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Sample records for high bone density

  1. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism and bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristou, Nicholaos I; Blair, Harry C; Kypreos, Kyriakos E; Papachristou, Dionysios J

    2017-05-01

    It is well appreciated that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and bone physiology and pathology are tightly linked. Studies, primarily in mouse models, have shown that dysfunctional and/or disturbed HDL can affect bone mass through many different ways. Specifically, reduced HDL levels have been associated with the development of an inflammatory microenvironment that affects the differentiation and function of osteoblasts. In addition, perturbation in metabolic pathways of HDL favors adipoblastic differentiation and restrains osteoblastic differentiation through, among others, the modification of specific bone-related chemokines and signaling cascades. Increased bone marrow adiposity also deteriorates bone osteoblastic function and thus bone synthesis, leading to reduced bone mass. In this review, we present the current knowledge and the future directions with regard to the HDL-bone mass connection. Unraveling the molecular phenomena that underline this connection will promote the deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of bone-related pathologies, such as osteoporosis or bone metastasis, and pave the way toward the development of novel and more effective therapies against these conditions. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  2. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Densitometry (DEXA) Bone densitometry, also called dual-energy ... limitations of DEXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DEXA)? Bone density scanning, also called ...

  3. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information › Bone Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your ... compared to people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine ...

  4. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ( ... is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  5. Hormone-sensitive lipase-knockout mice maintain high bone density during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Liu, Li-Fen; Patel, Shailja; Kraemer, Fredric B

    2011-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the actions of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) affect the microenvironment of the bone marrow and that removal of HSL function by gene deletion maintains high bone mass in aging mice. We compared littermate control wild-type (WT) and HSL(-/-) mice during aging for changes in serum biochemical values, trabecular bone density using micro-computed tomography, bone histomorphometry, and characteristics of primary bone marrow cells and preosteoblasts. There is a regulated expression of HSL and genes involved in lipid metabolism in the bone marrow during aging. HSL(-/-) mice have increased serum levels of insulin and osteocalcin with decreased leptin levels. Compared with the marked adipocyte infiltration in WT bone marrow (65% by area) at 14 mo, HSL(-/-) mice have fewer (16%, PHSL(-/-) mice maintain a higher bone density (bone volume/total volume 6.1%) with age than WT mice (2.6%, PHSL(-/-) mice show increased growth rates and higher osteogenic potential, manifested by increased expression of Runx2 (3.5-fold, PHSL directs cells within the bone marrow toward osteoblast differentiation and favors the maintenance of bone density with aging.

  6. Expansion of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in High Density Dot Culture of Rat Bone Marrow Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Kretlow, James D.; Zhou, Guangdong; Cao, Yilin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2014-01-01

    In vitro expansion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) remains a challenge in stem cell research and its application. We hypothesize that high density culture is able to expand EPCs from bone marrow by mimicking cell-cell interactions of the bone marrow niche. To test the hypothesis, rat bone marrow cells were either cultured in high density (2×105 cells/cm2) by seeding total 9×105 cells into six high density dots or cultured in regular density (1.6×104 cells/cm2) with the same total number of cells. Flow cytometric analyses of the cells cultured for 15 days showed that high density cells exhibited smaller cell size and higher levels of marker expression related to EPCs when compared to regular density cultured cells. Functionally, these cells exhibited strong angiogenic potentials with better tubal formation in vitro and potent rescue of mouse ischemic limbs in vivo with their integration into neo-capillary structure. Global gene chip and ELISA analyses revealed up-regulated gene expression of adhesion molecules and enhanced protein release of pro-angiogenic growth factors in high density cultured cells. In summary, high density cell culture promotes expansion of bone marrow contained EPCs that are able to enhance tissue angiogenesis via paracrine growth factors and direct differentiation into endothelial cells. PMID:25254487

  7. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  8. X-ray CT high-density artefact suppression in the presence of bones

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    Wei Jikun [School of Health Sciences, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States); Chen Laigao [BioImaging Center of Emphasis, Pfizer Global Research and Development, 2800 Plymouth RD, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Sandison, George A [School of Health Sciences, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States); Liang Yun [Department of Radiology, Indiana University Medical School, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Xu, Lisa X [School of Mechanical Engineering, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2040 (United States)

    2004-12-21

    This paper presents a novel method of reducing x-ray CT high-density artefacts generated by metal objects when abundant bone structures are present in the region of interest. This method has an advantage over previously proposed methods since it heavily suppresses the metal artefacts without introducing extra bone artefacts. The method of suppression requires that bone pixels are isolated and segmented by thresholding. Then artificial CT numbers are assigned to the bone pixels so that their projection profiles are smooth and thus can be properly simulated by a polynomial interpolation. The projection profile of the metal object is then removed to fully suppress the artefacts. The resulting processed profile is fed to a reconstruction routine and the previously preserved bone pixels added back. The new method utilizes two important features of the CT image with metal artefacts: (a) metal and bone pixels are not severely affected by the high-density artefacts and (b) the high-density artefacts can be located in specific projection channels in the profile domain, although they are spread out in the image domain. This suppression method solves the problem of CT image artefacts arising from metal objects in the body. It has the potential to greatly improve diagnostic CT imaging in the presence of these objects and treatment planning that utilizes CT for patients with metal applicators (e.g., brachytherapy for cervix cancer and prostate cryotherapy)

  9. EFFECTS OF TAEKWONDO TRAINING ON BONE MINERAL DENSITY OF HIGH SCHOOL GIRLS IN KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Young Ho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of bone fractures has increased in the current decade due to osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD, or the amount of mineralized bone, is an important determinant of risk for bone fractures. Bone mineralization is strongly stimulated by weight-bearing exercise during growth and development. Taekwondo, a Korean martial art, is a well-known form of strenuous and weight-bearing physical activity. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to determine the effects of taekwondo training on the bone health of female high school students in Korea. The secondary goal of this study was to clarify the relationships between body weight and BMD in this sample. Thirty taekwondo players (TKD and 30 sedentary high school girls (CON voluntarily participated in the present study and were split into three groups by weight: light weight (L under 51 kg; middle weight (M between 51 and under 57 kg; and heavy weight (H over 57 kg. BMD was determined from dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, and percent body fat was measured by the skin-fold method. Lumbar spine and femoral BMD were not significantly different between light, middle and heavy body weight groups. However, the average BMD in the TKD group was significantly greater than in the CON group for all lumbar spine regions (P<0.05. The results of this study suggest that taekwondo training during growth significantly improved bone health in all weight groups.

  10. Molecular Genetic Studies of Bone Mechanical Strain and of Pedigrees with Very High Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    scores. The interval mapping was performed by using a MapQTL software program (Verison 5.0; Wageningen, The Netherlands ). The threshold values for...Wageningen, The Netherlands ). The significant levels of the LOD scores used in this study were obtained by the permutation test on the studied...real time PCR analyses. Bone Histomorphometry—Both the loaded and unloaded (control) tibiae of B6 and C3H mice were removed, after euthanasia , and

  11. Effects of Radiation and a High Iron Load on Bone Mineral Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, E.; Morgan, J. L. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Gonzales, E.; Camp, K.; Smith, S. M.; Bloomfield, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts on long duration space flight missions to the moon or mars are exposed to radiation and have increase iron (Fe) stores, both of which can independently induce oxidative stress and may exacerbate bone mass loss and strength. We hypothesize a high Fe diet and a fractionated gamma radiation exposure would increase oxidative stress and lower bone mass. Three mo-old, SD rats (n=32) were randomized to receive an adequate Fe diet (45 mg Fe/kg diet) or a high Fe diet (650 mg Fe/kg diet) for 4 wks and either a cumulative 3 Gy dose (fractionated 8 x 0.375 Gy) of gamma radiation (Cs-137) or sham exposure starting on day 14. Elisa kit assessed serum catalase, clinical analyzer assessed serum Fe status and ex vivo pQCT scans measured bone parameters in the proximal/midshaft tibia and femoral neck. Mechanical strength was assessed by 3-pt bending and femoral neck test. There is a significant decrease in trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) from radiation (p less than 0.05) and a trend in diet (p=0.05) at the proximal tibia. There is a significant interaction in cortical BMD from the combined treatments at the midshaft tibia (p less than 0.05). There is a trending decrease in total BMD from diet (p=0.07) at the femoral neck. In addition, high serum Fe was correlated to low trabecular BMD (p less than 0.05) and high serum catalase was correlated to low BMD at all 3 bone sites (p less than 0.05). There was no difference in the max load of the tibia or femoral neck. Radiation and a high iron diet increases iron status and catalase in the serum and decreases BMD.

  12. Hypermineralization and High Osteocyte Lacunar Density in Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type V Bone Indicate Exuberant Primary Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Stéphane; Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Glorieux, Francis H; Roschger, Paul; Klaushofer, Klaus; Marini, Joan C; Rauch, Frank

    2017-09-01

    In contrast to "classical" forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) types I to IV, caused by a mutation in COL1A1/A2, OI type V is due to a gain-of-function mutation in the IFITM5 gene, encoding the interferon-induced transmembrane protein 5, or bone-restricted interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM)-like protein (BRIL). Its phenotype distinctly differs from OI types I to IV by absence of blue sclerae and dentinogenesis imperfecta, by the occurrence of ossification disorders such as hyperplastic callus and forearm interosseous membrane ossification. Little is known about the impact of the mutation on bone tissue/material level in untreated and bisphosphonate-treated patients. Therefore, investigations of transiliac bone biopsy samples from a cohort of OI type V children (n = 15, 8.7 ± 4 years old) untreated at baseline and a subset (n = 8) after pamidronate treatment (2.6 years in average) were performed. Quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) was used to determine bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) as well as osteocyte lacunar density. The BMDD of type V OI bone was distinctly shifted toward a higher degree of mineralization. The most frequently occurring calcium concentration (CaPeak) in cortical (Ct) and cancellous (Cn) bone was markedly increased (+11.5%, +10.4%, respectively, p V Ct and Cn bone (+171%, p V patients is hypermineralized, similar to other forms of OI. The elevated osteocyte lacunar density in connection with lack of regular bone lamellation points to an exuberant primary bone formation and an alteration of the bone remodeling process in OI type V. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  13. Spatial mapping of humeral head bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidousti, Hamidreza; Giles, Joshua W; Emery, Roger J H; Jeffers, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Short-stem humeral replacements achieve fixation by anchoring to the metaphyseal trabecular bone. Fixing the implant in high-density bone can provide strong fixation and reduce the risk of loosening. However, there is a lack of data mapping the bone density distribution in the proximal humerus. The aim of the study was to investigate the bone density in proximal humerus. Eight computed tomography scans of healthy cadaveric humeri were used to map bone density distribution in the humeral head. The proximal humeral head was divided into 12 slices parallel to the humeral anatomic neck. Each slice was then divided into 4 concentric circles. The slices below the anatomic neck, where short-stem implants have their fixation features, were further divided into radial sectors. The average bone density for each of these regions was calculated, and regions of interest were compared using a repeated-measures analysis of variance with significance set at P density was found to decrease from proximal to distal regions, with the majority of higher bone density proximal to the anatomic neck of the humerus (P density increases from central to peripheral regions, where cortical bone eventually occupies the space (P density distribution in the medial calcar region was also observed. This study indicates that it is advantageous with respect to implant fixation to preserve some bone above the anatomic neck and epiphyseal plate and to use the denser bone at the periphery. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of high-fat diet from differential dietary sources on bone mineral density, bone strength, and bone fatty acid composition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Beatrice Y; Fajardo, Val Andrew; McMeekin, Lauren; Sacco, Sandra M; Ward, Wendy E; Roy, Brian D; Peters, Sandra J; Leblanc, Paul J

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that high-fat diets adversely affect bone development. However, these studies included other dietary manipulations, including low calcium, folic acid, and fibre, and (or) high sucrose or cholesterol, and did not directly compare several common sources of dietary fat. Thus, the overall objective of this study was to investigate the effect of high-fat diets that differ in fat quality, representing diets high in saturated fatty acids (SFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or n-6 PUFA, on femur bone mineral density (BMD), strength, and fatty acid composition. Forty-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for 65 days on high-fat diets (20% by weight), containing coconut oil (SFA; n = 10), flaxseed oil (n-3 PUFA; n = 10), or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA; n = 11). Chow-fed rats (n = 10), at 105 days of age, were included to represent animals on a control diet. Rats fed high-fat diets had higher body weights than the chow-fed rats (p  0.05) or biomechanical strength properties (p > 0.05). Femurs of groups fed either the high n-3 or high n-6 PUFA diets were stronger (as measured by peak load) than those of the chow-fed group, after adjustment for significant differences in body weight (p = 0.001). As expected, the femur fatty acid profile reflected the fatty acid composition of the diet consumed. These results suggest that high-fat diets, containing high levels of PUFA in the form of flaxseed or safflower oil, have a positive effect on bone strength when fed to male rats 6 to 15 weeks of age.

  15. Reduced vertebral bone density in hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis

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    Pietschmann, F.; Breslau, N. A.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and single-photon absorptiometry were used to determine bone density at the lumbar spine and radial shaft in 62 patients with absorptive hypercalciuria, 27 patients with fasting hypercalciuria, and 31 nonhypercalciuric stone formers. Lumbar bone density was significantly lower in patients with absorptive (-10%) as well as in those with fasting hypercalciuria (-12%), with 74 and 92% of patients displaying values below the normal mean, whereas only 48% of the nonhypercalciuric stone formers had bone density values below the normal mean. In contrast, radial bone density was similar in all three groups of renal stone formers investigated. The comparison of urinary chemistry in patients with absorptive hypercalciuria and low normal bone density compared to those with high normal bone density showed a significantly increased 24 h urinary calcium excretion on random diet and a trend toward a higher 24 h urinary uric acid excretion and a higher body mass index in patients with low normal bone density. Moreover, among the patients with absorptive hypercalciuria we found a statistically significant correlation between the spinal bone density and the 24 h sodium and sulfate excretion and the urinary pH. These results gave evidence for an additional role of environmental factors (sodium and animal proteins) in the pathogenesis of bone loss in absorptive hypercalciuria. In conclusion, our data suggest an osteopenia of trabecular-rich bone tissues in patients with fasting and absorptive hypercalciurias.

  16. High bone mineral apparent density in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Brixen, K; Gram, J

    2013-01-01

    of the spine compared to femoral neck. INTRODUCTION: BMAD obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in children with XLH was evaluated, as they are unlikely to have the extra-skeletal ossifications contributing to the elevated bone mineral density of the spine in adult patients. METHODS: A total of 15...... children with biochemically and genetically verified XLH were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were performed, and to correct for the short stature (small bones), the BMAD of the spine and the femoral neck was evaluated. RESULTS: Z-scores of BMAD of the spine (mean (95 % CI); 2.0 (1.3-2.7); p ...

  17. [Modification of bone quality by extreme physical stress. Bone density measurements in high-performance athletes using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, D; Reiter, A; Pfeil, J; Güssbacher, A; Niethard, F U

    1996-01-01

    The treatment of osteoporosis is still controversial. Rehabilitation programs which stress strengthening exercises as well as impact loading activities increase the bone mass. On the other side activity level early in life has not been proven to correlate with increased bone mineral content later in life. Little is known on the influence of high performance sports on the bone density especially in athletes with high demands on weight bearing of the spine. In (n = 40) internationally top ranked high performance athletes of different disciplines (n = 28 weight-lifters, n = 6 sports-boxers and n = 6 bicycle-racers) bone density measurements of the lumbar spine and the left hip were performed. The measurements were carried out by dual-photonabsorptiometry (DEXA; QDR 2000, Siemens) and evaluated by an interactive software-programme (Hologic Inc.). The results were compared to the measurements of 21 age-matched male control individuals. In the high performance weight lifters there was an increase of bone density compared to the control individuals of 23% in the Ward's triangle (p boxers had an increase up to 17% (lumbar spine), 9% (hip) and 7% (Wards' triangle). In the third athletes group (Tour de France-bikers) BMD was decreased 10% in the lumbar spine, 14% in the hip and 17% in the Wards' triangle. Our results show that training programs stressing axial loads of the skeletal system may lead to an increase of BMD in the spine and the hip of young individuals. Other authors findings, that the BMD of endurance athletes may decrease, is confirmed. Nevertheless the bikers BMD-loss of 10 to 17% was surprisingly high.

  18. Automated simulation of areal bone mineral density assessment in the distal radius from high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Burghardt, A. J.; Kazakia, G. J.; Link, T.M.; Majumdar, S

    2009-01-01

    Summary An automated image processing method is presented for simulating areal bone mineral density measures using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in the ultra-distal radius. The accuracy of the method is validated against clinical dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This technique represents a useful reference to gauge the utility of novel 3D quantification methods applied to HR-pQCT in multi-center clinical studies and potentially negates the need for sepa...

  19. Unsaturation level decreased in bone marrow fat of postmenopausal women with low bone density using high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) (1)H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojuan; Shet, Keerthi; Xu, Kaipin; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Pino, Ana María; Kurhanewicz, John; Schwartz, Ann; Rosen, Clifford J

    2017-08-18

    There are increasing evidences suggesting bone marrow adiposity tissue (MAT) plays a critical role in affecting both bone quantity and quality. However, very limited studies that have investigated the association between the composition of MAT and bone mineral density (BMD). The goal of this study was to quantify MAT unsaturation profile of marrow samples from post-menopausal women using ex vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy, and to investigate the relationship between MAT composition and BMD. Bone marrow samples were obtained by iliac crest aspiration during surgical procedures from 24 postmenopausal women (65-89years) who had hip surgery due to bone fracture or arthroplasty. Marrow fat composition parameters, in particular, unsaturation level (UL), mono-unsaturation level (MUL) and saturation level (SL), were quantified using HRMAS (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The patients were classified into three groups based on the DXA BMD T-scores: controls, osteopenia and osteoporosis. Marrow fat composition was compared between these three groups as well as between subjects with and without factures using ANOCOVA, adjusted for age. Subjects with lower BMD (n=17) had significantly lower MUL (P=0.003) and UL (P=0.039), and significantly higher SL (P=0.039) compared to controls (n=7). When separating lower BMD into osteopenia (n=9) and osteoporosis (n=8) groups, subjects with osteopenia had significantly lower MUL (P=0.002) and UL (P=0.010), and significantly higher SL (P=0.010) compared to healthy controls. No significant difference was observed between subjects with osteopenia and osteoporosis. Using HRMAS (1)H NMR, significantly lower unsaturation and significantly higher saturation levels were observed in the marrow fat of subjects with lower BMD. HRMAS (1)H NMR was shown to be a powerful tool for identifying novel MR markers of marrow fat composition that are associated with bone quality and potentially

  20. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva;

    2003-01-01

    Leptin has been suggested to decrease bone mineral density (BMD). This observational analysis explored the relationship between serum leptin and BMD in 327 nonobese men (controls) (body mass index 26.1 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), age 49.9 +/- 6.0 yr) and 285 juvenile obese men (body mass index 35.9 +/- 5.9 kg...

  1. High-density polytetrafluoroethylene membranes in guided bone and tissue regeneration procedures: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, J M; Martín, I Sanz; Santos, A; Pujol, A; Sanz-Moliner, J D; Nart, J

    2014-01-01

    Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) has been used successfully as a membrane barrier for regeneration procedures. However, when exposed to the oral cavity, its high porosity increases the risk of early infection, which can affect surgical outcomes. An alternative to e-PTFE is non-expanded and dense polytetrafluoroethylene (n-PFTE), which results in lower levels of early infection following surgical procedures. The aim of this literature review was to analyze and describe the available literature on n-PFTE, report the indications for use, advantages, disadvantages, surgical protocols, and complications. The medical databases Medline-PubMed and Cochrane Library were searched and supplemented with a hand search for reports published between 1980 and May 2012 on n-PTFE membranes. The search strategy was limited to animal, human, and in vitro studies in dental journals published in English. Twenty-four articles that analyzed the use of n-PTFE as a barrier membrane for guided tissue regeneration and guided bone regeneration around teeth and implants were identified: two in vitro studies, seven experimental studies, and 15 clinical studies. There is limited clinical and histological evidence for the use of n-PTFE membranes at present, with some indications in guided tissue regeneration and guided bone regeneration in immediate implants and fresh extraction sockets.

  2. THE ROLE OF HIGH - IMPACTS EXERCISES IN IMPROVE BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH OSTEOPENIA OR OSTEOPOROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilinca Ilona

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The aim of this study was to examine the effect of high - impacts exercises program based on weightbearing and strengthening exercises in improve bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis.Material and Methods – This study included 46 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia whose diagnoses were made by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA showing T-scores of less than -2.5 and in a range of -1 to -2.5, respectively, aged between 43 and 65 years. Subjects were divided into two groups, the experimental group (N=23 and the control group (N=23.The experimental group followed a multiple therapy based on medication, a diet and exercises program (high - impacts exercises, while the control group was submitted only to diet and medication. Areal bone mineral density (BMD and T-score was measured on the lumbar spine (L1–L4 with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry– DEXA ( Osteocore Medilink at baseline and after 12 months of exercise.Results - After 12 months of high-impact exercise intervention, both groups exhibited significant improvements in T-score (-0,79 vs -0,42 mean variation, and bone mineral density in lumbar spine (0,091g/cm2 vs 0,042g/cm2 ; p<0.001. But, the exercise group demonstrated a significant gain compared with the control group in T- score(30,3% vs 21,83%; and Spine BMD (12,56% vs 6,25%.In terms of changes after the treatment, a significant difference between the two groups was observed (p<0.001. The two groups differ significantly with respect to the differences between the mean (-1,84 vs -2,19; p<0.001 for T score and 0,816 vs 0,748; p<0.001 improvements obtained after the exercise program.Conclusion - This study indicates that high-impact exercise is safe and effective in improving bone mineral density in the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis. If done on a regular basis, this type of training may be an efficient, safe, and inexpensive way

  3. Bone mineral density changes in protease inhibitor-sparing vs. nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing highly active antiretroviral therapy: data from a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Obel, N; Nielsen, H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare changes in bone mineral density (BMD) over 144 weeks in HIV-infected patients initiating nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-sparing or protease inhibitor-sparing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).......The aim of the study was to compare changes in bone mineral density (BMD) over 144 weeks in HIV-infected patients initiating nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-sparing or protease inhibitor-sparing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)....

  4. Bone mineral density in patients on maintenance dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, Csaba; Marton, Adrienn; Nemeth, Zsofia Klara; Mucsi, Istvan

    2010-09-01

    Disorders of bone and mineral metabolism affect almost all patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). High prevalence of decreased bone mineral density has been reported in this population; however, the role and diagnostic utility of bone density measurements are not well established. The incidence of bone fractures is high in patients with ESRD, but the association between fractures and bone density is not obvious. A recent meta-analysis suggested that decreased density at the radius might be associated with higher overall fracture risk. Changes in bone mineral density reflect several underlying pathological processes, such as vitamin D deficiency, estrogen deficiency and changes in bone turnover. The response of bone to these factors and processes is not uniform: it can vary in different compartments of the same bone or in different bones of the skeleton. Therefore, it is important to differentiate between the various types of bone. This may be possible by proper selection of the measurement site or using methods such as quantitative bone computed tomography. Previous studies used different methods and measured bone mineral density at diverse sites of the skeleton, which makes the comparison of their results very difficult. The association between changes in bone mineral metabolism and cardiovascular mortality is well known in ESRD patients. Studies also suggest that low bone density itself might be an indicator for high risk of cardiovascular events and poor overall outcome in this population. Some of the risk factors of low bone mineral density, such as vitamin D or estrogen deficiency, are potentially modifiable. Further studies are needed to elucidate if interventions modifying these risk factors will have an impact on clinical outcomes. In this review, we discuss the options for and problems of assessment of bone density and summarize the literature about factors associated with low bone density and its link to clinical outcomes in patients on

  5. High density infill in cracks and protrusions from the articular calcified cartilage in osteoarthritis in standardbred horse carpal bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Sheila; Lacourt, Mathieu; Gao, Chan; Henderson, Janet E; Boyde, Alan

    2015-04-28

    We studied changes in articular calcified cartilage (ACC) and subchondral bone (SCB) in the third carpal bones (C3) of Standardbred racehorses with naturally-occurring repetitive loading-induced osteoarthritis (OA). Two osteochondral cores were harvested from dorsal sites from each of 15 post-mortem C3 and classified as control or as showing early or advanced OA changes from visual inspection. We re-examined X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) image sets for the presence of high-density mineral infill (HDMI) in ACC cracks and possible high-density mineralized protrusions (HDMP) from the ACC mineralizing (tidemark) front (MF) into hyaline articular cartilage (HAC). We hypothesized and we show that 20-µm µCT resolution in 10-mm diameter samples is sufficient to detect HDMI and HDMP: these are lost upon tissue decalcification for routine paraffin wax histology owing to their predominant mineral content. The findings show that µCT is sufficient to discover HDMI and HDMP, which were seen in 2/10 controls, 6/9 early OA and 8/10 advanced OA cases. This is the first report of HDMI and HDMP in the equine carpus and in the Standardbred breed and the first to rely solely on µCT. HDMP are a candidate cause for mechanical tissue destruction in OA.

  6. High Density Infill in Cracks and Protrusions from the Articular Calcified Cartilage in Osteoarthritis in Standardbred Horse Carpal Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Laverty

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied changes in articular calcified cartilage (ACC and subchondral bone (SCB in the third carpal bones (C3 of Standardbred racehorses with naturally-occurring repetitive loading-induced osteoarthritis (OA. Two osteochondral cores were harvested from dorsal sites from each of 15 post-mortem C3 and classified as control or as showing early or advanced OA changes from visual inspection. We re-examined X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT image sets for the presence of high-density mineral infill (HDMI in ACC cracks and possible high-density mineralized protrusions (HDMP from the ACC mineralizing (tidemark front (MF into hyaline articular cartilage (HAC. We hypothesized and we show that 20-µm µCT resolution in 10-mm diameter samples is sufficient to detect HDMI and HDMP: these are lost upon tissue decalcification for routine paraffin wax histology owing to their predominant mineral content. The findings show that µCT is sufficient to discover HDMI and HDMP, which were seen in 2/10 controls, 6/9 early OA and 8/10 advanced OA cases. This is the first report of HDMI and HDMP in the equine carpus and in the Standardbred breed and the first to rely solely on µCT. HDMP are a candidate cause for mechanical tissue destruction in OA.

  7. Plasma Treated High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE Medpor Implant Immobilized with rhBMP-2 for Improving the Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Su Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the bone generation capacity of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 immobilized Medpor surface through acrylic acid plasma-polymerization. Plasma-polymerization was carried out at a 20 W at an acrylic acid flow rate of 7 sccm for 5 min. The plasma-polymerized Medpor surface showed hydrophilic properties and possessed a high density of carboxyl groups. The rhBMP-2 was immobilized with covalently attached carboxyl groups using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide. Carboxyl groups and rhBMP-2 immobilization on the Medpor surface were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The activity of Medpor with rhBMP-2 immobilized was examined using an alkaline phosphatase assay on MC3T3-E1 cultured Medpor. These results showed that the rhBMP-2 immobilized Medpor increased the level of MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation. These results demonstrated that plasma surface modification has the potential to immobilize rhBMP-2 on polymer implant such as Medpor and can be used for the binding of bioactive nanomolecules in bone tissue engineering.

  8. EFFECTS OF SPORTS AND SCIENCE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ SPORTS ACTIVITY LEVELS ON BODY COMPOSITION AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Aykut AYSAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, effects of sports and science high school students’ sports activity levels on their body composition and bone development level were investigated. Material and Method: A total of 59 participants were voluntarily included in the study in which 29 people were the experimental group from Elazıg Kaya Karakaya Sports High School with a mean age of 17.10±1.25 (years and 30 people were the control group fr om Diyarbakır RekabetKurumu High School with a mean age of 17.70±1.67 (years . Sports activity of Sports High school students was found to include (in the first two years 384 hours, a total of 1088 hours in four years and sports activity of science high s chool students was found to include ( in the first 2 years 94, a total of 158 hours in four years. Those who had any disease that could have an effect on their bone mineral density and body compositions were not included in the study. Height and weight w ere measure with standardSecaStadiometre . Body Mass Index (BMI, Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR, Body Fat Percentage (BFP, Body Fat Mass (BFM, Fat - Free Body Mass (FBM, Total Body Water (TBW , which constitute body composition and are accepted as sub parame ters, were measured with Bioelectrical Impedance Analyser (BIA - Tanita BC 418 . Bone densitometry device (DEXA; Hologic Discovery 4500 QDR was used in the measurements of bone mineral density. SPSS 16.0 was used in the process of the raw data obtained and T - Test was applied for independent samples. Findings : HEIGHT, WEIGHT, BMI, BMR, %BFP, BFM, FBM, TBW measured mean values of the E xperimental group are 171.62±7.078 (cm, 58.88±8.679 (kg, 19.89±1.745 (kg/m², 3435.6 ± 2660.55 (kcal, 13.64±2.446 (%,8.100± 2.150 (kg, 50.81±7.165 (kg respectively. HEIGHT, WEIGHT, BMI, BMR, %BFP, BFM, FBM, TBW measured mean values of the Control group are 170.21±8.514 (cm, 59.77±9.749 (kg, 19.63±1.439 (kg/m², 2362.85 ± 2010.71 (kcal, 13.83±2.556 (%, 8.048±1.708 (kg, 5 0

  9. [Effect of high impact movements on body composition, strength and bone mineral density on women over 60 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Villada, Jhon F; León-Ariza, Henry H; Argüello-Gutiérrez, Yenny P; Porras-Ramírez, Keyla A

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterised by loss of bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue microarchitecture that leads to fragility related to the risk of fractures. The aim of the study is to analyse the effects of a training program based on explosive movements and impact, assessed in a swimming pool, on body composition, explosive strength and bone mineral density in women over 60 years old. A total of 35 healthy physically active women (60±4.19 years) were divided into a training pool group using multi jumps (JG) and a control group (CG). JG trained for 24 weeks, 3 times a week, an hour and a half per session. Body composition testing, explosive strength, and bone mineral density were assessed before and after the program. There were differences in the explosive force (JG vs CG=P<.05 to .001) and the estimated power (JG vs CG=P<.05 to .002) between JG vs CG, with significant increases in JG. There were no significant differences in the percentage of fat and lean mass, bone mineral density lumbar and femoral between groups, although slightly significant increases in bone mineral density lumbar and femoral could be seen in JG after program implementation (JG pre-test vs JG post- test=P<.05). The training program with impact and explosive movements assessed in a pool induces gains in muscle strength and power with slight adaptations in body mass index in women over 60 years. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Bone mineral density in female high school athletes: interactions of menstrual function and type of mechanical loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jeanne F; Rauh, Mitchell J; Barrack, Michelle T; Barkai, Hava-Shoshana

    2007-09-01

    During adolescence, skeletal integrity of girls is largely dependent on menstrual function and impact exercise, yet currently there is limited research regarding the interaction between menstrual status and type of mechanical loading associated with various high school sports. Our purpose was to examine associations of menstrual status, type of mechanical loading, and bone mineral density (BMD) in female high school athletes participating in high/odd impact or repetitive/non-impact sport. Participants were 161 female high school athletes (15.7+/-1.3 years; 165.3+/-6.9 cm; 59.4+/-8.7 kg) representing high/odd impact (n=93, including soccer, softball, volleyball, tennis, lacrosse, and track sprinters and jumpers), or repetitive/non-impact sports (n=68, including swimmers, cross-country and track distance runners who participated in events>or=800 m). Areal BMD was measured by DXA at the spine (L1-L4), proximal femur, and total body. Menstrual status was determined by self-report. Athletes with primary, secondary or oligomenorrhea were combined into a single group (oligo/amenorrheic) and compared to eumenorrheic athletes. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with Bonferroni post hoc comparisons adjusted for age, BMI, and gynecological age were used to compare BMD of athletes in combined mechanical loading and menstrual status groups. We found significantly greater total hip (p=0.04) and trochanter (p=0.02) BMD (g cm(-2)) among eumenorrheic high/odd impact compared to eumenorrheic repetitive/non-impact athletes, and greater spine (p=0.01) and trochanter (p=0.04) BMD among high/odd impact eumenorrheic athletes compared to repetitive/non-impact oligo/amenorrheic athletes. Chi-squared analysis of BMD Z-scores adjusted for gynecological age showed a significantly greater percentage of repetitive/non-impact athletes (33.9%) compared to high/odd impact athletes (11.8%) with low spine BMD for their age (BMD Z-scoresports, and especially those with oligo/amenorrhea, may not be

  11. Fabrication and materials properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) hybrid bone plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sun Young; Youn, Min Ho; Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Park, Jong Seok; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Biphasic calcium phosphate-reinforced high-density polyethylene (BCP/HDPE) hybrid composite is a new orthopedic biomaterial, which was made to simulate a natural bone composition. Calcium phosphate systems and HDPE hybrid composites have been used in biomedical applications without any inflammatory response. Differences in natural bone of both materials have motivated the use of coupling agents to improve their interfacial interfacial interactions. The composites were prepared using medical grade BCP powder and granular polyethylene. This material was produced by replacing the mineral component and collagen soft tissue of the bone with BCP and HDPE, respectively. As expected, increased volume fraction of either reinforcement type over 0 {approx} 50 vol.% resulted in a increased Vickers hardness and Young's modulus. Thus, BCP particle-reinforced HDPE composites possessed improved material and mechanical properties. BCP particles-reinforced composites were anisotropic due to an alignment of the particles in the matrix during a processing. On the other hand, bending and tensile strength was dramatically changed in the matrix. To change the material and mechanical properties of HDPE/BCP composites, the process of a blending was used, and its effect on the microstructure and mechanical proprieties of HDPE/BCP composites were investigated by means of FT-IR/ATR spectroscopy, XRD, FE-SEM, Vickers Hardness Testing Machine, Universal Testing Machine, Mercury Porosimeter and Ultrasonic Flaw Detector at room temperature. For the evaluation of the cell viability and proliferation onto the external surface of HDPE/BCP hybrid plates with a HaCaT cell line, which is a multipotent cell line able to differentiate towards different phenotypes under the action of biological factors, has been evaluated with in vitro studies and quantified by colormetric assays. These findings indicate that the HDPE/BCP hybrid plates are biocompatible and non-toxic.

  12. LOW MINERAL DENSITY OF A WEIGHT-BEARING BONE AMONG ADULT WOMEN IN A HIGH FERTILITY POPULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Jonathan; Beheim, Bret A.; Trumble, Benjamin C.; Madimenos, Felicia C.; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging posit that greater reproductive effort causes somatic decline given a fundamental trade-off between investing energy in reproduction and repair. Few studies in high fertility human populations support this hypothesis, and problems of phenotypic correlation can obscure the expected trade-off between reproduction and somatic condition. This cross-sectional study investigates whether greater reproductive effort is associated with reduced calcaneal bone mineral density (BMD) among female Tsimane forager-farmers of lowland Bolivia. We also investigate whether female Tsimane BMD values are lower than sex- and age-matched US reference values, despite the fact that Tsimane engage in higher physical activity levels that can increase mechanical loading. To measure calcaneal BMD, quantitative ultrasonography was performed on 130 women (mean ± SD age = 36.6 ± 15.7, range = 15 – 75) that were recruited regardless of past or current reproductive status. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected during routine medical exams. As predicted, higher parity, short inter-birth interval, and earlier age at first birth are associated with reduced BMD among Tsimane women after adjusting for potential confounders. Population-level differences are apparent prior to the onset of reproduction, and age-related decline in BMD is greater among Tsimane compared to American women. Greater cumulative reproductive burden may lower calcaneal BMD individually and jointly with other lifestyle and heritable factors. Fitness impacts of kin transfers in adulthood may determine the value of investments in bone remodeling, and thus affect selection on age-profiles of bone mineral loss. PMID:25488367

  13. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M.; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Leptin has been suggested to decrease bone mineral density (BMD). This observational analysis explored the relationship between serum leptin and BMD in 327 nonobese men (controls) (body mass index 26.1 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), age 49.9 +/- 6.0 yr) and 285 juvenile obese men (body mass index 35.9 +/- 5.9 kg....../m(2), age 47.5 +/- 5.1 yr). Whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan measured BMD, fat mass, and lean mass. Fasting serum leptin (nanograms per milliliter) was strongly associated with fat mass (kilograms) in both controls (r = 0.876; P ....001). An inverse relation between BMD adjusted for body weight and serum leptin emerged in both the control group (r = -0.186; P

  14. Effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on bone density in youth with osteogenesis imperfecta: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Laura; Veilleux, Louis-Nicolas; Glorieux, Francis H; Weiler, Hope; Rauch, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable condition characterized by fragile bones. Our previous studies indicated that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations were positively associated with lumbar spine areal bone mineral density (LS-aBMD) in children and adolescents with OI. Here we assessed whether one year of high-dose vitamin D supplementation results in higher LS-aBMD z-scores in youth with OI. A one-year double-blind randomized controlled trial conducted at a pediatric orthopedic hospital in Montreal, Canada. Sixty patients (age: 6.0 to 18.9years; 35 female) were randomized in equal numbers to receive either 400 or 2000international units (IU) of vitamin D, stratified according to baseline bisphosphonate treatment status and pubertal stage. At baseline, the average serum 25OHD concentration was 65.6nmol/L (SD 20.4) with no difference between treatment groups (p=0.77); 21% of patients had results <50nmol/L. Vitamin D supplementation was associated with higher serum 25OHD concentrations in 90% of participants. The increase in mean 25OHD was significantly higher (p=0.02) in the group receiving 2000IU of vitamin D (mean [95% CI]=30.5nmol/L [21.3; 39.6]) than in the group receiving 400IU (15.2nmol/L [6.4; 24.1]). No significant differences in LS-aBMD z-score changes were detected between treatment groups. Thus, supplementation with vitamin D at 2000IU increased serum 25OHD concentrations in children with OI more than supplementation with 400IU. However, in this study where about 80% of participants had baseline serum 25OHD concentrations ≥50nmol/L, this difference had no detectable effect on LS-aBMD z-scores.

  15. Effect of office-based brief high-impact exercise on bone mineral density in healthy premenopausal women: the Sendai Bone Health Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kaijun; Ahola, Riikka; Guo, Hui; Korpelainen, Raija; Uchimaru, Jin; Vainionpää, Aki; Sato, Kyoko; Sakai, Aiko; Salo, Sinikka; Kishimoto, Koshi; Itoi, Eiji; Komatsu, Shoko; Jämsä, Timo; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2010-09-01

    Although there is ample evidence supporting the effectiveness of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, there are no previous studies to examine the effect of office-based brief high-impact exercise (HIE) on bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy premenopausal women. This study evaluated the effects of office-based HIE on BMD in healthy premenopausal Japanese women. Ninety-one healthy premenopausal women were randomized to receive stretching exercise (SE) or HIE (stretching, along with up to 5 × 10 vertical and versatile jumps) for 12 months. The BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Several cardiovascular risk factors and leg strength also were assessed. An accelerometer-based recorder was used to measure daily impact loading in four 1-week samples. The progression of the HIE program was ensured by the accelerometer. Thirty-three women (71.7%) in the SE group and 34 (75.6%) in the HIE group completed the study. There was a significant difference in the change in the femoral neck BMD between the groups in favor of the HIE group [0.6% (95% CI: -0.4, 1.7) vs. -1.0% (95% CI: -2.2, 0.2)]. Adiponectin, LDL, HDL, and the leg strength of participants in both the groups improved during the intervention. These finding suggested that office-based brief HIE can be recommended for premenopausal women for preventing bone mineral loss.

  16. Bone density and its importance in orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Tina; Jain, Abhay Kumar; Jaiswal, Raj Kumar; Mehrotra, Praveen; Mehrotra, Rachita

    2013-01-01

    Background Researchers have generally focused on tissue reactions occurring within the periodontal ligament and bone to find possible explanation for various clinical phenomena, with less attention being paid to the inherent bone density. Recently, regional differences in jaw anatomy and bone structure including bone density have become important issue to explain some of the variation in clinical practice with respect to tooth movement, implant success rate, anchorage loss etc. Materials and methods The intent of this review is to discuss various methods and classification proposed to determine bone density in particular area and its importance in field of orthodontia. Various clinical studies and research done in relation to bone density were searched using PubMed. Results and conclusion This review endeavours to compile the research of bone density in maxilla and mandible. Many clinical studies have demonstrated relation between bone density and various clinical phenomena in dentistry. Knowledge of bone density in particular area of oral cavity may help the clinician to plan proper site for implant placement and various anchorage augmentation techniques in order to increase success rate of the treatment. PMID:25737892

  17. The association between high plasma homocysteine levels and lower bone mineral density in Slovak women: the impact of vegetarian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivosíková, Zora; Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, Marica; Spustová, Viera; Stefíková, Kornélia; Valachovicová, Martina; Blazícek, Pavel; Nĕmcová, Tatiana

    2010-04-01

    A long-term vegetarian diet is generally poor in vitamin B group. The lack of vitamin B(12) together with vitamin B(6) and folate deficiency is closely related to homocysteine metabolism. Hyperhomocysteinemia was found to be associated with increased bone turnover markers and increased fracture risk. Thus, hyperhomocysteinemia, vitamin B(12) and folate deficiency may be regarded as novel risk factors for micronutrient deficiency-related osteoporosis. To assess the possible impact of a vegetarian diet on bone mineral density in cohort of Slovak vegetarian women. Fasting serum glucose, albumin, calcium, phosphorous and creatinine as well as bone markers, serum vitamin B(12), folate and plasma levels of total homocysteine were assessed in two nutritional groups (vegetarians vs. nonvegetarians) of apparently healthy women (age range 20-70 years). Bone mineral density of the femoral neck, trochanter, total femur and lumbar spine was measured in all subjects. Vegetarians had a significantly lower weight (p vegetarian food intake (p Vegetarians had a significantly lower TrFBMD (p vegetarian diet seem to be at higher risk of osteoporosis development than nonvegetarian women.

  18. Prevention of liver fibrosis by intrasplenic injection of high-density cultured bone marrow cells in a rat chronic liver injury model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Lian

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs from bone marrow have proven to be functional for the prevention of liver fibrosis in chronic liver injury. However, expansion of EPCs in culture is complicated and expansive. Previously, we have established a simple method that could enrich and expand EPCs by simple seeding bone marrow cells in high density dots. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether cells derived from high-density (HD culture of rat bone marrow cells could prevent the liver fibrosis in a chronic liver injury rat model, induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. Flow cytometric analysis showed that cells from HD culture were enriched for EPCs, expressing high levels of EPC markers. Intrasplenic injection of HD cultured bone marrow cells in the CCl4-induced liver injury rat showed an enhanced antifibrogenic effect compared with animals treated with cells from regular-density culture. The antifibrogenic effect was demonstrated by biochemical and histological analysis 4 weeks post-transplantation. Furthermore, cells from HD culture likely worked through increasing neovascularization, stimulating liver cell proliferation, and suppressing pro-fibrogenic factor expression. HD culture, which is a simple and cost-effective procedure, could potentially be used to expand bone marrow cells for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  19. Physical activity and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Bojan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The bones play an important structural role in the organism. They provide mobility, support, and protect the body, and the place where the storage essential minerals. Healthy bones have a crucial impact on the overall health of a person, and activities that promote health and preventive influence on the formation of bone disease are crucial in maintaining a strong and healthy skeletal system. Physical inactivity affects the decrease in function of bone, and the most common disease of bone osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder that results in low bone density and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue, that results in less bone density, and may lead to fracture. Physical activity is essential for bone health and prevention of osteoporosis. Based on available information, the best effect to maintain and stimulate the formation of bone mineral density is a combination of dynamic exercises with resistance training that engage multiple joints, large muscle groups, and have influence on the spine and hips. The results suggest that exercises with axial loading, such as running, jumping, and power exercise, promote the positive gains in bone mineral density. Therefore, training should focus on the adaptation of specific parts of the body that is most susceptible to injury, and should be sufficiently intense that exceeds the normal loads.

  20. Bone mineral density changes in protease inhibitor-sparing vs. nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing highly active antiretroviral therapy: data from a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ab; Obel, N; Nielsen, Henrik Ib

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to compare changes in bone mineral density (BMD) over 144 weeks in HIV-infected patients initiating nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-sparing or protease inhibitor-sparing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods Sixty-three HAART...

  1. Bisphophonates in CKD Patients with Low Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chih Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD have a high risk of bone fracture because of low bone mineral density and poor bone quality. Osteoporosis also features low bone mass, disarranged microarchitecture, and skeletal fragility, and differentiating between osteoporosis and CKD-MBD in low bone mineral density is a challenge and usually achieved by bone biopsy. Bisphosphonates can be safe and beneficial for patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 30 mL/min or higher, but prescribing bisphosphonates in advanced CKD requires caution because of the increased possibility of low bone turnover disorders such as osteomalacia, mixed uremic osteodystrophy, and adynamic bone, even aggravating hyperparathyroidism. Therefore, bone biopsy in advanced CKD is an important consideration before prescribing bisphosphonates. Treatment also may induce hypocalcemia in CKD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, but vitamin D supplementation may ameliorate this effect. Bisphosphonate treatment can improve both bone mineral density and vascular calcification, but the latter becomes more unlikely in patients with stage 3-4 CKD with vascular calcification but no decreased bone mineral density. Using bisphosphonates requires considerable caution in advanced CKD, and the lack of adequate clinical investigation necessitates more studies regarding its effects on these patients.

  2. High prevalence of low bone mineral density in patients within 10 years of onset of ankylosing spondylitis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weijden, M A C; Claushuis, T A M; Nazari, T; Lems, W F; Dijkmans, B A C; van der Horst-Bruinsma, I E

    2012-11-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease. Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) is a common complication of AS, with a prevalence range of 19 to 62 %. Many studies have shown decreased BMD in AS with long disease duration, but only a few studies investigated BMD in early AS. The prevalence of decreased BMD in early disease stages of AS has not yet been clearly described, and for that reason, we reviewed the literature which describes the prevalence of decreased BMD in AS patients with a short disease duration (articles which used the modified New York criteria for the diagnosis of AS, included patients with a disease duration of less than 10 years, and used the WHO criteria for osteopenia and osteoporosis. Decreased BMD was defined as a T score articles that acquired BMD data of lumbar spine and femoral neck by DXA were used. The literature search provided us 35 articles of which 7 matched all our criteria, and they will be further outlined in this review. The overall prevalence of decreased BMD of the articles reviewed is 54 % (n = 229/424) for lumbar spine and 51 % (n = 224/443) for femoral neck. The prevalence of osteopenia vs. osteoporosis for lumbar spine is 39 vs. 16 % and for femoral neck, 38 vs. 13 %. This review showed a high total prevalence of 51-54 % decreased BMD and 13-16 % osteoporosis in AS with a short disease duration. This high prevalence was not to be expected in a relatively young and predominantly male population. Further research is needed to determine the clinical relevance of this low BMD by investigating the relation between low BMD and vertebral and nonvertebral fractures at this early stage in AS.

  3. Dietary boron does not affect tooth strength, micro-hardness, and density, but affects tooth mineral composition and alveolar bone mineral density in rabbits fed a high-energy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakki, Sema S; SiddikMalkoc; Dundar, Niyazi; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Hakki, Erdogan E; Hamurcu, Mehmet; Baspinar, Nuri; Basoglu, Abdullah; Nielsen, Forrest H; Götz, Werner

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary boron (B) affects the strength, density and mineral composition of teeth and mineral density of alveolar bone in rabbits with apparent obesity induced by a high-energy diet. Sixty female, 8-month-old, New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned for 7 months into five groups as follows: (1) control 1, fed alfalfa hay only (5.91 MJ/kg and 57.5 mg B/kg); (2) control 2, high energy diet (11.76 MJ and 3.88 mg B/kg); (3) B10, high energy diet + 10 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (4) B30, high energy diet + 30 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (5) B50, high energy diet + 50 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h. Maxillary incisor teeth of the rabbits were evaluated for compression strength, mineral composition, and micro-hardness. Enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp tissue were examined histologically. Mineral densities of the incisor teeth and surrounding alveolar bone were determined by using micro-CT. When compared to controls, the different boron treatments did not significantly affect compression strength, and micro-hardness of the teeth, although the B content of teeth increased in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to control 1, B50 teeth had decreased phosphorus (P) concentrations. Histological examination revealed that teeth structure (shape and thickness of the enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp) was similar in the B-treated and control rabbits. Micro CT evaluation revealed greater alveolar bone mineral density in B10 and B30 groups than in controls. Alveolar bone density of the B50 group was not different than the controls. Although the B treatments did not affect teeth structure, strength, mineral density and micro-hardness, increasing B intake altered the mineral composition of teeth, and, in moderate amounts, had beneficial effects on surrounding alveolar bone.

  4. Comparison of high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for measuring bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colt, E; Akram, M; Pi Sunyer, F X

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the measurement of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with the measurement of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) by high-resolution peripheral computerized tomography (HR-pQCT) in subjects with a wide range of body mass indices (BMI). We scanned the arms and legs of 49 premenopausal women, aged 21-45 years, with BMI from 18.5 to 46.5, by HR-pQCT and found that there was a nonsignificant change in vBMD associated with increased BMI, whereas aBMD (DXA) was associated with a positive significant increase. HR-pQCT scans a slice at the extremity of the tibia and radius, whereas DXA scans the entire leg and arm. The correlation coefficients (r) of BMD (DXA) of the legs with BMI were 0.552, PD100) of legs and arms measured by HR-pQCT with BMI, W and %fat were not significant. Although HR-pQCT and DXA scan different parts of the bone, the high r of BMD with BMI and low r of bone density measured by HR-pQCT with BMI suggest that BMD measured by DXA is artifactually increased in the presence of obesity.

  5. Short-term, high-dose glucocorticoid treatment does not contribute to reduced bone mineral density in patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, A; Oturai, Ditte Bang; Sørensen, P S;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density (BMD). A contributing factor might be treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids (GCs). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper is to assess bone mass in patients with MS and evaluate the importa......BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density (BMD). A contributing factor might be treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids (GCs). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper is to assess bone mass in patients with MS and evaluate...... the importance of short-term, high-dose GC treatment and other risk factors that affect BMD in patients with MS. METHODS: A total of 260 patients with MS received short-term high-dose GC treatment and had their BMD measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. BMD was compared to a healthy age-matched reference...... population (Z-scores). Data regarding GCs, age, body mass index (BMI), serum 25(OH)D, disease duration and severity were collected retrospectively and analysed in a multiple linear regression analysis to evaluate the association between each risk factor and BMD. RESULTS: Osteopenia was present in 38...

  6. Normal bone mineral density in cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hardin, D.; R. Arumugam; Seilheimer, D.; Leblanc, A.; Ellis, K.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Osteoporosis has been reported as a complication of cystic fibrosis (CF).
AIMS—To measure bone mineral density (BMD) in non-acutely ill adults and bone mineral content (BMC) in children with CF.
METHODS—We analysed data from 28 adults and 13 children with CF. Corticosteroid use was minimal for the year prior to study in both groups. Dual x ray absorptiometry was used to measure total body and regional bone mineral density in adults. In children, whole body BMC was...

  7. Bone density in patients with chondromalacia patella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Iraj; Khazaeli, Shabnam; Hatami, Parta; Malekpour, Mahdi

    2010-06-01

    Chondromalacia of the patella is the most common cause of anterior knee pain in young women. The etiology of the disease is not well-understood but the initial lesion is a disorganization of collagenous structures. Since the disease is proposed to be due to generalized constitutional disturbance, we postulated that bony structures could also be involved. To investigate this hypothesis we measured the bone density of 286 patients with the diagnosis of chondromalacia of the patella during a 4-year period using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method. We found a significant number of patients having low bone densities. This problem was more pronounced in men and in younger age groups. We suggest base-line bone density evaluation in all patients, treatment of osteopenia or osteoporosis in select patients and regular follow-ups using DXA.

  8. Exercise Training and Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Timothy G.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of exercise on total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women is reviewed. Studies on non-estrogen-replete postmenopausal women show 1-2% changes in regional BMD with 1 year of weight-bearing exercises. Studies of exercise training in the estrogen-replete postmenopausal population suggest large BMD changes.…

  9. Bone Mineral Density in Thalassemia Major Patients from Antalya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Aslan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We assessed the bone mineral density and related parameters in nine adults, thirty-eight pubertal, prepubertal totally forty-seven patients with thalassemia major living in Antalya, Turkey. Materials and Methods. We measured height and pubertal staging in last five years by six-month intervals. Average ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations were calculated for last three years. The levels of hydroxyproline, calcium, phosphorus, and creatinine were measured in 24 h urine, and those of parathormone, IGF 1, osteocalcine, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, ionized calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, creatine, blood glucose, thyroid stimulating hormone, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase were determined in serum, and also the bone mineral density was measured. Results. The average L1–L4 bone mass density was 27.1±10.1 g cm−2; the average bone mineral content was 0.65 ± 0.11 g. of the patients with a Z-score under 2.5. A moderate relationship was found between the bone mass density age and height. Subjects in low pubertal staging and short stature (<3% percentile have significantly lower bone mass densities P<0.001. Conclusion. he prevalence of osteoporosis is high in patients with thalassemia major, possibly related to delayed puberty.

  10. Subchondral bone density distribution in the human femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, David A.; Meguid, Michael; Lubovsky, Omri; Whyne, Cari M. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    This study aims to quantitatively characterize the distribution of subchondral bone density across the human femoral head using a computed tomography derived measurement of bone density and a common reference coordinate system. Femoral head surfaces were created bilaterally for 30 patients (14 males, 16 females, mean age 67.2 years) through semi-automatic segmentation of reconstructed CT data and used to map bone density, by shrinking them into the subchondral bone and averaging the greyscale values (linearly related to bone density) within 5 mm of the articular surface. Density maps were then oriented with the center of the head at the origin, the femoral mechanical axis (FMA) aligned with the vertical, and the posterior condylar axis (PCA) aligned with the horizontal. Twelve regions were created by dividing the density maps into three concentric rings at increments of 30 from the horizontal, then splitting into four quadrants along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes. Mean values for each region were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and a Bonferroni post hoc test, and side-to-side correlations were analyzed using a Pearson's correlation. The regions representing the medial side of the femoral head's superior portion were found to have significantly higher densities compared to other regions (p < 0.05). Significant side-to-side correlations were found for all regions (r {sup 2} = 0.81 to r {sup 2} = 0.16), with strong correlations for the highest density regions. Side-to-side differences in measured bone density were seen for two regions in the anterio-lateral portion of the femoral head (p < 0.05). The high correlation found between the left and right sides indicates that this tool may be useful for understanding 'normal' density patterns in hips affected by unilateral pathologies such as avascular necrosis, fracture, developmental dysplasia of the hip, Perthes disease, and slipped capital femoral head epiphysis. (orig.)

  11. Osteonecrosis Diagnosed on MR Images of the Knee. Relationship to reduced bone mineral density determined by high resolution peripheral quantitative CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanetti, M.; Hodler, J. [Orthopedic Univ. Hospital Balgrist, Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Radiology; Romero, J. [Orthopedic Univ. Hospital Balgrist, Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Dambacher, M.A. [Univ. Hospital Balgrist, Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. of Physical Medicine and Rheumatology

    2003-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate if osteonecrosis diagnosed on MR images of the knee relates to reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and may be caused by an insufficiency fracture. Material and Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients (8 men, 24 women; age range 27-82 years, mean 62 years) with MR findings of osteonecrosis of the femoral or tibial condyle were prospectively included. Trabecular and cortical BMD were measured with high resolution peripheral quantitative CT in the non-dominant distal radius and the tibia of the involved extremity. One tibia was not measured due to posttraumatic deformity. Results: The mean trabecular BMD of the radius was 81% of the young-adult average peak BMD (range 19-160%). The mean cortical BMD in the radius was 86% (range 63-108%). The mean trabecular BMD in the tibia was 92% (range 28-160%). The mean cortical BMD in the tibia was 86% (range 49-132%). The values of the trabecular bone of the distal radius (tibia) were normal in 11 (15) patients, osteopenic in 12 (4), and osteoporotic in 9 (12), respectively. The cortical bone values of the distal radius (tibia) were normal in 12 (13) patients, osteopenic in 12 (12), and osteoporotic in 8 (6), respectively. Conclusion: Osteoporosis and osteopenia are commonly found in patients with osteonecrosis of the knee as diagnosed on MR images. This indicates that for some patients an insufficiency mechanism may be responsible for the MR findings. However, in the patients with normal bone density other reasons for osteonecrosis may be present.

  12. Bone density and tissue lead accretion in growing rats fed low high calcium with or without supplemental clinoptilolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pond, W.G.; Ho, H.; Su, D.R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The toxicity of lead in animals and humans is well documented. The naturally occurring zeolite, clinoptilolite, is known to offer protection against ammonium ion toxicity in rats and sheep and to counteract cadmium-induced iron deficiency anemia in rats and swine. The cation-exchange and adsorption properties of clinoptilolite suggest is possible role in reducing tissue uptake of ingested lead by animals. Evidence supporting this role was reported in growing pigs whose liver and kidney concentrations of lead were significantly reduced by the addition of 1.0% clinoptilolite to diets containing 500 or 1000ppm of lead. The basal diet was a highly fortified milk-replacer containing about 1% calcium supplied by milk constituents. High dietary calcium is known to reduce tissue uptake of lead and protect the pig from the tissue pathology associated with lead ingestion. The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels affect the growth, tissue uptake and bone morphology of growing rats fed diets containing toxic levels of lead. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Bone mineral density measurement over the shoulder region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, A M; Faber, J; Lynnerup, N

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1). establish a method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) over the shoulder region; (2). compare the relationship between shoulder BMD levels with hip BMD and body mass index (BMI); and (3). discuss the relevance of the shoulder scan as an early indicator...... to the least relative influence of weight and stress loading because of migration of calcium to weight and stress-bearing areas. Since the effect of this migration could mask local osteoporotic bone loss, shoulder BMD measurement is likely to minimize false indicators of healthy bone in women with high BMI...

  14. Moderate alcohol consumption and bone density among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feskanich, D; Korrick, S A; Greenspan, S L; Rosen, H N; Colditz, G A

    1999-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with low bone density and high risk of fracture. However, moderate alcohol consumption may help to maintain bone density in postmenopausal women by increasing endogenous estrogens or by promoting secretion of calcitonin. We conducted a prospective study among a sample of 188 white postmenopausal women (ages 50-74) from the Nurses' Health Study who participated in a health examination between 1993 and 1995 that included bone density assessments of the lumbar spine and proximal femur. Long-term alcohol intake was calculated as the average of the 1980 and 1990 measures from a food frequency questionnaire. Women who consumed 75 g or more of alcohol per week had significantly higher bone densities at the lumbar spine compared with non-drinking women (0.951 vs. 0.849 g/cm2, p = 0.002) after adjusting for age, body mass index (kg/m2), age at menopause, use of postmenopausal estrogens, and smoking status. Further adjustment for physical activity and daily intakes of calcium, vitamin D, protein, and caffeine did not alter the results. We also observed a linear increase in spinal bone density over increasing categories of alcohol intake (p = 0.002), suggesting that alcohol intakes of less than 75 g/week may also be of benefit. This positive association was observed among both current users and never users of postmenopausal estrogens. In contrast to the lumbar spine, femoral bone density was not higher among drinkers compared with nondrinkers, although density did increase among drinkers with increasing level of alcohol consumption. Further research is needed to determine whether moderate alcohol consumption can help to protect against spinal fractures in postmenopausal women. This finding must also be evaluated within a larger scope of the risks and benefits of alcohol on heart disease, breast cancer, and hip fractures.

  15. Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mass Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolsoom Parvaneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1 increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2 producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3 reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4 hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density.

  16. Bone density in survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Jean E; Bilezikian, John P

    2004-01-01

    Advances in combination chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and bone marrow transplantation have resulted in markedly improved survival rates for many children with cancer. Advancements in therapy, however, have led to new concerns, namely long-term consequences of effective treatments. Young adult and adult survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for a number of disorders related to therapy. Specifically, the young adult who has survived cancer, attendant treatments, and their complications is at risk for factors that can lead to suboptimal acquisition of peak bone mass. These factors include chronic illness, nutritional deficiencies, limited physical activity, and treatment with glucocorticoids, multiagent chemotherapy, and radiation. The long-term adverse effects of these therapies on endocrine systems, especially sex steroid and growth hormone deficiencies, are additional risk factors for some patients. After a brief review of the processes associated with acquisition of peak bone mass in the young adult, this article examines the impact of cancer and cancer therapy on bone mineral density in survivors of childhood cancer.

  17. Comparison of bone density measurement techniques: DXA and Archimedes' principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, M J; Hegsted, M; Jones, K L; Delany, J P; Kime, J C; Melancon, L E; Tulley, R T; Hong, K D

    1997-11-01

    The standard method for determination of density (g/cm3) of bones from small animals has been the application of Archimedes' principle. A recent development has been software for the determination of "density" (g/cm2) of small animal bones with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We compared Archimedes' principle and DXA (Hologic QDR-2000) in the measurement of the densities of whole and hollowed femurs of 5- to 6-month-old retired female breeder rats. In an attempt to ensure detectable treatment differences, rats were used from a low-vitamin D Holtzman and a supplemental-vitamin D Sprague-Dawley colony. Whole femur densities were higher for supplemental-vitamin D colony rats than for low vitamin D rats using both techniques (Archimedes' principle, p Archimedes' principle than for DXA. Other variables such as femur ash weight and calcium content were also highly correlated to densities with both techniques. Hollowed femur density values were higher than whole femur values with Archimedes' principle but lower with DXA. Colony effects for hollowed femur densities were diminished with Archimedes' principle (p < 0.03) and eliminated with DXA (p < 0.53). Investigation of whole bones is more biologically relevant, and both techniques were effective in detecting differences between whole femurs from low-vitamin D and supplemental-vitamin D colony rats.

  18. Distal radius bone mineral density estimation using the filling factor of trabecular bone in the x-ray image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyeul; Jeong, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jeong Won; Yoo, Done-Sik; Kim, Seunghwan

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by an abnormal loss of bone mineral content, which leads to a tendency to non-traumatic bone fractures or to structural deformations of bone. Thus, bone density measurement has been considered as a most reliable method to assess bone fracture risk due to osteoporosis. In past decades, X-ray images have been studied in connection with the bone mineral density estimation. However, the estimated bone mineral density from the X-ray image can undergo a relatively large accuracy or precision error. The most relevant origin of the accuracy or precision error may be unstable X-ray image acquisition condition. Thus, we focus our attentions on finding a bone mineral density estimation method that is relatively insensitive to the X-ray image acquisition condition. In this paper, we develop a simple technique for distal radius bone mineral density estimation using the trabecular bone filling factor in the X-ray image and apply the technique to the wrist X-ray images of 20 women. Estimated bone mineral density shows a high linear correlation with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (r=0.87).

  19. Different fibrovascularization rate between coralline hydroxyapatite and high density porous polyethylene (Medpore) measured by 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy 6 months after intraorbital implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, M-H; Wu, Y-W; Yen, R-F; Tzen, K-Y; Liao, S-L; Kao, C-H

    2003-12-01

    Many materials and types of implant have been used to achieve a cosmetic effect and prosthesis motility in the anophthalmic socket. Hydroxyapatite remains the implant material of choice for producing the most natural prosthesis motility while porous polyethylene shows promising characteristics as another useful material. The aim of this study was to compare the fibrovascular ingrowth rates of orbital implants between coralline hydroxyapatite and high density porous polyethylene (Medpore). The fibrovascularization rate is determined by bone imaging using 99mTc methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) 6 months after implantation. Our study included 29 patients with coralline, and nine patients with Medpore implants. Our results showed that groups with coralline implants appearing to achieve complete fibrovascularization at a much more rapid rate than those with Medpore. The differences in rate were statistically significant.

  20. BONE MINERAL DENSITY AFTER LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Buzulina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD was estimated twice in 18 recipents of ortotopic liver transplantation. There was decreased BMD in axial so as in peripheral skeleton in early time and in vertebral or hip Ward triangle in late time following transplantation being lower in primary biliary cirrosis then in cirrosis following chronic virus hepatitis despite tacrolimus immunosupression without prednisolon. Tacrolimus immunosupression with prednisolon in primary biliary cirrosis patients in late postoperative time was associated with hard BMD lowering which correlated with glucocorticoid therapy duration and prednisolon cumulative dosis. 

  1. Space: The Final Frontier of Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2011-01-01

    It is a medical requirement at NASA to evaluate the skeletal integrity of "long-duration" astronauts by measuring bone mineral density [BMD] with DXA technology. A long-duration mission is a spaceflight that is greater than 30 days but is typically the continuous 120-180 day missions aboard the International Space Station [ISS]. Not only does NASA use the BMD index to monitor fracture risk in this astronaut population, but these measures are also used to describe the effects of spaceflight, to certify skeletal health readiness for flight, to monitor the recovery of lost bone mass after return to earth, and to evaluate the efficacy of countermeasures to bone loss. However, despite the fact that DXA-based BMD is a widely-applied surrogate for bone strength that is grounded in an abundance of population-based fracture data, its applicability to the long-duration astronaut is limited. The cohort of long-duration astronauts is not the typical group for evaluating osteoporosis or determining age-related fracture risk. The cohort is young (osteoporosis in the astronaut exposed to long-duration spaceflight, especially since any detectable symptoms are likely to manifest after return to earth and perhaps years after space travel. This risk raises the question: is NASA doing enough now to mitigate a fracture event that may manifest later? This presentation will discuss the limitations and constraints to understanding skeletal changes due to prolonged spaceflight and the recommendations, by clinical experts in osteoporosis and BMD, to transition research technologies for clinical decision-making by NASA.

  2. High bone mineral density and fracture risk in type 2 diabetes as skeletal complications of inadequate glucose control: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Oei (Ling); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); A. Dehghan (Abbas); G.H.S. Buitendijk (Gabrielle); M.C. Castaño Betancourt (Martha); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); L. Stolk (Lisette); E.H.G. Oei (Edwin); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); A. Hofman (Albert); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); O.H. Franco (Oscar); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE - Individuals with type 2 diabetes have increased fracture risk despite higher bone mineral density (BMD). Our aim was to examine the influence of glucose control on skeletal complications. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Data of 4,135 participants of the Rotterdam Study, a prosp

  3. Quantification of bone mineral density to define osteoporosis in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, M; Mandal, S K; Sengupta, S; Arshad, M; Singh, M M

    2008-05-01

    The diagnosis of osteoporosis centers on assessment of bone mass and quality. In the absence of evidence-based guidelines to assess bone status in laboratory animals and unsuitability of use of T-/Z-scores meant for clinical application in animal studies, most investigators involved in new drug research and development employ clinical biomarkers and kits to assess bone turnover rate and portray change in bone mineral density (BMD) as percentage of increase/decrease, making comparative assessment of the effect highly impractical. This study proposes threshold boundaries of BMD (rT-score) in colony-bred Sprague-Dawley rats, distinct from those used clinically. Boundaries were obtained keeping fixed Type-I error (alpha=0.025). Femur neck was considered best for defining bone status using BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Findings demonstrate that BMD-1.96 and <-0.80 rT-score as osteopenia. Performance of boundaries to ascertain bone status was examined through simulation under different physiological/ hormonal states viz. estrogen deficiency, ageing, estrus cycle, pregnancy, and lactation. The Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve of 0.98 obtained using BMD of femur neck, being close to unity, shows excellent ability of the proposed rT-score to effectively identify osteoporosis. Further studies using certain hierarchical measures of bone quality such as histomorphometry, mechanical testing etc. could supplement these findings. Since, unlike humans, most laboratory animals including rats only exhibit osteopenia and do not fracture their bones, the proposed thresholds are intended to serve as categorical tools to define bone quality and not to predict fracture risk.

  4. [Metabolic status and bone mineral density in patients with pseudarthrosis of long bones in hyperhomocysteinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezsmertnyĭ, Iu O

    2013-06-01

    In article described research of the metabolic status and bone mineral density in 153 patients with with pseudarthrosis of long bones, in individuals with consolidated fractures and healthy people. The violations of reparative osteogenesis at hyperhomocysteinemia are accompanied by disturbances of the functional state of bone tissue, inhibition of biosynthetic and increased destruction processes, reduced bone mineral density in the formation of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The degree and direction of change of bone depends on the type of violation of reparative osteogenesis.

  5. High-strength mineralized collagen artificial bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Tao, Chun-Sheng; Cui, Helen; Wang, Chang-Ming; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2014-03-01

    Mineralized collagen (MC) is a biomimetic material that mimics natural bone matrix in terms of both chemical composition and microstructure. The biomimetic MC possesses good biocompatibility and osteogenic activity, and is capable of guiding bone regeneration as being used for bone defect repair. However, mechanical strength of existing MC artificial bone is too low to provide effective support at human load-bearing sites, so it can only be used for the repair at non-load-bearing sites, such as bone defect filling, bone graft augmentation, and so on. In the present study, a high strength MC artificial bone material was developed by using collagen as the template for the biomimetic mineralization of the calcium phosphate, and then followed by a cold compression molding process with a certain pressure. The appearance and density of the dense MC were similar to those of natural cortical bone, and the phase composition was in conformity with that of animal's cortical bone demonstrated by XRD. Mechanical properties were tested and results showed that the compressive strength was comparable to human cortical bone, while the compressive modulus was as low as human cancellous bone. Such high strength was able to provide effective mechanical support for bone defect repair at human load-bearing sites, and the low compressive modulus can help avoid stress shielding in the application of bone regeneration. Both in vitro cell experiments and in vivo implantation assay demonstrated good biocompatibility of the material, and in vivo stability evaluation indicated that this high-strength MC artificial bone could provide long-term effective mechanical support at human load-bearing sites.

  6. CT-based bone density assessment for iliosacral screw trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schicho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sacroiliac screw placement is one standard treatment option for stabilization of posterior pelvic ring injuries encountering high intra- and inter-individual variations of bone stock quality as well as a vast variety and prevalence of sacral dysmorphism. An individual, easy-to-use preoperative bone stock quality estimation would be of high value for the surgeon. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 36 standard computed tomography datasets with the uninjured pelvic ring. Using a two-plane cross-referencing technique, we assessed the Hounsfield unit (HU mean values as well as standard deviation and minimum/maximum values within selected region of interests (ROIs at five key areas: os ilium left and right, massa lateralis of os sacrum left and right, and central vertebral body on levels S1 and S2. Results: Results showed no difference in mean HU at any ROI when comparing male and female data. For all ROIs set on S1 and S2, there was an age-related decline of HU with a calculated slope significantly different from zero. There was no statistical difference of slopes when comparing S1- and S2-level with respect to any distinct ROI. Comparison of levels S1 and S2 revealed differences at the vertebral body and at the right os ilium. The right and left massa lateralis of os sacrum had lower bone density than the center of the vertebral body, the right, or left os ilium on S1; right and left massa lateralis density did not differ significantly. On level S2, results were comparable with no difference of massa lateralis density. Conclusion: With our easy-to-use preoperative assessment of bone density of five key areas of sacroiliac screw anchoring we were able to find the lowest bone density in both the left and right massa lateralis on levels S1 and S2 with high inter- and intra-individual variations. Significantly lower bone density was found in the center of the vertebral bodies S2 in comparison to S1, which both are crucial for iliosacral

  7. Phalangeal bone mineral density predicts incident fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Brixen, Kim; Rubin, Katrine Hass

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study investigates the use of phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) in predicting fractures in a cohort (15,542) who underwent a BMD scan. In both women and men, a decrease in BMD was associated with an increased risk of fracture when adjusted for age and prevalent fractures....... PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of a compact and portable scanner using radiographic absorptiometry (RA) to predict major osteoporotic fractures. METHODS: This prospective study included a cohort of 15,542 men and women aged 18-95 years, who underwent a BMD scan in Danish Health...... Examination Survey 2007-2008. BMD at the middle phalanges of the second, third and fourth digits of the non-dominant hand was measured using RA (Alara MetriScan®). These data were merged with information on incident fractures retrieved from the Danish National Patient Registry comprising the International...

  8. High Density Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic composition and properties of matter at super-saturation densities have been the subject of intense investigation for decades. The scarcity of experimental and observational data has led to the necessary reliance on theoretical models. There remains great uncertainty in these models which, of necessity, have to go beyond the over-simple assumption that high density matter consists only of nucleons and leptons. Heavy strange baryons, mesons and quark matter in different forms and phases have to be included to fulfil basic requirements of fundamental laws of physics. In this contribution latest developments in construction of the Equation of State (EoS of high-density matter at zero and finite temperature assuming different composition of matter will be discussed. Critical comparison of model EoS with available experimental data from heavy ion collisions and observations on neutron stars, including gravitational mass, radii and cooling patterns and data on X-ray burst sources and low mass X-ray binaries are made. Fundamental differences between the EoS of low-density, high temperature matter, such as is created in heavy ion collisions and of high-density, low temperature compact objects is discussed.

  9. Influence of yard work and weight training on bone mineral density among older U.S. women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lori W; Bass, Martha A; Ting, Ling; Brown, Barry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of type of physical activity on bone mineral density among older U.S. women. Findings from the present study indicate that jogging, swimming and calisthenics were weak predictors for high bone density values. Bicycling, aerobics, walking and dancing were moderate predictors for positive bone density. Yard work and weight training were strong and independent predictors for positive bone density.

  10. Outcomes of bone density measurements in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolland, Mark J; Grey, Andrew; Rowbotham, David S

    2016-01-29

    Some guidelines recommend that patients with newly diagnosed coeliac disease undergo bone density scanning. We assessed the bone density results in a cohort of patients with coeliac disease. We searched bone density reports over two 5-year periods in all patients from Auckland District Health Board (2008-12) and in patients under 65 years from Counties Manukau District Health Board (2009-13) for the term 'coeliac.' Reports for 137 adults listed coeliac disease as an indication for bone densitometry. The average age was 47 years, body mass index (BMI) 25 kg/m(2), and 77% were female. The median time between coeliac disease diagnosis and bone densitometry was 261 days. The average bone density Z-score was slightly lower than expected (Z-score -0.3 to 0.4) at the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck, but 88-93% of Z-scores at each site lay within the normal range. Low bone density was strongly related to BMI: the proportions with Z-score 30 kg/m(2) were 28%, 15%, 6% and 0% respectively. Average bone density was normal, suggesting that bone density measurement is not indicated routinely in coeliac disease, but could be considered on a case-by-case basis for individuals with strong risk factors for fracture.

  11. Low bone mineral density in noncholestatic liver cirrhosis: prevalence, severity and prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Fátima Aparecida Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic bone disease has long been associated with cholestatic disorders. However, data in noncholestatic cirrhosis are relatively scant. AIMS: To determine prevalence and severity of low bone mineral density in noncholestatic cirrhosis and to investigate whether age, gender, etiology, severity of underlying liver disease, and/or laboratory tests are predictive of the diagnosis. PATIENTS/METHODS: Between March and September/1998, 89 patients with noncholestatic cirrhosis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent standard laboratory tests and bone densitometry at lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Bone mass was significantly reduced at both sites in patients compared to controls. The prevalence of low bone mineral density in noncholestatic cirrhosis, defined by the World Health Organization criteria, was 78% at lumbar spine and 71% at femoral neck. Bone density significantly decreased with age at both sites, especially in patients older than 50 years. Bone density was significantly lower in post-menopausal women patients compared to pre-menopausal and men at both sites. There was no significant difference in bone mineral density among noncholestatic etiologies. Lumbar spine bone density significantly decreased with the progression of liver dysfunction. No biochemical variable was significantly associated with low bone mineral density. CONCLUSIONS: Low bone mineral density is highly prevalent in patients with noncholestatic cirrhosis. Older patients, post-menopausal women and patients with severe hepatic dysfunction experienced more advanced bone disease. The laboratory tests routinely determined in patients with liver disease did not reliably predict low bone mineral density.

  12. Recent origin of low trabecular bone density in modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirchir, Habiba; Kivell, Tracy L; Ruff, Christopher B; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Carlson, Kristian J; Zipfel, Bernhard; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-01-13

    Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and early fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at least a few anatomical regions modern humans today appear to have relatively low trabecular density, but little is known about how that density varies throughout the human skeleton and across species or how and when the present trabecular patterns emerged over the course of human evolution. Here, we test the hypotheses that (i) recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and (ii) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in early Homo erectus, consistent with the shift toward a modern human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. We used peripheral quantitative CT and microtomography to measure trabecular bone of limb epiphyses (long bone articular ends) in modern humans and chimpanzees and in fossil hominins attributed to Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus/early Homo from Swartkrans, Homo neanderthalensis, and early Homo sapiens. Results show that only recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the limb joints. Extinct hominins, including pre-Holocene Homo sapiens, retain the high levels seen in nonhuman primates. Thus, the low trabecular density of the recent modern human skeleton evolved late in our evolutionary history, potentially resulting from increased sedentism and reliance on technological and cultural innovations.

  13. Effects of Raloxifene Hydrochloride on Bone Mineral Density and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While, changes in high‑density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides after treatment were ... KEY WORDS: Bone mineral density, lipid metabolism, osteoporosis, postmenopausal, raloxifene ... bone loss. ... total hip BMD and serum lipids before and after raloxifene ... 64.4 (6.5) years (range: 58.5‑68.5 years), mean weight.

  14. Degenerative spondylolisthesis is associated with low spinal bone density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Christensen, Finn B; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt

    2013-01-01

    Spinal stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis share many symptoms and the same treatment, but their causes remain unclear. Bone mineral density has been suggested to play a role. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in spinal bone density between spinal stenosis and degenerat...

  15. Bone Mineral Density in Ankylosing Spondylitis

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    Bahar Çakmak

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS, a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease. One of the most frequent and important complications in these patients is osteoporosis. There are controversial studies on the correlation of osteoporosis and disease duration, activity and functional status. Twenty-one male and five female patients diagnosed as AS according to Modified New York, ESSG( European Spondyloartropaties Study Group and Amor criteria were included in this study. Disease duration and age-sex of the patients was assessed. Patients with ankylosed lumbar spine in late stages of the disease were excluded. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured by DEXA( Hologic at lumbar and femoral neck regions. BASDAI was used for evaluation of disease activity and BASFI index for functional status evaluation.Correlation of BMD with disease duration, BASDAI and BASFI indexes was assessed. BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck regions was found to be osteoporotic in 11,5 % of the patients. In the lumbar region there was no correlation between BMD and disease duration, BASFI and BASDAI indexes. BMD values of femoral neck showed a weak inverse correlation with disease duration, while no correlation was found between BMD and BASFI and BASDAI. As a conclusion in AS patients osteoporosis besides the disease itself many secondarily influence disease prognosis and complications. Therefore osteoporosis should be evaluated in the management and follow-up of AS patients.

  16. Bone mineral density, adiposity and cognitive functions

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    Hamid R Sohrabi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34 to 87 years old (62.78±9.27, were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after three years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms.

  17. Bone Mineral Density Assessment in Ankylosing Spondylitis and Characteristics of Bone Turnover Parameters

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    Füsun Şahin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis, characterised with excessive new bone formation and calcification in spine and peripheral joints, causes osteoporosis which is a general component of inflammatory arthritis. Since is excessive bone formation affects bone mineral density, there are problems in diagnosis and follow-up of osteoporosis efforts made for finding the right diagnostic tool. Besides bone metabolism and turn-over in inflammatory diseases should be known in detail, because it has a place in diagnosis and follow-up. In this review, bone mineral density in ankylosing spondylitis, the importance and usage of bone turn-over parameters are discussed in the light of literature data.

  18. Does bone mineral density affect hip fracture severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Simon J; Blyth, Mark J G; Lovell, Frances; Holt, Graeme

    2012-06-01

    The association between hip fracture and reduced bone mineral density is well documented, with reduced bone mineral density predisposing to fracture. However, it is unknown whether an association exists between the magnitude of bone density lost and the severity of the hip fracture sustained. One hundred forty-two patients (96 women, 46 men) with a mean age of 74 years (range, 49-92 years) who sustained a hip fracture following a simple ground-level fall and were treated for this injury were reviewed. All patients had undergone dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry bone scanning of the contralateral hip and lumbar spine. Fractures were classified as intra- or extracapsular or subtrochanteric and then subclassified by degree of severity as simple (stable) or multifragmentary (unstable) fracture patterns.Although a low hip bone mineral density (T- or Z score fracture (P=.025) compared with other fracture types, no association existed between bone mineral density and the severity of the resultant hip fracture. Although an association exists between bone mineral density and the risk of fragility fractures, the results of the current study suggest that the severity of hip fractures does not follow this correlation. Therefore, no assumption can be made about bone mineral density of the proximal femur based on the severity of the fracture observed on plain radiographs. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. The intravertebral distribution of bone density: correspondence to intervertebral disc health and implications for vertebral strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, T. M.; Morgan, S. R.; Barest, G. D.; Morgan, E. F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary This study's goal was to determine associations among the intravertebral heterogeneity in bone density, bone strength, and intervertebral disc (IVD) health. Results indicated that predictions of vertebral strength can benefit from considering the magnitude of the density heterogeneity and the congruence between the spatial distribution of density and IVD health. Introduction This study aims to determine associations among the intravertebral heterogeneity in bone density, bone strength, and IVD health Methods Regional measurements of bone density were performed throughout 30 L1 vertebral bodies using microcomputed tomography (μCT) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT). The magnitude of the intravertebral heterogeneity in density was defined as the interquartile range and quartile coefficient of variation in regional densities. The spatial distribution of density was quantified using ratios of regional densities representing different anatomical zones (e.g., anterior to posterior regional densities). Cluster analysis was used to identify groups of vertebrae with similar spatial distributions of density. Vertebral strength was measured in compression. IVD health was assessed using two scoring systems. Results QCT- and μCT-based measures of the magnitude of the intravertebral heterogeneity in density were strongly correlated with each other (p<0.005). Accounting for the interquartile range in regional densities improved predictions of vertebral strength as compared to predictions based only on mean density (R2=0.59 vs. 0.43; F-test p-value=0.018). Specifically, after adjustment for mean density, vertebral bodies with greater heterogeneity in density exhibited higher strength. No single spatial distribution of density was associated with high vertebral strength. Analyses of IVD scores suggested that the health of the adjacent IVDs may modulate the effect of a particular spatial distribution of density on vertebral strength. Conclusions Noninvasive

  20. Correlation of different bone markers with bone density in patients with rheumatic diseases on glucocorticoid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loddenkemper, Konstanze; Bohl, Nicole; Perka, Carsten; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Buttgereit, Frank

    2006-02-01

    Osteoporosis is a common concomitant disease in patients with rheumatic diseases on glucocorticoid (GC) therapy. Bone status is usually evaluated by determination of bone density in combination with clinical examinations and laboratory tests. However, the strength of individual biochemical bone makers in GC-induced osteoporosis has yet to be fully clarified. For this reason, different bone markers were investigated in correlation with bone density in patients with rheumatic diseases. Approximately 238 patients (212 women, 26 men) with a rheumatic disease and under GC therapy were examined consecutively for the first time with regard to bone density (BMD) and bone markers [osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (precipitation method/tandem-MP ostase), crosslinks [pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyridinoline (DPX), N-terminal telopeptide (NTX)

  1. Bone mineral density, quantitative ultrasound parameters and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteritano, Marco; Lasco, Antonino; Mazzaferro, Susanna; Macrì, Ida; Catalano, Antonino; Santangelo, Antonino; Bagnato, Gianluca; Bagnato, Gianfilippo; Frisina, Nicola

    2013-09-01

    Low bone mineral density, which increases the risk of stress fragility fractures, is a frequent, often persistent finding in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The clinical association between major depressive disorder and osteopenia is still unclear, although several factors are associated with a loss of bone mass. The aim of our study, therefore, was to evaluate bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with MDD. Bone mineral density was evaluated in fifty postmenopausal women with MDD, and in 50 matched postmenopausal control women by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine and femur, and by ultrasonography of the calcaneus and phalanges. Serum levels of 25-hydroxivitamin D, parathyroid hormone, Osteoprotegerin/Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κB Ligand ratio, bone turnover markers, serum and urinary cortisol were examined. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (BMD: 0.72 ± 0.06 vs. 0.82 ± 0.09 g/cm(2), p < 0.001), femoral neck (BMD: 0.58 ± 0.04 vs. 0.71 ± 0.07 g/cm(2), p < 0.001) and total femur (BMD 0.66 ± 0.09 vs. 0.54 ± 0.06 g/cm(2), p < 0.001); and ultrasound parameters at calcaneus (SI: 81.30 ± 6.10 vs. 93.80 ± 7.10, p < 0.001) and phalanges (AD-SOS: 1915.00 ± 37.70 vs. 2020.88 ± 39.46, p < 0.001; BTT : 1.30 ± 0.8 vs. 1.45 ± 0.9, p < 0.001) are significantly lower in patients with MDD compared with controls. Moreover bone turnover markers, parathyroid hormone levels and Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κB Ligand are significantly higher in MDD patients compared with controls, while serum levels of 25-hydroxivitamin D and osteoprotegerin are significantly lower. There are no differences in urinary excretion and serum cortisol between groups. Postmenopausal women with depressive disorder have an elevated risk for osteoporosis. Our data suggest that a high level of parathyroid hormone may play a role in the pathogenetic process underlying osteopenia in these patients.

  2. Serum osteocalcin and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T. Merijanti Susanto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Since high bone turnover is associated with decreased bone mass, biochemical markers of bone remodeling, such as serum osteocalcin, may be used to assess osteoporosis and to predict fractures in elderly women, particulary those involving trabecular bone, and use of a combination of bone mineral density (BMD and biochemical markers may improve fracture prediction. The serum levels of osteocalcin constitute a specific biochemical parameter of bone formation. Compared to imaging techniques, assays for osteocalcin are safe, noninvasive and easily performed. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of serum osteocalcin and BMD in postmenopausal women. A cross sectional study was performed on 53 postmenopausal women in South Jakarta from February to April 2010. The subjects were assessed for anthropometric characteristics, serum osteocalcin levels and BMD. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine, right femoral neck and at the left distal radius by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean serum osteocalcin was 28.99 ± 10.02 ng/ml. The Pearson correlation test on all subjects indicated a significant inverse correlation between serum osteocalcin and femoral neck BMD (r = - 0.29; p=0.034. By arranging the data into tertiles, a significant association was found in non-obese subjects between mean femoral neck BMD and serum osteocalcin (p=0.036. The Tukey posthoc multiple comparison test showed a significant mean difference in femoral neck BMD between the lowest and the highest tertiles of osteocalcin serum concentrations (p=0.028. Maintenance of body weight is important for maintaining BMD in postmenopausal women.

  3. Increases in bone density during treatment of men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, J.S.; Klibanski, A.; Neer, R.M.; Doppelt, S.H.; Rosenthal, D.I.; Segre, G.V.; Crowley, W.F. Jr. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (USA))

    1989-10-01

    To assess the effects of gonadal steroid replacement on bone density in men with osteoporosis due to severe hypogonadism, we measured cortical bone density in the distal radius by 125I photon absorptiometry and trabecular bone density in the lumbar spine by quantitative computed tomography in 21 men with isolated GnRH deficiency while serum testosterone levels were maintained in the normal adult male range for 12-31 months (mean +/- SE, 23.7 +/- 1.1). In men who initially had fused epiphyses (n = 15), cortical bone density increased from 0.71 +/- 0.02 to 0.74 +/- 0.01 g/cm2 (P less than 0.01), while trabecular bone density did not change (116 +/- 9 compared with 119 +/- 7 mg/cm3). In men who initially had open epiphyses (n = 6), cortical bone density increased from 0.62 +/- 0.01 to 0.70 +/- 0.03 g/cm2 (P less than 0.01), while trabecular bone density increased from 96 +/- 13 to 109 +/- 12 mg/cm3 (P less than 0.01). Cortical bone density increased 0.03 +/- 0.01 g/cm2 in men with fused epiphyses and 0.08 +/- 0.02 g/cm2 in men with open epiphyses (P less than 0.05). Despite these increases, neither cortical nor trabecular bone density returned to normal levels. Histomorphometric analyses of iliac crest bone biopsies demonstrated that most of the men had low turnover osteoporosis, although some men had normal to high turnover osteoporosis. We conclude that bone density increases during gonadal steroid replacement of GnRH-deficient men, particularly in men who are skeletally immature.

  4. Low bone mineral density in COPD patients with osteoporosis is related to low daily physical activity and high COPD assessment test scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu WT

    2015-09-01

    , all P<0.05 and T-score (r=0.471, 0.531, 0.459, respectively, all P<0.05, whereas CAT scores were significantly negatively correlated with (total hip and femoral neck BMD (r=-0.412, -0.552, respectively, P<0.05 and (lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck T-score (r=-0.389, -0.429, -0.543, respectively, P<0.05. Low femoral neck BMD in COPD patients was related to high CAT scores. Our results show no significant difference in desaturation index, low SpO2, and inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8/CXCL8, CRP, and 8-isoprostane between the two groups. Chest physicians should be aware that COPD patients with OP have low DPA and high CAT scores.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, osteoporosis, daily physical activity, COPD assessment test, bone mineral density

  5. Effect of bone graft density on in vitro cell behavior with enamel matrix derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Richard J; Caluseru, Oana M; Guillemette, Vincent; Zhang, Yufeng; Buser, Daniel; Chandad, Fatiha; Sculean, Anton

    2015-09-01

    Bone replacement grafting materials play an important role in regenerative dentistry. Despite a large array of tested bone-grafting materials, little information is available comparing the effects of bone graft density on in vitro cell behavior. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to compare the effects of cells seeded on bone grafts at low and high density in vitro for osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. The response of osteoblasts to the presence of a growth factor (enamel matrix derivative, (EMD)) in combination with low (8 mg per well) or high (100 mg per well) bone grafts (BG; natural bone mineral, Bio-Oss®) density, was studied and compared for osteoblast cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation as assessed by real-time PCR. Standard tissue culture plastic was used as a control with and without EMD. The present study demonstrates that in vitro testing of bone-grafting materials is largely influenced by bone graft seeding density. Osteoblast adhesion was up to 50 % lower when cells were seeded on high-density BG when compared to low-density BG and control tissue culture plastic. Furthermore, proliferation was affected in a similar manner whereby cell proliferation on high-density BG (100 mg/well) was significantly increased when compared to that on low-density BG (8 mg/well). In contrast, cell differentiation was significantly increased on high-density BG as assessed by real-time PCR for markers collagen 1 (Col 1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin (OC) as well as alizarin red staining. The effects of EMD on osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation further demonstrated that the bone graft seeding density largely controls in vitro results. EMD significantly increased cell attachment only on high-density BG, whereas EMD was able to further stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts on control culture plastic and low-density BG when compared to high-density BG. The results

  6. Does Orthodontic Treatment Affect the Alveolar Bone Density?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian-Hong; Huang, Heng-Li; Liu, Chien-Feng; Wu, Jay; Li, Yu-Fen; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2016-03-01

    Few studies involving human participants have been conducted to investigate the effect of orthodontic treatment on alveolar bone density around the teeth. Our previous study revealed that patients who received 6 months of active orthodontic treatment exhibited an ∼24% decrease in alveolar bone density around the teeth. However, after an extensive retention period following orthodontic treatment, whether the bone density around the teeth can recover to its original state from before the treatment remains unclear, thus warranting further investigation.The purpose of this study was to assess the bone density changes around the teeth before, during, and after orthodontic treatment.Dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to measure the changes in bone density around 6 teeth in the anterior maxilla (maxilla central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines) of 8 patients before and after orthodontic treatment. Each patient underwent 3 dental CBCT scans: before treatment (T0); at the end of 7 months of active orthodontic treatment (T1); after several months (20-22 months) of retention (T2). The Friedman test was applied to evaluate the changes in the alveolar bone density around the teeth according to the 3 dental CBCT scans.From T0 to T1, a significant reduction in bone density was observed around the teeth (23.36 ± 10.33%); by contrast, a significant increase was observed from T1 to T2 (31.81 ± 23.80%). From the perspective of the overall orthodontic treatment, comparing the T0 and T2 scans revealed that the bone density around the teeth was relatively constant (a reduction of only 0.75 ± 19.85%). The results of the statistical test also confirmed that the difference in bone density between T0 and T2 was nonsignificant.During orthodontic tooth movement, the alveolar bone density around the teeth was reduced. However, after a period of bone recovery, the reduced bone density recovered to its previous state from before the orthodontic treatment

  7. Dependences of Ultrasonic Parameters for Osteoporosis Diagnosis on Bone Mineral Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyo Seung; Kim, Yoon Mi; Park, Jong Chan; Choi, Min Joo; Lee, Kang Il [Department of Physics, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Quantitative ultrasound technologies for osteoporosis diagnosis measure ultrasonic parameters such as speed of sound(SOS) and normalized broadband ultrasound attenuation(nBUA) in the calcaneus (heel bone). In the present study, the dependences of SOS and nBUA on bone mineral density in the proximal femur with high risk of fracture were investigated by using 20 trabecular bone samples extracted from bovine femurs. SOS and nBUA in the femoral trabecular bone samples were measured by using a transverse transmission method with one matched pair of ultrasonic transducers with a center frequency of 1.0 MHz. SOS and nBUA measured in the 20 trabecular bone samples exhibited high Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) of r = 0.83 and 0.72 with apparent bone density, respectively. The multiple regression analysis with SOS and nBUA as independent variables and apparent bone density as a dependent variable showed that the correlation coefficient r = 0.85 of the multiple linear regression model was higher than those of the simple linear regression model with either parameter SOS or nBUA as an independent variable. These high linear correlations between the ultrasonic parameters and the bone density suggest that the ultrasonic parameters measured in the femur can be useful for predicting the femoral bone mineral density.

  8. Bone density in women receiving depot medroxyprogesterone acetate for contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundy, T; Evans, M; Roberts, H; Wattie, D; Ames, R; Reid, I R

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine if the use of the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone (DMPA), which reduces ovarian oestrogen production, is associated with changes in bone density. DESIGN--Population study. DMPA users were compared with two control groups selected from larger population studies and individually matched for several putative determinants of bone density (age, race, body mass index, and years of oestrogen deficiency). Controls and DMPA users were matched without prior knowledge of their bone density measurements. SETTING--Teaching hospital and community family planning clinics. SUBJECTS--30 current users of DMPA with a minimum five years' previous use, 30 premenopausal controls, and 30 postmenopausal controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density assessed by dual energy x ray absorptiometry. RESULTS--Compared with premenopausal controls matched for age, race, and body mass index, DMPA users had significantly reduced bone density in the lumbar spine (mean difference 7.5% (95% confidence interval 1.9% to 13.1%), p = 0.002) and in the femoral neck (6.6%, (0.8% to 12.3%), p = 0.007). Compared with postmenopausal controls matched for body mass index and duration of oestrogen deficiency, DMPA users had greater bone density in the lumbar spine (8.9% (4.3% to 13.5%), p = 0.001), but in the femoral neck the difference in bone density was less (4.0% (-0.4% to 8.5%), p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS--Women using DMPA have bone density values intermediate between those of normal premenopausal and postmenopausal controls; thus, the degree of oestrogen deficiency induced by DMPA may have an adverse effect on bone density. PMID:1830502

  9. Bone composition and bone mineral density of long bones of free-living raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Schuhmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone composition and bone mineral density (BMD of long bones of two raptor and one owl species were assessed. Right humerus and tibiotarsus of 40 common buzzards, 13 white-tailed sea eagles and 9 barn owls were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed for influence of species, age, gender and nutritional status. The BMD ranged from 1.8 g/cm3 (common buzzards to 2.0 g/cm3 (white-tailed sea eagles. Dry matter was 87.0% (buzzards to 89.5% (sea eagles. Percentage of bone ash was lower in sea eagles than in buzzards and owls. Content of crude fat was lower than 2% of the dry matter in all bones. In humeri lower calcium values (220 g/kg fat free dry matter were detected in sea eagles than in barn owls (246 g/kg, in tibiotarsi no species differences were observed. Phosphorus levels were lowest in sea eagles (humeri 104 g/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 102 g/kg and highest in barn owls. Calcium-phosphorus ratio was about 2:1 in all species. Magnesium content was lower in sea eagles (humeri 2590 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 2510 mg/kg than in buzzards and owls. Bones of barn owls contained more copper (humeri 8.7 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 12.7 mg/kg than in the Accipitridae. Zinc content was highest in sea eagles (humeri 278 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 273 mg/kg and lowest in barn owls (humeri 185 mg/kg, tibiotarsi 199 mg/kg. The present study shows that bone characteristics can be considered as species specific in raptors.

  10. Bone geometry, density, and microarchitecture in the distal radius and tibia in adults with osteogenesis imperfecta type I assessed by high-resolution pQCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkestad, Lars; Hald, Jannie Dahl; Hansen, Stinus; Gram, Jeppe; Langdahl, Bente; Abrahamsen, Bo; Brixen, Kim

    2012-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary disorder characterized by decreased biosynthesis or impaired morphology of type I collagen that leads to decreased bone mass and increased bone fragility. We hypothesized that patients with OI have altered bone microstructure and bone geometry. In this cross-sectional study we compared patients with type I OI to age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A total of 39 (13 men and 26 women) patients with OI, aged 53 (range, 21-77) years, and 39 controls, aged 53 (range, 21-77) years, were included in the study. Twenty-seven of the patients had been treated with bisphosphonates. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) at the distal radius and distal tibia and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of total hip, femoral neck, trochanteric region, and the lumbar spine (L1-L4) were performed. The patients were shorter than the controls (159 ± 10 cm versus 170 ± 9 cm, p radius (p radius, total bone area was 5% lower in OI than in controls (p radius and tibia the number of trabeculae was lower in patients compared to the controls (35% and 38%, respectively, p radius (p < 0.001 at both sites) when compared with controls. We conclude that patients with type I OI have lower aBMD, vBMD, bone area, and trabecular number when compared with healthy age- and gender-matched controls.

  11. Effects of denosumab on bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensel, Terri M; Iranikhah, Maryam M; Wilborn, Teresa W

    2011-05-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease affecting approximately 10 million American adults. Several options are available to prevent development of the disease or slow and even stop its progression. Nonpharmacologic measures include adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, exercise, fall prevention, and avoidance of tobacco and excessive alcohol intake. Current drug therapy includes bisphosphonates, calcitonin, estrogen or hormone therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and teriparatide. Denosumab, a receptor activator of nuclear factor-K B ligand (RANKL) inhibitor, was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Patients treated with denosumab experienced significant gains in bone mineral density, rapid reductions in markers of bone turnover, and a reduced risk for new vertebral fracture. Compared with placebo, patients receiving denosumab 60 mg subcutaneously once every 6 months experienced gains in bone mineral density of 6.5-11% when treated for 24-48 months. One trial demonstrated the superiority of denosumab compared with alendronate, but the differences were small. The most common adverse reactions to denosumab include back pain, pain in extremities, musculoskeletal pain, and cystitis. Serious, but rare, adverse reactions include the development of serious infections, dermatologic changes, and hypocalcemia. The recommended dosing of denosumab is 60 mg every 6 months as a subcutaneous injection in the upper arm, upper thigh, or abdomen. Although beneficial effects on bone mineral density and fracture rate have been established in clinical trials, the risks associated with denosumab must be evaluated before therapy initiation. Of concern is the risk of infection, and denosumab should likely be avoided in patients taking immunosuppressive therapy or at high risk for infection. Therefore, bisphosphonates will likely remain as first-line therapy. Denosumab should be considered in

  12. Bone geometry, bone mineral density, and micro-architecture in patients with myelofibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, Sarah; Vestergaard, Hanne; Hansen, Stinus

    2015-01-01

    compared the structural parameters of bones by comparing 18 patients with MF and healthy controls matched for age, sex, and height. Blood was analysed for biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients with MF. There were no significant differences in measurements of bone geometry, volumetric bone...... mineral density, and micro-structure between MF patients and matched controls. Estimated bone stiffness and bone strength were similar between MF patients and controls. The level of pro-collagen type 1 N-terminal pro-peptide (P1NP) was significantly increased in MF, which may indicate extensive collagen......Primary myelofibrosis (MF) is a severe chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm, progressing towards a terminal stage with insufficient haematopoiesis and osteosclerotic manifestations. Whilst densitometry studies have showed MF patients to have elevated bone mineral density, data on bone geometry...

  13. Hyoid bone fusion and bone density across the lifespan: prediction of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ellie; Austin, Diane; Werner, Helen M; Chuang, Ying Ji; Bersu, Edward; Vorperian, Houri K

    2016-06-01

    The hyoid bone supports the important functions of swallowing and speech. At birth, the hyoid bone consists of a central body and pairs of right and left lesser and greater cornua. Fusion of the greater cornua with the body normally occurs in adulthood, but may not occur at all in some individuals. The aim of this study was to quantify hyoid bone fusion across the lifespan, as well as assess developmental changes in hyoid bone density. Using a computed tomography imaging studies database, 136 hyoid bones (66 male, 70 female, ages 1-to-94) were examined. Fusion was ranked on each side and hyoid bones were classified into one of four fusion categories based on their bilateral ranks: bilateral distant non-fusion, bilateral non-fusion, partial or unilateral fusion, and bilateral fusion. Three-dimensional hyoid bone models were created and used to calculate bone density in Hounsfield units. Results showed a wide range of variability in the timing and degree of hyoid bone fusion, with a trend for bilateral non-fusion to decrease after age 20. Hyoid bone density was significantly lower in adult female scans than adult male scans and decreased with age in adulthood. In sex and age estimation models, bone density was a significant predictor of sex. Both fusion category and bone density were significant predictors of age group for adult females. This study provides a developmental baseline for understanding hyoid bone fusion and bone density in typically developing individuals. Findings have implications for the disciplines of forensics, anatomy, speech pathology, and anthropology.

  14. Recreational football improves bone mineral density and bone turnover marker profile in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, E W; Andersen, T R; Schmidt, J F;

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of recreational football and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in elderly men. Twenty-six healthy sedentary men (age 68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomized into three groups: football (F; n = 9) and resistance training (R; n...... training had no effect. The anabolic response may be due to increased bone turnover, especially improved bone formation....

  15. Measurement of bone mineral density in patients with psoriasis vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgül Köse

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine thechanges of bone mineral density in patients with psoriasisvulgaris.Methods: 33 patients, diagnosed with psoriasis vulgarisin Erciyes University, Medical School, Department of Dermatology,and 23 healthy subjects as control group wereincluded in this study. Lumbar and femur bone mineraldensity of all patients and control group were measured.Biochemical tests related to bone metabolism were performed.Results: We did not find statistically significant differencebetween patient and control groups’ bone mineral density.However, the lumbar spine t score of men, were found tobe significantly lower in the patient group than the controlgroup (p<0.05. There was no statistically significant differencein bone mineral density of women between thepatient and control groups. The effects on bone mineraldensity of disease period and using the topical corticosteroidswere not statistically significant.Conclusion: Our study indicates that bone mineral densityof patients with psoriasis vulgaris was not differentfrom healthy subject.Key words: Psoriasis vulgaris, bone mineral density, osteoporosis

  16. Restoring Bone Density in Women with Ovarian Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of women would be needed to learn whether testosterone replacement might benefit women with POI, the researchers note. “While hormone replacement therapy’s effect on bone mineral density has been studied ...

  17. Association of Bone Mineral Density with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeong Han [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kam, Shin [Dept. of Preventtive MedicinE, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1204 adults(males: 364 females: 840) in a general hospital health promotion center. They were grouped into the normal and lower BMD group according to bone loss(osteopenia, osteoporosis), as determined by duel energy X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA). We analyzed the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome by multiple logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for age, weight, alcohol intake, smoking, regular exercise, regular intake of meals, and menopausal status, odds ratios for the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by gender were calculated for lower BMD. After adjustment for the effect of potential covariates, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with bone loss in men (p<0.001). If the odds ratio of normal group is 1.00, then that of the lower BMD group is 3.07 (95% CI=1.83-5.16). The prevalence of metabolic alterations fitting the criteria of metabolic syndrome was significantly decreased in High BMI, Low HDL in men and in High BMI in women (p<0.05). This study shows that BMD was associated with metabolic syndrome. Further studies needed to obtain evidence concerning the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome.

  18. Development of a clinically applicable tool for bone density assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Oral Imaging Center, Faculty of Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); St John' s Hospital, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Genk (Belgium); Dobbelaer, B. de; Suetens, P. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Medical Image Computing (PSI), Faculty of Engineering, Leuven (Belgium); Nackaerts, O.; Yan, B.; Jacobs, R. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Oral Imaging Center, Faculty of Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Loubele, M. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Oral Imaging Center, Faculty of Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Medical Image Computing (PSI), Faculty of Engineering, Leuven (Belgium); Politis, C.; Vrielinck, L. [St John' s Hospital, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Genk (Belgium); Schepers, S. [St John' s Hospital, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Genk (Belgium); University of Gent, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Gent (Belgium); Lambrichts, I. [University of Hasselt, Department of Morphology, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Horner, K.; Devlin, H. [University of Manchester, School of Dentistry, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    To assess the accuracy and reliability of new software for radiodensitometric evaluations. A densitometric tool developed by MevisLab {sup registered} was used in conjunction with intraoral radiographs of the premolar region in both in vivo and laboratory settings. An aluminum step wedge was utilized for comparison of grey values. After computer-aided segmentation, the interproximal bone between the premolars was assessed in order to determine the mean grey value intensity of this region and convert it to a thickness in aluminum. Evaluation of the tool was determined using bone mineral density (BMD) values derived from decalcified human bone specimens as a reference standard. In vivo BMD data was collected from 35 patients as determined with dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The intra and interobserver reliability of this method was assessed by Bland and Altman Plots to determine the precision of this tool. In the laboratory study, the threshold value for detection of bone loss was 6.5%. The densitometric data (mm Al eq.) was highly correlated with the jaw bone BMD, as determined using dual X-ray absorptiometry (r=0.96). For the in vivo study, the correlations between the mm Al equivalent of the average upper and lower jaw with the lumbar spine BMD, total hip BMD and femoral neck BMD were 0.489, 0.537 and 0.467, respectively (P<0.05). For the intraobserver reliability, a Bland and Altman plot showed that the mean difference {+-}1.96 SD were within {+-}0.15 mm Al eq. with the mean difference value small than 0.003 mm Al eq. For the interobserver reliability, the mean difference {+-}1.96 SD were within {+-}0.11 mm Al eq. with the mean difference of 0.008 mm Al eq. A densitometric software tool has been developed, that is reliable for bone density assessment. It now requires further investigation to evaluate its accuracy and clinical applicability in large scale studies. (orig.)

  19. High Density QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ducati, M B G

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of high partonic density QCD is presented considering, in the double logarithm approximation, the parton recombination mechanism built in the AGL formalism, developed including unitarity corrections for the nucleon as well for nucleus. It is shown that these corrections are under theoretical control. The resulting non linear evolution equation is solved in the asymptotic regime, and a comprehensive phenomenology concerning Deep Inelastic Scattering like $F_2$, $F_L$, $F_2^c$. $\\partial F_2/ \\partial \\ln Q^2$, $\\partial F^A_2/ \\partial \\ln Q^2$, etc, is presented. The connection of our formalism with the DGLAP and BFKL dynamics, and with other perturbative (K) and non-perturbative (MV-JKLW) approaches is analised in detail. The phenomena of saturation due to shadowing corrections and the relevance of this effect in ion physics and heavy quark production is emphasized. The implications to e-RHIC, HERA-A, and LHC physics and some open questions are mentioned.

  20. Analogy of strain energy density based bone-remodeling algorithm and structural topology optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, In Gwun; Kim, Il Yong; Kwak, Byung Ban

    2009-01-01

    In bone-remodeling studies, it is believed that the morphology of bone is affected by its internal mechanical loads. From the 1970s, high computing power enabled quantitative studies in the simulation of bone remodeling or bone adaptation. Among them, Huiskes et al. (1987, "Adaptive Bone Remodeling Theory Applied to Prosthetic Design Analysis," J. Biomech. Eng., 20, pp. 1135-1150) proposed a strain energy density based approach to bone remodeling and used the apparent density for the characterization of internal bone morphology. The fundamental idea was that bone density would increase when strain (or strain energy density) is higher than a certain value and bone resorption would occur when the strain (or strain energy density) quantities are lower than the threshold. Several advanced algorithms were developed based on these studies in an attempt to more accurately simulate physiological bone-remodeling processes. As another approach, topology optimization originally devised in structural optimization has been also used in the computational simulation of the bone-remodeling process. The topology optimization method systematically and iteratively distributes material in a design domain, determining an optimal structure that minimizes an objective function. In this paper, we compared two seemingly different approaches in different fields-the strain energy density based bone-remodeling algorithm (biomechanical approach) and the compliance based structural topology optimization method (mechanical approach)-in terms of mathematical formulations, numerical difficulties, and behavior of their numerical solutions. Two numerical case studies were conducted to demonstrate their similarity and difference, and then the solution convergences were discussed quantitatively.

  1. Relationship between mechanical properties and bone mineral density of human femoral bone retrieved from patients with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yvonne; Lindner, Tobias; Fritsche, Andreas; Schiebenhöfer, Ann-Kristin; Souffrant, Robert; Kluess, Daniel; Skripitz, Ralf; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse retrieved human femoral bone samples using three different test methods, to elucidate the relationship between bone mineral density and mechanical properties. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 22 donors undergoing primary total hip replacement due to hip osteoarthritis and stored for a maximum of 24 hours postoperatively at + 6 °C to 8 °C.Analysis revealed an average structural modulus of 232±130 N/mm(2) and ultimate compression strength of 6.1±3.3 N/mm(2) with high standard deviations. Bone mineral densities of 385±133 mg/cm(2) and 353±172 mg/cm(3) were measured using thedual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT), respectively. Ashing resulted in a bone mineral density of 323±97 mg/cm(3). In particular, significant linear correlations were found between DXA and ashing with r = 0.89 (p < 0.01, n = 22) and between structural modulus and ashing with r = 0.76 (p < 0.01, n = 22).Thus, we demonstrated a significant relationship between mechanical properties and bone density. The correlations found can help to determine the mechanical load capacity of individual patients undergoing surgical treatments by means of noninvasive bone density measurements.

  2. Prediction of bone density around orthopedic implants delivering bisphosphonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Vincent A; Terrier, Alexandre; Gauthier, O; Bouler, J-M; Pioletti, Dominique P

    2009-06-19

    The fixation of an orthopedic implant depends strongly upon its initial stability. Peri-implant bone may resorb shortly after the surgery. This resorption is directly followed by new bone formation and implants fixation strengthening, the so-called secondary fixation. If the initial stability is not reached, the resorption continues and the implant fixation weakens, which leads to implant loosening. Studies with rats and dogs have shown that a solution to prevent peri-implant resorption is to deliver bisphosphonate from the implant surface. The aims of the study were, first, to develop a model of bone remodeling around an implant delivering bisphosphonate, second, to predict the bisphosphonate dose that would induce the maximal peri-implant bone density, and third to verify in vivo that peri-implant bone density is maximal with the calculated dose. The model consists of a bone remodeling equation and a drug diffusion equation. The change in bone density is driven by a mechanical stimulus and a drug stimulus. The drug stimulus function and the other numerical parameters were identified from experimental data. The model predicted that a dose of 0.3 microg of zoledronate on the implant would induce a maximal bone density. Implants with 0.3 microg of zoledronate were then implanted in rat femurs for 3, 6 and 9 weeks. We measured that peri-implant bone density was 4% greater with the calculated dose compared to the dose empirically described as best. The approach presented in this paper could be used in the design and analysis processes of experiments in local delivery of drug such as bisphosphonate.

  3. Progressive high-intensity resistance training and bone mineral density changes among premenopausal women: evidence of discordant site-specific skeletal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Carroll, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Regular weight-bearing physical activity has been widely recommended for adult women and may be beneficial in preserving bone mineral density (BMD). However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of resistance training on BMD in premenopausal women. Novel systematic review and meta-analysis evidence is presented on the effects of progressive high-intensity resistance training on BMD in premenopausal women. Structured computer searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, SportDiscus and Evidence Based Medicine Reviews Multifile were undertaken along with hand-searching of key journals and reference lists to locate relevant studies published up to September 2004. Criteria for included studies were published controlled studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of progressive, high-intensity resistance training studies on BMD in premenopausal women. Two authors reached consensus on all included and excluded studies. Study outcomes for analysis were radiographic BMD assessment from first follow-up at lumbar spine and femoral neck. Primary outcomes for analysis were absolute changes in BMD g/cm(2) at lumbar spine and femoral neck. Relative changes (percentage change) in BMD at lumbar spine were also assessed. Data were extracted from studies including study design, participant characteristics and treatment mode, intensity and duration, using electronic data extraction forms. Where necessary, relevant information was obtained by contacting study authors. Methodological quality of studies was assessed using a well recognised three-question instrument designed to assess bias. Informal assessment for small sample study effects and potential bias was undertaken through visual inspection of funnel plots. The weighted mean difference method (inverse of the variances) was used for combining study group estimates. Quantification of the effect of heterogeneity among study outcomes was assessed using the I(2) statistic. Random

  4. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) use, fracture and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lana J; Pasco, Julie A; Henry, Margaret J; Sanders, Kerrie M; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Kotowicz, Mark A; Berk, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Paracetamol is the most widely prescribed simple analgesic and antipyretic. It exerts its effects via cyclooxygenase and endocannabinoid pathways, which may affect signalling in bone cells and hence influence bone metabolism. Given the high rates of paracetamol use in the community and the evidence linking its mechanism of action to bone metabolism, we aimed to investigate the association between paracetamol use, fracture, and bone mineral density (BMD) in women participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (GOS). Cases (n = 569) were women aged ≥ 50 years identified from radiological reports as having sustained a fracture between 1994 and 1996. Controls (n = 775) were women without fracture recruited from the same region during this period. BMD was measured at the spine, hip, total body and forearm using dual energy absorptiometry. Medication use, medical history and lifestyle factors were self-reported. There were 69 (12.1%) paracetamol users among the cases and 63 (8.1%) among the controls. Paracetamol use increased the odds for fracture (OR = 1.56, 95%CI 1.09-2.24, p = 0.02). Adjustment for BMD at the spine, total hip and forearm did not confound the association. However, incorporating total body BMD into the model attenuated the association (adjusted OR = 1.46, 95%CI 1.00-2.14, p = 0.051). Further adjustment for age, weight, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, calcium intake, medication use, medical conditions, falls and previous fracture did not explain the association. These data suggest that paracetamol use is a risk factor for fracture, although the mechanism of action remains unclear.

  5. Effect of chronic metabolic acidosis on bone density and bone architecture in vivo in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Jürg A; Hulter, Henry N; Imboden, Peter; Krapf, Reto

    2014-03-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) might result in a decrease in vivo in bone mass based on its reported in vitro inhibition of bone mineralization, bone formation, or stimulation of bone resorption, but such data, in the absence of other disorders, have not been reported. CMA also results in negative nitrogen balance, which might decrease skeletal muscle mass. This study analyzed the net in vivo effects of CMA's cellular and physicochemical processes on bone turnover, trabecular and cortical bone density, and bone microarchitecture using both peripheral quantitative computed tomography and μCT. CMA induced by NH4Cl administration (15 mEq/kg body wt/day) in intact and ovariectomized (OVX) rats resulted in stable CMA (mean Δ[HCO3(-)]p = 10 mmol/l). CMA decreased plasma osteocalcin and increased TRAP5b in intact and OVX animals. CMA decreased total volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) after 6 and 10 wk (week 10: intact normal +2.1 ± 0.9% vs. intact acidosis -3.6 ± 1.2%, P metabolic acidosis induces a large decrease in cortical bone mass (a prime determinant of bone fragility) in intact and OVX rats and impairs bone microarchitecture characterized by a decrease in trabecular number.

  6. Chocolate consumption and bone density in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Devine, Amanda; Burke, Valerie; Dick, Ian M; Prince, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    Nutrition is important for the development and maintenance of bone structure and for the prevention of osteoporosis and fracture. The relation of chocolate intake with bone has yet to be investigated. We investigated the relation of chocolate consumption with measurements of whole-body and regional bone density and strength. Randomly selected women aged 70-85 y (n=1460) were recruited from the general population to a randomized controlled trial of calcium supplementation and fracture risk. We present here a cross-sectional analysis of 1001 of these women. Bone density and strength were measured with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and quantitative ultrasonography. Frequency of chocolate intake was assessed with the use of a questionnaire and condensed into 3 categories: or=1 time/d. Higher frequency of chocolate consumption was linearly related to lower bone density and strength (Por=1 times/d) consumption of chocolate, in comparison to chocolate daily had lower bone density and strength. Additional cross-sectional and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these observations. Confirmation of these findings could have important implications for prevention of osteoporotic fracture.

  7. High bone turnover in Irish professional jockeys.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Waldron-Lynch, F

    2012-02-01

    SUMMARY: Professional jockeys are routinely exposed to high impact trauma and sustain fractures frequently. We found that jockeys restrict their caloric intake in order to maintain regulation weights, and that bone turnover is high. There are significant health and safety implications for the racing industry. INTRODUCTION: Professional jockeys routinely sustain fractures from high impact falls. Jockeys maintain a low percentage body fat and a low body mass index (BMI) to achieve low weight targets in order to race. We evaluated dietary habits and bone metabolism in jockeys. METHODS: Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 27 male jockeys of the 144 jockeys licensed in Ireland. Fourteen (52%) had BMD T score below -1.0, of whom 12 consented to clinical review, nutritional survey, endocrine studies, and bone turnover markers (BTM). BTM were compared to age- and sex-matched controls (n = 16). RESULTS: BMI was 20.6 +\\/- 1.7 kg\\/m(2); previous fracture frequency was 3.2 +\\/- 2.0 per rider. All had normal endocrine axes. The jockeys\\' diet as determined by a 7-day dietary recall was deficient in energy, calcium, and vitamin D intake. Compared with the control group, the jockey group had evidence of increased bone turnover. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of the professional jockeys in Ireland have low-normal BMD, low BMI, and high bone turnover that may result from weight and dietary restrictions. These factors seem to have a deleterious effect on their bone health and predispose the jockeys to a high fracture risk that should be remediated.

  8. Genetic determinants of trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral densities and bone microstructure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Paternoster

    Full Text Available Most previous genetic epidemiology studies within the field of osteoporosis have focused on the genetics of the complex trait areal bone mineral density (aBMD, not being able to differentiate genetic determinants of cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD, trabecular vBMD, and bone microstructural traits. The objective of this study was to separately identify genetic determinants of these bone traits as analysed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT. Separate GWA meta-analyses for cortical and trabecular vBMDs were performed. The cortical vBMD GWA meta-analysis (n = 5,878 followed by replication (n = 1,052 identified genetic variants in four separate loci reaching genome-wide significance (RANKL, rs1021188, p = 3.6×10⁻¹⁴; LOC285735, rs271170, p = 2.7×10⁻¹²; OPG, rs7839059, p = 1.2×10⁻¹⁰; and ESR1/C6orf97, rs6909279, p = 1.1×10⁻⁹. The trabecular vBMD GWA meta-analysis (n = 2,500 followed by replication (n = 1,022 identified one locus reaching genome-wide significance (FMN2/GREM2, rs9287237, p = 1.9×10⁻⁹. High-resolution pQCT analyses, giving information about bone microstructure, were available in a subset of the GOOD cohort (n = 729. rs1021188 was significantly associated with cortical porosity while rs9287237 was significantly associated with trabecular bone fraction. The genetic variant in the FMN2/GREM2 locus was associated with fracture risk in the MrOS Sweden cohort (HR per extra T allele 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.60-0.93 and GREM2 expression in human osteoblasts. In conclusion, five genetic loci associated with trabecular or cortical vBMD were identified. Two of these (FMN2/GREM2 and LOC285735 are novel bone-related loci, while the other three have previously been reported to be associated with aBMD. The genetic variants associated with cortical and trabecular bone parameters differed, underscoring the complexity of the genetics of bone parameters. We propose

  9. A High Fiber and Vegetable Protein Diet is Associated with Low Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Young Oligo-amenorrheic Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Elizabeth; Sokoloff, Natalia Cano; Maffazioli, Giovana D. N.; Ackerman, Kathryn E.; Woolley, Ryan; Holmes, Tara M.; Anderson, Ellen J.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2015-01-01

    Background Associations of bone mineral density (BMD) with specific food components, including dietary fiber and isoflavones (that have a negative association with serum estrogen), are unclear and need to be determined, particularly in a population more likely to consume large amounts of these nutrients (such as young athletes). Objective To determine dietary intake of specific food components in oligo-amenorrheic athletes (OA) compared to eumenorrheic athletes (EA) and non-athletes (NA), and associations of the dietary intake of these nutrients with lumbar spine BMD. Design and Subjects This cross-sectional study evaluated 68 OA, 24 EA, and 26 NA 14–23 years old. Measurements included four-day food records (assessed using Nutrient Data System for Research software), a DXA scan evaluating lumbar spine BMD and body composition, and hormone levels. Multivariate analysis was used to estimate associations of nutrients with lumbar spine BMD. Results Compared with EA and NA, OA had higher intake of fiber, phytic acid, and vegetable protein (pfiber [β coefficient (β)= −0.30; p=0.01], vegetable protein (β = −0.28, p=0.02), phytic acid (β = −0.27, p=0.02), genistein (β = −0.25, p=0.01), and daidzein (β = −0.24, p=0.01), and positively with %SFA (β =0.32, p=0.0006)]. Conclusions Compared to EA and NA, OA had a higher dietary intake of fiber, vegetable protein and phytic acid, which were inversely associated with lumbar spine BMD Z-scores. Further studies are needed to assess dietary recommendations for OA to optimize bone accrual. PMID:26686817

  10. Bone mineral density in estrogen-deficient young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popat, Vaishali B; Calis, Karim A; Vanderhoof, Vien H; Cizza, Giovanni; Reynolds, James C; Sebring, Nancy; Troendle, James F; Nelson, Lawrence M

    2009-07-01

    Osteoporosis primarily affects postmenopausal women. However, young women with estrogen deficiency also are at increased risk for low bone density. The aim of the study was to assess bone density and associated risk factors for reduced bone density in young, estrogen-deficient women using primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as the disease model. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a tertiary care research center. We studied women with POI (n = 442), concurrent controls (n = 70), and matched controls from NHANES III (n = 353). We measured bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Patients on average had 2-3% lower BMD at L1-L4, femoral neck, and total hip (P estrogen deficiency (P = 0.018), low (estrogen replacement nonadherence (P = 0.002), low calcium intake (P = 0.005), and lack of exercise (P = 0.005). As compared to Caucasians, African-American and Asian women with POI were 3.18 and 4.34 times more likely, respectively, to have Z-scores below -2 (P = estrogen deficiency are more likely to have BMD below the expected range for age. This racial disparity appears to be related to a combined effect of several modifiable risk factors. Delay in diagnosis of POI also contributes to reduced bone density by delaying proper therapy.

  11. Altered bone metabolism and bone density in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Stephan; Krins, Stefan; Knauerhase, Andreas; Löhr, Matthias

    2015-01-31

    Due to maldigestion, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) in chronic pancreatitis may lead to deficiencies in fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamin D. This may, in turn, can cause disturbances in bone metabolism and reduce bone mineral density. To conduct a prospective study of maldigestion, bone metabolism, and bone mineral density in a group of patients with chronic pancreatitis. A total of 50 male patients with proven chronic pancreatitis (36/50 alcohol; 42/50 smokers) were studied. Pancreatic exocrine function was assessed using the fecal elastase-1 test. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for parameters related to pancreatitis, nutrition, endocrine status, and bone metabolism. Bone mineral density was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorption (DXA) and conventional vertebral X-rays. A standardized questionnaire for osteoporosis was given. Twenty-eight of the patients had PEI (fecal elastase-1 200 µg/g) and calcium, 25-OH-cholecalciferol, or deoxypyridinoline. Of the 15 patients who underwent DXA, 5 had normal bone mineral density (T score >-1), 9 had osteopenia (T score from -1 to - 2.5), and 1 had osteoporosis (T score <-2.5). There was a trend toward a correlation between low fecal elastase-1 and low T scores (P=0.065). Low fecal elastase-1 correlated with low bone mineral density in conventional X-rays (P<0.05). Patients receiving pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) had significantly higher DXA values (P<0.05). Patients with chronic pancreatitis have osteoporosis, along with abnormal bone metabolism and reduced bone mineral density as measured by DXA and X-ray. PERT is associated with less osteopathy.

  12. Reduced Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism in Aquaporin-1 Knockout Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qing-tian; MA Qing-jie; HE Cheng-yan; WANG Cai-xia; GAO Shi; HOU Xia; MA Tong-hui

    2007-01-01

    An overt phenotype of aquaporin-1 knockout(AQP1 ko) mice is growth retardation, suggesting possible defects in bone development and metabolism. In the present study, we analyzed the bone mineral density(BMD), bone calcium and phosphorus contents, and bone metabolism in an AQP1 ko mouse model. The BMD of femurs in AQP1 ko mice was significantly lower than that of litter-matched wildtype mice as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Consistently, the contents of bone total calcium and phosphorus were also significantly lower in AQP1 ko mice. The reduced BMD caused by AQP1 deficiency mainly affect male mice. Bone metabolic activity, as indicated by 99mTc-MDP absorption measurements, was remarkably reduced in AQP1 ko mice. These results provide the first evidence that AQP1 play an important role in bone structure and metabolism.

  13. Bone Mineral Density, PCB, PCQ and PCDF in Yusho

    OpenAIRE

    吉村, 俊朗; 中野, 治郎; 枡田, 智子; 徳田, 昌紘; 榊原, 淳; 片岡, 英樹; 沖田, 実

    2009-01-01

    We measured bone mineral density of the distal end of radius with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, serum cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum Ca, serum P, blood PCB level, blood PCQ level and blood PCDF level in Yusho. As a result, the osteoporosis group ( or = 70% and < 80% of YAM BMD), 16.1%, ...

  14. Is There an Association Between Bone Mineral Density and Mammographic Density? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Min; Holley, Susan; Appleton, Catherine; Toriola, Adetunji T

    2017-04-01

    Both bone mineral density (BMD) and breast density are related to reproductive hormone levels. This suggests that BMD and breast density could be meaningfully associated, and serve as surrogate markers for breast cancer risk. However, few studies have investigated the association of BMD with percent mammographic density, making it difficult to draw meaningful conclusions. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in electronic databases till April 2016 using the following search terms: "bone density," "bone mineral density," "mammographic breast density," "breast density," and "mammographic density." We identified 203 articles, of which 8 met the inclusion criteria for this review. BMD does not appear to be associated with percent mammographic density. BMD at the spine was weakly positively associated with percent mammographic density among postmenopausal women who were not hormone users, while BMD at the hip and legs was positively associated with percent mammographic density among premenopausal women. On the other hand, one study reported an inverse association of BMD at the spine and hip with percent mammographic density among perimenopausal women. In this review, we found no evidence of an association between BMD and percent mammographic density.

  15. An expression relating breaking stress and density of trabecular bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajapakse, C.S.; Thomsen, J.S.; Ortiz, J.S.E.

    2004-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is the principal diagnostic tool used in clinical settings to diagnose and monitor osteoporosis. Experimental studies on ex vivo bone samples from multiple skeletal locations have been used to propose that their breaking stress bears a power-law relationship to volumetric...... BMD, with a location-dependent index. We argue that a power-law cannot represent effects of trabecular removal, which is one of the leading causes of reduction in bone strength. A new expression, proposed on the basis of theoretical and numerical analysis of a mathematical model, is tested using...

  16. WNT16 influences bone mineral density, cortical bone thickness, bone strength, and osteoporotic fracture risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Feng Zheng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with cortical bone thickness (CBT and bone mineral density (BMD by performing two separate genome-wide association study (GWAS meta-analyses for CBT in 3 cohorts comprising 5,878 European subjects and for BMD in 5 cohorts comprising 5,672 individuals. We then assessed selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for osteoporotic fracture in 2,023 cases and 3,740 controls. Association with CBT and forearm BMD was tested for ∼2.5 million SNPs in each cohort separately, and results were meta-analyzed using fixed effect meta-analysis. We identified a missense SNP (Thr>Ile; rs2707466 located in the WNT16 gene (7q31, associated with CBT (effect size of -0.11 standard deviations [SD] per C allele, P = 6.2 × 10(-9. This SNP, as well as another nonsynonymous SNP rs2908004 (Gly>Arg, also had genome-wide significant association with forearm BMD (-0.14 SD per C allele, P = 2.3 × 10(-12, and -0.16 SD per G allele, P = 1.2 × 10(-15, respectively. Four genome-wide significant SNPs arising from BMD meta-analysis were tested for association with forearm fracture. SNP rs7776725 in FAM3C, a gene adjacent to WNT16, was associated with a genome-wide significant increased risk of forearm fracture (OR = 1.33, P = 7.3 × 10(-9, with genome-wide suggestive signals from the two missense variants in WNT16 (rs2908004: OR = 1.22, P = 4.9 × 10(-6 and rs2707466: OR = 1.22, P = 7.2 × 10(-6. We next generated a homozygous mouse with targeted disruption of Wnt16. Female Wnt16(-/- mice had 27% (P<0.001 thinner cortical bones at the femur midshaft, and bone strength measures were reduced between 43%-61% (6.5 × 10(-13bone strength, and risk of fracture.

  17. The influence of vegan diet on bone mineral density and biochemical bone turnover markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Gajewska, Joanna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Franek, Edward; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Vegetarian diets can be healthy when they are well balanced and if a variety of foods is consumed. However, elimination of animal products from the diet (vegan diets) decreases the intake of some essential nutrients and may influence the bone metabolism. This is especially important in childhood and adolescence, when growth and bone turnover are most intensive. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of vegan diet on bone density (BMD) density and serum concentrations of bone metabolism markers. We examined a family on vegan diet which consisted of parents and two children. Dietary constituents were analysed using a nutritional program. Total and regional BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Concentrations of calcium and phosphate in serum obtained from fasting patients were determined by colorimetric methods, 25-hydroxyvitamin D by the chemiluminescence method and bone turnover markers by specific enzyme immunoassays. In studied vegans, the dietary intake of phosphate was adequate while calcium and vitamin D were below the recommended range. Concentrations of calcium, phosphate and bone turnover markers in the serum of all subjects were within the physiological range, but 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was low. Age-matched Z-score total BMD was between -0.6 and 0.3 in adults, however in children it was lower (-0.9 and -1.0). Z-score BMD lumbar spine (L2-L4) was between -0.9 to -1.9 in parents and -1.5 to -1.7 in children. Our results suggest that an inadequate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D may impair the bone turnover rate and cause a decrease in bone mineral density in vegans. The parameters of bone density and bone metabolism should be monitored in vegans, especially children, in order to prevent bone abnormalities.

  18. Cannabis use and bone mineral density: NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Donald; Plinke, Wesley; Hooker, Elizabeth R; Nielson, Carrie M

    2017-12-01

    Cannabis use is rising in the USA. Its relationship to cannabinoid signaling in bone cells implies its use could affect bone mineral density (BMD) in the population. In a national survey of people ages 20-59, we found no association between self-reported cannabis use and BMD of the hip or spine. Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in the USA, and its recreational use has recently been approved in several US states. Cannabinoids play a role in bone homeostasis. We aimed to determine the association between cannabis use and BMD in US adults. In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010, 4743 participants between 20 and 59 years old, history of cannabis use was categorized into never, former (previous use, but not in last 30 days), light (1-4 days of use in last 30 days), and heavy (≥5 days of use in last 30 days). Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between cannabis use and DXA BMD of the proximal femur and lumbar spine with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and race/ethnicity among other BMD determinants. Sixty percent of the population reported ever using cannabis; 47% were former users, 5% were light users, and 7% were heavy users. Heavy cannabis users were more likely to be male, have a lower BMI, increased daily alcohol intake, increased tobacco pack-years, and were more likely to have used other illegal drugs (cocaine, heroin, or methamphetamines). No association between cannabis and BMD was observed for any level of use (p ≥ 0.28). A history of cannabis use, although highly prevalent and related to other risk factors for low BMD, was not independently associated with BMD in this cross-sectional study of American men and women.

  19. Bone mineral density, Bone mineral contents, MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels in Human Mandible and alveolar bone: Simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Catalina, Maria

    Exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes in astronauts and cosmonauts, including an osteoporosis-like loss of bone mass. It has been reported that head-down tilt bed-rest studies mimic many of the observations seen in flights. There is no study on the correlation on effects of mandibular bone and alveolar bone loss in both sex in simulating microgravity. This study was designed to determine the Bone mineral density and GCF MMP-8 MMP-9 in normal healthy subject of both sexes in simulated microgravity condition of -6 head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. The subjects of this investigation were 10 male and 10 female volunteers participated in three weeks 6 HDT bed-rest exposure. The Bone density and bone mineral contents were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and in simulated microgravity. The GCF MMP-8 MMP-8 were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Human Quantikine MMP-8,-9 ELISA kit). The bone mineral density and bone mineral contents levels were significantly decreased in simulated microgravity condition in both genders, although insignificantly loss was higher in females as compared to males. MMP-8 MMP-9 levels were significantly increased in simulated microgravity as compared to normal condition although insignificantly higher in females as compared to males. Further study is required on large samples size including all factors effecting in simulated microgravity and microgravity. Keys words-Simulated microgravity condition, head-down-tilt, Bone loss, MMP-8, MMP-9, Bone density, Bone mineral contents.

  20. Bone geometry, density, and microarchitecture in the distal radius and tibia in adults with osteogenesis imperfecta type I assessed by high-resolution pQCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Hald, Jannie Dahl; Hansen, Stinus

    2012-01-01

    Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary disorder characterized by decreased biosynthesis or impaired morphology of collagen type-1 that leads to decreased bone mass and increased bone fragility. We hypothesized that patients with OI have altered bone microstructure and bone geometry. In this...... treated with bisphosphonates. HR-pQCT at the distal radius and distal tibia and dual-energy X-ray absorptiomentry of total hip, femoral neck, trochanteric region and the lumbar spine (L1-L4) were performed. The patients were shorter than the controls (159¿±¿10¿cm vs. 170¿±¿9¿cm, p¿...

  1. Preliminary report: effect of adrenal androgen and estrogen on bone maturation and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisaka, O; Hoshi, M; Kanazawa, S; Numata, M; Nakajima, D; Kanno, S; Negishi, M; Nishikura, K; Nitta, A; Imataka, M; Kuribayashi, T; Kano, K

    2001-04-01

    To clarify the independent physiological roles of adrenal androgen and estrogen on bone growth, we compared the lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in prepubertal girls with virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (n = 17) and girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) (n = 18). When BMD was analyzed according to chronologic age, no significant differences were found between CPP and CAH patients. However, when adjusted to bone age, BMD was statistically higher in CAH than in CPP subjects. This finding suggests that adrenal androgen, as well as estrogen, plays an important role in increasing BMD. Adrenal androgen may act on bone not only as androgen, but as estrogen after having been metabolized into an aromatized bone-active compound in peripheral tissues, such as bone and fat. Therefore, adrenal androgen may have a more important role in increasing BMD than previously realized.

  2. Thermal Conductivity of Human Bone in Cryoprobe Freezing as Related to Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kyle E; Baldini, Todd; Lindeque, Bennie G

    2016-12-09

    Cryoprobes create localized cell destruction through freezing. Bone is resistant to temperature flow but is susceptible to freezing necrosis at warmer temperatures than tumor cells. Few studies have determined the thermal conductivity of human bone. No studies have examined conductivity as related to density. The study goal was to examine thermal conductivity in human bone while comparing differences between cancellous and cortical bone. An additional goal was to establish a relationship between bone density and thermal conductivity. Six knee joints from 5 cadavers were obtained. The epiphyseal region was sliced in half coronally prior to inserting an argon-circulating cryoprobe directed away from the joint line. Thermistor thermometers were placed perpendicularly at measured increments, and the freezing cycle was recorded until steady-state conditions were achieved. For 2 cortical samples, the probe was placed intramedullary in metaphyseal samples and measurements were performed radially from the central axis of each sample. Conductivity was calculated using Fournier's Law and then plotted against measured density of each sample. Across samples, density of cancellous bone ranged from 0.86 to 1.38 g/mL and average thermal conductivity ranged between 0.404 and 0.55 W/mK. Comparatively, cortical bone had a density of 1.70 to 1.86 g/mL and thermal conductivity of 0.0742 to 0.109 W/mK. A strong 2-degree polynomial correlation was seen (R(2)=0.8226, P<.001). Bone is highly resistant to temperature flow. This resistance varies and inversely correlates strongly with density. This information is clinically relevant to maximize tumor ablation while minimizing morbidity through unnecessary bone loss and damage to surrounding structures. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.].

  3. Effect of treadmill gait on bone markers and bone mineral density of quadriplegic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C.L. Carvalho

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Quadriplegic subjects present extensive muscle mass paralysis which is responsible for the dramatic decrease in bone mass, increasing the risk of bone fractures. There has been much effort to find an efficient treatment to prevent or reverse this significant bone loss. We used 21 male subjects, mean age 31.95 ± 8.01 years, with chronic quadriplegia, between C4 and C8, to evaluate the effect of treadmill gait training using neuromuscular electrical stimulation, with 30-50% weight relief, on bone mass, comparing individual dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry responses and biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Subjects were divided into gait (N = 11 and control (N = 10 groups. The gait group underwent gait training for 6 months, twice a week, for 20 min, while the control group did not perform gait. Bone mineral density (BMD of lumbar spine, femoral neck, trochanteric area, and total femur, and biochemical markers (osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, pyridinoline, and deoxypyridinoline were measured at the beginning of the study and 6 months later. In the gait group, 81.8% of the subjects presented a significant increase in bone formation and 66.7% also presented a significant decrease of bone resorption markers, whereas 30% of the controls did not present any change in markers and 20% presented an increase in bone formation. Marker results did not always agree with BMD data. Indeed, many individuals with increased bone formation presented a decrease in BMD. Most individuals in the gait group presented an increase in bone formation markers and a decrease in bone resorption markers, suggesting that gait training, even with 30-50% body weight support, was efficient in improving the bone mass of chronic quadriplegics.

  4. Estrogen levels influence medullary bone quantity and density in female house finches and pine siskins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Maria E; Veglia, Megan K; Drucker, Kevin A; Brazeal, Kathleen R; Hahn, Thomas P; Watts, Heather E

    2017-05-15

    Medullary bone, a non-structural osseous tissue, serves as a temporary storage site for calcium that is needed for eggshell production in a number of avian species. Previous research focusing primarily on domesticated species belonging to the Anseriformes, Galliformes, and Columbiformes has indicated that rising estrogen levels are a key signal stimulating medullary bone formation; Passeriformes (which constitute over half of extant bird species and are generally small) have received little attention. In the current study, we examined the influence of estrogen on medullary bone and cortical bone in two species of Passeriformes: the Pine Siskin (Spinus pinus) and the House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus). Females of these species received either an estradiol implant or were untreated as a control. After 4.5-5months, reproductive condition was assessed and leg (femora) and wing (humeri) bones were collected for analysis using high-resolution (10μm) micro-computed tomography scanning. We found that in both species estradiol-treated females had significantly greater medullary bone quantity in comparison to untreated females, but we found no differences in cortical bone quantity or microarchitecture. We were also able to examine medullary bone density in the pine siskins and found that estradiol treatment significantly increased medullary bone density. Furthermore, beyond the effect of the estradiol treatment, we observed a relationship between medullary bone quantity and ovarian condition that suggests that the timing of medullary bone formation may be related to the onset of yolk deposition in these species. Further research is needed to better understand the precise timing and endocrine regulation of medullary bone formation in Passerines and to determine the extent to which female Passerines rely on medullary bone calcium during the formation of calcified eggshells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High density photovoltaic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haigh, R.E.; Jacobson, G.F.; Wojtczuk, S. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

    1997-10-14

    Photovoltaic technology can directly generate high voltages in a solid state material through the series interconnect of many photovoltaic diodes. We are investigating the feasibility of developing an electrically isolated, high-voltage power supply using miniature photovoltaic devices that convert optical energy to electrical energy.

  6. Altered Bone Metabolism and Bone Density in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Haas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Due to maldigestion, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI in chronic pancreatitis may lead to deficiencies in fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamin D. This may, in turn, can cause disturbances in bone metabolism and reduce bone mineral density. Objective To conduct a prospective study of maldigestion, bone metabolism, and bone mineral density in a group of patients with chronic pancreatitis. Methods A total of 50 male patients with proven chronic pancreatitis (36/50 alcohol; 42/50 smokers were studied. Pancreatic exocrine function was assessed using the fecal elastase-1 test. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for parameters related to pancreatitis, nutrition, endocrine status, and bone metabolism. Bone mineral density was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorption (DXA and conventional vertebral X-rays. A standardized questionnaire for osteoporosis was given. Results Twenty-eight of the patients had PEI (fecal elastase-1 200 µg/g, 25 had bone pain, and 21 had a history of bne fractures. Serum 25-OH-cholecalciferol and urine calcium were decreased and deoxypyridinoline concentrations were increased in urine. Serum calcium, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone were within normal limits. There was no statistical correlation between three classes of fecal elastase-1 (200 µg/g and calcium, 25-OH-cholecalciferol, or deoxypyridinoline. Of the 15 patients who underwent DXA, 5 had normal bone mineral density (T score >-1, 9 had osteopenia (T score from -1 to -2.5, and 1 had osteoporosis (T score -2.5. There was a trend toward a correlation between low fecal elastase-1 and low T scores (P=0.065. Low fecal elastase-1 correlated with low bone mineral density in conventional X-rays (p<0.05. Patients receiving pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT had significantly higher DXA values (p<0.05. Conclusions Patients with chronic pancreatitis have osteoporosis, along with abnormal bone metabolism and reduced bone

  7. Bone Mineral Density Reduction Following Irradiation of Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Total body bone mineral density (TBBMD was measured by X-ray absorptiometry in 46 brain tumor patients aged from 3.8 to 28.7 years (mean 14.9 y at a mean of 6.4 y (range 1.4-14.8 y after end of treatment for brain tumor.

  8. Does walking exercise improve bone mineral density of young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Does walking exercise improve bone mineral density of young obese and ... min walking between 50-75% of maximal age adjusted heart rate, 3 days per ... Also no significant change was observed in blood samples in either group (p>0.05).

  9. Relationship of bone mineral density to progression of knee osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective. To evaluate the longitudinal relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and BMD changes and the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), as measured by cartilage outcomes. Methods. We used observational cohort data from the Vitamin D for Knee Osteoarthritis trial. Bilateral femoral ...

  10. Difference in Bone Mineral Density between Young versus Midlife Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Sonya; Anderson, Pamela S.; Benton, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Older age is a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD). Older women have been found to have lower BMD than younger women. Recent trends for decreased calcium consumption and physical activity may place younger women at greater risk than previously anticipated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age…

  11. Bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover in patients with renal transplantation and regular hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir M. Ibrahim,. Khalid H Abdel-Mageed, Magdi M El-Sharkawy

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decreased bone mineral density (BMD is a known complication for the uremic state antedating dialysis / renal transplantation (RTx. The issue of stabilized versus continued decrease of BMD especially on long-term basis, continues to be unresolved. Patients and Methods: !"#"hemodialysis (HD-#" $% " &'( &'(-group had been evaluated for metabolic bone changes by calcium homeostasis parameters (serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase "ALP" and vitamin D "calcitriol", markers of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase "BAP", osteocalcin "OC", N-terminal propeptide of collagen type I "PINP", bone resorption markers (pyridoline "PYL" and deoxypyridoline "DPYL", and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH. Also, BMD had been assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA twice, at inclusion time and * ! "" Results: comparing both groups regarding calcium homeostasis, markers of bone turnover and iPTH showed non significant difference. However, there was a significant drop of BMD (as evidenced by T-score at follow up in the HD group, compared to stabilization of T-score for the RTx-group. Furthermore, annual T-score change was significantly more in HD-group, compared to RTx-group. Results also showed that, the best marker correlating with T-score annual changes and iPTH to be PINP. Irrespective of normal calcium homeostasis parameters, low BMD is a prevalent disorder among patients on regular HD and renal transplants.Conclusion: Follow up for * ! " %+ ,- ." % """"!to continued bone loss in patients on regular HD. This could raise recommendation for calcium and calcitriol supplementation, especially in the predialysis period, early post transplantation period, and continued guided replacement for those on maintenance HD. Serum PINP showed best correlations with BMD changes and iPTH and could be considered a reliable marker reflecting bone formation in those patients. Keywords: hemodialysis, renal transplantation, markers of bone

  12. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength evaluation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S N Khan; R M Warkhedkar; A K Shyam

    2015-08-01

    The bone density (BMD) is a medical term normally referring to the amount of mineral matter per square centimetre of bones. Twenty-five patients (18 female and 7 male patients with a mean age of 71.3 years) undergoing both lumbar spine DXA scans and computed tomography imaging were evaluated to determine if HU correlates with BMD and T-scores. BMD is used in clinical medicine as an indirect indicator of osteoporosis and fracture risk. This medical bone density is not the true physical ``density'' of the bone, which would be computed as mass per volume. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, previously DEXA), a means of measuring BMD, is the most widely used and most thoroughly studied bone density measurement technologies. Different types of bone strength are required for various applications, but this strength calculation requires different machines for each strength property or it is done by different software like X-ray, CT scan, DEXA and BIA. The paper includes the design of an experimental setup which performs different types of test like tension, compression, three point bending, four point bending and torsion. The modified correlation between BMD and HU for various strength calculations is found out and validated with the experimental results.

  13. Comparison of radiograph-based texture analysis and bone mineral density with three-dimensional microarchitecture of trabecular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjanomennahary, P; Ghalila, S Sevestre; Malouche, D; Marchadier, A; Rachidi, M; Benhamou, Cl; Chappard, C

    2011-01-01

    Hip fracture is a serious health problem and textural methods are being developed to assess bone quality. The authors aimed to perform textural analysis at femur on high-resolution digital radiographs compared to three-dimensional (3D) microarchitecture comparatively to bone mineral density. Sixteen cadaveric femurs were imaged with an x-ray device using a C-MOS sensor. One 17 mm square region of interest (ROI) was selected in the femoral head (FH) and one in the great trochanter (GT). Two-dimensional (2D) textural features from the co-occurrence matrices were extracted. Site-matched measurements of bone mineral density were performed. Inside each ROI, a 16 mm diameter core was extracted. Apparent density (Dapp) and bone volume proportion (BV/TV(Arch)) were measured from a defatted bone core using Archimedes' principle. Microcomputed tomography images of the entire length of the core were obtained (Skyscan 1072) at 19.8 microm of resolution and usual 3D morphometric parameters were computed on the binary volume after calibration from BV/TV(Arch). Then, bone surface/bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, and trabecular number were obtained by direct methods without model assumption and the structure model index was calculated. In univariate analysis, the correlation coefficients between 2D textural features and 3D morphological parameters reached 0.83 at the FH and 0.79 at the GT. In multivariate canonical correlation analysis, coefficients of the first component reached 0.95 at the FH and 0.88 at the GT. Digital radiographs, widely available and economically viable, are an alternative method for evaluating bone microarchitectural structure.

  14. Body mass index, general fatness, lipid profile and bone mineral density in young women and men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopiczko Anna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The bone tissue is metabolically active. Throughout the entire life, it undergoes changes in the form of bone resorption processes which are successive, with the participation of the resorbing cells and bone formation processes. The aim of the study was to evaluate mineral density and bone mass tissue and the lipid profile, BMI, total body fat in young females and males. The study involved 100 people (50 females and 50 males studying in Warsaw at the age of 23,2 ± 4,0 years. The densitometry method of the forearm was used for the assessment of bone mineral density (BMD and bone mass (BMC. The method of bioelectrical impedance was used for the assessment of body components. Basic body dimensions and indicators were assessed using anthropometric measurements. Body height, body mass and the needs for the densitometry study of the forearm were measured. The total cholesterol concentration was determined in the blood serum using diagnostic kits, as well as high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C and triglycerides. The concentration of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C was calculated. While in men the occurrence of a significant, positive correlation was stated between the concentration of the HDL cholesterol fraction and the mineral density and T-score index in the ultra-distal point, the analysis of the compounds of mineral density (BMD, bone mass (BMC of the forearm, T-score index with somatic features in women showed a significant, positive relation between the body weight and the bone mass mineral density and T-score indicator in the proximal point. Also, a significant weak, positive correlation was observed between the BMI, the mineral density and T-score indicator in the proximal point. In men, the occurrence of significant, positive correlations was stated between the body weight and BMC, BMD, T-score indicator in the proximal point of the forearm bone and ultra-distal point. Similar relations were observed between the BMI, mineral density, T

  15. A Review of Dental Implant Treatment Planning and Implant Design Based on Bone Density

    OpenAIRE

    Torkzaban; Moradi Haghgoo; khoshhal; Arabi; Razaghi

    2013-01-01

    Context A key determinant for clinical success is the diagnosis of the bone density in a potential implant site. The percentage of bone-implant contact is related to bone density, and the axial stress contours around an implant are affected by the density of bone. Evidence Acquisition A number of reports have emphasized the importance of the quality of bone on the survival of dental implants. The volume and density of the recipien...

  16. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mails: lnogueira@con.ufrj.br; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2007-07-01

    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}OH{sub 2}], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 {mu}m ({+-}5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95 g.cm{sup -3} and 1.92 g.cm{sup -3} respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content

  17. High Energy Density Capacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA?s future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art energy storage devices which require high energy density, high reliability, and...

  18. [Bone mineral density, PCB, PCQ and PCDF in Yusho].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Toshiro; Nakano, Jiro; Masuda, Tomoko; Tokuda, Masahiro; Sakakibara, Atsushi; Kataoka, Hideki; Okita, Minoru

    2009-05-01

    We measured bone mineral density of the distal end of radius with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, serum cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum Ca, serum P, blood PCB level, blood PCQ level and blood PCDF level in Yusho. As a result, the osteoporosis group ( or = 70% and or = 80% of YAM BMD) group was 76.8%. Also, 42.3% of all female tested subjects observed in osteoporosis group. The moderate group, 19.2%, the normal group was 38.5%. There was no difference in PCB blood level, PCQ, PCDF for men and women in osteoporosis group, moderate group, and in the normal group. Serum cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen increased in the male osteoporosis group, but serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase did not change. This study was inconclusive since the results did not determine the influence that PCB, PCQ, PCDF gave to bone density and bone metabolism.

  19. Bone Mineral Density in Patients Receiving Anticonvulsant Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Yıldırım

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine possible effects of anticonvulsant drugs on bone mineral density. Twenty two patients with epilepsy who have been receiving anticonvulsant drugs and also 22 healthy controls were included in the study. The average age was 28.9 ± 8.9 years in the patients group and 30.5 ± 6.9 years in the control group. The average drug receiving time was 6.45 ± 4.2 years. At baseline ESR, hemogram, urine deoxypiridinoline (DPD, routine biochemical and hormonal values were determined in both groups. Lumbar spine and left femur bone mineral density (BMD values were determined with hologic 2000 DEXA. In the statistical analysis, urine DPD levels in the patient group were significantly higher than control group (p0.05. Lumbar spine and left femur BMD values were significantly decreased in patients group (respectively p<0.01, p<0.001. We determined that in the patients using anticonvulsant drugs there was an increase in bone resorption and this effect was more evident in cortical bone than trabecular bone.

  20. Bone mineral density in adult coeliac disease: An updated review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Lucendo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: coeliac disease (CD affects around 1-2 % of the world population. Most patients are now diagnosed when adults, suffering the consequences of an impaired bone mineralization. This review aims to provide an updated discussion on the relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD, osteopenia and osteoporosis, and CD. Methods: a PubMed search restricted to the last 15 years was conducted. Sources cited in the results were also reviewed to identify potential sources of information. Results: low BMD affects up to 75 % of celiac patients, and can be found at any age, independently of positive serological markers and presence of digestive symptoms. The prevalence of CD among osteoporotic patients is also significantly increased. Two theories try to explain this origin of low BMD: Micronutrients malabsorption (including calcium and vitamin D determined by villous atrophy has been related to secondary hyperparathyroidism and incapacity to achieve the potential bone mass peak; chronic inflammation was also related with RANKL secretion, osteoclasts activation and increased bone resorption. As a consequence, celiac patients have a risk for bone fractures that exceed 40 % that of matched non-affected population. Treatment of low BMD in CD comprises gluten-free diet, calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and biphosphonates, although its effects on CD have not been specifically assessed. Conclusions: up to 75 % of celiac patients and 40 % of that diagnosed in adulthood present a low BMD and a variable increase in the risk of bone fractures. Epidemiological changes in CD make bone density scans more relevant for adult coeliacs.

  1. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prelack Kathy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence, in this sport that emphasizes leanness. Although, these athletes apparently have sufficient osteogenic stimuli to mitigate the effects of possible low energy availability on bone health, the extent or magnitude of bone accrual also varies with training effects, which differ among skater disciplines. Purpose We studied differences in total and regional bone mineral density in 36 nationally ranked skaters among 3 skater disciplines: single, pairs, and dancers. Methods Bone mineral density (BMD of the total body and its regions was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Values for total body, spine, pelvis and leg were entered into a statistical mixed regression model to identify the effect of skater discipline on bone mineralization while controlling for energy, vitamin D, and calcium intake. Results The skaters had a mean body mass index of 19.8 ± 2.1 and % fat mass of 19.2 ± 5.8. After controlling for dietary intakes of energy, calcium, and vitamin D, there was a significant relationship between skater discipline and BMD (p = 0.002, with single skaters having greater BMD in the total body, legs, and pelvis than ice dancers (p  Conclusions Single and pair skaters have greater BMD than ice dancers. The osteogenic effect of physical training is most apparent in single skaters, particularly in the bone loading sites of the leg and pelvis.

  2. Quantitative assessment of interradicular bone density in the maxilla and mandible: implications in clinical orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone density at the interradicular area plays an important role during orthodontic treatment. In view of this fact, the study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the bone density at the interradicular areas of the alveolar and basal bones of maxilla and mandible by computed tomography. Methods One hundred and nine computed tomographic images were randomly selected, and bone density was measured in Hounsfield units (HU) with bone mineral density software (Siemens VA20A_SP3A). The sample consisted of 78 males (mean age 29.5 years, range 20 to 40 years) and 31 females (mean age 27.6 years, range 20 to 40 years). Cortical and cancellous bone density was measured at the interradicular areas at the alveolar and basal bone levels of the maxilla and mandible, and the data was subjected to statistical analysis for comparisons. Results The highest cortical bone density was observed between the second premolar and first molar at the alveolar bone level and between the first and second molars at the basal bone level in the maxilla. Maxillary tuberosity showed the least bone density. The density of the cortical bone was greater in the mandible than in the maxilla and showed a progressive increase from the incisor to the retromolar area. The basal bone showed a higher density thanthe alveolar bone. Conclusion Different qualities of the bone were found in the anatomic regions studied, which confirms the importance of knowledge of site-specific bone tissue density to correlate with various clinical findings. PMID:24325883

  3. Changes of thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism indexes in patients with hyperthyroidism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wang; Hua-Ling Ruan; Yi Lia Min Zhang; Chang-Jun Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the changes of thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism.Methods:A total of 216 cases of hyperthyroidism in our hospital from December 2015 to January 2015 were selected as the case group, 216 cases of healthy people selected the same period in our hospital physical examination center as the control group, detected thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism indexes of all the studied subjects and compared with each other.Results:In this study, it was found that diastolic blood pressure, BMI, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, VLDL-C, TSH were all significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05), systolic blood pressure, LDL-C, GLU, T3, T4, FT3, FT4, HTG, TG-Ab, TPO-Ab in case group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05). Right calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) in case group was significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05), BGP, PTH in case group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Hyperthyroidism can cause thyroid hormone levels abnormal, abnormal increase autoantibodies, decrease bone density, bone metabolism actively, easy to form osteoporosis, clinical treatment of hyperthyroidism in the same time, should actively prevent the occurrence of osteoporosis.

  4. Low fatness, reduced fat intake and adequate plasmatic concentrations of LDL-cholesterol are associated with high bone mineral density in women: a cross-sectional study with control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkis Karin S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several parameters are associated with high bone mineral density (BMD, such as overweight, black background, intense physical activity (PA, greater calcium intake and some medications. The objectives are to evaluate the prevalence and the main aspects associated with high BMD in healthy women. Methods After reviewing the database of approximately 21,500 BMD scans performed in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2005 to October 2010, high BMD (over 1400 g/cm2 at lumbar spine and/or above 1200 g/cm2 at femoral neck was found in 421 exams. Exclusion criteria were age below 30 or above 60 years, black ethnicity, pregnant or obese women, disease and/or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. A total of 40 women with high BMD were included and matched with 40 healthy women with normal BMD, paired to weight, age, skin color and menopausal status. Medical history, food intake and PA were assessed through validated questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated through a GE-Lunar DPX MD + bone densitometer. Radiography of the thoracic and lumbar spine was carried out to exclude degenerative alterations or fractures. Biochemical parameters included both lipid and hormonal profiles, along with mineral and bone metabolism. Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression models. P Results The mean age was 50.9 (8.3 years. There was no significant difference between groups in relation to PA, smoking, intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as laboratory tests, except serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX, which was lower in the high BMD group (p = 0.04. In the final model of multivariate regression, a lower fat intake and body fatness as well a better profile of LDL-cholesterol predicted almost 35% of high BMD in women. (adjusted R2 = 0.347; p Conclusion Our results demonstrate the potential deleterious effect of lipid metabolism-related components, including

  5. Subchondral bone density distribution of the talus in clinically normal Labrador Retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemanse, W; Müller-Gerbl, M; Jonkers, I; Vander Sloten, J; van Bree, H; Gielen, I

    2016-03-15

    Bones continually adapt their morphology to their load bearing function. At the level of the subchondral bone, the density distribution is highly correlated with the loading distribution of the joint. Therefore, subchondral bone density distribution can be used to study joint biomechanics non-invasively. In addition physiological and pathological joint loading is an important aspect of orthopaedic disease, and research focusing on joint biomechanics will benefit veterinary orthopaedics. This study was conducted to evaluate density distribution in the subchondral bone of the canine talus, as a parameter reflecting the long-term joint loading in the tarsocrural joint. Two main density maxima were found, one proximally on the medial trochlear ridge and one distally on the lateral trochlear ridge. All joints showed very similar density distribution patterns and no significant differences were found in the localisation of the density maxima between left and right limbs and between dogs. Based on the density distribution the lateral trochlear ridge is most likely subjected to highest loads within the tarsocrural joint. The joint loading distribution is very similar between dogs of the same breed. In addition, the joint loading distribution supports previous suggestions of the important role of biomechanics in the development of OC lesions in the tarsus. Important benefits of computed tomographic osteoabsorptiometry (CTOAM), i.e. the possibility of in vivo imaging and temporal evaluation, make this technique a valuable addition to the field of veterinary orthopaedic research.

  6. [Development of a Novel Body Phantom with Bone Equivalent Density for Evaluation of Bone SPECT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hajime; Miwa, Kenta; Matsutomo, Norikazu; Watanabe, Yoichi; Kato, Toyohiro; Shimada, Hideki

    2015-12-01

    We developed a custom-designed phantom for bone single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-specific radioactivity distribution and linear attenuation coefficient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the phantom. The lumbar phantom consisted of the trunk of a body phantom (background) containing a cylinder (vertebral body), a sphere (tumor), and a T-shaped container (processus). The vertebral body, tumor, and processus phantoms contained a K(2)HPO(4) solution of bone equivalent density and 50, 300 and 50 kBq/mL of (99m)Tc, respectively. The body phantom contained 8 kBq/mL of (99m)Tc solution. SPECT images were acquired using low-energy high-resolution collimation, a 128 × 128 matrix and 120 projections over 360° with a dwell time of 15 sec/view × 4 times. Thereafter, CT images were acquired at 130 kV and 70 ref mAs using adaptive dose modulation. The SPECT data were reconstructed with ordered subset expectation maximization with three-dimensional, scatter, and CT-based attenuation correction. Count ratio, linear attenuation coefficient (LAC), and full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) were measured. Count ratios between the background, the vertebral body, and the tumor in SPECT images were 463.8: 2888.0: 15150.3 (1: 6.23: 32.7). The LAC of the background and vertebral body in the CT-derived attenuation map were 0.155 cm⁻¹ and 0.284 cm⁻¹, respectively, and the FWHM measured from the processus was 15.27 mm. The precise counts and LAC indicated that the phantom was accurate and could serve as a tool for evaluating acquisition, reconstruction parameters, and quantitation in bone SPECT images.

  7. Apparent density patterns in subchondral bone of the sloth and anteater forelimb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Biren A; Carlson, Kristian J

    2008-10-23

    Vertebrate morphologists often are interested in inferring limb-loading patterns in animals characterized by different locomotor repertoires. Because bone apparent density (i.e. mass per unit volume of bone inclusive of porosities) is a determinant of compressive strength, and thus indicative of compressive loading, recent comparative studies in primates have proposed a structure-function relationship between apparent density of subchondral bone and locomotor behaviours that vary in compressive loading. If such patterns are found in other mammals, then these relationships would be strengthened further. Here, we examine the distal radius of suspensory sloths that generally load their forelimbs (FLs) in tension and of quadrupedal anteaters that generally load their FLs in compression. Computed tomography osteoabsorptiometry was used to visualize the patterns in subchondral apparent density. Suspensory sloths exhibit relatively smaller areas of high apparent density than quadrupedal anteaters. This locomotor-based pattern is analogous to the pattern observed in suspensory and quadrupedal primates. Similarity between xenarthran and primate trends suggests broad-scale applicability for analysing subchondral bone apparent density and supports the idea that bone functionally alters its material properties in response to locomotor behaviours.

  8. Radiation activated CHK1/MEPE pathway may contribute to microgravity-induced bone density loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ping; Wang, Ya

    2015-11-01

    Bone density loss in astronauts on long-term space missions is a chief medical concern. Microgravity in space is the major cause of bone density loss (osteopenia), and it is believed that high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in space exacerbates microgravity-induced bone density loss; however, the mechanism remains unclear. It is known that acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif (ASARM) as a small peptide released by matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) promotes osteopenia. We previously discovered that MEPE interacted with checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) to protect CHK1 from ionizing radiation promoted degradation. In this study, we addressed whether the CHK1-MEPE pathway activated by radiation contributes to the effects of microgravity on bone density loss. We examined the CHK1, MEPE and secreted MEPE/ASARM levels in irradiated (1 Gy of X-ray) and rotated cultured human osteoblast cells. The results showed that radiation activated CHK1, decreased the levels of CHK1 and MEPE in human osteoblast cells and increased the release of MEPE/ASARM. These results suggest that the radiation-activated CHK1/MEPE pathway exacerbates the effects of microgravity on bone density loss, which may provide a novel targeting factor/pathway for a future countermeasure design that could contribute to reducing osteopenia in astronauts.

  9. Influence of estrogen receptor α polymorphisms on bone density in response to habitual exercise in Japanese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hiroyo; Fujino, Hidemi; Nagatomo, Fumiko; Ishihara, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ER α) is one of candidate genes for osteoporosis. This study examined the influence of ER α gene, PvuII, and XbaI genotypes on bone density of calcaneus in response to habitual exercise. ER α polymorphisms were detected using PvuII and XbaI restriction enzymes in 316 Japanese postmenopausal women. The bone density was significantly lower in the women carrying PP, pp, or xx genotype without habitual exercise than in the age-matched women without those genotypes. The women carrying Pp genotype without habitual exercise had normal bone density compared to those without Pp genotype. The women carrying PPxx or ppxx polymorphism without habitual exercise had low bone density compared to those with habitual exercise. Thus, the reduction of bone density was attenuated in the women carrying PPxx or ppxx with habitual exercise. In addition, habitual exercise was highly effective for the bone density in the women carrying xx homozygote. These findings indicate that analyses of XbaI and PvuII polymorphisms of ER α may be useful to predict the effect of exercise on bone density, and habitual exercise attenuates the reduction of bone density in women with some genotypes.

  10. Influence of Estrogen Receptor α Polymorphisms on Bone Density in Response to Habitual Exercise in Japanese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyo Kondo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen receptor α (ERα is one of candidate genes for osteoporosis. This study examined the influence of ERα gene, PvuII, and XbaI genotypes on bone density of calcaneus in response to habitual exercise. ERα polymorphisms were detected using PvuII and XbaI restriction enzymes in 316 Japanese postmenopausal women. The bone density was significantly lower in the women carrying PP, pp, or xx genotype without habitual exercise than in the age-matched women without those genotypes. The women carrying Pp genotype without habitual exercise had normal bone density compared to those without Pp genotype. The women carrying PPxx or ppxx polymorphism without habitual exercise had low bone density compared to those with habitual exercise. Thus, the reduction of bone density was attenuated in the women carrying PPxx or ppxx with habitual exercise. In addition, habitual exercise was highly effective for the bone density in the women carrying xx homozygote. These findings indicate that analyses of XbaI and PvuII polymorphisms of ERα may be useful to predict the effect of exercise on bone density, and habitual exercise attenuates the reduction of bone density in women with some genotypes.

  11. Bone mineral density aspects in the femoral neck of hip fracture patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerado, Enrique; Cruz, Encarnacion; Cano, Juan Ramon; Crespo, Pascual Vicente; Alaminos, Miguel; Sánchez-Quevedo, Maria del Carmen; Campos, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Elderly people, due to neurological conditions and muscular atrophy, present a greater propensity to falls and thus are very susceptible to hip fractures. Other variables, such as osteoporosis, may also be related to the etiopathogenesis of hip fractures, although osteoporosis is in fact a concurrent disease, and merely a coadjutant cause. Nonetheless, osteoporosis can make fracture patterns more severe and interfere with osteosynthesis. Osteoporosis is the radiological image of osteopenia, a pathological concept meaning a smaller quantity of bone per unit of volume. The radiological expression of osteopenia is therefore that of bone tissue with a lower radiological density than normal. In the context of hip fractures, bone mineral density and bone architecture of the femoral neck together with protein expression profiles and cross-links of this anatomical area are of special interest which is reviewed in the current paper. Spatial variations in bone mineral density in the femoral neck were found in the literature with increased porosity from the periosteal to the endosteal region and also from the distal to the proximal part of the femoral neck. Furthermore, increased crystal size, increased cortical porosity, reduced osteocyte lacunar density and an increased Ca/P ratio associated with higher concentrations of Ca and P were described in hip fracture patients compared to control patients. Osteocalcin/collagen type 1 expression ratio and enzymatic cross-link content in high-density bone was found to be significantly lower in hip fractures compared to controls. In conclusion, further research in bone mineral density and associated parameters are of interest to deepen the understanding of osteoporotic hip fractures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Alcoholic liver disease and changes in bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán López-Larramona

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and osteopenia are alterations in bone mineral density (BMD that frequently occur in the context of chronic liver disease (CLD. These alterations have been studied predominantly in chronic cholestatic disease and cirrhosis of the liver. Alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor for the onset of osteoporosis, whose estimated prevalence in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD ranges between 5 % and 40 %. The loss of BMD in ALD is the result of an imbalance between bone formation and resorption. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial and includes the toxic effects of alcohol on bone and endocrine and nutritional disorders secondary to alcoholism and a deficiency of osteocalcin, vitamin D and insulin growth factor-1. The diagnosis of BMD alterations in ALD is based on its measurement using bone densitometry. Treatment includes smoking and alcohol cessation and general measures such as changes in nutrition and exercise. Calcium and vitamin D supplements are recommended in all patients with ALD and osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the specific treatment of this condition. Alternatives include raloxifene, hormone replacement therapy and calcitonin. This review will address the most important aspects involved in the clinical management of abnormal BMD in the context of ALD, including its prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnosis. We will also review the treatment of osteoporosis in CLD in general, focusing on specific aspects related to bone loss in ALD.

  13. Bone mineral density in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro T.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated spine bone mineral density (BMD in Brazilian children with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE in order to detect potential predictors of reduction in bone mass. A cross-sectional study of BMD at the lumbar spine level (L2-L4 was conducted on 16 female JSLE patients aged 6-17 years. Thirty-two age-matched healthy girls were used as control. BMD at the lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Weight, height and pubertal Tanner stage were determined in patients and controls. Disease duration, mean daily steroid doses, mean cumulative steroid doses and JSLE activity measured by the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI were determined for all JSLE patients based on their medical charts. All parameters were used as potential determinant factors for bone loss. Lumbar BMD tended to be lower in the JSLE patients, however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.10. No significant correlation was observed in JSLE girls between BMD and age, height, Tanner stage, disease duration, corticosteroid use or disease activity. We found a weak correlation between BMD and weight (r = 0.672. In the JSLE group we found no significant parameters to correlate with reduced bone mass. Disease activity and mean cumulative steroid doses were not related to BMD values. We did not observe reduced bone mass in female JSLE.

  14. Combination of Micronutrients for Bone (COMB) Study: Bone Density after Micronutrient Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Bouchard, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Along with other investigations, patients presenting to an environmental health clinic with various chronic conditions were assessed for bone health status. Individuals with compromised bone strength were educated about skeletal health issues and provided with therapeutic options for potential amelioration of their bone health. Patients who declined pharmacotherapy or who previously experienced failure of drug treatment were offered other options including supplemental micronutrients identified in the medical literature as sometimes having a positive impact on bone mineral density (BMD). After 12 months of consecutive supplemental micronutrient therapy with a combination that included vitamin D3, vitamin K2, strontium, magnesium and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), repeat bone densitometry was performed. The results were analyzed in a group of compliant patients and demonstrate improved BMD in patients classified with normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic bone density. According to the results, this combined micronutrient supplementation regimen appears to be at least as effective as bisphosphonates or strontium ranelate in raising BMD levels in hip, spine, and femoral neck sites. No fractures occurred in the group taking the micronutrient protocol. This micronutrient regimen also appears to show efficacy in individuals where bisphosphonate therapy was previously unsuccessful in maintaining or raising BMD. Prospective clinical trials are required to confirm efficacy. PMID:22291722

  15. Hip bone mineral density, bone turnover and risk of fracture in patients on long-term suppressive L-thyroxine therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijckmann, AC; Huijberts, MSP; Geusens, P; de Vries, J; Menheere, PPCA; Wolffenbuttel, BHR

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Untreated hyperthyroidism and treatment with high doses of thyroid hormone are associated with osteoporosis. However, their effect on bone turnover, their contribution to bone mineral density (BMD) in the context of other clinical risk factors for osteoporosis and the prevalence of verteb

  16. The Relationship Between Osteoporotic Risk Factors and Bone Mineral Density

    OpenAIRE

    Şule Şahin Onat; Sibel Ünsal Delialioğlu; Sumru Özel

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Since osteoporosis is a preventable disease to some extent, risk factor determination and if possible modification is very important. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between ostoporotic risk factors and bone mineral density results and emphasize the importance of risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 103 postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Demographic characteristics, osteoporortic risk factors, lumbar vertebrae and femur neck T s...

  17. Bone mineral density in diabetes mellitus patients with and without a Charcot foot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tomas M; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    To measure bone mineral density in patients with diabetes mellitus and the complication Charcot osteoarthropathy (CA).......To measure bone mineral density in patients with diabetes mellitus and the complication Charcot osteoarthropathy (CA)....

  18. Assessment of bone density in children with Scheuermann's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popko, J; Konstantynowicz, J; Kossakowski, D; Kaczmarski, M; Piotrowska-Jastrzebska, J

    1997-01-01

    Twenty four children with Scheuermann's disease (11 girls and 13 boys) aged 9-18 years measured for bone mineral density. The total skeleton (TB BMD) and lumbar spine (L2-L4 BMD) mineral density were investigated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). In nine patients with Scheuermann's disease and backache we found lower levels of TB BMD and L2-L4 BMD in comparison with reference population of Lunar database. Osteopenia in these children may be caused by decreased physical activity due to vertebral pain.

  19. Normative Bone Mineral Density values in Isfahani women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Sayed Bonakdar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correct interpretation of bone mineral density (BMDmeasurement by dual energy x ray absorptiometry(DEXA requires a population specific reference range. We collected data on age 20-35 years to obtain reference values of BMD for Isfahani women in order to make a population specific diagnosis of osteoporosis. Methods: In 660 healthy Isfahani women Volunteers (20-35 years without illness, use of drugs or predisposing conditions to osteoporosis, the BMD (gr/cm² of lumbar spine and non-dominant femur was measured by lunar DPX –IQ machine. Results: The mean BMD and its standard deviations at each site were calculated and compared with normative data from Caucasian US/North European women. No significant differences were detected between them. Conclusions: Bone mineral density measurements of these 660 healthy Isfahani women can serve as a reference guide for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in Isfahani women. Key words: Bone Mineral Density, Osteoporosis, Normative data, DEXA

  20. The Relationship Between Osteoporotic Risk Factors and Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Şahin Onat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since osteoporosis is a preventable disease to some extent, risk factor determination and if possible modification is very important. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between ostoporotic risk factors and bone mineral density results and emphasize the importance of risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 103 postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Demographic characteristics, osteoporortic risk factors, lumbar vertebrae and femur neck T scores were recorded. Relationships between lumbar vertebra and femur neck T scores and risk factors were statistically studied. Results: Advanced age, low physical activity status, inadequte dietary calcium intake and vertebral compression fractures were found to be associated with low bone mineral density results in postmenopausal osteoporotic women whereas marital status, occupation, education level and familial fracture history were not. Furthermore early menopause was found to be associated with low femoral T scores and smoking with low lumbar T scores. Tendency to fall and number of chronic diseases were irrelevant to bone mineral density. Conclusions: Risk factor assesment is still important for osteoporosis prevention. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2013;19:74-80

  1. The Effect of Osteoporosis Risk Factors on Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Umay

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate whether osteoporosis (OP risk factors have any effect on bone mineral density in patients receiving OP treatment. Material and method: The study included 73 postmenopausal women with OP who had been using bisphosphonate treatment for one year, with at least one of either total lumbar or femoral neck T-score still <-2.5 and whose total lumbar and/or femoral neck T-scores showed no improvement compared to one year earlier. Demographic characteristics and OP risk factors were recorded. Mini-mental test (MMT, Beck Depression and Anxiety Scales were used in the evaluation of the cognitive status of patients. The assessed parameters of patients were compared with the current total lumbar and femoral neck T-scores. Results: Being underweight, illiteracy, high gravidity, inadequate calcium intake, and cognitive dysfunction were found to be effective on lumbar and femoral neck T- scores, while tea and coffee consumption, smoking status and the presence of additional comorbidity and drug use were found to be effective on femoral neck T-scores. Conclusion: Some OP risk factors may contribute to the ineffectiveness in patients receiving regular OP treatment who fail to show adequate response. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2011;17:44-50

  2. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant.

  3. Serum estradiol levels and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiem Mawi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal women are at high risk of disease, such as coronary heart disease, stroke, malignancies, dementia and osteoporosis. This is due to decreased levels of estrogen/estradiol, produced mainly in the ovaries, leading to reduced bone mineral density (BMD, which is the gold standard for diagnosis of osteoporosis. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between serum estradiol levels and BMD in postmenopausal women. The study, which was of cross-sectional design, involved 184 postmenopausal women meeting the inclusion criteria, viz. healthy postmenopausal women aged between 47 and 60 years having taken no hormonal medications in the previous 3 years. The subjects were assessed for anthropometric and biochemical characteristics, including BMD and serum estradiol levels. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine, right femoral neck and at the distal radius by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA instrument. The mean serum estradiol concentration was 7.54 ± 4.65 pg/ml, while in 49.5% of the subjects the estradiol concentration was £ 5 pg/ml. In postmenopausal women with estradiol concentrations of > 5 pg/ml, a significant positive relationship was found between BMD and the T-scores for the femoral neck. Thus the higher the serum estradiol levels, the higher the BMD values for femoral neck region. In conclusion, the results of this study point to estradiol levels as a major factor in determining the BMD values in postmenopausal women.

  4. [Physical activity/sports and bone mineral density].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomoto, Takeaki

    2008-09-01

    This study observed the amount of exercise of Japanese schoolchildren as recorded by pedometer. Schools are necessary venues to increase children's mobility, but home environments are hotbeds for lack of exercise on weekends and during holidays and vacations. This research measured the L(2 - 4)BMD of 185 male and female primary schoolchildren using a DEXA method. Results showed significant partial correlations for measurements of boys' grip strength, boys' standing broad jump, and girls' grip strength, indicating the influence of mechanical stress. In a parallel study, L(2 - 4)BMD measurements for high school athletic club members (14 and 10 sports for boys and girls respectively) were taken, and it was found that the L(2 - 4)BMD (60 kg/weight) values were significantly higher than the control values for boys' boxing and weightlifting but significantly lower for boys' sumo. No significance was found in L(2 - 4)BMD (50 kg/weight) among the different girls' sports. From both studies, it was concluded that with approximately 2 hours of moderate play and exercise daily, the bone density of children rises with increase of overall muscle quantity, resulting in higher athletic ability and overall physical strength.

  5. Independent measurement of femoral cortical thickness and cortical bone density using clinical CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treece, G M; Gee, A H

    2015-02-01

    The local structure of the proximal femoral cortex is of interest since both fracture risk, and the effects of various interventions aimed at reducing that risk, are associated with cortical properties focused in particular regions rather than dispersed over the whole bone. Much of the femoral cortex is less than 3mm thick, appearing so blurred in clinical CT that its actual density is not apparent in the data, and neither thresholding nor full-width half-maximum techniques are capable of determining its width. Our previous work on cortical bone mapping showed how to produce more accurate estimates of cortical thickness by assuming a fixed value of the cortical density for each hip. However, although cortical density varies much less over the proximal femur than thickness, what little variation there is leads to errors in thickness measurement. In this paper, we develop the cortical bone mapping technique by exploiting local estimates of imaging blur to correct the global density estimate, thus providing a local density estimate as well as more accurate estimates of thickness. We also consider measurement of cortical mass surface density and the density of trabecular bone immediately adjacent to the cortex. Performance is assessed with ex vivo clinical QCT scans of proximal femurs, with true values derived from high resolution HRpQCT scans of the same bones. We demonstrate superior estimation of thickness than is possible with alternative techniques (accuracy 0.12 ± 0.39 mm for cortices in the range 1-3mm), and that local cortical density estimation is feasible for densities >800 mg/cm(3).

  6. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] is the widely-applied bone densitometry method used to diagnose osteoporosis in a terrestrial population known to be at risk for age-related bone loss. This medical test, which measures areal bone mineral density [aBMD] of clinically-relevant skeletal sites (e.g., hip and spine), helps the clinician to identify which persons, among postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years, are at high risk for low trauma or fragility fractures and might require an intervention. The most recognized osteoporotic fragility fracture is the vertebral compression fracture which can lead to kyphosis or hunched backs typically seen in the elderly. DXA measurement of BMD however is recognized to be insufficient as a sole index for assessing fracture risk. DXA's limitation may be related to its inability to monitor changes in structural parameters, such as trabecular vs. cortical bone volumes, bone geometry or trabecular microarchitecture. Hence, in order to understand risks to human health and performance due to space exposure, NASA needs to expand its measurements of bone to include other contributors to skeletal integrity. To this aim, the Bone and Mineral Lab conducted a pilot study for a novel measurement of bone microarchitecture that can be obtained by retrospective analysis of DXA scans. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) assesses changes to trabecular microarchitecture by measuring the grey color "texture" information extracted from DXA images of the lumbar spine. An analysis of TBS in 51 ISS astronauts was conducted to assess if TBS could detect 1) an effect of spaceflight and 2) a response to countermeasures independent of DXA BMD. In addition, changes in trunk body lean tissue mass and in trunk body fat tissue mass were also evaluated to explore an association between body composition, as impacted by ARED exercise, and bone microarchitecture. The pilot analysis of 51 astronaut scans of the lumbar spine suggests that, following an ISS

  7. The relationships between two different drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis and bone mineral density of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, S R; Louw, A J; Chikte, U M E; Rossouw, R J; van W Kotze, T J

    2009-04-03

    This field study included the whole population of children aged 10-15 years (77 from a 0.19 mg/L F area; 89 from a 3.00 mg/L F area), with similar nutritional, dietary habits and similar ethnic and socioeconomic status. The fluoride concentration in the drinking water, the bone mineral content, the bone density and the degree of dental fluorosis were determined. The left radius was measured for bone width, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density. The mean fluorosis score was 1.3 in the low fluoride area and 3,6 in the high fluoride area. More than half the children in the low fluoride area had no fluorosis (scores 0 and 1) while only 5% in the high fluoride area had none. Severe fluorosis (30%) was only observed in the high fluoride area. The Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test indicated that fluorosis levels differed significantly (p density in the two areas (Spearment Rank correlations). A significant increase in bone width was found with age but no differences amongst and boys and girls. A significant positive correlation was found in the high fluoride area between bone mineral density over age. In the 12-13 and 13-14 year age groups in the high fluoride area, girls had higher bone mineral densities. However, a significant negative correlation (p<0.02) was found for the low fluoride area (0.19 mg/L F) over age.

  8. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Sergey V

    2007-01-01

    During the past decade, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant research utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Every two years, at the International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, scientists interested in this emerging field discuss the progress in topics covering: - Stellar evolution, stellar envelopes, opacities, radiation transport - Planetary Interiors, high-pressure EOS, dense plasma atomic physics - Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, exploding systems, strong shocks, turbulent mixing - Supernova remnants, shock processing, radiative shocks - Astrophysical jets, high-Mach-number flows, magnetized radiative jets, magnetic reconnection - Compact object accretion disks, x-ray photoionized plasmas - Ultrastrong fields, particle acceleration, collisionless shocks. These proceedings cover many of the invited and contributed papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophys...

  9. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Schneede, J.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Staveren, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cobalamin deficiency is prevalent in vegetarians and has been associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. Aim of the study: To examine the association between cobalamin status and bone mineral density in adolescents formerly fed a macrobiotic diet and in their counterparts. Methods:

  10. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Schneede, J.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Staveren, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cobalamin deficiency is prevalent in vegetarians and has been associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. Aim of the study: To examine the association between cobalamin status and bone mineral density in adolescents formerly fed a macrobiotic diet and in their counterparts. Methods:

  11. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Dusseldorp, van M.; Schneede, J.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background Cobalamin deficiency is prevalent in vegetarians and has been associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. Aim of the study To examine the association between cobalamin status and bone mineral density in adolescents formerly fed a macrobiotic diet and in their counterparts. Methods In

  12. Bone geometry, volumetric density, microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength assessed by HR-pQCT in Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Hansen, Stinus; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Brixen, Kim; Gravholt, Claus H

    2014-11-01

    Although the expected skeletal manifestations of testosterone deficiency in Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) are osteopenia and osteoporosis, the structural basis for this is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in patients with KS. Thirty-one patients with KS confirmed by lymphocyte chromosome karyotyping aged 35.8 ± 8.2 years were recruited consecutively from a KS outpatient clinic and matched with respect to age and height with 31 healthy subjects aged 35.9 ± 8.2 years. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and HR-pQCT were performed in all participants, and blood samples were analyzed for hormonal status and bone biomarkers in KS patients. Twenty-one KS patients were on long-term testosterone-replacement therapy. In weight-adjusted models, HR-pQCT revealed a significantly lower cortical area (p < 0.01), total and trabecular vBMD (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04), trabecular bone volume fraction (p = 0.04), trabecular number (p = 0.05), and estimates of bone strength, whereas trabecular spacing was higher (p = 0.03) at the tibia in KS patients. In addition, cortical thickness was significantly reduced, both at the radius and tibia (both p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in indices of bone structure, estimated bone strength, or bone biomarkers in KS patients with and without testosterone therapy. This study showed that KS patients had lower total vBMD and a compromised trabecular compartment with a reduced trabecular density and bone volume fraction at the tibia. The compromised trabecular network integrity attributable to a lower trabecular number with relative preservation of trabecular thickness is similar to the picture found in women with aging. KS patients also displayed a reduced cortical area and thickness at the tibia, which in

  13. Changes in spinal and femoral bone mineral density due to pelvic irradiation following oophorectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jui-Tung; Hirai, Yasuo; Seimiya, Yumiko; Hasumi, Katsuhiko; Masubuchi, Kazumasa (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital); Shiraki, Masataka

    1991-10-01

    Since radiation therapy has been known to be a cause of bone atrophy (radiation osteopathy), it could be important whether postoperative radiotherapy in patients who have undergone oophorectomy further promotes bone mineral loss or not. Nineteen patients with stage Ib to IIb cervical cancer were studied. Eleven of the 19 patients received only surgical treatment and 8 received postoperative radiotherapy (50 Gy to the pelvis and 40 Gy to the lumber spine), because of the presence of advanced lesions or positive lymphnodes. A significant increase in FSH and decrease in E{sub 2} (p<0.01) compared to before treatment were observed in both groups. A significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activities (p<0.01), urine-calcium/creatinine ratio (p<0.05) and urine-hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (p<0.01), which indicated high bone turnover, compared to before treatment in both groups also appeared. Although these chemical parameters in both groups changed coincidentally, the decline in spinal bone mineral density in the irradiated group was delayed at 12 months after the treatment. On the other hand, there was no difference in the changes in femoral bone mineral density in the two groups. These results suggest that radiotherapy might inhibit the bone mineral loss at the irradiated bone site even when there was an estrogen lack. (author).

  14. Is Lipid Profile Associated with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Formation in Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Sabour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The association between serum lipids and bone mineral density (BMD has been investigated previously but, up to now, these relationships have not yet been described in spinal cord injury (SCI. We tried to assess the correlation between serum triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL and BMD in male subjects with SCI. Methods. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA was used to assess BMD in femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanteric zone, and lumbar vertebras. Blood samples were taken to measure serums lipids and bone biomarkers including osteocalcin, cross-linked type I collagen (CTX, and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP. Partial correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between mentioned measurements after adjustment for weight and age. Results. We found a positive correlation between HDL and femoral neck BMD (P: 0.004, r=0.33. HDL was negatively correlated with osteocalcin (P: 0.017, r=-0.31 which was not in consistency with its relationship with BMD. TC and LDL were not related to CTX, BALP and BMD. Conclusion. This study does not support a strong association between serum lipids and BMD in subjects with SCI. Moreover it seems that positive association between HDL and BMD is not mediated through increased bone formation.

  15. Whole-genome sequencing identifies EN1 as a determinant of bone density and fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); V. Forgetta (Vincenzo); Y.-H. Hsu (Yi-Hsiang); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); A. Rosello-Diez (Alberto); P.J. Leo (Paul); C.L. Dahia (Chitra L.); K.H. Park-Min (Kyung Hyun); J.H. Tobias (Jon); C. Kooperberg (Charles); A. Kleinman (Aaron); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); C. Uggla (Charlotta); D.S. Evans (Daniel); C. Nielson (Carrie); K. Walter (Klaudia); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); S. McCarthy (Shane); J. Eriksson (Joel); T. Kwan (Tony); M. Jhamai (Mila); K. Trajanoska (Katerina); Y. Memari (Yasin); J.L. Min (Josine L.); J. Huang (Jie); P. Danecek (Petr); B. Wilmot (Beth); R. Li (Rui); W.-C. Chou (Wen-Chi); L.E. Mokry (Lauren E.); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); M. Claussnitzer (Melina); C.-H. Cheng (Chia-Ho); W. Cheung (Warren); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); B. Ge (Bing); S.-H. Chen (Shu-Huang); K. Choi (Kunho); L. Oei (Ling); J. Fraser (James); R. Kraaij (Robert); M.A. Hibbs (Matthew A.); C.L. Gregson (Celia L.); D. Paquette (Denis); A. Hofman (Albert); C. Wibom (Carl); G.J. Tranah (Gregory); M. Marshall (Mhairi); B.B. Gardiner (Brooke B.); K. Cremin (Katie); P. Auer (Paul); L. Hsu (Li); S. Ring (Susan); J.Y. Tung (Joyce Y.); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); A.W. Enneman (Anke); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); B. Melin (Beatrice); J.P. Kemp (John); C. Christiansen; I. Sayers (Ian); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); S. Calderari (Sophie); J. Van Rooij (Jeroen); C. Carlson (Chris); U. Peters (Ulrike); S. Berlivet (Soizik); J. Dostie (Josée); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.R. Williams (Stephen R.); C. Farber (Charles); D. Grinberg (Daniel); A.Z. LaCroix (Andrea); J. Haessler (Jeff); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); F. Giulianini (Franco); L.M. Rose (Lynda M.); P.M. Ridker (Paul); J.A. Eisman (John); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); X. Nogues (Xavier); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); L.J. Launer (Lenore); V. Gudnason (Vilmunder); D. Mellström (Dan); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); N. Amin (Najaf); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); M. Karlsson (Magnus); O. Ljunggren (Östen); O. Svensson (Olle); G. Hallmans (Göran); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); S. Giroux (Sylvie); J. Bussière (Johanne); P.P. Arp (Pascal); F. Koromani (Fjorda); R.L. Prince (Richard L.); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); A.P. Hermann (A. Pernille); J.-E.B. Jensen (Jens-Erik B.); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); K.T. Khaw; J. Reeve (Jonathan); M.M. Formosa (Melissa M.); A. Xuereb-Anastasi (Angela); K. Åkesson (Kristina); F.E. McGuigan; G. Garg (Gaurav); D. Olmos (David); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); J.A. Riancho (José); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); N. Alonso (Nerea); X. Jiang (Xi); D. Goltzman (David); T. Pastinen (Tomi); E. Grundberg (Elin); D. Gauguier (Dominique); E.S. Orwoll (Eric); D. Karasik (David); G.D. Smith; G.D. Smith; K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); M.T. Maurano (Matthew T.); N. Timpson (Nicholas); N. Soranzo (Nicole); R. Durbin (Richard); S.G. Wilson (Scott); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); D.A. Hinds (David A.); T.D. Spector (Timothy); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); C. Ohlsson (Claes); C.M.T. Greenwood (Celia); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); D.W. Rowe (David W.); C.A. Loomis (Cynthia A.); D.M. Evans (David M.); C.L. Ackert-Bicknell (Cheryl); A.L. Joyner (Alexandra L.); E.L. Duncan (Emma); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); J.B. Richards (Brent)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe extent to which low-frequency (minor allele frequency (MAF) between 1-5%) and rare (MAF ≤ 1%) variants contribute to complex traits and disease in the general population is mainly unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) is highly heritable, a major predictor of osteoporotic fractures, an

  16. Whole-genome sequencing identifies EN1 as a determinant of bone density and fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); V. Forgetta (Vincenzo); Y.-H. Hsu (Yi-Hsiang); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); A. Rosello-Diez (Alberto); P.J. Leo (Paul); C.L. Dahia (Chitra L.); K.H. Park-Min (Kyung Hyun); J.H. Tobias (Jon); C. Kooperberg (Charles); A. Kleinman (Aaron); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); C. Uggla (Charlotta); D.S. Evans (Daniel); C. Nielson (Carrie); K. Walter (Klaudia); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); S. McCarthy (Shane); J. Eriksson (Joel); T. Kwan (Tony); M. Jhamai (Mila); K. Trajanoska (Katerina); Y. Memari (Yasin); J.L. Min (Josine L.); J. Huang (Jie); P. Danecek (Petr); B. Wilmot (Beth); R. Li (Rui); W.-C. Chou (Wen-Chi); L.E. Mokry (Lauren E.); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); M. Claussnitzer (Melina); C.-H. Cheng (Chia-Ho); W. Cheung (Warren); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); B. Ge (Bing); S.-H. Chen (Shu-Huang); K. Choi (Kunho); L. Oei (Ling); J. Fraser (James); R. Kraaij (Robert); M.A. Hibbs (Matthew A.); C.L. Gregson (Celia L.); D. Paquette (Denis); A. Hofman (Albert); C. Wibom (Carl); G.J. Tranah (Gregory); M. Marshall (Mhairi); B.B. Gardiner (Brooke B.); K. Cremin (Katie); P. Auer (Paul); L. Hsu (Li); S. Ring (Susan); J.Y. Tung (Joyce Y.); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); A.W. Enneman (Anke); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); B. Melin (Beatrice); J.P. Kemp (John); C. Christiansen; I. Sayers (Ian); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); S. Calderari (Sophie); J. Van Rooij (Jeroen); C. Carlson (Chris); U. Peters (Ulrike); S. Berlivet (Soizik); J. Dostie (Josée); A.G. Uitterlinden (André G.); S.R. Williams (Stephen R.); C. Farber (Charles); D. Grinberg (Daniel); A.Z. LaCroix (Andrea); J. Haessler (Jeff); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); F. Giulianini (Franco); L.M. Rose (Lynda M.); P.M. Ridker (Paul); J.A. Eisman (John); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); X. Nogues (Xavier); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); L.J. Launer (Lenore); V. Gudnason (Vilmunder); D. Mellström (Dan); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); N. Amin (Najaf); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); M. Karlsson (Magnus); O. Ljunggren (Östen); O. Svensson (Olle); G. Hallmans (Göran); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); S. Giroux (Sylvie); J. Bussière (Johanne); P.P. Arp (Pascal); F. Koromani (Fjorda); R.L. Prince (Richard L.); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); A.P. Hermann (A. Pernille); J.-E.B. Jensen (Jens-Erik B.); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); K.T. Khaw; J. Reeve (Jonathan); M.M. Formosa (Melissa M.); A. Xuereb-Anastasi (Angela); K. Åkesson (Kristina); F.E. McGuigan; G. Garg (Gaurav); D. Olmos (David); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); J.A. Riancho (José); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); N. Alonso (Nerea); X. Jiang (Xi); D. Goltzman (David); T. Pastinen (Tomi); E. Grundberg (Elin); D. Gauguier (Dominique); E.S. Orwoll (Eric); D. Karasik (David); G.D. Smith; G.D. Smith; K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); M.T. Maurano (Matthew T.); N. Timpson (Nicholas); N. Soranzo (Nicole); R. Durbin (Richard); S.G. Wilson (Scott); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); D.A. Hinds (David A.); T.D. Spector (Timothy); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); C. Ohlsson (Claes); C.M.T. Greenwood (Celia); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); D.W. Rowe (David W.); C.A. Loomis (Cynthia A.); D.M. Evans (David M.); C.L. Ackert-Bicknell (Cheryl); A.L. Joyner (Alexandra L.); E.L. Duncan (Emma); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); J.B. Richards (J. Brent)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe extent to which low-frequency (minor allele frequency (MAF) between 1-5%) and rare (MAF ≤ 1%) variants contribute to complex traits and disease in the general population is mainly unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) is highly heritable, a major predictor of osteoporotic fractures, an

  17. Cushing's syndrome and bone mineral density: lowest Z scores in young patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, A.W.A.; Heijer, M. den; Oyen, W.J.G.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Patients with Cushing's syndrome have a high prevalence of osteoporotic fractures. Little is known about factors determining bone mineral density (BMD) in these patients. Objective: To evaluate which factors influence BMD at the time of diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. Methods: In 77

  18. Cushing's syndrome and bone mineral density: lowest Z scores in young patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, A.W.A.; Heijer, M. den; Oyen, W.J.G.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Patients with Cushing's syndrome have a high prevalence of osteoporotic fractures. Little is known about factors determining bone mineral density (BMD) in these patients. Objective: To evaluate which factors influence BMD at the time of diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. Methods: In 77 con

  19. Positive Celiac Disease Serology and Reduced Bone Mineral Density in Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R Duerksen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low bone density and osteoporosis have been demonstrated in celiac disease populations in Europe, South America and the United States. Serological testing with tissue transglutaminase (TTG and immunoglobulin A endomysial (EMA antibodies is highly specific for celiac disease, while antigliadin antibody (AGA testing is less specific.

  20. Genetic sharing with cardiovascular disease risk factors and diabetes reveals novel bone mineral density loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Reppe (Sjur); Y. Wang (Yunpeng); W.K. Thompson (Wesley K.); L.K. McEvoy (Linda K.); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); V. Zuber (Verena); M. Leblanc (Marissa); F. Bettella (Francesco); I.G. Mills (Ian G.); R.S. Desikan (Rahul S.); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); K.M. Gautvik (Kaare); A.M. Dale (Anders); O.A. Andreassen (Ole A.); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); Y.-H. Hsu (Yi-Hsiang); E.L. Duncan (Emma); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); L. Oei (Ling); O.M.E. Albagha (Omar M.); N. Amin (Najaf); J.P. Kemp (John); D.L. Koller (Daniel); G. Li (Guo); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); R.L. Minster (Ryan); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); D. Willner (Dana); S.-M. Xiao (Su-Mei); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); N. Alonso (Nerea); J. Eriksson (Joel); C.M. Kammerer (Candace); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); P.J. Leo (Paul); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S.G. Wilson (Scott); J.F. Wilson (James F); V. Aalto (Ville); M. Alen (Markku); A.K. Aragaki (Aaron); T. Aspelund (Thor); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); Z. Dailiana (Zoe); C. Duggan; M. Garcia (Melissa); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); S. Giroux (Sylvie); G. Hallmans (Göran); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); L.B. Husted (Lise Bjerre); K. Jameson (Karen); R. Khusainova (Rita); G.S. Kim (Ghi Su); C. Kooperberg (Charles); T. Koromila (Theodora); M. Kruk (Marcin); M. Laaksonen (Marika); A.Z. Lacroix (Andrea Z.); S.H. Lee (Seung Hun); P.C. Leung (Ping C.); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); L. Masi (Laura); S. Mencej-Bedrac (Simona); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); X. Nogues (Xavier); M.S. Patel (Millan); J. Prezelj (Janez); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Scollen (Serena); K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); G.D. Smith; O. Svensson (Olle); S. Trompet (Stella); O. Trummer (Olivia); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); J. Woo (Jean); K. Zhu (Kun); S. Balcells (Susana); M.L. Brandi; B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S. Cheng (Sulin); C. Christiansen; C. Cooper (Charles); G.V. Dedoussis (George); I. Ford (Ian); M. Frost (Morten); D. Goltzman (David); J. González-Macías (Jesús); M. Kähönen (Mika); M. Karlsson (Magnus); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); J.-M. Koh (Jung-Min); P. Kollia (Panagoula); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); W.D. Leslie (William D.); P. Lips (Paul); O. Ljunggren (Östen); R. Lorenc (Roman); J. Marc (Janja); D. Mellström (Dan); B. Obermayer-Pietsch (Barbara); D. Olmos (David); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); D.M. Reid (David); J.A. Riancho (José); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); N.L.S. Tang (Nelson L.S.); R. Urreizti (Roser); W. Van Hul (Wim); J. Viikari (Jorma); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.C. Castaño Betancourt (Martha); E. Grundberg (Elin); L. Herrera (Lizbeth); T. Ingvarsson (Torvaldur); H. Johannsdottir (Hrefna); T. Kwan (Tony); R. Li (Rui); R.N. Luben (Robert); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); S.T. Palsson (Stefan Th); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); F.M. Williams (Frances); A.R. Wood (Andrew); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); T. Pastinen (Tomi); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); J.A. Cauley (Jane); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); G.R. Clark (Graeme); S.R. Cummings (Steven R.); P. Danoy (Patrick); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); R. Eastell (Richard); J.A. Eisman (John); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); G. Jones (Graeme); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); K.T. Khaw; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Y. Liu (Yongmei); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); E. McCloskey (Eugene); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K. Nandakumar (Kannabiran); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M. Peacock (Munro); H.A.P. Pols (Huibert A. P.); R.L. Prince (Richard); O. Raitakari (Olli); I.R. Reid (Ian); J. Robbins (John); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); P.C. Sham (Pak Chung); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); F.A. Tylavsky (Frances); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); N.J. Wareham (Nicholas J.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); M.J. Econs (Michael); D.M. Evans (David); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); A.W.C. Kung (Annie Wai Chee); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Reeve (Jonathan); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C. Ohlsson (Claes); D. Karasik (David); J.B. Richards (J. Brent); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John P.A.); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBone Mineral Density (BMD) is a highly heritable trait, but genome-wide association studies have identified few genetic risk factors. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between BMD and several traits and diseases, but the nature of the suggestive comorbidity is still unknown. W

  1. Saturation and High Density QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, A. H.

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress in understanding general properties of high energy scattering near the unitarity limit, where high density gluon components of the wavefunction are dominant, is reviewed. The similarity of the QCD problem and that of reaction-diffusion processes in statistical physics is emphasized. The energy dependence of the saturation momentum and the status of geometric scaling are discussed.

  2. Bones of contention: bone mineral density recovery in celiac disease--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace-Farfaglia, Patricia

    2015-05-07

    Metabolic bone disease is a frequent co-morbidity in newly diagnosed adults with celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten. This systematic review of studies looked at the efficacy of the gluten-free diet, physical activity, nutrient supplementation, and bisphosphonates for low bone density treatment. Case control and cohort designs were identified from PubMed and other academic databases (from 1996 to 2015) that observed newly diagnosed adults with CD for at least one year after diet treatment using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Only 20 out of 207 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement checklist. Gluten-free diet adherence resulted in partial recovery of bone density by one year in all studies, and full recovery by the fifth year. No treatment differences were observed between the gluten-free diet alone and diet plus bisphosphonates in one study. For malnourished patients, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in significant improvement. Evidence for the impact of physical activity on bone density was limited. Therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying lifestyle factors throughout the lifespan should be studied.

  3. Bones of Contention: Bone Mineral Density Recovery in Celiac Disease—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Grace-Farfaglia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic bone disease is a frequent co-morbidity in newly diagnosed adults with celiac disease (CD, an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten. This systematic review of studies looked at the efficacy of the gluten-free diet, physical activity, nutrient supplementation, and bisphosphonates for low bone density treatment. Case control and cohort designs were identified from PubMed and other academic databases (from 1996 to 2015 that observed newly diagnosed adults with CD for at least one year after diet treatment using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan. Only 20 out of 207 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE statement checklist. Gluten-free diet adherence resulted in partial recovery of bone density by one year in all studies, and full recovery by the fifth year. No treatment differences were observed between the gluten-free diet alone and diet plus bisphosphonates in one study. For malnourished patients, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in significant improvement. Evidence for the impact of physical activity on bone density was limited. Therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying lifestyle factors throughout the lifespan should be studied.

  4. Relationship between tea drinking and bone mineral density in Bushehr population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Amiri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea consumption is common throughout the world, especially in Iran and it was known as the most common beverages. Several studies evaluated negative effect of coffee and relationship between its caffeine content with bone density. But relationship between tea drinking and bone mineral density is less observed. Considering high amount of tea consumption and prevalence of osteoporosis in Iran, it is important to investigate this relationship.Materials and Method: Population study includes 1125 subjects (aged 20- 72 years randomly selected by cluster sampling in Bushehr, who participated in general project of prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The participants were categorized based on degree of tea consumption: high tea drinkers (more than 4 cups of tea per day and low tea drinkers (equal or less than 4 cups of tea per day.Results: In high tea drinkers, mean score for bone density was significantly higher in neck and total femur. But this difference in isolated groups (according to sex, age and both of them was not seen.Conclusion: The result of this study indicates on a direct relationship between tea drinking and increasing of bone mineral density. Moreover, it shows the prevalence of osteoporosis is lower in people who have a regular daily habit of tea consumption

  5. RESULTS OF BONE DENSITY RESEARCH IN CHILDREN WITH ASTHMA TREATED BY INHALED GLUCOCORTICOSTEROIDS

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    A.L. Kiseleva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that asthma and its treatment could have negative impact on the bone tissue in adults. In childhood, bone is most sensitive to the influence of adverse factors. In the study 105 children with asthma and 700 healthy children were examined by bone ultrasonometry to reveal the relation of asthma and the treatment of inhaled glucocorticosteroids on bone density. The results of this study are demonstrated that the therapy with inhaled glucocorticosteroids have no adverse effects on the bone density. The reductions of bone density in children with asthma in some age groups are not associated with the severity of illness, age and therapy with inhaled glucocorticosteroids. Reduction of bone density is due to a way of life of children, the level of physical activity and consumption of dairy products. Key words: bone density, asthma, inhaled glucocorticosteroids, bone ultrasonometer, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(1:42-47

  6. Bone turnover in passive smoking female rat: relationships to change in bone mineral density

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    Xu Wen-shuo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have identified smoking as a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is unclear whether passive smoking has an effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover and if such an effect could cause osteoporosis.The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of passive smoking on bone mineral density (BMD and bone turnover and the relationship between BMD and bone turnover in female rat. Methods Forty-eight female Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: 2-month, 3-month,4-month smoke-exposed rats and their controls. A rat model of passive cigarette smoking was prepared by breeding female rats in a cigarette-smoking box for 2, 3 or 4 months. Serums were analyzed for levels of osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b. BMD was assessed at lumbar vertebrae and femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in passive smoking rats and in control rats. Results BMD of lumbar spine and femur was lower in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats than that in controls. However, there was no significant difference in serum osteocalcin levels between smoke-exposed rats and controls. Significantly lower b-ALP and higher TRACP 5b were found in the 3-month or 4-month smoke-exposed rats compared to controls. Subsequent analysis showed that b-ALP positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae(r = 0.764, P = 0.027 and femur(r = 0.899, P = 0.002 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Furthermore, TRACP 5b levels negatively correlated with BMD of lumbar vertebrae (r = -0.871, P = 0.005 and femur (r = -0.715, P = 0.046 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Conclusion Our data suggest that smoke exposure can inhibit bone formation and increase bone resorption. The hazardous effects of passive smoking on bone status are associated with increased bone turnover in female rat.

  7. Lactose intolerance: an unnecessary risk for low bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaiano, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The potential for lactose intolerance causes 25-50 million Americans and an unknown number of people around the world to avoid milk. Milk avoidance is a significant risk factor for low bone density. Individuals who avoid milk, due to intolerance or learned aversion, consume significantly less calcium and have poorer bone health and probable higher risk of osteoporosis. Lactose intolerance is easily managed by: (1) regular consumption of milk that adapts the colon bacteria and facilitates digestion of lactose; (2) consumption of yogurts and cheeses and other dairy foods low in lactose; consumption of dairy foods with meals to slow transit and maximize digestion, and use of lactose-digestive aids. As dairying spreads around the world to new markets and dairy foods become the dominant source of calcium in these markets, the potential for lactose intolerance will grow. Management of lactose intolerance globally will require both education and product development.

  8. High bone turnover is associated with low bone mass and spinal fracture in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Rix, M; Andreassen, H;

    1997-01-01

    -eight women had a lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) above 0.860 g/cm2, and 278 women had a BMD below 0.860 g/cm2. Spinal fracture was diagnosed from lateral spine X-ray studies and defined as at least 20% height reduction (wedge, compression, or endplate fracture) in at least one vertebra (T4-L4). Bone......, and prevalence of spinal fracture, which supports the theory that high bone turnover is a risk factor for spinal fracture and osteoporosis....

  9. Gonadal steroid–dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z.; Goldstein, David W.; Hahn, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Sarah C.; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B.; Taylor, Alexander P.; Webb, Matthew L.; Youngner, Jonathan M.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. METHODS. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20–50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. RESULTS. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. CONCLUSIONS. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114

  10. Bone density in proton pump inhibitors users: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdil, Kamil; Kahraman, Resul; Sahin, Abdurrahman; Calhan, Turan; Gozden, Erdem H; Akyuz, Umit; Erer, Burak; Sokmen, Mehmet H

    2013-09-01

    Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) receive long-term therapy with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) agents. Several studies have recently been published suggesting that treatment with PPI may cause bone fractures, although the number of prospective studies in this regard is limited. The aim of this study is to prospectively investigate the effect of PPIs on bone density. Between March 2009 and January 2011, 114 GERD patients (18-56 years) and 110 healthy controls were included in the present study. Bone mineral densitometry (BMD) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was assessed at lumbar spine and femur neck. BMD measurements were performed on all subjects at the beginning of the study. The patients were divided according to three drugs by their treatment with esomeprazole, lansoprazole, or pantoprazole. The study group was followed for at least 6 months on PPI therapy, and then BMD measurements were repeated. The mean duration of treatment with PPIs was 8.5 ± 2.3 months. In patients receiving PPIs, the mean reduction in total vertebra T score following treatment compared to pre-treatment values was 00.23 ± 0.42 units (95 % CI 0.15-0.30) (p < 0.01), while the mean reduction in the femur T score was 0.10 ± 0.40 units (95 % CI 0.03-0.18) (p = 0.03). Reduction following treatment in L4 and total vertebra T scores of lansoprazole group was significantly higher than of pantoprazole group (p = 0.04). Reduction in femur T score of esomeprazole group was higher than of lansoprazole group and pantroprazole group, but it is not statistically significant. Treatment with a PPI results in a significant reduction in bone density. Close monitoring is beneficial for patients who are to receive long-term treatment with PPI.

  11. Updated association of tea consumption and bone mineral density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-Fei; Yang, Jun-Long; Jiang, Huan-Chang; Lai, Zheng; Wu, Feng; Liu, Zhi-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Current studies evaluating the association of tea consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) have yielded inconsistent findings. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tea consumption and BMD. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were comprehensively searched, and a meta-analysis performed of all observational studies assessing the association of tea consumption and BMD. Forest plots were used to illustrate the results graphically. The Q-test and I2 statistic were employed to evaluate between-study heterogeneity. Potential publication bias was assessed by the funnel plot. Results: Four cohort, 1 case–control, and 8 cross-sectional studies including a total of 12,635 cases were included. Tea consumption was shown to prevent bone loss [odds ratio (OR): 0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.47–0.94; P = 0.02], yielding higher mineral densities in several bones, including the lumbar spine [standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.19; 95% CI, 0.08–0.31; P = 0.001], hip (SMD: 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05–0.34; P = 0.01), femoral neck [mean difference (MD): 0.01; 95% CI, 0.00–0.02; P = 0.04], Ward triangle (MD: 0.02; 95% CI, 0.01–0.04; P = 0.001), and greater trochanter (MD: 0.03; 95% CI, 0.02–0.04; P < 0.00001), than the non-tea consumption group. Conclusion: This meta-analysis provided a potential trend that tea consumption might be beneficial for BMD, especially in the lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck, Ward triangle, and greater trochanter, which might help prevent bone loss. PMID:28328853

  12. Moderate alcohol consumption and increased bone mineral density: potential ethanol and non-ethanol mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugdaohsingh, R; O'Connell, M A; Sripanyakorn, S; Powell, J J

    2006-08-01

    Mounting epidemiological evidence indicates an association between the moderate ingestion of alcoholic beverages and higher bone mineral density (v. abstainers). More limited findings provide some evidence for translation of this association into reduced fracture risk, but further studies are required. Here, these data are reviewed and caveats in their assimilation, comparison and interpretation as well as in the use and application of bone health indices are discussed. Whilst it is concluded that evidence is now strong for the moderate alcohol-bone health association, at least in relation to bone mineral density, mechanisms are less clear. Both ethanol and non-ethanol components have been implicated as factors that positively affect bone health in the light of moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages, and four particular areas are discussed. First, recent findings suggest that moderate ethanol consumption acutely inhibits bone resorption, in a non-parathyroid hormone- and non-calcitonin-dependent fashion, which can only partly be attributed to an energy effect. Second, critical review of the literature does not support a role for moderate ethanol consumption affecting oestrogen status and leading to a knock-on effect on bone. Third, Si is present at high levels in certain alcoholic beverages, especially beer, and may have a measurable role in promoting bone formation. Fourth, a large body of work indicates that phytochemicals (e.g. polyphenols) from alcoholic beverages could influence bone health, but human data are lacking. With further work it is hoped to be able to model epidemiological observations and provide a clear pathway between the magnitude of association and the relative contribution of these mechanisms for the major classes of alcoholic beverage.

  13. Reduced bone mineral density in men after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anijar J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart transplantation is associated with rapid bone loss and an increased prevalence and incidence of fractures. The aim of the present study was to compare the bone mineral density (BMD of 30 heart transplant (HT recipients to that of 31 chronic heart failure (CHF patients waiting for transplantation and to determine their biochemical markers of bone resorption and hormone levels. The BMD of lumbar spine and proximal femur was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine were also obtained. The mean age of the two groups did not differ significantly. Mean time of transplantation was 25.4 ± 21.1 months (6 to 88 months. Except for the albumin levels, which were significantly higher, and magnesium levels, which were significantly lower in HT patients when compared to CHF patients, all other biochemical parameters and hormone levels were within the normal range and similar in the two groups. Both groups had lower BMD of the spine and proximal femur compared to young healthy adults. However, the mean BMD of HT patients was significantly lower than in CHF patients at all sites studied. Bone mass did not correlate with time after transplantation or cumulative dose of cyclosporine A. There was a negative correlation between BMD and the cumulative dose of prednisone. These data suggest that bone loss occurs in HT patients mainly due to the use of corticosteroids and that in 30% of the patients it can be present before transplantation. It seems that cyclosporine A may also play a role in this loss.

  14. The association between metabolic syndrome, bone mineral density, hip bone geometry and fracture risk: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Muka (Taulant); K. Trajanoska (Katerina); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica); L. Oei (Ling); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); A. Dehghan (Abbas); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); O.H. Franco (Oscar); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and bone health remains unclear. We aimed to study the association between MS and hip bone geometry (HBG), femoral neck bone mineral density (FN-BMD), and the risk of osteoporosis and incident fractures. Data of 2040 women and 1510 men part

  15. The association between metabolic syndrome, bone mineral density, hip bone geometry and fracture risk: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Muka (Taulant); K. Trajanoska (Katerina); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica); L. Oei (Ling); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); A. Dehghan (Abbas); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); O.H. Franco (Oscar); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and bone health remains unclear. We aimed to study the association between MS and hip bone geometry (HBG), femoral neck bone mineral density (FN-BMD), and the risk of osteoporosis and incident fractures. Data of 2040 women and 1510 men part

  16. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density are lower in older than in younger females with Rett syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although bone mineral deficits have been identified in Rett syndrome (RTT), the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its association with skeletal fractures and scoliosis has not been characterized fully in girls and women with RTT. Accordingly, we measured total body bone mineral conten...

  17. High-density multicore fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takenaga, K.; Matsuo, S.; Saitoh, K.;

    2016-01-01

    High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber....

  18. Melatonin improves bone mineral density at the femoral neck in postmenopausal women with osteopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amstrup, Anne Kristine; Sikjaer, Tanja; Heickendorff, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin is known for its regulation of circadian rhythm. Recently, studies have shown that melatonin may have a positive effect on the skeleton. By increasing age, the melatonin levels decrease, which may lead to a further imbalanced bone remodeling. We aimed to investigate whether treatment...... with melatonin could improve bone mass and integrity in humans. In a double-blind RCT, we randomized 81 postmenopausal osteopenic women to 1-yr nightly treatment with melatonin 1 mg (N = 20), 3 mg (N = 20), or placebo (N = 41). At baseline and after 1-yr treatment, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) by dual...... X-ray absorptiometry, quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and high-resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT) and determined calciotropic hormones and bone markers. Mean age of the study subjects was 63 (range 56-73) yr. Compared to placebo, femoral neck BMD increased by 1.4% in response to melatonin...

  19. Bone Mineral Densities and Mechanical Properties of Retrieved Femoral Bone Samples in relation to Bone Mineral Densities Measured in the Respective Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Haba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bone mineral density (BMD of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (Es and ultimate compression strength (σmax of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016±166 mg/cm2 to 1376±404 mg/cm2. BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315±199 mg/cm2 and 347±113 mg/cm3, respectively. Es and σmax amounted to 232±151 N/mm2 and 6.4±3.7 N/mm2. Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r=0.85 and 0.79, resp.. Es correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r=0.79, r=0.82, and r=0.8, resp..

  20. bone mineral densities and mechanical properties of retrieved femoral bone samples in relation to bone mineral densities measured in the respective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yvonne; Skripitz, Ralf; Lindner, Tobias; Köckerling, Martin; Fritsche, Andreas; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The bone mineral density (BMD) of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (E(s)) and ultimate compression strength (σ(max)) of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016 ± 166 mg/cm(2) to 1376 ± 404 mg/cm(2). BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315 ± 199 mg/cm(2) and 347 ± 113 mg/cm(3), respectively. E(s) and σ(max) amounted to 232 ± 151 N/mm(2) and 6.4 ± 3.7 N/mm(2). Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r = 0.85 and 0.79, resp.). E(s) correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r = 0.79, r = 0.82, and r = 0.8, resp.).

  1. 产后运动指导及高钙饮食对产后骨密度恢复的影响%THE POSTPARTUM EXERCISE GUIDANCE AND HIGH CALCIUM DIET ON BONE MINERAL DENSITY(BMD) IN POSTPARTUM RECOVERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶晶; 曾定元; 陈江鸿; 张静

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of postpartum exercise guidance and high calcium diet on bone mineral density(BMD) in postpartum recovery. Methods:Chose 144 health parturients full-term delivery of single fetus in our hospital to survey,mothers were randomly divided into groups A, B and C with 48 cases each group. Group A of maternal daily oral calcium carbonate 600 mg; milk 250 mL, twice a day; guidance movement (started 2 months postpartum, to 4 km/hour speed of brisk walking 30 minutes/time,5-7 times/ week); Group B was daily oral calcium carbonate 600 mg; milk 250 mL, twice a day; by my task force member of staff for supervision. Group C had no hand steering its services calcium, milk and exercise guidance. All mothers were at 3 days postpartum, 12 months postpartum measurement of bone metabolism (alkaline phosphatase, urinary calcium, urinary creatinine) and the side of the femoral neck and lumbar spine bone mineral density. Results:① pregnancy (3 days postpartum measurement) bone loss rate was 76. 9% (100/130),34 cases in group A,35 cases in group B and 31 cases in group C (x2 =0.073, P =0. 964); BMD in postpartum recovery of 12 months group A 33. 3%(17/45),group B 20%(10/45) .group C 12. 5%(5/40) was significant(x2 =7. 504, P =0. 023); ②12 months after giving birth three groups on the left femoral neck and lumbar spine bone mineral density significantly ( P <0. 05),group A was the highest ;blood ALP, urinary Ca/Cr in three groups were significant ( P <0. 05), group A was minimum. Conclusion: prone to bone loss during pregnancy, breast-feeding caused a further loss of bone mass. But breast-feeding of high calcium diet supplemented with the appropriate exercise can promote the recovery of bone mass, reduce bone turnover rate.%目的:探讨产后运动指导及高钙饮食对产后骨密度恢复的影响.方法:选择在我院产科单胎足月分娩的健康产妇144例为观察对象,随机将产妇分为A、B、C3组,每组48例.A

  2. Bone Mineral Density in Egyptian Children with Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Salah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF has episodic or subclinical inflammation that may lead to a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD. The objective of this study was to assess BMD in Egyptian children with FMF on genetic basis. Methods: A cross sectional study included 45 FMF patients and 25 control children of both sexes in the age range between 3-16 years old. The patients were reclassified into two groups, namely group I(A with 23 cases using colchicine for 1 month or less, and group I(B with 22 cases using colchicine for more than 6 months. For both the patients and control groups, MEFV mutations were defined using molecular genetics technique and BMD was measured by DXA at the proximal femur and lumbar spines. Results: Four frequent gene mutations were found in the patient group E148Q (35.6%, V726A (33.3%, M680I (28.9%, and M694V (2.2%. There were also four heterozygous gene mutations in 40% of the control children. Patients receiving colchicine treatment for less than 1 month had highly significant lower values of BMD at the femur and lumbar spines than the control children (P=0.007, P<0.001. Patients receiving colchicine treatment for more than 6 months had improved values of BMD at femur compared with the control, but there were still significant differences between them in lumbar spine (P=0.036. There were insignificant effect of gene mutation type on BMD and the risk of osteopenia among the patients. Conclusion: FMF had a significant effect on BMD. However, regular use of colchicine treatment improves this effect mainly at the femur.

  3. Reduced Bone Mineral Density in Children and Adolescents: Causes, Incidence and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Maltsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in children is an urgent problem, since it occurs at different ages. The main risk factors and causes of primary and secondary osteoporosis in children include exogenous and endogenous, modifiable and non-modifiable factors. Critical age periods of childhood characterized by a high risk of reduced bone mineral density and fractures are specified. The article describes the biological effects of calcium, vitamin D and osteotropic trace elements and shows their role in osteogenesis and bone remodeling. It also presents the results of the study of reduced bone mineral density in children, the data on the availability of vitamin D for children at different ages, and provides recommendations for treatment.

  4. Assessment of bone density in patients with scoliosis neuromuscular secondary to cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charbel Jacob Júnior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate bone mineral density in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis secondary to spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy. METHODS: A prospective descriptive study in which, in addition to bone densitometry, the anthropometric data of the patients were assessed. As inclusion criterion we adopted patients with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy, wheelchair users, aged between 10 and 20 years and with neuromuscular scoliosis. RESULTS: We evaluated 31 patients, 20 female, whose average age was 14.2 years. The mean bone density was -3.2 standard deviation (Z-score, with mean biceps circumference of 19.4 cm, calf circumference 18.6 cm and BMI of 13.6 kg/m². CONCLUSION: There is a high incidence of osteoporosis in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis secondary to spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy.

  5. High density matter at RHIC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thomas S Ullrich

    2004-02-01

    QCD predicts a phase transition between hadronic matter and a quark-gluon plasma at high energy density. The relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a new facility dedicated to the experimental study of matter under extreme conditions. Already the first round of experimental results at RHIC indicated that the conditions to create a new state of matter are indeed reached in the collisions of heavy nuclei. Studies of particle spectra and their correlations at low transverse momenta provide evidence of strong pressure gradients in the highly interacting dense medium and hint that we observe a system in thermal equilibrium. Recent runs with high statistics allow us to explore the regime of hard-scattering processes where the suppression of hadrons at large transverse momentum, and quenching of di-jets are observed thus providing further evidence for extreme high density matter created in collisions at RHIC.

  6. Bone turnover in elderly men: relationships to change in bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Center Jacqueline R

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not clear whether bone turnover markers can be used to make inference regarding changes in bone mineral density (BMD in untreated healthy elderly men. The present study was designed to address three specific questions: (i is there a relationship between bone turnover markers and femoral neck BMD within an individual; (ii is there a relationship between baseline measurements of bone turnover markers and subsequent change in BMD; and (iii is there a relationship between changes in bone turnover markers and changes in femoral neck BMD? Methods The present study was part of the on-going Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study, which was designed as a prospective investigation. Men who had had at least 3 sequential visits with serum samples available during follow-up were selected from the study population. Serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (sICTP, N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (sPINP and femoral neck BMD were measured by competitive radioimmunoassays. Femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD was measured by a densitometer (GE Lunar Corp, Madison, WI. Various mixed-effects models were used to assess the association between the markers and changes in BMD. Results One hundred and one men aged 70 ± 4.1 years (mean ± SD met the criteria of selection for analysis. On average, sPINP decreased by 0.7% per year (p = 0.026, sICTP increased by 1.7% per year (p = 0.0002, and femoral neck BMD decreased by 0.4% per year (p Conclusion These results suggest that in elderly men of Caucasian background, changes in sPINP were inversely related to changes in BMD within an individual. However, neither sPINP nor sICTP was sufficiently sensitive to predict the rate of change in BMD for a group of individuals or for an individual.

  7. Inverse correlation between fibrinogen and bone mineral density in women: Preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jui-Tung; Kotani, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Hemostatic factors may be involved in bone health. The present preliminary study investigated the association between plasma fibrinogen and bone mineral density (BMD) in perimenopausal women. A significant inverse correlation between fibrinogen and BMD was observed (correlation coefficient = -0.42, p high level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein than in that with a low level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and in the subgroup with a high level of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (an oxidative stress marker) than in that with a low level of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites. Thus, fibrinogen may be a possible marker of BMD in this population. More studies on the associations among hemostasis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and bone metabolism are warranted in the clinical setting.

  8. Predictability of bone density at posterior mandibular implant sites using cone-beam computed tomography intensity values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhader, Mustafa; Hudieb, Malik; Khader, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictability of bone density at posterior mandibular implant sites using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) intensity values. CBCT cross-sectional images for 436 posterior mandibular implant sites were selected for the study. Using Invivo software (Anatomage, San Jose, California, USA), two observers classified the bone density into three categories: low, intermediate, and high, and CBCT intensity values were generated. Based on the consensus of the two observers, 15.6% of sites were of low bone density, 47.9% were of intermediate density, and 36.5% were of high density. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed that CBCT intensity values had a high predictive power for predicting high density sites (area under the curve [AUC] =0.94, P density sites (AUC = 0.81, P density sites was 218 (sensitivity = 0.77 and specificity = 0.76) and the best cut-off value for intensity to predict high density sites was 403 (sensitivity = 0.93 and specificity = 0.77). CBCT intensity values are considered useful for predicting bone density at posterior mandibular implant sites.

  9. Autologous implantation of BMP2-expressing dermal fibroblasts to improve bone mineral density and architecture in rabbit long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Akikazu; Weisbrode, Steve E; Bertone, Alicia L

    2015-10-01

    Cell-mediated gene therapy may treat bone fragility disorders. Dermal fibroblasts (DFb) may be an alternative cell source to stem cells for orthopedic gene therapy because of their rapid cell yield and excellent plasticity with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) gene transduction. Autologous DFb or BMP2-expressing autologous DFb were administered in twelve rabbits by two delivery routes; a transcortical intra-medullar infusion into tibiae and delayed intra-osseous injection into femoral drill defects. Both delivery methods of DFb-BMP2 resulted in a successful cell engraftment, increased bone volume, bone mineral density, improved trabecular bone microarchitecture, greater bone defect filling, external callus formation, and trabecular surface area, compared to non-transduced DFb or no cells. Cell engraftment within trabecular bone and bone marrow tissue was most efficiently achieved by intra-osseous injection of DFb-BMP2. Our results suggested that BMP2-expressing autologous DFb have enhanced efficiency of engraftment in target bones resulting in a measurable biologic response by the bone of improved bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. These results support that autologous implantation of DFb-BMP2 warrants further study on animal models of bone fragility disorders, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and osteoporosis to potentially enhance bone quality, particularly along with other gene modification of these diseases.

  10. Mapping Bone Mineral Density Obtained by Quantitative Computed Tomography to Bone Volume Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2017-01-01

    Methods for relating or mapping estimates of volumetric Bone Mineral Density (vBMD) obtained by Quantitative Computed Tomography to Bone Volume Fraction (BVF) are outlined mathematically. The methods are based on definitions of bone properties, cited experimental studies and regression relations derived from them for trabecular bone in the proximal femur. Using an experimental range of values in the intertrochanteric region obtained from male and female human subjects, age 18 to 49, the BVF values calculated from four different methods were compared to the experimental average and numerical range. The BVF values computed from the conversion method used data from two sources. One source provided pre bed rest vBMD values in the intertrochanteric region from 24 bed rest subject who participated in a 70 day study. Another source contained preflight vBMD values from 18 astronauts who spent 4 to 6 months on the ISS. To aid the use of a mapping from BMD to BVF, the discussion includes how to formulate them for purpose of computational modeling. An application of the conversions would be used to aid in modeling of time varying changes in vBMD as it relates to changes in BVF via bone remodeling and/or modeling.

  11. Association of the presence of bone bars on radiographs and low bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, Michael J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Morgan, Sarah L. [Schools of Health Professions, Medicine, and Dentistry, Departments of Nutrition Sciences and Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Lopez-Ben, Robert [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Steelman, Rebecca E. [University of Alabama, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Nunnally, Nancy; Burroughs, Leandria [UAB Osteoporosis Prevention and Treatment Clinic, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Fineberg, Naomi [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Bone bars (BB) are struts of normal trabecular bone that cross the medullary portions of the metaphysis and diaphysis at right angles to the long axis of the shaft. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the presence of bone bars (BB) identified on radiographs of the proximal femurs and tibia, predict lower bone mineral density (BMD) as evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine, total hip, or femoral neck. A total of 134 sequential DXA patients underwent radiography of the pelvis, hips, and both knees. The radiographs were evaluated for the presence of BB by two musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to DXA results. A t test was used to evaluate the relationship of BB to BMD and a Chi-square test was used to determine if BB were equally distributed among the categories of normal BMD, low bone mass (osteopenia), and osteoporosis. BB were associated with lower BMD at all measured sites. BB at the intertrochanteric and proximal tibial sites were the most predictive of low BMD while supraacetabular and distal femur BB were less predictive. Osteoporosis or osteopenia is seen in 60-91% of those with BB depending on the side and reader. It is only seen in about 40% of those without BB. We conclude that the presence of BB suggest decreased BMD and when correlated with other clinical information, might support further evaluation of BMD. (orig.)

  12. High density fluoride glass calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Q.; Scheltzbaum, J.; Akgun, U.

    2014-04-01

    The unprecedented radiation levels in current Large Hadron Collider runs, and plans to even increase the luminosity creates a need for new detector technologies to be investigated. Quartz plates to replace the plastic scintillators in current LHC calorimeters have been proposed in recent reports. Quartz based Cherenkov calorimeters can solve the radiation damage problem, however light production and transfer have proven to be challenging. This report summarizes the results from a computational study on the performance of a high-density glass calorimeter. High-density, scintillating, fluoride glass, CHG3, was used as the active material. This glass has been developed specifically for hadron collider experiments, and is known for fast response time, in addition to high light yield. Here, the details of a Geant4 model for a sampling calorimeter prototype with 20 layers, and its hadronic as well as electromagnetic performances are reported.

  13. Plasma Retinol, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Zinc as Predictors of Bone Mineral Density Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkia S. A. El-Sherbeny*, Effat A. A., Afifi**, Wafaa M. A. Saleh**, Asmaa, M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conflicting results on the association between serum retinol level and bone mineral density (BMD have been published. Thyroid hormones are essential for skeletal development and have direct effect on bone formation and resorption. Bone has one of the highest concentrations of zinc of all tissues, and has been shown to release zinc during deficiency for soft tissue metabolism. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the relation between plasma levels of retinol, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH & zinc and BMD of Egyptian adolescents and adults. Method: The study was a part of a cross sectional national survey conducted by National Nutrition Institute. The sample was a multistage stratified random. Target individuals were classified into two age groups (10- 18 and 28- 59 years. Bone mineral density and plasma levels of retinol, TSH and zinc were determined. Results: Low and high plasma retinol levels were more prevalent among osteoporotic adolescent and adult males respectively than in normal subjects.. The reverse was observed in adult females. Bone mineral density correlated negatively with plasma retinol level in adult males and females and positively in adolescent males, while among females the association was significant (P = 0.030 and stronger. The highest deficiency of TSH was found among adult and adolescent osteoporotic males, followed by osteopenic adult males and adolescent females. Highly statistically significant difference (P < 0.001 existed between osteoporotic and normal adult males concerning TSH deficiency. The prevalence of zinc deficiency ranged from 5.7% to 9.5% for all target individuals. Plasma Zn levels were correlated negatively with bone mineral density in adult males and females. Conclusion: The results of this study reflects the controversy on the association of plasma retinol and BMD. However, the predominant finding revealed that both low and high plasna retinol levels compromise bone health

  14. Bone mineral density in children and young adults with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Dagalakis, Urania; Sinaii, Ninet; Bornstein, Ethan; Kim, Aerang; Lokie, Kelsey B; Baldwin, Andrea M; Reynolds, James C; Dombi, Eva; Stratakis, Constantine A; Widemann, Brigitte C

    2012-12-01

    Concern for impaired bone health in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) has led to increased interest in bone densitometry in this population. Our study assessed bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and whole-body bone mineral content (BMC)/height in pediatric patients with NF-1 with a high plexiform neurofibroma burden. Sixty-nine patients with NF-1 (age range 5.2-24.8; mean 13.7 ± 4.8 years) were studied. Hologic dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans (Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA, USA) were performed on all patients. BMD was normalized to derive a reference volume by correcting for height through the use of the BMAD, as well as the BMC. BMAD of the lumbar spine (LS 2-4), femoral neck (FN), and total body BMC/height were measured and Z-scores were calculated. Impaired bone mineral density was defined as a Z-score ≤-2. Forty-seven percent of patients exhibited impaired bone mineral density at any bone site, with 36% at the LS, 18% at the FN, and 20% total BMC/height. BMAD Z-scores of the LS (-1.60 ± 1.26) were more impaired compared with both the FN (-0.54 ± 1.58; P=0.0003) and the whole-body BMC/height Z-scores (-1.16 ± 0.90; P=0.036). Plexiform neurofibroma burden was negatively correlated with LS BMAD (r(s)=-0.36, P=0.01). In pediatric and young adult patients with NF-1, LS BMAD was more severely affected than the FN BMAD or whole-body BMC/height.

  15. Thyroid function and bone mineral density among Indian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Thyroid hormones affect bone remodeling in patients with thyroid disease by acting directly or indirectly on bone cells. In view of limited information on correlation of thyroid function with bone mineral density (BMD in euthyroid subjects, we undertook this study to evaluate the correlation between thyroid function with BMD in subjects with normal thyroid function and subclinical hypothyroidism. Material and Methods : A total of 1290 subjects included in this cross sectional study, were divided in Group-1 with normal thyroid function and Group-2 with subclinical hypothyroidism. Fasting blood samples were drawn for the estimation of serum 25(OHD, intact parathyroid hormone, total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase. BMD at lumbar spine, femur, and forearm was measured. Results : BMD at all sites (radius, femur, and spine were comparable in both groups. There was no difference in BMD when subjects were divided in tertiles of TSH in either group. In group-1, FT4 and TSH were positively associated with BMD at 33% radius whereas FT3 was negatively associated with BMD at femoral neck in multiple regression analysis after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, 25(OHD and PTH levels. In group-2, there was no association observed between TSH and BMD at any site. Amongst all study subjects FT4 and FT3 were positively correlated with BMD at lumbar spine and radius respectively among all subjects. Conclusion: TSH does not affect BMD in euthyroid subjects and subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormones appear to have more pronounced positive effect on cortical than trabecular bone in euthyroid subjects.

  16. Bone mineral density in adults with Down`s syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelopoulou, N.; Souftas, V.; Mandroukas, K. [Ergophysiology Lab., Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Sakadamis, A. [Medical School, Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1999-05-01

    The objective of the study was to elucidate if individuals with Down`s syndrome (DS) are likely to experience an increased risk of osteoporosis with advancing age, in addition to precocious aging and their skeletal anomalies. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 22 home-reared adults (9 males and 13 females; age 26.22 {+-} 4.45 and 23.65 {+-} 3.23 years, respectively) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The BMD of the second to fourth lumbar vertebrae was measured in posteroanterior projection and the mean density expressed as grams per square centimetre. The BMD of DS individuals was compared with 27 control subjects (12 males and 15 females) of the same age (age 24.16 {+-} 3.46 and 23.86 {+-} 2.92 years, respectively). The results showed that the BMD of the lumbar spine in the males as well as in the females with DS was significantly lower than that in their control counterparts (p < 0.001). Comparing the DS males with the females, the BMD was lower in the males at a level of 9 %. Factors that contribute to this disorder may be mainly the muscular hypotonia, the sedentary lifestyle and the accompanying diseases which frequently observed in the syndrome. Future studies must be focused on the biochemistry of bone metabolism, the evaluation of gonadal, thyroid and parathyroid function, and the genes of the extra chromosome 21. (orig.) With 1 tab., 21 refs.

  17. CINACALCET IMPROVES BONE DENSITY IN POST KIDNEY TRANSPLANT HYPERPARATHYROIDISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, ME; Duan, Z; Chamberlain, CE; Reynolds, JC; Ring, MS; Wright, EC; Mannon, RB

    2010-01-01

    The recent availability of cinacalcet has provided a possible alternative to parathyroidectomy in kidney transplant patients with persistent hyperparathyroidism, but its effect on bone mass density (BMD) is unknown. From our database containing 163 kidney transplants performed at our center from 1999-2007, we compared recipients who received cinacalcet for persistent hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism following renal tx (n=8; CIN) with up to 2 other post tx patients matched for age, sex, race, and graft function (n=15; CON). The outcome of the study was BMD changes from baseline to 12, 24, and 36 months post renal tx. Repeated Measures Mixed model was used to assess the difference of BMD change between two groups. Cinacalcet therapy was started at a median of 9 months (range; 1, 24 months) post tx with a mean dose 56±29 mg/d (mean duration; 1.6 years, range; 1, 2.1). Cinacalcet therapy was associated with significant reduction of serum calcium compared to control. Cinacalcet therapy was associated with greater BMD increase at the hip over the 36-month post transplant period. Cinacalcet was well tolerated. Our results suggest that cinacalcet may have a small but favorable effect on bone density following kidney transplantation. PMID:21094814

  18. New Osseodensification Implant Site Preparation Method to Increase Bone Density in Low-Density Bone: In Vivo Evaluation in Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Trisi, Paolo; Berardini, Marco; Falco, Antonello; Podaliri Vulpiani, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate a new surgical technique for implant site preparation that could allow to enhance bone density, ridge width, and implant secondary stability. Materials and Methods: The edges of the iliac crests of 2 sheep were exposed and ten 3.8 × 10-mm Dynamix implants (Cortex) were inserted in the left sides using the conventional drilling method (control group). Ten 5 × 10-mm Dynamix implants (Cortex) were inserted in the right sides (test group) using the o...

  19. High energy density aluminum battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  20. High energy density aluminum battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  1. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in children and adolescents with osteomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Desouki, M. [College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jurayyan, N. [College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-02-01

    In order to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and bone scans in the management of patients with osteomalacia, radioisotope bone scintigraphy using technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and BMD measurements of the lumbar spine and femur by means of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis and 6 months after therapy in 26 Saudi patients (17 females and nine males). Their mean age was 13.5 years (range, 5-16). BMD measurements were compared with those of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. Bone scan showed an increase in tracer uptake throughout the skeleton (``superscan``) in all children and demonstrated multiple stress fractures in eight. The mean BMD for the lumbar spine was 0.53 g/cm{sup 2}(Z-score, -3.1) and for the femoral neck 0.55 g/cm {sup 2}(Z-score, -2.8). Repeated bone scan and BMD after 6 months of therapy with oral vitamin D, calcium and proper sun exposure demonstrated a significant increase (P <0.001) in BMD and healing of pseudofractures. In conclusion, as a non-invasive method with minimal radiation exposure, measurements of BMD in children with osteomalacia are to be recommended in the initial assessment of the severity of osteopenia and in the follow-up to monitor the response to therapy. Bone scintigraphy is valuable in demonstrating the site and severity of stress fractures. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. The relationship between breast density and bone mineral density in never users of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckin, Berna; Pekcan, Meryem Kuru; Inal, Hasan Ali; Gulerman, Cavidan

    2017-06-01

    Estrogen is known to affect both mammographic breast density and bone mineral density (BMD), but there are inconsistent results about the association of these density measurements in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, there are scarce data on the relationship between breast density and BMD in never users of postmenopausal hormone therapy. In this study, we examined the relationship between mammographic breast density and BMD in postmenopausal women who were never hormone replacement therapy users. A total of 293 postmenopausal women were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Mammograms and BMD measurements for screening purposes were obtained. Assessment of mammographic breast density was performed by using breast imaging reporting and data system classification. The BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Grade 1 breast density was observed in 64 women (21.8 %), grade 2 in 113 women (38.6 %) and grades 3 and 4 in 116 (39.6 %) women. Breast density decreased with increasing age and body mass index (BMI). Meanwhile, no significant differences were detected in BMD measures of the hip (p = 0.14) and lumbar spine (p = 0.29) among the breast density categories. After adjusting for age and BMI, the differences in the mean BMD at the hip and lumbar spine across the breast density categories remained insignificant (p = 0.26 and 0.11, respectively). There is no evidence of a relationship between mammographic breast density and BMD in postmenopausal women who had never used hormone replacement therapy.

  3. Bone mineral density in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sušić Gordana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is well known that juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA as a chronic inflammatory disease with onset during the childhood, beside other complication, can lead to bone metabolism disturbance and osteoporosis. Objective. To assess bone mineral density (BMD in children with JIA and to identify factors playing role in bone mineral disturbance. Methods. Seventy-five patients (26 male and 49 female average disease duration 7.2 (2.4-16.8 years, and 73 age matched healthy control subjects (29 male and 44 female participated in the study. Mean age of the groups was about 14.5 years. BMD was determined by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA of the lumbar spine (L2-L4. For further analysis we used the absolute value of BMD, expressed as g/cm2, Z score expressed as SD (relative value as standard deviation decline of normal BMD values of referent Italian population with identical age and gender, bone mineral content (BMC as g/cm, and corrected BMD - BMDv as g/cm3. Results. Z score in the group of patients was significantly lower (-1.02±1.6 in comparison to the control group (-0.09±1.4; p<0.001. BMD, BMDv and BMC were also statistically lower in patients with JIA. The lowest Z score was found in patients with systemic onset (-2.63 SD. Z score showed a statistically significant positive correlation with arthritis course (polyarticular course had lower Z score, body mass index and standard deviation score for height and weight. Statistically significant negative correlation was detected in regard to Z score and glucocorticoid (GC treatment duration, GC cumulative dose, number of joints with limited range of motion, radiological stage and functional class. Conclusion. The results showed a decreased BMD in patients with JIA in comparison to the control group. Systemic onset, polyarthritis, longer treatment with GC and higher cumulative dosage, as well as higher damage level (functional status and radiological stage are factors playing negative role

  4. Longitudinal evolution of bone mineral density and bone markers in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondy, Kristin; Yarasheski, Kevin; Powderly, William G; Whyte, Michael; Claxton, Sherry; DeMarco, Debra; Hoffmann, Mary; Tebas, Pablo

    2003-02-15

    The underlying mechanisms of several bone disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons and any relation to antiretroviral therapy have yet to be defined. A longitudinal study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of osteopenia or osteoporosis in HIV-infected persons; to assess bone mineralization, metabolism, and histomorphometry over time; and to evaluate predisposing factors. A total of 128 patients enrolled the study, and 93 were observed for 72 weeks. "Classic" risk factors (low body mass index, history of weight loss, steroid use, and smoking) for low bone mineral density (BMD) and duration of HIV infection were strongly associated with osteopenia. There was a weak association between low BMD and receipt of treatment with protease inhibitors; this association disappeared after controlling for the above factors. Markers of bone turnover tended to be elevated in the whole cohort but were not associated with low BMD. BMD increased slightly during follow-up. Traditional risk factors and advanced HIV infection play a more significant pathogenic role in the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis associated with HIV infection than do treatment-associated factors.

  5. The impact of degenerative spinal changes on the correlation of peripheral and axial bone density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, P. (Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany)); Boerner, W. (Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany))

    1994-08-01

    Results of bone density measurements by quantitative computed tomography of the peripheral skeleton (pQCT) were compared with those of measurements at the axial skeleton with a view to study the effects of degenerative spinal changes on the validity of bone densitometry of the lumbar spine. 556 consecutive patients were examined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the spine and by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) of the distal radius. There were significant differences between the bone mineral values at the distal radius and those at the spine, depending on the degree of spinal degeneration. As expected, spinal degenerations showed a highly significant age dependence. With increasing degeneration the correlations between the radius total bone mineral concentration and the bone density of the lumbar spine decreased from r=0.45 to 0.23 in women and from r=0.64 to 0.28 in men. We conclude that the value of spinal DXA is reduced in patients with degenerative spinal disease, compared to the pQCT at the peripheral skeleton. (orig.)

  6. A Review of Dental Implant Treatment Planning and Implant Design Based on Bone Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torkzaban

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Context A key determinant for clinical success is the diagnosis of the bone density in a potential implant site. The percentage of bone-implant contact is related to bone density, and the axial stress contours around an implant are affected by the density of bone. Evidence Acquisition A number of reports have emphasized the importance of the quality of bone on the survival of dental implants. The volume and density of the recipient bone have also been shown to be determining criteria to establish proper treatment plans with adequate number of implants and sufficient surface area. Previous clinical reports that did not alter the protocol of treatment related to bone density had variable survival rates. To the contrary, altering the treatment plan to compensate for soft bone types has provided similar survival rates in all bone densities. Results When bone density decreases and bone become softer, the implant surface in contact with the bone decreases, therefore treatment plan should be modified by changing the drilling protocol, using gradual loading and reducing the force on the prosthesis or increasing the loading area with increasing implant number, implant position, implant size, implant design (deeper and more threads with more pitch, squared shape and implant body surface condition. Conclusions Once the prosthetic option, key implant position, and patient force factors have been determined, the bone density in the implant sites should be evaluated to modify the treatment plan. Inappropriate implant number or design in poor quality bone results in higher failure rates. Changing the treatment plan and implant design is suggested, based on bone density to achieve higher survival rates.

  7. A Review of the Effect of Anticonvulsant Medications on Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard H.; Lyles, Kenneth W.; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis and seizure disorders are common diagnoses in older adults and often occur concomitantly. Objective The goal of this review was to discuss the current hypothesis for the pathogenesis of anticonvulsant-induced bone density loss and the evidence regarding the risk for osteoporosis and fractures in older individuals. Methods A review of the literature was performed, searching in MEDLINE and CINAHL for articles published between 1990 and October 2009 with the following search terms: anticonvulsant OR antiepileptic; AND osteoporosis OR bone density OR fracture OR absorptiometry, photon. Studies within the pediatric population, cross-sectional studies, and studies whose results were published in a language other than English were excluded. Results A search of the published literature yielded >300 results, of which 24 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were included in this review. Hepatic enzyme induction by certain anticonvulsant medications appears to contribute to increased metabolism of 25-hydroxyvitamin D to inactive metabolites, which results in metabolic bone disease. There is increasing evidence that anticonvulsant use is associated with a higher risk of osteoporosis and clinical fractures, especially among older agents such as phenobarbital, carbamazepine, phenytoin, and valproate. Several observational studies suggest a class effect among anticonvulsant agents, associated with clinically significant reductions in bone mineral density and fracture risk. The use of anticonvulsant medications increases the odds of fracture by 1.2 to 2.4 times. However, only 2 large-scale observational studies have specifically examined the risk among those aged >65 years. This review also identified a randomized controlled trial whose results suggest that supplementation with high-dose vitamin D may be associated with increased bone mineral density in patients taking anticonvulsant medications. However, no randomized controlled trials

  8. Soft tissues, areal bone mineral density and hip geometry estimates in active young boys: the PRO-BONE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Kelly; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Klentrou, Panagiota; Ubago-Guisado, Esther; De Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Barker, Alan R; Williams, Craig A; Moreno, Luis A; Gracia-Marco, Luis

    2017-04-01

    Soft tissues, such as fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM), play an important role in bone development but this is poorly understood in highly active youths. The objective of this study was to determine whether FM or LM is a stronger predictor of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and hip geometry estimates in a group of physically active boys after adjusting for height, chronological age, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), FM, and LM. Participants included 121 boys (13.1 ± 1.0 years) from the PRO-BONE study. Bone mineral content (BMC) and aBMD were measured at total body, femoral neck and lumbar spine using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and hip structural analysis was used to estimate bone geometry at the femoral neck. Body composition was assessed using DXA. The relationships of FM and LM with bone outcomes were analysed using simple and multiple linear regression analyses. Pearson correlation coefficients showed that total body (less head) aBMD was significantly correlated with LM but not FM. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that FM, after accounting for height, age, MVPA and LM had no significant relationship with aBMD or hip geometry estimates, except for arms aBMD. By contrast, there were positive associations between LM and most aBMD and hip geometry estimates, after accounting height, age, MVPA and FM. The results of this study suggest that LM, and not FM, is the stronger predictor of aBMD and hip geometry estimates in physically active boys. ClinicalTrials.gov ISRCTN17982776.

  9. Early decrements in bone density after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in pediatric bone sarcoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardes Jendrik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone mineral density (BMD accrual during childhood and adolescence is important for attaining peak bone mass. BMD decrements have been reported in survivors of childhood bone sarcomas. However, little is known about the onset and development of bone loss during cancer treatment. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate BMD in newly diagnosed Ewing's and osteosarcoma patients by means of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods DXA measurements of the lumbar spine (L2-4, both femora and calcanei were performed perioperatively in 46 children and adolescents (mean age: 14.3 years, range: 8.6-21.5 years. Mean Z-scores, areal BMD (g/cm2, calculated volumetric BMD (g/cm3 and bone mineral content (BMC, g were determined. Results Lumbar spine mean Z-score was -0.14 (95% CI: -0.46 to 0.18, areal BMD was 1.016 g/cm2 (95% CI: 0.950 to 1.082 and volumetric BMD was 0.330 g/cm3 (95% CI: 0.314 to 0.347 which is comparable to healthy peers. For patients with a lower extremity tumor (n = 36, the difference between the affected and non-affected femoral neck was 12.1% (95% CI: -16.3 to -7.9 in areal BMD. The reduction of BMD was more pronounced in the calcaneus with a difference between the affected and contralateral side of 21.7% (95% CI: -29.3 to -14.0 for areal BMD. Furthermore, significant correlations for femoral and calcaneal DXA measurements were found with Spearman-rho coefficients ranging from ρ = 0.55 to ρ = 0.80. Conclusions The tumor disease located in the lower extremity in combination with offloading recommendations induced diminished BMD values, indicating local osteopenia conditions. However, the results revealed no significant decrements of lumbar spine BMD in pediatric sarcoma patients after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Nevertheless, it has to be taken into account that bone tumor patients may experience BMD decrements or secondary osteoporosis

  10. Silicon supplementation improves the bone mineral density of calcium-deficient ovariectomized rats by reducing bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun-Jung; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Chung, Yoon-Sok

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of silicon (Si) supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism parameters relative to calcium (Ca) intake levels in ovariectomized rats. A total of 72 female Wistar rats (6 weeks) were ovariectomized (OVX) and divided into six groups, and Si (500 mg of Si per kilogram of feed) was or was not administered with diets containing various levels of Ca (0.1%, 0.5%, and 1.5%) for 10 weeks. The groups were as follows: (1) Ca-deficient group (0.1% Ca), (2) Ca-deficient with Si supplementation group, (3) adequate Ca group (0.5% Ca), (4) adequate Ca with Si supplementation group, (5) high Ca group (1.5% Ca), and (6) high Ca with Si supplementation group. Si supplementation significantly increased the BMD of the femur and tibia in Ca-deficient OVX rats, while no change was observed with Si supplementation in the BMD of the spine, femur, and tibia in the adequate and high Ca groups. Serum alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin levels were not affected by Si supplementation or Ca intake levels. C-telopeptide type I collagen levels were significantly decreased as a result of Si supplementation in Ca-deficient OVX rats. In summary, Si supplementation produced positive effects on bone mineral density in Ca-deficient OVX rats by reducing bone resorption. Therefore, Si supplementation may also prove to be helpful in preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women whose calcium intake is insufficient.

  11. Influence of heredity and environment on peak bone density: a review of studies in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijetić Avdagić, Selma; Colić Barić, Irena; Keser, Irena; Rumbak, Ivana; Šatalić, Zvonimir

    2012-01-01

    One of the main determinants of who will develop osteoporosis is the amount of bone accumulated at peak bone density. There is poor agreement, however, on when peak bone density occurs. Ethnic differences were observed in age at peak bone density and their correlates. Since the diagnosis of osteoporosis and osteopaenia is based on the comparison between patients' bone mineral density (BMD) and optimal peak bone density in healthy young people (T-score), it is of great importance that each country should provide its own reference peak bone density data.This review article presents our published results on peak bone density in Croatia and compares them with findings in other populations. Our research included 18 to 25-year-old students from Zagreb University and their parents. The results showed that peak bone mass in young Croatian women was achieved before the age of twenty, but BMD continued to increase after the mid-twenties in the long-bone cortical skeleton. BMD was comparable to the values reported by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and other studies that included the same age groups, except for the cortical part of the radius, where it was significantly lower. Men achieved peak bone density in the spine later than women, which cannot be explained by different diet or physical activity. As expected, heredity was more important for peak bone density than the environmental factors known to be important for bone health. However, the influence of heredity was not as strong as observed in most other populations. It was also weaker in the cortical than in the trabecular parts of the skeleton. Future research should include young adolescent population to define the exact age of achieving peak bone density in different skeletal sites.

  12. Increased physical activity ameliorates high fat diet-induced bone resorption in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been recognized that mechanical stresses associated with physical activity (PA) have beneficial effects on increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and improving bone quality. On the other hand, high fat diet (HFD) and obesity increase bone marrow adiposity leading to increased excretion of pro-...

  13. Hysterectomy with ovarian conservation: effect on bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lareon, G.; Baillon, L. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound

    1997-09-01

    Full text: There are conflicting data on the long-term effects of hysterectomy with ovarian conservation on bone mineral density (BMD). Accordingly, we performed a cross-sectional study on 58 women with premenopausal hysterectomy and ovarian conservation (group 1) and 59 women with natural menopause (group 2). No subjects had disorders or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. Patients underwent bone densitometry of the lumbar spine and hip using a Norland XR-36. By chi-squared and one-way ANOVA, there were no differences in age: 55.4{+-} 11.0 y (1)v 57.6{+-} 9.8 y (2); exercise, alcohol or smoking consumption, family history of osteoporosis, height: 1.61 {+-} 0.08m (1) v 1.61 {+-} 0.08m (2); weight 67.7 {+-} 11.3kg (1) v 68.3 kg {+-} 12.5 kg (2); body mass index: 30.95 (1 ) v 26.26 (2). Lumbar spine BMD was also similar for the two groups [0.95 {+-} 0.18g/cm{sup 2} (1) v 0.94{+-} 0.21 g/cm{sup 2} (2)]. However, hysterectomy patients had a significantly lower hip BMD: 0.63 {+-} 0.16 g/cm{sup 2} v 0.76 {+-} 0.18 g/cm{sup 2} (p>0.001). Multivariate logistic regression showed that spine BMD was influenced by age, family history, height and weight (R{sup 2} = 0.37), but not prior hysterectomy. Hip BMD was related to age, hysterectomy, smoking and weight (R{sup 2} = o 45). We conclude that prior hysterectomy with ovarian conservation has an adverse effect on hip but not spine BMD.

  14. Intramuscular neridronate in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Silvano; Gatti, Davide; Bertoldo, Francesco; Sartori, Leonardo; Di Munno, Ombretta; Filipponi, Paolo; Marcocci, Claudio; Frediani, Bruno; Palummeri, Ernesto; Fiore, Carmelo Erio; Costi, Daniele; Rossini, Maurizio

    2008-11-01

    Compliance to osteoporosis treatment with oral bisphosphonates is very poor. Intermittent intravenous bisphosphonate is a useful alternative, but this route is not readily available. Neridronate, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate that can be given intramuscularly (IM), was tested in a phase 2 clinical trial in 188 postmenopausal osteoporotic women randomized to IM treatment with 25 mg neridronate every 2 weeks, neridronate 12.5 or 25 mg every 4 weeks, or placebo. All patients received calcium and vitamin D supplements. The patients were treated over 12 months with 2-year posttreatment follow-up. After 12-month treatment, all three doses were associated with significant bone mineral density (BMD) increases at both the total hip and spine. A significant dose-response relationship over the three doses was observed for the BMD changes at the total hip but not at the spine. Bone alkaline phosphatase decreased significantly by 40-55% in neridronate-treated patients, with an insignificant dose-response relationship. Serum type I collagen C-telopeptide decreased by 58-79%, with a significant dose-response relationship (P < 0.05). Two years after treatment discontinuation, BMD declined by 1-2% in each dose group, with values still significantly higher than baseline at both the spine and the total hip. Bone turnover markers progressively increased after treatment discontinuation, and on the second year of follow-up the values were significantly higher than pretreatment baseline. The results of this study indicate that IM neridronate might be of value for patients intolerant to oral bisphosphonates and unwilling or unable to undergo intravenous infusion of bisphosphonates.

  15. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density in Children with Thalassemia Major

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    Betül Bakan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fragile bones develop due to various factors in thalassemic patients. Even with optimum management, osteoporosis occurs, contributing to morbidity in majority of patients with thalassemia major (TM. Our aim was to evaluate bone health of thalassemic children using biochemical parameters and bone mineral density (BMD, and to emphasize the precautionary measures and early diagnosis of osteoporosis. Material and Methods: Thirteen children (5 females, 8 males, age <18 years with TM were included in the study. Age, duration, weight, height, transfusion frequency, medication use were recorded. Following laboratory analysis were obtained: Whole blood count, fasting blood glucose, ferritin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxin, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH. BMD was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA from femur and lumbar vertebrae. Patients with DXA Z-score <-2 was defined as osteoporotic. Results: The mean age was 7.85±3.17 years and body mass index (BMI was 14.68±1.93 kg/m2. The rest of the results were as follows: Lumbar BMD 0.464±0.108 g/cm2; total femur BMD 0.581± 0.114 g/cm2; lumbar DEXA Z-score 2.44±1.60; total femur DEXA -0.93±1.19. Osteoporosis ratio was determined as 69% in the lumbar vertebrae and 10% in the femur. A significant positive correlation was found between lumbar-femoral BMD and BMI, and a significant negative correlation was observed between femoral BMD and iPTH. Conclusion: BMD is low in thalassemic children. Despite regular transfusions and chelation therapy, osteoporosis starts early in life. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2012;18: 72-7

  16. Low bone mineral density is related to atherosclerosis in postmenopausal Moroccan women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkaoui Mohammed

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have implicated several possible metabolic linkages between osteoporosis and vascular calcification, including estrogen deficiency, vitamin D excess, vitamin K deficiency and lipid oxidation products. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are related to each other or are independent processes, both related to aging. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the correlation between arterial thickening and bone status in a sample of apparently healthy Moroccan women. Methods Seventy-two postmenopausal women were studied. All patients were without secondary causes that might affect bone density. Bone status was assessed by bone mineral density (BMD in lumbar spine and all femoral sites. Arterial wall thickening was assessed by intima-media thickness (IMT in carotid artery (CA and femoral artery (FA. Prevalent plaques were categorized into four groups ranging from low echogenicity to high echogenicity. Results The mean age was 59.2 ± 8.3 years. 84.7% had at least one plaque. By Spearman Rank correlation, CA IMT was negatively correlated to Femoral total BMD (r = -0.33, Femoral neck BMD (r = -0.23, Ward triangle BMD (r = -0.30 and Trochanter BMD (r = -0.28 while there was no association with lumbar BMD. In multiple regression analysis, CA IMT emerged as an independent factor significantly associated with all femoral sites BMD after adjusting of confounding factors. FA IMT failed to be significantly associated with both Femoral and Lumbar BMD. No significant differences between echogenic, predominantly echogenic, predominantly echolucent and echolucent plaques groups were found concerning lumbar BMD and all femoral sites BMD Conclusion Our results demonstrate a negative correlation between bone mineral density (BMD qnd carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in postmenopausal women, independently of confounding factors. We suggest that bone status should be evaluated in

  17. Growth hormone therapy and bone mineral density in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalov, Vladimir K; Van, Phillip L; Baron, Jeffrey; Reynolds, James C; Bondy, Carolyn A

    2004-10-01

    In a previous report, preliminary data showed a significant reduction in cortical bone mineral density (BMD) in women with Turner syndrome that had been treated with GH compared with women with Turner syndrome that had not been treated. To clarify this point, we have investigated the effects of GH treatment at multiple sites in this case-control, cross-sectional study. There were 23 women per group, who were similar in age, height, body mass index, estrogen use, and ethnic makeup. Median age (range) at start and duration of GH treatment was 9 (3-17) and 5 (2-9) yr, respectively. GH-treated women had a slightly greater ( approximately 8%, P = 0.03) width of the radial shaft, but otherwise there were no significant differences between groups in bone dimensions or BMD at the distal radius, lumbar spine, or femoral neck. Furthermore, regression analysis in a linear model including independent variables of age, age at diagnosis, body mass index, presence of spontaneous puberty, and GH use confirmed that GH use did not contribute to variation in BMD.

  18. Bone mineral density in Brazilian men 50 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.F. Zerbini

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD in the lumbar spine (LSBMD, femoral neck (FNBMD and whole body (WBBMD and whole body tissue composition were evaluated in 288 Brazilian men 50 years and older, 80% white and 20% Mulattoes. Age was inversely correlated with WBBMD (r = -0.20 and FNBMD (r = -0.21 but not with LSBMD (r = 0.03. Body mass index and weight showed a strong positive correlation with WBBMD (r = 0.48 and 0.54, LSBMD (r = 0.37 and 0.45 and FNBMD (r = 0.42 and 0.48. Correlation with height was positive but weaker. No significant bone loss at the lumbar spine level was observed as the population aged. FNBMD and WBBMD decreased significantly only in the last decade (age 70-79 studied. BMD was higher for Brazilian men as compared to Brazilian women at all sites. No significant differences were observed between Brazilian and the US/European male population for BMD in the femoral neck. BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in South American men is reported here for the first time. A decrease in FNBMD was detected only later in life, with a pattern similar to that described for the US/European male population.

  19. Bone density in apheresis donors and whole blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, C L; Luken, J S; van den Burg, P J M; de Kort, W L A M; Koopman, M M W; Vrielink, H; van Schoor, N M; den Heijer, M; Lips, P

    2015-11-01

    Apheresis donation using citrate causes acute decrease in serum calcium and increase in serum parathyroid hormone. Long-term consequences, such as decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), are not known. In this study, we compared the BMD of 20 postmenopausal apheresis donors (mean donation number 115 times in up to 15 years) with that of 20 whole blood donors (for 15 years or more) aged 55-70. BMD in the lumbar spine was not lower in apheresis donors than in blood donors (mean ± SD 1.00 ± 0.18 vs. 0.92 ± 0.12, P = 0.09). In the hip, BMD was not different between the groups.

  20. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  1. Duck gait: Relationship to hip angle, bone ash, bone density, and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Cara I; Rice, Meredith; Makagon, Maja M; Karcher, Darrin M

    2015-05-01

    The rapid growth meat birds, including ducks, undergo requires skeletal integrity; however, fast growth may not be conducive to adequate bone structure. A relationship likely exists between skeletal changes and duck mobility. Reduced mobility in meat ducks may have impacts on welfare and production. This study examined the relationships among gait score, bone parameters, and hip angle. Commercial Pekin ducks, ages 14 d (n = 100), 21 d (n = 100), and 32 d (n = 100) were weighed and gait scored with a 3-point gait score system by an observer as they walked over a Tekscan gait analysis system. Gait was scored as GS0, GS1, or GS2 with a score of GS0 defined as good walking ability and a score of GS2 as poorest walking ability. Ducks were humanely euthanized, full body scanned using quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and the right femur and tibia were extracted. Leg bones were cleaned, measured, fat extracted, and ashed. QCT scans were rendered to create computerized 3D models where pelvic hip angles and bone density were measured. Statistical analysis was conducted using PROC MIXED with age and gait score in the model. Body weight increased with age, but within an age, body weight decreased as walking ability became worse (P < 0.01). As expected, linear increases in tibia and femur bone width and length were observed as the ducks aged (P < 0.01). Right and left hip angle increased with duck age (P < 0.01). Additionally, ducks with a GS2 had wider hip angles opposed to ducks with a GS0 (P < 0.01). Bone density increased linearly with both age and gait score (P < 0.05). Femur ash content was lowest in 32-day-old ducks and ducks with GS1 and GS2 (P < 0.0001). Tibia ash content increased with age, but decreased as gait score increased (P < 0.001). The observation that right hip angle changed with gait scores merits further investigation into the relationship between duck mobility and skeletal changes during growth.

  2. Women with primary ovarian insufficiency have lower bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Amarante

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of osteoporosis in a sample of 32 patients with spontaneous primary ovarian insufficiency (POI in comparison to reference groups of 25 pre- and 55 postmenopausal women. Hip (lumbar and spinal bone mineral density (BMD measurements were performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the three groups. The median age of POI patients at the time of diagnosis was 35 years (interquartile range: 27-37 years. The mean ± SD age of postmenopausal reference women (52.16 ± 3.65 years was higher than that of POI (46.28 ± 10.38 years and premenopausal women (43.96 ± 7.08; P = 0.001 at the time of BMD measurement. Twenty-seven (84.4% POI women were receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT at the time of the study. In the postmenopausal reference group, 30.4% were current users of HRT. Lumbar BMD was significantly lower in the POI group (1.050 ± 0.17 g/cm² compared to the age-matched premenopausal reference group (1.136 ± 0.12 g/cm²; P = 0.040. Moreover, 22 (68.7% POI women had low bone density (osteopenia/osteoporosis by World Health Organization criteria versus 47.3% of the postmenopausal reference group (P = 0.042. In conclusion, the present data indicate that BMD is significantly lower in patients with POI than in age-matched premenopausal women. Also, the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis is higher in POI women than in women after natural menopause. Early medical interventions are necessary to ensure that women with POI will maintain their bonemass.

  3. Reduced Bone Mineral Density in Children and Adolescents: Causes, Incidence and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    S. V. Maltsev; G.Sh. Mansurova

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis in children is an urgent problem, since it occurs at different ages. The main risk factors and causes of primary and secondary osteoporosis in children include exogenous and endogenous, modifiable and non-modifiable factors. Critical age periods of childhood characterized by a high risk of reduced bone mineral density and fractures are specified. The article describes the biological effects of calcium, vitamin D and osteotropic trace elements and shows their role in osteogenesis ...

  4. Bone Structure and Estimated Bone Strength in Obese Patients Evaluated by High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine; Frederiksen, Katrine Diemer; Hansen, Stinus;

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with high bone mineral density (BMD), but whether obesity-related higher bone mass increases bone strength and thereby protect against fractures is uncertain. We estimated effects of obesity on bone microarchitecture and estimated strength in 36 patients (12 males and 24...... females, age 25-56 years and BMI 33.2-57.6 kg/m(2)) matched with healthy controls (age 25-54 years and BMI 19.5-24.8 kg/m(2)) in regard to gender, menopausal status, age (±6 years) and height (±6 cm) using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry...

  5. Effect of rhythmic gymnastics on volumetric bone mineral density and bone geometry in premenarcheal female athletes and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournis, S; Michopoulou, E; Fatouros, I G; Paspati, I; Michalopoulou, M; Raptou, P; Leontsini, D; Avloniti, A; Krekoukia, M; Zouvelou, V; Galanos, A; Aggelousis, N; Kambas, A; Douroudos, I; Lyritis, G P; Taxildaris, K; Pappaioannou, N

    2010-06-01

    Weight-bearing exercise during growth exerts positive effects on the skeleton. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that long-term elite rhythmic gymnastics exerts positive effects on volumetric bone mineral density and geometry and to determine whether exercise-induced bone adaptation is associated with increased periosteal bone formation or medullary contraction using tibial peripheral quantitative computed tomography and bone turnover markers. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a tertiary center. We studied 26 elite premenarcheal female rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and 23 female controls, aged 9-13 yr. We measured bone age, volumetric bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), cortical thickness, cortical and trabecular area, and polar stress strength index (SSIp) by peripheral quantitative computed tomography of the left tibia proximal to the distal metaphysis (trabecular) at 14, 38 (cortical), and 66% (muscle mass) from the distal end and bone turnover markers. The two groups were comparable according to height and chronological and bone age. After weight adjustment, cortical BMC, area, and thickness at 38% were significantly higher in RG (P < 0.005-0.001). Periosteal circumference, SSIp, and muscle area were higher in RG (P < 0.01-0.001). Muscle area was significantly associated with cortical BMC, area, and SSIp, whereas years of training showed positive association with cortical BMC, area, and thickness independent of chronological age. RG in premenarcheal girls may induce positive adaptations on the skeleton, especially in cortical bone. Increased duration of exercise is associated with a positive response of bone geometry.

  6. Bone density does not reflect mechanical properties in early-stage arthrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, CC; Hvid, I

    2001-01-01

    : medial arthrosis, lateral control, normal medial and normal lateral controls. The specimens were tested in compression to determine mechanical properties and then physical/compositional properties. Compared to the normal medial control, we found reductions in ultimate stress, Young's modulus, and failure...... cancellous bone and the 3 controls. None of the mechanical properties of arthrotic cancellous bone could be predicted by the physical/compositional properties measured. The increase in bone tissue in early-stage arthrotic cancellous bone did not make up for the loss of mechanical properties, which suggests...... energy, and an increase in ultimate strain of arthrotic cancellous bone. Bone volume fraction, apparent density, apparent ash density, and collagen density were higher in cancellous bone with arthrosis, but no differences were found in tissue density, mineral and collagen concentrations between arthrotic...

  7. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Alves Junior, Paulo Alonso; Schueftan, Daniel Luis Gilban; de Mendonça, Laura Maria Carvalho; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; Beserra, Izabel Calland Ricarte

    2014-01-01

    Chronic glucocorticoid therapy is associated with reduced bone mineral density. In paediatric patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, increased levels of androgens could not only counteract this effect, but could also advance bone age, with interference in the evaluation of densitometry. We evaluate bone mineral density in paediatric patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia taking into account chronological and bone ages at the time of the measurement. Patients aged between 5 and 19 years underwent radiography of the hand and wrist followed by total body and lumbar spine densitometry. Chronological and bone ages were used in the scans interpretation. In fourteen patients, mean bone mineral density Z-score of total body to bone age was -0.76 and of lumbar spine to bone age was -0.26, lower than those related to chronological age (+0.03 and +0.62, resp.). Mean Z-score differences were statistically significant (P = 0.004 for total body and P = 0.003 for lumbar spine). One patient was classified as having low bone mineral density only when assessed by bone age. We conclude that there was a reduction in the bone mineral density Z-score in classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia paediatric patients when bone age was taken into account instead of chronological age.

  8. Bone Mineral Density in Children and Adolescents with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Alonso Garcia Alves Junior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic glucocorticoid therapy is associated with reduced bone mineral density. In paediatric patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, increased levels of androgens could not only counteract this effect, but could also advance bone age, with interference in the evaluation of densitometry. We evaluate bone mineral density in paediatric patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia taking into account chronological and bone ages at the time of the measurement. Patients aged between 5 and 19 years underwent radiography of the hand and wrist followed by total body and lumbar spine densitometry. Chronological and bone ages were used in the scans interpretation. In fourteen patients, mean bone mineral density Z-score of total body to bone age was −0.76 and of lumbar spine to bone age was −0.26, lower than those related to chronological age (+0.03 and +0.62, resp.. Mean Z-score differences were statistically significant (P=0.004 for total body and P=0.003 for lumbar spine. One patient was classified as having low bone mineral density only when assessed by bone age. We conclude that there was a reduction in the bone mineral density Z-score in classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia paediatric patients when bone age was taken into account instead of chronological age.

  9. t10c12-CLA maintains higher bone mineral density during aging by modulating osteoclastogenesis and bone marrow adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md M; Halade, Ganesh V; Williams, Paul J; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2011-09-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to positively influence calcium and bone metabolism. Earlier, we showed that CLA (equal mixture of c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA) could protect age-associated bone loss by modulating inflammatory markers and osteoclastogenesis. Since, c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA isomers differentially regulate functional parameters and gene expression in different cell types, we examined the efficacy of individual CLA isomers against age-associated bone loss using 12 months old C57BL/6 female mice fed for 6 months with 10% corn oil (CO), 9.5% CO + 0.5% c9t11-CLA, 9.5% CO + 0.5% t10c12-CLA or 9.5% CO + 0.25% c9t11-CLA + 0.25% t10c12-CLA. Mice fed a t10c12-CLA diet maintained a significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) in femoral, tibial and lumbar regions than those fed CO and c9t11-CLA diets as measured by dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The increased BMD was accompanied by a decreased production of osteoclastogenic factors, that is, RANKL, TRAP5b, TNF-alpha and IL-6 in serum. Moreover, a significant reduction of high fat diet-induced bone marrow adiposity was observed in t10c12-CLA fed mice as compared to that of CO and c9t11-CLA fed mice, as measured by Oil-Red-O staining of bone marrow sections. In addition, a significant reduction of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorbing pit formation was observed in t10c12-CLA treated RAW 264.7 cell culture stimulated with RANKL as compared to that of c9t11-CLA and linoleic acid treated cultures. In conclusion, these findings suggest that t10c12-CLA is the most potent CLA isomer and it exerts its anti-osteoporotic effect by modulating osteoclastogenesis and bone marrow adiposity.

  10. Impaired Vestibular Function and Low Bone Mineral Density: Data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Robin T; Semenov, Yevgeniy R; Anson, Eric; du Lac, Sascha; Ferrucci, Luigi; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-10-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated that experimentally induced vestibular ablation leads to a decrease in bone mineral density, through mechanisms mediated by the sympathetic nervous system. Loss of bone mineral density is a common and potentially morbid condition that occurs with aging, and we sought to investigate whether vestibular loss is associated with low bone mineral density in older adults. We evaluated this question in a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), a large, prospective cohort study managed by the National Institute on Aging (N = 389). Vestibular function was assessed with cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs), a measure of saccular function. Bone mineral density was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). In two-way t test analysis, we observed that individuals with reduced vestibular physiologic function had significantly lower bone mineral density. In adjusted multivariate linear regression analyses, we observed that older individuals with reduced vestibular physiologic function had significantly lower bone mineral density, specifically in weight-bearing hip and lower extremity bones. These results suggest that the vestibular system may contribute to bone homeostasis in older adults, notably of the weight-bearing hip bones at greatest risk of osteoporotic fracture. Further longitudinal analysis of vestibular function and bone mineral density in humans is needed to characterize this relationship and investigate the potential confounding effect of physical activity.

  11. Variation of the mineral density in cortical bone may serve to keep strain amplitudes within a physiological range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, W C; van Ruijven, L J; Brugman, P; Langenbach, G E J

    2013-08-01

    ridge of the temporal-muscle insertion groove, did correspond with high-mineral-density regions. We conclude that, in the rabbit mandible, the heterogeneous mineral-density distribution might serve to suppress bone-strain amplitudes in regions architecturally susceptible to the largest deformations during loading. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of degenerative radiographic abnormalities and vertebral fractures on spinal bone density of women with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Costa Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Measurements of bone density taken by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry are the most accurate procedure for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. This procedure has the disadvantage of measuring the density of all mineral components, including osteophytes, vascular and extra vertebral calcifications. These alterations can influence bone density results and densitometry interpretation. OBJECTIVE: To correlate radiography and densitometry findings from women with osteoporosis, analyzing the influence of degenerative processes and vertebral fractures on the evaluation of bone density. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Osteoporosis outpatients' clinic at Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-six postmenopausal women presenting osteoporosis diagnosed by bone density. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were measured by the technique of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, using a LUNAR-DPX densitometer. Fractures, osteophytes and aortic calcifications were evaluated by simple x-rays of the thoracic and lumbar spine. RESULTS: The x-rays confirmed vertebral fractures in 41.6%, osteophytes in 33.3% and calcifications of the aorta in 30.2%. The prevalence of fractures and aortic calcifications increased with age. The mean bone mineral density was 0.783g/cm² and the mean T-score was --3.47 DP. Neither fractures nor aortic calcifications had significant influence on bone mineral density (P = 0.36 and P = 0.09, respectively, despite the fractured vertebrae having greater bone mineral density (P < 0.02. Patients with lumbar spine osteophytes showed greater bone mineral density (P = 0.04. Osteophytosis was associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density after adjustment for fractures and aortic calcifications by multiple regression (P = 0.01. CONCLUSION: Osteophytes and lumbar spine fractures can overestimate bone density interpretation. The interpretation of densitometry

  13. The Effect of Acupuncture on Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳钢; 王玲玲; 王东岩; 卓铁军; 申志祥

    2002-01-01

    @@ According to the TCM theory that the kidney is in charge of the bone, the authors carried out a study on the effect of acupuncture on bone mineral density in 40 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated by the method of reinforcing the kidney to strengthen the bone, with satisfactory therapeutic results reported as follows.

  14. Bone mineral density in immigrants from southern China to Denmark. A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Wang, S; Overgaard, K;

    1996-01-01

    Immigration from Japan to USA has been shown to increase bone mineral density (BMD) and body fat in women. The effects of immigration between other geographical areas on bone mass and body composition are largely unknown, especially in men. In the present study, we measured bone mass and body com...

  15. Low bone mineral density is associated with bone microdamage accumulation in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepan, Jan J; Burr, David B; Pavo, Imre; Sipos, Adrien; Michalska, Dana; Li, Jiliang; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; Petto, Helmut; Westmore, Michael; Michalsky, David; Sato, Masahiko; Dobnig, Harald

    2007-09-01

    Marked suppression of bone turnover by bisphosphonates is associated with increased bone microdamage accumulation in animal models. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that long-term treatment with alendronate (ALN) results in accumulation of microdamage in bone in women after menopause. Sixty-six postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (mean age of 68.0 years and mean BMD T-score of -1.7 at total hip and -2.8 at lumbar spine; 62% with prevalent fractures) were evaluated in this cross-sectional analysis. Thirty-eight had been treated previously with ALN (10 mg/day or 70 mg/week for a mean duration of 63.6 months) while twenty-eight were treatment naive (TN). Without adjustments, crack surface density (Cr.S.Dn) and crack density (Cr.Dn) were not different between ALN and TN patients. After adjustment for potential confounders (age, prevalent fractures, femoral neck BMD, activation frequency and center), Cr.Dn was elevated in ALN patients (P=0.028 and P=0.069 for Cr.S.Dn). In ALN patients only, lower femoral neck BMD (Cr.S.Dn, r=-0.58, P=0.003; Cr.Dn, r=-0.54, P=0.005) and increased age (Cr.S.Dn, r=0.43, P=0.03; Cr.Dn, r=0.43, P=0.03) were associated with microdamage accumulation. Among potential confounders, femoral neck BMD was the only independent predictor for these correlations (P=0.04 for Cr.Dn and P=0.03 for Cr.S.Dn). We conclude that increased microdamage accumulation may occur in low BMD patients treated with alendronate.

  16. Measurements of bone density on high resolution CT in diagnosis of fenestral otosclerosis%高分辨率CT骨密度测量诊断前庭窗型耳硬化症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓白茹; 陈燕萍; 易云平; 谭健儿; 吴俊铠

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨应用高分辨率CT(HRCT)骨密度测量法诊断耳硬化症的应用价值.方法 回顾性分析经手术证实的30例耳硬化症患者(耳硬化组)和32名正常对照者(对照组),将ROI置于前庭窗前区进行骨密度CT值测量,并对耳硬化患者进行语频气导和气骨导差听力测试.采用两样本t检验对硬化耳和正常耳骨密度平均CT值进行统计学分析、采用Pearson相关系数分析对耳硬化组平均CT值和听力水平进行分析,并采用ROC曲线分析检测应用CT值诊断耳硬化症的效能.结果 硬化组前庭前区CT值范围462.81~2285.00 HU,平均(1372.82士76.50)HU,对照组前庭前区CT值范围1801.71~2680.55 HU,平均(2171.42士23.53)HU,耳硬化组平均CT值明显低于正常组(P<0.0001);硬化耳平均CT值与语频气导阈值(r=0.18,P=0.19)、与气骨导差(r=-0.01,P=0.93)均无明显相关性.采用平均CT值鉴别耳硬化症的ROC曲线下面积为0.88 (P<0.05),诊断阈值为1938.29 HU,诊断的敏感度为80.7%,特异度为90.6%.结论 骨密度测量对于诊断耳硬化症具有重要应用价值,但其对听力评估的应用有待进一步研究.%Objective To explore the value of bone density measure in the diagnosis of fenestral otosclerosis by high resolution CT (HRCT).Methods Totally 30 patients with otosclerosis (otosclerosis group) proved by operation and 32 normal controls (control group) were analyzed retrospectively.A ROI was placed in the bony labyrinth located anterior to oval window to measure the bone density,and the average for the speech frequency air conduction threshold levels and air-bone gap in otosclerosis group were measured.The mean CT value were compared between otosclerosis group and control group using two-sample t-test,and the correlation between mean CT value and hearing levels were analyzed by pearson correlation coefficient analysis.In addition,the efficiency of mean CT value in diagnosis of otosclerosis were analyzed by

  17. Bone mineral density in young females with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Study of bone mineral density (BMD in young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is important because long-term administration of glucocorticoids and the presence of chronic systemic inflammation can lead to loss of bone tissue in young people with chronic inflammatory disease in anamnesis. Objective: the study of BMD in young female with juvenile onset of JIA. Materials and methods. Ninety-nine female patients aged 19 to 39 years were divided into two groups: І — 59 healthy young female, ІІ — 40 young female with JIA. The following parameters were evaluated: the age of the disease onset, the duration of delayed diagnosis, disease duration, the ILAR-variant in the disease onset, the BMD in different areas and their T and Z scores. Results. It was found that the onset of JIA was at the age of 11.16  ±  4.34 years, it took 23.52 ± 21.37 months from the beginning of the first clinical manifestations to the time of diagnosis, the disease duration was 11.9 ± 9.4 years, persistant oligoarthritis was detected in 25  % of patients, RF-negative polyarthritis in 22.5  %, extended oligoarthritis in 10  %, RF-positive polyarthritis in 10  %, systemic-onset JIA in 12.5  %, enthesitis-related JIA in 15  %, undifferentiated arthritis in 10  %, psoriatic arthritis in 5  % of patients. BMD (p < 0.000001, T (p = 0.00001 and Z scores in the lumbar spine were lower in female with JIA than in healthy people. Femoral neck BMD (p < 0.000001 and T score (p = 0.00002, total body BMD (p < 0.000001, T- (p = 0.00009 and Z-scores (p < 0.000001 were lower in patients with JIA than in healthy people. However, ultradistal forearm BMD in the female patients differed from healthy ones’ only in T and Z scores (p = 0.004. Z score < –2 SD in young adults was detected in 40  % of patients in the lumbar spine, in 24  % of patients in the femoral neck, in 35.5 % of patients in the total body and in 52.9  % of patients in ultra

  18. Sink or swim? Bone density as a mechanism for buoyancy control in early cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Noel-Marie; Kainec, Kimberly; Madar, Sandra; Tomko, Lucas; Wolfe, Scott

    2007-06-01

    Previous analyses have shown that secondarily aquatic tetrapods, including whales, exhibit osteological adaptations to life in water as part of their complex buoyancy control systems. These structural specializations of bone span hyperostosis through osteoporosis. The past 15 years of paleontological effort has provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine the osteological transformation of whales as they make their transition to an obligate aquatic lifestyle over a 10-million-year period. It is hypothesized that whales manifest their osteological specialization in the same manner as extant semiaquatic and fully aquatic mammals. This study presents and analysis of the microstructural features of bone in early and late archaic cetaceans, and in a comparative sample of modern terrestrial, semiaquatic, and aquatic mammals. Bone histology was examined from the ribs of 10 fossilized individuals representing five early cetacean families, including Pakicetidae, Ambulocetidae, Protocetidae, Remintonocetidae, and Basilosauridae. Comparisons were then made with rib histology from nine genera of extant mammals including: Odocoileus (deer), Bos (cow), Equus (horse), Canis (dog), Lutra (river otter), Enhydra (sea otter), Choeropsis (pygmy hippo), Trichechus (sea cow), and Delphinus (dolphin). Results show that the transition from terrestrial, to semiaquatic, to obligate aquatic locomotion in archaeocetes involved a radical shift in bone function achieved by means of profound changes at the microstructural level. A surprising finding was that microstructural change predates gross anatomical shift in archaeocetes associated with swimming. Histological analysis shows that high bone density is an aquatic specialization that provides static buoyancy control (ballast) for animals living in shallow water, while low bone density is associated with dynamic buoyancy control for animals living in deep water. Thus, there was a shift from the typical terrestrial form, to osteopetrosis

  19. Bone mineral density and circulating cytokines in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, S; Di Somma, C; Di Rella, F; Angelillo, N; Ferone, D; Colao, A; Merola, B; Lombardi, G

    1998-11-01

    Acromegalic patients present an increase of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity, showing a different effect on the axial and appendicular skeletal structures. At this regard controversial data about bone mineral density (BMD) have been published in literature. In fact an increase of BMD levels in femoral neck and Ward's triangle without any difference in lumbar spine has been described. On the other hand normal BMD levels at forearm and reduced BMD levels at lumbar spine were found. These patients seem to have a reduction of trabecular BMD similar to postmenopausal osteoporotic patients despite normal or slightly elevated cortical BMD. Recently, it has been described that cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), are implicated in the pathogenetic mechanism of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Taking into account that growth hormone (GH) can increase TNF-alpha and IL-1 secretion by mononuclear blood cells, the evaluation of possible relationship between the reduced BMD at lumbar spine and circulating cytokines levels was carried out in acromegalic patients. In addition we evaluated the effect of acute octreotide administration on serum TNF-alpha and IL-I concentrations. Eleven patients with active acromegaly and eleven healthy age-, sex-, weight- and heightmatched subjects were enrolled in this study. BMD was significantly reduced at lumbar spine (0.80 +/- 0.29 g/cm2 vs 1.02 +/- 0.11 g/cm2; p affect bone turnover inducing an increase of cytokines acting by a paracrine/autocrine mechanism cannot be ruled out.

  20. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with low bone mineral density in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, P E; Dunn, W; Schwimmer, J B

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. Liver disease can be a cause of low bone mineral density. Whether or not NAFLD influences bone health is not known. To evaluate bone mineral density in obese children with and without NAFLD. Thirty-eight children with biopsy-proven NAFLD were matched for age, gender, race, ethnicity, height and weight to children without evidence of liver disease from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Bone mineral density was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Age and gender-specific bone mineral density Z-scores were calculated and compared between children with and without NAFLD. After controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity and total per cent body fat, the relationship between bone mineral density and the severity of histology was analysed in children with NAFLD. Obese children with NAFLD had significantly (P obese children without NAFLD (0.48). Forty-five per cent of children with NAFLD had low-bone mineral density for age, compared to none of the children without NAFLD (P children with NAFLD, children with NASH had a significantly (P children with NAFLD who did not have NASH (-1.58). The NAFLD was associated with poor bone health in obese children. More severe disease was associated with lower bone mineralisation. Further studies are needed to evaluate the underlying mechanisms and consequences of poor bone mineralisation in children with NAFLD. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Chronic intermittent hypoxia preserves bone density in a mouse model of sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Marta; Montserrat, Josep M; Pavía, Javier; Dalmases, Mireia; Ros, Domenec; Fernandez, Yolanda; Barbé, Ferran; Navajas, Daniel; Farré, Ramon

    2013-12-01

    Very recent clinical research has investigated whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may modulate bone homeostasis but the few data available are conflicting. Here we report novel data obtained in a mouse study specifically designed to determine whether chronic intermittent hypoxia realistically mimicking OSA modifies bone mineral density (BMD). Normal male and female mice and orchidectomized mice (N=10 each group) were subjected to a pattern of high-frequency intermittent hypoxia (20s at 5% and 40s at 21%, 60 cycles/h) for 6h/day. Identical groups breathing room air (normoxia) were the controls. After 32 days of intermittent hypoxia/normoxia the trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) in the peripheral femora were measured by micro-CT scanning. When compared with normoxia (two-way ANOVA), intermittent hypoxia did not significantly modify BMD in the three animal groups tested. Data in this study suggest that the type of intermittent hypoxia characterizing OSA, applied as a single challenge, preserves bone homeostasis.

  2. Relation between body composition and bone mineral density in young undregraduate students with different nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Filho, Edil de Albuquerque; Santos, Marcos André Moura Dos; Silva, Amanda Tabosa Pereira da; Farah, Breno Quintella; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Camara E Siqueira; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between total and segmental body fat, bone mineral density and bone mineral content in undergraduate students stratified according to nutritional status. The study included 45 male undergraduate students aged between 20 and 30 years. Total and segmental body composition, bone mineral density and bone mineral content assessments were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were allocated into three groups (eutrophic, overweight and obese). With the exception of upper limb bone mineral content, significantly higher (pstudents, particularly in overweight individuals.

  3. Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Ayatollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29.Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001, but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL, disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients

  4. Bone mineral density deficits and fractures in survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Carmen L; Ness, Kirsten K

    2013-12-01

    Although substantial increases in survival rates among children diagnosed with cancer have been observed in recent decades, survivors are at risk of developing therapy-related chronic health conditions. Among children and adolescents treated for cancer, acquisition of peak bone mass may be compromised by cancer therapies, nutritional deficiencies, and reduced physical activity. Accordingly, failure to accrue optimal bone mass during childhood may place survivors at increased risk for deficits in bone density and fracture in later life. Current recommendations for the treatment of bone density decrements among cancer survivors include dietary counseling and supplementation to ensure adequate calcium and vitamin D intake. Few strategies exist to prevent or treat bone loss. Moving forward, studies characterizing the trajectory of changes in bone density over time will facilitate the development of interventions and novel therapies aimed at minimizing bone loss among survivors of childhood cancer.

  5. Effect of unilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy on bone mineral content and density of rat's mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladizesky, M G; Cutrera, R A; Boggio, V; Mautalen, C; Cardinali, D P

    2000-01-14

    To assess the effect of a local sympathectomy on bone metabolism, the effect of a unilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy (Gx) on growth and bone mineral content and density of the ipsi- and contralateral mandibles was examined in female rats. A significant increase in the hemi-mandibular bone ipsilateral to Gx was found as compared to the contralateral, sham-operated side 30 days, but not 15 days, after surgery. Bone mineral content of the hemi-mandibular bones was significantly lower in the side ipsilateral to Gx in the group of rats killed on the 30th day after surgery. Since no difference in areas between innervated and denervated hemi-mandibles was found, bone mineral density was also significantly lower in the hemi-mandible ipsilateral to Gx. The results further support that a regional sympathectomy causes qualitative alterations in bone modeling and remodeling, leading to bone resorption.

  6. Eldecalcitol, a vitamin D analog, reduces bone turnover and increases trabecular and cortical bone mass, density, and strength in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan Y; Doyle, Nancy; Boyer, Marilyne; Chouinard, Luc; Saito, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is common in elderly people worldwide, and intake of supplementary calcium and vitamin D is recommended to those with a high risk of fracture. Several clinical studies and meta-analyses have shown that calcium and vitamin D supplementation reduces osteoporotic fractures, and a strong correlation exists between vitamin D status and fracture risk. Vitamin D supplementations improve calcium balance in the body; however, it remains unclear whether vitamin D directly affects bone metabolism. Recently, eldecalcitol (ELD), an active form of vitamin D analog, has been approved for the treatment of osteoporosis in Japan. A 3-year clinical trial showed ELD treatment increased lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced fracture risk in patients with osteoporosis. To evaluate the mechanism of ELD action in bone remodeling, ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys were treated with 0.1 or 0.3μg/day of ELD for 6months. This treatment increased lumbar BMD by 4.4% and 10.2%, respectively, and suppressed ovariectomy-induced increases in bone turnover markers compared to OVX-vehicle control. Histomorphometric analysis of bone revealed that both bone formation parameters and bone resorption parameters in the trabecular bone of the lumbar vertebrae were suppressed by ELD treatment. ELD treatment also improved biomechanical properties of the lumbar vertebrae and the femoral neck in the ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys. These results indicate that, in a bone-remodeling animal model, ELD increases BMD and improves bone biomechanical properties by normalizing bone turnover. Therefore, ELD has a direct and potentially beneficial effect on bone metabolism. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. OPTICAL DENSITY OF CORTICAL BONE MATRIX IS DIMINISHED IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED OSTEOPOROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Janić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD and abnormalities in bone structural and material properties, with unexplained low trauma fractures. The aim of the present study was to quantify the optical density of cortical bone matrix in rats with experimentally induced osteoporosis by ovariectomy. The experimental group was divided in two equal subgroups, the first sacrificed in the third month after ovariectomy and second sacrificed in the fifth month after ovariectomy. After decalcification, on routinely stained histopathologic sections optical density (OD, standard deviation of OD, mode OD, minimal and maximal OD of cortical bone matrix were estimated. Mean optical density and mode optical density of cortical bone were statistically higher in the control than in the experimental group (p<0.05. Maximal optical density of cortical bone was significantly lower in rats three months after ovariectomy than in other groups. Obtained results indicate that in experimentally induced osteoporosis the optical density of cortical bone matrix is diminished, similarly to low bone mineral density.

  8. Aggravated bone density decline following symptomatic osteonecrosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hoed, Marissa A. H.; Pluijm, Saskia M. F.; te Winkel, Mariel L.; de Groot-Kruseman, Hester A.; Fiocco, Martha; Hoogerbrugge, Peter; Leeuw, Jan; Bruin, Marrie C. A.; van der Sluis, Inge M.; Bresters, Dorien; Lequin, Maarten H.; Roos, Jan C.; Veerman, Anjo J. P.; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.

    2015-01-01

    Osteonecrosis and decline of bone density are serious side effects during and after treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It is unknown whether osteonecrosis and low bone density occur together in the same patients, or whether these two osteogenic side-effects can mutually influence e

  9. 高盐摄入与骨代谢%High salt intake and bone metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓峰; 张荣华

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis has become a global public health problem, and dietary interventions may potentially be helpful in preventing this disorder.Salt ( sodium chloride) is one of the most important dietary nutrients.High sodium chloride intake may play an important role in bone metabolism.In this paper, we reviewed the effects of high sodium chlo-ride intake on bone mineral density, bone mineral content and bone biochemical markers, and analyzed the possible causes through currently available literature.Although there are a few inconsistencies results, we conclude a long-term high salt intake can reduce bone density or bone mineral content, change many biochemical markers of bone resorption, which may be caused mainly by increasing urinary calcium excretion and a low-grade metabolic acidosis.However, there are still many unclear aspects need further exploration.

  10. Bone Mineral Density in Sheehan's Syndrome; Prevalence of Low Bone Mass and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihaoui, Melika; Yazidi, Meriem; Chaker, Fatma; Belouidhnine, Manel; Kanoun, Faouzi; Lamine, Faiza; Ftouhi, Bochra; Sahli, Hela; Slimane, Hedia

    2016-10-01

    Hypopituitarism is a known cause of bone mineral loss. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with Sheehan's syndrome (SS) and to determine the risk factors. This is a retrospective study of 60 cases of SS that have had a bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. Clinical, biological, and therapeutic data were collected. The parameters of osteodensitometry at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine of 60 patients with SS were compared with those of 60 age-, height-, and weight-matched control women. The mean age at BMD measurement was 49.4 ± 9.9 yr (range: 25-76 yr). The mean duration of SS was 19.3 ± 8.5 yr (range: 3-41 yr). All patients had corticotropin deficiency and were treated with hydrocortisone at a mean daily dose of 26.3 ± 4.1 mg. Fifty-seven patients (95%) had thyrotropin deficiency and were treated with thyroxine at a mean daily dose of 124.3 ± 47.4 µg. Thirty-five of the 49 patients, aged less than 50 yr at diagnosis and having gonadotropin deficiency (71.4%), had estrogen-progesterone substitution. Osteopenia was present in 25 patients (41.7%) and osteoporosis in 21 (35.0%). The BMD was significantly lower in the group with SS than in the control group (p < 0.001). The odds ratio of osteopenia-osteoporosis was 3.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.4-6.8) at the femoral neck and 3.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.7-7.8) at the lumbar spine. The lumbar spine was more frequently affected by low bone mineral mass (p < 0.05). The duration of the disease and the daily dose of hydrocortisone were independently and inversely associated with BMD at the femoral neck. The daily dose of thyroxine was independently and inversely associated with BMD at the lumbar spine. Estrogen-progesterone replacement therapy was not associated with BMD. Low bone mineral mass was very common in patients with SS. The lumbar spine was more frequently affected. The duration of the disease and the doses of

  11. Effects of Astragalus membranaceus with supplemental calcium on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in calcium-deficient ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Se-Chan; Kim, Hee Jung; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that Astragalus membranaceus, an Asian traditional herb, has an estrogenic effect in vitro. To examine the possible role of A. membranaceus extract with supplemental calcium (Ca) on bone status in calcium-deficient (LCa) ovariectomized (OVX) rats, a total of 48 female rats were divided into six groups: (1) normal control, (2) sham operation with LCa (sham-LCa), (3) OVX with LCa (OVX-LCa), (4) A. membranaceus supplementation with OVX-LCa (OVX-MLCa), (5) Ca supplementation with OVX (OVX-Ca), and (6) A. membranaceus and Ca supplementation with OVX (OVX-MCa). A. membranaceus ethanol extract (500 mg/kg BW) and/or Ca (800 mg/kg BW) were administered orally for 8 weeks along with a Ca-deficient diet. Results revealed that Ca supplementation with or without A. membranaceus extract significantly improved bone mineral density, biomechanical strength, and ash weight of the femur and tibia in OVX rats. High Ca with A. membranaceus combination supplementation significantly increased the ash weight of the femur and tibia and decreased urinary Ca excretion compared with supplementation of Ca alone. Uterine weight was not changed by A. membranaceus administration in OVX rats. These results suggest that A. membranaceus extract combined with supplemental Ca may be more protective against the Ca loss of bone than A. membranaceus or supplementation of Ca alone in calcium-insufficient postmenopausal women.

  12. Assessment of bone marrow changes in postmenopausal women with varying bone densities: magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; TANG Guang-yu; TANG Rong-biao; PENG Yi-feng; LI Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. There are inconsistent findings on the relationship among marrow fat content, bone mineral density and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). This study aimed to prospectively explore the efficacy of MR spectroscopy (MRS)and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in detecting vertebral marrow changes in postmenopausal women with varying bone densities.Methods Both MRS and DWI of the lumber spine were performed in 102 postmenopausal women (mean age,(67.3±6.5) years; range, 55-83 years), who underwent dual X-ray absorptiometry. Marrow fat content and ADC were compared and correlated among three groups: 24 with normal bone density, 31 with osteopenia and 47 with osteoporosis.Results Vertebral marrow fat content was significantly increased in the osteoporotic group ((65.60±7.68)%, P <0.001)and the osteopenic group ((57.68±6.45)%, P <0.001), when compared with the normal bone density group ((51.67±3.27)%). ADC values were significantly decreased in the osteoporotic group ((0.39±0.03)×10-3mm2/s, P <0.001)and in the osteopenic group ((0.42±0.02)×10-3mm2/s, P <0.001), when compared with the normal bone density group ((0.47±0.03)×10-3 mm2/s). The marrow fat content negatively correlated with both bone density (r=-0.731, P <0.001)and marrow ADC (r=-0.572, P <0.001). The bone density positively correlated with the ADC values (r=0.802, P<0.001).Conclusions Postmenopausal women experience a corresponding increase in vertebral marrow fat content as the bone density decreases. Marrow fat content and ADC correlate to the bone density. MRS and DWI may indirectly assess the early bone marrow changes in postmenopausal women.

  13. Aberrant bone density in aging mice lacking the adenosine transporter ENT1.

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    David J Hinton

    Full Text Available Adenosine is known to regulate bone production and resorption in humans and mice. Type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1 is responsible for the majority of adenosine transport across the plasma membrane and is ubiquitously expressed in both humans and mice. However, the contribution of ENT1-mediated adenosine levels has not been studied in bone remodeling. With the recent identification of the importance of adenosine signaling in bone homeostasis, it is essential to understand the role of ENT1 to develop novel therapeutic compounds for bone disorders. Here we examined the effect of ENT1 deletion on bone density using X-ray, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computerized tomography analysis. Our results show that bone density and bone mineral density is reduced in the lower thoracic and lumbar spine as well as the femur of old ENT1 null mice (>7 months compared to wild-type littermates. Furthermore, we found increased mRNA expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, an osteoclast marker, in isolated long bones from 10 month old ENT1 null mice compared to wild-type mice. In addition, aged ENT1 null mice displayed severe deficit in motor coordination and locomotor activity, which might be attributed to dysregulated bone density. Overall, our study suggests that ENT1-regulated adenosine signaling plays an essential role in lumbar spine and femur bone density.

  14. An Experimental Study of Radiographic Density of Alveolar Bone and Cortical Thickness of Mandible by Osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byeong Do [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    To evaluate the effect of the systemic osteoporosis on radiographic density of alveolar bone and cortical thickness of mandible. The bone mineral density values of lumbar and femur were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and T scores of lumbar, femur were obtained respectively. Radiographic densities of alveolar bones and panorama mandibular index (PMI, represents as cortical thickness) were analysed statistically according to age and T score variavles. The radiographic density of alveolar bone of maxillary molar showed significant difference by age and femur T group. That of mandibular molar showed significant difference between femur T group. Panorama mandibular index showed significant difference between age groups. The radiographic density of alvealar bones was more dependent on age femur T than lumbar T. Cortical thickness of mandible was correlated with increasing age.

  15. Bone mineral density in cystic fibrosis: benefit of exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Jonathan D; Barry, Sinead C; Barry, Rupert B M; Cawood, Tom J; McKenna, Malachi J; Gallagher, Charles G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and objective maximal exercise measurements in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Twenty-five CF patients (19 males, 6 females, mean age 25.5 yr, range: 17-52) underwent BMD assessment and maximal-cycle ergometer exercise testing. We examined the relationship between gas exchange (% peak-predicted O(2) uptake, CO(2) output, O(2) saturation), exercise performance (maximum power, exercise duration), and respiratory mechanics (tidal volume, rate) with lumbar spine and total proximal femur BMD. The strongest clinical correlate with BMD was forced expiratory volume at 1s (lumbar spine Z-score, r=0.36; total proximal femur Z-score, r=0.68, pexercise correlate was % peak-predicted O(2) uptake (lumbar spine Z-score, r=0.44, pexercise parameters and total proximal femur BMD (r=0.43-0.60) than with lumbar spine BMD (r=0.04-0.45). Multiple regression analysis revealed VO(2) to be the strongest independent predictor of BMD (R(2)=0.86, pExercise appears to influence total proximal femur BMD more than lumbar spine BMD in CF. Exercise rehabilitation programs focusing on peripheral strength training may benefit those CF patients with low total proximal femur BMD.

  16. Bone Mineral Density Evaluation in Four Different Occupational Groups

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    Mustafa Turgut Yıldızgören

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD and to discuss the potential risk factors for osteoporosis in four different occupational groups. Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 males who were admitted to our clinics for their periodic occupational controls and 40 healthy subjects were included. Demographic features of the participants were recorded. BMD was evaluated by Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA from lumbar vertebrae and proximal femur. Results: Participants were mainly from the following four occupational groups; accumulator manufacturers (n=30, 21.4%, painting workers (n=30, 21.4%, welders (n=15, 10.7%, and quartz miners (n=25, 17.9% sectors. In addition, there were 40 healthy subjects (28.6%. Compared with the control group, femoral neck T-scores (p=0.023 and Z-scores (p=0.031 were significantly lower in miners. L2-L4 BMD values were significantly lower in accumulator manufacturers (p=0.041 and quartz miners (p=0.022 as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Workers in the accumulator and mining sectors had lower BMD than control subjects. Clinicians should keep in mind occupational risk factors related with chemical exposure for osteoporosis while questioning osteoporosis risk factors. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2015;21: 19-22

  17. Effect of Multiparity and Prolonged Lactation on Bone Mineral Density

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    Natung, Tanie; Barooah, Rituparna; Ahanthem, Santa Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was done to determine the effect of multiparity and prolonged lactation on bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This cross-sectional study included 196 perimenopausal and postmenopausal women aged 40 to 60 years old. Age, body mass index (BMI), menopausal status, duration of menopause, parity and total duration of lactation, nutritional history were recorded. Lumbar spine (LS; L2-L4) and femur neck (FN) BMD were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Correlation of parity and lactation with BMD were investigated using multiple regression analysis. Results Parity was inversely correlated to BMD for LS (β = −0.266, P = 0.001) and FN (β = −0.380, P = 0.000). This relation remained significant even after adjusting for age, BMI and duration of menopause. Duration of lactation was inversely correlated with BMD for LS (β = −0.271, P = 0.001) but no for FN (β = −0.124, P = 0.130). Conclusions Multiparity and prolonged lactation have negative impact on BMD especially with in a socioeconomic group whose nutritional intake is borderline. Our data support that parity and duration of lactation can be associated with future osteoporosis. PMID:28119896

  18. Bone mineral density in elderly patients with osteoarthrosis

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    N V Mitrofanova

    2008-01-01

    Results. Both the clinical and anthropometric characteristics of patients facilitated the development of osteopenia. Involvement of a larger number of joints into a pathological process was followed by a significant BMD reduction in the predominant number of patients with OA. With the more progressive X-ray stage of the disease, a significantly higher BMD was observed in the distal forearm of patients from all groups. The patients aged 75 years or older who had gonarthrosis and polyosteoarthrosis showed a significant reduction in BMD as compared with those of less than 75 years of age. A greater reduction in the T test was shown to correspond to less body weight. The examinees' inactivity correlated with decreased BMD. In patients with polyosteoarthritis, early onset and longer menopause negatively affected BMD in the distal forearm. Conclusion. Reduced distal forearm BMD in elderly patients with OA is associated with patients' older age and a longer menopause, less body weight, early menopause, and no regular exercises. Progression of the X-ray stage of OA correlates with increased bone density.

  19. Bone mineral density in elderly patients with osteoarthrosis

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    N V Mitrofanova

    2008-12-01

    Results. Both the clinical and anthropometric characteristics of patients facilitated the development of osteopenia. Involvement of a larger number of joints into a pathological process was followed by a significant BMD reduction in the predominant number of patients with OA. With the more progressive X-ray stage of the disease, a significantly higher BMD was observed in the distal forearm of patients from all groups. The patients aged 75 years or older who had gonarthrosis and polyosteoarthrosis showed a significant reduction in BMD as compared with those of less than 75 years of age. A greater reduction in the T test was shown to correspond to less body weight. The examinees' inactivity correlated with decreased BMD. In patients with polyosteoarthritis, early onset and longer menopause negatively affected BMD in the distal forearm. Conclusion. Reduced distal forearm BMD in elderly patients with OA is associated with patients' older age and a longer menopause, less body weight, early menopause, and no regular exercises. Progression of the X-ray stage of OA correlates with increased bone density.

  20. Measurement of Bone Mineral Density in Male Detainees

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    Betül Bakan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to investigate the increased risk for osteoporosis due to closed environment and sedentary lifestyle of prisoners. In this way, we planned to inform prisoners and supervisors for protective measures that should be taken if low bone mineral density (BMD is detected compared with normal population. Materials and Methods: Sixty six prisoner men over the age of 45 as the study group and 66 male volunteers who are not detainees over the age of 45 as a control group were included in the study. All participants' age, occupation, duration in prison, habits, nutrition, exercise, diseases and medications used were noted. BMD values were measured using a phalangeal radiographic absorptiometry (Alara Metriscan®. Results: BMD values in the study group were measured as 0.341±0.030 g/cm2 and as 0.346±0.029 g/cm2 in the control group (p=0.968. BMD values of the study group were lower than those of the control group. Conclusion: In this study, we found that BMD values of the detainees were lower than those of the control group but this difference was not statistically significant. However, there was a negative correlation between BMD values and duration in prison. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2012;18: 81-5

  1. Correlation of vitamin D, bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone levels in adults with low bone density

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    Sunil Kota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone mineral densiy (BMD is known to be affected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH D levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH levels. Indian data pertinent to above observation is scant. Our study aimed to investigate the relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH D levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH levels and bone mineral density (BMD in a cohort of Indian patients. Materials and Methods: Adults with or without fragility fractures with low BMD at the hip or lumbar spine were evaluated clinically along with laboratory investigations. T-scores of the hip and spine were derived from BMD-DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationships between serum 25(OH D, iPTH and BMD. Results: Total of 102 patients (male:female = 38:64 with a mean age of 62.5 ± 6.4 years were included in the study. Forty-four patients had osteopenia. Osteoporosis was present in 58 patients. The mean values for serum 25(OH D and iPTH levels were 21.3 ± 0.5 ng/ml and 53.1 ± 22.3 pg/ml, respectively. In 84.3% of patients, serum 25(OH D levels were below 30 ng/ml (Normal = 30-74 ng/ml, confirming vitamin D deficiency. There was no association between 25(OH D levels and BMD at the hip or lumbar spine (P = 0.473 and 0.353, respectively. Both at the hip and lumbar spine; iPTH levels, male gender, body mass index (BMI and age were found to be significant predictors of BMD. Patients with higher BMI had significantly lower BMD and T-score. At levels <30 ng/ml, 25(OH D was negatively associated with iPTH (P = 0.041. Conclusion: Among our cohort of patients with low BMD, no direct relationship between serum 25(OH D levels and BMD was observed. However, a negative correlation between iPTH and 25(OH D at serum 25(OH D concentrations <30 ng/ml. Serum iPTH levels showed a significant negative association with BMD at the hip and lumbar spine. Our findings underscore the critical role of

  2. Density limits investigation and high density operation in EAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xingwei; Li, Jiangang; Hu, Jiansheng; Liu, Haiqing; Jie, Yinxian; Wang, Shouxin; Li, Jiahong; Duan, Yanming; Li, Miaohui; Li, Yongchun; Zhang, Ling; Ye, Yang; Yang, Qingquan; Zhang, Tao; Cheng, Yingjie; Xu, Jichan; Wang, Liang; Xu, Liqing; Zhao, Hailin; Wang, Fudi; Lin, Shiyao; Wu, Bin; Lyu, Bo; Xu, Guosheng; Gao, Xiang; Shi, Tonghui; He, Kaiyang; Lan, Heng; Chu, Nan; Cao, Bin; Sun, Zhen; Zuo, Guizhong; Ren, Jun; Zhuang, Huidong; Li, Changzheng; Yuan, Xiaolin; Yu, Yaowei; Wang, Houyin; Chen, Yue; Wu, Jinhua; EAST Team

    2016-05-01

    Increasing the density in a tokamak is limited by the so-called density limit, which is generally performed as an appearance of disruption causing loss of plasma confinement, or a degradation of high confinement mode which could further lead to a H  →  L transition. The L-mode and H-mode density limit has been investigated in EAST tokamak. Experimental results suggest that density limits could be triggered by either edge cooling or excessive central radiation. The L-mode density limit disruption is generally triggered by edge cooling, which leads to the current profile shrinkage and then destabilizes a 2/1 tearing mode, ultimately resulting in a disruption. The L-mode density limit scaling agrees well with the Greenwald limit in EAST. The observed H-mode density limit in EAST is an operational-space limit with a value of 0.8∼ 0.9{{n}\\text{GW}} . High density H-mode heated by neutral beam injection (NBI) and lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) are analyzed, respectively. The constancy of the edge density gradients in H-mode indicates a critical limit caused perhaps by e.g. ballooning induced transport. The maximum density is accessed at the H  →  L transition which is generally caused by the excessive core radiation due to high Z impurities (Fe, Cu). Operating at a high density (>2.8× {{10}19} {{\\text{m}}-3} ) is favorable for suppressing the beam shine through NBI. High density H-mode up to 5.3× {{10}19}{{\\text{m}}-3}~≤ft(∼ 0.8{{n}\\text{GW}}\\right) could be sustained by 2 MW 4.6 GHz LHCD alone, and its current drive efficiency is studied. Statistics show that good control of impurities and recycling facilitate high density operation. With careful control of these factors, high density up to 0.93{{n}\\text{GW}} stable H-mode operation was carried out heated by 1.7 MW LHCD and 1.9 MW ion cyclotron resonance heating with supersonic molecular beam injection fueling.

  3. Bone mineral density in rheumatoid arthritis patients 1 year after adalimumab therapy: arrest of bone loss

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    Wijbrandts, C A; Klaasen, R; Dijkgraaf, M G W; Gerlag, D M; van Eck-Smit, B L F; Tak, P P

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α antibody therapy on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femur neck in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: A total of 50 patients with active RA (DAS28⩾3.2) who started adalimumab (40 mg subcutaneously/2 weeks) were included in an open label prospective study. All patients used stable methotrexate and were allowed to use prednisone (⩽10 mg/day). The BMD of the lumbar spine and femur neck was measured before and 1 year after start of treatment. Results: Disease activity at baseline (28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28)) and disease duration were inversely correlated with femoral neck BMD and lumbar spine BMD (p<0.05). Mean BMD of lumbar spine and femur neck remained unchanged after 1 year of adalimumab therapy (+0.3% and +0.3%, respectively). Of interest, a beneficial effect of prednisone on change in femur neck BMD was observed with a relative increase with prednisone use (+2.5%) compared to no concomitant prednisone use (−0.7%), (p = 0.015). Conclusion: In contrast to the progressive bone loss observed after conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy, TNF blockade may result in an arrest of general bone loss. Consistent with previous observations, the data also suggest that the net effect of low-dose corticosteroids on BMD in RA may be beneficial, possibly resulting from their anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:18408246

  4. Allelic determinants of vitamin d insufficiency, bone mineral density, and bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trummer, Olivia; Schwetz, Verena; Walter-Finell, Daniela; Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Renner, Wilfried; Gugatschka, Markus; Dobnig, Harald; Pieber, Thomas R; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2012-07-01

    Low 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH) vitamin D] status is known to play an important role in many diseases with focus on bone health. Based on recently reported genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency, we aimed to analyze genetic variants of group-specific component (GC), 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7), and cytochrome P450IIR-1 (CYP2R1) for association with vitamin D levels, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone fractures. We conducted a cross-sectional BMD and fracture study and a prospective cohort study. The cross-sectional study comprised participants of a BMD screening study, and the prospective cohort study comprised nursing home subjects. The cross-sectional study included 342 subjects (mean age, 55.3 ± 12.0 yr), and the prospective study included 1093 subjects (mean age, 84.0 ± 6.0 yr). Patients were stratified by GC, DHCR7, and CYP2R1 genotypes. For each gene, the allele associated with lower 25(OH) vitamin D levels was designated as "risk allele." The potential role of these risk alleles in fracture risk was analyzed by logistic regression analysis including age and sex as confounders. We measured BMD and fractures. GC genotypes were significantly associated with lower mean 25(OH) vitamin D levels in both cohorts (P = 0.001 and P = 0.048, respectively). There was no significant association of BMD with any of the genotypes. None of the alleles was associated with past fractures, whereas the DHCR7 G-allele was significantly associated with prospective fractures (odds ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.92; P = 0.011). The DHCR7 gene polymorphism may be a predictor for fracture risk.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of bone-mineral density loss using X-ray coherent scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Regina Cély; Oliveira, Luis Fernando; Castro, Carlos Roberto Ferreira; Lima, João Carlos; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Droppa, Roosevel; Tromba, Giuliana; Mancini, Lucia; Zanini, Franco; Rigon, Luigi; Dreossi, Diego

    2007-08-01

    In this work, we intend to relate the mineral to non-mineral bone scattering intensity ratio with the bone-mineral density (BMD) reduction. In this way, EDXRD can be a novel technique to measure BMD loss in function of the mineral and non-mineral scattering intensity. The scattering profiles were obtained at Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS) at the X-ray diffraction beamline XD2. A double-crystal Si(1 1 1) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth (Δ λ/ λ≈10 -4) at 11 keV. The sample holder has a circle depression in the center to contain a range of bone and fat mixture ratios. The mixture consists of powdered cortical bone and fat, which together simulate in vivo bone. The diffraction patterns were carried out with 0.5 mm slits after and behind of the sample holder. The data were collected in 0.05° increments every 0.5 s. EDXRD results show an indication of different bone densities may be distinguished which suggested that X-ray coherent scattering technique may have a role in monitoring changes in BMD via changes in the related scattering intensity of mineral and non-mineral bone. The main aim of the Synchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics (SYRMEP) project at the ELETTRA is the investigation and the development of innovative techniques for medical imaging. The beamline provides, at a distance of about 23 m from the source, a monochromatic, laminar section X-ray beam with a maximum area of about 160×5 mm 2 at 20 keV. The monochromator, that covers the entire angular acceptance of the beamline, is based on a double-Si (1 1 1) crystal system working in Bragg configuration. A micrometric vertical and horizontal translation stage allows the positioning and scanning of the sample with respect to the stationary beam. In this case, the detector is kept stationary in front of the beam, while the object is rotated in discrete steps in front of it. At each rotation, a projection is acquired. A goniometric

  6. The Tarsometatarsus of the Ostrich Struthio camelus: Anatomy, Bone Densities, and Structural Mechanics.

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    Meagan M Gilbert

    Full Text Available The ostrich Struthio camelus reaches the highest speeds of any extant biped, and has been an extraordinary subject for studies of soft-tissue anatomy and dynamics of locomotion. An elongate tarsometatarsus in adult ostriches contributes to their speed. The internal osteology of the tarsometatarsus, and its mechanical response to forces of running, are potentially revealing about ostrich foot function.Computed tomography (CT reveals anatomy and bone densities in tarsometatarsi of an adult and a young juvenile ostrich. A finite element (FE model for the adult was constructed with properties of compact and cancellous bone where these respective tissues predominate in the original specimen. The model was subjected to a quasi-static analysis under the midstance ground reaction and muscular forces of a fast run. Anatomy-Metatarsals are divided proximally and distally and unify around a single internal cavity in most adult tarsometatarsus shafts, but the juvenile retains an internal three-part division of metatarsals throughout the element. The juvenile has a sparsely ossified hypotarsus for insertion of the m. fibularis longus, as part of a proximally separate third metatarsal. Bone is denser in all regions of the adult tarsometatarsus, with cancellous bone concentrated at proximal and distal articulations, and highly dense compact bone throughout the shaft. Biomechanics-FE simulations show stress and strain are much greater at midshaft than at force applications, suggesting that shaft bending is the most important stressor of the tarsometatarsus. Contraction of digital flexors, inducing a posterior force at the TMT distal condyles, likely reduces buildup of tensile stresses in the bone by inducing compression at these locations, and counteracts bending loads. Safety factors are high for von Mises stress, consistent with faster running speeds known for ostriches.High safety factors suggest that bone densities and anatomy of the ostrich tarsometatarsus

  7. Bone mineral density in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis

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    E. E. Gubar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis (SpA and to reveal its association with inflammatory disease activity.Subjects and methods. Seventy-three patients aged 18–45 years with inflammatory back pain lasting at least 3 months and not more than 5 years were examined. Axial SpA was diagnosed according to the 2009 ASAS criteria. BASDAI and ASDAS C-reactive protein (CRP values were used to estimate disease activity; BASFI was employed to evaluate functional status. The examination encompassed determination of HLA-B27, X-ray of the pelvis and LS, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of sacroiliac joints, LS, and hip joints (in the presence of clinical signs of their injuries, densitometry of LS (LI-IV and FN. By taking into account the young age of patients, the Z-score was applied to measure BMD. The latter is considered lower if the Z-score is 1–2 standard deviations (SD in at least one of the segments under study.Results. The median Z-score was -0.7 (-1.3; -0.3 SD for FN and 0.9 (-1.6; -0.5 SD for LS. Reduced BMD in at least one of the segments under study was detected in 13 (17.8% patients: that in LS and FN in 11 (15.1% and 5 (6.8% patients, respectively. Lower BMD was observed in two segments in 3 (4.1% patients. No association was found between lower BMD and age, gender, disease activity (BASDAI, ASDAS, and laboratory inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and CRP. A relationship was established between inflammatory changes according to the data of MRI of LS (MRI spondylitis and reduced BMD in the same segment. MRI spondylitis was detected in 8 patients. Five and 3 patients with spondylitis of LS were found to have lower and normal BMD in this segment, respectively. Six out of 65 patients without MRI spondylitis in LS had its reduced BMD and the remaining (n=59 patients had its normal BMD (p=0.0014.Conclusion. There was an

  8. The Association between Metabolic Syndrome, Bone Mineral Density, Hip Bone Geometry and Fracture Risk: The Rotterdam Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taulant Muka

    Full Text Available The association between metabolic syndrome (MS and bone health remains unclear. We aimed to study the association between MS and hip bone geometry (HBG, femoral neck bone mineral density (FN-BMD, and the risk of osteoporosis and incident fractures. Data of 2040 women and 1510 men participants in the third visit (1997-1999 of the Rotterdam Study (RSI-3, a prospective population based cohort, were available (mean follow-up 6.7 years. MS was defined according to the recent harmonized definition. HBG parameters were measured at the third round visit whereas FN-BMD was assessed at the third round and 5 years later. Incident fractures were identified from medical registry data. After correcting for age, body mass index (BMI, lifestyle factors and medication use, individuals with MS had lower bone width (β = -0.054, P = 0.003, lower cortical buckling ratio (β = -0.81, P = 0.003 and lower odds of having osteoporosis (odds ratio =0.56, P = 0.007 in women but not in men. Similarly, MS was associated with higher FN-BMD only in women (β = 0.028, P=0.001. In the analyses of MS components, the glucose component (unrelated to diabetes status was positively associated with FN-BMD in both genders (β = 0.016, P = 0.01 for women and β = 0.022, P = 0.004 for men. In men, waist circumference was inversely associated with FN-BMD (β = -0.03, P = 0.004. No association was observed with fracture risk in either sex. In conclusion, women with MS had higher FN-BMD independent of BMI. The glucose component of MS was associated with high FN-BMD in both genders, highlighting the need to preserve glycemic control to prevent skeletal complications.

  9. The Association between Metabolic Syndrome, Bone Mineral Density, Hip Bone Geometry and Fracture Risk: The Rotterdam Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muka, Taulant; Trajanoska, Katerina; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Oei, Ling; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Dehghan, Abbas; Zillikens, M. Carola; Franco, Oscar H.; Rivadeneira, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and bone health remains unclear. We aimed to study the association between MS and hip bone geometry (HBG), femoral neck bone mineral density (FN-BMD), and the risk of osteoporosis and incident fractures. Data of 2040 women and 1510 men participants in the third visit (1997–1999) of the Rotterdam Study (RSI-3), a prospective population based cohort, were available (mean follow-up 6.7 years). MS was defined according to the recent harmonized definition. HBG parameters were measured at the third round visit whereas FN-BMD was assessed at the third round and 5 years later. Incident fractures were identified from medical registry data. After correcting for age, body mass index (BMI), lifestyle factors and medication use, individuals with MS had lower bone width (β = -0.054, P = 0.003), lower cortical buckling ratio (β = -0.81, P = 0.003) and lower odds of having osteoporosis (odds ratio =0.56, P = 0.007) in women but not in men. Similarly, MS was associated with higher FN-BMD only in women (β = 0.028, P=0.001). In the analyses of MS components, the glucose component (unrelated to diabetes status) was positively associated with FN-BMD in both genders (β = 0.016, P = 0.01 for women and β = 0.022, P = 0.004 for men). In men, waist circumference was inversely associated with FN-BMD (β = -0.03, P = 0.004). No association was observed with fracture risk in either sex. In conclusion, women with MS had higher FN-BMD independent of BMI. The glucose component of MS was associated with high FN-BMD in both genders, highlighting the need to preserve glycemic control to prevent skeletal complications. PMID:26066649

  10. Bone tissue density modification in treatment of shin pseudoarthrosis by transosseous compressive osteosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tishkov N.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective is to detect bone mineral density along the shin according to «Esperanto» levels by Hounsfield's scale. Materials and methods. The analysis of density modification in 25 patients with pseudoarthrosis of tibia with predominant localization in a lower one-third of bone has been carried out. Results. By means of computed tomography it has been revealed that the bone tissue density of the tibia in the process of false joint union when using the compressive variant of combined transosseous osteosynthesis has changed according to the regularity reproducing phase character of the accumulation of mineral substances in the bone. Conclution. The growth of mineral density of the bone tissue during treatment spreads in the directions from proximal and distal metaepiphyses to the zone of pseudoarthrosis knitting

  11. Exercise-induced bone gain is due to enlargement in bone size without a change in volumetric bone density: a peripheral quantitative computed tomography study of the upper arms of male tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasalo, H; Kontulainen, S; Sievänen, H; Kannus, P; Järvinen, M; Vuori, I

    2000-09-01

    Bilateral bone characteristics of the humerus (proximal, shaft, and distal sites) and radius (shaft and distal sites) in 12 former Finnish national-level male tennis players (mean age 30 years) and their 12 age-, height-, and weight-matched controls were measured with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). The pQCT variables analyzed were bone mineral content (BMC), total cross-sectional area of bone (Tot.Ar), cross-sectional area of the marrow cavity (M.Cav.Ar), cortical bone (Co.Ar) and trabecular bone (Tr.Ar), volumetric density of cortical (Co.Dn) and trabecular (Tr. Dn) bone, cortical wall thickness (Co.Wi.Th), bone strength index (BSI), and principal moments of inertia (I(min) and I(max)). In the players, significant side-to-side differences, in favor of the dominant (playing) arm, were found in BMC (ranging 14%-27%), Tot.Ar (16%-21%), Co.Ar (12%-32%), BSI (23%-37%), I(min) (33%-61%), and I(max) (27%-67%) at all measured bone sites, and in Co.Wi.Th. (5%-25%) at the humeral and radial shafts, and distal humerus. The side-to-side M.Cav.Ar difference was significant at the proximal humerus (19%) and radial shaft (29%). Concerning the players' Co.Dn and Tr.Dn, the only significant side-to-side difference was found in the Co.Dn of the distal humerus, with the playing arm showing a slightly smaller Co.Dn than the nonplaying arm (-2%). In controls, significant dominant-to-nondominant side differences were also found, but with the majority of the differences being rather small, and significantly lower than those of the players. In conclusion, despite the large side-to-side differences in BMC, the volumetric bone density (Co.Dn, Tr.Dn) was almost identical in the dominant and nondominant arms of the players and controls. Thus, the players' high playing-arm BMC was due to increases in the Tot.Ar, M.Cav.Ar, Co.Ar, and CW.Th. In other words, the playing arm's extra bone mineral, and thus increased bone strength, was mainly due to increased bone size and not

  12. Obstructive sleep apnea and bone mineral density in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stefania Mariani,1 Daniela Fiore,1 Laura Varone,2 Sabrina Basciani,1 Agnese Persichetti,1 Mikiko Watanabe,1 Maurizio Saponara,3 Giovanni Spera,1 Costanzo Moretti,4 Lucio Gnessi11Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Physiopathology and Endocrinology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 2Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 3Department of Otolaryngology, Audiology and Phonation, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 4Division of Endocrinology, Department of System Medicine, Section of Reproductive Endocrinology University of TorVergata, Fatebenefratelli Hospital "San Giovanni Calibita" Rome, ItalyContext: Obesity and its co-morbidities may adversely affect bone mineral density (BMD. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a major complication of obesity. To date, the effects of OSA on BMD in obese patients have been poorly studied.Objective: To examine whether the severity of OSA independently correlates with BMD in obese patients.Methods: One hundred and fifteen obese subjects with OSA (Apnea/Hypopnea Index [AHI] ≥5 events per hour were included in the study. BMD was measured at lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Body mass index, lean mass, and representative measures of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and inflammation (ESR, CRP, fibrinogen were also evaluated.Results: BMD did not differ among obese individuals regardless of OSA severity. Correlation coefficient analysis for all the covariates showed a lack of association between AHI and BMD that was strongly influenced by age and weight.Conclusion: Our study does not support an independent association between AHI and BMD in obese patients. Controlled studies involving a greater number of patients are warranted.Keywords: obesity, polysomnography, metabolic syndrome

  13. Bone Density and Clinical Periodontal Attachment in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penoni, D C; Fidalgo, T K S; Torres, S R; Varela, V M; Masterson, D; Leão, A T T; Maia, L C

    2017-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and has been considered a risk factor for periodontal disease. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to verify the scientific evidence for the association of periodontal attachment loss with low BMD in postmenopausal women. A systematic search of the literature was performed in databases until August 2016, in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Eligibility criteria included studies that compared clinical attachment loss (CAL) between postmenopausal women with low and normal BMD. Studies using similar methodology, with lower and higher risk of bias, were pooled into 3 different meta-analyses to compare CAL among women with normal BMD, osteoporosis, and osteopenia. In the first meta-analysis, mean CAL was compared among groups. In the other 2 meta-analyses, the mean percentages of sites with CAL ≥4 mm and ≥6 mm were respectively compared among groups. From 792 unique citations, 26 articles were selected for the qualitative synthesis. Eleven of the studies were appraised as presenting low risk of bias, and the association between low BMD and CAL was observed in 10 of these studies. Thirteen cross-sectional articles were included in the meta-analysis for osteoporosis and 9 in the osteopenia analysis. Women with low BMD presented greater mean CAL than those with normal BMD (osteoporosis = 0.34 mm [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.20-0.49], P osteoporosis = 3.04 [95% CI, 1.23-4.85], P = 0.001; osteopenia = 1.74 [95% CI, 0.36-3.12], P = 0.01) and CAL ≥6 mm (osteoporosis = 5.07 [95% CI, 2.74-7.40], P osteoporosis or osteopenia may exhibit greater CAL compared with women with normal BMD.

  14. Assessment of gene-by-sex interaction effect on bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Estrada, Karol; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M;

    2012-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome-wide, and ......Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome...

  15. Molecular mechanisms responsible for the impact of antiepileptic therapy on bone mineral density of epileptic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zhidkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs may have a negative effect on bone tissue, by increasing the risk of fractures in epileptic patients compared to the general population. Many investigations have shown lower bone mineral density and a higher risk for osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients taking traditional and novel AEDs. Multidrug therapy and the duration of AED intake are associated with the most significant risk for lower bone mineral density. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms of action of different AEDs on bone tissue remain little studied.

  16. Influence of bone density on implant stability parameters and implant success: a retrospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGlumphy Edwin A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present clinical study was to determine the local bone density in dental implant recipient sites using computerized tomography (CT and to investigate the influence of local bone density on implant stability parameters and implant success. Methods A total of 300 implants were placed in 111 patients between 2003 and 2005. The bone density in each implant recipient site was determined using CT. Insertion torque and resonance frequency analysis were used as implant stability parameters. The peak insertion torque values were recorded with OsseoCare machine. The resonance frequency analysis measurements were performed with Osstell instrument immediately after implant placement, 6, and 12 months later. Results Of 300 implants placed, 20 were lost, meaning a survival rate of %. 93.3 after three years (average 3.7 ± 0.7 years. The mean bone density, insertion torque and RFA recordings of all 300 implants were 620 ± 251 HU, 36.1 ± 8 Ncm, and 65.7 ± 9 ISQ at implant placement respectively; which indicated statistically significant correlations between bone density and insertion torque values (p Conclusion CT is a useful tool to determine the bone density in the implant recipient sites, and the local bone density has a prevailing influence on primary implant stability, which is an important determinant for implant success.

  17. Prolactinoma: A Massive Effect on Bone Mineral Density in a Young Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This case highlights a prolactinoma in a young male, and its impact on bone health. Osteoporosis has been noted to be an issue in postmenopausal women with prolactinomas. This case shows a similar impact on bone health in a young male resulting in low bone mineral density for age based on Z-score. This case report highlights the possible mechanisms for the bone loss in the setting of prolactinoma and the need for assessing bone health in such patients. Furthermore it highlights the need for a thorough evaluation in such patients. PMID:27446618

  18. The combination of structural parameters and areal bone mineral density improves relation to proximal femur strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stinus; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Ahrberg, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess structural indices from high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) images of the human proximal femur along with areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and compare the relationship of these parameters to bone strength in vitro. Thirty......-one human proximal femur specimens (8 men and 23 women, median age 74 years, range 50-89) were examined with HR-pQCT at four regions of interest (femoral head, neck, major and minor trochanter) with 82 μm and in a subgroup (n = 17) with 41 μm resolution. Separate analyses of cortical and trabecular geometry...

  19. Estradiol-loaded PLGA nanoparticles for improving low bone mineral density of cancellous bone caused by osteoporosis: Application of enhanced charged nanoparticles with iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Issei; Kobayashi, Shiori; Hida, Yukari; Makino, Kimiko

    2017-07-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis among older women, which occurs by an ovarian hormone deficiency, is one of the major public health problems. 17 β-estradiol (E2) is used to prevent and treat this disease as a drug of hormone replacement therapy. In oral administration, E2 is significantly affected by first-pass hepatic metabolism, and high dose administration must be needed to obtain drug efficacy. Therefore, alternative administration route is needed, and we have focused on the transdermal drug delivery system. In this study, we have prepared E2-loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles for osteoporosis by using a combination of an antisolvent diffusion method with preferential solvation. The average particle diameter of the nanoparticles was 110.0±41.0nm and the surface charge number density was 82 times higher than that of conventional E2-loaded PLGA nanoparticles. Therapeutic evaluation of E2-loaded PLGA nanoparticles was carried out using ovariectomized female rats. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated to measure bone mineral density of cancellous bone using an X-ray CT system. When the E2-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were administrated once a week, bone mineral density was significantly higher than that of the non-treated group at 60days after the start of treatment. Also, in the group administered this nanoparticle twice a week, the bone mineral density increased significantly at 45days after the start of treatment. From these results, it was revealed that E2-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with iontophoresis were useful to recover bone mineral density of cancellous bone, and it was also suggested that they extend the dosing interval of E2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Decreased Bone Volume and Bone Mineral Density in the Tibial Trabecular Bone Is Associated with Per2 Gene by 405 nm Laser Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Min Yoo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-level laser therapy/treatment (LLLT using a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS might enhance bone formation and suppress bone resorption. In this study, the use of 405 nm LLLT led to decreases in bone volume and bone mineral density (BMD of tibial trabecular bone in wild-type (WT and Per2 knockout (KO mice. Bone volume and bone mineral density of tibial trabecular bone was decreased by 405 nm LLLT in Per2 KO compared to WT mice at two and four weeks. To determine the reduction in tibial bone, mRNA expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Per2 were investigated at four weeks after 405 nm laser stimulation using MILNS. ALP gene expression was significantly reduced in the LLLT-stimulated right tibial bone of WT and Per2 KO mice compared to the non-irradiated left tibia (p < 0.001. Per2 mRNA expression in WT mice was significantly reduced in the LLLT-stimulated right tibial bone compared to the non-irradiated left tibia (p < 0.001. To identify the decrease in tibial bone mediated by the Per2 gene, levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2 and ALP mRNAs were determined in non-irradiated WT and Per2 KO mice. These results demonstrated significant downregulation of Runx2 and ALP mRNA levels in Per2 KO mice (p < 0.001. Therefore, the reduction in tibial trabecular bone resulting from 405 nm LLLT using MILNS might be associated with Per2 gene expression.

  1. Strain energy density gradients in bone marrow predict osteoblast and osteoclast activity: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Duncan; Schulte, Friederike A; Lambers, Floor M; Kuhn, Gisela; Müller, Ralph

    2015-03-18

    Huiskes et al. hypothesized that mechanical strains sensed by osteocytes residing in trabecular bone dictate the magnitude of load-induced bone formation. More recently, the mechanical environment in bone marrow has also been implicated in bone׳s response to mechanical stimulation. In this study, we hypothesize that trabecular load-induced bone formation can be predicted by mechanical signals derived from an integrative µFE model, incorporating a description of both the bone and marrow phase. Using the mouse tail loading model in combination with in vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT) we tracked load induced changes in the sixth caudal vertebrae of C57BL/6 mice to quantify the amount of newly mineralized and eroded bone volumes. To identify the mechanical signals responsible for adaptation, local morphometric changes were compared to micro-finite element (µFE) models of vertebrae prior to loading. The mechanical parameters calculated were strain energy density (SED) on trabeculae at bone forming and resorbing surfaces, SED in the marrow at the boundary between bone forming and resorbing surfaces, along with SED in the trabecular bone and marrow volumes. The gradients of each parameter were also calculated. Simple regression analysis showed mean SED gradients in the trabecular bone matrix to significantly correlate with newly mineralized and eroded bone volumes R(2)=0.57 and 0.41, respectively, pbone marrow plays a significant role in determining osteoblast and osteoclast activity.

  2. Insertion torques influenced by bone density and surface roughness of HA–TiO{sub 2} coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, T.; Chen, Y.; Nie, X., E-mail: xnie@uwindsor.ca

    2013-12-31

    Bio-ceramic TiO{sub 2} coatings containing calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) were deposited onto Ti–6Al–4V alloy screws using plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) processes in an alkaline electrolyte with hydroxyapatite (HA) suspension. Coating on each screw had different surface roughness and morphology. Insertion torque (IT) of the coated screws in low (10 pcf, pounds per cubic feet), medium–high (20 pcf), and high (40 pcf) density of artificial bones was measured in comparison with that of the uncoated and sandblasted screws having similar surface roughness. Higher insertion torques and final seating torques were obtained in the coated screws which may result in less micro-movement during the primary implantation stage and thus lower the risk of implant failure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that all coatings still adhesively remained on the screw surfaces after inserted into the bones with different densities. The relationship between coefficient of friction and surface roughness was also addressed to better understand the results of insertion torque. It was found that a lower density bone (similar to aged bone) would need a surface-rougher coated screw to achieve a high torque while a high density bone can have a wide range of selections for surface roughness of the screw. - Highlights: • The insertion torque of PEO-coated screws is higher than machined and sandblasting implants. • Lower density bone needs a rougher coated implant to increase the insertion torque. • The composite HA–TiO{sub 2} coating could benefit dental implants in both primary and secondary stability stages.

  3. The Effect of Combined Exercise on Bone Mineral Density of Premenopausal Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoura Ghasemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The best way to prevent osteoporosis, at old age is to prevent bone loss and at young age is trying to keep bones healthy, therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effect of combined exercise on bone mineral density of premenopausal females. Materials and Methods: This semi-experimental study was conducted among 20 premenopausal females between 40 and 45 years old, which were randomly assigned to two groups (experimental and control groups in Hamadan city, during year 2016. The experimental group completed a 12-week combined exercise-training program (6 weeks in water and 6 weeks on land, three times a week and 70 minutes per session. Before and after the 12 weeks, femoral bone mineral density in all samples was measured by DEXA bone mineral densitometry. Data were analyzed with the SPSS 21 software using descriptive and inferential statistics, such as independent and paired t-test, and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA. Results: Bone mineral density of femoral neck and total hip of the experimental group, had significant differences with corresponding areas of the control group (P <0.05. In other words, the results revealed that 12 weeks of combined exercise increases femoral bone mineral density in the experimental group with a significant decrease in the control group. Conclusions: According to the results, to prevent a decrease in bone mineral density during the menopausal period, combined exercises are recommended for females at this age.

  4. Physical activity and bone: The importance of the various mechanical stimuli for bone mineral density. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Morseth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported benefits of regular physical activity on bone mineral density (BMD. The effects of physical activity on BMD are primarily linked to the mechanisms of mechanical loading, but the understanding of the precise mechanism behind the association is incomplete. The aim of this paper was to review the main findings concerning sources and types of mechanical stimuli in relation to BMD. Mechanical forces that act on bone are generated from impact with the ground (ground-reaction forces and from skeletal muscle contractions (muscle forces or muscle-joint forces, but the relative importance of these two sources has not been elucidated. Both muscle-joint forces and gravitational forces seem to be able to induce bone adaptation independently, and there may be differences in the importance of loading sources at different skeletal sites. The nature of the stimuli is affected by the type, intensity, frequency, and duration of the activity. The activity should be dynamic, not static, and the magnitude and rate of the stimuli should be high. In accordance with this, cross-sectional studies report highest BMD in athletes of high-impact activities such as dancing, soccer, volleyball, basketball, squash, speed skating, gymnastics, hockey, and step-aerobics. Endurance activities such as orienteering, skiing, and triathlon seem to be beneficial to a lesser degree, whereas low-impact activities such as swimming and cycling are associated with lower BMD than controls. Both the intensity and frequency of the activity should be varied and increased beyond the habitual level. Duration of the activity seems to be less important, and a few loading cycles seem to be sufficient.

  5. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian [Division de Investigacion y Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Cerro de las Campanas s/n., C.P. 76010, Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Espinosa-Arbelaez, Diego G. [Posgrado en Ciencia e Ingenieria en Materiales, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Av. Universidad 3000, C.P. 04510, Coyoacan, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, C.P. 76230, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I. [Posgrado en Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E. [Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm{sup 2})], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  6. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Wani, Mohan R. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Bhat, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: manojkbhat@nccs.res.in [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  7. Correlation of Serum Leptin Level with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover Markers in Chinese Adolescent Dancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI-CHEN YANG; YAN LAN; JING HU; YAN-HUA YANG; QIAN ZHANG; JIAN-HUA PIAO

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate plasma leptin concentrations in adolescent female dancers and to determine whether leptin has some effects on their bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers. Methods Sixty dancers aged 15-17 years and 77 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition were detected by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum leptin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Two bone turnover markers, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase(TRACP), were determined by ELISA. Results The dancers had a lower fat mass and a lower leptin level than the controls, while they had a relatively higher BMD of the total body and legs after adjustment for BMI and age. The levels of bone resorption and formation of markers were higher in the dancers than in the controls. Leptin was positively correlated with BMI, body weight, fat mass, and percentage of body fat. In dancers, Leptin was positively correlated with the BMD of the total body and the left leg. However, after adjustment for BMI, no correlation of serum leptin concentrations with BMD values was found in either dancers or controls. Nor correlation was found between leptin and bone turnover markers after adjustment for BMI. Conclusion The leptin profile is different between the controls and the dancers with a lower BMI and a lower fat mass. Circulating plasma leptin level depends on BMI and is not a direct determinant of BMD in Chinese adolescent dancers.

  8. Bone mineral density and content during weight cycling in female rats: effects of dietary amylase-resistant starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagpal Sugeet

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is considerable evidence for a loss of bone mass with weight loss, the few human studies on the relationship between weight cycling and bone mass or density have differing results. Further, very few studies assessed the role of dietary composition on bone mass during weight cycling. The primary objective of this study was to determine if a diet high in amylase-resistant starch (RS2, which has been shown to increase absorption and balance of dietary minerals, can prevent or reduce loss of bone mass during weight cycling. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (n = 84, age = 20 weeks were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups with 14 rats per group using a 2 × 3 experimental design with 2 diets and 3 weight cycling protocols. Rats were fed calcium-deficient diets without RS2 (controls or diets high in RS2 (18% by weight throughout the 21-week study. The weight cycling protocols were weight maintenance/gain with no weight cycling, 1 round of weight cycling, or 2 rounds of weight cycling. After the rats were euthanized bone mineral density (BMD and bone mineral content (BMC of femur were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and concentrations of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in femur and lumbar vertebrae were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results Rats undergoing weight cycling had lower femur BMC (p 2 had higher femur BMD (p 2-fed rats also had higher femur calcium (p Conclusion Weight cycling reduces bone mass. A diet high in RS2 can minimize loss of bone mass during weight cycling and may increase bone mass in the absence of weight cycling.

  9. DOES BONE MINERAL DENSITY CHANGE IN EARLY AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Gubar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of osteoporosis (OP and the mechanism  of its development in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and other spondyloarthrititides (SpA have not been sufficiently investigated. Steady-state  inflammatory disease activity is anticipated  to be the leading factor of OP in AS.Objective: to investigate lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN  bone mineral density (BMD  in patients with early axial SpA (axSpA and to reveal its association with inflammatory disease activity.Subjects and methods. A total of 150 patients (59 men and 91 women aged 18 to 45 years with inflammatory back pain for ≥3 months and ≤5 years were examined. The diagnosis of axSpA was established in accordance  with the 2009 ASAS criteria. BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP were used to assess activity and functional status was evaluated with BASFI. The examination  included determination of HLA-B27, X-ray of the pelvis and LS, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI  of the sacroiliac joints, LS, and hip joints (in the presence of clinical signs of their involvement,  and densitometry of LS (LI–IV  and FN. By taking into account the patients’ young age, the Z score was used to estimate BMD. The Z-score -2 SD or lower in at the least one of the regions examined is considered to be diminished BMD. Results and discussion. The median Z-score was -0.7 [-1.3; -0.2] SD for FN and -0.9 [-1.6; -0.6] SD for LS. Reduced BMD in at the least one of the regions examined was diagnosed in 27 (18.0% patients. There was lower BMD in LS in 21 (14.0% patients and in FN in 8 (5.3%. Two (1.3% patients were diagnosed as having osteopenia in the two examined regions. There was no association between diminished BMD and age, gender, disease activity assessed with BASDAI, ASDAS-СRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP. An association was found between inflammatory LS changes, as evidenced by MRI (MRI spondylitis, and reduced BMD in at least one of the examined regions. MRI

  10. Does Salivary Calcium and Phosphate Concentrations Adequately Reflect Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Somaye Ansari; Zakeri, Zahra; Fakour, Sirous Risbaf; Moghaddam, Alireza Ansari

    2016-10-01

    Periodontitis is the inflammation of the periodontal supporting tissues. The response of periodontal tissues to local bacteria leads to bone resorption and destruction of periodontal junction. Given the possible association between periodontitis and low bone mineral density, the aim of present study was to find if measurement of salivary biomarkers as a less invasive method, can provide an appropriate screening method for assessment of bone mineral density in patients with chronic periodontitis? A case-control study was conducted on 53 people, including 28 patients with severe chronic periodontitis and 25 healthy people between April 2014 to March 2015 in Zahedan (southeast of Iran). Following Periodontal examination, salivary samples were collected, and the concentration of salivary calcium and phosphate were measured and reported as mg/dl. Bone mineral density of participants was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and reported as gr/cm2. No significant association was found between concentrations of salivary calcium and phosphate levels with bone mineral density in either healthy people or in patients with severe chronic periodontitis, despite a significant bone density reduction (in the femur neck and lumbar spine L2-L4) in the periodontitis group compared to healthy people (P=0.006, and P=0.009 respectively). Concentration of salivary calcium and phosphate do not appear to be good indicators of bone mineral density. Further prospective studies with larger sample size are recommended.

  11. More-than-minimal-trauma fractures are associated with low bone density: an 8-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L; Bliuc, D; Stanford, P; Eisman, J A; Center, J R

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between more-than-minimal-trauma fractures and bone density. This study demonstrated that more-than-minimal-trauma fractures are associated with lower bone density similar to that seen in minimal trauma fractures. Men and women over 50 years with a more-than-minimal-trauma fracture should be investigated to exclude low bone density.

  12. Aggravated bone density decline following symptomatic osteonecrosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hoed, Marissa A H; Pluijm, Saskia M F; te Winkel, Mariël L; de Groot-Kruseman, Hester A; Fiocco, Martha; Hoogerbrugge, Peter; Leeuw, Jan A; Bruin, Marrie C A; van der Sluis, Inge M; Bresters, Dorien; Lequin, Maarten H; Roos, Jan C; Veerman, Anjo J P; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M

    2015-12-01

    Osteonecrosis and decline of bone density are serious side effects during and after treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It is unknown whether osteonecrosis and low bone density occur together in the same patients, or whether these two osteogenic side-effects can mutually influence each other's development. Bone density and the incidence of symptomatic osteonecrosis were prospectively assessed in a national cohort of 466 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (4-18 years of age) who were treated according to the dexamethasone-based Dutch Child Oncology Group-ALL9 protocol. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (BMDLS) (n=466) and of the total body (BMDTB) (n=106) was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Bone density was expressed as age- and gender-matched standard deviation scores. Thirty patients (6.4%) suffered from symptomatic osteonecrosis. At baseline, BMDLS and BMDTB did not differ between patients who did or did not develop osteonecrosis. At cessation of treatment, patients with osteonecrosis had lower mean BMDLS and BMDTB than patients without osteonecrosis (respectively, with osteonecrosis: -2.16 versus without osteonecrosis: -1.21, Posteonecrosis: -1.73 versus without osteonecrosis: -0.57, Posteonecrosis had steeper BMDLS and BMDTB declines during follow-up than patients without osteonecrosis (interaction group time, Posteonecrosis. Bone density declines from the time that osteonecrosis is diagnosed; this suggests that the already existing decrease in bone density during acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy is further aggravated by factors such as restriction of weight-bearing activities and destruction of bone architecture due to osteonecrosis. Osteonecrosis can, therefore, be considered a risk factor for low bone density in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  13. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol: How High

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Rajagopal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C is considered anti-atherogenic good cholesterol. It is involved in reverse transport of lipids. Epidemiological studies have found inverse relationship of HDL-C and coronary heart disease (CHD risk. When grouped according to HDL-C, subjects having HDL-C more than 60 mg/dL had lesser risk of CHD than those having HDL-C of 40-60 mg/dL, who in turn had lesser risk than those who had HDL-C less than 40 mg/dL. No upper limit for beneficial effect of HDL-C on CHD risk has been identified. The goals of treating patients with low HDL-C have not been firmly established. Though many drugs are known to improve HDL-C concentration, statins are proven to improve CHD risk and mortality. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is involved in metabolism of HDL-C and its inhibitors are actively being screened for clinical utility. However, final answer is still awaited on CETP-inhibitors.

  14. A Novel Portable Apparatus for Noninvasively Measuring Bone Density Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The bone loss associated with extended space missions in astronaut represents a serious health threat, both over the flight period and upon returning to...

  15. Effect of resistance and aerobic exercises on bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed A. Eid

    2014-01-07

    Jan 7, 2014 ... Children with hemophilia, who are less physically active than healthy peers, often .... stretch followed by 20s relaxation and repeated five times per ..... weight bearing, this weight bearing provides stress on bone that in turn ...

  16. [Evaluation of bone mineral density using digital image processing in children receiving anticonvulsants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keiko; Ueda, Satoru; Umezu, Ryouji; Matsuoka, Hisafumi; Sugihara, Shigetaka

    2007-09-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) increases rapidly in a biphasic manner in childhood. During and after adolescence, BMD correlates more closely with bone age than chronological age. Digital image processing (DIP) allows the rapid assessment of BMD and bone age on one X-ray film. Herein, using DIP methods, the effects of various anticonvulsants on chronological and bone age were evaluated in 98 epilepsy patients (age range, 3-15 years) with no intellectual or motor disorders or diseases affecting bone metabolism. All patients were taking one or a combination of the following anticonvulsants: valproate sodium (VPA); carbamazepine (CBZ); and phenobarbital (PB). Bone maturation scores for radius-ulnar-short bones (RUS) were calculated using Tanner-Whitehouse 2 methods. Bone age was determined based on standard Japanese bone-maturation scores. In each patient, Z-scores for chronological and bone ages were calculated by subtracting standard BMD for gender and age from each BMD, then dividing the result by the standard deviation. The Z-score for each drug in relation to the administration period was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. For chronological age, significant differences in BMD were observed regarding the administration periods in children taking multiple drugs, but not in children on VPA, CBZ, or PB monotherapy. For bone age, no significant differences in BMD were observed regarding the administration periods for all drugs. Children taking multiple drugs showed a significant negative correlation between administration period and Z-scores for BMD calculated based on chronological age (Spearman rank correlation: - 0.457, p = 0.008), but not bone age. Among children receiving long-term VPA administration, bone age was delayed approximately 1 year, and bone maturation may have been delayed. No delay in bone age was noted among children receiving long-term administration of multiple drugs, suggesting that these anticonvulsants do not influence bone maturity. These

  17. Genome-wide association study using extreme truncate selection identifies novel genes affecting bone mineral density and fracture risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Duncan (Emma); P. Danoy (Patrick); J.P. Kemp (John); P.J. Leo (Paul); E. McCloskey (Eugene); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); R. Eastell (Richard); R.L. Prince (Richard); J.A. Eisman (John); G. Jones (Graeme); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); I.R. Reid (Ian); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); J. Wark (John); J.B. Richards (Brent); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); T.D. Spector (Timothy); C. Esapa (Chris); R.D. Cox (Roger); S.D.M. Brown (Steve); R.V. Thakker (Rajesh); K.A. Addison (Kathryn); L.A. Bradbury (Linda); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); C. Cooper (Cyrus); C. Cremin (Catherine); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); D. Felsenberg (Dieter); C.-C. Glüer (Claus-); J. Hadler (Johanna); M.J. Henry (Margaret); A. Hofman (Albert); M.A. Kotowicz (Mark); J. Makovey (Joanna); S.C. Nguyen (Sing); J.A. Pasco (Julie); K. Pryce (Karena); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); C. Roux (Christian); K. Stefansson (Kari); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); R. Tichawangana (Rumbidzai); D.M. Evans (David)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractOsteoporotic fracture is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a major predisposing factor to fracture and is known to be highly heritable. Site-, gender-, and age-specific genetic effects on BMD are thought to be significant, but have larg

  18. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Bone Mineral Density in Residents of Villages Surrounding Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ebrahimof

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a major health problem because of the large health care costs associated with its clinical consequences. It is therefore of great importance to identify modifiable risk factors. We investigated association between fruit and vegetables intake and bone mineral density in rural population of Tehran surroundings. Subjects were a subgroup of a large study on prevalence and causes of vitamin D deficiency in rural population surrounding Tehran, capital of Iran. Fruit and vegetable intake of 82 subjects whose bone mineral density (BMD was measured and had a 24 hour food recall, was assessed. Weight and height were measured by standard methods. BMD was measured by Dual X-Ray (DXL (Calscan method at the heels. Osteopenia and osteoporosis rate in women older than 50 years were 55.5% and 33.3% and in men were 69.2% and 7.7%, respectively. Fruit intake was not correlated with BMD. Vegetable intake was positively associated with BMD just in women. According to interquartile range of vegetable intake women were grouped as those consuming less than 1.5 servings of vegetables per day and those consuming more. The women reported consuming more than 1.5 serving of vegetables had significantly higher T-score (-1.1±0.8 compared with -1.9±1.0, P<0.01. Those consumed more vegetables had high intake of some nutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin A, potassium, magnesium, zinc, folate, iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus but none of them except for vitamin A (r= 0.03, P<0.05 was correlated with BMD. High consumption of vegetables positively affected bone mineral density in rural women and daily intake of at least 1.5 servings of vegetables could positively affect osteoporosis prevention.

  19. Estimation of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: theoretical background and clinical testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, A; Hyldstrup, L; Backsgaard, L

    2002-01-01

    A new automated radiogrammetric method to estimate bone mineral density (BMD) from a single radiograph of the hand and forearm is described. Five regions of interest in radius, ulna and the three middle metacarpal bones are identified and approximately 1800 geometrical measurements from these bones......-ray absoptiometry (r = 0.86, p Relative to this age-related loss, the reported short...... sites and a precision that potentially allows for relatively short observation intervals. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-null...

  20. Haematological, biochemical and bone density parameters in vegetarians and non-vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambol, S Z; Stimac, D; Orlić, Z C; Guina, T

    2009-12-01

    The objective is to determine any possible differences between haematological, biochemical and bone mineral density in vegetarians (vegans and lacto-ovovegetarians) and non-vegeterians. The examined group consisted of 100 individuals: 50 non-vegetarians and 50 vegetarians. The vegetarian group was further divided in 2 subgroups: 20 vegans and 30 lacto-ovovegetarians. In all participants, plasma levels of erythrocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit, iron, low density lipoprotein, (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose were measured. Quantitative ultrasound parameters of the right calcaneus were determined in all participants. The results showed that lacto-ovovegetarians had statistically significantly higher red blood cell counts and haematocrit values than non-vegetarians. Vegans also had higher haematocrit values than non-vegetarians. Statistically significant differences were found between iron plasma levels in the examined groups. Iron levels were lower in non-vegetarians than in vegans and lacto-ovovegetarians. Non-vegetarians had much higher levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL than the other two groups, but there were no differences found between same values in vegans and lacto-ovovegetarians. A well planned and balanced vegetarian diet, with avoidance of risk factors, does not result in abnormalities in laboratory tests and bone status parameters.

  1. Bone Mineral Density and Osteoporosis after Preterm Birth: The Role of Early Life Factors and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L. Wood

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of preterm birth and perinatal events on bone health in later life remain largely unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis risk may be programmed by early life factors. We summarise the existing literature relating to the effects of prematurity on adult BMD and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis and programming of bone growth. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity and the influence of epigenetics on bone metabolism are discussed and current evidence regarding the effects of breastfeeding and aluminium exposure on bone metabolism is summarised. This review highlights the need for further research into modifiable early life factors and their effect on long-term bone health after preterm birth.

  2. Effect of Progressive Locomotor Treadmill Compared to Conventional Training on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Remodeling in Paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi Mobarake

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The decrease in bone mass in paraplegic spinal cord injured persons increases the risk factors for fractures. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of progressive locomotor treadmill training (LT on muscle mass, bone mineral density, and bone remodeling in paraplegia patients. Methods The subjects investigated in this research included seventeen paraplegic spinal cord injured persons who were divided randomly into two groups: LT group (n = 10 and conventional exercise group (n = 7. The exercise training protocol was performed during 12 weeks, 3 days a week, 60 minutes a session. LT included 15 minutes warm-up on stationary bike plus 45 minutes LT with 50 percent body-weight support and finally 10 minutes cool-down as an adjunct to a conventional physiotherapy program. 10 percent loading weight was added per week for LT. Conventional exercise training incorporated 15 minutes warm-up plus 45 minutes over-ground training such as stretch exercise and resistance training. Results The obtained results showed that there were significant differences in serum alkaline phosphatase levels (P < 0.001, osteocalcin levels (P = 0.003, bone mineral content (BMC of the femoral neck (P < 0.001, bone mineral density (BMD of femoral neck (P < 0.001, bone mineral content (BMC of the lumbar spine (P < 0.001, and bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine (P = 0.000 between LT and conventional exercise regimes. Conclusions LT training, in addition to improvement of motor function and reduction of bone loss, can be prescribed as an effective exercise intervention for the treatment of osteoporosis in incomplete spinal cord injured persons.

  3. The influence of ibandronate treatment on bone density and biochemical bone markers in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Ipach

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is characterized by different signs including increased bone fragility, short stature, blue sclera, abnormal tooth growth and often secondary immobility. No curative therapy has been found for this rare disease up to now, and different pharmacological substances have been tried as treatment for severe forms of OI. Promising results were seen with intravenous bisphosphonates in the treatment of patients with OI. The aim of present study was to show the effect of intravenous ibandronate therapy on bone density and bone metabolism markers. We analyzed the data of 27 patients with the diagnosis of OI who were treated off-label with intravenous ibandronate. Ibandronate was administered by intravenous infusion every three months at a dosage of 0.3-2 mg. Bone turnover markers and bone density were measured before starting therapy and every three months during treatment. Bone density was measured by using an ultrasound imaging system providing an accurate image of the calcaneus and by evaluating broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA. Twenty-seven patients were treated with intravenous iban- dronate during the observation period. 18 were female. The mean age of all patients was 23.9 years ± 19.6 (range 4-63. Seventeen patients were categorized to have OI Type I, 5 patients to have OI Type III and 5 patients to have OI Type IV. There was a statistically significant decrease in total alkaline phosphatase (P<0.0001. We detected also a statistically significant decrease in the ratio urinary deoxypyridinoline/urinary creatinine (P=0.0048 and the ratio urinary pyridinoline/urinary creatinine (P<0.0001 respectively. There was also a statistically significant increase in serum magnesium (P=0.034 and BUA (P=0.0071. No statistically significant changes were seen for total serum calcium (P=0.16, the ratio of urine calcium/urine creatinine (P=0.29, alkaline phosphatase (isoform bone (P=0.3, procollagen-I-peptide (P=0.5, osteocalcin (P=0

  4. Bone mineral density and disorders of mineral metabolism in chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joe George; Hosahithlu K Ganesh; Shrikrishna Acharya; Tushar R Bandgar; Vyankatesh Shivane; Anjana Karvat; Shobna J Bhatia; Samir Shah; Padmavathy S Menon; Nalini Shah

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence and identify the risk factors for metabolic bone disease in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: The study was performed on 72 Indian patients with cirrhosis (63 male, 9 female; aged < 50 years). Etiology of cirrhosis was alcoholism ( n = 37), hepatitis B ( n = 25) and hepatitis C ( n = 10). Twenty-three patients belonged to Child class A, while 39 were in class B and 10 in class C. Secondary causes for metabolic bone disease and osteoporosis were ruled out. Sunlight exposure, physical activity and dietary constituents were calculated. Complete metabolic profiles were derived, and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual energy X ray absorptiometry. Low BMD was defined as a Z score below -2. RESULTS: Low BMD was found in 68% of patients. Lumbar spine was the most frequently and severely affected site. Risk factors for low BMD included low physical activity, decreased sunlight exposure, and low lean body mass. Calcium intake was adequate, with unfavorable calcium: protein ratio and calcium: phosphorus ratio. Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent (92%). There was a high incidence of hypogonadism (41%). Serum estradiol level was elevated significantly in patients with normal BMD. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 and IGF binding protein 3 levels were below the age-related normal range in both groups. IGF-1 was significantly lower in patients with low BMD. Serum osteocalcin level was low (68%) and urinary deoxypyridinoline to creatinine ratio was high (79%), which demonstrated low bone formation with high resorption. CONCLUSION: Patients with cirrhosis have low BMD. Contributory factors are reduced physical activity, low lean body mass, vitamin D deficiency and hypogonadism and low IGF-1 level.

  5. Bone mineral density of the femoral neck in resurfacing hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Ovesen, Ole; Brixen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Resurfacing total hip arthroplasty (RTHA) may preserve the femoral neck bone stock postoperatively. Bone mineral density (BMD) may be affected by the hip position, which might bias longitudinal studies. We investigated the dependency of BMD precision on type of ROI and hip position....

  6. Estimation of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: theoretical background and clinical testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, A; Hyldstrup, L; Backsgaard, L

    2002-01-01

    A new automated radiogrammetric method to estimate bone mineral density (BMD) from a single radiograph of the hand and forearm is described. Five regions of interest in radius, ulna and the three middle metacarpal bones are identified and approximately 1800 geometrical measurements from these bon...

  7. In peripubertal girls, artistic gymnastics improves areal bone mineral density and femoral bone geometry without affecting serum OPG/RANKL levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïmoun, L; Coste, O; Mariano-Goulart, D; Galtier, F; Mura, T; Philibert, P; Briot, K; Paris, F; Sultan, C

    2011-12-01

    Peripubertal artistic gymnasts display elevated areal bone mineral density at various bone sites, despite delayed menarche and a high frequency of menstrual disorders, factors that may compromise bone health. The concomitant improvement in femoral bone geometry and strength suggested that this type of physical activity might have favourable clinical impact. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of artistic gymnastics (GYM) on areal bone mineral density (aBMD), femoral bone geometry and bone markers and its relationship with the osteoprotegerin (OPG)/rank-ligand (RANKL) system in peripubertal girls. Forty-six girls (age 10-17.2 years) were recruited for this study: 23 elite athletes in the GYM group (training 12-30 h/week, age at start of training 5.3 years) and 23 age-matched (± 6 months; leisure physical activity ≤ 3 h/week) controls (CON). The aBMD at whole body, total proximal femur, lumbar spine, mid-radius and skull was determined using dual-X-ray absorptiometry. Hip structural analysis (HSA software) was applied at the femur to evaluate cross-sectional area (CSA, cm(2)), cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI, cm(4)), and the section modulus (Z, cm(3)) and buckling ratio at neck, intertrochanteric region and shaft. Markers of bone turnover and OPG/RANKL levels were also analysed. GYM had higher (5.5-16.4%) non-adjusted aBMD and adjusted aBMD for age, fat-free soft tissue and fat mass at all bone sites, skull excepted and the difference increased with age. In the three femoral regions adjusted for body weight and height, CSA (12.5-18%), CSMI (14-18%), Z (15.5-18.6%) and mean cortical thickness (13.6-21%) were higher in GYM than CON, while the buckling ratio (21-27.1%) was lower. Bone markers decreased with age in both groups and GYM presented higher values than CON only in the postmenarchal period. A similar increase in RANKL with age without OPG variation was observed for both groups. GYM is associated not only with an increase in aBMD but

  8. Negative correlation between bone mineral density and TSH receptor antibodies in long-term euthyroid postmenopausal women with treated Graves’ disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ercolano, Monica A; Drnovsek, Monica L; Croome, Maria C

    2013-01-01

    Thyrotoxicosis is a cause of secondary osteoporosis. High concentrations of triiodotironine (T3) in Graves' disease stimulate bone turnover, but it is unclear if euthyroidism will always normalize bone metabolism. Thyrotropin (TSH) is known to affect directly the bone metabolism through the TSH...... receptor and TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb) may have an important role in bone turn-over.The aim of our study was to determine, in pre and postmenopausal euthyroidism patients with previous overt hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease the bone mineral density (BMD) as well as factors that could affect BMD...

  9. Modulation and Predictors of Periprosthetic Bone Mineral Density following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett Mau-Moeller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total knee arthroplasty (TKA leads to a loss of periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD. Great importance is attached to the prevention of periprosthetic bone loss with a view to ensuring a long service life of the prosthesis. In order to provide appropriate recommendations for preventive movement therapy measures to combat peri-implant bone loss, it is necessary to know the predictors of periprosthetic BMD. The aim of this study was (1 to determine the change of periprosthetic BMD of the femur and tibia and (2 to analyse the effects of different predictors on periprosthetic BMD. Twenty-three patients with primary TKA were evaluated 10 days and 3 months postoperatively. The data analysis comprised (1 the change in periprosthetic BMD from pretest to posttest and (2 the correlations between BMD and the variables isometric maximum voluntary force, lean mass, physical activity (step count, and BMI using multiple linear regression and structural equation modelling (SEM. BMD of the distal femur was significantly reduced by 19.7% (P = 0.008 3 months after surgery, while no changes were found in BMD of the tibia. The results of SEM demonstrate that 55% of the BMD variance was explained by the model (χ2=0.002; df=1; P=0.96; χ2/df=0.002; RMSEA<0.01; TLI=1.5; CFI=1.0. A significant direct effect was only evidenced by the variable lean mass (β=0.38; b=0.15; SE=0.07; C.R.=2.0; P=0.046. It can be assumed that a large muscle mass with accompanying distribution of high mechanical load in the bones can contribute to local changes of periprosthetic BMD. Concrete recommendations for preventing peri-implant bone loss therefore include exercises which have the aim of maintaining or building up muscle mass.

  10. Correlations between acoustic properties and bone density in bovine cancellous bone from 0.5 to 2 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Il; Roh, Heui-Seol; Yoon, Suk Wang

    2003-05-01

    Correlations between acoustic properties and bone density were investigated in the 12 defatted bovine cancellous bone specimens in vitro. Speed of sound (SOS) and broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) were measured in three different frequency bandwidths from 0.5 to 2 MHz using three matched pairs of transducers with the center frequencies of 1, 2.25, and 3.5 MHz. The relative orientation between ultrasonic beam and bone specimen was the mediolateral (ML) direction of the bovine tibia. SOS shows significant linear positive correlation with apparent density for all three pairs of transducers. However, BUA shows relatively weak correlation with apparent density. SOS and BUA are only weakly correlated with each other. The linear combination of SOS and BUA in a multiple regression model leads to a significant improvement in predicting apparent density. The correlations among SOS, BUA, and bone density can be effectively and clearly represented in the three-dimensional space by the multiple regression model. These results suggest that the frequency range up to 1.5 MHz and the multiple regression model in the three-dimensional space can be useful in the osteoporosis diagnosis.

  11. Skeletal development of mice lacking bone sialoprotein (BSP--impairment of long bone growth and progressive establishment of high trabecular bone mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Bouleftour

    Full Text Available Adult Ibsp-knockout mice (BSP-/- display shorter stature, lower bone turnover and higher trabecular bone mass than wild type, the latter resulting from impaired bone resorption. Unexpectedly, BSP knockout also affects reproductive behavior, as female mice do not construct a proper "nest" for their offsprings. Multiple crossing experiments nonetheless indicated that the shorter stature and lower weight of BSP-/- mice, since birth and throughout life, as well as their shorter femur and tibia bones are independent of the genotype of the mothers, and thus reflect genetic inheritance. In BSP-/- newborns, µCT analysis revealed a delay in membranous primary ossification, with wider cranial sutures, as well as thinner femoral cortical bone and lower tissue mineral density, reflected in lower expression of bone formation markers. However, trabecular bone volume and osteoclast parameters of long bones do not differ between genotypes. Three weeks after birth, osteoclast number and surface drop in the mutants, concomitant with trabecular bone accumulation. The growth plates present a thinner hypertrophic zone in newborns with lower whole bone expression of IGF-1 and higher IHH in 6 days old BSP-/- mice. At 3 weeks the proliferating zone is thinner and the hypertrophic zone thicker in BSP-/- than in BSP+/+ mice of either sex, maybe reflecting a combination of lower chondrocyte proliferation and impaired cartilage resorption. Six days old BSP-/- mice display lower osteoblast marker expression but higher MEPE and higher osteopontin(Opn/Runx2 ratio. Serum Opn is higher in mutants at day 6 and in adults. Thus, lack of BSP alters long bone growth and membranous/cortical primary bone formation and mineralization. Endochondral development is however normal in mutant mice and the accumulation of trabecular bone observed in adults develops progressively in the weeks following birth. Compensatory high Opn may allow normal endochondral development in BSP-/- mice

  12. Skeletal development of mice lacking bone sialoprotein (BSP)--impairment of long bone growth and progressive establishment of high trabecular bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouleftour, Wafa; Boudiffa, Maya; Wade-Gueye, Ndeye Marième; Bouët, Guénaëlle; Cardelli, Marco; Laroche, Norbert; Vanden-Bossche, Arnaud; Thomas, Mireille; Bonnelye, Edith; Aubin, Jane E; Vico, Laurence; Lafage-Proust, Marie Hélène; Malaval, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Adult Ibsp-knockout mice (BSP-/-) display shorter stature, lower bone turnover and higher trabecular bone mass than wild type, the latter resulting from impaired bone resorption. Unexpectedly, BSP knockout also affects reproductive behavior, as female mice do not construct a proper "nest" for their offsprings. Multiple crossing experiments nonetheless indicated that the shorter stature and lower weight of BSP-/- mice, since birth and throughout life, as well as their shorter femur and tibia bones are independent of the genotype of the mothers, and thus reflect genetic inheritance. In BSP-/- newborns, µCT analysis revealed a delay in membranous primary ossification, with wider cranial sutures, as well as thinner femoral cortical bone and lower tissue mineral density, reflected in lower expression of bone formation markers. However, trabecular bone volume and osteoclast parameters of long bones do not differ between genotypes. Three weeks after birth, osteoclast number and surface drop in the mutants, concomitant with trabecular bone accumulation. The growth plates present a thinner hypertrophic zone in newborns with lower whole bone expression of IGF-1 and higher IHH in 6 days old BSP-/- mice. At 3 weeks the proliferating zone is thinner and the hypertrophic zone thicker in BSP-/- than in BSP+/+ mice of either sex, maybe reflecting a combination of lower chondrocyte proliferation and impaired cartilage resorption. Six days old BSP-/- mice display lower osteoblast marker expression but higher MEPE and higher osteopontin(Opn)/Runx2 ratio. Serum Opn is higher in mutants at day 6 and in adults. Thus, lack of BSP alters long bone growth and membranous/cortical primary bone formation and mineralization. Endochondral development is however normal in mutant mice and the accumulation of trabecular bone observed in adults develops progressively in the weeks following birth. Compensatory high Opn may allow normal endochondral development in BSP-/- mice, while impairing

  13. Hormone Treatment Restores Bone Density for Young Women with Menopause-Like Condition (Primary Ovarian Insufficiency)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to produce statistically valid results as to whether testosterone replacement could benefit women with POI, Dr. Nelson said. “While hormone replacement therapy’s effect on bone mineral density has been studied ...

  14. Bone density threshold and other predictors of vertebral fracture in patients receiving oral glucocorticoid therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staa, T.P. van; Laan, R.F.J.M.; Barton, I.P.; Cohen, S.; Reid, D.M.; Cooper, C.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate predictors of vertebral fractures, including a threshold for bone mineral density (BMD), in patients receiving oral glucocorticoids (GCs). METHODS: Data were obtained from 2 randomized clinical trials (prevention and treatment trials of risedronate) using similar methods, but

  15. Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, possibilities for the correction of bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimma Mikhailovna Balabanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives data on the causes of osteoporosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA, including in autoimmune inflammation, during corticosteroid therapy. The role of bisphosphonates in correcting impaired bone mineral density in RA is shown.

  16. Correlations between insulin sensitivity and bone mineral density in non-diabetic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B.; Rohold, A.; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate relationships between bone mineral density (BMD), insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, controlling for body composition, in view of data suggesting that hyperglycaemia [corrected] leads to decreased osteoblast proliferation and a negative calcium balance and that insulin...

  17. Bone mineral density and fractures after surgical menopause : systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakkert, Ingrid E; Teixeira, Natalia; Abma, Elske Marije; Slart, Riemer H J A; Mourits, Marian J E; de Bock, Geertruida H

    BACKGROUND: Oophorectomy is recommended to women at increased ovarian cancer risk. When performed at premenopausal age oophorectomy induces acute surgical menopause, with unwanted consequences. OBJECTIVE: To investigate bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture prevalence after surgical menopause.

  18. Bone mineral density and fractures after surgical menopause : systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakkert, I. E.; Teixeira, N.; Abma, E. M.; Slart, R. H. J. A.; Mourits, M. J. E.; de Bock, G. H.

    Background Oophorectomy is recommended for women at increased risk for ovarian cancer. When performed at premenopausal age oophorectomy induces acute surgical menopause, with unwanted consequences. Objective To investigate bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture prevalence after surgical menopause.

  19. Dietary calcium intake, serum copper concentration and bone density in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strause, L.; Andon, M.B.; Howard, G.; Smith, K.T.; Saltman, P. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States) Procter and Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Data from experimental animal nutrition and animal husbandry indicate that several trace minerals, including copper (Cu) are involved in bone metabolism. In addition, a large body of data suggests that low dietary calcium (Ca) intake is a risk factor for age related bone loss. The authors measured the serum (Cu), dietary Ca intake (dCa) and bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine of 225 postmenopausal women. The median dCa and serum (Cu) were 562 mg/d and 9.73 umoles/L, respectively. Serum (Cu) but, not dCa, was greater in subjects with a history of estrogen therapy (ERT). BMD was higher in subjects with above median dCa and serum (Cu) (group 1) compared to those with below median values (group 2). BMD was intermediate for subjects with either Low serum (Cu):High dCa or High serum (Cu):Low dCa. This relationship was observed in the subject group as a whole, as well as in subgroups partitioned according to history of ERT. Groups 1 and 2 did not differ in basic demographic characteristics such as age, age at menopause, body weight and height. These data support the hypothesis that Ca and Cu nutriture are determinants of skeletal health in postmenopausal women.

  20. Bone mineral density is reduced by telmisartan in male spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birocale, Antonio Marcos; Medeiros, Ana Raquel Santos; Ruffoni, Leandro Dias Gonçalves; Takayama, Liliam; de Oliveira, José Martins; Nonaka, Keico Okino; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2016-12-01

    Telmisartan, an angiotensin AT1 receptor blocker, and treadmill running were compared for their effects on bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanical properties of male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). It was hypothesized that running (18m/min/60min/d) and telmisartan (5mg/kg/d) would have a positive effect on bone parameters. Three-month-old male SHRs were divided into three groups: sedentary (S), telmisartan (T), and exercise (E). At the end of an 8-week protocol, femur and lumbar vertebrae were analyzed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for bone mineral density and by the three-point bending test for biomechanical properties. Blood pressure in all groups was measured by a tail-cuff manometer. Telmisartan and treadmill running reduced blood pressure when compared to the sedentary group; however, telmisartan did not improve bone characteristics. Instead, it reduced BMD of femur total and lumbar vertebrae and worsened bone biomechanic properties. Treadmill running maintained bone characteristics and hence was effective in maintaining bone health. Results showed that telmisartan negatively affected bones suggesting that caution should be taken in possible therapeutic applications for protecting bone health in hypertensive conditions. More studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms through which telmisartan favors bone loss in this model. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Diet on Bone Mineral Density in Peri-and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Dinç

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the determinants of osteoporosis in elderly, nutritional factors play a significant role. In a cross-sectional study the effects of several nutritional factors on bone mineral density were investigated in 44 women aged over 40 years. Nineteen premenopausal and twenty five postmenopausal women were enrolled the study. Subjects were instructed to keep seven-day nutritional record. Bone mineral density measurements were performed with DXA, and laboratory investigations related to bone metabolism were undertaken. Daily protein, fat, carbohydrate, total energy, fiber, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, zinc and vitamin C intakes were analysed by a nutritional analysis program. The associations between daily dietary intakes of this nutritional components and bone mineral density were investigated. The daily protein, fat, carbohydrate, total energy, fiber, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, zinc and vitamin C intakes were not correlated significantly with lumbar and hip bone mineral density. Lumbar bone mineral density was correlated with age. There was no significant association between daily protein or sodium intake and urinary calcium excretion. The results suggest that the manifestation of osteoporosis in women is influenced to a greater extent by age and years since menopause than by the distribution of nutritional factors in normal mixed diet. However, further studies with larger series are essential to evaluate the role of dietary composition on the manifestation of osteoporosis and bone metabolism.

  2. Low Bone Density and Bisphosphonate Use and the Risk of Kidney Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Megan; Taylor, Eric; Vaidya, Anand; Curhan, Gary

    2017-08-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated lower bone density in patients with kidney stones, but no longitudinal studies have evaluated kidney stone risk in individuals with low bone density. Small studies with short follow-up reported reduced 24-hour urine calcium excretion with bisphosphonate use. We examined history of low bone density and bisphosphonate use and the risk of incident kidney stone as well as the association with 24-hour calcium excretion. We conducted a prospective analysis of 96,092 women in the Nurses' Health Study II. We used Cox proportional hazards models to adjust for age, body mass index, thiazide use, fluid intake, supplemental calcium use, and dietary factors. We also conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 2294 participants using multivariable linear regression to compare 24-hour urinary calcium excretion between participants with and without a history of low bone density, and among 458 participants with low bone density, with and without bisphosphonate use. We identified 2564 incident stones during 1,179,860 person-years of follow-up. The multivariable adjusted relative risk for an incident kidney stone for participants with history of low bone density compared with participants without was 1.39 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.20 to 1.62). Among participants with low bone density, the multivariable adjusted relative risk for an incident kidney stone for bisphosphonate users was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.48 to 0.98). In the cross-sectional analysis of 24-hour urine calcium excretion, the multivariable adjusted mean difference in 24-hour calcium was 10 mg/d (95% CI, 1 to 19) higher for participants with history of low bone density. However, among participants with history of low bone density, there was no association between bisphosphonate use and 24-hour calcium with multivariable adjusted mean difference in 24-hour calcium of -2 mg/d (95% CI, -25 to 20). Low bone density is an independent risk factor for incident kidney stone and is associated with

  3. Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Igor Hideki; Mantovani, Alessandra Madia; Agostinete, Ricardo Ribeiro; Costa, Paulo; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Ribeiro, Luis Pedro; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu) and bone mineral density in adolescents. Methods: The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners) adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art). Results: Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063]), while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223]) and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]). Conclusions: Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents. PMID:27017002

  4. Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Hideki Ito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu and bone mineral density in adolescents. Methods: The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art. Results: Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063], while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223] and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]. Conclusions: Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents.

  5. Bone mineral density level by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhdoom, Asadullah; Rahopoto, Muhammad Qasim; Awan, Shazia; Tahir, Syed Muhammad; Memon, Shazia; Siddiqui, Khaleeque Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    To observe the level of bone mineral density by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in rheumatoid arthritis patients. The observational study was conducted at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan, from January 2011 to December 2014. Bone mineral density was measured from the femoral neck, ward's triangle and lumbar spine, in patients 25-55 years of age, who were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. All the cases were assessed for bone mineral density from appendicular as well as axial skeleton. Data was collected through a designed proforma and analysis was performed using SPSS 21. Of the 229 rheumatoid arthritis patients, 33(14.4%) were males. Five (15.1%) males had normal bone density, 14(42.4%) had osteopenia and 14(42.4%) had osteoporosis. Of the 196(85.5%) females, 45(29.9%) had normal bone density, 72 (37.7%) had osteopenia and 79(40.30%) had osteoporosis. Of the 123(53.7%) patients aged 30-50 years, 38(30.9%) had normal bone density, 59(48.0%) had osteopenia, and 26(21.1%) had osteoporosis. Of the 106(46.3%) patients over 50 years, 12(11.3%) had normal bone density, 27 (25.5%) had osteopenia and 67(63.2%) had osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and osteopenia were most common among rheumatoid arthritis patients. Assessment of bone mineral density by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry can lead to quick relief in the clinical symptoms with timely therapy.

  6. [Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Igor Hideki; Mantovani, Alessandra Madia; Agostinete, Ricardo Ribeiro; Costa Junior, Paulo; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Ribeiro, Luis Pedro; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu) and bone mineral density in adolescents. The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners) adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art). Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063]), while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223]) and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]). Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women Heterozygous for the C282Y HFE Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the HFE gene may be associated with increased tissue iron stores reflected in an elevated serum ferritin. With homozygous mutation C282Y, the increase in serum ferritin may be associated with tissue damage in the liver, pancreas, and pituitary and with a reduced bone mineral density. With heterozygous mutation C282Y, the degree of iron retention is less but information relating to how a heterozygous C282Y mutation might impact bone mineral density is uncertain. The present study ...

  8. Influence of basal energy expenditure and body composition on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirino MA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Maria Aparecida Bezerra Quirino,1 João Modesto-Filho,2 Sancha Helena de Lima Vale,3 Camila Xavier Alves,3 Lúcia Dantas Leite,4 José Brandão-Neto51Department of Physiotherapy, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil; 3Postgraduate Health Science Program, 4Department of Nutrition, 5Department of Clinical Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, BrazilBackground: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of body mass index, body weight, lean mass, fat mass, and basal energy expenditure on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study of a sample of 50 women, with minimum time since menopause between 1 and 10 years. Bone mineral density was assessed at the lumbar spine (L2–L4, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanter using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Body mass index, lean mass, fat mass, and basal energy expenditure were measured by bioimpedance.Results: The mean age of the women was 51.49 ± 3.86 years and time since menopause was 3.50 ± 2.59 years. Significant negative correlations were found between chronological age and lumbar spine, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanteric bone mineral density. In regard to time since menopause, we also observed significant negative correlations with bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and Ward's triangle. The following significant positive correlations were recorded: body mass index with bone mineral density at the femoral neck and trochanter; fat mass with bone mineral density at the femoral neck and trochanter; lean mass with bone mineral density at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and trochanter; and basal energy expenditure with bone mineral density at all sites assessed. On the other hand, the multiple linear regression model showed that: 20.2% of bone mineral density variability at the lumbar spine is related to lean mass and time since

  9. Fibrosis markers, hip fracture risk, and bone density in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, J I; Bůžková, P; Kizer, J R; Djoussé, L; Ix, J H; Fink, H A; Siscovick, D S; Cauley, J A; Mukamal, K J

    2016-02-01

    We examined whether blood levels of two markers of fibrosis (transforming growth factor beta one (TGF-β1) and procollagen type III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP)) are related to hip fracture risk and to bone mineral density (BMD). TGF-β1 levels were associated with lower hip fracture risk in women and with lower BMD in men. PIIINP levels were not associated with either outcome. TGF-β1 serves several roles in bone formation and resorption. A consequence of TGF-β1 activation is the production of PIIINP, a marker of collagen III deposition. Here, we explore whether these two biomarkers are related to incident hip fracture and bone mineral density (BMD) and whether their associations are modified by systemic inflammation, as measured by C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Participants were from the Cardiovascular Health Study (mean age 78 years; mean follow-up 8.3 years). We included 1681 persons with measured levels of TGF-β1 (149 hip fractures) and 3226 persons with measured levels of PIIINP (310 hip fractures). Among women, higher TGF-β1 levels were associated with lower hip fracture risk (HR, per doubling, 0.78 [95 % CI 0.61, 0.91]). Among men, TGF-β1 levels were associated with hip fracture risk in a non-linear manner, but among those with elevated CRP levels, doubling was associated with increased risk of fracture (HR 2.22 [1.20, 4.08]) (p = 0.02, interaction between low and high CRP and TGF-β1 on fracture risk). TGF-β1 levels had no significant association with total hip or total body BMD in women but were significantly associated with lower BMD in men. There were no associations of PIIINP levels with hip fracture risk or BMD in men or women. TGF-β1 levels appear to be associated with bone-related phenotypes in a sex-specific manner. The reasons for these differences between men and women regarding TGF-β1 levels and hip fracture risk and bone density require further investigation.

  10. Importing low-density ideas to high-density revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anrholtz, Jens; Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Ibsen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Why did union officials from a high-union-density country like Denmark choose to import an organising strategy from low-density countries such as the US and the UK? Drawing on in-depth interviews with key union officials and internal documents, the authors of this article argue two key points. Fi...... cherry-pick some elements while leaving fundamental aspects out. The study nevertheless indicates that a lack of coherency and model-fit to Danish industrial relations might hamper the positive effects of the organising strategy....

  11. High Energy Density Capacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Capacitor size and reliability are often limiting factors in pulse power, high speed switching, and power management and distribution (PMAD) systems. T/J...

  12. Effects of casein, whey and soy proteins on volumetric bone density and bone strength in immunocompromised piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Bjørnvad, Charlotte; Mølgaard, Christian

    2007-01-01

    assigned to a formula based on either casein (n=11), whey (n=11) or soy (n=10) as the protein source (each 55 g/L), and equal amounts of fat, carbohydrates, calcium and phosphorus. Results & Conclusion: Despite efforts to sustain immuno-protection (sow serum and antibiotic injections), some piglets became......Summary:Background and aims: Bone-promoting effect of different proteins in early life, under immunocompromised conditions, is unknown. We investigated effects of milk- and plantderived proteins on bone development in immunocompromised piglets. Methods: Newborn, colostrum-deprived piglets were...... sick and were early euthanised. After 6 days, bone density (peripheral quantitative computed tomography), bone mechanical strength (three-point bending test) and serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) (immunoassay) were measured in the surviving piglets (casein n=5, whey n=9, soy n=5)....

  13. Association between passive smoking in adulthood and phalangeal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, T; Bech, M; Curtis, T

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates an association between phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) and self-reported passive smoking using data on 15,038 persons (aged 18-95 years), who underwent a BMD scan in the Danish KRAM study. BMD was significantly lower in persons exposed to long-term passive smoking...... in their home during adulthood. INTRODUCTION: Smoking is associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. This study aimed to investigate a possible association between BMD at the phalangeal bones and self-reported passive smoking. METHODS: The study included...

  14. Quantitative computed tomography bone mineral density measurements in irradiated and non-irradiated minipig alveolar bone: an experimental study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonck, H.W.; Meijer, G.J.; Nieman, F.H.; Stoll, C.; Riediger, D.; Baat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of irradiation on bone mineral density (BMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All maxillary and mandibular pre-molars and molars of six minipigs were extracted. After a 3-month healing period, the maxilla and mandibles of three minipigs receive

  15. No major effect of estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms on bone mineral density or bone loss in postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Y Z; Jørgensen, H L; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2000-01-01

    The polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor (ER) gene defined by the restriction enodonucleases PvuII and XbaI have recently been reported to be associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. To investigate the possible relation of the PvuII and XbaI restriction fragment-lengt...

  16. Electronic DC transformer with high power density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovský, M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the possibilities of increasing the power density of high-power dc-dc converters with galvanic isolation. Three cornerstones for reaching high power densities are identified as: size reduction of passive components, reduction of losses particularly in active components

  17. Early postmenopausal diminution of forearm and spinal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, K; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille

    1995-01-01

    sites (12%-13%, corresponding to about 1.0-1.5 SD), and extrapolation suggested reverse order of the rates of diminution thereafter (forearm > AP > LAT). When bone mineral content of the entire L3 vertebra (tBMC) was measured in vivo, AP tBMC could account for only 67% of the variation in LAT t...

  18. A serum metabolomics-based profile in low bone mineral density postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Takeshi; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Sato, Yuiko; Koboyashi, Tami; Katsuyama, Eri; Kanagawa, Hiroya; Miyamoto, Hiroya; Mori, Tomoaki; Yoshida, Shigeyuki; Fujie, Atsuhiro; Morita, Mayu; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Tando, Toshimi; Miyamoto, Kana; Tsuji, Takashi; Funayama, Atsushi; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2017-02-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized as a metabolic disorder of bone tissue, and various metabolic markers are now available to support its diagnosis and evaluate treatment effects. Substances produced as end products of metabolomic activities are the correlated factors to the biological or metabolic status, and thus, metabolites are considered highly sensitive markers of particular pathological states, including osteoporosis. Here we undertook comprehensive serum metabolomics analysis in postmenopausal women with or without low bone mineral density (low BMD vs controls) for the first time using capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry. Among the metabolites tested, 57 were detected in sera. Levels of hydroxyproline, Gly-Gly and cystine, differed significantly between groups, with Gly-Gly and cystine significantly lower in the low BMD group and hydroxyproline, a reported marker of osteoporosis, significantly higher. Levels of TRACP5b, a bone resorption marker, were significantly higher in the low BMD group, supporting the study's validity. Taken together, our findings represent novel metabolomic profiling in low BMD in postmenopausal women.

  19. Bone Mineral Density in 10 to75 Year-Old Iranian Healthy Women: Population Base Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pajouhi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a major public health problem in Iran. Bone densitometry is used to diagnose osteopenia and osteoporosis and if necessary, prevent bone fractures, especially that of femoral neck. Bone density is related to several factors including race, age, sex, environmental factors and nutrition. No comprehensive study has been performed in Iran, yet. Among the 10 to 75 year-old population living in Tehran, after excluding those who suffered from conditions affecting bone metabolism, 600 people were randomly selected from 50 clusters. All participants underwent a clinical examination and lumbar and spinal densitometry using DXA method. Prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in women older than 50, was 28.1% and 53.3%, respectively. Prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was higher in our study population. Peak bone density in the 25-35 -year-old population could be useful in policy-making for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

  20. Bone Mineral Density in 10 to75 Year-Old Iranian Healthy Women: Population Base Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pajouhi

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a major public health problem in Iran. Bone densitometry is used to diagnose osteopenia and osteoporosis and if necessary, prevent bone fractures, especially that of femoral neck. Bone density is related to several factors including race, age, sex, environmental factors and nutrition. No comprehensive study has been performed in Iran, yet. Among the 10 to 75 year-old population living in Tehran, after excluding those who suffered from conditions affecting bone metabolism, 600 people were randomly selected from 50 clusters. All participants underwent a clinical examination and lumbar and spinal densitometry using DXA method. Prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in women older than 50, was 28.1% and 53.3%, respectively. Prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was higher in our study population. Peak bone density in the 25-35 -year-old population could be useful in policy-making for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

  1. Assessing the Association between Leptin and Bone Mineral Density in HIV-Infected Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu N. Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals are at risk for decreased bone mineral density (BMD. The known risk factors for bone loss do not fully explain the increased risk in this population. There is emerging evidence that leptin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes, plays an important role in bone metabolism. Several studies have assessed the relationship between leptin and bone density in healthy adults, but there are few such studies in HIV-infected individuals. Furthermore, HIV infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk for altered fat distribution, which may impact the relationship between leptin and BMD. In a cross-sectional analysis of data in 107 HIV-infected men, we determined whether serum leptin levels were associated with whole-body BMD and bone mineral content measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, after adjusting for confounders including body fat distribution. We found an inverse association between leptin and bone density in those with peripheral lipoatrophy, defined objectively as 3 kg appendicular fat. This result suggests that fat distribution may modify the relationship between leptin and bone density.

  2. The prevalence of low bone mineral density in Dutch perimenopausal women: the Eindhoven perimenopausal osteoporosis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets-Goevaers, C G; Lesusink, G L; Papapoulos, S E; Maartens, L W; Keyzer, J J; Weerdenburg, J P; Beijers, L M; Zwinderman, A H; Knottnerus, J A; Pols, H A; Pop, V J

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in perimenopausal women, and to assess determinants of low bone mineral density (BMD). All women born between 1941 and 1947 (aged between 46 and 54 years) living in the city of Eindhoven were invited to participate in the study: 5896 white Dutch women, representing 73% of the total number of Dutch women in this age group, were studied. Of these, 24% were using estrogen preparations and 19% had undergone hysterectomy, with or without oophorectomy. All women were interviewed and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Osteopenia and osteoporosis were defined according to the criteria proposed by a WHO working group. In the population studied the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was 27.3% and 4.1%, respectively. With progression from premenopause to menopause, the prevalence of osteoporosis increased from 0.4% to 12.7%, and that of osteopenia from 14.5% to 42.8%. An increased risk for low BMD (osteopenia and osteoporosis) was associated with age, menopausal status and smoking, while alcohol consumption, high body mass index (BMI) and use of estrogens had a protective effect. This study of a large population-based cohort of perimenopausal women revealed a high prevalence of low bone mass and, therefore, a higher risk for osteoporotic fractures. The data further suggest that, when issues on the long-term efficacy and safety of preventive treatments are resolved, it may be possible to identify women at higher risk who are most likely to benefit from screening strategies.

  3. High regression rate, high density hybrid fuels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR program will investigate high energy density novel nanofuels combined with high density binders for use with an N2O oxidizer. Terves has developed...

  4. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  5. Bone density assessment for evaluation of gender differences in cervical vertebral maturation: A computed tomography study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, K.; Baskaranarayanan, Balashanmugam; Nagarajan, D.; Selvarani, R.; Vijjaykanth, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method is a vital tool for assessing the biological maturation of the orthodontic patient to evaluate the amount of mandibular bone growth left. Aim: To assess and visualize the cervical vertebral morphology (bone density) of orthodontic patients of the age group 9,16,27 years. Material and Methods: Twenty four subjects with age group of 9,16,27 who were randomly selected and subjected to 3d tomographic study to estimate the biological age of the orthodontic patients by analyzing c1 c2 and c3 vertebrae. Result: The results showed that bone density of males is lesser than females in 9 and 16 years, whereas they have more bone density than females in 27 years. Conclusion: The study provides qualitative method of assessing the biological age of the patient by using images of cervical vertebrae by three dimensional approach. Hence it can be useful for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment plan. PMID:27829750

  6. Jus Tomat Meningkatkan Kepadatan Tulang Tikus Menopause (TOMATO JUICE INCREASE BONE DENSITY OF MENOPAUSE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hening Laswati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women happened due to estrogen deficiency which leads imbalancebone-formation and bone-resorption process. Recently, phytoestrogen as an alternative hormon replacementtherapy in postmenopausal women could overcome estrogen deficiency. The objectives of this study was toevaluate the effect of tomato juice administration and combination of physical exercise on bone density inestrogen deficiency condition. Twenty eight postovarectomy female rats (Rattus novergicus were randomizedinto four experiment groups : the controlled group ( 2 mL aquades administration; the exercised group(swimming for 30 minutes, three times in one week, the tomato juice administration every day (44 mg/200g body weight, and the combination exercise and tomato juice administration. Four weeks after treatmentthe samples were collected from os femure for morphological examination. The intervention groups showeda significant difference in bone density with the control group (p<0.05. Bone density highest on the tomatojuice administration group. There is significant difference bone density between tomato juice administrationgroup and the combination group (p<0.05, but no significant difference between physical exercise groupand the combination group. Tomato juice showed an increasing bone density on estrogen deficiencycondition and the combination group have the same effect with the exercised group.

  7. Measurement of the density of animal bone by absorptiometry: some preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonnelli, Eduardo; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro; Rezende, Marcos Antonio de; Hormaza, Joel Mesa; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Measurement of bone mineral content for different bone types at various sites of the human body has been extensively studied in the last three decades. There are several methods for the determination of bone mineral density and strength by using non ionizing and ionizing radiation, as well as by other techniques, such as ultrasound. In humans, the accuracy and precision of those kind of measurement varies between the methods and, in all the cases, reference values are adopted as a function of sex, age and nutritional parameters. In this work, we have presented some preliminary results of the measurement of the density in animal bone obtained experimentally by absorptiometry, which is based on the fact that attenuation of a gamma ray beam is proportional to the coefficient of mass attenuation of an object in the path of the beam: with the increase of the density of the object, less photons will pass through it. Starting from this, we can calculate the bone mineral density in any point of the material. The radionuclide (through a sealed and shielded source of the radioisotope {sup 241}Am with an activity of 7.4 GBq and an energy of 59.6 keV) is the photons source and a scintillation detector quantify the transmitted photons through the bone to determine the density. The results obtained experimentally were compared with theoretical ones calculated by simulation with the MCNPX based Monte Carlo transport code. (author)

  8. Jus Tomat Meningkatkan Kepadatan Tulang Tikus Menopause (TOMATO JUICE INCREASE BONE DENSITY OF MENOPAUSE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hening Laswati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women happened due to estrogen deficiency which leads imbalancebone-formation and bone-resorption process. Recently, phytoestrogen as an alternative hormon replacementtherapy in postmenopausal women could overcome estrogen deficiency. The objectives of this study was toevaluate the effect of tomato juice administration and combination of physical exercise on bone density inestrogen deficiency condition. Twenty eight postovarectomy female rats (Rattus novergicus were randomizedinto four experiment groups : the controlled group ( 2 mL aquades administration; the exercised group(swimming for 30 minutes, three times in one week, the tomato juice administration every day (44 mg/200g body weight, and the combination exercise and tomato juice administration. Four weeks after treatmentthe samples were collected from os femure for morphological examination. The intervention groups showeda significant difference in bone density with the control group (p<0.05. Bone density highest on the tomatojuice administration group. There is significant difference bone density between tomato juice administrationgroup and the combination group (p<0.05, but no significant difference between physical exercise groupand the combination group. Tomato juice showed an increasing bone density on estrogen deficiencycondition and the combination group have the same effect with the exercised group.

  9. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  10. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency - Does a Gender Difference Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, PC

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  11. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency - Does a Gender Difference Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, PC

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  12. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  13. High resolution CT of temporal bone trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Eun Kyung [Korea General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    Radiographic studies of the temporal bone following head trauma are indicated when there is cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea or rhinorrhoea, hearing loss, or facial nerve paralysis. Plain radiography displays only 17-30% of temporal bone fractures and pluridirectional tomography is both difficult to perform, particularly in the acutely ill patient, and less satisfactory for the demonstration of fine fractures. Consequently, high resolution CT is the imaging method of choice for the investigation of suspected temporal bone trauma and allows special resolution of fine bony detail comparable to that attainable by conventional tomography. Eight cases of temporal bone trauma examined at Korea General Hospital April 1985 through May 1986. The results were as follows: Seven patients (87%) suffered longitudinal fractures. In 6 patients who had purely conductive hearing loss, CT revealed various ossicular chain abnormality. In one patient who had neuro sensory hearing loss, CT demonstrated intract ossicular with a fracture nearing lateral wall of the lateral semicircular canal. In one patient who had mixed hearing loss, CT showed complex fracture.

  14. A High-Saturated-Fat, High-Sucrose Diet Aggravates Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Li; Li, Chun-Mei; Cao, Si-Si; Zhou, Li-Ping; Wong, Man-Sau

    2016-06-01

    Estrogen deficiency in women and high-saturated fat, high-sucrose (HFS) diets have both been recognized as risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Studies on the combined actions of these 2 detrimental factors on the bone in females are limited. We sought to determine the interactive actions of estrogen deficiency and an HFS diet on bone properties and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Six-month-old Sprague Dawley sham or ovariectomized (OVX) rats were pair fed the same amount of either a low-saturated-fat, low-sucrose (LFS) diet (13% fat calories; 15% sucrose calories) or an HFS diet (42% fat calories; 30% sucrose calories) for 12 wk. Blood, liver, and bone were collected for correspondent parameters measurement. Ovariectomy decreased bone mineral density in the tibia head (TH) by 62% and the femoral end (FE) by 49% (P loss in OVX rats by an additional 41% in the TH and 37% in the FE (P loss in the HFS-OVX rats was accompanied by increased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations by 28% (P < 0.05). The HFS diet induced cathepsin K by 145% but reduced osteoprotegerin mRNA expression at the FE of the HFS-sham rats by 71% (P < 0.05). Ovariectomy significantly increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA expression by 136% and 170% at the FE of the LFS- and HFS-OVX rats, respectively (P < 0.05). The HFS diet aggravated ovariectomy-induced lipid deposition and oxidative stress (OS) in rat livers (P < 0.05). Trabecular bone mineral density at the FE was negatively correlated with rat liver malondialdehyde concentrations (R(2) = 0.39; P < 0.01). The detrimental actions of the HFS diet and ovariectomy on bone properties in rats occurred mainly in cancellous bones and were characterized by a high degree of bone resorption and alterations in OS. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE WOMEN ASSESSED BY ULTRASOUND DESINTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marijanac

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and density. Physical activity has a positive effect on bone tissue, and it is recommended to prevent bone loss which comes with age. Methods: In purpose of determining bone mineral density in women who are physically active we examined 35 women divided into two groups – subjects who are premenopausal (n=20, 43.52 ± 7.56 years, and subjects who are postmenopausal (n=15, 55.89 ± 5.48. The subjects exercised Pilates method twice a week for one hour. Bone mineral density measurements were done by ultrasound densitometer „Sahara“ through the calcaneus. We get the data of the estimated bone density and T-score for right and left foot separate. Results: According to results premenopausal women have normal bone density, and postmenopausal values represent osteopenia, according to the WHO. There is no subjects who established osteoporosis. Discussion: Previous investigations have confirmed that physical activity is important for the preservation of the bone quality. Increasing steps, using simple everyday tasks, can prevent decrease in BMD in postmenopausal women (Muir et al., 2013, Ashe et al, 2008. There’s difference in the density of the calcaneus between physically active and those who are not, measured by ultrasound densitometry (Vainionpää et al, 2005. We use quantitative ultrasound densitometry to describe BMI of women who exercise Pilates and support the finding that physical activity is one of the ways that may prevent the BMD loss. These research was done as a part of long-term project entitled „Impact of physical activity of the working population“ which is co-financed by Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development.

  16. Association between Bone Mineral Density and Clinical Parameters in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Ersöz,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Determine the association between the bone mineral density and traumatic brain injury (TBI. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two patients with TBI included to the study. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements which determines the femur neck and L1-4 vertebrate T scores in patients was performed via Lunar Prodigy DPX system. Clinical parameters such as types of involvements (plegia, upper-lower extremity spasticity values, presence of heterotypic ossification, ambulation levels were determined and their relations with femur neck and L1-4 vertebrate T scores were examined with Mann-Whitney U Test. Results: In the comparison of sub groups of type of plegia (tetraplegic/hemi-paraplegic, lower extremity spasticity values [Ascworth score 0/1-2-3-4, presence of heterotopic ossification no statistically significant (p>0.05 difference was found in the femur neck and L1-4 vertebrate T scores. On the other hand, in the subgroups determined according to ambulatory levels of the patients (confined to bed-wheelchair/ ambulated (orthesis-hand support-independent] significant difference was observed in the femur neck T scores (p=0.044. Femur neck T scores were significantly high in ambulated patients (p=0.044. Conclusion: In TBI cases ambulation level is a factor which significantly affect bone mineral density. It is necessary to ambulate patients with potential as soon as possible and to plan alternative approaches in patient could not be ambulated.

  17. The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes with Stress Level, Bone Turnover Markers, and Bone Mineral Density in Obese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okbay Güneş, Aslı; Alikaşifoğlu, Müjgan; Şen Demirdöğen, Ezgi; Erginöz, Ethem; Demir, Türkay; Kucur, Mine; Ercan, Oya

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of stress caused by disordered eating attitudes on bone health in obese adolescents. A cross-sectional study comprising 80 obese adolescents was performed from November 2013 to September 2014. Twenty-four-hour urinary free cortisol levels were measured as a biological marker of stress. Bone turnover was evaluated using bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide concentrations. Bone mineral density was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Children's Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used to assess eating disorders, depression, and anxiety. Psychiatric examinations were performed for binge eating disorders. In the Pearson's correlation test, a positive correlation was found between the 24-hour urinary cortisol level and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire total and restrained eating subscale scores (pturnover and bone mineral density in our obese adolescents at the time of the study, our results suggest that disordered eating attitudes, and especially restrained eating attitudes, might be a source of stress. Therefore, studies in this area should continue.

  18. The effects of glucocorticoid replacement therapy on growth, bone mineral density, and bone turnover markers in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgis, R; Winter, J S

    1997-12-01

    Even with current so called physiologic doses of glucocorticoid replacement therapy, children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) often show relative short stature and delayed bone maturation, an observation that suggests possible long-term effects on bone metabolism of daily transient post-absorptive hypercortisolemia. In 28 patients with 21-hydroxylase or 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency (16 females and 12 males, ages 4.9-22 yr) who had received oral cortisol 10-15 mg/M2/day for 4.7-22 yr, we studied cortisol bioavailability, growth, bone maturation, vertebral bone mineral density, and various markers of bone formation and resorption. Patients were grouped according to mean on-therapy serum 170H-progesterone or progesterone levels as tight control (170HP 40 nmol/L). There was no difference in peak post-absorptive serum cortisol or area under the concentration-time curve, and only three patients had a peak serum cortisol of more than 700 nmol/L. There was no difference in present height Z-score (-0.96; -0.24; -0.6), height Z-score at age 2 yr (-1.5; +0.4; -1.3), or current growth velocity Z-score (-0.1; +1.2; -2.2) between the groups, but bone maturation Z-score was significantly delayed (-1.63) in the tight control group and advanced (+0.8) in the poor control group. Present height was highly correlated (r = 0.8) with height at age 2 yr. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, parathormone, and 25OH-vitamin D levels were all normal. There was no difference between the groups in age-corrected vertebral bone mineral density, and no difference in serum osteocalcin, procollagen peptide, or collagen C-terminal telopeptide, nor in urinary amino-terminal telopeptide. The data suggest that current methods of cortisol replacement do not significantly influence bone formation, resorption or density during childhood and therefore should not contribute to adult osteoporosis. The possibility remains that hypercortisolemia during infancy produces the short

  19. Bones and Crohn's: Estradiol deficiency in men with Crohn's disease is not associated with reduced bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boehm BO

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis are frequent in Crohn's disease (CD, but the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Deficiency of sex steroids, especially estradiol (E2, is an established risk factor in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Aim To assess if hormonal deficiencies in male CD patients are frequent we investigated both, sex steroids, bone density and bone metabolism markers. Methods 111 male CD patients underwent osteodensitometry (DXA of the spine (L1–L4. Disease related data were recorded. Disease activity was estimated using Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI. Testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, estradiol (E2, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, Osteocalcin and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptids (ICTP were measured in 111 patients and 99 age-matched controls. Results Patients had lower T, E2 and SHBG serum levels (p 10 g had lower BMD. 32 (28.8% patients showed osteoporosis, 55 (49.5% osteopenia and 24 (21.6% had normal BMD. Patients with normal or decreased BMD showed no significant difference in their hormonal status. No correlation between markers of bone turnover and sex steroids could be found. ICTP was increased in CD patients (p Conclusion We found an altered hormonal status – i.e. E2 and, to a lesser extent T deficiency – in male CD patients but failed to show an association to bone density or markers of bone turnover. The role of E2 in the negative skeletal balance in males with CD, analogous to E2 deficiency in postmenopausal females, deserves further attention.

  20. Influence of obesity on bone mineral density in postmenopausal asthma patients undergoing treatment with inhaled corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Yanik

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The etiology of osteoporosis in asthma is complex as various factors contribute to its pathogenesis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of obesity and inhaled steroids, as well as the severity and duration of asthma, on osteoporosis in postmenopausal asthma patients as compared to healthy controls. METHODS: A total of 46 patients with asthma and 60 healthy female controls, all postmenopausal, were enrolled in our study. Bone mineral density was assessed at the lumbar spine and hip using a Lunar DPX-L densitometer. RESULTS: Bone mineral density (BMD scores were comparable between the asthmatic and control groups, with average scores of 0.95 ± 0.29 and 0.88 ± 0.14 g/cm², respectively. Likewise, osteoporosis was diagnosed in a similar percentage of patients in the asthmatic (39.1% and control (43.3% groups. Bone fracture was identified in four patients with asthma (8.6% and in six patients from the control group (10%. We could not detect any relationship between BMD and duration of asthma, asthma severity, inhaled steroids or body mass index (BMI. There was no difference between the two groups with respect to age or years since menopause. Although asthma patients were more likely to be overweight and presented higher BMD scores on average than the control subjects, these differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: There is a slight positive protective effect of high BMI against osteoporosis in asthma patients, but this effect is overcome by time and menopause status. Therefore, the protective effect of obesity against osteoporosis in asthma patients seems to not be significant.

  1. The use of bone age for bone mineral density interpretation in a cohort of pediatric brain tumor patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, E.B. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Division of Cancer Survivorship, Memphis, TN (United States); Shelso, John [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Memphis, TN (United States); Smeltzer, Matthew P.; Li, Chin-Shang [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Memphis, TN (United States); Thomas, Nicole A.; Karimova, E.J.; Merchant, Thomas [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); Gajjar, Amar [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); Kaste, Sue C. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Skeletal bone accretion occurs throughout childhood. The integrity of this process can influence future adult bone health and the risk of osteoporosis. Although surveillance of children who are at risk of poor bone accretion is important, the most appropriate method to monitor childhood bone health has not been established. Previous investigators have proposed using bone age (BA) rather than chronological age (CA) when interpreting bone mineral density (BMD) values in children. To investigate the value of BA assessment for BMD measurement in a cohort of children at risk of poor accretion. A cohort of 163 children with brain tumors who completed both a BMD assessment (quantitative computed tomography, QCT) and who had a BA within a 6-month interval were identified. The difference in BMD Z-scores determined by CA and BA was determined. The impact of salient clinical features was assessed. No significant difference between CA and BA Z-scores was detected in the overall cohort (P = 0.056). However, the scores in 18 children (all boys between the ages of 11 years and 15 years) were statistically determined to be outliers from the values in the rest of the cohort. Interpretation of BMD with BA measurement might be appropriate and affect treatment decisions in peripubertal males. (orig.)

  2. Effect of regular anti-osteoporosis treatment on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with primary osteoporosis and its relationship with bone fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Feng Qian; Ping Cao; Shuan Liu; Hong-Ping Yang; Ming-Yong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of regular anti-osteoporosis treatment on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with primary osteoporosis and its relationship with bone fractures.Methods:A total of 120 patients with primary osteoporosis were included in this study and randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=60). Control group received consistent treatment, observation group received individualized regular anti-osteoporosis treatment, and then the differences in bone mineral density, bone metabolism, trace elements, oxidative stress, fracture incidence, and so on were compared between two groups of patients 1 year after treatment.Results:Absolute BMD value of observation group after treatment was higher than that of control group; serum bone formation indexes ALP, BGP, PⅠNP and PⅠCP content were higher than those of control group; serum bone resorption indexesβ-CTX, sRANKL, TRACP, BAP and DPD content were lower than those of control group; serum trace elements iron and zinc content were higher than those of control group while calcium content was lower than that of control group; serum AOPP and MAOA content of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group while SOD and T-AOC content were significantly higher than those of control group;fracture incidence was significantly lower than that of control group during treatment.Conclusions:The regular anti-osteoporosis treatment can increase bone mineral density, optimize the overall condition and reduce the incidence of long-term fracture in patients with primary osteoporosis.

  3. GENETIC MARKERS OF LOW BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Jakovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: failure to maintain bone mass density is a major problem in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. CF is due to mutations in the CFTR gene and other genes may contribute to modifying the disease. Genetic and environmental factors may play a role in determining the variability of bone mass. Aim of the study: to analyse the association between polymorphic variants of genes considered to be risk factors of bone metabolism disturbances and decreased bone mineral density (BMD in children and adults with CF in R. Macedonia. Materials and methods: the study included 80 clinically stable CF patients (age range 5-36y, who regularly attended the CF center at the Pediatric Clinic in Skopje, Macedonia. Three candidate genes likely associated with BMD variability were studied: the vitamin D receptor (VDR gene, the estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1 and the type I alpha I collagen (COLIA1 gene. A complete bone and CF evaluation was obtained for all patients: 55 had normal BMD (group 1, 17 were osteopenic (group 2 and 8 were osteoporotic (group 3. Results: Low bone mineral density (Z score < -1SD was found in 31.25% patients and in 10% of them BMD was below -2SD. Patients with low BMD had worse BMI, FEV1 and more severe symptoms of CF. No significant correlation was found between COLIA1 and VDR polymorphisms and BMD. Conclusion: There was no evidence that the genes under study may modulate bone phenotype in CF.

  4. Digestive efficiency mediated by serum calcium predicts bone mineral density in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarcho, Michael R; Power, Michael L; Layne-Colon, Donna G; Tardif, Suzette D

    2013-02-01

    Two health problems have plagued captive common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) colonies for nearly as long as those colonies have existed: marmoset wasting syndrome and metabolic bone disease. While marmoset wasting syndrome is explicitly linked to nutrient malabsorption, we propose metabolic bone disease is also linked to nutrient malabsorption, although indirectly. If animals experience negative nutrient balance chronically, critical nutrients may be taken from mineral stores such as the skeleton, thus leaving those stores depleted. We indirectly tested this prediction through an initial investigation of digestive efficiency, as measured by apparent energy digestibility, and serum parameters known to play a part in metabolic bone mineral density of captive common marmoset monkeys. In our initial study on 12 clinically healthy animals, we found a wide range of digestive efficiencies, and subjects with lower digestive efficiency had lower serum vitamin D despite having higher food intakes. A second experiment on 23 subjects including several with suspected bone disease was undertaken to measure digestive and serum parameters, with the addition of a measure of bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Bone mineral density was positively associated with apparent digestibility of energy, vitamin D, and serum calcium. Further, digestive efficiency was found to predict bone mineral density when mediated by serum calcium. These data indicate that a poor ability to digest and absorb nutrients leads to calcium and vitamin D insufficiency. Vitamin D absorption may be particularly critical for indoor-housed animals, as opposed to animals in a more natural setting, because vitamin D that would otherwise be synthesized via exposure to sunlight must be absorbed from their diet. If malabsorption persists, metabolic bone disease is a possible consequence in common marmosets. These findings support our hypothesis that both wasting syndrome and metabolic bone

  5. Dietary intake of vitamin K in relation to bone mineral density in Korea adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Sung; Kim, Eun-Soo; Sohn, Cheong-Min

    2015-11-01

    Low vitamin K nutritional status has been associated with increased risk of fracture, however inconsistent results exist to support the role of vitamin K on bone mineral density depending on ethnic difference and gender. Our objective was to determine vitamin K intake in Korean adults, examine correlation between vitamin K intake and bone mineral density. This study analyzed raw data from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for adults (2,785 men, 4,307 women) aged over 19 years. Cross-sectional analyses showed only positive association between vitamin K intake and femur bone mineral density in men after adjusting bone-related factors. However, women in high tertiles of vitamin K intake had a significantly higher bone mineral density both in femur and lumber as compared to women in lowest tertiles (pvitamin K intake increased in women, but this effect was not persisted after adjusting factors. The findings of this study indicate that low dietary vitamin K intake was associated with low bone mineral density in subjects. From these results we may suggest an increase in dietary vitamin K intakes for maintaining bone mineral density. (2010-02CON-21-C, 2011-02CON-06-C).

  6. Density Estimation Trees in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderlini, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Density Estimation Trees can play an important role in exploratory data analysis for multidimensional, multi-modal data models of large samples. I briefly discuss the algorithm, a self-optimization technique based on kernel density estimation, and some applications in High Energy Physics.

  7. Pinealectomy affects bone mineral density and structure - an experimental study in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egermann Marcus

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis and associated fractures are a major public health burden and there is great need for a large animal model. Melatonin, the hormone of the pineal gland, has been shown to influence bone metabolism. This study aims to evaluate whether absence of melatonin due to pinealectomy affects the bone mass, structure and remodeling in an ovine animal model. Methods Female sheep were arranged into four groups: Control, surgically ovariectomized (Ovx, surgically pinealectomized (Px and Ovx+Px. Before and 6 months after surgery, iliac crest biopsies were harvested and structural parameters were measured using μCT. Markers of bone formation and resorption were determined. To evaluate long term changes after pinealectomy, bone mineral density (BMD was analyzed at the distal radius at 0, 3, 9, 18 and 30 months. Results Cancellous bone volume (BV/TV declined after 6 months by -13.3% Px and -21.5% OvxPx. The bone loss was due to increased trabecular separation as well as decreased thickness. The histomorphometric quantification and determination of collagen degradation products showed increased bone resorption following pinealectomy. Ovariectomy alone results in a transient bone loss at the distal radius followed by continuous increase to baseline levels. The bone resorption activity after pinealectomy causes a bone loss which was not transient, since a continuous decrease in BMD was observed until 30 months. Conclusions The changes after pinealectomy in sheep are indicative of bone loss. Overall, these findings suggest that the pineal gland may influence bone metabolism and that pinealectomy can be used to induce bone loss in sheep.

  8. Direct visualization of regions with lowered bone mineral density in dual-energy CT images of vertebrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesarg, Stefan; Erdt, Marius; Kafchitsas, Konstantinos; Khan, M. Fawad

    2011-03-01

    Dual-energy CT allows for a better material differentiation than conventional CT. For the purpose of osteoporosis diagnosis, a detection of regions with lowered bone mineral density (BMD) is of high clinical interest. Based on an existing biophysical model of the trabecular bone in vertebrae a new method for directly highlighting those low density regions in the image data has been developed. For this, we combine image data acquired at 80 kV and 140 kV with information about the BMD range in different vertebrae and derive a method for computing a color enhanced image which clearly indicates low density regions. An evaluation of our method which compares it with a quantitative method for BMD assessment shows a very good correspondence between both methods. The strength of our method lies in its simplicity and speed.

  9. VARIANTS OF SPINE OSTEOSYNTESIS AT LOW MINERAL DENSITY OF BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Usikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the results of transpedicular screw fixation in the treatment of patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures was done. In the first group (N=27 the polysegmental transpedicular screw fixation was applied. In the second group (N=20 we used short-level stabilization with additional augmentation of transpedicular screws by bone cement. The spinal stability, restoration of function, correction of spine's deformation and pain relief was same in both groups. But in the second group the results was achieved with less traumatization and time of rehabilitation of the patients.

  10. Relationship between Bone Mineral Density and Physical Activity Level in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Monemi Amiri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study purposed to investigate the relationship between physical activity level and bone mineral density (BMD in the elderly of Amirkola in northern Iran. This cross-sectional study was part of a proposal to assess the situation of the elderly in Amirkola (AHAP (Amirkola Health and Ageing Project conducted on 1113 elderly individuals (616 males and 497 females in Amirkola city. Physical activity was measured using a standard questionnaire of physical activity in the elderly (Physical Activity Scale for Elderly. Mineral bone mass was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in the femur neck and lumbar spines, and vitamin D levels were measured in morning blood samples. T-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and linear regression tests were used to analyze data. The mean physical activity of women (118.6±55.5 was higher than that of men (110.3±71.1 (p=0.035. This study found a significant positive relationship between total physical activity and femur bone mineral density (p=0.001 and r=0.101, but this association was not significant in lumbar spines (p=0.597 and r=0.016, though bone mineral density increased in both areas with increased physical activity (p=0.098. A significant inverse relationship between age and physical activity (p=0.001 and between age and bone mineral density (p=0.001 was observed. Analyzing the influencing variables using the linear regression model indicated physical activity, age, and BMI had significant relationships with bone mineral density in the femur, but neither vitamin D nor calcium played a role. Given the positive correlation between bone mineral density and physical activity, it can be concluded that low intensity weight-bearing activities carried out in compliance with safety rules may be suitable for the elderly.

  11. [The relationship between the parameters of mineral density of bone tissue and somatotype in women residing in the Republic of Karelia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkova, I G; Gaivoronskiy, I V; Aleksina, L A; Kornev, M A

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive anthropometric and densitometric study using the dual x-ray absorptiometry was conducted to determine the relationship between the mineral density of bone tissue and somatotype in 360 women aged 20 to 87 years, permanently residing in the Republic of Karelia. Significant direct correlation was detected between the somatotype and the amount of mineral substances in the vertebrae, bone mineral density and the area of the lumbar vertebrae. Bone mineral density level of the lumbar vertebrae was higher in women with europlastic and athletic somatotypes, which were characterized by high values of body mass and length, body muscle and fat mass. Low values of bone mineral density of vertebrae were identified in women belonging to subathletic, mesoplastic and stenoplastic somatotypes. The risk of developing osteopenia and osteoporosis is increased in women with low body muscle mass.

  12. The Effect of Obesity onBone Mineral Density in Primary Fibromyalgia Cases - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır Yesevi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal disease, characterized by tender points in various areas at body and widespread pain musculoskeletal system and unknown etiology, in which metabolic, immunologic and neuroendocrin abnormalities are seen. In this study, 45 female patients were enrolled according to 1990 ACR fibromyalgia criteria. They were divided to 3 groups, with 15 patients; normal, preobese and obese, depending to the body mass index. They were tested for bone mineral density of the lomber spine and femur, using dual energy x-ray absorptionmeter. The depression presence was investigated by Hamilton Depression Scale. The bone mineral density of L1-4 region of fibromyalgic normal body weight patients were normal range and there was no significant statistical difference between others groups. In contrast, femur bone mineral density vaules were found to be statistically significantly osteopenic, as compared with obese groups. There was a negative statistical correlation between depression and lomber area bone mineral density. Whereas in femur it was seen that bone mineral density was protected in preobese and obese fibromyalgia patients. The number of studies on this subject is not sufficient. Also the number of patients determined on current studies are low. Further studies, with langer patient numbers and more detailed protocols are needed. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2005; 4: 148-150

  13. The recent prevalence of Osteoporosis and low bone mass in the United States based on bone mineral density at the Femoral Neck or Lumbar Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral ...

  14. Subtle changes in bone mineralization density distribution in most severely affected patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misof, B M; Roschger, P; Jorgetti, V; Klaushofer, K; Borba, V Z C; Boguszewski, C L; Cohen, A; Shane, E; Zhou, H; Dempster, D W; Moreira, C A

    2015-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with low aBMD as measured by DXA and altered microstructure as assessed by bone histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography. Knowledge of bone matrix mineralization is lacking in COPD. Using quantitative backscatter electron imaging (qBEI), we assessed cancellous (Cn.) and cortical (Ct.) bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in 19 postmenopausal women (62.1 ± 7.3 years of age) with COPD. Eight had sustained fragility fractures, and 13 had received treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids. The BMDD outcomes from the patients were compared with healthy reference data and were correlated with previous clinical and histomorphometric findings. In general, the BMDD outcomes for the patients were not significantly different from the reference data. Neither the subgroups of with or without fragility fractures or of who did or did not receive inhaled glucocorticoid treatment, showed differences in BMDD. However, subgroup comparison according to severity revealed 10% decreased cancellous mineralization heterogeneity (Cn.CaWidth) for the most severely affected compared with less affected patients (p=0.042) and compared with healthy premenopausal controls (p=0.021). BMDD parameters were highly correlated with histomorphometric cancellous bone volume (BV/TV) and formation indices: mean degree of mineralization (Cn.CaMean) versus BV/TV (r=0.58, p=0.009), and Cn.CaMean and Ct.CaMean versus bone formation rate (BFR/BS) (r=-0.71, p50th percentile) BV/TV. The normality in most of the BMDD parameters and bone formation rates as well as the significant correlations between them suggests unaffected mineralization processes in COPD. Our findings also indicate no significant negative effect of treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids on the bone mineralization pattern. However, the observed concomitant occurrence of relatively lower bone volumes with lower bone matrix mineralization will both contribute to the reduced a

  15. Bone geometry, volumetric density, microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength assessed by HR-pQCT in Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Hansen, Stinus; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye;

    2014-01-01

    and height with 31 healthy subjects aged 35.9 ± 8.2 years. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and HR-pQCT were performed in all participants, and blood samples were analyzed for hormonal status and bone biomarkers in KS patients. Twenty-one KS patients were on long-term testosterone-replacement therapy.......03) at the tibia in KS patients. In addition, cortical thickness was significantly reduced, both at the radius and tibia (both p testosterone therapy. This study......Although the expected skeletal manifestations of testosterone deficiency in Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) are osteopenia and osteoporosis, the structural basis for this is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), microarchitecture...

  16. Institute for High Energy Density Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Alan [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-01-13

    The project objective was for the Institute of High Energy Density Science (IHEDS) at the University of Texas at Austin to help grow the High Energy Density (HED) science community, by connecting academia with the Z Facility (Z) and associated staff at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). IHEDS was originally motivated by common interests and complementary capabilities at SNL and the University of Texas System (UTX), in 2008.

  17. Vertebral bone marrow fat, bone mineral density and diabetes: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Yahtyng; Amati, Francesca; Schwartz, Ann V; Danielson, Michelle E; Li, Xiaojuan; Boudreau, Robert; Cauley, Jane A

    2017-04-01

    Elevated vertebral bone marrow fat (BMF) among individuals with osteoporosis has been established in histomorphometric studies. Several studies have found a negative correlation between BMF and bone mineral density (BMD) at the spine in men and women across different age groups. Animal studies have also observed bone loss with increased BMF in mice with induced diabetes. Our study objective was to test the hypothesis that the association between BMF and BMD varies by diabetic status. We performed a cross-sectional study of 156 men aged 74-96years from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study at the Pittsburgh clinical site. All men had spine BMF scans using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spine and hip BMD scans by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. BMF was expressed as lipid to "lipid+water" ratio (%). Men were considered diabetic if they self-reported a physician diagnosis of diabetes, diabetes medication or had a fasting glucose ≥126mg/dl. Men with diabetes (n=38) had a significantly higher spine BMF (58.9 vs. 54.6%, p=0.0035), spine BMD (1.20 vs. 1.10g/cm(2), P=0.007) and total hip BMD (1.00 vs. 0.94g/cm(2), p=0.04) than those without, while no differences were observed for body weight, body mass index or waist circumference. Pearson correlation tests showed no significant correlation of spine BMF with age or BMD in non-diabetics. Significant inverse correlations were observed between BMF and BMD (-0.30 for femoral neck and -0.39 for total hip) among diabetic men. In conclusion, men with diabetes had a higher BMF compared to non-diabetic men. The correlation between BMF and BMD differed by diabetes status. Further investigation of the association of diabetes with BMF and BMD may provide a better understanding of the high fracture rates among individuals with diabetes despite their higher BMD.

  18. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  19. Relationship of changing social atmosphere, lifestyle and bone mineral density in college students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ja; Ko, Yo Han; Kim, Chung Kyung; Kim, Hee Sol; Park, Da Jeong; Yoon, Hyeo Min; Jeong, Yu Jin [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health college, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The decrease of bone mineral density gives rise to the outbreak of osteopenia and makes the possibility of a bone fracture. It makes health problems in society. It's very important to prevent osteopenia in advance. Also it's critical to prevent and take care of it in adolescent because it's the most developing period comparing to middle ages because that bone mineral density decreases. There are genetic, physical and environmental factors that affect bone mineral density. Recently, a lifestyle and eating habits are also changing as the society atmosphere is gradually doing. This study have shown that 134 women and 75 men was chosen and responded to the survey of measuring bone mineral density and investigating a lifestyle. The measure of bone mineral density is to use Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) and check femoral neck and lumbar spine. Also questionaries was required to pre-made survey about their lifestyles. Analysis of data was done with SPSS program. Multiple regression analysis was used for the relation of bone mineral density, the heigths and BMI. The sample of Groups are checked for drinking, smoking or excercising about differences by t-test. The results of the experiments were; first, there is statistically significant differences in the comparisons between BMD and BMD. But there isn't any special correlation between drinking, smoking and BMD. Secondly, bone mineral density becomes low related to an intake of caffeine. Particularly, this is statically significant on women. Also there is statically significant correlation between femoral neck and quantity of motion for both men and women. Third, there is significant relation between eating habits and bone mineral density on women's lumbar spine. However, there is no significant relation between men's lumbar spine and women's one. Therefore, to prevent osteopenia, it's good to abstain from intaking caffeine within an hour after a meal. In addition, it

  20. High-dose therapy improved the bone remodelling compartment canopy and bone formation in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinge, Maja; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Plesner, Torben;

    2015-01-01

    . Loss of this canopy has been associated with bone loss. This study addresses whether the bone remodelling in MM is improved by high-dose therapy. Bone marrow biopsies obtained from 20 MM patients, before and after first-line treatment with high-dose melphalan followed by autologous stem cell...... transplantation, and from 20 control patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance were histomorphometrically investigated. This investigation confirmed that MM patients exhibited uncoupled bone formation to resorption and reduced canopy coverage. More importantly, this study revealed......Bone loss in multiple myeloma (MM) is caused by an uncoupling of bone formation to resorption trigged by malignant plasma cells. Increasing evidence indicates that the bone remodelling compartment (BRC) canopy, which normally covers the remodelling sites, is important for coupled bone remodelling...

  1. Dietary vitamin C and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women in Washington State, USA.

    OpenAIRE

    Leveille, S.G.; LaCroix, A. Z.; Koepsell, T. D.; Beresford, S. A.; BELLE, G.; Buchner, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between dietary vitamin C and hip bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. DESIGN: This was a cross sectional study using retrospective diet and vitamin supplement data. SETTING: The Seattle area of Washington State. PARTICIPANTS: Screenees for a clinical trial of a drug to prevent osteoporotic fractures; 1892 women aged 55-80 years who had hip bone densitometry and osteoporosis risk factor information. MAIN RESULTS: Mean energy adjusted...

  2. Irisin levels are lower in young amenorrheic athletes compared with eumenorrheic athletes and non-athletes and are associated with bone density and strength estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Singhal

    Full Text Available Irisin and FGF21 are novel hormones implicated in the "browning" of white fat, thermogenesis, and energy homeostasis. However, there are no data regarding these hormones in amenorrheic athletes (AA (a chronic energy deficit state compared with eumenorrheic athletes (EA and non-athletes. We hypothesized that irisin and FGF21 would be low in AA, an adaptive response to low energy stores. Furthermore, because (i brown fat has positive effects on bone, and (ii irisin and FGF21 may directly impact bone, we hypothesized that bone density, structure and strength would be positively associated with these hormones in athletes and non-athletes. To test our hypotheses, we studied 85 females, 14-21 years [38 AA, 24 EA and 23 non-athletes (NA]. Fasting serum irisin and FGF21 were measured. Body composition and bone density were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, bone microarchitecture using high resolution peripheral quantitative CT, strength estimates using finite element analysis, resting energy expenditure (REE using indirect calorimetry and time spent exercising/week by history. Subjects did not differ for pubertal stage. Fat mass was lowest in AA. AA had lower irisin and FGF21 than EA and NA, even after controlling for fat and lean mass. Across subjects, irisin was positively associated with REE and bone density Z-scores, volumetric bone mineral density (total and trabecular, stiffness and failure load. FGF21 was negatively associated with hours/week of exercise and cortical porosity, and positively with fat mass and cortical volumetric bone density. Associations of irisin (but not FGF21 with bone parameters persisted after controlling for potential confounders. In conclusion, irisin and FGF21 are low in AA, and irisin (but not FGF21 is independently associated with bone density and strength in athletes.

  3. Low bone mineral density in Greek patients with inflammatory bowel disease: prevalence and risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroubakis, Ioannis E.; Zavos, Christos; Damilakis, John; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Neratzoulakis, John; Karkavitsas, Nikolaos; Kouroumalis, Elias A.

    2011-01-01

    Background A high prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis is observed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Various risk factors of bone loss have been suggested in IBD. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and to identify related risk factors in Greek patients with IBD. Methods One hundred and eighteen consecutive IBD patients were included. All patients underwent bone densitometry by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at the femoral neck and lumbar spine levels. Serum levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25 OH D), 1.25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1.25 OH 2D), osteocalcin, calcitonin and homocysteine were measured in all participants. Results Forty (33.9%) patients were normal, 55 (46.6%) were osteopenic, and 23 (19.5%) were osteoporotic. No significant differences between IBD patients with osteopenia or osteoporosis and those with normal BMD concerning the use of steroids and the examined biochemical markers were found. Statistically significant differences among the three groups were found for body mass index (BMI), age and disease duration (P=0.002, P<0.0001 and P=0.03 respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that the most significant factors associated with BMD were age and BMI (P<0.0001). A weak but statistically significant correlation was also found for disease duration (P=0.04). Conclusions There is a high prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in Greek patients with IBD. Low BMI, age and disease duration are the most important independent risk factors for osteoporosis in Greek IBD patients. PMID:24714255

  4. Children with spina bifida are at risk for low bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Elizabeth A; Cheema, Asad

    2011-05-01

    Patients with spina bifida frequently sustain lower extremity fractures which may be difficult to diagnose because they feel little or no pain, although the relative contributions of low bone density to pain insensitivity are unclear. Routine dual-energy xray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning is unreliable because these patients lack bony elements in the spine, and many have joint contractures and/or implanted hardware. We asked (1) if the lateral distal femoral scan is useful in spina bifida; (2) whether nonambulatory children with spina bifida exhibit differences in bone mineral density (BMD) compared with an age-and-sex-matched population; and (3) whether Z-scores were related to extremity fracture incidence. We retrospectively reviewed 37 patients with spina bifida who had DXA scans and sufficient data. Z-scores were correlated with functional level, ambulatory status, body mass index, and fracture history. The distal femoral scan could be performed in subjects for whom total body and/or lumbar scans could not be performed accurately. Twenty-four of 37 had Z-scores below -2 SD, defined as "low bone density for age." Ten of 35 patients (29%) with fracture information had experienced one or more fractures. Our sample size was too small to correlate Z-score with fracture. We believe BMD should be monitored in patients with spina bifida; nonambulatory patients with spina bifida and those with other risk factors are more likely to have low bone density for age than unaffected individuals. The LDF scan was useful in this population in whom lumbar and total body scans are often invalidated by contracture or artifact. Although lower extremity fractures occur regardless of ambulation or bone density, knowing an individual's bone health status may lead to interventions to improve bone health.

  5. Fat mass increase in 7-year-old children: more bone area but lower bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Magnusson, Kristjan Th; Sigurdsson, Emil L; Johannsson, Erlingur

    2013-07-01

    The main aims of this study were, to evaluate what effect a change in fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) has on bone parameters over 2 years' time, in 7-year-old school children and to see what effect fitness had on bone parameters in these children. A repeated-measures design study was conducted where children born in 1999 from six elementary schools in Reykjavik, Iceland were measured twice. All children attending second grade in these six schools were invited to participate. Three hundred twenty-one children were invited, 211 underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans at the age of seven, and 164 (78 %) of the 211 had DXA scans again 2 years later. Increase in both FM and LBM was associated with increased total body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area (BA). An increase in FM was more strongly positively associated with BA while an increase in LBM was more strongly associated with an increase in BMC. An increase in FM was negatively associated with change in bone mineral density (BMD), but an increase in LBM was positively associated with change in BMD. Fitness was positively associated with bone parameters when weight, height and sex were accounted for. The present results suggest that an increase in fat mass over 2 years is associated with an increase in BA and BMC, but a decrease in BMD in the whole body. An increase in LBM accrual, on the other hand, is positively associated with all bone parameters in the body. Fitness is associated with both BMC and BMD but not BA.

  6. Molecular aspects of osteopathy in type 1 Gaucher disease: correlation between genetics and bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnheim, Efrat; Chicco, Gaya; Phillips, Mici; Lebel, Ehud; Foldes, A Joseph; Itzchaki, Menachem; Elstein, Deborah; Zimran, Ari; Altarescu, Gheona

    2008-07-01

    Bone-related complications in Gaucher disease are considered to be poorly responsive to specific enzyme replacement therapy. Polymorphisms of candidate genes associated with low bone density were investigated to see whether they are correlated with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone involvement in Gaucher disease. Genotyping for polymorphisms in candidate genes (interleukins 1alpha and 1beta, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist; cytochrome P450; collagen 1A1; low-density Lipoprotein Receptor; bone morphogenic protein 4; vitamin D receptor; and estrogen receptor 2beta) were performed using standard methodologies. BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). One hundred and ninety-four patients and 100 controls were genotyped for the above polymorphisms. Thirteen haplotypes were obtained, with several correlations with BMD in patients; also, a haplotype (T889-T3954-C511-240VNTR of IL1) was significantly correlated with T-scores and Z-score for femur neck and lumbar spine (p = 0.01) in patients. Haplotypes of bone-specific candidate genes associated with BMD may predict severity of these features in Gaucher disease.

  7. STUDY OF BONE MINERAL DENSITY AND SERUM VITAMIN D LEVELS IN HEALTHY POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selvapandian Kirubaharan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Vitamin D metabolites participate in the regulation of calcium homoeostasis and bone metabolism. Severe and prolonged vitamin D deficiency causes osteomalacia. Subclinical vitamin D deficiency is common in the elderly and may lead to development of secondary hyperparathyroidism and bone loss, for which reason it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of senile osteoporosis. AIM To determine the relationships between serum 25 (OH D, bone mineral density, and serum calcium and phosphorus in 50 postmenopausal women. MATERIALS AND METHODS A population-based cross-sectional study with a total of 50 healthy women aged over 50 years with amenorrhoea for 12 months were included. None of the women were using hormone replacement therapy. Measurements of bone mineral density were performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Analysis of serum levels of 25(OH D, calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase were done. RESULTS There exists an inverse correlation between BMD and 25(OH D levels (r = - 0.127, p>0.05 and that between 25 (OH D and phosphate levels among postmenopausal women (r = -0.167, p >0.05, which is not significant. No significant difference exists in the serum levels of calcium, alkaline phosphatase between vitamin D insufficient & deficient persons (p >0.05. CONCLUSION Elevated levels of serum 25(OH D were associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased bone turnover, but it was insignificant.

  8. Bone mineral density in adolescent girls with early onset of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanti, Antonella; Bizzarri, Carla; Gambarara, Manuela; Calce, Angelica; Montecchi, Francesco; Cappa, Marco; Bianco, Giuseppe; Castro, Massimo

    2007-06-01

    To assess prevalence of bone mineral density (BMD) reduction and relationship between bone mineral status and anthropometric assessment, nutritional intake and physical activity in adolescents with early anorexia nervosa (AN). Fifty-seven consecutive AN patients and 57 healthy controls underwent anthropometric status, bone density, body composition and physical activity evaluations. In AN patients clinical features and nutritional intake were also assessed. Thirty-five patients with AN (62%) and 44 healthy subjects (77%) (pNS) showed normal BMD. Mean value of BMD Z-score was -0.6+/-0.9 in AN patients and -0.2+/-1.4 in controls (pNS). Weight at diagnosis and lean mass resulted the main predictor of bone loss but also height, best weight before diagnosis and BMI resulted correlated with bone mineral status in AN patients. Additionally, AN patients maintained good levels of protein intake and sport activity Early diagnosis may prevent bone loss in AN patients. Protein intake and moderate physical activity seem to be useful to maintain an adequate bone mineral status.

  9. Smokers with emphysema and small airway disease on computed tomography have lower bone density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompe E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Esther Pompe,1 Pim A de Jong,2 Eva M van Rikxoort,3 Leticia Gallardo Estrella,3 Werner U de Jong,2 Rozemarijn Vliegenthart,4,5 Matthijs Oudkerk,5 Carlijn M van der Aalst,6 Bram van Ginneken,3 Jan-Willem J Lammers,1 Firdaus AA Mohamed Hoesein2 1Department of Pulmonology, 2Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, 3Department of Radiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, 4Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 5Department of Radiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, 6Department of Public Health, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: Osteoporosis is more common in patients with COPD and in smokers. The aim of this study was to assess whether measures of emphysema and airway disease on computed tomography (CT were associated with lower bone density or vertebral fractures in smokers with and without COPD. For this purpose, we included participants from the NELSON lung cancer screening trial. Bone density was measured as Hounsfield Units in the first lumbar vertebra, and vertebral fractures were assessed semiquantitatively. The 15th percentile method (Perc15 was used to assess emphysema, and the airway lumen perimeter (Pi10 was used for airway wall thickness. Expiratory/inspiratory-ratiomean lung density (E/I-ratioMLD was used as a measure for air trapping and tracheal index to assess tracheal deformity. Linear regression models and logistic regression models were used to assess associations between CT biomarkers, bone density, and presence of fractures. Exactly 1,093 male participants were eligible for analysis. Lower Perc15 and higher E/I-ratioMLD were significantly associated with lower bone density (b=-1.27, P=0.02 and b=-0.37, P=0.02, respectively. Pi10 and tracheal index were not associated with bone density changes. CT-derived biomarkers

  10. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-12-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at Pcontemporary and ballet dancers had lower body fat percentages than controls (Pdance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed.

  11. Strongly Interacting Matter at High Energy Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran,L.

    2008-09-07

    This lecture concerns the properties of strongly interacting matter (which is described by Quantum Chromodynamics) at very high energy density. I review the properties of matter at high temperature, discussing the deconfinement phase transition. At high baryon density and low temperature, large N{sub c} arguments are developed which suggest that high baryonic density matter is a third form of matter, Quarkyonic Matter, that is distinct from confined hadronic matter and deconfined matter. I finally discuss the Color Glass Condensate which controls the high energy limit of QCD, and forms the low x part of a hadron wavefunction. The Glasma is introduced as matter formed by the Color Glass Condensate which eventually thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma.

  12. Periodontitis and bone mineral density among pre and post menopausal women: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Snophia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between bone mineral density and periodontitis in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: Twenty women between the age group of 45-55 years were selected for this study. Ten premenopausal women with healthy periodontium constituted the control group and 10 postmenopausal women with ≥2mm of clinical attachment loss in> 30% of sites constituted the study group. All patients were assessed for plaque index, probing depth and clinical attachment loss. Radiographs (six IOPA and two posterior bitewing were taken and assessed for interproximal alveolar bone loss. The patients were scanned to assess the bone mineral density of lumbar spine (L2 and femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Results: The bone mineral densities of lumbar spine (L2 and femur were significantly lower in the study group than the control group. Osteopenia of the lumbar spine and femur was observed in 60% whereas osteoporosis of lumbar spine was observed in 30% of cases in study group. Conclusion: Increased proportion of osteopenia and osteoporosis cases of lumbar spine and femur in postmenopausal women with periodontitis suggests that there is association between bone mineral density and periodontitis.

  13. Effect of Wearing Style on Vitamin D and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Women

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    Yeşim Gökçe Kutsal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Vitamin D deficiency is one of the most important public health problems as a result of osteomalacia, osteoporosis, muscle pain disease, muscle weakness and increased risk of falls and fracture. Outfitting style effects the synthesis and blood levels of vitamin D. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of outfitting style on blood vitamin D and bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five female patients who were diagnosed with osteoporosis were included in our study. These women were divided into two groups according to their clothing habits as veiled and unveiled. Data of all patients about menopause, exposure to sun light, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry results, blood calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and osteoporosis treatment were recorded. Results: We found 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was significantly low in women with veiled dressing style (17,0±7,9 ng/ml in veiled and 33.9±22.0 ng/ml in unveiled patients, p<0.001. There was statistically significant correlations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and femur neck Z-scores, femur total bone mineral density, femur total T-score L1-L4 bone mineral density, femur neck bone mineral density for different seasons (p<0.05. Conclusion: Postmenopausal osteoporotic veiled women are more prone to vitamin D deficiency than unveiled women. Low concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D is accompanying further decrease in bone mineral density. Despite low concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in veiled postmenopausal osteoporotic women, there is not direct correlation between wearing style and bone mineral density. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2011;17:85-8

  14. Cyclosporine-a and bone density around titanium implants: a histometric study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Eduardo Sakakura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cyclosporine A (CsA is an immunosuppressive agent commonly used to prevent organ transplantation rejection. It has been demonstrated that CsA may negatively affect osseointegration around dental implants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CsA administration on bone density around titanium dental implants. Materials and Methods: Fourteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups with seven animals each. The test group (CsA received daily subcutaneous injection of CsA (10mg/kg body weight and the control group (CTL received saline solution by the same route of administration. Three days after the beginning of immunosuppressive therapy, one machined dental implant (7.00 mm in lenght and 3.75 mm in diameter was inserted bilaterally at the region of the tibial methaphysis. After 4 and 8 weeks the animals were sacrificed and the histometrical procedures were performed to analyse the bone density around the first four threads of the coronal part of the implant. Results: A significant increase in the bone density was observed from the 4- to the 8 week-period in the control group (37.41% + 14.85 versus 58.23% + 16.38 – p < 0.01. In contrast, bone density consistently decreased in the test group overtime (46.31% + 17.38 versus 16.28 + 5.08 – p <0.05. In the 8-week period, there was a significant difference in bone density between the control and the test groups (58.23 + 16.38 eand16.28 + 5.08 – p= 0.001. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, long-term CsA administration may reduce bone density around titanium dental implants during the osseointegration process.

  15. Spin polarization in high density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Panda, Prafulla K.; Providênci, Constanca

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the occurrence of a ferromagnetic phase transition in high density hadronic matter (e.g., in the interior of a neutron star). This could be induced by a four-fermion interaction analogous to the one which is responsible for chiral symmetry breaking in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model......, to which it is related through a Fierz transformation. Flavor SU(2) and flavor SU(3) quark matter are considered. A second-order phase transition is predicted at densities about 5 times the normal nuclear matter density. It is also found that in flavor SU(3) quark matter, a first-order transition from...

  16. Relation of Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue to Bone Mineral Density in Chinese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between adipose and bone tissues is still being debated. The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether the distribution and volume of abdomen adipose tissue are correlated to trabecular bone mineral density in the lumbar spine. In this cross-sectional study, 320 Chinese women, being divided into two groups according to age ≥55 years and <55 years, were evaluated with quantitative computed tomography (QCT of the spine to simultaneously evaluate the average trabecular BMD of L2–L4, VAT, and SAT. Possible covariates of height, weight, age, and comorbidities were considered. In the <55-year-old sample, multiple linear regression analyses indicated that VAT volume was negatively correlated to trabecular BMD (P value = 0.0003 and SAT volume had no correlation to trabecular BMD. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between VAT or SAT and BMD in the ≥55-year-old sample. Our results indicate that high VAT volume is associated with low BMD in Chinese women aged <55 years and SAT has no relation with BMD.

  17. Parallel Assessment of Bone Mineral Density and RANKL/OPG Ratio in Saudi Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AI Hassan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is a significant risk factor for morbidity, and its high prevalence among Saudi women should be considered to be a public health problem. Quantitative ultrasound was recommended for bone mineral density (BMD screening. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG and their ratio are critical for physiological bone remodelling, and related abnormalities may lead to several osteopathies. Methods: The BMD of 499 Saudi females aged 20 to 65 years was measured using quantitative ultrasound from the beginning of October 2013 to the end of March 2014 at the female medical unit of Taibah University, Madinah, KSA. Possible associated risk factors for low BMD were studied. Blood RANKL and OPG were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: No significant differences were found between participants with normal and low BMD regarding the studied risk factors. However, there was a significant association (p < 0.05 between BMD and regular physical activity among participants aged 20 years to less than 35 years, and women aged 35–50 years with higher body mass index (BMI had higher BMD. The RANKL/OPG ratio was inversely associated (p = 0.04 with BMD. Conclusions: Regular physical activity is crucial for maximizing BMD in young females and decreasing the possibility of developing osteoporosis with ageing. The RANKL/OPG ratio might be considered a useful and easy-to-use tool for the prediction of low BMD.

  18. Association between a variation in the phosphodiesterase 4D gene and bone mineral density

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    Sambrook Philip N

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragility fractures caused by osteoporosis are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in aging populations. Bone mineral density (BMD is a useful surrogate marker for risk of fracture and is a highly heritable trait. The genetic variants underlying this genetic contribution are largely unknown. Methods We performed a large-scale association study investigating more than 25,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located within 16,000 genes. Allele frequencies were estimated in contrasting DNA pools from white females selected for low (2, n = 319 and high (> 1.11 g/cm2, n = 321 BMD at the lumbar spine. Significant findings were verified in two additional sample collections. Results Based on allele frequency differences between DNA pools and subsequent individual genotyping, one of the candidate loci indicated was the phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D gene region on chromosome 5q12. We subsequently tested the marker SNP, rs1498608, in a second sample of 138 white females with low (2 and 138 females with high (>1.04 g/cm2 lumbar spine BMD. Odds ratios were 1.5 (P = 0.035 in the original sample and 2.1 (P = 0.018 in the replication sample. Association fine mapping with 80 SNPs located within 50 kilobases of the marker SNP identified a 20 kilobase region of association containing exon 6 of PDE4D. In a second, family-based replication sample with a preponderance of females with low BMD, rs1498608 showed an opposite relationship with BMD at different sites (p = 0.00044-0.09. We also replicated the previously reported association of the Ser37Ala polymorphism in BMP2, known to interact biologically with PDE4D, with BMD. Conclusion This study indicates that variants in the gene encoding PDE4D account for some of the genetic contribution to bone mineral density variation in humans. The contrasting results from different samples indicate that the effect may be context-dependent. PDE4 inhibitors have been shown to increase bone mass in

  19. The high density Z-pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCall, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    During the past few years techniques have been developed for producing pinches in solid deuterium. The conditions which exist in these plasmas are quiet different from those produced earlier. The pinch is formed from a fiber of solid deuterium rather than from a low density gas, and the current is driven by a low impedance, high voltage pulse generator. Because of the high initial density, it is not necessary to compress the pinch to reach thermonuclear conditions, and the confinement time required for energy production is much shorter than for a gas. The experimental results, which have been verified by experiments performed at higher current were quite surprising and encouraging. The pinch appeared to be stable for a time much longer than the Alfven radial transit time. In this paper, however, I argue that the pinch is not strictly stable, but it does not appear to disassemble in a catastrophic fashion. It appears that there may be a distinction between stability and confinement in the high density pinch. In the discussion below I will present the status of the high density Z-pinch experiments at laboratories around the world, and I will describe some of the calculational and experimental results. I will confine my remarks to recent work on the high density pinch. 17 refs. 10 figs.

  20. Maintenance of bone mineral density after implantation of a femoral neck hip prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurstegge Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress shielding of the proximal femur has been observed in a number of conventional cementless implants used in total hip arthroplasty. Short femoral-neck implants are claiming less interference with the biomechanics of the proximal femur. The goal of this study was to investigate the changes of bone-mineral density in the proximal femur and the clinical outcome after implantation of a short femoral-neck prosthesis. Methods We prospectively assessed the clinical outcome and the changes of bone mineral density of the proximal femur up to one year after implantation of a short femoral neck prosthesis in 20 patients with a mean age of 47 years (range 17 to 65. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Harris Hip Score. The WOMAC was used as a patient-relevant outcome-measure. The bone mineral density was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, performed 10 days, three months and 12 months after surgery. Results The Harris Hip Score improved from an average preoperative score of 46 to a postoperative score at 12 months of 89 points, the global WOMAC index from 5,3 preoperatively to 0,8 at 12 months postoperatively. In contrast to conventional implants, the DEXA-scans overall revealed a slight increase of bone mineral density in the proximal femur in the 12 months following the implantation. Conclusion The short femoral neck stem lead to a distinct bone reaction. This was significantly different when compared to the changes in bone mineral density reported after implantation of conventional implants.

  1. High Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography for Assessment of Bone Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakia, Galateia

    2014-03-01

    The study of bone quality is motivated by the high morbidity, mortality, and societal cost of skeletal fractures. Over 10 million people are diagnosed with osteoporosis in the US alone, suffering 1.5 million osteoporotic fractures and costing the health care system over 17 billion annually. Accurate assessment of fracture risk is necessary to ensure that pharmacological and other interventions are appropriately administered. Currently, areal bone mineral density (aBMD) based on 2D dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is used to determine osteoporotic status and predict fracture risk. Though aBMD is a significant predictor of fracture risk, it does not completely explain bone strength or fracture incidence. The major limitation of aBMD is the lack of 3D information, which is necessary to distinguish between cortical and trabecular bone and to quantify bone geometry and microarchitecture. High resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) enables in vivo assessment of volumetric BMD within specific bone compartments as well as quantification of geometric and microarchitectural measures of bone quality. HR-pQCT studies have documented that trabecular bone microstructure alterations are associated with fracture risk independent of aBMD.... Cortical bone microstructure - specifically porosity - is a major determinant of strength, stiffness, and fracture toughness of cortical tissue and may further explain the aBMD-independent effect of age on bone fragility and fracture risk. The application of finite element analysis (FEA) to HR-pQCT data permits estimation of patient-specific bone strength, shown to be associated with fracture incidence independent of aBMD. This talk will describe the HR-pQCT scanner, established metrics of bone quality derived from HR-pQCT data, and novel analyses of bone quality currently in development. Cross-sectional and longitudinal HR-pQCT studies investigating the impact of aging, disease, injury, gender, race, and

  2. Prediction of Areal Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content in Children and Adolescents Living With HIV Based on Anthropometric Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de; Krug, Rodrigo de Rosso; Silva, Rosane Carla Rosendo da; Carvalho, Aroldo Prohmann de; González-Chica, David Alejandro; Back, Isabela de Carlos; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2016-10-01

    Children and adolescents living with HIV have low bone mass for age. There are reliable and accurate methods for evaluation of bone mass, however, alternative methods are necessary, especially, for application in limited-resource scenarios. Anthropometry is a noninvasive and low cost method that can predict bone mass in healthy youths. The aim of the study was to develop predictive equations for bone mineral content and bone mineral density in children and adolescents living with HIV based on anthropometric variables. Forty-eight children and adolescents of both sexes (24 females) from 7 to 17 years, living in greater Florianopolis area, Santa Catarina, Brazil, who were under clinical follow-up at "Hospital Infantil Joana de Gusmão", participated in the study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to evaluate whole-body bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD). Height, body weight, bone diameters, arm circumference, and triceps skinfold were measured and the body mass index and arm muscle area were calculated. Multiple regression models were fitted to predict BMC and aBMD, using backward selection (p ≥ 0.05). Two predictive models with high R(2) values (84%-94%) were developed. Model 1 to estimate aBMD [Y = -0.1450124 + (height × 0.0033807) + (age × 0.0146381) + (body mass index × 0.0158838) + (skin color × 0.0421068)], and model 2 to estimate BMC [Y = 1095.1 + (body weight × 45.66973) + (age × 31.36516) + (arm circumference × -53.27204) + (femoral diameter × -9.594018)].The predictive models using anthropometry provided reliable estimates and can be useful to monitor aBMD and BMC in children and adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus where limited resources are available.

  3. The effect of weight bearing on bone mineral density and bone growth in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Young; Choi, Jung Hwa; Kim, Sun-Hyun; Im, Sang Hee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The present study aims to explore the effect of weight bearing exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone growth in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Twelve children with CP of functional level of gross motor functional classification scale (GMFCS) V and 6 healthy children (control group) were included in the study. Participants underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan to measure the BMD of the femur and full-length anteroposterior radiography to measure the bone length of the femur and tibia at baseline and after 6 months. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: group A with programmed standing exercises and assisted standing for more than 2 hours a day, more than 5 days a week; and group B with conventional physiotherapy with a standing program for 20 minutes a day, 2 to 3 days a week. Results: A 6-month follow-up showed significantly increased BMD on the femur neck in the control group. Although the changes in BMD were not significant in both groups, group A demonstrated an increased trend of BMD, whereas group B showed a decreased trend. Bone length was significantly increased in all 3 groups at the 6-month follow-up. Although this increase was not significant, the change in bone length was greatest in the control group. The smallest changes were observed in group B. Conclusions: Weight bearing exercise may play an important role in increasing or maintaining BMD in children with CP and is also expected to promote bone growth. Programmed standing may be used as an effective treatment method to increase BMD in children with CP. However, further studies with a larger cohort and longer follow-up period are required to reveal further information on the benefit of weight bearing exercise and to develop a detailed program. PMID:28272197

  4. Methodological study for the determination the bone density of bovines in laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossklauss, Dany Bruno Borella dos Santos; Jammal Filho, Fawaz Ali; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro; Rezende, Marcos Antonio de [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Fisica e Biofisica

    2009-07-01

    Full text: There are diseases in vertebrates associated with the structure of bone tissue that directly affect the locomotor system of the animal. Being an endoskeleton, the diagnosis of these diseases becomes difficult in vivo. The characterization of the physical structure of the bone tissue of healthy animals becomes a major tool in the diagnosis comparison of live animals. Thus, the objective of this work is to determine the average value of the key physical properties of the bone structure used in the clinical diagnosis, such as: bone density, and mass attenuation coefficient of 59.6 keV photons of bone tissue and bovine and equine check variations in these values. The samples were provided by the pathology department of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechny of Botucatu - Sao Paulo, which are of one male equine and one female bovine animals, using the radio and metacarpus. They were withdrawn ten samples in cuts of 10 cm over the bone. These samples were submitted to the wet method of immersion in water for the density, by the method of attenuation of gamma radiation of radioisotope {sup 241}Am, it is estimated the mass attenuation coefficient, and then were dried in the oven for determining the content moisture. (author)

  5. Gait analysis, bone and muscle density assessment for patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Magnússon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Total hip arthroplasty (THA is performed with or without the use of bone cement. Facing the lack of reliable clinical guidelines on decision making whether a patient should receive THA with or without bone cement, a joint clinical and engineering approach is proposed here with the objective to assess patient recovery developing monitoring techniques based on gait analysis, measurements of bone mineral density and structural and functional changes of quadriceps muscles. A clinical trial was conducted with 36 volunteer patients that were undergoing THA surgery for the first time: 18 receiving cemented implant and 18 receiving non-cemented implant. The patients are scanned with Computer Tomographic (CT modality prior-, immediately- and 12 months post-surgery. The CT data are further processed to segment muscles and bones for calculating bone mineral density (BMD. Quadriceps muscle density Hounsfield (HU based value is calculated from the segmented file on healthy and operated leg before and after THA surgery. Furthermore clinical assessment is performed using gait analysis technologies such as a sensing carpet, wireless electrodes and video. Patients undergo these measurements prior-, 6 weeks post - and 52 weeks post-surgery. The preliminary results indicate computational tools and methods that are able to quantitatively analyze patient’s condition pre and post-surgery: The spatial parameters such as step length and stride length increase 6 weeks post op in the patient group receiving cemented implant while the angle in the toe in/out parameter decrease in both patient groups.

  6. Association of lipid profile with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women in Yazd province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiri-Anari, Akram; Mortezaii-Shoroki, Zahra; Modarresi, Mozhgan; Dehghan, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low bone mass is a major health problem in postmenopausal women. There is no general agreement regarding relationship between serum level of lipids and bone mineral density. Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the association between lipid profile and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women in Yazd, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 170 women aged between 50 and 70 years old with menopause for at least one year from Yazd, Iran, between March 2013 to September 2013. Association of lipid profile and BMD were measured in all study participants. Results: Among our participants 73 cases had lumbar osteoporosis, 17 cases had femoral osteoporosis and 80 cases did n’t have osteoporosis. After controlling for body mass index, there were no correlations between serum level of lipids and bone mineral density of femur and lumbar bones. Conclusion: No significant association between serum level of lipids and BMD of femur and lumbar was found in postmenopausal women. PMID:27738662

  7. Evaluation of bone mineral density among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in South Karnataka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, Athulya G.; Jaganathan, Jayakumar; Philip, Rajeev; Soman, Rino Roopak; Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Pullishery, Fawaz

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is one of the world's biggest health problems and the disease affects almost all organ systems. The relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and bone mineral density (BMD) has been controversial. Early identification of reduction in bone mass in a diabetic patient may be helpful in preventing the bone loss and future fracture risks. Objective: The aim is to study the effect of T2DM on BMD among patients in South Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 patients between 40 and 70 years of age which included 75 diabetic and 75 nondiabetic subjects. BMD was measured using qualitative ultrasound and the data were compared among age-matched subjects of both the groups. Statistical analysis was performed using unpaired Student's t-test and test of equality of proportions. Results: No significant difference was observed in bone density of both the groups. On further analyzing the data, incidence of osteoporosis was higher among diabetic subjects, whereas incidence of osteopenia was higher among nondiabetic subjects. Conclusion: Although significant difference in bone mineral density was not observed in both the groups, the incidence of osteoporosis was higher among type 2 diabetics. Hence, all type 2 diabetics should be evaluated for the risk of osteoporosis and should be offered appropriate preventive measures. PMID:28250682

  8. High Density Metamaterials for Visible Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-28

    Split Ring Resonator Metamaterials with Fundamental Magnetic Resonance in the Middle Visible Spectrum,” Adv. Opt. Mater., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 280–285...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0097 High density metamaterials for visible light Dao Hua Zhang NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Final Report 11/28/2016...COVERED (From - To)  16 Jul 2014 to 15 Jul 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High density metamaterials for visible light 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT

  9. A quarksonic matter at high isospin density

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Gaoqing; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Analogous to the quarkyonic matter at high baryon density in which the quark Fermi seas and the baryonic excitations coexist, it is argued that a "quarksonic matter" phase appears at high isospin density where the quark (antiquark) Fermi seas and the mesonic excitations coexist. We explore this phase in detail in both large $N_c$ and asymptotically free limits: In large $N_c$ limit, we sketch a phase diagram for the quarksonic matter. In the asymptotically free limit, we study the pion superfluidity and thermodynamics of the quarksonic matter by using both perturbative calculations and effective model.

  10. Comparison of the relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue and volumetric bone mineral density in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Velasquez, Gilbert; Chen, Jun; Jin, Ye; Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Several large-scale studies have reported the presence of an inverse relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) in adults. We aim to determine if there is an inverse relationship between pelvic volumetric BMD (vBMD) and pelvic BMAT in children and to compare this relationship in children and adults. Pelvic BMAT and bone volume (BV) was evaluated in 181 healthy children (5-17yr) and 495 healthy adults (≥18yr) with whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pelvic vBMD was calculated using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure pelvic bone mineral content and MRI-measured BV. An inverse correlation was found between pelvic BMAT and pelvic vBMD in both children (r=-0.374, pBMAT as the independent variable, being a child or adult neither significantly contribute to the pelvic BMD (p=0.995) nor did its interaction with pelvic BMAT (p=0.415). The inverse relationship observed between pelvic vBMD and pelvic BMAT in children extends previous findings that found the inverse relationship to exist in adults and provides further support for a reciprocal relationship between adipocytes and osteoblasts.

  11. Correlation between Density and Resorption of Fresh-Frozen and Autogenous Bone Grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Lumetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trial Design. This analysis compared the outcome of fresh-frozen versus autologous bone block grafts for horizontal ridge augmentation in patients with Cawood and Howell class IV atrophies. Methods. Seventeen patients received autologous grafts and 21 patients received fresh-frozen bone grafts. Patients underwent CT scans 1 week and 6 months after surgery for graft volume and density analysis. Results. Two autologous and 3 fresh-frozen grafts failed. Autologous and fresh-frozen grafts lost, respectively, 28% and 46% of their initial volume (P=0.028. It is noteworthy that less dense fresh-frozen blocks lost more volume than denser grafts (61% versus 16%. Conclusions. According to these 6-month results, only denser fresh-frozen bone graft may be an acceptable alternative to autologous bone for horizontal ridge augmentation. Further studies are needed to investigate its behaviour at longer time points.

  12. Decreased trabecular bone biomechanical competence, apparent density, IGF-II and IGFBP-5 content in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ueland, Thor; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus;

    2002-01-01

    of these growth factors in relation to biomechanical properties in acromegaly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Trabecular bone biomechanical competence (compression test), apparent density (peripheral quantitative computed tomography, pQCT), and bone matrix contents of calcium (HCl hydrolysis) and IGFs (guanidinium......-HCl extraction) were measured in iliac crest biopsies from 13 patients with active acromegaly (two women and 11 men, aged 21-61 years) and 21 age- and sex-matched controls (four women and 17 men, aged 23-64 years). RESULTS: Trabecular bone pQCT was reduced in acromegalic patients compared with controls (P = 0...... bone content of IGF-I, IGFBP-3, or osteocalcin. However, IGF-II and IGFBP-5 content was decreased (P acromegaly, supporting previous observations...

  13. Implants delivering bisphosphonate locally increase periprosthetic bone density in an osteoporotic sheep model. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GVA Stadelmann

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available It is a clinical challenge to obtain a sufficient orthopaedic implant fixation in weak osteoporotic bone. When the primary implant fixation is poor, micromotions occur at the bone-implant interface, activating osteoclasts, which leads to implant loosening. Bisphosphonate can be used to prevent the osteoclastic response, but when administered systemically its bioavailability is low and the time it takes for the drug to reach the periprosthetic bone may be a limiting factor. Recent data has shown that delivering bisphosphonate locally from the implant surface could be an interesting solution. Local bisphosphonate delivery increased periprosthetic bone density, which leads to a stronger implant fixation, as demonstrated in rats by the increased implant pullout force. The aim of the present study was to verify the positive effect on periprosthetic bone remodelling of local bisphosphonate delivery in an osteoporotic sheep model. Four implants coated with zoledronate and two control implants were inserted in the femoral condyle of ovariectomized sheep for 4 weeks. The bone at the implant surface was 50% higher in the zoledronate-group compared to control group. This effect was significant up to a distance of 400µm from the implant surface. The presented results are similar to what was observed in the osteoporotic rat model, which suggest that the concept of releasing zoledronate locally from the implant to increase the implant fixation is not species specific. The results of this trial study support the claim that local zoledronate could increase the fixation of an implant in weak bone.

  14. Relationships between serum Omentin-1 levels and bone mineral density in older men with osteoporosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yang; Xin-Lan Zhao; Bin Liao; Ai-Ping Qin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between serum Omentin-1 levels and the presence of osteoporosis in older men. Methods: Serum Omentin-1, bone turnover biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) were determined in 45 older men with osteoporosis or 45 older men without osteoporosis (65e70 years old). Results: Omentin-1 levels were increased in older men with osteoporosis, and the differences remained significant after con-trolling for fat mass. Omentin-1 was negatively correlated with BMD. In a multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, Omentin-1, lean mass, but not fat mass, were independent predictors of BMD for the combined group. Significant negative correlations between Omentin-1 and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and bone cross-linked N-telopeptides of typeⅠcollagen (NTX) were found. Omentin-1 was also independently associated with BMD and bone turnover markers in older men with osteoporosis and control groups that were considered separately. Conclusions: Omentin-1 is an independent predictor of BMD in older men with osteoporosis, and it is negatively correlated with bone turnover biochemical markers. It is suggested that Omentin-1 may exert a negative effect on bone mass through the regulation of the osteoblast differentiation in the older men with osteoporosis.

  15. Effects of taurine supplementation on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Ja

    2009-01-01

    Taurine supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect on femur bone mineral content in ovariectomized rats. It therefore seemed desirable to find out whether the beneficial effect of taurine on ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet could also be reproduced. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. One group was OVX and the other group received sham operation (SHAM), and received either control diet or a taurine supplemented diet for 6 weeks. All rats were fed on calcium deficient diet (AIN-93: 50% level of calcium) and deionized water. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured in spine and femur. The serum and urine concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined. Bone formation was measured by serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations. Bone resorption rate was measured by deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks immunoassay and corrected for creatinine. Urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, osteocalcin in blood and cross link value were not significantly different among the groups. Within the OVX group, the taurine supplemented group had not higher femur bone mineral content than the control group. This study established the need for a study on the taurine effect on bone with different calcium levels.

  16. Bone tissue stiffness in the mandibular condyle is dependent on the direction and density of the cancellous structure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijden, T.M. van; Ruijven, L.J. van; Giesen, E.B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Variation in the apparent stiffness of cancellous bone is generally ascribed to variation in cancellous structure and density, while the bone tissue stiffness is assumed to be constant. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the bone tissue stiffness is dependent on the direction an

  17. Changes in bone mineral density, body composition, and lipid metabolism during growth hormone (GH) treatment in children with GH deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); M.A. Engels (Melanie); G.J.M. Boerma (Geert); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAdults with childhood onset GH deficiency (GHD) have reduced bone mass, increased fat mass, and disorders of lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, body composition, and lipid metabolism in

  18. Quantitative digital subtraction radiography for assessment of bone density changes following periodontal guided tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christgau, M; Wenzel, A; Hiller, K A; Schmalz, G

    1996-01-01

    The quantitative assessment of alveolar bone density changes in periodontal defects following guided tissue regeneration (GTR). Twelve patients with 30 intrabony lesions and 16 furcation defects took part. Standardized radiographic and clinical examinations were carried out immediately before and then 5 and 13 months after surgery. Intra-oral radiographs were evaluated by means of digital subtraction radiography (DSR). Within the subtraction images, a window ('experimental region') was defined covering the visible density changes in the defect area. Background noise was measured by using a similarly sized window ('control region') located in an area not affected by GTR. Bone density changes were quantitatively evaluated by calculation of the mean, standard deviation and maximum and minimum values of the grey-level histogram within these windows. DSR revealed significant bone density gain after GTR in intrabony and furcation defects. While a continuous increase was observed over the 13 month period in intrabony defects, changes in furcation defects occurred mostly in the 5-13 month period. Clinically, a distinct vertical and horizontal attachment gain was found. The correlation coefficients between changes in radiographic density and clinical parameters were low, indicating a difference in the information obtained by the two diagnostic methods. Quantitative DSR is a valuable, non-invasive, objective method to obtain information on density changes in intrabony and furcation defects treated by GTR. However, a full assessment of soft and hard tissue changes requires both clinical evaluation and DSR.

  19. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagihara, G.R.; Paiva, A.G.; Gasparini, G.A.; Macedo, A.P. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Frighetto, P.D. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Volpon, J.B.; Shimano, A.C. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-02-02

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  20. Strong relationship between vitamin D status and bone mineral density in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Davide; El Ghoch, Marwan; Viapiana, Ombretta; Ruocco, Antonella; Chignola, Elisa; Rossini, Maurizio; Giollo, Alessandro; Idolazzi, Luca; Adami, Silvano; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with impaired bone health and low bone mineral density (BMD) as a consequence of an inadequate peak bone mass in adolescence and bone loss in young adulthood. The vitamin D status with its implications for bone health in patients affected by AN has only been examined previously in small studies. To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and test the hypothesis that patients with AN and vitamin D deficiency might have worse bone metabolism and lower bone density as compared with AN with adequate vitamin D repletion. We analysed the vitamin D status and bone metabolism in a large cohort (n=89) of untreated patients affected by AN, with amenorrhoea. Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in untreated patients with AN: 16.9% had 25OH vitamin D levels below 12 ng/ml, 36% below 20 ng/ml and 58.4% below 30 ng/ml. PTH values were higher and BMD at both femoral sites were lower in patients with vitamin Dvitamin D values (severe deficiency: vitamin D deficiency BMD at the hip were significantly lower than that measured in groups with values over 20 ng/ml (pvitamin D status and hip BMD values with additional benefits for those with 25OHD levels above 20 ng/ml. Our results support the design of a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial on the effect of vitamin D on BMD in patients with AN. The second point, whether 25OHD should be above 20 or 30 ng/ml remains a discussion point. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Exercise Effects on Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women: 1-Year EFOPS Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…

  2. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J. J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/111379628; Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341235512; de Jong, Pim A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/287955672

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and 5

  3. Bone Mineral Density in Adults With Down Syndrome, Intellectual Disability, and Nondisabled Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geijer, Justin R.; Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.; Dengel, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) or Down syndrome (DS) may be at greater risk of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) of DS, ID, and non-intellectually disabled (NID) populations. In each group, 33 participants between the ages of 28 and 60 years were compared. BMD was measured with…

  4. Bone mineral density in adult patients treated with various antiepileptic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Simona Alexandra; Viken, Janina; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn;

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence suggesting, that older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and some of the newer ones decrease bone mineral density (BMD). However, there is only limited and conflicting data concerning the effect of levetiracetam on BMD. In this cross-sectional study we analysed data from 1...

  5. Population-based reference values for bone mineral density in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg, M; Nielsen, Torben Leo; Wraae, K;

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY: Population-based reference values for peak bone mass density in Danish men. BMD of total hip (1.078 +/- 0,14 g/cm2) differed significantly from values from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III and of total lumbar spine ((1.073 +/- 0.125 g/cm2) differed significantly from ...

  6. Population-based reference values for bone mineral density in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg, M; Nielsen, T L; Wraae, Kristian;

    2007-01-01

    Population-based reference values for peak bone mass density in Danish men. BMD of total hip (1.078 +/- 0,14 g/cm2) differed significantly from values from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III and of total lumbar spine ((1.073 +/- 0.125 g/cm2) differed significantly from Hologic v...

  7. Bone density: comparative evaluation of Hounsfield units in multislice and cone-beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Maria de Carvalho Crusoé Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of the bone density value of potential implant sites in HU obtained by a specific cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT device. In this study, the HU values obtained using a MSCT scanner were used as the gold standard. Twenty mandibles (40 potential implant sites were scanned using an MSCT scanner (Somatom Sensation 40 and a CBCT scanner (i-CAT. The MSCT images were evaluated using the Syngo CT Workplace software and the CBCT images, using the XoranCat software. The images were evaluated twice by three oral radiologists, at 60 day intervals. The trabecular bone density of the same area was evaluated on both images. Intraclass coefficients (ICC were calculated to examine the agreement between the examiners and between the two periods of evaluation. The bone density and area of the ROI were compared by the Student t test and Bland-Altman analysis. ICCs were excellent. The mean HU value obtained using CBCT (418.06 was higher than that obtained using MSCT (313.13, with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.0001. In addition, Bland-Altman analysis showed that the HU measures were not equivalent. In conclusion, the bone density in HU with CBCT images obtained using the device studied proved unreliable, since it was higher than that obtained using MSCT.

  8. Detecting reduced bone mineral density from dental radiographs using statistical shape models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, P.D.; Graham, J.; Farnell, D.J.J.; Harrison, E.J.; Jacobs, R.; Nicopoulou-Karyianni, K.; Lindh, C.; van der Stelt, P.F.; Horner, K.; Devlin, H.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a novel method of estimating reduced bone mineral density (BMD) from dental panoramic tomograms (DPTs), which show the entire mandible. Careful expert width measurement of the inferior mandibular cortex has been shown to be predictive of BMD in hip and spine osteopenia and osteoporosis.

  9. Hyperinsulinemia and bone mineral density in an elderly population : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, RP; VanDaele, PLA; Pols, HAP; Burger, H; Hofman, A; Birkenhager, JC; Lamberts, SWJ; Grobbee, DE

    1996-01-01

    We studied the association between insulin and glucose levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in a population based study of 5931 elderly men and women, Serum insulin was measured 2 h after a nonfasting oral glucose load in subjects not using antidiabetes medication, BMD was measured by dual-energy X

  10. Effect of Osteoporosis on Bone Density of Orthognathic Osteotomy Sites in Maxillofacial Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    On, Sung Woon; Kim, Hyun Jun; Kim, Jayoun; Choi, Jin Wook; Jung, Young Wook; Song, Seung Il

    2016-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the availability of Hounsfield unit (HU) measurement of computed tomography (CT) in evaluating the bone density of certain sites by comparing bone density between CT and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and to evaluate the effects of osteoporosis on osteotomy sites in orthognathic surgery. This retrospective study included 80 patients who had undergone both facial CT and DEXA at our hospital. We selected 7 regions of interest from among the osteotomy sites in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. The patients were assigned to either the normal (control) group (n = 40) or the abnormal group (n = 40), and HU values were measured in each region of interest. There were statistically significant differences in the mean HU values between 2 groups at all the osteotomy sites in the maxilla and mandible, with the normal group showing higher values than the abnormal group (P osteotomy sites (P osteotomy sites except for 1 maxillary area, as compared with the normal group. Measurement of HU values on CT can be valuable in assessing bone density of the maxilla and mandible. It is suggested that osteoporosis may affect bone density at the osteotomy sites in orthognathic surgery, and the preoperative measurement of HU values might be useful in predicting unfavorable fracture or the risks involved in such surgery.

  11. Evaluation of periprosthetic bone mineral density and postoperative migration of humeral head resurfacing implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechlenburg, Inger; Klebe, Thomas Martin; Døssing, Kaj Verner;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implant migration, bone mineral density (BMD), length of glenohumeral offset (LGHO), and clinical results were compared for the Copeland (Biomet Inc, Warsaw, IN, USA) and the Global C.A.P. (DePuy Int, Warsaw, IN, USA) humeral head resurfacing implants (HHRIs). METHODS: The study...

  12. Evaluation of the effect of cola drinks on bone mineral density and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogur, Recai; Uysal, Bulent; Ogur, Torel; Yaman, Halil; Oztas, Emin; Ozdemir, Aysegul; Hasde, Metin

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine bone mineral density changes caused by consumption of cola drinks and the associated factors. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1 and 2, consisting of 10 male and 10 female rats, respectively, were provided with as much food, water and cola drinks as they wanted. Groups 3 and 4, consisting of five rats each, received only rat chow and water. The bone mineral density of the rats was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at the end of 30 days. The blood values and weights of the animals were also determined. The oesophagus and kidneys were removed for histopathological examination. The weight gain was higher in the groups consuming cola drinks than the control group rats (P drinks. No significant change was detected in the blood calcium levels. There was a significant decrease in the bone mineral density of test groups when compared to the control groups (P drinks, examination of the kidneys revealed general glomerular congestion and intertubular bleeding. We suggest that the decrease in bone mineral density might be related to the renal damage caused by cola drinks in addition to other related factors.

  13. Muscle strength and soccer practice as major determinants of bone mineral density in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabra, André; Marques, Elisa; Brito, João

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the relationship between isokinetic strengt