and cancer severity differs according to menopausal status and postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) use. We collected data on 587,369 women who underwent 1,349,027 screening mammography examinations; 14,090 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. We calculated 5-year breast cancer risk from a survival model for subgroups of women classified by their Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) breast density, age, menopausal status, and current HT use, assuming a body mass index of 25 kg/m(2). Odds of advanced (ie, IIb, III, IV) versus early (ie, I, IIa) stage invasive cancer was calculated according to BIRADS density. Breast cancer risk was low among women with low density (BIRADS-1): women age 55 to 59 years, 5-year risk was 0.8% (95% CI, 0.6 to 0.9%) for non-HT users and 0.9% (95% CI, 0.7% to 1.1%) for estrogen and estrogen plus progestin users. Breast cancer risk was high among women with very high density (BIRADS-4), particularly estrogen plus progestin users: women age 55 to 59 years, 5-year risk was 2.4% (95% CI, 2.0% to 2.8%) for non-HT users, 3.0% (95% CI, 2.6% to 3.5%) for estrogen users, and 4.2% (95% CI, 3.7% to 4.6%) for estrogen plus progestin users. Advanced-stage breast cancer risk was increased 1.7-fold for postmenopausal HT u