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Sample records for high blood alcohol

  1. The Association Between Blood Alcohol Content and Cheerfulness, Focus Distraction, and Sluggishness Among Young Adults Attending High School Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine

    2014-01-01

    The belief that alcohol makes you cheerful is one of the main reasons for engaging in high-risk drinking, especially among young adults. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between blood alcohol content (BAC) and cheerfulness, focus distraction, and sluggishness among students...

  2. Alcohol: Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to two weeks. Heavy drinkers who stop suddenly risk developing severe high blood pressure for several days. If you have high blood ... and may contribute to unwanted weight gain — a risk factor for high blood pressure. Also, alcohol can interfere with the effectiveness and ...

  3. Drinking and driving: a decrease in executive frontal functions in young drivers with high blood alcohol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Simone Cristina Aires; Mendonça, Josidéia Barreto; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Nakamura-Palacios, Ester Miyuki

    2009-12-01

    This study correlated the executive frontal functions with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in night drivers in a Brazilian city. Of 592 drivers randomly recruited between December 17, 2005 and May 5, 2006, during nighttime hours on main streets or avenues with intense vehicle traffic in Vitória, Brazil, 444 had the BAC determined by a portable digital breath alcohol analyzer and 389 were submitted to a frontal function examination by a frontal assessment battery (FAB). A high percentage (24.4%) of drivers presented alcohol in their blood. Most of these drivers were male (82%), and nearly half (43.7%) were young adults (aged between 20 and 30 years). The results showed an inverse relationship between the BAC and FAB total scores, with a higher BAC corresponding to a smaller FAB total score, delineating a progressive decrease in frontal function with increasing concentrations of alcohol. The most intriguing result was that alcohol-induced impairment on frontal executive function was particularly important in young adults, and more specifically in the motor programming subset of FAB, an executive function highly involved in driving skills. Considering the worldwide evidence of the high-risk involvement of youth in automobile crashes, the effects of alcohol in young adults need to be more thoroughly examined by cognitive studies, and more direct preventive solutions need to be taken focusing on this age range.

  4. The association between blood alcohol content and cheerfulness, focus distraction, and sluggishness among young adults attending high school parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasen, Marie; Rod, Morten H; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Petersen, Jørgen H; Grønbaek, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2014-03-01

    The belief that alcohol makes you cheerful is one of the main reasons for engaging in high-risk drinking, especially among young adults. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between blood alcohol content (BAC) and cheerfulness, focus distraction, and sluggishness among students attending high school parties. Participants included 230 students attending high school parties. BAC, measured by use of a breath analyzer, self-reported cheerfulness (on a score from 0 to 16), focus distraction (score from 0 to 8), and sluggishness (score from 0 to 4) were assessed several times during the party. Data were analyzed by means of linear regression, including robust standard errors and stratified on sex. For girls, cheerfulness increased up to a BAC of 0.113 g% and decreased at higher BACs. At BACs of 0.020, 0.050, 0.100, and 0.150 g% cheerfulness was 11.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.4 to 11.6), 12.4 (95% CI: 11.8 to 12.9), 13.5 (95% CI: 13.0 to 14.0), and 13.1 (95% CI: 11.9 to 14.4), respectively. For boys, the association was linear with an increase of 0.18 points in cheerfulness (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.36) for every 0.010 g% increase in BAC. Focus distraction increased with increasing BAC: 0.22 (95% CI: 0.16 to 0.28) and 0.24 (95% CI: 0.14 to 0.33) points for girls and boys, respectively, per 0.010 g% increase in BAC. The degree of sluggishness increased only slightly with increasing BAC with 0.02 (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.05) and 0.03 (95% CI: -0.01 to 0.07) points for every 0.010 g% increase in BAC for girls and boys, respectively. Cheerfulness increased up to a certain BAC value for girls, while it increased linearly for boys. Focus distraction increased with increasing BAC. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. A comparison of blood alcohol concentration using non-alcohol- and alcohol-containing skin antiseptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfinger, T M; Schaber, D

    1982-12-01

    We simultaneously obtained blood samples in emergency patients for ethanol content from both antecubital fossae using an alcohol prep pad on one arm and a non-alcohol-containing germicidal solution on the other. Fifty patients with ethanol concentrations greater than zero were statistically analyzed. Twenty patients surveyed had no measurable alcohol level by either technique. There was no significant difference in the blood alcohol concentration obtained by either method of skin preparation in both groups (P less than .01). Blood alcohol concentration incidentally obtained in the emergency department by routine isopropyl alcohol skin preparation is an accurate laboratory parameter.

  6. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Print ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  7. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Cholesterol What is High Blood Cholesterol? What is Cholesterol? Cholesterol is a ... heart disease. If Your Blood Cholesterol Is Too High Too much cholesterol in your blood is called ...

  8. Breath analysis and blood alcohol concentration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.A.G. & Noordzij, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    Devices for breath analysis are intended to meet the need for a simple method for determining the blood alcohol concentration. Devices have already been developed for several purposes. For applying breath analyses a compromise has to be found between users' requirements and technical

  9. As Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Increases, So Does Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking As Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Increases, So Does Impairment Past Issues / Spring 2014 ... For purposes of law enforcement, blood alcohol content (BAC) is used to define intoxication and provides a ...

  10. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  11. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  12. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cholesterol? To understand high blood cholesterol (ko-LES-ter- ... cholesterol from your body. What Is High Blood Cholesterol? High blood cholesterol is a condition in which ...

  13. Methodological modifications on quantification of phosphatidylethanol in blood from humans abusing alcohol, using high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light scattering detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aradottir Steina

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidylethanol (PEth is an abnormal phospholipid formed slowly in cell membranes by a transphosphatidylation reaction from phosphatidylcholine in the presence of ethanol and catalyzed by the enzyme phospholipase D. PEth in blood is a promising new marker of ethanol abuse depending on the high specificity and sensitivity of this marker. None of the biological markers used in clinical routine at the present time are sensitive and specific enough for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse. The method for PEth analysis includes lipid extraction of whole blood, a one-hour HPLC separation of lipids and ELSD (evaporative light scattering detection of PEth. Results Methodological improvements are presented which comprise a simpler extraction procedure, the use of phosphatidylbutanol as internal standard and a new algorithm for evaluation of unknown samples. It is further demonstrated that equal test results are obtained with blood collected in standard test tubes with EDTA as with the previously used heparinized test tubes. The PEth content in blood samples is stable for three weeks in the refrigerator. Conclusion Methodological changes make the method more suitable for routine laboratory use, lower the limit of quantification (LOQ and improve precision.

  14. Blood alcohol levels for American Indian mothers and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvigne, Valborg L; Randall, Brad; Simanton, Edward G; Brenneman, George; Welty, Thomas K

    2012-10-01

    Very little is known about the alcohol elimination rates of newborns who have had chronic alcohol exposure in utero. In these case reports, blood alcohol levels were taken immediately before delivery, at delivery, and postdelivery for 2 mothers who drank alcohol during their pregnancies and 3 single-birth newborns. Newborn A1 of Mother A had no physical characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The initial blood alcohol level for this newborn was 38.4 mg/dL 129 minutes after birth, with a subsequent blood alcohol level of 5.5 mg/dL 304 minutes after delivery, resulting in an alcohol elimination rate of 11.3 mg/dL per hour. The blood alcohol level for Mother A was 87.4 mg/dL 66 minutes before delivery. Newborn A2 of mother A had FAS. Sixty minutes after delivery, the blood alcohol level for this newborn was 39.5 mg/dL, and the alcohol level of the mother was 42.1 mg/dL. Newborn B1 of mother B had FAS. At 67 minutes after birth, newborn B1 had a blood alcohol level of 246.5 mg/dL, which dropped to 178.7 mg/dL 302 minutes after birth, resulting in an alcohol elimination rate of 17.3 mg/dL per hour. This alcohol elimination rate is within the metabolism range (15-49 mg/dL per hour) of adults with alcoholism. The maternal blood alcohol level was 265.9 mg/dL 27 minutes before delivery. Blood alcohol levels drawn on both the mother and newborn at delivery and 2 or 3 hourly follow-up levels can provide evidence that fetal alcohol dehydrogenase activity is induced by chronic maternal alcohol use.

  15. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) A ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  16. Treating High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    About High Blood Pressure Many people in the United States die from high blood pressure. This condition usually does not cause symptoms. Most ... until it is too late. A person has high blood pressure when the blood pushes against Visit your doctor ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia? A number of things can cause hyperglycemia: ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Islanders American Indian/Alaska Native Programs Older Adults Family Link Diabetes EXPO Upcoming Diabetes EXPOs EXPO Volunteer ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & ...

  4. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Options for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient Education Materials Scientific Sessions Journals for Professionals Professional Books Patient Access to Research ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  8. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an Employer Options for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life ... blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body ...

  10. [Beta-endorphin and endogenous alcohol level of the blood in alcoholic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Iu V; Treskov, V G; Iukhananov, R Iu; Kovalenko, A K

    1984-11-01

    Radioimmunoassay was used to measure the blood content of beta-endorphines in patients with chronic alcoholism. The concentration of endogenous ethanol in these patients was determined by gas chromatography. The blood concentration of beta-endorphines was found to be high in patients who showed atypical affective disorders off the period of abstinence. It is assumed that peripheral beta-endorphine is not linked with the development of the narcomanic syndrome proper but mirrors the pathogenetic mechanisms of psychopathological disorders. The levels of endogenous ethanol vary in alcoholics and healthy subjects within the same ranges. However, the percentage distribution indicates that in patients, they are shifted toward lower concentrations, which is likely to be conditioned by the induction of enzymatic systems that metabolize ethanol.

  11. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certain tumors Inherited conditions (problems that run in families) Thyroid problems Blood pressure rises as the baby grows. The average blood ... vomiting constantly Prevention Some causes of high blood pressure run in families. Talk to your provider before you get pregnant ...

  12. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More black women than men have high blood pressure. 2 Race of Ethnic Group Men (%) Women (%) African Americans 43.0 45.7 Mexican Americans 27.8 28.9 Whites 33.9 31.3 All 34.1 32.7 Top of Page Why Blood Pressure Matters View this graphic snapshot of blood pressure ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  15. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34 Section 634.34 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... alcohol concentration standards. (a) Administrative revocation of driving privileges and other enforcement...

  16. The need for blood alcohol concentration (BAC) legislation in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Patrick O Erah

    and ignorance, coupled with the absence of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) threshold to act as a legal .... self-regulation. An established BAC .... subnormal body temperature; incontinence; impairment of circulation and respiration ...

  17. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir By living a healthy lifestyle, you can help keep your blood pressure in ...

  18. High blood pressure - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... number is the diastolic pressure. This measures the pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest. Blood pressure ... Medical Professional Call your child's provider if home monitoring shows that your child's blood pressure is still high. Prevention Your child's provider will ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity ...

  20. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... already been diagnosed with high blood pressure. Try yoga and meditation. Yoga and meditation not only can strengthen your body ... Accessed Sept. 21, 2015. Hu B, et al. Effects of psychological stress on hypertension in middle-aged ...

  1. Predicting DUI recidivism: blood alcohol concentration and driver record factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marowitz, L A

    1998-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at arrest, driving history and other demographic factors, and the 1-year post-arrest probability of recidivism for drunk driving (DUI) convictees. Complex and simple prediction models were developed. All models found a statistically significant cubic relationship between BAC and recidivism, reflecting a relatively high rate of recidivism at a BAC of 0.00%, decreasing to a minimum at ca 0.09% BAC, then increasing to another relatively high rate at a BAC of ca 0.29%, followed by a decline in recidivism to BAC levels of 0.35% and beyond. High rates of recidivism at high BACs suggest alcohol dependency, while high rates at low BACs suggest the involvement of other impairing substances. The rate of DUI recidivism for offenders who refused alcohol testing was the same as for aggregated BAC-tested offenders who had prior DUIs at the time of the arrest. The probability of DUI recidivism predicted by a simple model using BAC, prior 2-year traffic convictions, and offender level (first or repeat offender) could be used along with other factors by presentence investigators, judges or in administrative settings to determine appropriate sanctions, treatment or other remedial measures. The findings support the notion that first offenders with high BAC levels and prior 2-year traffic convictions are at as high a risk of recidivating as many repeat offenders, and might therefore benefit from similar sanctions and/or remedial treatment. The findings also support viewing DUI arrestees with very low BACs as probable drug users with relatively high probabilities of recidivating.

  2. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... prevent high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  3. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... time. High blood pressure is also called hypertension. High Blood Pressure in the United States Having high blood pressure ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes ... Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  6. Variability in the blood/breath alcohol ratio and implications for evidentiary purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Dena H; Siman-Tov, Maya; Gopher, Asher; Peleg, Kobi

    2013-09-01

    The breath analyzer is an indispensable tool for identifying alcohol levels among drivers. While numerous studies have shown high correlations between blood and breath alcohol concentrations, most are limited by the study design. This study seeks to assess this relationship by minimizing potential measurement bias, document time from alcohol consumption to testing, and adjusting for potential confounders. A blinded study was performed using conditions closely resembling those in the field. The Draeger 7110 MKIII IL breath analyzer was used to assess breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC). Participants were 61 healthy volunteers aged 21-37 years with body mass index ≤30 and no history of alcoholism. A total of 242 valid blood/breath tests were performed in four test sets. The study results showed a high correlation coefficient between BrAC and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels (r = 0.983) with high sensitivity (97%) and specificity (93%). This strong association between the breath analyzer and BAC persisted even after adjustment for various stages of alcohol absorption. These results illustrate the high diagnostic sensitivity of the breath analyzer in field-tested conditions.

  7. Estimating the measurement uncertainty in forensic blood alcohol analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullberg, Rod G

    2012-04-01

    For many reasons, forensic toxicologists are being asked to determine and report their measurement uncertainty in blood alcohol analysis. While understood conceptually, the elements and computations involved in determining measurement uncertainty are generally foreign to most forensic toxicologists. Several established and well-documented methods are available to determine and report the uncertainty in blood alcohol measurement. A straightforward bottom-up approach is presented that includes: (1) specifying the measurand, (2) identifying the major components of uncertainty, (3) quantifying the components, (4) statistically combining the components and (5) reporting the results. A hypothetical example is presented that employs reasonable estimates for forensic blood alcohol analysis assuming headspace gas chromatography. These computations are easily employed in spreadsheet programs as well. Determining and reporting measurement uncertainty is an important element in establishing fitness-for-purpose. Indeed, the demand for such computations and information from the forensic toxicologist will continue to increase.

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical ...

  9. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the years led to verification of the important role of high blood pressure—especially in concert with ... is specific for that person will be an important key to improving prevention, ... an international team of investigators, funded in part by the NIH, ...

  10. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Causes of High Blood Pressure Changes, either from genes or the environment, in ... and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in ...

  11. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure » Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical ...

  13. Living with High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to talk ... help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother and baby. High ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... High Blood Pressure Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living ... Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done in ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming ... minutes before the test. To track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care ...

  16. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine.

  17. Changes in blood alcohol concentration and driving ability after alcohol intake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃华丽; 张岫竹; 赵新才; 朱秉忠; 周继红; 王正国

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the amount of consumed alcohol, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), and driving ability among a part of the population in Southwest China and to provide reference for the formulation of the legal limits for safe driving. Methods: Seventy-six randomly selected volunteer drivers each had three times of alcohol intake ( 100 fl each time). After each drank, BAC was measured with gas chromatograph and driving ability was evaluated.The drivers were grouped according to age, weight, alcohol tolerance and driving experience respectively and changes in BAC and driving ability were analyzed. Results: Average BAC and the percentage of drivers showing impaired driving ability in the groups increased after each intake of 100 ml alcohol. BAC in Group≤60 kg was more susceptible to alcohol than that in Group > 60 kg. When each drank, alcohol had greater influence on drivers who had comparatively shorter driving experience. Conclusion: Volume of consumed alcohol, BAC and driving ability have direct associations among one another and are all under the influence of various factors including individual conditions. To set an appropriate legal BAC limit for safe driving should take an overall consideration of all factors.

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks ... energy. When your body breaks down fats, waste products called ketones are produced. Your body cannot tolerate ...

  19. Comparison of breath-alcohol screening test results with venous blood alcohol concentration in suspected drunken drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriikku, Pirkko; Wilhelm, Lars; Jenckel, Stefan; Rintatalo, Janne; Hurme, Jukka; Kramer, Jan; Jones, A Wayne; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2014-06-01

    Hand-held electronic breath-alcohol analyzers are widely used by police authorities in their efforts to detect drunken drivers and to improve road-traffic safety. Over a three month period, the results of roadside breath-alcohol tests of drivers apprehended in Finland were compared with venous blood alcohol concentration (BAC). The mean (median) time between sampling blood and breath was 0.71h (0.58h) with a range from 0 to 6h. Some hand-held instruments gave results as the concentration of alcohol in breath and were converted into BAC assuming a blood-breath alcohol ratio (BBR) of 2260. The mean venous BAC (1.82g/kg) in traffic offenders was higher than the result predicted by the hand-held breath analyzers (1.72g/kg). In 1875 roadside tests, the relationship between venous BAC (x) and BrAC (y) was defined by the regression equation y=0.18+0.85x. The coefficients show both a constant bias (y-intercept 0.18g/kg) and a proportional bias (slope=0.85). The residual standard deviation (SD), an indicator of random variation, was ±0.40g/kg. After BAC results were corrected for the time elapsed between sampling blood and breath, the y-intercept decreased to 0.10g/kg and 0.004g/kg, respectively, when low (0.1g/kg/h) and high (0.25g/kg/h) rates of alcohol elimination were used. The proportional bias of 0.85 shows that the breath-alcohol test result reads lower than the actual BAC by 15% on average. This suggests that the BBR of 2260 used for calibration should be increased by about 15% to give closer agreement between BAC and BrAC. Because of the large random variation (SD±0.40g/kg), there is considerable uncertainty if and when results from the roadside screening test are used to estimate venous BAC. The roadside breath-alcohol screening instruments worked well for the purpose of selecting drivers above the statutory limit of 0.50g/kg.

  20. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke Updated:Dec 2,2016 Stroke and high blood ... Changes That Matter • Find Tools & Resources Show Your Stroke Support! Show your stroke support with our new ...

  1. High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162977.html High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide And health risks may appear even ... of people around the world with elevated or high blood pressure increases, so do the number of deaths linked ...

  2. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... age and you cannot tell if you have high blood pressure by the way you feel, so have your ...

  3. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mmHg People read "118 over 76" millimeters of mercury. Normal Blood Pressure Normal blood pressure for adults ... health. Share your story with other women on Facebook . The Heart Truth campaign offers a variety of ...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  6. Controlling your high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000101.htm Controlling your high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to: Stroke Heart ...

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  8. A field investigation of perceived behavioral control and blood alcohol content: a pattern-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Coyle, Patrick T; Baldner, Conrad; Bray, Bethany C; Geller, E Scott

    2013-04-01

    As the first field study of perceived behavioral control (PBC) to assess alcohol consumption with a physiological measure (i.e., blood alcohol content; BAC), the research examined the impact of intoxication on alcohol-specific PBC (APBC). In total, 665 passersby were recruited into the study at several late-night drinking locations near a large university campus. After answering questions regarding personal demographics and APBC, participants were administered a breath alcohol test (Lifeloc FC-20; ±.005mL/L). The average BAC of drinking participants was .096mL/L. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to classify participants based on APBC responses. Three classes emerged: high PBC, high controllability, and low controllability. Class membership varied as a function of gender and Greek-life membership. Blood alcohol content was a significant predictor of class membership. Results show a link between alcohol consumption and APBC that varies based on gender and Greek-life status. These findings are discussed with regard to their implications for a variety of prevention interventions.

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & ...

  10. Polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and the blood and salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations of Japanese alcoholic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Tsutsumi, Eri; Imazeki, Hiromi; Suwa, Yoshihide; Nakamura, Chizu; Yokoyama, Tetsuji

    2010-07-01

    The effects of genetic polymorphism of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) on alcohol metabolism are striking in nonalcoholics, and the effects of genetic polymorphism of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) are modest at most, whereas genetic polymorphisms of both strongly affect the susceptibility to alcoholism and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer of drinkers. We evaluated associations between ADH1B/ADH1C/ALDH2 genotypes and the blood and salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde levels of 168 Japanese alcoholic men who came to our hospital for the first time in the morning and had been drinking until the day before. The ethanol levels in their blood and saliva were similar, but the acetaldehyde levels in their saliva were much higher than in their blood, probably because of acetaldehyde production by oral bacteria. Blood and salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde levels were both significantly higher in the subjects with the less active ADH1B*1/*1 genotype than in the ADH1B*2 carriers, but none of the levels differed according to ALDH2 genotype. Significant linkage disequilibrium was detected between the ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes, but ADH1C genotype did not affect the blood or salivary ethanol or acetaldehyde levels. High blood acetaldehyde levels were found even in the active ALDH2*1/*1 alcoholics, which were comparable with the levels of the inactive heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 alcoholics with less active ADH1B*1/*1. The slope of the increase in blood acetaldehyde level as the blood ethanol level increased was significantly steeper in alcoholics with inactive heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 plus ADH1B*2 allele than with any other genotype combinations, but the slopes of the increase in salivary acetaldehyde level as the salivary ethanol level increased did not differ between the groups of subjects with any combinations of ALDH2 and ADH1B genotypes. The ADH1B/ALDH2 genotype affected the blood and salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde levels of nonabstinent alcoholics in a different manner

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... 90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... of Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & ... blood pressure is due to other conditions or medicines or if you have primary high blood pressure. ...

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... to keep a written log of all your results. Whenever you have an appointment with the health ... appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the results of your blood pressure test, your health care ...

  14. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  15. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol? Many factors can affect the cholesterol levels in your blood. You can control some ... but not others. Factors You Can Control Diet Cholesterol is found in foods that come from animal ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in ...

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 readings at several medical appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... 90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and ...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... events, such as eating breakfast, take on exaggerated importance. It's a world where a person needs a ... Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C and eAG Hypoglycemia ( ...

  3. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... giving Gift and estate planning Circle of Champions Corporate sponsorship Join us at an event The Hope ... blood pressure is the #2 cause of kidney failure. It accounts for about one-fourth of all ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... how to handle this condition. Medical IDs Many people with diabetes, particularly those who use insulin, should ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... Sleeve Custom jerseys for your Tour de Cure team benefits the cause. Ask the Experts: Learn to ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin ... Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Online We Support Your Doctor Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient Education Materials Scientific Sessions ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  12. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... possible. Practice healthy coping techniques, such as muscle relaxation, deep breathing or meditation. Getting regular physical activity ... you monitor your blood pressure at home. Practice relaxation or slow, deep breathing. Practice taking deep, slow ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C ... your doctor may change the amount of your medication or insulin or possibly the timing of when ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... How Grant Money is Divided Funding the Next Generation of Brilliant Researchers Our Research Foundation Diabetes Pro: ... they build up in your blood, which can lead to ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is life-threatening and needs ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... blood glucose early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. How Do I Treat Hyperglycemia? You ... Advocacy Take Action Advocacy Priorities News & Events The Cost of Diabetes Advocate Toolkit Call to Congress Research & ...

  16. Drinking behaviours and blood alcohol concentration in four European drinking environments: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Karen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing harm in drinking environments is a growing priority for European alcohol policy yet few studies have explored nightlife drinking behaviours. This study examines alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC in drinking environments in four European cities. Methods A short questionnaire was implemented among 838 drinkers aged 16-35 in drinking environments in four European cities, in the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK. Questions included self-reported alcohol use before interview and expected consumption over the remainder of the night. Breathalyser tests were used to measured breath alcohol concentration (converted to BAC at interview. Results Most participants in the Dutch (56.2%, Spanish (59.6% and British (61.4% samples had preloaded (cf Slovenia 34.8%. In those drinking 5 h. In other nationalities, BAC increases were less pronounced or absent. High BAC (> 0.08% was associated with being male, aged > 19, British and having consumed spirits. In all cities most participants intended to drink enough alcohol to constitute binge drinking. Conclusions Different models of drinking behaviour are seen in different nightlife settings. Here, the UK sample was typified by continued increases in inebriation compared with steady, more moderate intoxication elsewhere. With the former being associated with higher health risks, European alcohol policy must work to deter this form of nightlife.

  17. High Blood Pressure and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure during a previous pregnancy, have a family history of high blood pressure or mild kidney disease. The combination of birth ... Print (PDF) | Online How to Measure Your Blood Pressure (PDF) Questions To Ask ... FREE digital-only, quarterly magazine for patients, families, and caregivers, which focuses on the prevention and ...

  18. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Oct 31,2016 First, let’s define high ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  19. High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as well as kidney function and levels of calcium in your urine. Your provider may do other tests to further assess your condition, such as checking your blood levels of phosphorus (a mineral). Imaging studies also may be helpful, such as bone ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... work with your doctor to find the safest way for you to lower your blood glucose level. Cutting down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health Insurance ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia ( ... Advocacy Take Action Advocacy Priorities News & Events The Cost of Diabetes Advocate ... Resources Shop Diabetes » Close nonprofit software

  3. Is Blood Alcohol Level a Good Predictor for Injury Severity Outcomes in Motor Vehicle Crash Victims?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikaramjit Mann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies in animals suggest that alcohol may influence pathophysiologic response to injury mechanisms. However, biological evidence for the alcohol-injury severity relationship provides conflicting results. The purpose of our retrospective cross-sectional study in 2,323 people was to assess whether blood alcohol level (BAC adversely influences injury severity in victims of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs. We found no difference in mortality OR 1.09 (0.73–1.62, or length of hospital stay, and a trend for lower ISS score was found in the high-alcohol group (P=0.052. Furthermore, the high-alcohol group demonstrated a lower adjusted rate of severe head injury OR 0.65 (0.48–0.87, chest injury OR 0.58 (0.42–0.80, and serious extremity injury OR 0.10 (0.01–0.76. The findings of our study do not demonstrate a dose-response relationship between alcohol consumption and injury severity in MVCs. This study implies that higher BAC may lead to less severe injuries, without impacting mortality or length of hospital stay, however, further research is required to elucidate the nature of this relationship.

  4. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:Dec 9,2016 Knowing the facts ... health. This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  5. High Blood Cholesterol Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Prevention and Management of High LDL Cholesterol: What You Can Do Recommend on ... like eating a healthy diet, can help prevent high cholesterol. High low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increases ...

  6. Effect of Alcohol Withdrawl on Glutathione S-transferase, Total Antioxidant Capacity and Amylase in Blood and Saliva of Alcohol-Dependent Males

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter, Neethumol; Chiramel, Kevin J; A R, Shivashankara

    2013-01-01

    .... The present study was aimed at assessing the effect of alcohol withdrawal on the antioxidants and amylase in blood and saliva, and at finding the correlation between the blood and the salivary parameters in alcoholics...

  7. Dose-dependent effects of intravenous alcohol administration on cerebral blood flow in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Nicole M; Claus, Eric D; Ramchandani, Vijay A; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Boileau, Isabelle; Hendershot, Christian S

    2015-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies involving alcohol challenge are important for identifying neural correlates of alcohol's psychopharmacological effects. However, evaluating acute alcohol effects on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal change is complicated by alcohol-related increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF). The present study aimed to further characterize acute alcohol effects on CBF using intravenous alcohol administration to maximize control over brain alcohol exposure. Twenty heavy-drinking young adults (M = 19.95 years old, SD = 0.76) completed alcohol and placebo imaging sessions in a within-subject, counter-balanced, placebo-controlled design. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) provided estimates of perfusion change at two target blood alcohol concentrations (40 and 80 mg%) relative to baseline and relative to a saline control infusion. Voxel-wise analyses showed widespread and dose-dependent effects of alcohol on CBF increase. Region-of-interest analyses confirmed these findings, also indicating regional variation in the magnitude of perfusion change. Additional findings indicated that lower self-reported sensitivity to alcohol corresponded with reduced perfusion change during alcohol administration. This study provides further evidence for widespread effects of acute alcohol on cerebral perfusion, also demonstrating regional, dose-dependent, and inter-individual variation. Further research is needed to evaluate implications of these effects for the design and interpretation of pharmacological fMRI studies involving alcohol challenge.

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... excused. 86 million Americans have prediabetes. Take the test. Know where you stand. sticky en -- Chef Ronaldo's ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Jobs Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High ... also may ask you to check readings at home or at other locations that have blood pressure ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in the office and readings taken anywhere else. ... The Heart Truth ® —a national heart disease awareness campaign for ...

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... to check readings at home or at other locations that have blood pressure equipment and to keep ... office compared with readings taken in any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... provider usually takes 2–3 readings at several medical appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the ... Researchers believe stress, which can occur during the medical appointment, causes white coat hypertension. Rate This Content: ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Events Spokespeople Email Alerts E-Newsletters About NHLBI Organization NHLBI Director Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Jobs Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » ...

  16. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder View All Content High Blood Pressure & Kidney Disease What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... million filtering units called nephrons. How does high blood pressure affect the kidneys? High blood pressure can ...

  17. High Blood Pressure Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or "no added salt." Look for the sodium content in milligrams and the Percent Daily Value. Aim for foods that are less than 5 percent of the Daily Value of sodium. Foods with 20 percent or more Daily Value of sodium are considered high. To learn more about reading nutrition labels, see ...

  18. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering When Blood Sugar Is Too High KidsHealth > For Teens > When Blood ... often can be unhealthy. What Is High Blood Sugar? The blood glucose level is the amount of ...

  19. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concentration levels. 95.025 Section 95.025 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies to... established by statute a blood alcohol concentration level for purposes of determining whether a person is...

  20. High blood sugar - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High blood glucose - self care; Diabetes - high blood sugar ... Symptoms of high blood sugar can include: Being very thirsty or having a dry mouth Having blurry vision Having dry skin Feeling weak or tired ...

  1. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  2. High Blood Pressure Often Undiagnosed, Untreated

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162996.html High Blood Pressure Often Undiagnosed, Untreated Half of mobile clinic patients ... that's often referred to as a "silent killer" -- high blood pressure, a new Canadian study reveals. High blood pressure, ...

  3. Vital Signs - High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-02

    In the U.S., nearly one third of the adult population have high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke - two of the nation's leading causes of death.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in the office and readings taken anywhere else. Researchers believe stress, which can occur during the medical appointment, causes white coat hypertension. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: ...

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link ...

  6. High blood pressure and eye disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina . The ...

  7. Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... checked out by a doctor. Am I at risk for high blood pressure? Anyone can develop high blood pressure. But there are several factors that increase your risk: Being overweight or obese Not ... if I have high blood pressure? High blood pressure is often called "the silent ...

  8. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) KidsHealth > For Parents > High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) A ... posture, and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  9. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) KidsHealth > For Parents > High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) ... posture, and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  10. High alcohol consumption causes high IgE levels but not high risk of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Frederikke K; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    disease. Genetically, we explored potential causal relationships between alcohol consumption and IgE levels and allergic disease. RESULTS: The multivariable adjusted odds ratio for IgE levels greater than versus less than 150 kU/L and compared with subjects without allergic disease was 2.3 (95% CI, 2......BACKGROUND: High alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels in observational studies; however, whether high alcohol consumption leads to high IgE levels and allergic disease is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that high alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels...... for the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH-1B; rs1229984) and alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH-1C; rs698). Observationally, we investigated associations between IgE levels and allergic disease (allergic asthma, rhinitis, and eczema) and between alcohol consumption and IgE levels and allergic...

  11. Can the blood alcohol concentration be a predictor for increased hospital complications in trauma patients involved in motor vehicle crashes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Jaime H; Rajamanickam, Victoria; Fleming, Michael F

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this report is to assess the relationship of varying levels of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and hospital complications in patients admitted after motor vehicle crashes. Data for the study was collected by a retrospective review of the University of Wisconsin Hospital trauma registry between 1999 and 2007 using the National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons (NTRACS). Of 3729 patients, 2210 (59%) had a negative BAC, 338 (9%) 200 mg/dL. Forty-six percent of patients had one or more hospital related complications. The odds ratio (OR) for the occurrence of alcohol withdrawal in the three alcohol groups compared to the no alcohol group was 12.02 (CI 7.0-20.7), 16.81 (CI 10.4-27.2), and 30.96 (CI 19.5-49.2) as BAC increased with a clear dose response effect. While there were no significant differences in the frequency of the total hospital events following trauma across the four groups, rates of infections, coagulopathies, central nervous system events and renal complications were lower in the high BAC group. Prospective studies are needed to more precisely estimate the frequency of hospital complications in patients with alcohol use disorders and in persons intoxicated at the time of the motor vehicle accident. The study supports the use of routine BAC to predict patients at high risk for alcohol withdrawal and the early initiation of alcohol detoxification.

  12. Bacterial reduction of alcohol-based liquid and gel products on hands soiled with blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagoe, Julia Y; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Martino, Marines Dalla Valle; Siqueira, Itacy; Correa, Luci

    2011-11-01

    The antibacterial efficacy of three alcohol-based products (liquid and gel) were tested on the hands with blood and contaminated with Serratia marcescens (ATCC 14756), using EN 1500 procedures in 14 healthy volunteers. The alcohol-based products tested, either gel or liquid-based, reached bacterial reduction levels higher than 99.9% in the presence of blood and did not differ significantly (ANOVA test; P = 0.614).

  13. High blood pressure in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Bluhm, Brian

    2012-04-01

    High blood pressure in children and adolescents is a growing health problem that is often overlooked by physicians. Normal blood pressure values for children and adolescents are based on age, sex, and height, and are available in standardized tables. Prehypertension is defined as a blood pressure in at least the 90th percentile, but less than the 95th percentile, for age, sex, and height, or a measurement of 120/80 mm Hg or greater. Hypertension is defined as blood pressure in the 95th percentile or greater. A secondary etiology of hypertension is much more likely in children than in adults, with renal parenchymal disease and renovascular disease being the most common. Overweight and obesity are strongly correlated with primary hypertension in children. A history and physical examination are needed for all children with newly diagnosed hypertension to help rule out underlying medical disorders. Children with hypertension should also be screened for other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia, and should be evaluated for target organ damage with a retinal examination and echocardiography. Hypertension in children is treated with lifestyle changes, including weight loss for those who are overweight or obese; a healthy, low-sodium diet; regular physical activity; and avoidance of tobacco and alcohol. Children with symptomatic hypertension, secondary hypertension, target organ damage, diabetes, or persistent hypertension despite nonpharmacologic measures should be treated with antihypertensive medications. Thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers are safe, effective, and well tolerated in children.

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done in a health care provider’s office ... severity of your blood pressure, he or she can order additional tests to determine if your blood ...

  15. Effects of different blood alcohol concentrations and post-alcohol impairment on driving behavior and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yung-Ching; Ho, Chin Heng

    2010-08-01

    A study using simulator methodology was conducted to investigate the effects of (1) different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0, 0.05, 0.08, and 0.10 percent and (2) post-alcohol impairment (where BAC approximately 0%) on driving behavior and subsidiary cognitive task performance. Two driving sessions were investigated, that is, drunk driving and post-alcohol driving, with each requiring approximately 20 min of driving. In addition to driving safely, participants were instructed to perform the critical flicker fusion (CFF) test and completed the NASA-TLX mental workload questionnaire. Eight licensed drivers (6 males, 2 females) participated in this 2 (road complexities) x 2 (simulated driving sessions) x 4 (levels of BAC) within-subjects experiment. The study revealed that higher BAC levels were associated with lower performing driving behavior. The driver's mental workload reached the highest values in the post-alcohol session. In terms of tasks involving divided attention, the traffic sign distance estimation showed significant deterioration with increased BAC levels. The relationship between drunk-driving behavior and alcohol dosage was supported in this study. Noticeably, no significant difference was found between drunk driving and post-alcohol driving, indicating that even in the post-alcohol situation, the impairment still remained significant enough to jeopardize traffic safety as much as it does in the case of drunk driving. In real-life situations, adopting a rest-time strategy to avoid post-alcohol impairment effects may not be the most appropriate solution by drivers; rather, drivers should be given some tests to verify the probability of post-alcohol effects on driving.

  16. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between

  17. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theatres affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between

  18. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theatres affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption)

  19. Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects: Teacher's Manual and Student Text. High School Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth; And Others

    This teacher's manual presents lesson plans for a high-school instructional unit on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and its less severe manifestations, Alcohol-Related Birth Defects. The lessons cover alcohol's effects during pregnancy, the history of concern about alcohol's effects, consequences of alcohol use in pregnancy, lifestyle risk reduction, and…

  20. Scheduled access alcohol drinking by alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats: modeling adolescent and adult binge-like drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard L.; Rodd, Zachary A.; Engleman, Eric A.; Toalston, Jamie E.; McBride, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Binge alcohol drinking continues to be a public health concern among today’s youth and young adults. Moreover, an early onset of alcohol use, which usually takes the form of binge drinking, is associated with a greater risk for developing alcohol use disorders. Given this, it is important to examine this behavior in rat models of alcohol abuse and dependence. Toward that end, the objective of this article is to review findings on binge-like drinking by selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) lines of rats. As reviewed elsewhere in this special issue, the P line meets all, and the HAD line meets most, of the proposed criteria for an animal model of alcoholism. One model of binge drinking is scheduled ethanol access during the dark cycle, which has been used by our laboratory for over 20 years. Our laboratory has also adopted a protocol involving the concurrent presentation of multiple ethanol concentrations. When this protocol is combined with limited access, ethanol intake is maximized yielding blood ethanol levels (BELs) in excess, sometimes greatly in excess, of 80 mg%. By extending these procedures to include multiple scheduled ethanol access sessions during the dark cycle for 5 consecutive days/week, P and HAD rats consume in 3 or 4 h as much as, if not more than, the amount usually consumed in a 24-h period. Under certain conditions, using the multiple scheduled access procedure, BELs exceeding 200 mg% can be achieved on a daily basis. An overview of findings from studies with other selectively bred, inbred, and outbred rats places these findings in the context of the existing literature. Overall, the findings support the use of P and HAD rats as animal models to study binge-like alcohol drinking and reveal that scheduled access procedures will significantly increase ethanol intake by other rat lines and strains as well. PMID:24290311

  1. Scheduled access alcohol drinking by alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats: modeling adolescent and adult binge-like drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Engleman, Eric A; Toalston, Jamie E; McBride, William J

    2014-05-01

    Binge alcohol drinking continues to be a public health concern among today's youth and young adults. Moreover, an early onset of alcohol use, which usually takes the form of binge drinking, is associated with a greater risk for developing alcohol use disorders. Given this, it is important to examine this behavior in rat models of alcohol abuse and dependence. Toward that end, the objective of this article is to review findings on binge-like drinking by selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) lines of rats. As reviewed elsewhere in this special issue, the P line meets all, and the HAD line meets most, of the proposed criteria for an animal model of alcoholism. One model of binge drinking is scheduled ethanol access during the dark cycle, which has been used by our laboratory for over 20 years. Our laboratory has also adopted a protocol involving the concurrent presentation of multiple ethanol concentrations. When this protocol is combined with limited access, ethanol intake is maximized yielding blood ethanol levels (BELs) in excess, sometimes greatly in excess, of 80 mg%. By extending these procedures to include multiple scheduled ethanol access sessions during the dark cycle for 5 consecutive days/week, P and HAD rats consume in 3 or 4 h as much as, if not more than, the amount usually consumed in a 24 h period. Under certain conditions, using the multiple scheduled access procedure, BELs exceeding 200 mg% can be achieved on a daily basis. An overview of findings from studies with other selectively bred, inbred, and outbred rats places these findings in the context of the existing literature. Overall, the findings support the use of P and HAD rats as animal models to study binge-like alcohol drinking and reveal that scheduled access procedures will significantly increase ethanol intake by other rat lines and strains as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of instruments for determining blood alcohol concentration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C.

    1969-01-01

    The results of breath tests with an ethanographe for B.A.C. determination are compared with results of blood samples and blood analysis by gas chromatography. This has been done to look for the best and most secure equipment.

  3. How Is High Blood Cholesterol Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for total and HDL cholesterol does not require fasting. If your total cholesterol is 200 mg/dL ... triglyceride level include: Overweight and obesity Lack of physical activity Cigarette smoking Excessive alcohol use A very high ...

  4. Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 10,2017 The importance of stress ... content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  5. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Oct 31,2016 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  6. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  7. High Blood Pressure: Keep the Beat Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Keep the Beat Recipes Past Issues / Fall 2011 ... 65 million American adults—one in three—with high blood pressure, you have probably heard the advice, "watch your ...

  8. Physiological and psychological effects of a high dose of alcohol in young men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Monleón, Santiago; Parra, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a high dose of alcohol on physiological and psychological parameters in young men and women with a previous history of alcohol consumption. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, state anxiety, attention, time estimation and manual dexterity were registered before (phase 1) and after (phase 2) intake of alcohol (38.4 g) or a non-alcoholic beverage. Trait anxiety was registered in phase 2 only. The results showed that acute consumption of a high dose of alcohol: i) improves attention in men (although the performance of alcohol consumers was not better than that of non-consumers); ii) blocks the systolic blood pressure habituation phenomenon (observed in controls) in women; and iii) blocks the improvement in manual dexterity (associated with experience in non-consumers) in both sexes. On the other hand, male consumers had a lower heart rate than non-consumers, independently of the phase, while female consumers had a higher state anxiety and performed worse in attention than controls, also independently of the phase. These results help to understand the extent of performance impairment of different tasks produced by risk alcohol consumption in young men and women.

  9. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, ... Lifestyle Habits Unhealthy lifestyle habits can raise your risk for high blood pressure, and they include: Eating too much sodium or ...

  10. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between-participant design was used, in which 184 young adults (age: 16-28 years) were exposed to a movie that was preceded by either alcohol commercials or nonalcohol commercials. Participants' actual alcohol consumption while watching the movie ("Watchmen") was examined. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of the commercial condition on alcohol consumption. An interaction effect was found between commercial condition and weekly alcohol consumption (p < .001). Alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol drinkers was higher in the alcohol commercial condition than in the nonalcohol commercial condition, whereas no differences were found in alcohol consumption between commercial conditions among low weekly alcohol drinkers. No gender differences were found in the association between exposure to alcohol commercials, weekly drinking, and alcohol use. Thus, exposure to alcohol commercials prior to a movie in a movie theater can directly influence alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol consumers.

  11. Alcohol Pharmacology Education Partnership: Using Chemistry and Biology Concepts to Educate High School Students about Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Elizabeth A.; Kwiek, Nicole; Sikes, Suzanne S.; Halpin, Myra J.; Weinbaum, Carolyn A.; Burgette, Lane F.; Reiter, Jerome P.; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D.

    2014-01-01

    We developed the Alcohol Pharmacology Education Partnership (APEP), a set of modules designed to integrate a topic of interest (alcohol) with concepts in chemistry and biology for high school students. Chemistry and biology teachers (n = 156) were recruited nationally to field-test APEP in a controlled study. Teachers obtained professional…

  12. Alcohol Pharmacology Education Partnership: Using Chemistry and Biology Concepts to Educate High School Students about Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Elizabeth A.; Kwiek, Nicole; Sikes, Suzanne S.; Halpin, Myra J.; Weinbaum, Carolyn A.; Burgette, Lane F.; Reiter, Jerome P.; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D.

    2014-01-01

    We developed the Alcohol Pharmacology Education Partnership (APEP), a set of modules designed to integrate a topic of interest (alcohol) with concepts in chemistry and biology for high school students. Chemistry and biology teachers (n = 156) were recruited nationally to field-test APEP in a controlled study. Teachers obtained professional…

  13. How Is High Blood Pressure Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or focusing on something calm or peaceful Performing yoga or tai chi Meditating Medicines Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to stop or slow some of the body’s functions that cause high blood pressure. Medicines to lower ...

  14. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a stealth threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  15. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a silent threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  16. [Blood alcohol in automobile drivers--a comparison between Saarland and West Saxony].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, M R; Müller, R K

    1991-01-01

    The Saarland and Saxony have not only been located at the western respectively at the eastern border of Germany (or of the then separated both German states). Different law regulations and lifestyles seemed to be an additional reason for different incidences of blood alcohol. Therefore, the blood alcohol cases of the university institutes for legal medicine of both provinces were statistically compared for 1989. Beyond some difficulties in the comparison itself due to different definitions and managements, equal or similar patterns dominated by far against discrepancies. The slightly different regulations for quality assurance were also compared with the expectation of their equalisation during the next future.

  17. High blood pressure in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, D A; Oparil, S

    1997-01-01

    There is a sexual dimorphism in blood pressure of humans and experimental animals: males tend to have higher blood pressure than females with functional ovaries, while ovariectomy or menopause tends to abolish the sexual dimorphism and cause females to develop a "male" pattern of blood pressure. Hypertensive male laboratory animals tend to have NaCl-sensitive blood pressure, while females are NaCl resistant unless their ovaries are removed, in which case NaCl sensitivity appears. The hormonal basis of NaCl sensitivity of blood pressure and of the sexual dimorphism of hypertension remains to be defined. Synthetic estrogens and progestins, as found in oral contraceptives, tend to elevate blood pressure, while naturally occurring estrogens lower it, or have no effect. Hypertension increases cardiovascular risk in women, as well as men, although the benefits of antihypertensive treatment have been more difficult to demonstrate in women. In the population of the United States, women are more aware of their hypertension, more likely to be treated medically, and more likely to have their blood pressure controlled.

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events Spokespeople Email Alerts E-Newsletters About NHLBI Organization NHLBI Director Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Jobs ... track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care provider may ask you to ...

  19. High Speed Blood and Transfusion Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-14

    used to calculate percent hemolysis of red blood cells. Plasma Free Hemoglobin Assay - pRBCs samples were assayed for plasma free hemoglobin (PFH...resulting in high temperatures gradients that preludes blood hemolysis if fluid flow stops. • The solenoid valve has been replaced with a valve of a more...pRBCs to test efficacy. Both pre and post cartridge blood samples were evaluated to determine if any damage may have occurred to blood cells. The

  20. Potential Biomarker Peptides Associated with Acute Alcohol-Induced Reduction of Blood Pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Wakabayashi

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the peptides that are related to acute reduction of blood pressure after alcohol drinking. Venous blood was collected from male healthy volunteers before and after drinking white wine (3 ml/kg weight containing 13% of ethanol. Peptidome analysis for serum samples was performed using a new target plate, BLOTCHIP®. Alcohol caused significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at 45 min. The peptidome analysis showed that the levels of three peptides of m/z 1467, 2380 and 2662 changed significantly after drinking. The m/z 1467 and 2662 peptides were identified to be fragments of fibrinogen alpha chain, and the m/z 2380 peptide was identified to be a fragment of complement C4. The intensities of the m/z 2380 and m/z 1467 peptides before drinking were associated with % decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at 45 min after drinking compared with the levels before drinking, while there were no significant correlations between the intensity of the m/z 2662 peptide and % decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels after drinking. The m/z 1467 and 2380 peptides are suggested to be markers for acute reduction of blood pressure after drinking alcohol.

  1. The evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow in the chronic alcohol abuse patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. A.; Kim, D. J.; Oh, J. H.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The use of alcohol is increasingly prevalent in our country and remains associated with innumerable social and economic problems. In addition, brain abnormalities have been proved by means of neuroimaging techniques not only in the first days of withdrawal, but also months after the last use of the substance in the patients. The purpose of the present study was to investigate patterns of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in alcoholic dementia. Six patients (all men; 44-67 years, mean age = 57.5 years) who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for alcoholic dementia were enrolled in the study. RCBF measurements of resting state using Tc-99m ethyl cysteinate dimmer (ECD) SPECT were performed. The SPECT image was obtained 40 minutes after intravenous injection of 1110 MBq of Tc-99m ECD using a dual-head gamma camera (ECAM plus; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The normalized SPECT data from the alcoholic dementia group were compared with those from 12 healthy subjects. Alcoholic dementia patients showed significant decrement of rCBF in the left thalamus, superior frontal gyrus of left frontal lobe, left insula, postcentral gyrus of left parietal lobe, parahippocapal gyrus of left limbic lobe, right caudate, and cingulate gyrus of right limbic lobe than age-matched healthy subjects. Despite the small number of patients examined, the study supports the belief that patients with alcohol induced cognitive dysfunction have the neuro pathophysiology as those with classical alcoholic dementia.

  2. Epidemiology of stroke : the role of blood pressure, alcohol and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keli, S.O.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the recent trends in stroke mortality in the Netherlands Antilles, and the role of long-term blood pressure, alcohol and diet as risk factors for stroke incidence. The official mortality statistics and population data from the Netherlands Antilles over the period

  3. Attenuation of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and blood cortisol level with forced exercise in comparison with diazepam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motaghinejad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Relieving withdrawal and post-abstinence syndrome of alcoholism is one of the major strategies in the treatment of alcohol addicted patients. Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and topiramate are the approved medications that were used for this object. To assess the role of non-pharmacologic therapy in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, we analyzed effects of forced exercise by treadmill on alcohol dependent mice as an animal model. A total of 60 adult male mice were divided into 5 groups, from which 4 groups became dependent to alcohol (2 g/kg/day for 15 days. From day 16, treatment groups were treated by diazepam (0.5mg/kg, forced exercise, and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg concurrent with forced exercise for two weeks; And the positive control group received same dose of alcohol (2 g/kg/day for two weeks. The negative control group received normal saline for four weeks. Finally, on day 31, all animals were observed for withdrawal signs, and Alcohol Total Withdrawal Score (ATWS was determined. Blood cortisol levels were measured in non-fasting situations as well. Present findings showed that ATWS significantly decrease in all treatment groups in comparison with positive control group (P<0.05 for groups received diazepam and treated by forced exercise and P<0.001 for group under treatment diazepam + forced exercise. Moreover, blood cortisol level significantly decreased in all treatment groups (P<0.001. This study suggested that forced exercise and physical activity can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism and can ameliorate side effects and stress situation of withdrawal syndrome periods.

  4. Attenuation of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and blood cortisol level with forced exercise in comparison with diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Bangash, Mohammad Yasan; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2015-01-01

    Relieving withdrawal and post-abstinence syndrome of alcoholism is one of the major strategies in the treatment of alcohol addicted patients. Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and topiramate are the approved medications that were used for this object. To assess the role of non-pharmacologic therapy in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, we analyzed effects of forced exercise by treadmill on alcohol dependent mice as an animal model. A total of 60 adult male mice were divided into 5 groups, from which 4 groups became dependent to alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for 15 days. From day 16, treatment groups were treated by diazepam (0.5mg/kg), forced exercise, and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) concurrent with forced exercise for two weeks; And the positive control group received same dose of alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for two weeks. The negative control group received normal saline for four weeks. Finally, on day 31, all animals were observed for withdrawal signs, and Alcohol Total Withdrawal Score (ATWS) was determined. Blood cortisol levels were measured in non-fasting situations as well. Present findings showed that ATWS significantly decrease in all treatment groups in comparison with positive control group (Pdiazepam and treated by forced exercise and Pdiazepam + forced exercise). Moreover, blood cortisol level significantly decreased in all treatment groups (P<0.001). This study suggested that forced exercise and physical activity can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism and can ameliorate side effects and stress situation of withdrawal syndrome periods.

  5. Estimation of benchmark dose as the threshold amount of alcohol consumption for blood pressure in Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwazono, Yasushi; Sakata, Kouichi; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Okubo, Yasushi; Dochi, Mirei; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Kido, Teruhiko; Nogawa, Koji

    2007-12-01

    In order to determine the threshold amount of alcohol consumption for blood pressure, we calculated the benchmark dose (BMD) of alcohol consumption and its 95% lower confidence interval (BMDL) in Japanese workers. The subjects consisted of 4,383 males and 387 females in a Japanese steel company. The target variables were systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures. The effects of other potential covariates such as age and body mass index were adjusted by including these covariates in the multiple linear regression models. In male workers, BMD/BMDL for alcohol consumption (g/week) at which the probability of an adverse response was estimated to increase by 5% relative to no alcohol consumption, were 396/315 (systolic blood pressure), 321/265 (diastolic blood pressure), and 326/269 (mean arterial pressures). These values were based on significant regression coefficients of alcohol consumption. In female workers, BMD/BMDL for alcohol consumption based on insignificant regression coefficients were 693/134 (systolic blood pressure), 199/90 (diastolic blood pressure), and 267/77 (mean arterial pressure). Therefore, BMDs/BMDLs in males were more informative than those in females as there was no significant relationship between alcohol and blood pressure in females. The threshold amount of alcohol consumption determined in this study provides valuable information for preventing alcohol-induced hypertension.

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites News & ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for ...

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for ...

  8. The effect of prior alcohol consumption on the ataxic response to alcohol in high-alcohol preferring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brandon M; Boehm, Stephen L

    2014-12-01

    We have previously shown that ethanol-naïve high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice, genetically predisposed to consume large quantities of alcohol, exhibited heightened sensitivity and more rapid acute functional tolerance (AFT) to alcohol-induced ataxia compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior alcohol self-administration on these responses in HAP mice. Naïve male and female adult HAP mice from the second replicate of selection (HAP2) underwent 18 days of 24-h, 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% ethanol vs. water, or water only. After 18 days of fluid access, mice were tested for ataxic sensitivity and rapid AFT following a 1.75 g/kg injection of ethanol on a static dowel apparatus in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a separate group of mice was tested for more protracted AFT development using a dual-injection approach where a second, larger (2.0 g/kg) injection of ethanol was given following the initial recovery of performance on the task. HAP2 mice that had prior access to alcohol exhibited a blunted ataxic response to the acute alcohol challenge, but this pre-exposure did not alter rapid within-session AFT capacity in Experiment 1 or more protracted AFT capacity in Experiment 2. These findings suggest that the typically observed increase in alcohol consumption in these mice may be influenced by ataxic functional tolerance development, but is not mediated by a greater capacity for ethanol exposure to positively influence within-session ataxic tolerance.

  9. The High Price of Excessive Alcohol Consumption

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-17

    This podcast is based on the October 2011 release of a report estimating the economic cost of excessive drinking. Excessive alcohol consumption cost the U. S. $223.5 billion in 2006, or about $1.90 per drink. Over three-quarters (76%) of these costs were due to binge drinking, defined as consuming 4 or more alcoholic beverages per occasion for women or 5 or more drinks per occasion for men.  Created: 10/17/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 10/17/2011.

  10. Phytophenols in whisky lower blood acetaldehyde level by depressing alcohol metabolism through inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (class I) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseba, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Junichi; Sato, Shigeo; Abe, Yuko; Ohno, Youkichi

    2008-12-01

    We recently reported that the maturation of whisky prolongs the exposure of the body to a given dose of alcohol by reducing the rate of alcohol metabolism and thus lowers the blood acetaldehyde level (Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007;31:77s-82s). In this study, administration of the nonvolatile fraction of whisky was found to lower the concentration of acetaldehyde in the blood of mice by depressing alcohol metabolism through the inhibition of liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Four of the 12 phenolic compounds detected in the nonvolatile fraction (caffeic acid, vanillin, syringaldehyde, ellagic acid), the amounts of which increase during the maturation of whisky, were found to strongly inhibit mouse ADH 1 (class I). Their inhibition constant values for ADH 1 were 0.08, 7.9, 15.6, and 22.0 mumol/L, respectively, whereas that for pyrazole, a well-known ADH inhibitor, was 5.1 mumol/L. The 2 phenolic aldehydes and ellagic acid exhibited a mixed type of inhibition, whereas caffeic acid showed the competitive type. When individually administered to mice together with ethanol, each of these phytophenols depressed the elimination of ethanol, thereby lowering the acetaldehyde concentration of blood. Thus, it was demonstrated that the enhanced inhibition of liver ADH 1 due to the increased amounts of these phytophenols in mature whisky caused the depression of alcohol metabolism and a consequent lowering of blood acetaldehyde level. These substances are commonly found in various food plants and act as antioxidants and/or anticarcinogens. Therefore, the intake of foods rich in them together with alcohol may not only diminish the metabolic toxicity of alcohol by reducing both the blood acetaldehyde level and oxidative stress, but also help limit the amount of alcohol a person drinks by depressing alcohol metabolism.

  11. CHRONOBIOLOGY OF HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.; Bakken, E. E.; Wang, Z.; Tarquini, R.; Perfetto, F.; Laffi, G.; Maggioni, C.; Kumagai, Y.; Homolka, P.; Havelková, A.; Dušek, J.; Svačinová, H.; Siegelová, J.; Fišer, B.

    2008-01-01

    BIOCOS, the project aimed at studying BIOlogical systems in their COSmos, has obtained a great deal of expertise in the fields of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) monitoring and of marker rhythmometry for the purposes of screening, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Prolonging the monitoring reduces the uncertainty in the estimation of circadian parameters; the current recommendation of BIOCOS requires monitoring for at least 7 days. The BIOCOS approach consists of a parametric and a non-parametric analysis of the data, in which the results from the individual subject are being compared with gender- and age-specified reference values in health. Chronobiological designs can offer important new information regarding the optimization of treatment by timing its administration as a function of circadian and other rhythms. New technological developments are needed to close the loop between the monitoring of blood pressure and the administration of antihypertensive drugs. PMID:19122770

  12. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  13. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  14. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on mitochondrial DNA mutagenesis in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wurmb-Schwark, N; Ringleb, A; Schwark, T; Broese, T; Weirich, S; Schlaefke, D; Wegener, R; Oehmichen, M

    2008-01-01

    The 4977bp deletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is known to accumulate with increasing age in post mitotic tissues. Recently, studies came out detecting this specific alteration also in fast replicating cells, e.g. in blood or skin tissue, often in correlation to specific diseases or -- specifically in skin -- external stressors such as UV radiation. In this study, we investigated mitochondrial mutagenesis in 69 patients with a chronic alcoholic disease and 46 age matched controls with a moderate drinking behavior. Two different fragments, specific for total and for deleted mtDNA (dmtDNA) were amplified in a duplex-PCR. A subsequent fragment analysis was performed and for relative quantification, the quotient of the peak areas of amplification products specific for deleted and total mtDNA was determined. Additionally, a real time PCR was performed to quantify mtDNA copy number. The relative amount of 4977bp deleted mtDNA in alcoholics was significantly increased compared to controls. On the other hand, no difference regarding the mtDNA/nuclear DNA ratio in both investigated groups was detected. Additionally, no age dependence could be found nor in alcoholics, neither in the control group. These findings indicate that mtDNA mutagenesis in blood can be influenced by stressors such as alcohol. Ethanol seems to be a significant factor to alter mitochondrial DNA in blood and might be an additional contributor for the cellular aging process.

  15. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on mitochondrial DNA mutagenesis in human blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurmb-Schwark, N. von [Institute of Legal Medicine, Christian Albrecht University of Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 12, 24105 Kiel (Germany)], E-mail: nvonwurmb@rechtsmedizin.uni-kiel.de; Ringleb, A.; Schwark, T. [Institute of Legal Medicine, Christian Albrecht University of Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 12, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Broese, T.; Weirich, S.; Schlaefke, D. [Clinic of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Rostock, Gehlsheimer Str. 20, Rostock (Germany); Wegener, R. [Institute of Legal Medicine, St-Georg-Str. 108, University of Rostock, 18055 Rostock (Germany); Oehmichen, M. [Institute of Legal Medicine, Christian Albrecht University of Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 12, 24105 Kiel (Germany)

    2008-01-01

    The 4977 bp deletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is known to accumulate with increasing age in post mitotic tissues. Recently, studies came out detecting this specific alteration also in fast replicating cells, e.g. in blood or skin tissue, often in correlation to specific diseases or - specifically in skin - external stressors such as UV radiation. In this study, we investigated mitochondrial mutagenesis in 69 patients with a chronic alcoholic disease and 46 age matched controls with a moderate drinking behavior. Two different fragments, specific for total and for deleted mtDNA (dmtDNA) were amplified in a duplex-PCR. A subsequent fragment analysis was performed and for relative quantification, the quotient of the peak areas of amplification products specific for deleted and total mtDNA was determined. Additionally, a real time PCR was performed to quantify mtDNA copy number. The relative amount of 4977 bp deleted mtDNA in alcoholics was significantly increased compared to controls. On the other hand, no difference regarding the mtDNA/nuclear DNA ratio in both investigated groups was detected. Additionally, no age dependence could be found nor in alcoholics, neither in the control group. These findings indicate that mtDNA mutagenesis in blood can be influenced by stressors such as alcohol. Ethanol seems to be a significant factor to alter mitochondrial DNA in blood and might be an additional contributor for the cellular aging process.

  16. Combined Use of Alcohol and Energy Drinks Increases Participation in High-Risk Drinking and Driving Behaviors Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Williams, Ronald D; Housman, Jeff M; Barry, Adam E; Jacobson, Bert H; Evans, Marion W

    2015-07-01

    A recent study suggested that college students who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely than students who consumed only alcohol to drive when their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was higher than the .08% limit and to choose to drive despite knowing they had too much alcohol to drive safely. This study sought to replicate those findings with a larger sample while also exploring additional variables related to impaired driving. College students (N = 549) completed an anonymous online survey to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between alcohol-only users (n = 281) and combined alcohol-energy drink users (n = 268). Combined users were more likely than alcohol-only users to choose to (a) drive when they perceived they were over the .08% BAC limit (35.0% vs. 18.1%, p drinks consumed, number of days drinking, number of days drunk, number of heavy episodic drinking episodes, greatest number of drinks on one occasion, and average hours of consumption. Combined use of alcohol and energy drinks may place drinkers at greater risk when compared with those who consume only alcohol. College students in this sample who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely to participate in high-risk driving behaviors than those who consumed only alcohol.

  17. Lack of effects of a "sobering" product, "Eezup!", on the blood ethanol and congener alcohol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunder, Cora; Hain, Sarah; Koelzer, Sarah C; Paulke, Alexander; Verhoff, Marcel A; Toennes, Stefan W

    2017-09-01

    The lifestyle product 'Eezup!' appeared on the German market and promised to normalize energy metabolism. Among vitamins (B1, B2, B6, C, E and zinc), rice protein and fructose the addition of alcohol dehydrogenase and catalase enzymes is a novel approach. The product was advertised as capable of boosting the rate of alcohol elimination. Seventeen subjects (11 men, 6 women, 19-58 years old), participated in a two-way crossover drinking study. Unfiltered wheat beer (4.4g% alcohol content) was drank within one hour to reach blood alcohol concentrations of 1‰ (1g/kg whole blood). On one day "Eezup!" was taken according to the manufacturer's instructions before and after drinking which was substituted for a placebo on the second test day. Blood samples were taken during 9h and ethanol and congener alcohols were determined. A comparison of Cmax, tmax, area under the curve (AUC) for ethanol and congener alcohols, and the hourly elimination rate of ethanol (β60) was performed to investigate an effect of Eezup!. Ethanol concentrations (Cmax) were in the range of 0,63-1,00‰ (median 0,85‰) and 0.62-1.22‰ (median 0.84‰) in the placebo and "Eezup!" condition, respectively, and not statistically different. Also tmax (1-2.5h) and AUCs did not differ. The ethanol elimination rates were 0.16‰/h (0.14-0.19‰/h) and 0.17‰/h (0.14-0.22 ‰/h) in the placebo and "Eezup!" condition without significant difference. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the congener alcohols (1-propanol, isobutanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol) as well as of methanol did also not differ. The results of the present study failed to show any effect of the sobering product "Eezup!" on the amount of ethanol and congener alcohols absorbed (Cmax, tmax, AUC) and on the ethanol elimination rate (β60). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Kido

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2 consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into

  19. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K.; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T.; Sameshima, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  20. Effect of alcohol consumption on peripheral blood Alu methylation in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Sun; Kim, Young Hun; Lee, Won Kee; Na, Yeon Kyung; Hong, Hae Sook

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are defined as alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, which create a substantial public health problem worldwide. To date, no therapeutic can effectively solve these problems. They are complex diseases characterized by both genetic and environmental factors. DNA methylation can act as a downstream effector of environmental signals and account for multi-factorial nature of the disease. Global DNA methylation of peripheral blood cells has recently been proposed as a potential biomarker for disease risk. Alu elements host one-quarter of CpG dinucelotides in the genome to function as proxies for global DNA methylation. In this study, we evaluated the Alu methylation in the peripheral blood DNA of healthy volunteers and AUD patients using the pyrosequencing technology. The Alu methylation level is significantly higher in AUD compared to healthy controls (23.4 ± 1.6 versus 22.1 ± 1.0, t = 7.83, p methylation and alcohol use disorders identification test score (r = 0.250, p methylation might play a complex role in the etiology and pathogenesis of AUD. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this relationship.

  1. Effect of alcohol on blood glucose and antioxidant enzymes in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K R Shanmugam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus affects every organ in the man including eyes, kidney, heart, and nervous system. Alcohol consumption is a widespread practice. As the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on diabetic state have been little studied, this study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of alcohol in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, the rats were divided into five groups (n = 6 in each group: normal control (NC, alcohol treatment (At, diabetic control (DC, diabetic plus alcohol treatment (D + At, diabetic plus glibenclamide treatment (D + Gli. Alcohol treatment was given to the diabetic rats for 30 days. During the period the blood glucose levels, and body weight changes were observed at regular intervals. The antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were assayed in the liver and kidney tissues. Results: The blood glucose levels were significantly (P < 0.001 elevated and body weight significantly (P < 0.001 decreased in alcohol-treated diabetic rats. SOD and CAT activities were decreased and the MDA level increased significantly (P < 0.001 in alcohol-treated diabetic rats. Histopathological studies showed that alcohol damages the liver and kidney tissues in diabetic rats. Conclusion: These finddings concluded that the consumption of alcohol in diabetic rats worsens the condition. So the consumption of alcohol by diabetic subjects may be potentially harmful.

  2. Blood (Breath) Alcohol Concentration Rates of College Football Fans on Game Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis; Braun, Robert; Reindl, Diana M.; Whewell, Aubrey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the Blood (breath) Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) rates of college football fans on game day. Researchers employed a time-series study design, collecting data at home football games at a large university in the Midwest. Participants included 536 individuals (64.4% male) ages 18-83 (M = 28.44, SD = 12.32).…

  3. Blood (Breath) Alcohol Concentration Rates of College Football Fans on Game Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis; Braun, Robert; Reindl, Diana M.; Whewell, Aubrey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the Blood (breath) Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) rates of college football fans on game day. Researchers employed a time-series study design, collecting data at home football games at a large university in the Midwest. Participants included 536 individuals (64.4% male) ages 18-83 (M = 28.44, SD = 12.32).…

  4. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... names are given for the drugs in each group.Find your drug. Then read some basic information about your kind of drug. Types of High Blood Pressure Medicines ACE Inhibitors Beta Blockers Calcium Channel Blockers ...

  5. High Blood Pressure May Hike Dementia Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161398.html High Blood Pressure May Hike Dementia Risk New statement from American Heart Association warns ... in middle age, might open the door to dementia, the American Heart Association warns in a new ...

  6. An Investigation on the Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Physalis alkekengi on Blood Indexes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Yarmahmoudi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physalis alkekengi by effective ingredients such as alkaloids, glucocorticoids and because of antioxidant property can play a role in homeostasis. The aim of this study was to examine the possible effects of fruit extract of P. alkekengi on blood homogram. Materials and Methods: Forty male rats were divided to control, sham (normal saline and experimental groups (highest, moderate and minimum doses of alcoholic extract. Then, the blood samples were taken in order to perform laboratory test by Sysmex analyzer, and were analyzed using ANOVA. Results: Results showed that the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit increased and white blood cells decreased. Conclusion: Fruit extract of P. alkekensi is probably effective in treatment of anemia.

  7. Daidzin, an antioxidant isoflavonoid, decreases blood alcohol levels and shortens sleep time induced by ethanol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, C I; Lin, R C; Antony, V; Lumeng, L; Li, T K; Mai, K; Liu, C; Wang, Q D; Zhao, Z H; Wang, G F

    1994-12-01

    The extract from an edible vine, Pueraria lebata, has been reported to be efficacious in lessening alcohol intoxication. In this study, we have tested the efficacy of one of the major components, daidzin, from this plant extract. When ethanol (40% solution, 3 g/kg body weight) was given to fasted rats intragastrically, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) peaked at 30 min after alcohol ingestion and reached 1.77 +/- 0.14 mg/ml (mean values +/- SD, n = 6). If daidzin (30 mg/kg) was mixed with the ethanol solution and given to animals intragastrically, BAC was found to peak at 90 min after alcohol ingestion and reached only 1.20 +/- 0.30 mg/ml (n = 6) (p daidzin to delay and decrease peak BAC level after ethanol ingestion was also observed in fed animals. In both fasted and fed rats given alcohol without daidzin, BAC quickly declined after reaching its peak at 30 min. By contrast, BAC levels receded more slowly if daidzin was also fed to the animals. Daidzin showed a chronic effect. Rats fed daidzin for 7 days before ethanol challenge, but not on the day of challenge, also produced lower and later peak BAC levels. Interestingly, daidzin, whether fed to rats only once or chronically for 7 days, did not significantly alter activities of either alcohol dehydrogenase or mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase in the liver. Further experiments demonstrated that daidzin shortened sleep time for rats receiving ethanol intragastrically (7 g/kg) but not intraperitoneally (2 g/kg). To test whether daidzin delayed stomach-emptying, [14C]polyethylene glycol was mixed with ethanol and fed to rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Intervention for hazardous alcohol use and high level of stress in university freshmen: a comparison between an intervention and a control university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Claes; Johnsson, Kent O; Berglund, Mats; Ojehagen, Agneta

    2009-12-11

    The first year of university studies is associated with increased levels of alcohol drinking and stress. This study examines the one-year outcome of both primary and secondary interventions of one alcohol programme and one stress intervention programme at an intervention university in comparison with a control university. At the intervention university all freshmen were offered a primary prevention programme for hazardous alcohol use and stress management and, in addition, those who had high ratings for stress and/or hazardous alcohol use were offered a secondary intervention programme for alcohol consumption and/or stress management. Freshmen still attending the two universities one year later responded to follow-up questionnaires. The primary alcohol and stress interventions were associated with lower alcohol expectancies and mental symptoms, but no differences in AUDIT scores (-0.2, CI 95% -0.5 to 0.1), estimated blood alcohol concentrations or stress in comparison to freshmen at the control university. The secondary alcohol interventions were associated with decreased AUDIT (-1.1, CI 95% -2.0 to -0.2) as well as alcohol expectancies, blood alcohol concentrations, stress and mental symptoms in comparison to high-risk freshmen at the control university. The secondary stress interventions were associated with decreased mental symptoms and alcohol expectancies, but not stress, AUDIT scores (-0.6, CI 95% -1.4 to 0.2) and blood alcohol concentrations in comparison to high-risk freshmen at the control university. This study suggests that both primary and secondary alcohol and stress interventions have 1-year effects in university freshmen and could be implemented in university settings.

  9. [Confrontation of knowledge on alcohol concentration in blood and in exhaled air].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Miroslav; Bauerová, Jiřina; Šikuta, Ján; Šidlo, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    The authors of the paper give a brief historical overview of the development of experimental alcohology in the former Czechoslovakia. Enhanced attention is paid to tests of work quality control of toxicological laboratories. Information on results of control tests of blood samples using the method of gas chromatography in Slovakia and within a world-wide study "Eurotox 1990" is presented. There are pointed out the pitfalls related to objective evaluation of the analysis results interpreting alcohol concentration in biological materials and the associated need to eliminate a negative influence of the human factor. The authors recommend performing analyses of alcohol in biological materials only at accredited workplaces and in the case of samples storage to secure a mandatory inhibition of phosphorylation process. There are analysed the reasons of numerical differences of analyses while taking evidence of alcohol in blood and in exhaled air. The authors confirm analysis accuracy using the method of gas chromatography along with breath analysers of exhaled air. They highlight the need for making the analysis results more objective also through confrontation with the results of clinical examination and with examined circumstances. The authors suggest a method of elimination of the human factor, the most frequently responsible for inaccuracy, to a tolerable level (safety factor) and the need of sample analysis by two methods independent of each other or the need of analysis of two biological materials.

  10. New Zealand's breath and blood alcohol testing programs: further data analysis and forensic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, A R; Gainsford, A R; Gullberg, R G

    2008-07-01

    Paired blood and breath alcohol concentrations (BAC, in g/dL, and BrAC, in g/210 L), were determined for 11,837 drivers apprehended by the New Zealand Police. For each driver, duplicate BAC measurements were made using headspace gas chromatography and duplicate BrAC measurements were made with either Intoxilyzer 5000, Seres 679T or Seres 679ENZ Ethylometre infrared analysers. The variability of differences between duplicate results is described in detail, as well as the variability of differences between the paired BrAC and BAC results. The mean delay between breath and blood sampling was 0.73 h, ranging from 0.17 to 3.1 8h. BAC values at the time of breath testing were estimated by adjusting BAC results using an assumed blood alcohol clearance rate. The paired BrAC and time-adjusted BAC results were analysed with the aim of estimating the proportion of false-positive BrAC results, using the time-adjusted BAC results as references. When BAC results were not time-adjusted, the false-positive rate (BrAC>BAC) was 31.3% but after time-adjustment using 0.019 g/dL/h as the blood alcohol clearance rate, the false-positive rate was only 2.8%. However, harmful false-positives (defined as cases where BrAC>0.1 g/210L, while BACtest results were used as the evidential results instead of the means, the harmful false-positive rate dropped to 0.04%.

  11. Too Many Americans Have High Blood Pressure, Doctors Warn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163468.html Too Many Americans Have High Blood Pressure, Doctors Warn With February designated National Heart Month, ... physicians warns that too many Americans struggle with high blood pressure. High blood pressure is a major risk factor ...

  12. High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung, and Blood Institute Alternate Language URL Español High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know Page Content Children can have high blood pressure. Did you know that children could have high ...

  13. A New View of Alcohol Metabolism and Alcoholism—Role of the High-Km Class Ⅲ Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youkichi Ohno

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The conventional view is that alcohol metabolism is carried out by ADH1 (Class I in the liver. However, it has been suggested that another pathway plays an important role in alcohol metabolism, especially when the level of blood ethanol is high or when drinking is chronic. Over the past three decades, vigorous attempts to identify the enzyme responsible for the non-ADH1 pathway have focused on the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS and catalase, but have failed to clarify their roles in systemic alcohol metabolism. Recently, using ADH3-null mutant mice, we demonstrated that ADH3 (Class III, which has a high Km and is a ubiquitous enzyme of ancient origin, contributes to systemic alcohol metabolism in a dose-dependent manner, thereby diminishing acute alcohol intoxication. Although the activity of ADH3 toward ethanol is usually low in vitro due to its very high Km, the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km is markedly enhanced when the solution hydrophobicity of the reaction medium increases. Activation of ADH3 by increasing hydrophobicity should also occur in liver cells; a cytoplasmic solution of mouse liver cells was shown to be much more hydrophobic than a buffer solution when using Nile red as a hydrophobicity probe. When various doses of ethanol are administered to mice, liver ADH3 activity is dynamically regulated through induction or kinetic activation, while ADH1 activity is markedly lower at high doses (3–5 g/kg. These data suggest that ADH3 plays a dynamic role in alcohol metabolism, either collaborating with ADH1 or compensating for the reduced role of ADH1. A complex two-ADH model that ascribes total liver ADH activity to both ADH1 and ADH3 explains the dose-dependent changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters (b, CLT, AUC of blood ethanol very well, suggesting that alcohol metabolism in mice is primarily governed by these two ADHs. In patients with alcoholic liver disease, liver ADH3 activity increases, while ADH1 activity decreases

  14. Prevalence and consequences of positive blood alcohol levels among patients injured at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin A Foster

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to characterize positive blood alcohol among patients injured at work, and to compare the severity of injury and outcome of blood alcohol concentration (BAC positive and negative patients. Settings and Design: A retrospective cohort study was performed at a Level 1 academic trauma center. Patients injured at work between 01/01/07 and 01/01/12 and admitted with positive (BAC+ vs negative (BAC- blood alcohol were compared using bivariate analysis. Results: Out of 823, 319 subjects were tested for BAC (38.8%, of whom 37 were BAC+ (mean 0.151 g/dL, range 0.015-0.371 g/dL. Age (41 years, sex (97.2% men, race, intensive care unit (ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS, and mortality were similar between groups. Nearly half of BAC+ cases were farming injuries (18, 48.6%: Eight involved livestock, five involved all-terrain vehicles (ATVs, three involved heavy equipment, one fell, and one had a firearm injury. Eight (21.6% were construction site injuries involving falls from a roof or scaffolding, five (13.5% were semi-truck collisions, four (10.8% involved falls from a vehicle in various settings, and two (5.4% were crush injuries at an oilfield. BAC+ subjects were less likely to be injured in construction sites and oilfields, including vehicle-related falls (2.3 vs 33.9%, P < 0.0001. Over half of BAC+ (n = 20, 54% subjects were alcohol dependent; three (8.1% also tested positive for cocaine on admission. No BAC+ subjects were admitted to rehabilitation compared to 33 (11.7% of BAC- subjects. Workers′ compensation covered a significantly smaller proportion of BAC+ patients (16.2 vs 61.0%, P < 0.0001. Conclusions: Alcohol use in the workplace is more prevalent than commonly suspected, especially in farming and other less regulated industries. BAC+ is associated with less insurance coverage, which probably affects resources available for post-discharge rehabilitation and hospital reimbursement.

  15. Measurements of Dynamic Viscoelasticity of Poly (vinyl alcohol) Hydrogel for the Development of Blood Vessel Biomodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosukegawa, Hiroyuki; Mamada, Keisuke; Kuroki, Kanju; Liu, Lei; Inoue, Kosuke; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Ohta, Makoto

    In vitro blood vessel biomodeling with realistic mechanical properties and geometrical structures is helpful for training in surgical procedures, especial those used in endovascular treatment. Poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel (PVA-H), which is made of Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and water, may be useful as a material for blood vessel biomodeling due to its low surface friction resistance and good transparency. In order to simulate the mechanical properties of blood vessels, measurements of mechanical properties of PVA-H were carried out with a dynamic mechanical analyzer, and the storage modulus (G’) and loss modulus (G”) of PVA-H were obtained. PVA-Hs were prepared by the low-temperature crystallization method. They were made of PVA with various concentrations (C) and degrees of polymerization (DP), and made by blending two kinds of PVA having different DP or saponification values (SV). The G’ and G” of PVA-H increased, as the C or DP of PVA increased, or as the proportion of PVA with higher DP or SV increased. These results indicate that it is possible to obtain PVA-H with desirable dynamic viscoelasticity. Furthermore, it is suggested that PVA-H is stable in the temperature range of 0°C to 40°C, indicating that biomodeling made of PVA-H should be available at 37°C, the physiological temperature. The dynamic viscoelasticity of PVA-H obtained was similar to that of the dog blood vessel measured in previous reports. In conclusion, PVA-H is suggested to be useful as a material of blood vessel biomodeling.

  16. The Bac(chus experiment: blood alcohol concentrations after wine tasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert van de Wiel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs were measured in ten volunteers after a wine tasting event with and without the swallowing of 15 mL of each wine. In case ten wines were tasted within one hour without swallowing, buccal mucosa absorption did not result in problematic BAC’s; however in case 15 mL of each wine was swallowed, BAC’s may exceed the legal driving limit of most countries. It is recommended to eat beforehand, but also to wait at least one hour after the session before driving back home.

  17. Comparison of the effects of two legal blood alcohol limits: the presence of alcohol in traffic accidents according to category of driver in Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Akan; İdiz, Nuri; Dalgiç, Mustafa; Uluçay, Tarik; Sincar, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    Under existing Turkish road traffic law, there are 2 different blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits allowed for drivers in 2013: zero blood alcohol and ≤0.50 g/L. All public transport, taxi, commercial, and official vehicle drivers must maintain a zero blood alcohol concentration while driving. Private vehicle drivers must maintain a BAC of 0.50 g/L or lower. The aim of the recent study was to evaluate the effect of these 2 legal blood alcohol limits on nonfatal traffic accidents that occurred due to the driver being under the influence of alcohol. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the blood alcohol concentration of 224 drivers in nonfatal road accidents between June 2010 and July 2011 using headspace gas chromatography at the Izmir Forensic Medicine Group Presidency, Turkey. All cases evaluated by the toxicology department were entered into a database. We used descriptive statistics, χ(2) test, and independent sampling test to analyze the data. The total number of drivers involved in nonfatal traffic accidents was 224; 191 were private vehicle drivers and 33 were public transport, taxi, commercial, and official vehicle drivers. In the present study, alcohol was detected in the blood of about 27.2% (n = 61) of the 224 drivers. Sixty (31.4%) private vehicle drivers involved in nonfatal traffic accidents tested positive for alcohol. BAC values were also above the legal limit (0.50 g/L) in 27.7% (n = 53) of private vehicle drivers. However, the BAC was above the legal limit in only 3% (n = 1) of public transport, commercial, and official vehicle drivers involved in nonfatal traffic accidents. These results showed that private vehicle drivers subject to a BAC limit of ≤0.50 g/L were significantly associated with an increased risk of nonfatal accident involvement than drivers subject to a zero BAC limit (odds ratio [OR] = 12.29, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64-92.22; Fisher's exact test, P accidents in Turkey.

  18. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  19. Yoga Called Good Medicine for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162446.html Yoga Called Good Medicine for High Blood Pressure People who added this practice to a healthy ... elevated blood pressure] are likely to develop hypertension [high blood pressure] unless they improve their lifestyle," said study author ...

  20. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases an

  1. Associations of repeated high alcohol use with unsafe driving behaviors, traffic offenses, and traffic crashes among young drivers: Findings from the New Zealand Drivers Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Dorothy; Brookland, Rebecca; Connor, Jennie

    2017-02-17

    The objective of this study was to describe self-reported high alcohol use at each of the 3 licensing stages of graduated driver licensing and its relationship to drink-driving behaviors, intentional risky driving, aggressive driving, alcohol traffic offenses, non-alcohol traffic offenses, and traffic crashes. The New Zealand Drivers Study (NZDS) is a multistage, prospective cohort study of newly licensed drivers interviewed at all 3 stages of the graduated driver licensing system: learner (baseline), restricted (intermediate), and full license. At each stage, alcohol use was self-reported using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C), with high alcohol use defined as a score of ≥4 for males and ≥3 for females. Sociodemographic and personality data were obtained at the baseline interview. Alcohol-related, intentional risky, and aggressive driving behaviors were self-reported following each license stage. Traffic crashes and offenses were identified from police records. Crashes were also self-reported. Twenty-six percent (n = 397) reported no high alcohol use, 22% at one license stage, 30% at 2 stages, and 22% at 3 stages. Poisson regression results (unadjusted and adjusted) showed that the number of stages where high alcohol use was reported was significantly associated with each of the outcomes. For most outcomes, and especially the alcohol-involved outcomes, the relative risk increased with the number of stages of high alcohol use. We found that high alcohol use was common among young newly licensed drivers and those who repeatedly reported high alcohol use were at a significantly higher risk of unsafe driving behaviors. Recently introduced zero blood alcohol concentration (BAC) should help to address this problem, but other strategies are required to target persistent offenders.

  2. Dose-response relationship between alcohol use and blood pressure among drivers of commercial vehicles in Calabar, Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segun Bello

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is a sedative/hypnotic with effects similar to those of barbiturates.1 The type of alcoholic beverages consumed depends on the social context and financial capability. Alcoholic beverages may be in form of beer, wine, dry gin. Drinking alcohol is an activity that many people enjoy; taking a few drinks occasionally is generally harmless. Most people do not have problems as a result of drinking alcohol in this manner, although this may predispose to heavy use. Heavy alcohol consumption has been shown in observational studies to have a strong positive association with elevated blood pressure.2-4 Further evidence have been shown by clinical trials5,6 that have demonstrated that reduction in alcohol intake among individuals who drink heavily (i.e. three or more drinks per day can lower blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive men. Some studies have recorded a linear dose-response relationship sometimes starting with a consumption threshold of three drinks per day (30 g of ethanol.7-13 In others, the relationship has been non-linear especially in women, and some authors have speculated that ingestion of small quantities may reduce blood pressure.14-22 These discrepancies may reflect differences in investigational design, methods and populations.23 Many studies have been done in this area in developed countries like the United States, United Kingdom and Australia. This is however, not a commonly researched area in this part of the world. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between alcohol consumption and blood pressure of drivers of commercial vehicles.

  3. Alcohol Outlets and Substance Use among High Schoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Adam J.; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom; Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have considered the potential role of the built environment in increasing adolescent substance use. The current study explored the relationship between alcohol outlets, a potential malleable component of the neighborhood environment, and adolescent behavioral outcomes. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between alcohol outlet density, perceived alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana availability (ATOD), perception of substance use as a problem at the school, and self-reported ATOD use. Data come from Maryland Safe and Supportive Schools (MDS3) Initiative, a statewide project focused on measuring and improving school climate. The sample includes 25,308 adolescents from 58 high schools (9th–12th grade) across 12 counties. Multi-level path models indicated a positive relationship between the count of alcohol outlets and perceived availability of ATOD among girls but not boys. Perceived availability was associated with increased ATOD use at both the individual- and school-level, as well as other students’ ATOD use. Findings provide support for the potential role of the built environment in adolescent risk for substance use, particularly among girls. PMID:27574339

  4. Alcohol consumption as self-medication against blood-borne parasites in the fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Neil F; Kacsoh, Balint Z; Schlenke, Todd A

    2012-03-20

    Plants and fungi often produce toxic secondary metabolites that limit their consumption, but herbivores and fungivores that evolve resistance gain access to these resources and can also gain protection against nonresistant predators and parasites. Given that Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly larvae consume yeasts growing on rotting fruit and have evolved resistance to fermentation products, we decided to test whether alcohol protects flies from one of their common natural parasites, endoparasitoid wasps. Here, we show that exposure to ethanol reduces wasp oviposition into fruit fly larvae. Furthermore, if infected, ethanol consumption by fruit fly larvae causes increased death of wasp larvae growing in the hemocoel and increased fly survival without need of the stereotypical antiwasp immune response. This multifaceted protection afforded to fly larvae by ethanol is significantly more effective against a generalist wasp than a wasp that specializes on D. melanogaster. Finally, fly larvae seek out ethanol-containing food when infected, indicating that they use alcohol as an antiwasp medicine. Although the high resistance of D. melanogaster may make it uniquely suited to exploit curative properties of alcohol, it is possible that alcohol consumption may have similar protective effects in other organisms.

  5. Blood haemoglobin concentrations are higher in smokers and heavy alcohol consumers than in non-smokers and abstainers-should we adjust the reference range?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Pedersen, Agnes N.

    2009-01-01

    The blood haemoglobin concentration is one of the most frequently used laboratory parameters in clinical practice. There is evidence that haemoglobin levels are influenced by tobacco smoking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on haemoglobin...... or equal to seven drinks/week. Smokers displayed similar results. Body mass index per se had no direct influence on haemoglobin levels but had indirect positive influence in men through its correlation with tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Tobacco smoking has an increasing effect on haemoglobin...... concentrations in both genders, which is proportional to the amount of tobacco smoked. The effect appears to be more pronounced in women. Likewise, high alcohol consumption has an increasing effect on haemoglobin in both genders, being most pronounced in women. However, in clinical biochemistry, the relatively...

  6. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes that come from drinking alcohol can make people do stupid or embarrassing things, like throwing up or peeing on themselves. Drinking also gives people bad breath, and no one enjoys a hangover. ...

  7. Modifying Alcohol Consumption among High School Students: An Efficacy Trial of an Alcohol Risk Reduction Program (PRIME for Life)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Mats A.; Sjolund, Torbjorn; Kallmen, Hakan; Andreasson, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: PRIME for Life is an alcohol risk reduction program that has been used and refined in the USA for over 20 years. A Swedish version of the program has recently been adapted for use among Swedish high-school students (age 18-19). The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of the program on youth alcohol consumption (including…

  8. Alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration level and guideline compliance in hospital referred patients with minimal, mild and moderate head injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harr, Marianne Efskind; Heskestad, Ben; Ingebrigtsen, Tor;

    2011-01-01

    In 2000 the Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee published guidelines for safe and cost-effective management of minimal, mild and moderate head injured patients.The aims of this study were to investigate to what extent the head injury population is under the influence of alcohol, and to evaluate...... whether the physicians' compliance to the guidelines is affected when patients are influenced by alcohol....

  9. High Blood Pressure and Related Factors Among Individuals at High Risk for HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Soohyun; Whittemore, Robin; Jeon, Sangchoon; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A; Latkin, Carl

    2016-06-01

    Data from a social network-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention study with a total of 330 men and women at high risk for HIV/STIs were used to examine the relationships between substance use, depressive symptoms, general health, cardiovascular disease risk factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP). Approximately 60% of the participants had prehypertension to stage 2 hypertension. In the base model, older patients (Phigh SBP, whereas older age (Phigh frequency of alcohol drinking and high frequency of binge drinking remained significant for high SBP and DBP. These data suggest that future cardiovascular disease programs should target moderate alcohol consumption to improve blood pressure among individuals at high risk for HIV/STIs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Relation of blood pressure to reported intake of salt, saturated fats, and alcohol in healthy middle-aged population.

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, J.T.; Tuomilehto, J; A. Tanskanen

    1983-01-01

    The association of blood pressure with reported intake of salt, saturated fats, and alcohol was studied in a sample of 8479 subjects based on a cross sectional survey in a population aged 30 to 64 years. A consistent association was found between the mean arterial pressure and the intake of alcohol (p less than 0.001) and saturated fats (p less than 0.01). There was also a weak association between blood pressure and dietary salt intake, but this association was mostly explained by the correla...

  11. Menopause and High Blood Pressure: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure (hypertension) Is there a connection between menopause and high blood pressure? Answers from Shannon K. ... Tommaso, M.D. Blood pressure generally increases after menopause. Some doctors think this increase suggests that hormonal ...

  12. Blood alcohol concentration at 0.06 and 0.10% causes a complex multifaceted deterioration of body movement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modig, Fredrik; Fransson, Per-Anders; Magnusson, Måns; Patel, Mitesh

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol-related falls are recognized as a major contributor to the occurrence of traumatic brain injury. The control of upright standing balance is complex and composes of contributions from several partly independent mechanisms such as appropriate information from multiple sensory systems and correct feedback and feed forward movement control. Analysis of multisegmented body movement offers a rarely used option for detecting the fine motor problems associated with alcohol intoxication. The study aims were to investigate whether (1) alcohol intoxication at 0.06 and 0.10% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) affected the body movements under unperturbed and perturbed standing; and (2) alcohol affected the ability for sensorimotor adaptation. Body movements were recorded in 25 participants (13 women and 12 men, mean age 25.1 years) at five locations (ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, and head) during quiet standing and during balance perturbations from pseudorandom pulses of calf muscle vibration over 200s with eyes closed or open. Tests were performed at 0.00, 0.06, and 0.10% BAC. The study revealed several significant findings: (1) an alcohol dose-specific effect; (2) a direction-specific stability decrease from alcohol intoxication; (3) a movement pattern change related to the level of alcohol intoxication during unperturbed standing and perturbed standing; (4) a sensorimotor adaptation deterioration with increased alcohol intoxication; and (5) that vision provided a weaker contribution to postural control during alcohol intoxication. Hence, alcohol intoxication at 0.06 and 0.10% BAC causes a complex multifaceted deterioration of human postural control.

  13. Dietary spermidine for lowering high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Andreas; Schroeder, Sabrina; Pendl, Tobias; Harger, Alexandra; Stekovic, Slaven; Schipke, Julia; Magnes, Christoph; Schmidt, Albrecht; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Dammbrueck, Christopher; Gross, Angelina S; Herbst, Viktoria; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Pietrocola, Federico; Pieber, Thomas R; Sigrist, Stephan J; Linke, Wolfgang A; Mühlfeld, Christian; Sadoshima, Junichi; Dengjel, Joern; Kiechl, Stefan; Kroemer, Guido; Sedej, Simon; Madeo, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Loss of cardiac macroautophagy/autophagy impairs heart function, and evidence accumulates that an increased autophagic flux may protect against cardiovascular disease. We therefore tested the protective capacity of the natural autophagy inducer spermidine in animal models of aging and hypertension, which both represent major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Dietary spermidine elicits cardioprotective effects in aged mice through enhancing cardiac autophagy and mitophagy. In salt-sensitive rats, spermidine supplementation also delays the development of hypertensive heart disease, coinciding with reduced arterial blood pressure. The high blood pressure-lowering effect likely results from improved global arginine bioavailability and protection from hypertension-associated renal damage. The polyamine spermidine is naturally present in human diets, though to a varying amount depending on food type and preparation. In humans, high dietary spermidine intake correlates with reduced blood pressure and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and related death. Altogether, spermidine represents a cardio- and vascular-protective autophagy inducer that can be readily integrated in common diets. PMID:28118075

  14. Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk factors like a poor diet and excessive alcohol consumption. How stress affects your health In addition to the emotional discomfort ... supportive and encouraging relationships. Invest yourself in developing relationships that ... alcohol , don’t overeat and don’t smoke . Relaxing ...

  15. High blood pressure and visual sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

    2003-09-01

    The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

  16. CDC Vital Signs: High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the MMWR Science Clips High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Out of Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... cdc.gov/GISCVH2/ High Blood Pressure and High Cholesterol Among US Adults SOURCES: National Health and Nutrition ...

  17. Honey reduces blood alcohol concentration but not affects the level of serum MDA and GSH-Px activity in intoxicated male mice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peiying; Chen, Bing; Chen, Conghai; Xu, Jingyang; Shen, Zhenhuang; Miao, Xiaoqing; Yao, Hong

    2015-07-14

    For a long time, honey was purportedly helpful to prevent drunkenness and relieve hangover symptoms. However, few of the assertions have experienced scientific assessment. The present study examined the effects of honey on intoxicated male mice. Low or high doses of lychee flower honey (2.19 or 4.39 g/kg body weight, respectively) were single orally administrated 30 min before the ethanol intoxication of mice, followed by recording the locomotor activity by autonomic activity instrument and observing the climbing ability after alcohol. On the other hand, 2.19 g/kg honey was single orally administrated 5 min after the ethanol intoxication of mice, followed by determining the ethanol concentration in mice blood. In addition, subacute alcoholism mice models were developed and after the treatment of 2.19 g/kg honey s.i.d for successive three days, the level of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were detected in the models. Both of the two doses of honey increased the autonomic activity of alcoholized mice. Furthermore, the treatment of 2.19 g/kg honey could decrease significantly the blood ethanol concentration in intoxicated mice. The anti-intoxication activity of honey could be due to the effect of the fructose contained in the honey. Meanwhile, honey could not affect the serum MDA level and GSH-Px activity in alcoholism mice models. Honey indeed possesses anti-intoxication activity.

  18. The Effect of Taraxacum Officinale Hydro Alcoholic Extract on the Blood Cell Counts in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Modaresi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Taraxacum officinaleis a herbaceous perennial plant which has many pharmaceutical effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of this plant on blood cell counts in mice. Methods: In this experimental study, 50 mature female mice were divided into 5 groups, each group including ten adult female Balb/C mice. The control group did not receive any extract.while the placebo group received 0.5 cc of normal saline, every other day. The three treatment groups intraperitoneally received 50, 100, 200 mg/kg /2day doses of hydro alcoholic extract for 20 days. Normal saline was administered to the control group.WBC, RBC, HB, HCT, platelet and other cells of the animals were counted using full automated cell counter. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: The number of RBC and the rate of Hb in three doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg were significantly increased (p<0.05 in all three treatment groups as compared with the control group. The number of WBC in three doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg increased, but it was significant in 200 mg/kg dandelion treated group as compared with the control group (p<0.05.The rate of platelet in three doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly decreased as compared with the control group (p<0.01. Conclusion: The study confirmed the dose dependent efficacy of dandelion extract on RBC and WBC. Keywords: Dandelion, Blood Cell, mice

  19. High School Students' Attitude Toward and Use of Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfingsten, Kae Lee

    Understanding teen attitudes toward alcohol can provide a basis for education, prevention, and treatment programs for alcohol use. This thesis examines gender, grade level, peer attitude, parental attitude, and knowledge as independent variables while alcohol questionnaire scores for Use of Alcohol and Attitude Toward Drinking were employed as…

  20. Poor nutrition and alcohol consumption are related to high serum homocysteine level at post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hye; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Jong-Sung

    2015-10-01

    Increased serum homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been reported to be related to the occurrence of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. High serum Hcy levels are also related to the development of secondary stroke and all-cause mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of high serum homocysteine level and relating factors, and the change over the 10 month period post-stroke. Consecutive stroke patients who were admitted to the Asan Medical Center were enrolled. Ten months after the onset of stroke, an interview with a structured questionnaire was performed and blood samples were obtained for the biochemical parameters. Nutritional status was determined using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) score and dietary nutrient intakes were also obtained using a 24 hour recall method. Out of 203 patients, 84% were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, and 26% had high homocysteine levels at 10 months post-stroke. Using logistic regression, the factors related with high homocysteine levels at 10 months post-stroke included heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.020), low MNA scores (P = 0.026), low serum vitamin B12 (P = 0.021) and low serum folate levels (P = 0.003). Of the 156 patients who had normal homocysteine levels at admission, 36 patients developed hyperhomocysteinemia 10 months post-stroke, which was related to heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.013). Persistent hyperhomocysteinemia, observed in 22 patients (11%), was related to male sex (P = 0.031), old age (P = 0.042), low vitamin B6 intake (P = 0.029), and heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.013). Hyperhomocysteinemia is common in post-stroke, and is related to malnutrition, heavy alcohol drinking and low serum level of folate and vitamin B12. Strategies to prevent or manage high homocysteine levels should consider these factors.

  1. High-pressure processing for preservation of blood products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matser, A.M.; Ven, van der C.; Gouwerok, C.W.N.; Korte, de D.

    2005-01-01

    The possibilities of high pressure as a preservation method for human blood products were evaluated by examining the functional properties of blood fractions, after high-pressure processing at conditions which potentially inactivate micro-organisms and viruses. Blood platelets, red blood cells and

  2. Assessment of binge drinking of alcohol in highly educated employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, Robert A; Koopman, Cheryl; Wanat, Stanley F; Whitsell, Shelly D; Borggrefe, Anne; Westrup, Darrah

    2003-09-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and CAGE, a standardized screening instrument for detecting alcohol dependence in identifying binge drinking among highly educated employees. Brochures were mailed to an entire workforce inviting employees to learn about their coping strategies, stress levels, and risk for alcohol-related problems, with 228 employees providing complete data. Binge drinking in the previous 3 months was reported by 29% of the employees, with greater binge drinking reported by White employees, of mixed/other ethnic background, or younger. The AUDIT achieved a sensitivity of 35% in identifying respondents who reported binge drinking and a specificity of 98% in accurately identifying respondents who did not report binge drinking. Sensitivity using the cut-off of scoring one or more positive hits on the CAGE was 67%, and specificity was 84%. Therefore, neither the AUDIT nor the CAGE achieved adequate sensitivity, as well as specificity, as screening tools for assessing binge drinking. A more accurate method for assessing binge drinking appears to be by directly asking for the largest number of drinks consumed in a single drinking session.

  3. Laboratory assessment of the hypertensive individual. Value of the main guidelines for high blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Rafael S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine if abnormal laboratory findings are more common in individuals with hypertension and in those with other risk factors, such as obesity, smoking and alcohol ingestion. METHODS: A study was carried out in the general outpatient clinics of a university hospital (145 individuals without previous diagnosis of hypertension and the following variables were assessed: high blood pressure (as defined by the VI Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection and Treatment of High Blood Pressure - VI JNC, obesity [calculated using body mass index (BMI], tobacco use, and alcoholic ingestion. The laboratory examinations consisted of the following tests: hemogram, glycemia, uric acid, potassium, total/HDL-fraction cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium and creatinine. RESULTS: High blood pressure was not associated with a higher number of abnormal laboratory tests. Hypertensive individuals with a BMI > or = 25kg/m² or normotensive obese individuals, however, had a higher frequency of diabetes (12X, hypertriglyceridemia (3X, and hypercholesterolemia (2X, as compared with hypertensive individuals with BMI <25kg/m² and preobese/normal weight normotensive individuals. CONCLUSION: High blood pressure is not associated with a higher frequency of abnormal laboratory tests. The association of high blood pressure and obesity, however, increases the detection of diabetes and dyslipidemias.

  4. Alcohol-positive multiple trauma patients with and without blood transfusion: an outcome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuttmann Ralph

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood transfusion is a common therapy for multiple trauma patients, and is often performed soon after hospital admission. It is unclear whether the need for a blood transfusion in multiply injured patients presenting with a positive blood alcohol concentration (BAC is associated with increased morbidity/mortality, since their risk behavior differs significantly from patients with a negative BAC. In this study, we evaluated the role of blood transfusion in the treatment of BAC-positive multiple trauma patients. Patients In a three-year period, 164 patients at a single trauma center presented with a positive BAC, and 145 met the inclusion criteria for further evaluation and regression analysis. We compared patients who were transfused (n = 76 with those who were not transfused (n = 69. Results In both groups, the most common causes of trauma were traffic accidents and falls. Most patients were admitted to the hospital from the scene of the accident (77.2% and were male (89.0%. Transfused patients had a lower GCS (p ≤ .001 and her ISS (p ≤ .001, were more likely to have severe head injuries (p ≤ .001, tended to have higher BACs (p = .053, had lower hemoglobin levels and prothrombin times in the first 24 hours (p ≤ .001, had lower lactate levels, had higher rates of intubation (p ≤ .001 and ICU admission, and had longer ICU stays and artificial ventilation times (p ≤ .001. Mortality was significantly higher in transfused patients (n = 15 vs. n = 3, p ≤ .001. Non-survivors were more likely to have severe head injuries; be intubated and ventilated; be older; have higher ISS scores, lactate levels, and numbers of transfusions in the first 24 hours; and have lower GCS scores, hemoglobin measurements, and prothrombin levels. In a binary logistic regression model, only age (p = .009 and ISS (p = .004 independently predicted mortality. Conclusion In our single-center study, the BAC of multiple trauma patients and the

  5. Alcohol Pharmacology Education Partnership: Using Chemistry and Biology Concepts To Educate High School Students about Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Elizabeth A; Kwiek, Nicole; Sikes, Suzanne S; Halpin, Myra J; Weinbaum, Carolyn A; Burgette, Lane F; Reiter, Jerome P; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D

    2014-02-11

    We developed the Alcohol Pharmacology Education Partnership (APEP), a set of modules designed to integrate a topic of interest (alcohol) with concepts in chemistry and biology for high school students. Chemistry and biology teachers (n = 156) were recruited nationally to field-test APEP in a controlled study. Teachers obtained professional development either at a conference-based workshop (NSTA or NCSTA) or via distance learning to learn how to incorporate the APEP modules into their teaching. They field-tested the modules in their classes during the following year. Teacher knowledge of chemistry and biology concepts increased significantly following professional development, and was maintained for at least a year. Their students (n = 14 014) demonstrated significantly higher scores when assessed for knowledge of both basic and advanced chemistry and biology concepts compared to students not using APEP modules in their classes the previous year. Higher scores were achieved as the number of modules used increased. These findings are consistent with our previous studies, demonstrating higher scores in chemistry and biology after students use modules that integrate topics interesting to them, such as drugs (the Pharmacology Education Partnership).

  6. The relationship between stressful working conditions and high alcohol consumption and severe alcohol problems in an urban general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romelsjö, A; Hasin, D; Hilton, M

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between 15 measures of stressful working conditions and high alcohol consumption (35 g 100% ethanol per day or more for men and 25 g or more for women) was studied, using cross-sectional data from a general population survey of 1344 males and 1494 females; the ages 25-64 years...... in metropolitan Stockholm in 1984. In a longitudinal component of the study, hospitalization and mortality with alcohol-related diagnosis was assessed during 1984-90, and also the association between previous experience of unemployment and high alcohol consumption. Some of the associations, expressed as age......-adjusted odds ratios, were positive and some were negative when high alcohol consumption was the endpoint, but there was a clear variation by sex and social class. Generally the positive associations were stronger among male non-manual employees. Among males, there was a clear association between stressful...

  7. Zirconium(IV)- and hafnium(IV)-catalyzed highly enantioselective epoxidation of homoallylic and bishomoallylic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2010-06-16

    In this report, zirconium(IV)- and hafnium(IV)-bishydroxamic acid complexes were utilized in the highly enantioselective epoxidation of homoallylic alcohols and bishomoallylic alcohols, which used to be quite difficult substrates for other types of asymmetric epoxidation reactions. The performance of the catalyst was improved by adding polar additive and molecular sieves. For homoallylic alcohols, the reaction could provide epoxy alcohols in up to 83% yield and up to 98% ee, while, for bishomoallylic alcohols, up to 79% yield and 99% ee of epoxy alcohols rather than cyclized tetrahydrofuran compounds could be obtained in most cases.

  8. Zirconium(IV) and Hafnium(IV)-Catalyzed Highly Enantioselective Epoxidation of Homoallylic and Bishomoallylic Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    In this report, zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV)-bishydroxamic acid complexes were utilized in the highly enantioselective epoxidation of homoallylic alcohols and bishomoallylic alcohols, which used to be quite difficult substrates for other types of asymmetric epoxidation reactions. The performance of the catalyst was improved by adding polar additive and molecular sieves. For homoallylic alcohols, the reaction could provide epoxy alcohols in up to 81% yield and up to 98% ee, while for bishomoallylic alcohols, up to 75% yield and 99% ee of epoxy alcohols rather than cyclize compounds could be obtained in most cases. PMID:20481541

  9. Sleep Deprivation: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High blood pressure (hypertension) Is it true that sleep deprivation can cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon ... Cirelli C, et al. Definition and consequences of sleep deprivation. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 24, ...

  10. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke Updated:Sep ... have a stroke for the first time have high blood pressure . And an irregular atrial heart rhythm — a condition ...

  11. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  12. A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

  13. High Blood Pressure Rates Have Doubled Worldwide Since 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162069.html High Blood Pressure Rates Have Doubled Worldwide Since 1975 Most of ... News) -- The number of people worldwide with high blood pressure has nearly doubled over the past 40 years, ...

  14. [High blood pressure and physical exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosner, P; Gremeaux, V; Bosquet, L; Herpin, D

    2014-06-01

    High blood pressure is a frequent pathology with many cardiovascular complications. As highlighted in guidelines, the therapeutic management of hypertension relies on non-pharmacological measures, which are diet and regular physical activity, but both patients and physicians are reluctant to physical activity prescription. To acquire the conviction that physical activity is beneficial, necessary and possible, we can take into account some fundamental and clinical studies, as well as the feedback of our clinical practice. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and hypertension contributes to increase this risk. Conversely, regular practice of physical activity decreases very significantly the risk by up to 60%. The acute blood pressure changes during exercise and post-exercise hypotension differs according to the dynamic component (endurance or aerobic and/or strength exercises), but the repetition of the sessions leads to the chronic hypotensive benefit of physical activity. Moreover, physical activity prescription must take into account the assessment of global cardiovascular risk, the control of the hypertension, and the opportunities and desires of the patient in order to promote good adherence and beneficial lifestyle change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The relationship between stressful working conditions and high alcohol consumption and severe alcohol problems in an urban general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romelsjö, A; Hasin, D; Hilton, M

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between 15 measures of stressful working conditions and high alcohol consumption (35 g 100% ethanol per day or more for men and 25 g or more for women) was studied, using cross-sectional data from a general population survey of 1344 males and 1494 females; the ages 25-64 years...... increased odds ratios were lower when subjects with an alcohol diagnosis at inpatient care during 1980-84 were excluded in the analyses. On the whole, our findings are not conclusive. The strong, but imprecise associations between stressful working conditions and severe alcohol problems, are however......-adjusted odds ratios, were positive and some were negative when high alcohol consumption was the endpoint, but there was a clear variation by sex and social class. Generally the positive associations were stronger among male non-manual employees. Among males, there was a clear association between stressful...

  16. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whites. • Heredity —A tendency to have high blood pressure runs in families. • Age — In general, the older you get, the greater your chance of developing high blood pressure. • Sex — Men tend to develop high blood pressure ...

  17. Let's Talk about High Blood Pressure and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stroke. How does high blood pressure increase stroke risk? High blood pressure is the single most important risk factor for ... vessel ruptures over time. Who is at higher risk for HBP? People with a family history of high blood pressure African-Americans People age 35 or older People ...

  18. Development of a Junior High School Module in Alcohol Education and Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Teachers College.

    Five 45-minute teaching units for junior high school students on alcohol education and traffic safety are presented. Lesson I examines alcohol as a drug. Activities include a question-answer survey, a film, and a game. Assignments are a "find the word" game and an evaluation of an advertisement for an alcoholic beverage. Lesson II considers…

  19. Highly selective anti-Prelog synthesis of optically active aryl alcohols by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Nie, Yao; Mu, Xiao Qing; Zhang, Rongzhen; Xu, Yan

    2016-07-03

    Biocatalytic asymmetric synthesis has been widely used for preparation of optically active chiral alcohols as the important intermediates and precursors of active pharmaceutical ingredients. However, the available whole-cell system involving anti-Prelog specific alcohol dehydrogenase is yet limited. A recombinant Escherichia coli system expressing anti-Prelog stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase from Candida parapsilosis was established as a whole-cell system for catalyzing asymmetric reduction of aryl ketones to anti-Prelog configured alcohols. Using 2-hydroxyacetophenone as the substrate, reaction factors including pH, cell status, and substrate concentration had obvious impacts on the outcome of whole-cell biocatalysis, and xylose was found to be an available auxiliary substrate for intracellular cofactor regeneration, by which (S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol was achieved with an optical purity of 97%e.e. and yield of 89% under the substrate concentration of 5 g/L. Additionally, the feasibility of the recombinant cells toward different aryl ketones was investigated, and most of the corresponding chiral alcohol products were obtained with an optical purity over 95%e.e. Therefore, the whole-cell system involving recombinant stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase was constructed as an efficient biocatalyst for highly enantioselective anti-Prelog synthesis of optically active aryl alcohols and would be promising in the pharmaceutical industry.

  20. Situational drinking in private and public locations: A multilevel analysis of blood alcohol level in Finnish drinking occasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Heli; Mäkelä, Pia; Lintonen, Tomi

    2016-11-01

    The first aim was to estimate the extent to which the variation in alcohol use across specific drinking occasions arises from variation at the occasion level and from variation at the drinker level. The second aim was to identify characteristics of drinking situations that moderate or increase situational alcohol use beyond the influence of drinker-level characteristics. The general population aged 15-69 years in Finland was sampled randomly in 2008. The multilevel analysis was based on data from 1511 drinkers and 2933 drinking occasions that occurred in the 7 days before the interview. Alcohol use was operationalised as estimated blood alcohol level (BAL). Characteristics of drinking occasions included location, circumstance, company and timing. Drinker-level data included demographic and drinking pattern variables. Fifty-three percent of the variance in BAL was between occasions and 47% between respondents, for both women and men. With drinking patterns and demographic characteristics controlled for, the dominant characteristics of drinking occasions predisposing to greater intoxication were late-night drinking, across locations and for both genders. For private locations, predisposing characteristics included drinking on weekends for both genders and drinking with friends for men. Situational and drinker levels are equally important in determining the BAL in drinking occasions; therefore, prevention efforts should be targeted at both risky individuals and risky drinking occasions. Occasions occurring late at night, often at home and with friends, are a central challenge for targeting preventive efforts related to situational drinking.[Mustonen H, Mäkelä P, Lintonen T. Situational drinking in private and public locations: A multilevel analysis of blood alcohol level in Finnish drinking occasions. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:772-784]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  1. Alcohol and polyphenolic grape extract inhibit platelet adhesion in flowing blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, DW; Scholman, WLG; Kraaijenhagen, RJ; Akkerman, JWN; van de Wiel, A

    2004-01-01

    Background Moderate and prolonged alcohol consumption has been associated with decreased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Inhibition of platelet function in suspension attributes to these effects. Whether alcohol, red wine, or polyphenolic grape extracts (PGE) inhibit platelet adhesion is not

  2. Exclusion of linkage between alcoholism and the MNS blood group region on chromosome 4q in multiplex families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiswanger, K.; Kaplan, B.; Hill, S.Y. [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States)

    1995-02-27

    Polymorphic DNA markers on the long arm of chromosome 4 were used to examine linkage to alcoholism in 20 multiplex pedigrees. Fifteen loci were determined for 124 individuals. Lod scores were calculated assuming both dominant and recessive disease modes of inheritance, utilizing incidence data by age and gender that allow for correction for variable age of onset and frequency of the disorder by gender. Under the assumption that alcoholism is homogeneous in this set of pedigrees, and that a recessive mode with age and gender correction is the most appropriate, the total lod scores for all families combined were uniformly lower than -2.0. This suggests an absence of linkage between the putative alcoholism susceptibility gene and markers in the region of the MNS blood group (4q28-31), a region for which we had previously found suggestive evidence of linkage to alcoholism. The 100 cM span of chromosome 4 studied includes the class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) loci. Using the recessive mode, no evidence for linkage to alcoholism was found for the markers tested, which spanned almost the entire long arm of chromosome 4. Under the dominant mode, no evidence for linkage could be found for several of the markers. 36 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  4. Gene-alcohol interactions identify several novel blood pressure loci including a promising locus near SLC16A9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette eSimino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for hypertension, with recent candidate studies implicating gene-alcohol interactions in blood pressure (BP regulation. We used 6,882 (predominantly Caucasian participants aged 20 to 80 years from the Framingham SHARe (SNP Health Association Resource to perform a genome-wide analysis of SNP-alcohol interactions on BP traits. We used a two-step approach in the ABEL suite to examine genetic interactions with three alcohol measures [ounces of alcohol consumed per week, drinks consumed per week, and the number of days drinking alcohol per week] on four BP traits [systolic (SBP, diastolic (DBP, mean arterial (MAP, and pulse (PP pressure]. In the first step, we fit a linear mixed model of each BP trait onto age, sex, BMI, and antihypertensive medication while accounting for the phenotypic correlation among relatives. In the second step, we conducted 1 degree-of-freedom (df score tests of the SNP main effect, alcohol main effect, and SNP-alcohol interaction using the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters from the first step. We then calculated the joint 2 df score test of the SNP main effect and SNP-alcohol interaction using MixABEL. The effect of SNP rs10826334 (near SLC16A9 on SBP was significantly modulated by both the number of alcoholic drinks and the ounces of alcohol consumed per week (p-values of 1.27E-08 and 3.92E-08, respectively. Each copy of the G-allele decreased SBP by 3.79 mmHg in those consuming 14 drinks per week versus a 0.461 mmHg decrease in non-drinkers. Index SNPs in 20 other loci exhibited suggestive (p-value≤1E-06 associations with BP traits by the 1 df interaction test or joint 2df test, including 3 rare variants, one low-frequency variant, and SNPs near/in genes ESRRG, FAM179A, CRIPT-SOCS5, KAT2B,ADCY2, GLI3, ZNF716, SLIT1, PDE3A, KERA-LUM, RNF219-AS1, CLEC3A , FBX015, and IGSF5. SNP -alcohol interactions may enhance discovery of novel variants with large effects that can

  5. Relationship between blood alcohol concentration on admission and outcome in dimethoate organophosphorus self-poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Eddleston, Michael; Gunnell, David; von Meyer, Ludwig; Eyer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    center dot Acute alcohol intoxication often complicates acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.center dot No data are available on how alcohol intoxication affects outcome in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.center dot In particular, the relationships between plasma alcohol concentration and plasma organophosphorus concentration or outcome are unclear.WHAT THIS STUDY ADDScenter dot Alcohol co-ingestion is associated with higher concentrations of the organophosphorus insecticide ...

  6. Attenuation of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and blood cortisol level with forced exercise in comparison with diazepam.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Relieving withdrawal and post-abstinence syndrome of alcoholism is one of the major strategies in the treatment of alcohol addicted patients. Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and topiramate are the approved medications that were used for this object. To assess the role of non-pharmacologic therapy in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, we analyzed effects of forced exercise by treadmill on alcohol dependent mice as an animal model. A total of 60 adult male mice were divided into 5 group...

  7. The negative effects of alcohol hangover on high-anxiety phenotype rats are influenced by the glutamate receptors of the dorsal midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezequiel Leite, L; Nobre, M J

    2012-06-28

    Alcoholism is a chronic disorder characterized by the appearance of a withdrawal syndrome following the abrupt cessation of alcohol intake that includes symptoms of physical and emotional disturbances, anxiety being the most prevalent symptom. In humans, it was shown that anxiety may increase the probability of relapse. In laboratory animals, however, the use of anxiety to predict alcohol preference has remained difficult. Excitatory amino acids as glutamate have been implicated in alcohol hangover and may be responsible for the seizures and anxiety observed during withdrawal. The dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG) is a midbrain region critical for the modulation/expression of anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and the propagation of seizures induced by alcohol withdrawal, the glutamate neurotransmission being one of the most affected. The present study was designed to evaluate whether low- (LA) and high-anxiety rats (HA), tested during the alcohol hangover phase, in which anxiety is the most prevalent symptom, are more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of alcohol when tested in a voluntary alcohol drinking procedure. Additionally, we were interested in investigating the main effects of reducing the excitatory tonus of the dorsal midbrain, after the blockade of the ionotropic glutamate receptors into the DPAG, on the voluntary alcohol intake of HA and LA motivated rats that were made previously experienced with the free operant response of alcohol drinking. For this purpose, we used local infusions of the N-metil D-Aspartato (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-kainate receptors antagonist DL-2-Amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid - DL-AP7 (10 nmol/0.2 μl) and l-glutamic acid diethyl ester - GDEE (160 nmol/0.2 μl), respectively. Alcohol intoxication was produced by 10 daily bolus intraperitonial (IP) injections of alcohol (2.0 g/kg). Peak-blood alcohol levels were determined by gas-chromatography analysis in order to assess blood-alcohol

  8. Comparative assessment of blood and urine analyses in patients with acute poisonings by medical, narcotic substances and alcohol in clinical toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapenko, Yury Nikolaevich; Lisovik, Zhanna Andreevna; Belova, Maria Vladimirovna; Luzhnikov, Evgeny Alekseevich; Livanov, Alexandr Sergeevich

    2005-01-01

    Acute poisonings by medical, narcotic substances and alcohol are actual in Russia in the recent years. Comparison of analytic facilities of modern analytical techniques: chromatographic (HPLC, GC, GC-MS) and immuno-chemical (FPIA) in clinical toxicology for urgent diagnostics, assessment of the severity of acute poisoning and the efficacy of the treatment in patients with acute poisonings by psychotropic drugs, narcotics and alcohol have been done. The object of the study were serum, blood, urine of 611 patients with acute poisonings by amitriptyline, clozapine, carbamazepine, opiates and also alcohol. Threshold concentrations (threshold, critical and lethal) of the toxicants and their active metabolites which corresponded to different degrees of poisoning severity have been determined. The most comfortable and informative screening method for express diagnostics and assessment of severity of acute poisonings by psychotropic drugs and narcotics showed the HPLC with using automatic analyzers. FPIA using the automatic analyzer could be applied for screening studies, if group identification is enough. GC-FID method is advisable in case of poisoning by medical substances and narcotics in view of repeated investigation for assessment of the efficacy of the therapy. GC-MS could be advisable for confirming the results of other methods. GC-TCD possess high sensitivity and specificity and is optimal for express differential diagnostics and quantitative assessment of acute poisoning by ethanol and other alcohols.

  9. Interference of anesthetics in blood alcohol analysis by HS-GC-FID: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, C; Proença, P; Tavares, C; Castañera, A; Corte Real, F

    2016-08-01

    One of the techniques most widely used in ethanol analysis in forensic laboratories is undoubtedly the headspace gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (HS-GC-FID) since the determination of this substance is carried out directly, without the need for additional purification procedures, which leads to increased productivity. This is a very important factor due to the high number of alcohol analysis requested to these laboratories. The presence of other volatile substances can cause a problem given the fact that they can be interferents in ethanol analysis by HS-GC-FID, which can have legal consequences related with driving under the influence of alcohol. The authors report a case of a routine analysis by HS-GC-FID for the determination of ethanol of a driver who has suffered an accident in which the use of two chromatographic columns with different polarities was essential to obtain an unequivocally identification of this substance in presence of an interfering volatile anesthetic administered in the hospital. The method was validated according to international recommendations before being introduced into routine laboratory in terms of selectivity, limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification (LOQ), linearity, repeatability, intermediate precision, accuracy, robustness and carryover.

  10. High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audiences Contact The Health Information Center High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need To Know Table of Contents ... Lifestyle Changes (TLC) Drug Treatment Resources Why Is Cholesterol Important? Your blood cholesterol level has a lot ...

  11. What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure? Because diagnosis is based on blood pressure readings, ... damaged from chronic high blood pressure. Complications of High Blood Pressure When blood pressure stays high over time, it ...

  12. Reduced sensitivity of red blood cell (Na+,K+)-ATPase to ethanol in vitro in male alcoholic patients: relationship to clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, A C; Reilly, E; Overall, J E

    1986-10-01

    We examined red blood cell (Na+,K+)-ATPase, its sensitivity to inhibition by ethanol in vitro, and its relationship to clinical characteristics and history in 41 newly admitted alcoholic patients and 14 age-matched healthy controls. Sensitivity to ethanol was significantly lower in the alcoholic patients and correlated negatively with ethanol intake. In addition, sensitivity of enzyme to ethanol was lower in patients with high agitation-anxiety ratings and correlated negatively with agitation and anxiety scores on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. There were no relationships between (Na+,K+)-ATPase measures and depressive symptoms, history of treatment for depression, or family history of depression. These data suggest that tolerance to the effects of ethanol on (Na+,K+)-ATPase occurs in man and may be related to the severity of ethanol dependence or withdrawal.

  13. A comparison of the combined-use of alcohol & energy drinks to alcohol-only on high-risk drinking and driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Jacobson, Bert H; Williams, Ronald D; Barry, Adam E; Davidson, Robert T; Evans, Marion W; Beck, Niels C

    2015-01-01

    The combined-use of alcohol and energy drinks is an emerging public health issue. This investigation examined differences in drinking and driving behaviors among combined-users (CU) and participants who consumed alcohol-only (AO). This study was specifically designed to investigate potential differences in drinker's perceptions of (a) what it means to them to drive over the .08 Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) driving limit and (b) what it means to drive after knowing they have had too much to drink to drive safely. College students (N = 355) were surveyed to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between the AO (n = 174) and CU (n = 107) groups. CU were more likely than AO to drive over the .08 BAC driving limit (53% vs. 38%; p = .009) and after knowing they were too drunk to drive (57% vs. 44%; p = .025). CU were also more likely (56% vs. 35%; p = .000) to ride with an intoxicated driver while knowing it was unsafe. Conclusions/Importance: Combined-users are more likely to drive after drinking, drive while knowingly drunk, and participate in other high-risk behaviors such as heavy drinking that increase the potential for injury. Public policy makers and health professionals should focus prevention efforts to reduce high-risk combined-use behavior.

  14. Reduced blood clearance and increased urinary excretion of N-nitrosodimethylamine in patas monkeys exposed to ethanol or isopropyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L M; Koseniauskas, R; Burak, E S; Moskal, T J; Gombar, C T; Phillips, J M; Sansone, E B; Keimig, S; Magee, P N; Rice, J M

    1992-03-15

    Low concentrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine are metabolized in rodent and human liver by cytochrome P450IIE1, an activity competitively inhibitable by ethanol. In rodents coadministration of ethanol with N-nitrosodimethylamine results in increased tumorigenicity in extrahepatic organs, probably as a result of reduced hepatic clearance. To test this concept in a primate, the effects of ethanol cotreatment on the pharmacokinetics of N-nitrosodimethylamine were measured in male patas monkeys. Ethanol, 1.2 g/kg given p.o. before i.v. N-nitrosodimethylamine (1 mg/kg) or concurrently with an intragastric dose resulted in a 10-50-fold increase in the area under the blood concentration versus time curves and a 4-13-fold increase in mean residence times for N-nitrosodimethylamine. Isopropyl alcohol, 3.2 g/kg 24 h before N-nitrosodimethylamine, also increased these parameters 7-10-fold; this effect was associated with persistence of isopropyl alcohol and its metabolic product acetone, both IIE1 inhibitors, in the blood. While no N-nitrosodimethylamine was detected in expired air, trace amounts were found in urine. Ethanol and isopropyl alcohol pretreatment increased the maximum urinary N-nitrosodimethylamine concentration 15-50-fold and the percentage of the dose excreted in the urine by 100-800-fold. Thus ethanol and isopropyl alcohol greatly increase systemic exposure of extrahepatic organs to N-nitrosodimethylamine in a primate.

  15. Impact of alcohol intake on the relationships of uric acid with blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Shingo; Oki, Yoshitsugu; Tsunoda, Seiko; Takemoto, Tomoyuki; Koyama, Tatsuya; Yoshimura, Michihiro

    2016-11-01

    Hyperuricemia, which is frequently associated with hypertension, can be caused by alcohol intake. To date, limited data have shown the link between alcohol intake and hyperuricemic hypertension. We retrospectively examined the influence of alcohol intake on the relationship between the uric acid level and blood pressure or cardio-metabolic parameters in 171 untreated non-failing hypertensive patients (mean 59.3±10.7 years). Cross-sectional analysis was separately performed in regular alcohol drinkers (more than 25g/day ethanol, n=74, 82.4% men) and non-drinkers (n=97, 33.0% men). Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in drinkers than in non-drinkers (101.6±11.5mmHg vs. 96.8±8.2mmHg, puric acid level (mean 6.3±1.7mg/dL) was positively correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressures (r=0.270/p=0.020 and r=0.354/p=0.0020, respectively), and with the markers of cardiac hypertrophy, including electrocardiographic voltage (V1S+V5R, r=0.244/p=0.042) and echocardiographic left ventricular mass index (r=0.270/p=0.026). These correlations were also observed in the male drinker sub-group. In the non-drinkers, the uric acid level (mean 5.0±1.4mg/dL) was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.369/p=0.0002) but not with blood pressure or the markers of cardiac hypertrophy. The results suggest that the role of uric acid in blood pressure might differ between hypertensive drinkers and non-drinkers. In regular alcohol drinkers, there was a positive association of uric acid level with blood pressure and the severity of cardiac hypertrophy. In non-regular drinkers, an increased uric acid level is likely to be closely associated with increased BMI. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have certain medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus , thrombophilia , or lupus • are obese •had in vitro fertilization ... an abnormal amount of protein in the urine. Thrombophilia: A condition in which the blood does not ...

  17. Self-reported alcohol intake is a better estimate of 5-year change in blood pressure than biochemical markers in low resource settings: the PURE study

    OpenAIRE

    Zatu, Mandlenkosi C.; Van Rooyen, Johannes M.; Du Toit, Loots; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Greeff, Minrie; Schutte, Aletta E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite criticism of self-reported alcohol intake, it is a valuable tool to screen for alcohol abuse as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to compare various self-reported estimates of alcohol use with γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and percentage carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT) considering their relationship with blood pressure changes (%BP) over a 5-year period in black South Africans. Method: We recruited 1994 participants and collected 5-year followe...

  18. Prediction of mortality at age 40 in Danish males at high and low risk for alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, J; Penick, E C; L Mortensen, E

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This prospective high-risk study examined the influence of father's alcoholism and other archival-generated measures on premature death. METHOD: Sons of alcoholic fathers (n = 223) and sons of non-alcoholic fathers (n = 106) have been studied from birth to age 40. Archival predictors...... of premature death included father's alcoholism, childhood developmental data, and diagnostic information obtained from the Psychiatric Register and alcoholism clinics. RESULTS: By age 40, 21 of the 329 subjects had died (6.4%), a rate that is more than two times greater than expected. Sons of alcoholic...... fathers were not more likely to die by age 40. Premature death was associated with physical immaturity at 1-year of age and psychiatric/alcoholism treatment. No significant interactions were found between risk and archival measures. CONCLUSION: Genetic vulnerability did not independently predict death...

  19. Hyperproduction of Alcohol Using Yeast Fermentation in Highly Concentrated Molasses Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾燕松; 周政懋; 乔敏; 周全; 陈国强

    2001-01-01

    Cane molasses, a major byproduct in the sugar industry, is generally consumed for alcohol production. However, the alcohol production process needs to overcome three major challenges including increasing the productivity of alcohol fermentation, lowering the energy consumption for alcohol conversion and decreasing the environmental pollution caused by the alcoholic yeast fermentation process. To meet these challenges, a screening process was conducted using 13 high osmotic tolerant yeast strains. Among the strains, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 1912 was found to produce high alcohol concentrations during fermentation with high starting molasses concentrations such as 50% (W/V) molasses. In the test, 13.6% (V/V) alcohol was produced in the molasses fermentation broth after 72 h of incubation with an initial Yunnan molasses concentration of 50% in a 5 L fermentor. 15.0% (V/V) alcohol was obtained after 48 h of fermentation in shaking flasks containing 30% (W/V) initial total sugar concentration in diluted molasses. The performance of this strain in the shaking flasks was successfully scaled up to a 5-L fermentor vessel. Strain 1912 seems to be a better alcohol producer than the currently used alcohol production strain 2. 1190.

  20. Announcement: National High Blood Pressure Education Month - May 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    May is National High Blood Pressure Education Month. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a major contributor to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the United States.* High blood pressure affects one third of U.S. adults, or approximately 75 million persons, yet approximately 11 million of these persons are not aware they have hypertension, and approximately 18 million are not being treated (unpublished data) (1,2).

  1. An Investigation of Alcohol Use among Turkish High School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursoy, Figen; Bicacki, Mudriye Yildiz; Aral, Neriman

    2007-01-01

    Among the chief reasons for adolescent alcohol use are demographic characteristics, family relationships, social relationships, peer relationships, low self-esteem, social pressure, rebellion, and depression. It has been shown that alcohol users display a tendency for violence and aggressive behavior. The present study explores the relationship…

  2. An Investigation of Alcohol Use among Turkish High School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursoy, Figen; Bicacki, Mudriye Yildiz; Aral, Neriman

    2007-01-01

    Among the chief reasons for adolescent alcohol use are demographic characteristics, family relationships, social relationships, peer relationships, low self-esteem, social pressure, rebellion, and depression. It has been shown that alcohol users display a tendency for violence and aggressive behavior. The present study explores the relationship…

  3. High- and low-dose expectancies as mediators of personality dimensions and alcohol involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jennifer P; O'Connor, Roisin M

    2006-03-01

    The present study examined the influences of personality dimensions (extraversion, neuroticism) on college alcohol involvement both (1) directly and (2) mediated by positive and negative alcohol expectancies across two imagined (high and low) alcohol doses. Participants (N = 339; 176 women) were regularly drinking college students who completed a questionnaire battery on demographic characteristics, personality, expectancies, and alcohol use and problems. Structural equation modeling analysis of low- and high-dose models revealed partial support for the Social Learning Theory conceptualization of expectancies as mediators of more distal (personality) influences. Interestingly, patterns of association differed by dose. At high-expectancy doses, positive alcohol expectancies fully mediated the extraversion-use association. At low doses, positive expectancies did not play a critical role. Two distinct pathways from neuroticism to alcohol use were observed: a direct pathway, whereby neuroticism is a protective factor for alcohol use, and an indirect pathway, through positive expectancies, whereby neuroticism is a risk factor. The protective pathway was evident regardless of expectancy doses, whereas the risk pathway was evident only at high doses. Negative expectancies partially mediated the association between neuroticism and alcohol problems at both high- and low-expectancy doses. These data underscore the unique role of both positive and negative expectancies in the association between personality and drinking behavior and point to the importance of considering alcohol dose when assessing expectancies. Findings suggest that it may be beliefs about the effects resulting from heavy (rather than moderate) drinking that may be the active mechanism underlying drinking behavior.

  4. The effect of alcohols on red blood cell mechanical properties and membrane fluidity depends on their molecular size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melda Sonmez

    Full Text Available The role of membrane fluidity in determining red blood cell (RBC deformability has been suggested by a number of studies. The present investigation evaluated alterations of RBC membrane fluidity, deformability and stability in the presence of four linear alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol using ektacytometry and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy. All alcohols had a biphasic effect on deformability such that it increased then decreased with increasing concentration; the critical concentration for reversal was an inverse function of molecular size. EPR results showed biphasic changes of near-surface fluidity (i.e., increase then decrease and a decreased fluidity of the lipid core; rank order of effectiveness was butanol > propanol > ethanol > methanol, with a significant correlation between near-surface fluidity and deformability (r = 0.697; p<0.01. The presence of alcohol enhanced the impairment of RBC deformability caused by subjecting cells to 100 Pa shear stress for 300 s, with significant differences from control being observed at higher concentrations of all four alcohols. The level of hemolysis was dependent on molecular size and concentration, whereas echinocytic shape transformation (i.e., biconcave disc to crenated morphology was observed only for ethanol and propanol. These results are in accordance with available data obtained on model membranes. They document the presence of mechanical links between RBC deformability and near-surface membrane fluidity, chain length-dependence of the ability of alcohols to alter RBC mechanical behavior, and the biphasic response of RBC deformability and near-surface membrane fluidity to increasing alcohol concentrations.

  5. Failure of college students to complete an online alcohol education course as a predictor of high-risk drinking that requires medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Gina Baral; Kolligian, John; Mills, Douglas Lane; DeJong, William

    2011-11-01

    AlcoholEdu® for College and other computer-based education programs have been developed to reduce alcohol use and related problems among students. This study investigated whether the failure of incoming first-year students to complete AlcoholEdu predicts future high-risk drinking that requires medical attention. A review of clinical records kept by a single university's health service identified 684 undergraduates (classes of 2007-2011) who had presented for an alcohol event (September 2003 through June 2008). We used survival analysis to determine whether students who partially completed the course or failed to take it were disproportionately represented among student patients who presented with elevated blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Students who failed to take the online course were 4.64 times more likely than those who completed it to experience an alcohol event (p students who had partially completed the course were 1.52 times more likely (p alcohol education and gender were not significantly related to students' measured BAC level. Students who had completed AlcoholEdu were less likely to present for an alcohol event than were students who partially completed or failed to take the course. Campus administrators should consider whether students who fail to complete an online alcohol course should be flagged for more focused interventions (e.g., brief motivational interview, mandatory education classes). This is the first study to show a relationship between first-year college students' non-completion of an online alcohol course and subsequent high-risk drinking that requires medical attention.

  6. Blood pressure in childhood : epidemiological probes into the aetiology of high blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hofman (Albert)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractHigh arterial blood pressure takes a heavy toll in western populations (1 ). Its causes are still largely unknown, but its sequelae, a variety of cardiovascular and renal diseases, have been referred to as "a modern scourge" (2). High blood pressure of unknown cause, or essential hyperte

  7. Blood pressure in childhood : epidemiological probes into the aetiology of high blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hofman (Albert)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractHigh arterial blood pressure takes a heavy toll in western populations (1 ). Its causes are still largely unknown, but its sequelae, a variety of cardiovascular and renal diseases, have been referred to as "a modern scourge" (2). High blood pressure of unknown cause, or

  8. Effects of high-profile collisions on drink-driving penalties and alcohol-related crashes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Shinji; Ichikawa, Masao

    2011-06-01

    Japanese road traffic law was amended in 2002 and 2007 to increase the penalties for drink-driving in response to media coverage, publicity campaigns, and debates following high-profile alcohol-related motor-vehicle crashes in 1999 and 2006. To test the hypothesis that the proportion of crashes involving drink-driving started to decline before the law amendments, because of changes in social norms and driver behaviour after the high-profile crashes. In order to assess the impact of the cases in 1999 and 2006, time-series analyses were used to examine the trends in the proportion of crashes involving drink-driving, and whether there were abrupt changes in the level or slope at the expected time points, using monthly police data for the period between January 1995 and December 2008. In 1999, the proportion of alcohol-related fatal crashes in which the driver had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥0.5 mg/ml started to decline with a slope change of -0.09 percentage points per month (95% CI -0.15 to -0.03) but no level change, whereas there were no changes for drivers with a BAC trends for drivers with a BAC ≥0.5 or Media coverage of high-profile crashes, and subsequent publicity campaigns and debates might have altered social norms and driver behaviour, reducing the proportion of alcohol-related crashes before the introduction of more severe penalties for drink-driving.

  9. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help prevent seizures. If your condition or the baby’s condition worsens, prompt delivery will be needed. What steps can I take ... of the heart and blood vessels. Cesarean Delivery: Delivery of a baby through surgical incisions made in the mother’s abdomen ...

  10. Porous tungsten oxide nanoflakes for highly alcohol sensitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, J; Liu, P; Liang, Y; Li, H B; Yang, G W

    2012-11-21

    Porous tungsten oxide (WO(3)) nanoflakes have been synthesized by a simple and green approach in an ambient environment. As a precursor solution a polycrystalline hydrated tungstite (H(2)WO(4)·H(2)O) nanoparticles colloid was first prepared by pulsed-laser ablation of a tungsten target in water. The H(2)WO(4)·H(2)O nanoflakes were produced by 72 h aging treatment at room temperature. Finally, porous WO(3) nanoflakes were synthesized by annealing at 800 °C for 4 h. Considering the large surface-to-volume ratio of porous nanoflakes, a porous WO(3) nanoflake gas sensor was fabricated, which exhibits an excellent sensor response performance to alcohol concentrations in the range of 20 to 600 ppm under low working temperature. This high response was attributed to the highly crystalline and porous flake-like morphology, which leads to effective adsorption and desorption, and provides more active sites for the gas molecules' reaction. These findings showed that the porous tungsten oxide nanoflake has great potential in gas-sensing performance.

  11. Detection of Alcohol Concentration in blood%血液中乙醇浓度的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云平

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The purpose ofthis study was to establish gas chromatographic method for the determination of alcohol in blood.Methods: Alcohol Concentration were quantitatively determined by headspace gas chromatography, tert-butanol was internal standard. Results: In the range of 8.12~97.44μgöml-1 had a good linear(r=0.9999). The average recoveries were 99.8%,RSD=0.3%. Conclusion:The method is simple, reliable, accurate, reproducible and can be used for quality control of Alcohol Concentration in blood.%目的建立在血液中检测乙醇含量的气相色谱法。方法 采用顶空进样毛细管气相色谱法,以叔丁醇为内标物。结果 乙醇在8.12~97.44μg•ml-1浓度范围内线性良好,相关系数为0.9999,平均回收率为99.8%,RSD为0.3%。结论 本方法操作简便、可靠,结果准确,重现性好,可用于血液中乙醇浓度的检测。

  12. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Megumi Kido; Akihiro Asakawa; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K.; Toshio Takaoka; Aya Tajima; Shigeru Takaoka; Yumiko Yoshizaki; Kayu Okutsu; Kazunori T. Takamine; Yoshihiro Sameshima; Akio Inui

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2) consumed three different types ...

  13. Effect of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B and -7 polymorphisms on blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations in healthy subjects with a history of moderate alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Roberta; Iuliano, Luigi; Vecchioni, Alessia; Arzani, Dario; Milic, Mirta; Annunziata, Francesca; Zerbinati, Chiara; Capoluongo, Ettore; Bonassi, Stefano; McKay, James D; Boccia, Stefania

    2017-07-21

    To evaluate the effect of ADH1B and ADH7 genotypes on blood acetaldehyde and ethanol levels after alcohol ingestion, and to measure the genotoxic effect of smoking and ethanol on the buccal cells, also controlling for ADH variants. We recruited healthy Italian subjects with at least a moderate history of alcohol consumption. All subjects were given an alcoholic drink of 0.4 g ethanol /kg of body weight. Blood venous samples were collected at baseline, and 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ingestion. Buccal cells were collected before ethanol ingestion. Sixty subjects were enrolled in the study. Individuals with the ADH1B GG genotype had median ethanol levels of 5.0 mM (IQR 3.4-7.2), and those with the ADH1B GT/TT genotype had 4.7 mM (IQR 4.2-4.8). Corresponding acetaldehyde levels were 1.5 μM (IQR 0.7-2.6) for ADH1B GG genotype and 1.6 μM (IQR 1.5-1.7) for ADH1B CG/GG genotype. Individuals with the ADH7 CC genotype had median ethanol levels of 5.0 mM (IQR 3.3-7.2), while 5.0 mM (IQR 4.7-5.6) was in those with the ADH7 CG/GG genotype. Corresponding acetaldehyde levels were 1.5 μM (IQR 0.7-2.6) for ADH7 CC genotype and 1.5 μM (IQR 1.4-1.6) for ADH7 CG/GG genotypes. A non significant increase in the frequency of karyolitic and pyknotic cells was found in the group of heavy drinkers and current smokers, when compared to the moderate drinkers and the non-smokers. Our study does not support the hypothesis that ADH1B and ADH7 genotypes affect blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Dirty Air, High Blood Pressure Linked

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应树道

    2001-01-01

    贵刊去年第6期曾刊登一短文,题目是:盐,迫升血压之元凶。读了该文,我开始严格控制每日的食盐摄入量,再附以药物治疗,血压果然趋于平稳。近日上网,遇一奇文,意思是人的血压与空气污染状况有涉!根据对2600个成年人的调查,得出了这样的结论:Pollution may cause changes in the part of the nervous system that controls blood pressure.文章又同时说明:Exactly how pollution might cause blood pressure to climb remains unclear.人体之奥妙由此可见一斑。

  15. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... atrial fibrillation has more than five times the risk of stroke.” “Because high blood pressure is so frequent, affecting tens of millions of ... is a more potent risk factor.” The two risk factors are also related to each other: High blood pressure is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation. Middle- ...

  16. What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications Updated:Jan 18,2017 Is medication ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  17. Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to a Heart Attack Updated:Dec ... sheet This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  18. Americans with High Blood Pressure Still Eating Too Much Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163977.html Americans With High Blood Pressure Still Eating Too Much Salt Average sodium intake ... March 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For Americans with high blood pressure, cutting back on salt is an important way ...

  19. Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure Updated:Mar 10,2017 Fighting back against the “ ... Follow us on Twitter Follow us on Facebook High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  20. Is the effect of alcohol on risk of stroke confined to highly stressed persons?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N R; Truelsen, T; Barefoot, J C

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychological stress and alcohol are both suggested as risk factors for stroke. Further, there appears to be a close relation between stress and alcohol consumption. Several experimental studies have found alcohol consumption to reduce the immediate effects of stress in a laboratory...... about their self-reported level of stress and their weekly alcohol consumption. The participants were followed-up until 31st of December 1997 during which 880 first ever stroke events occurred. Data were analysed by means of Cox regression modelling. RESULTS: At a high stress level, weekly total...... intake and ischaemic stroke events. Regarding specific types of alcoholic beverages, self-reported stress only modified the associations for intake of beer and wine. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the apparent lower risk of stroke associated with moderate alcohol consumption is confined...

  1. [What nurses with a bachelor of nursing degree know about the effects of alcohol on blood pressure and risk of arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska, Hanna; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Grabowski, Władysław; Grzegorczyk, Michał; Swietlik, Dariusz

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the main causes of arterial hypertension. Alcohol is responsible for a few to more than ten percent of all cases of primary hypertension, particularly in persons consuming more than 20-30 g of alcohol per day. The aim of this study was to find out what Bachelor of Nursing degree holders know about alcohol consumption styles and the effects of alcohol on blood pressure, as well as on the risk of arterial hypertension in adults. The study group comprised 116 qualified nurses (112 females, 4 males; age 21-50 years; work seniority 0-29 years). The study was done between June 2007 and January 2008 with the use of the diagnostic poll technique based on a questionnaire developed by the authors. We found that 8.62% of participants were informed about screening tools used for evaluating styles of alcohol consumption while 41.38% gave the correct definition of the standard portion of alcohol. The alcohol consumption threshold above which the risk of hypertension becomes significant was known to 58.62% of respondents. The influence of alcohol (drunk directly before blood pressure measurement) on blood pressure was known to 89.66% of the nurses. We observed a statistically significant effect of work experience (p = 0.002), place of work (p family status or type of postgraduate education were noted. It is necessary to increase awareness among nurses regarding the risk of arterial hypertension associated with alcohol consumption and to improve the effectiveness of undergraduate and postgraduate education aimed at early recognition of problems caused by alcohol consumption which are important for the prevention of arterial hypertension.

  2. Negative emotional primes and attentional bias towards alcohol in high anxious individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Samelink; R.W. Wiers

    2011-01-01

    Both anxiety and alcohol use disorders are among the leading causes of the burden of disease in high-income countries. They co-occur much more often than one would expect based on chance as many anxious individuals drink alcohol to reduce anxiety (Stewart & Conrod, 2008). But in the longer term, pro

  3. Student-Generated Protective Behaviors to Avert Severe Harm Due to High-Risk Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sandi W.; LaPlante, Carolyn; Wibert, Wilma Novales; Mayer, Alex; Atkin, Charles K.; Klein, Katherine; Glazer, Edward; Martell, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    High-risk alcohol consumption is a significant problem on college campuses that many students see as a rite of passage in their development into adulthood. Developing effective prevention campaigns designed to lessen or avert the risks associated with alcohol consumption entails understanding how students perceive harmful consequences as well as…

  4. Student-Generated Protective Behaviors to Avert Severe Harm Due to High-Risk Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sandi W.; LaPlante, Carolyn; Wibert, Wilma Novales; Mayer, Alex; Atkin, Charles K.; Klein, Katherine; Glazer, Edward; Martell, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    High-risk alcohol consumption is a significant problem on college campuses that many students see as a rite of passage in their development into adulthood. Developing effective prevention campaigns designed to lessen or avert the risks associated with alcohol consumption entails understanding how students perceive harmful consequences as well as…

  5. Alcohol synthesis in a high-temperature slurry reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, G.W.; Marquez, M.A.; McCutchen, M.S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this contract is to develop improved process and catalyst technology for producing higher alcohols from synthesis gas or its derivatives. Recent research has been focused on developing a slurry reactor that can operate at temperatures up to about 400{degrees}C and on evaluating the so-called {open_quotes}high pressure{close_quotes} methanol synthesis catalyst using this reactor. A laboratory stirred autoclave reactor has been developed that is capable of operating at temperatures up to 400{degrees}C and pressures of at least 170 atm. The overhead system on the reactor is designed so that the temperature of the gas leaving the system can be closely controlled. An external liquid-level detector is installed on the gas/liquid separator and a pump is used to return condensed slurry liquid from the separator to the reactor. In order to ensure that gas/liquid mass transfer does not influence the observed reaction rate, it was necessary to feed the synthesis gas below the level of the agitator. The performance of a commercial {open_quotes}high pressure {close_quotes} methanol synthesis catalyst, the so-called {open_quotes}zinc chromite{close_quotes} catalyst, has been characterized over a range of temperature from 275 to 400{degrees}C, a range of pressure from 70 to 170 atm., a range of H{sub 2}/CO ratios from 0.5 to 2.0 and a range of space velocities from 2500 to 10,000 sL/kg.(catalyst),hr. Towards the lower end of the temperature range, methanol was the only significant product.

  6. Alcohol administration attenuates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity in healthy men at low genetic risk for alcoholism, but not in high-risk subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, Inge; Spring, Konstanze; Uhr, Manfred; Zimmermann, Ulrich S

    2013-09-01

    Acute alcohol challenge studies in rodents and naturalistic observations in drinking alcoholics suggest that alcohol stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. The literature on respective studies in healthy volunteers is more inconsistent, suggesting differential alcohol effects depending on dosage, recent drinking history, family history of alcoholism and alcohol-induced side effects. These papers and the putative pharmacologic mechanisms underlying alcohol effects on the HPA system are reviewed here and compared with a new study, in which we investigated how secretion of adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) and cortisol is affected by ingestion of 0.6 g/kg ethanol in 33 young healthy socially drinking males with a paternal history of alcoholism (PHP) versus 30 family history negative (FHN) males. Alcohol and placebo were administered in a 2-day, double-blind, placebo controlled crossover design with randomized administration sequence. After administration of placebo, ACTH and cortisol decreased steadily over 130 minutes. In FHN subjects, secretion of both hormones was even more attenuated after alcohol, resulting in significantly lower levels compared with placebo. In PHP subjects, no alcohol effect on hormone secretion could be detected. The ratio of cortisol to ACTH secretion, each expressed as area under the secretion curve, was significantly increased by alcohol in FHN and PHP participants. These results argue against HPA stimulation being a mechanism that promotes the transition from moderate to dependent drinking. The fact that alcohol-induced HPA suppression was not detected in PHP males is consistent with the general concept that subjects at high risk for alcoholism exhibit less-pronounced alcohol effects.

  7. Alcoholic Liver Disease in the Asian–Pacific Region with High Prevalence of Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sien-Sing Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The hospitalized cases and mortality from alcoholic liver disease (ALD are increasing in Taiwan and worldwide. Meanwhile, the Asia–Pacific region also has a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The Taiwanese have the highest percentage of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 deficiency and the lowest amount of alcohol consumption. Based on the histological changes, ALD is clinically classified as steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic fibrosis, alcoholic cirrhosis, and alcoholic hepatitis on cirrhosis. Patients with overt alcoholic hepatitis often develop marked hepatomegaly, audible hepatic arterial bruit, mild leukocytosis, and mild fever. Patients having alcoholic cirrhosis had much more serious complications and mortality. It is clinically important to identify hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis earlier for early management. Active assessments for esophageal varices and ascites may help the diagnosis of cirrhosis. Sonography is helpful for exanimating features of cirrhosis including portal hypertension, ascites, increased hepatic portal flow, and collaterals. Synergistic damage of viral hepatitis on ALD patients lead to rapid progression to cirrhosis and HCC. Distinct from the Western population, 30% of Taiwanese alcoholics had concomitant chronic HBV regardless of the different histologic categories. Patient groups with combined alcoholics and HBV had fewer platelet counts and much more cirrhosis with Ishak Stage 5–6 fibrosis. The annual incidences of HCC were significantly higher in alcoholic cirrhotic patients having concomitant HBV infection than those with only HBV infection or alcoholism alone. Antiviral nucleotide and nucleoside analogs therapy reduces the prevalence of HCC to a similar level to those ALD patients without active HBV.

  8. 血液酒精浓度对驾驶行为的影响研究%Effect of Blood Alcohol Concentration on Driving Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣婷

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the impact of alcohol on the driving behavior, 13 different drivers′driv⁃ing behaviors, such as acceleration and braking, were tested under different blood alcohol concentration (0mg/dl、20mg/dl、50 mg/dl、80 mg/dl)and different scenarios based on driving simulator. The drivers′subjective feelings were also investigated. Results show that drunk driving, especially under high BAC, has an impact on driving behavior and may cause some dangerous driving behavior;gender and driving ex⁃perience also have an impact on driving behavior under different blood alcohol concentration.%为了探讨饮酒对驾驶员驾驶行为的影响,以驾驶模拟器为平台,测试了13名驾驶人员在不同血液酒精浓度(0mg/dl,20mg/dl,50 mg/dl,80 mg/dl)、不同场景下加速、刹车情况并调查了其主观感受。进行数据分析后初步得到一些结论:饮酒(特别是在较高血液酒精浓度的情况下)确实会对驾驶行为产生影响并可能会导致某些危险驾驶行为;性别和驾驶经验也会对不同酒精浓度下的驾驶行为产生影响。

  9. Accuracy of Handheld Blood Glucose Meters at High Altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; Krabbe, Hans G.; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Fokkert, Marion J.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Rienks, Rienk; Bilo, Karin M.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e. g., high-altitude trekking), reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs) are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior st

  10. Alcohol consumption and academic performance in a population of Spanish high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Frías, M; de la fe Fernandez, M; Planells, E; Miranda, M T; Mataix, J; Llopis, J

    2001-11-01

    The present study was designed to identify patterns of alcohol consumption among Spanish high school students and describe the relationship between alcohol intake and school performance. The sample population consisted of students, aged 14 to 19 years, who were attending high school during the academic year 1994-95 in the city of Granada in southern Spain. We studied 1,602 (861 female) students (alpha error - 0.05, sampling error = 5%), using a self-administered questionnaire that contained items about individual and family demographics, quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, and school performance. Total alcohol consumption was recorded as grams (g) of alcohol per week and per day for three categories of alcoholic drinks: wine, beer and distilled spirits. The percentage of nondrinkers was 21.05% for male adolescents and 28.56% for female adolescents. The mean amount of alcohol consumed per week was larger in male than in female students (F= 18.36, l/l,594 df, p alcohol consumed. No significant differences in drinking patterns were found between students at public and private schools. The risk of academic failure increased considerably when more than 150 g of alcohol were consumed per week (OR: 2.91; 95% CI: 1.94-4.43). Although we cannot draw any conclusions about the causes of the association between academic failure and teenage drinking, our results do show that the risk of failing increases together with alcohol intake. However, it should be noted that academic achievement is also influenced by many factors other than alcohol consumption.

  11. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Finck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives.

  12. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  13. Cardiovascular reactivity and prediction of the high blood pressure in the community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Benet Rodríguez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of strategies to reduce the prevalence of high blood pressure is an important challenge for all countries, populations, and governments. For this reason, the search of method in the prediction of the high blood pressure is an appropriate way, and a very important objective to get. Objetive: This study expects to show that cardiovascular hyperreactivity determined by the sustained weight test is a predictor of the high blood pressure independently from other cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: A five year cohort study was carried out (from 1998 to 2003 in which two groups were created. The 1st one with CHR (n = 41 and the 2nd one with (n= 127 of cardiovascular normoreactivity (CNR. Variables such as cardiovascular hyperreactivity high blood pressure, obesity, family history of high blood pressure, body mass index rate, smoking habit, salt consumption and alcohol consumption. An evaluation of the HBP risk was performed in each group, and the values of incidence of high blood pressure in each of them were compared. The chi square test was used as a statistic method. The stratified analysis and the determination of relative risk with a confidence interval of the 95 percent. The statistical significance was 95%. Results: The incidence of hypertension in the cohort of HRC was of 34,15/100 people and in the CNR of 10,24/100 people chi square = 13,3 GL= 1 P= 0,007, on the other hand, when we made adjustments according to different cardiovascular risk markers to determine the relationship between hypertension and hyperreactivity, it was observed that the relationship exists in spite of the risk marks mentioned before. Conclusions: The individuals whit HRC determined by the SWT have a risk to develop higher significant sustained hypertension then the cardiovascular normorreactivos ones this is an evidence that this method is useful to predict HBP.

  14. Prospective evaluation of 2% (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate as an antiseptic agent for blood donor arm preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the use of 2% (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate (2% AlcCHG in donor arm preparation, to monitor the contamination rate of blood products after the collection and to find incidence of transfusion associated bacteremia. Settings and Design: Optimal skin antisepsis of the phlebotomy site is essential to minimize the risk of contamination. Food and Drug Administration (FDA in India has recommended antisepsis with three-step regimen of spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit for donor arm antisepsis, but not with chlorhexidine, which is recommended by many other authors. Material and Methods: A total of 795 donors were studied from July 2011 to January 2012. Spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit was used for 398 donors and 2% AlcCHG was used for 397 donors with the two-step method for arm antisepsis. Swabs were collected before and after use of antiseptic agents for all the donors. All the blood products collected from donors with growth in post-antisepsis swabs were cultured. A total of 123 various blood products were cultured irrespective of the method and result of antisepsis was observed. A total of seven patients had mild transfusion reaction. The transfused blood products, blood and urine specimen of the patients who had transfusion reaction were also cultured. Results: Seven donors out of 398 donors had growth in post-antisepsis swab with spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit protocol and three donors out of 397 donors had growth in post-antisepsis swab with 2% AlcCHG protocol. All blood products collected from donors who had growth in post-antisepsis swabs when cultured had no growth. There was no contamination of blood products. Conclusions: Two percent (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate with two-step protocol can be used as an antiseptic agent for donor arm preparation without considerable cost difference. It is at par with spirit 10% povidone iodine spirit protocol as suggested by FDA in India

  15. Phosphatidylethanol in Blood as a Marker of Chronic Alcohol Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo Davide Ferrara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at a systematic review of the current knowledge on phosphatidylethanol (PEth in blood as a direct marker of chronic alcohol use and abuse. In March 2012, the search through “MeSH” and “free-text” protocols in the databases Medline/PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Ovid/Embase, combining the terms phosphatidylethanol and alcohol, provided 444 records, 58 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were used to summarize the current evidence on the formation, distribution and degradation of PEth in human blood: (1, the presence and distribution of different PEth molecular species (2, the most diffused analytical methods devoted to PEth identification and quantization (3, the clinical efficiency of total PEth quantification as a marker of chronic excessive drinking (4, and the potential utility of this marker for identifying binge drinking behaviors (5. Twelve papers were included in the meta-analysis and the mean (M and 95% confidence interval (CI of total PEth concentrations in social drinkers (DAI ≤ 60 g/die; M = 0.288 µM; CI 0.208–0.367 µM and heavy drinkers (DAI > 60 g/die; M = 3.897 µM; CI 2.404–5.391 µM were calculated. The present analysis demonstrates a good clinical efficiency of PEth for detecting chronic heavy drinking.

  16. Blind Deconvolution for Distributed Parameter Systems with Unbounded Input and Output and Determining Blood Alcohol Concentration from Transdermal Biosensor Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, I G; Luczak, Susan E; Weiss, Jordan

    2014-03-15

    We develop a blind deconvolution scheme for input-output systems described by distributed parameter systems with boundary input and output. An abstract functional analytic theory based on results for the linear quadratic control of infinite dimensional systems with unbounded input and output operators is presented. The blind deconvolution problem is then reformulated as a series of constrained linear and nonlinear optimization problems involving infinite dimensional dynamical systems. A finite dimensional approximation and convergence theory is developed. The theory is applied to the problem of estimating blood or breath alcohol concentration (respectively, BAC or BrAC) from biosensor-measured transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) in the field. A distributed parameter model with boundary input and output is proposed for the transdermal transport of ethanol from the blood through the skin to the sensor. The problem of estimating BAC or BrAC from the TAC data is formulated as a blind deconvolution problem. A scheme to identify distinct drinking episodes in TAC data based on a Hodrick Prescott filter is discussed. Numerical results involving actual patient data are presented.

  17. Driving performance on the descending limb of blood alcohol concentration (BAC in undergraduate students: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Tremblay

    Full Text Available Young drivers are overrepresented in collisions resulting in fatalities. It is not uncommon for young drivers to socially binge drink and decide to drive a vehicle a few hours after consumption. To better understand the risks that may be associated with this behaviour, the present study has examined the effects of a social drinking bout followed by a simulated drive in undergraduate students on the descending limb of their BAC (blood alcohol concentration curve. Two groups of eight undergraduate students (n = 16 took part in this study. Participants in the alcohol group were assessed before drinking, then at moderate and low BAC as well as 24 hours post-acute consumption. This group consumed an average of 5.3 ± 1.4 (mean ± SD drinks in an hour in a social context and were then submitted to a driving and a predicted crash risk assessment. The control group was assessed at the same time points without alcohol intake or social context.; at 8 a.m., noon, 3 p.m. and 8 a.m. the next morning. These multiple time points were used to measure any potential learning effects from the assessment tools (i.e. driving simulator and useful field of view test (UFOV. Diminished driving performance at moderate BAC was observed with no increases in predicted crash risk. Moderate correlations between driving variables were observed. No association exists between driving variables and UFOV variables. The control group improved measures of selective attention after the third assessment. No learning effect was observed from multiple sessions with the driving simulator. Our results show that a moderate BAC, although legal, increases the risky behaviour. Effects of alcohol expectancy could have been displayed by the experimental group. UFOV measures and predicted crash risk categories were not sensitive enough to predict crash risk for young drivers, even when intoxicated.

  18. Driving Performance on the Descending Limb of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) in Undergraduate Students: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvey, Dustin; Behm, David; Albert, Wayne J.

    2015-01-01

    Young drivers are overrepresented in collisions resulting in fatalities. It is not uncommon for young drivers to socially binge drink and decide to drive a vehicle a few hours after consumption. To better understand the risks that may be associated with this behaviour, the present study has examined the effects of a social drinking bout followed by a simulated drive in undergraduate students on the descending limb of their BAC (blood alcohol concentration) curve. Two groups of eight undergraduate students (n = 16) took part in this study. Participants in the alcohol group were assessed before drinking, then at moderate and low BAC as well as 24 hours post-acute consumption. This group consumed an average of 5.3 ± 1.4 (mean ± SD) drinks in an hour in a social context and were then submitted to a driving and a predicted crash risk assessment. The control group was assessed at the same time points without alcohol intake or social context.; at 8 a.m., noon, 3 p.m. and 8 a.m. the next morning. These multiple time points were used to measure any potential learning effects from the assessment tools (i.e. driving simulator and useful field of view test (UFOV)). Diminished driving performance at moderate BAC was observed with no increases in predicted crash risk. Moderate correlations between driving variables were observed. No association exists between driving variables and UFOV variables. The control group improved measures of selective attention after the third asessement. No learning effect was observed from multiple sessions with the driving simulator. Our results show that a moderate BAC, although legal, increases the risky behaviour. Effects of alcohol expectancy could have been displayed by the experimental group. UFOV measures and predicted crash risk categories were not sentitive enough to predict crash risk for young drivers, even when intoxicated. PMID:25723618

  19. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that are naturally low in salt, cholesterol, and saturated fats. You will also include foods that are high ... AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of ...

  20. How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... natural sources of potassium. For example, a medium banana has about 420 mg of potassium and half ... high blood pressure. Learn more Get a fact sheet on following a heart-healthy diet: English | Spanish ...

  1. Efficacy of High-Dose Baclofen for Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Bulimia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Sébastien; Lalanne, Laurence; Riegert, Myriam; Bertschy, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    High-dose baclofen is a promising treatment for alcohol use disorder, with a specific action on craving. A more general action on craving in other addictive disorders has been suggested based on the hypothesis of a common neurobiological pathway in addictions. We report the case of a woman with both alcohol use disorder and bulimia nervosa. There was a positive response to high-dose baclofen on alcohol craving, but no response on food craving. The case illustrates that craving could be differentially responsive to anti-craving drugs.

  2. Moderate doses of alcoholic beverages with dinner and postprandial high density lipoprotein composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.J.; Veenstra, J.; Tol, A. van; Groener, J.E.M.; Schaafsma, G.

    1998-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. In this study, postprandial changes in plasma lipids, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity levels

  3. Photobiomodulation on alcohol induced dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang

    2007-05-01

    Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.

  4. Effect of the allelic variants of aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2*2 and alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B*2 on blood acetaldehyde concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Giia-Sheun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alcoholism is a complex behavioural disorder. Molecular genetics studies have identified numerous candidate genes associated with alcoholism. It is crucial to verify the disease susceptibility genes by correlating the pinpointed allelic variations to the causal phenotypes. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH are the principal enzymes responsible for ethanol metabolism in humans. Both ADH and ALDH exhibit functional polymorphisms among racial populations; these polymorphisms have been shown to be the important genetic determinants in ethanol metabolism and alcoholism. Here, we briefly review recent advances in genomic studies of human ADH/ALDH families and alcoholism, with an emphasis on the pharmacogenetic consequences of venous blood acetaldehyde in the different ALDH2 genotypes following the intake of various doses of ethanol. This paper illustrates a paradigmatic example of phenotypic verifications in a protective disease gene for substance abuse.

  5. High blood pressure in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossello, Enrico; Simoni, David

    2016-06-22

    High blood pressure and cognitive impairment often coexist in old age, but their pathophysiological association is complex. Several longitudinal studies have shown that high blood pressure at midlife is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia, although this association is much less clear in old age. The effect of blood pressure lowering in reducing the risk of dementia is only borderline significant in clinical trials of older subjects, partly due to the insufficient follow-up time. Conversely, dementia onset is associated with a decrease of blood pressure values, probably secondary to neurodegeneration. Prognostic effect of blood pressure values in cognitively impaired older subjects is still unclear, with aggressive blood pressure lowering being potentially harmful in this patients category. Brief cognitive screening, coupled with simple motor assessment, are warranted to identify frail older subjects who need a more cautious approach to antihypertensive treatment. Values obtained with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring seem more useful than clinical ones to predict the outcome of cognitively impaired older subjects. Future studies should identify the most appropriate blood pressure targets in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

  6. Work and High-Risk Alcohol Consumption in the Canadian Workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Ève Blanc

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the associations between occupational groups; work-organization conditions based on task design; demands, social relations, and gratifications; and weekly high-risk alcohol consumption among Canadian workers. A secondary data analysis was performed on Cycle 2.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey conducted by Statistics Canada in 2003. The sample consisted of 76,136 employees 15 years of age and older nested in 2,451 neighbourhoods. High-risk alcohol consumption is defined in accordance with Canadian guidelines for weekly low-risk alcohol consumption. The prevalence of weekly high-risk alcohol consumption is estimated to be 8.1% among workers. The results obtained using multilevel logistic regression analysis suggest that increased work hours and job insecurity are associated with elevated odds of high-risk alcohol consumption. Gender female, older age, being in couple and living with children associated with lower odds of high-risk drinking, while increased education, smoking, physical activities, and, and economic status were associated with higher odds. High-risk drinking varied between neighbourhoods, and gender moderates the contribution of physical demands. The results suggest that work made a limited contribution and non-work factors a greater contribution to weekly high-risk alcohol consumption. Limits and implications of these results are discussed.

  7. Classification of High Blood Pressure Persons Vs Normal Blood Pressure Persons Using Voice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The human voice is remarkable, complex and delicate. All parts of the body play some role in voice production and may be responsible for voice dysfunction. The larynx contains muscles that are surrounded by blood vessels connected to circulatory system. The pressure of blood in these vessels should be related with dynamic variation of vocal cord parameters. These parameters are directly related with acoustic properties of speech. Acoustic voice analysis can be used to characterize the pathological voices. This paper presents the classification of high blood pressure and normal with the aid of voice signal recorded from the patients. Various features have been extracted from the voice signal of healthy persons and persons suffering from high blood pressure. Simulation results show differences in the parameter values of healthy and pathological persons. Then an optimum feature vector is prepared and kmean classification algorithm was implemented for data classification. The 79% classification efficiency was obtained.

  8. Mild and Highly Efficient Copper(I Inspired Acylation of Alcohols and Polyols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch A. Mensah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new and highly efficient method mediated by tetrakis(acetonitrilecopper(I triflate for activating both simple and highly hindered anhydrides in the acylation of alcohols and polyols is described. This new acylation method is mild and mostly proceeds at room temperature with low catalyst loading. The method is versatile and has been extended to a wide variety of different alcohol substrates to afford the corresponding ester products in good to excellent yields.

  9. [Actomyosin ATPase activity of skeletal muscles and the markers of tissue damage in the blood of rats under prolonged chronic alcoholization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseĭslier, Iu V; Podpalova, O M; Nuryshchenko, N Ie; Martyniuk, V S

    2014-01-01

    The activity of creatine kinase and indices of lipid metabolism in the blood and also actomyosin ATPase activity of skeletal muscles of rats under chronic 8-month alcohol abuse were investigated. It is shown that actomyosin K+-ATPase activity of skeletal muscles increases from two months of ethanol use, but actomyosin Mg2+-ATPase activity decreases during 6-8 months of alcoholization. From two months of ethanol use the creatine kinase activity, as an enzyme marker of muscle tissue damage, statistically significantly increases during all the period of the animals alcoholization. The level of total lipid increases after two months of alcohol consumption (in blood plasma by 30% and in erythrocyte mass by 65%). For longer periods of alcoholization (4-8 months) the level of lipids remains almost the same, whereas in erythrocyte mass it does not differ from control values. The level of diene conjugates in the blood plasma reduces and the amount of ketone derivatives of fatty acid residues increases that points to the inhibition of some components of the antioxidant system that control detoxification of hydroperoxides of fatty acids and also to activation of free radical damage of tissues. There were no significant changes of lipid peroxidation level in erythrocyte mass at any stage of alcoholization.

  10. Blood thiamine, zinc, selenium, lead and oxidative stress in a population of male and female alcoholics: clinical evidence and gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Mancinelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Long term alcohol abuse is associated with deficiencies in essential nutrients and minerals that can cause a variety of medical consequences including accumulation of toxic metals. Aim. The aim of this research is to get evidence-based data to evaluate alcohol damage and to optimize treatment. Thiamine and thiamine diphosphate (T/TDP, zinc (Zn, selenium (Se, lead (Pb and oxidative stress in terms of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs were examined in blood samples from 58 alcohol dependent patients (17 females and 41 males. RESULTS. T/TDP concentration in alcoholics resulted significantly lower than controls (p < 0.005 for both sexes. Serum Zn and Se did not significantly differ from reference values. Levels of blood Pb in alcoholics resulted significantly higher (p < 0.0001 than Italian reference values and were higher in females than in males. ROMs concentration was significantly higher than healthy population only in female abusers (p = 0.005. CONCLUSION. Alcoholics show a significant increase in blood oxidative stress and Pb and decrease in thiamine. Impairment occurs mainly in female abusers confirming a gender specific vulnerability.

  11. Modulatory effect of pineapple peel extract on lipid peroxidation, catalase activity and hepatic biomarker levels in blood plasma of alcohol-induced oxidative stressed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okafor OY; Erukainure OL; Ajiboye JA; Adejobi RO; Owolabi FO; Kosoko SB

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ability of the methanolic extract of pineapple peel to modulate alcohol-induced lipid peroxidation, changes in catalase activities and hepatic biochemical marker levels in blood plasma. Methods: Oxidative stress was induced by oral administration of ethanol (20% w/v) at a dosage of 5 mL/kg bw in rats. After 28 days of treatment, the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood was collected with a 2 mL syringe by cardiac puncture and was centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min. The plasma was analyzed to evaluate malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase activity, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations. Results: Administration of alcohol caused a drastic increase (87.74%) in MDA level compared with the control. Pineapple peel extract significantly reduced the MDA level by 60.16% at 2.5 mL/kg bw. Rats fed alcohol only had the highest catalase activity, treatment with pineapple peel extract at 2.5 mL/kg bw however, reduced the activity. Increased AST, ALP and ALT activities were observed in rats fed alcohol only respectively, treatment with pineapple peel extract drastically reduced their activities. Conclusions: The positive modulation of lipid peroxidation, catalase activities as well as hepatic biomarker levels of blood plasma by the methanolic extract of pineapple peels under alcohol-induced oxidative stress is an indication of its protective ability in the management of alcohol-induced toxicity.

  12. Young people's blood alcohol concentration and the alcohol consumption city law, Brazil Alcoholemia de jóvenes y la ley contra consumo de alcohol, Brasil Alcoolemia de jovens e lei contra o consumo de álcool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel De Boni

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses blood alcohol concentration and risk behaviors for traffic accidents before and after the implementation of a law which prohibits the use of alcoholic beverages on city gas stations. In Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, young people go out at night and drive to gas station convenience stores to buy alcoholic beverages which are consumed on the premises of parking lots in gas stations. Data were obtained from self-administered questionnaires and breath analyzers in two cross-sectional collections with purposive samples of youngsters in May and July 2006 (n=62, and n=50, respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups before and after the city law was passed. Blood alcohol concentration greater than 0.06% was found in 35.5% of pre-law group and 40% of post-law group (p=0.62. Results point out heavy alcohol use in both groups, which did not change after the law was passed.En el artículo se analizaron la alcoholemia y los comportamientos de riesgo de accidentes de transito en jóvenes antes y después de la implementación de la ley que prohíbe el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas en puestos de gasolina. En Puerto Alegre (Sur de Brasil, los jóvenes acostumbran salir de noche y conducir hasta las tiendas de conveniencia de puestos de gasolina para comprar y consumir bebidas alcohólicas en los estacionamientos dentro de los puestos. Los datos fueron obtenidos de encuestas auto-aplicables y alcoholímetro en dos colectas transversales realizadas con jóvenes, abordados en mayo y julio de 2006 con muestreo intencional (n=62 y n=50, respectivamente. No hubo diferencia significativa entre los grupos entrevistados. Alcoholemia > 0,06% fue encontrada en 35,5% y 40% de los individuos antes y después de la ley, respectivamente (p=0,62. Los resultados señalan el uso pesado de alcohol en ambos grupos, inalterado por la implementación de la ley.No artigo foram analisados a alcoolemia e comportamentos de risco para

  13. Identification of highly active flocculant proteins in bovine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, George J; Nuñez, Alberto; Garcia, Rafael A

    2012-03-01

    Synthetic polymeric flocculants are used extensively for wastewater remediation, soil stabilization, and reduction in water leakage from unlined canals. Sources of highly active, inexpensive, renewable flocculants are needed to replace synthetic flocculants. High kaolin flocculant activity was documented for bovine blood (BB) and blood plasma with several anticoagulant treatments. BB serum also had high flocculant activity. To address the hypothesis that some blood proteins have strong flocculating activity, the BB proteins were separated by SEC. Then, the major proteins of the flocculant-active fractions were separated by SDS-PAGE. Identity of the major protein components was determined by tryptic digestion and peptide analysis by MALDI TOF MS. The sequence of selected peptides was confirmed using TOF/TOF-MS/MS fragmentation. Hemoglobin dimer (subunits α and β) was identified as the major protein component of the active fraction in BB; its high flocculation activity was confirmed by testing a commercial sample of hemoglobin. In the same manner, three proteins from blood plasma (fibrinogen, γ-globulin, α-2-macroglobulin) were found to be highly active flocculants, but bovine serum albumin, α-globulin, and β-globulin were not flocculants. On a mass basis, hemoglobin, γ-globulin, α-2-macroglobulin were as effective as anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), a widely used synthetic flocculant. The blood proteins acted faster than PAM, and unlike PAM, the blood proteins flocculants did not require calcium salts for their activity.

  14. Effect of alcohol fermented feed on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk Fatty Acid profile and cholesterol content in holstein lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Z; Park, B K; Yan, C G; Choi, J G; Ahn, J S; Shin, J S

    2012-11-01

    A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (106±24 d post-partum; mean±SD) were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis) as the control (CON), and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF) at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP), ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total cholesterol (TC) compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA) for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol levels

  15. Effect of Alcohol Fermented Feed on Lactating Performance, Blood Metabolites, Milk Fatty Acid Profile and Cholesterol Content in Holstein Lactating Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Z. Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (106±24 d post-partum; mean±SD were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis as the control (CON, and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP, ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN and total cholesterol (TC compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol

  16. Cross-sectional measures and modelled estimates of blood alcohol levels in UK nightlife and their relationships with drinking behaviours and observed signs of inebriation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarman Ian

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of nightlife in UK cities focuses on creating safe places for individuals to drink. Little is known about intoxication levels as measuring total alcohol consumption on nights out is complicated by early evening interviews missing subsequent consumption and later interviews risking individuals being too drunk to recall consumption or participate at all. Here we assess mixed survey and modelling techniques as a methodological approach to examining these issues. Methods Interviews with a cross sectional sample of nightlife patrons (n = 214 recruited at different locations in three cities established alcohol consumption patterns up to the point of interview, self-assessed drunkenness and intended drinking patterns throughout the remaining night out. Researchers observed individuals' behaviours to independently assess drunkenness. Breath alcohol tests and general linear modelling were used to model blood alcohol levels at participants' expected time of leaving nightlife settings. Results At interview 49.53% of individuals regarded themselves as drunk and 79.43% intended to consume more alcohol before returning home, with around one in ten individuals (15.38% males; 4.35% females intending to consume >40 units (equal to 400 mls of pure alcohol. Self-assessed drunkenness, researcher observed measures of sobriety and blood alcohol levels all correlated well. Modelled estimates for blood alcohol at time of going home suggested that 71.68% of males would be over 0.15%BAC (gms alcohol/100 mls blood. Higher blood alcohol levels were related to drinking later into the night. Conclusions UK nightlife has used substantive health and judicial resources with the aim of creating safer and later drinking environments. Survey and modelling techniques together can help characterise the condition of drinkers when using and leaving these settings. Here such methods identified patrons as routinely getting drunk, with risks of drunkenness

  17. Highly sensitive detection of Staphylococcus aureus directly from patient blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmapriya P Banada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid detection of bloodstream infections (BSIs can be lifesaving. We investigated the sample processing and assay parameters necessary for highly-sensitive detection of bloodstream bacteria, using Staphylococcus aureus as a model pathogen and an automated fluidic sample processing-polymerase chain reaction (PCR platform as a model diagnostic system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared a short 128 bp amplicon hemi-nested PCR and a relatively shorter 79 bp amplicon nested PCR targeting the S. aureus nuc and sodA genes, respectively. The sodA nested assay showed an enhanced limit of detection (LOD of 5 genomic copies per reaction or 10 colony forming units (CFU per ml blood over 50 copies per reaction or 50 CFU/ml for the nuc assay. To establish optimal extraction protocols, we investigated the relative abundance of the bacteria in different components of the blood (white blood cells (WBCs, plasma or whole blood, using the above assays. The blood samples were obtained from the patients who were culture positive for S. aureus. Whole blood resulted in maximum PCR positives with sodA assay (90% positive as opposed to cell-associated bacteria (in WBCs (71% samples positive or free bacterial DNA in plasma (62.5% samples positive. Both the assays were further tested for direct detection of S. aureus in patient whole blood samples that were contemporaneous culture positive. S. aureus was detected in 40/45 of culture-positive patients (sensitivity 89%, 95% CI 0.75-0.96 and 0/59 negative controls with the sodA assay (specificity 100%, 95% CI 0.92-1. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated a highly sensitive two-hour assay for detection of sepsis causing bacteria like S. aureus directly in 1 ml of whole blood, without the need for blood culture.

  18. [High blood pressure among bank employees in Rio de Janeiro. Life-style and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chor, D

    1998-11-01

    This study estimates the frequency of treatment of high blood pressure and compares life-styles among hypertensives and non-hypertensives. Cross-sectional study in a systematic sample of 1183 employees in a government-owned bank in the State of Rio de Janeiro, through a self-administered questionnaire. Direct measurements of arterial pressure, weight and height were also taken in a sub-sample. Those who had been informed more than once as having high blood pressure, by a health professional, were classified as hypertensives. There were no important differences among hypertensives and non-hypertensives with respect to the prevalence of smoking, alcohol and physical activities. Dieting was more frequent among overweight/obese hypertensives than overweight/obese non-hypertensives. Only 44.7% were under treatment. Subjects with high level of education were more likely to be treated as were those who quit smoking, presented overweight/obesity or family history of cerebrovascular diseases. Access to information and health care was not sufficient to guarantee high blood pressure treatment or a healthy life-style which contributes to hypertension control.

  19. Identifying High-Risk Alcohol Users in First-Year College Students: Attitude, Intention, and Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumper, Megan A; Moreno, Megan A

    2013-07-29

    It is challenging to identify older adolescents at risk for alcohol dependence. This study investigated first-year college students who scored as dependent alcohol users (DAU), and examined their alcohol use and Facebook displays. This longitudinal study recruited college students at two universities to complete a phone interview prior to college (Time 1) and one year later (Time 2). Interviews assessed lifetime and current alcohol use, and attitude (scale of 0=very negative to 6=very positive) and intention (scale of 0=not at all likely to 5=very likely) toward alcohol use. The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) was administered at Time 2. Facebook profiles were evaluated for the presence of references to alcohol use and intoxication/problematic drinking (I/PD) prior to and throughout the participants first year at the university. Analyses included Chi-squared tests and Wilcoxon sign rank tests. Of 315 participants in the study, a total of 21 (6.7%) of participants met criteria as a DAU at Time 2. DAUs were 54.5% female, 86.4% Caucasian, and 73.7% from University A. At Time 1 all DAUs reported lifetime alcohol use and 91.1% were current drinkers. At Time 2, 95.7% were current drinkers. At Time 1, DAU's mean attitude toward alcohol was 4.0 (SD=1.0) and mean intention was 4.0 (SD=1.4); by Time 2 attitude was 4.6 (SD=0.9), p=0.02, and intention was 4.9 (SD=0.3). At Time 1, 39.1% of DAUs displayed alcohol references on Facebook but only one referenced I/PD. By Time 2, 20 DAU profile owners (90.4%) displayed some reference to alcohol and 52.2% referenced I/PD. Findings suggest areas in which dependence could be identified early, specifically attitude towards alcohol and assessment of Facebook profiles for references to alcohol. These findings have the potential to guide future intervention efforts for this high-risk population.

  20. Racial differences in hypertension: implications for high blood pressure management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackland, Daniel T

    2014-08-01

    The racial disparity in hypertension and hypertension-related outcomes has been recognized for decades with African Americans with greater risks than Caucasians. Blood pressure levels have consistently been higher for African Americans with an earlier onset of hypertension. Although awareness and treatment levels of high blood pressure have been similar, racial differences in control rates are evident. The higher blood pressure levels for African Americans are associated with higher rates of stroke, end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure. The reasons for the racial disparities in elevated blood pressure and hypertension-related outcomes risk remain unclear. However, the implications of the disparities of hypertension for prevention and clinical management are substantial, identifying African American men and women with excel hypertension risk and warranting interventions focused on these differences. In addition, focused research to identify the factors attributed to these disparities in risk burden is an essential need to address the evidence gaps.

  1. Highly sensitive optical sensor system for blood leakage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Jie, Chen; Sanae, Mizuno; Touma, Yasunori

    A highly sensitive method for the detection of blood leakage has been developed, and a practical sensor system for blood concentration measurement has been constructed. The present method is based on the attenuation of laser light by blood cells. The effects of the fluctuations of the incident laser light power are eliminated by normalizing the attenuated light intensity by the incident light intensity. A part of the incident laser light is reflected by a beam splitter mounted at the entrance of the test cell, of which the power is measured to provide base data for normalization. The optical path is extended to enhance sensitivity by using a pair of side mirrors. This multi-reflection method is very effective to increase sensitivity; the maximum sensitivity obtained for blood concentration is about 4 X 10 -6 by volume, which is significantly higher than that of the conventional sensors.

  2. Viral metagenomics applied to blood donors and recipients at high risk for blood-borne infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Virginie; Laperche, Syria; Cheval, Justine; Muth, Erika; Dubois, Myriam; Boizeau, Laure; Hébert, Charles; Lionnet, François; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Eloit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Background Characterisation of human-associated viral communities is essential for epidemiological surveillance and to be able to anticipate new potential threats for blood transfusion safety. In high-resource countries, the risk of blood-borne agent transmission of well-known viruses (HBV, HCV, HIV and HTLV) is currently considered to be under control. However, other unknown or unsuspected viruses may be transmitted to recipients by blood-derived products. To investigate this, the virome of plasma from individuals at high risk for parenterally and sexually transmitted infections was analysed by high throughput sequencing (HTS). Materials and methods Purified nucleic acids from two pools of 50 samples from recipients of multiple transfusions, and three pools containing seven plasma samples from either HBV−, HCV− or HIV-infected blood donors, were submitted to HTS. Results Sequences from resident anelloviruses and HPgV were evidenced in all pools. HBV and HCV sequences were detected in pools containing 3.8×103 IU/mL of HBV-DNA and 1.7×105 IU/mL of HCV-RNA, respectively, whereas no HIV sequence was found in a pool of 150 copies/mL of HIV-RNA. This suggests a lack of sensitivity in HTS performance in detecting low levels of virus. In addition, this study identified other issues, including laboratory contaminants and the uncertainty of taxonomic assignment of short sequence. No sequence suggestive of a new viral species was identified. Discussion This study did not identify any new blood-borne virus in high-risk individuals. However, rare and/or viruses present at very low titre could have escaped our protocol. Our results demonstrate the positive contribution of HTS in the detection of viral sequences in blood donations. PMID:27136432

  3. Leisure-Time Exercise Could Lower Your Risk of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Leisure-time exercise could lower your risk of high blood pressure American Heart Association Rapid Access Journal Report September ... copyright American Heart Association Download (1.4 MB) High Blood Pressure A high blood pressure reading. copyright American Heart ...

  4. High blood pressure in a semi-urban community in south-south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    High blood pressure (BP) is a leading cause of global burden of disease ... (9%), high blood glucose and physical inactivity (6% each) ... When the burden of high blood pressure disease was ... C was information on activity and sleep pattern,.

  5. Aggression, alcohol dependency, and self-consciousness among high school students of divorced and nondivorced parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, M; Beer, J

    1992-08-01

    134 high school students from a small high school in north central Kansas completed the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale, Fenigstein, et al.'s Self-consciousness Scale, and Zaks' Aggression Scale. Analyses of variance showed significant differences between boys and girls but not among grades. On the aggression and alcohol measures boys scored higher than girls, but lower on public self-consciousness. Youth of divorced parents scored significantly higher than those of nondivorced parents on aggression, private self-consciousness, and general self-consciousness. Aggression scores were significantly and positively correlated with those on the alcohol and private self-consciousness scales. When students' alcoholism scores indicate problems with alcohol, their scores on aggression indicate greater aggression and their private self-consciousness scores indicate sensitivity toward events in their environment, then having concerns about inner self can inhibit the action required for change. MacAndrew scores correlated significantly and negatively with scores on social anxiety about self-consciousness. When MacAndrew scores indicated problems with alcohol, the students' scores on social anxiety about self-consciousness suggested confidence in social settings, being at ease interacting with people. The present study involved students from a single rural district so increased understanding will require more extensive research if strategies for prevention and intervention are to be developed and utilized.

  6. Effect of spiritual therapy on blood pressure, anxiety and quality of life in patients with high blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: High blood pressure is the most important risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of spiritual therapy on blood pressure, anxiety and quality of life in patients with high blood pressure. Method: This study was quasi-experimentalwith apretest-posttest and control group design. The sample consisted of 30 patients with high blood pressure refering to Kangavar Healthcare center that were selected through convenience sampling and...

  7. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  8. Chagas disease, a risk factor for high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicco, Miguel Hernán; Rodeles, Luz; Yódice, Agustina; Marcipar, Iván

    2014-12-01

    Chagas disease is a parasite infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Its most common complications is chronic Chagas heart disease but impairments of the systemic vasculature also has been observed. Although the different mechanisms that regulate blood pressure are disrupted, to our knowledge data on the association of hypertension and chronic Chagas disease are scarce. In this regard we evaluate whether Chagas disease constitutes a high blood pressure risk factor. We recruited 200 individuals, half of them with positive serology for T. cruzi. They were subjected to a complete clinical examination. The mean age of sampled individuals was 46.7 ± 12.3, and the mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 124 ± 12 mmHg and 82 ± 10 mmHg, respectively. There were no between-group differences regarding age, sex distribution or body mass index. Chagas disease contributed significantly to high blood pressure (OR = 4, 95% CI 1.8323-7.0864, p = 0.0002). Our results reveal an important association between Chagas disease and high blood pressure, which should be contemplated by physicians in order to promote preventive cardiovascular actions in patients with Chagas disease.

  9. High-resolution ultrasound imaging and noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of blood variables in peripheral blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging is being widely used in clinics to obtain diagnostic information non-invasively and in real time. A high-resolution ultrasound imaging platform, Vevo (VisualSonics, Inc.) provides in vivo, real-time images with exceptional resolution (up to 30 microns) using high-frequency transducers (up to 80 MHz). Recently, we built optoacoustic systems for probing radial artery and peripheral veins that can be used for noninvasive monitoring of total hemoglobin concentration, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and concentration of important endogenous and exogenous chromophores (such as ICG). In this work we used the high-resolution ultrasound imaging system Vevo 770 for visualization of the radial artery and peripheral veins and acquired corresponding optoacoustic signals from them using the optoacoustic systems. Analysis of the optoacoustic data with a specially developed algorithm allowed for measurement of blood oxygenation in the blood vessels as well as for continuous, real-time monitoring of arterial and venous blood oxygenation. Our results indicate that: 1) the optoacoustic technique (unlike pure optical approaches and other noninvasive techniques) is capable of accurate peripheral venous oxygenation measurement; and 2) peripheral venous oxygenation is dependent on skin temperature and local hemodynamics. Moreover, we performed for the first time (to the best of our knowledge) a comparative study of optoacoustic arterial oximetry and a standard pulse oximeter in humans and demonstrated superior performance of the optoacoustic arterial oximeter, in particular at low blood flow.

  10. ALCOHOL AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the questions of the relationship between the amount of the consumed alcohol, the type of alcoholic beverage, pattern of alcohol consumption and the blood pressure level. The article presents data on the positive effect of alcohol intake restrictions and recommendations for permissible limits of alcohol consumption. New possibilities of drug therapy aimed at limiting alcohol consumption are being reported.

  11. [Effectiveness of pre-emptive hemodialysis with high-flux membranes for the treatment of life-threatening alcohol poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Fernández, R; Peces, C; González, E; Olivas, E; Renjel, F; Jiménez, M; Costero, O; Montero, A; Selgas, R

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication (methanol, ethanol and ethylene glycol) may result in metabolic acidosis with increased anion gap, increased serum osmolal gap, and neurologic abnormalities ranging from drunkenness to coma, and death. The mortality and morbidity rates remain very high despite intensive care therapy. The toxicity of methanol and ethylene glycol is clearly correlated to the degree of metabolic acidosis. The established treatment of severe methanol and ethylene glycol intoxication is ethanol administration and hemodialysis (HD). By inhibiting the main metabolic pathway of methanol and ethylene glycol (alcohol dehydrogenase), ethanol prevents the formation of major toxic metabolites (formic acid, glycolic acid and oxalic acid). Conventional HD can reduce serum methanol, ethanol and ethylene glycol and its metabolites rapidly, but high-flux membranes should be capable of removing more toxic per hour of HD. In this report, we describe 14 cases of life-threatening alcohol intoxication (11 methanol, 1 ethanol, and 2 ethylene glycol) who were treated successfully with supportive care, ethanol infusion (methanol and ethylene glycol), and early HD with a high-flux dialyser. The median pH was 7.04 +/- 0.06 (range 6.60-7.33), median bicarbonate 9.9 +/- 1.9 mmol/l (range 1.4-25), and median base deficit 18.4 +/- 2.6 mmol/l (range 2-33). The median anion gap was 29.1 +/- 2.3 mmol/l (range 16-45) and the median osmolal gap was 119 +/- 47 mOsm/l (range 16-402). On admission there was an excellent linear correlation between the serum toxic alcohol concentrations and the osmolal gaps (R2 = 0.98, p = 0.0006). In all cases early HD corrected metabolic acidosis and osmolal abnormalities. The mortality was 7 % (1 from 14). We conclude that pre-emptive HD should be performed in severe intoxications to remove both the parent compound and its metabolites. The HD prescription should include a large surface area dialyser with high-flux membrane, a blood flow rate in excess of 250 ml

  12. Risk of cardiovascular events among women with high normal blood pressure or blood pressure progression: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Conen, David; Ridker, Paul M.; Buring, Julie E.; Glynn, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare cardiovascular risk among women with high normal blood pressure (130-9/85-9 mm Hg) against those with normal blood pressure (120-9/75-84 mm Hg) and those with baseline hypertension.

  13. Risk of cardiovascular events among women with high normal blood pressure or blood pressure progression: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Conen, David; Ridker, Paul M.; Buring, Julie E.; Glynn, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare cardiovascular risk among women with high normal blood pressure (130-9/85-9 mm Hg) against those with normal blood pressure (120-9/75-84 mm Hg) and those with baseline hypertension.

  14. Aging, High Altitude, and Blood Pressure: A Complex Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parati, Gianfranco; Ochoa, Juan Eugenio; Torlasco, Camilla; Salvi, Paolo; Lombardi, Carolina; Bilo, Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Parati, Gianfranco, Juan Eugenio Ochoa, Camilla Torlasco, Paolo Salvi, Carolina Lombardi, and Grzegorz Bilo. Aging, high altitude, and blood pressure: A complex relationship. High Alt Biol Med 16:97-109, 2015.--Both aging and high altitude exposure may induce important changes in BP regulation, leading to significant increases in BP levels. By inducing atherosclerotic changes, stiffening of large arteries, renal dysfunction, and arterial baroreflex impairment, advancing age may induce progressive increases in systolic BP levels, promoting development and progression of arterial hypertension. It is also known, although mainly from studies in young or middle-aged subjects, that exposure to high altitude may influence different mechanisms involved in BP regulation (i.e., neural central and reflex control of sympathetic activity), leading to important increases in BP levels. The evidence is less clear, however, on whether and to what extent advancing age may influence the BP response to acute or chronic high altitude exposure. This is a question not only of scientific interest but also of practical relevance given the consistent number of elderly individuals who are exposed for short time periods (either for leisure or work) or live permanently at high altitude, in whom arterial hypertension is frequently observed. This article will review the evidence available on the relationship between aging and blood pressure levels at high altitude, the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this complex association, as well as some questions of practical interest regarding antihypertensive treatment in elderly subjects, and the effects of antihypertensive drugs on blood pressure response during high altitude exposure.

  15. Discovery and exploitation of AZADO: the highly active catalyst for alcohol oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes (or carboxylic acids) or ketones is a fundamental transformation in organic synthesis. Stable organic nitroxyl radicals as represented by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) (1) have been used extensively to catalyze the oxidation of a number of alcohol substrates employing environmentally benign co-oxidants such as bleach (NaOCl) or PhI(OAc)2. Although TEMPO oxidation is better known as a method for selective oxidation of primary alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes, the TEMPO-based method is not very efficient for the oxidation of structurally hindered secondary alcohols. We designed and synthesized 2-azaadamantane N-oxyl [AZADO (11)] and 1-Me-AZADO (20), a structurally less hindered class of nitroxyl radical. AZADOs were found to exhibit excellent catalytic activity enabling oxidation of a variety of alcohols with which TEMPO exhibits poor reactivity. Based on structure-activity relationships (SAR) employing AZADO (11), 1-Me-AZADO (20), 1,3-dimethyl-AZADO (33), 9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-N-oxyl [ABNO (34)] and 9-azanoradamantane N-oxyl [Nor-AZADO (37)], we concluded that the α-methyl group flanked nearby the nitroxyl group affects the reactivity for the oxidation of sterically hindered alcohols and the azaadamantane skeleton contributes to the high turnover of the catalyst. The highly active nature of AZADOs spurred us to exploit their further use in alcohol oxidations. A facile, green, one-pot oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids with broad substrate applicability has been developed by employing an expedient catalytic system consisting of the oxoammonium salt [1-Me-AZADO(+)X(-) (X=Cl, BF4)]/NaClO2. The synthetic use of AZADOs and the related nitroxyl radicals/oxoammonium salts-based methods for alcohol oxidation have been demonstrated in several total syntheses of natural products. We also describe the development of a Nor-AZADO (37)/DIAD/AcOH method that

  16. Ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in Warsaw Alcohol High-Preferring (WHP) and Warsaw Alcohol Low-Preferring (WLP) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyr, Wanda; Wyszogrodzka, Edyta; Paterak, Justyna; Siwińska-Ziółkowska, Agnieszka; Małkowska, Anna; Polak, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The aversive action of the pharmacological properties of ethanol was studied in selectively bred Warsaw Alcohol High-Preferring (WHP) and Warsaw Alcohol Low-Preferring (WLP) rats. For this study, a conditioned-taste aversion test was used. Male WHP and WLP rats were submitted to daily 20-min sessions for 5 days, in which a saccharin solution (1.0 g/L) was available (pre-conditioning phase). Next, this drinking was paired with the injection of ethanol (0, 0.5, 1.0 g/kg), intraperitoneally [i.p.] immediately after removal of the saccharin bottle (conditioning phase). Afterward, the choice between the saccharin solution and water was extended for 18 subsequent days for 20-min daily sessions (post-conditioning phase). Both doses of ethanol did not produce an aversion to saccharin in WLP and WHP rats in the conditioning phase. However, injection of the 1.0 g/kg dose of ethanol produced an aversion in WLP rats that was detected by a decrease in saccharin intake at days 1, 3, 7, and 10 of the post-conditioning phase, with a decrease in saccharin preference for 16 days of the post-conditioning phase. Conditioned taste aversion, measured as a decrease in saccharin intake and saccharin preference, was only visible in WHP rats at day 1 and day 3 of the post-conditioning phase. This difference between WLP and WHP rats was apparent despite similar blood ethanol levels in both rat lines following injection of 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg of ethanol. These results may suggest differing levels of aversion to the post-ingestional effects of ethanol between WLP and WHP rats. These differing levels of aversion may contribute to the selected line difference in ethanol preference in WHP and WLP rats.

  17. National High Blood Pressure 12-Month Kit. May 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    Part I of this kit provides information for program planners and health professionals on ways to overcome barriers to health care among the medically underserved, promote high blood pressure control through the media and other community channels, and improve adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients. It lists additional resources for…

  18. Abnormal blood flow in the sublingual microcirculation at high altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, D.S.; Ince, C.; Goedhart, P.; Levett, D.Z.H.; Grocott, M.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first direct observations of deranged microcirculatory blood flow at high altitude, using sidestream dark-field imaging. Images of the sublingual microcirculation were obtained from a group of 12 volunteers during a climbing expedition to Cho Oyu (8,201 m) in the Himalayas.

  19. High-flow priapism treated with superselective transcatheter embolization using polyvinyl alcohol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, Sebastián; González-Gómez, Silvia; Di lizio-Miele, Katyna; González-Gómez, Joaquín

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Priapism is a persistent erection of the penis not associated with sexual stimulation. High-flow priapism is caused by unregulated arterial inflow, usually preceded by perineal or penile blunt trauma and formation of an arterial-lacunar fistula. We present a case of high-flow priapism in a 13-year-old patient managed with polyvinyl alcohol particles. Methods: After obtaining informed consent of the parents of the minor, diagnosis was made with penile Color Doppler Ultrasound and confirmed with flush angiography. Selective arterial embolization was performed with the use of polyvinyl alcohol particles. Results: Complete detumescence was achieved without compromising the patient’s erectile function. Conclusions: The use of permanent occlusive agents like polyvinyl alcohol particles for embolization shows good occlusion rates compared to temporary agents. More studies are needed to find the safer and better agent for the treatment of high flow priapism without compromising erectile function. PMID:28255447

  20. Brain docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] incorporation and blood flow are increased in chronic alcoholics: a positron emission tomography study corrected for cerebral atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Umhau

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic alcohol dependence has been associated with disturbed behavior, cerebral atrophy and a low plasma concentration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22∶6n-3, particularly if liver disease is present. In animal models, excessive alcohol consumption is reported to reduce brain DHA concentration, suggesting disturbed brain DHA metabolism. We hypothesized that brain DHA metabolism also is abnormal in chronic alcoholics. METHODS: We compared 15 non-smoking chronic alcoholics, studied within 7 days of their last drink, with 22 non-smoking healthy controls. Using published neuroimaging methods with positron emission tomography (PET, we measured regional coefficients (K* and rates (J(in of DHA incorporation from plasma into the brain of each group using [1-(11C]DHA, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF using [(15O]water. Data were partial volume error corrected for brain atrophy. Plasma unesterified DHA concentration also was quantified. RESULTS: Mean K* for DHA was significantly and widely elevated by 10-20%, and rCBF was elevated by 7%-34%, in alcoholics compared with controls. Unesterified plasma DHA did not differ significantly between groups nor did whole brain J(in, the product of K* and unesterified plasma DHA concentration. DISCUSSION: Significantly higher values of K* for DHA in alcoholics indicate increased brain avidity for DHA, thus a brain DHA metabolic deficit vis-à-vis plasma DHA availability. Higher rCBF in alcoholics suggests increased energy consumption. These changes may reflect a hypermetabolic state related to early alcohol withdrawal, or a general brain metabolic change in chronic alcoholics.

  1. High School Drinker Typologies Predict Alcohol Involvement and Psychosocial Adjustment during Acclimation to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Matthew A.; Hussong, Andrea M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined differences among distinct types of high school drinkers on their alcohol involvement and psychosocial adjustment during the first semester of college. Participants were 147 college freshmen (66% female; 86% Caucasian) from a large Southeastern public university who reported on high school drinking and college stress, affect,…

  2. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; DeTavernier, S.; Johannson, M.; Kieke, M.; Bastian, R.D.

    1991-07-01

    The temperature dependence of ether synthesis, particularly unsymmetric methylisobutylether (MIBE), was carried out over the Nafion-H microsaddles (MS) catalyst. The principal product formed under the rather severe reaction conditions of 1100 psig pressure and temperatures in the range of 123--157{degree}C was the expected MIBE formed directly by coupling the methanol/isobutanol reactants. In addition, significantly larger quantities of the dimethylether (DME) and hydrocarbon products were observed than were obtained under milder reaction conditions. Deactivation of the Nafion-H MS catalyst was determined by periodically testing the catalyst under a given set of reaction conditions for the synthesis of MIBE and MTBE from methanol/isobutanol = 2/1, i.e. 123{degree}C, 1100 psig, and total GHSV = 248 mol/kg cat/hr. After carrying out various tests over a period of 2420 hr, with intermittant periods of standing under nitrogen at ambient conditions, the yields of MIBE and MTBE had decreased by 25% and 41%, respectively. In order to gain insight into the role of the surface acidity in promoting the selective coupling of the alcohols to form the unsymmetric ether, the strengths of the acid sites on the catalysts are still being probed by calorimetric titrations in non-aqueous solutions. 11 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. High speed optical holography of retinal blood flow

    CERN Document Server

    Pellizzari, Mathilde; Degardin, Julie; Sahel, Jose-Alain; Fink, Mathias; Paques, Michel; Atlan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We performed non-invasive video imaging of retinal blood flow in a pigmented rat by holographic interferometry of near-infrared laser light backscattered by retinal tissue, beating against an off-axis reference beam sampled at a frame rate of 39 kHz with a high throughput camera. Local Doppler contrasts emerged from the envelopes of short-time Fourier transforms and the phase of autocorrelation functions of holograms rendered by Fresnel transformation. This approach permitted imaging of blood flow in large retinal vessels (30 microns diameter) over 400 by 400 pixels with a spatial resolution of 8 microns and a temporal resolution of 6.5 ms.

  4. High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Levine, G.F. (California Dept. of Justice, Sacramento, CA (United States). Bureau of Forensic Services)

    1993-01-01

    The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

  5. High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Levine, G.F. [California Dept. of Justice, Sacramento, CA (United States). Bureau of Forensic Services

    1993-05-01

    The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

  6. High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Levine, G.F. [California Dept. of Justice, Sacramento, CA (United States). Bureau of Forensic Services

    1993-05-01

    The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

  7. Efficacy of flavonoids in the management of high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jaime L; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G

    2015-12-01

    Plant compounds such as flavonoids have been reported to exert beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. Information on the effects of isolated individual flavonoids for management of high blood pressure, however, is more limited. This review is focused on the flavonoids, as isolated outside of the food matrix, from the 5 main subgroups consumed in the Western diet (flavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins), along with their effects on hypertension, including the potential mechanisms for regulating blood pressure. Flavonoids from all 5 subgroups have been shown to attenuate a rise in or to reduce blood pressure during several pathological conditions (hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus). Flavones, flavonols, flavanones, and flavanols were able to modulate blood pressure by restoring endothelial function, either directly, by affecting nitric oxide levels, or indirectly, through other pathways. Quercetin had the most consistent blood pressure-lowering effect in animal and human studies, irrespective of dose, duration, or disease status. However, further research on the safety and efficacy of the flavonoids is required before any of them can be used by humans, presumably in supplement form, at the doses required for therapeutic benefit.

  8. Forensic-metrological considerations on assessment of compliance (or non-compliance) in forensic blood alcohol content determinations: A case study with software application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Tedeschi, Gianpaola; Frasson, Samuela

    2016-08-01

    Blood alcohol concentration is the most frequent analytical determination carried out in forensic toxicology laboratories worldwide. It is usually required to assess if an offence has been committed by comparing blood alcohol levels with specified legal limits, which can vary widely among countries. Due to possible serious legal consequences associated with non-compliant alcohol levels, measurement uncertainty should be carefully evaluated, along with other metrological aspects which can influence the final result. The whole procedure can be time-consuming and error-generating in routine practice, increasing the risks for unreliable assessments. A software application named Ethanol WorkBook (EtWB) was developed at the author's laboratory by using Visual Basic for Application language and MS Excel(®), with the aim of providing help to forensic analysts involved in blood alcohol determinations. The program can (i) calculate measurement uncertainties and decision limits with different methodologies; (ii) assess compliance to specification limits with a guard-band approach; (iii) manage quality control (QC) data and create control charts for QC samples; (iv) create control maps from real cases data archives; (v) provide laboratory reports with graphical outputs for elaborated data and (vi) create comprehensive searchable case archives. A typical example of drink driving case is presented and discussed to illustrate the importance of a metrological approach for reliable compliance assessment and to demonstrate software application in routine practice. The tool is made freely available to the scientific community at request.

  9. [Effect of Bacillus natto-fermented product (BIOZYME) on blood alcohol, aldehyde concentrations after whisky drinking in human volunteers, and acute toxicity of acetaldehyde in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, H; Yatagai, C; Wada, H; Yoshida, E; Maruyama, M

    1995-04-01

    Effects of Bacillus natto-fermented product (BIOZYME) on blood alcohol and aldehyde concentrations after drinking whisky (corresponding to 30-65 ml ethanol) were studied in 21 healthy volunteers. When 100 ml of BIOZYME was orally administrated to the volunteers before drinking whisky, the time delay of both blood factors to attain maximum concentrations were observed. The maximum decrease in blood alcohol and aldehyde concentrations were about 23% and 45% (p whisky. The aldehyde lowering effect of BIOZYME was continued for at least 4 hr after whisky drinking. Concentration of the breath alcohol was also sharply decreased by BIOZYME administration. The breath alcohol concentration in the administered group (0.18 +/- 0.11 mg/l) was found to be lowered about 44% than that of the control group (0.32 +/- 0.11 mg/l) (p whisky. In acute toxicity experiments of aldehyde in mice (12 mmol AcH/mg), BIOZYME showed the survival effect as with alpha-D-Ala (134% increase of the living, at 40 min after i.p. administration) (p < 0.005, n = 22). These findings reveal the Bacillus natto produced BIOZYME as a reasonable, safety and useful anti-hangover agent.

  10. The elusiveness of population-wide high blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Paul K

    2015-03-18

    High blood pressure (hypertension) is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is highly prevalent in the US general population, especially in those who are old, African American, or socially disadvantaged. Prevalence is also high and increasing worldwide. Awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension have improved over time, but there is still considerable room for improvement. The optimal solution to this health challenge varies by country. Several nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions are well proven as effective means to prevent hypertension and improve control rates in those with established hypertension. Better prevention and control of hypertension will yield substantial general population health benefits and remain high priorities in public health.

  11. Qualitative similarities in cognitive impairment associated with 24 h of sustained wakefulness and a blood alcohol concentration of 0.05%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falleti, Marina G; Maruff, Paul; Collie, Alexander; Darby, David G; McStephen, Michael

    2003-12-01

    Previous studies that have quantified fatigue-related cognitive impairment as blood alcohol concentration (BAC) equivalents have been limited by two issues: the effect of practice on tests of cognition and, more importantly, the statistic used to quantify change in cognitive performance. The current study addressed these issues by adopting an ABACA design, which allowed for the adequate control of practice effects, and by using effect size metrics, which enabled direct comparisons to be made in performance impairments as a result of fatigue (i.e. sustained wakefulness of 24 h) and alcohol (i.e. BAC of 0.05%). Cognitive performance under the fatigue and alcohol conditions required the use of the CogState battery. It was demonstrated that fatigue caused greater impairment than alcohol on the speed of continuous attention and memory and learning, and on the accuracy of complex matching. Alcohol was more detrimental than fatigue only on the accuracy of memory and learning. Performances on the remaining tasks were the same for both the fatigue and alcohol conditions. These differences and similarities in performance impairment are discussed emphasizing the deleterious cognitive effects of relatively short periods of sustained wakefulness.

  12. [Uncontrolled factors of blood pressure in essential hypertension: from "patient's high blood pressure" to "hypertensive patient"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Jie

    2014-04-01

    Hypertension is a significant medical and public health issue which puts an enormous burden on health care resources and the community. It is a chronic medical condition in which the systemic arterial blood pressure (BP) is elevated. Serious complications including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases would be preventable if the rise in BP with age could be prevented or diminished. The majority of hypertensive patients require long-term treatment. Oral antihypertensive drugs, lifestyle modification including exercise and dietary modification are milestones for hypertension therapy. However, the control rate of hypertension hasn't reached the expected requirements currently. "Three lows" status quo, just low awareness, low treatment, and low control, are still the major problems confronting modern medicine. Recently, uncontrolled factors of blood pressure are widely concerned, which include insomnia, constipation, mood disorders, exogenous, etc. What's more, the control strategies of hypertension should not only pay close attention to "patient's high blood pressure", but also to "hypertensive patient". Therefore, the treatment of uncontrolled factors of blood pressure plays an important role in hypertensive therapy, which could be further research priorities.

  13. A population-based study on alcohol and high-risk sexual behaviors in Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri D Weiser

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In Botswana, an estimated 24% of adults ages 15-49 years are infected with HIV. While alcohol use is strongly associated with HIV infection in Africa, few population-based studies have characterized the association of alcohol use with specific high-risk sexual behaviors.We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of 1,268 adults from five districts in Botswana using a stratified two-stage probability sample design. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess correlates of heavy alcohol consumption (>14 drinks/week for women, and >21 drinks/week for men as a dependent variable. We also assessed gender-specific associations between alcohol use as a primary independent variable (categorized as none, moderate, problem and heavy drinking and several risky sex outcomes including: (a having unprotected sex with a nonmonogamous partner; (b having multiple sexual partners; and (c paying for or selling sex in exchange for money or other resources. Criteria for heavy drinking were met by 31% of men and 17% of women. Adjusted correlates of heavy alcohol use included male gender, intergenerational relationships (age gap > or =10 y, higher education, and living with a sexual partner. Among men, heavy alcohol use was associated with higher odds of all risky sex outcomes examined, including unprotected sex (AOR = 3.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65 to 7.32, multiple partners (AOR = 3.08; 95% CI, 1.95 to 4.87, and paying for sex (AOR = 3.65; 95% CI, 2.58 to 12.37. Similarly, among women, heavy alcohol consumption was associated with higher odds of unprotected sex (AOR = 3.28; 95% CI, 1.71 to 6.28, multiple partners (AOR = 3.05; 95% CI, 1.83 to 5.07, and selling sex (AOR = 8.50; 95% CI, 3.41 to 21.18. A dose-response relationship was seen between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors, with moderate drinkers at lower risk than both problem and heavy drinkers.Alcohol use is associated with multiple risks for HIV transmission among both men

  14. Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Nirla Gomes; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Moreira, Rafaella Pessoa; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; de Araujo, Thelma Leite

    2010-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 310 individuals with high blood pressure. The prevalence of the diagnosis of sedentary lifestyle was 60%. The more common defining characteristics were "lack of physical conditioning" and "lack of practice for physical exercises." The nursing diagnosis was associated with age and presence of diabetes. Individuals who presented with a sedentary lifestyle related to lack of motivation were significantly younger. This study showed a high prevalence of "sedentary lifestyle" and its associations with age and the presence of diabetes. IMPLICATIONS TO NURSING PRACTICE: The acknowledgement of "sedentary lifestyle" contributes to the choice for nursing interventions that promote physical activity centered on the subject and the surroundings.

  15. [Presence of psychotropic drugs in the blood of drivers responsible for car accidents, and who consumed alcohol at the same time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, C; Lacalle, H; Fryc, O

    1994-01-01

    The presence of psychotropic drugs was determined in 383 blood samples of drivers being responsible for car accidents, having taken alcohol as well. Benzodiazepines were detected in 52 cases and cannabinoids in 31 cases. The characterisation of these positive cases showed a majority of classic benzodiazepines (diazepam, nordiazepam, and bromazepam). Even if the specific role of these two families of psychotropic drugs cannot be deduced from this study, the results should make drivers more aware of the dangers of the simultaneous consumption of alcohol and psychotropes.

  16. Service expectations from high- and low-volume customers in the alcoholic beverage industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Beukes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa has a highly competitive alcoholic beverage market. All role players in this market place a huge emphasis on service delivery and customer service.Research purpose: This research study investigated the relationship between the volume a customer buys from an alcoholic beverage supply company and what influence this volume has on their customer service expectations.Motivation for the study: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate what influence the volume an organisation buys from alcoholic beverage suppliers has on their service quality expectations.Research design, approach and method: A non-probability judgement sample method was used, with a sample size of 220 respondents. The questionnaire requested respondents (high- and low-volume to rank their customer service expectations and opinions with reference to Parasuraman’s service delivery dimensions. Ranking was done using a five-point Likert scale.Main findings: The findings of the study indicated that both the high- and low-volume customers felt that alcoholic beverage supply companies had to deliver on all five service delivery dimensions but failed to do so to full satisfaction.Practical and managerial implications: It is recommended that the alcoholic beverage supply companies should address the problem areas identified in this study to avoid defection of customers.Contribution and value add: This may assist alcoholic beverage supply companies to better understand the customers’ demographic profiles. The study also revealed that the satisfaction level experienced by customers in both sections of the study (high- and low-demand, with a considerable gap between expectations and opinions within the empathy dimension. 

  17. Influencing factors of human blood alcohol concentration detection%人体血液酒精浓度检测的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萱; 汪炜; 孟祥志

    2014-01-01

    In forensic identification,the blood alcohol concentration detection has to be conducted to get the evidence for drunk driving.Based on the fact that alcohol can be decomposed in human body and there are lots of factors that may affect the physicochemical properties of alcohol, this paper aims to review those factors that may influence the blood alcohol concentration detection, including blood specimen collection and preservation,detection methods, body corruption,diffusion of alcohol in the stomach and disease of the Decedent.It is suggested that all these factors should be considered in future forensic cases to detect accurately blood concentration of drivers.%在法医学鉴定中,为了给交通警察提供酒后驾车或醉酒驾车的证据,必须对驾驶员血液的乙醇浓度进行准确测定,酒精摄入人体后可以被转化分解,并且酒精的理化性质可受外界环境及诸多因素的影响。本文对影响血液酒精浓度测定的诸多因素进行综述,如:血液标本的采集、保存、检测方法,尸体的腐败、胃内酒精的弥散及死者生前罹患的疾病等因素,都可以影响血液乙醇浓度的数值,为了能真实反映当事人血液中的酒精浓度,在今后的日常工作中应该注意以上因素对血液乙醇浓度的影响。

  18. Uncertainty of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC Results as Related to Instrumental Conditions: Optimization and Robustness of BAC Analysis Headspace Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleigh A. Boswell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of blood alcohol concentration is a routine analysis performed in many forensic laboratories. This analysis commonly utilizes static headspace sampling, followed by gas chromatography combined with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Studies have shown several “optimal” methods for instrumental operating conditions, which are intended to yield accurate and precise data. Given that different instruments, sampling methods, application specific columns and parameters are often utilized, it is much less common to find information on the robustness of these reported conditions. A major problem can arise when these “optimal” conditions may not also be robust, thus producing data with higher than desired uncertainty or potentially inaccurate results. The goal of this research was to incorporate the principles of quality by design (QBD in the adjustment and determination of BAC (blood alcohol concentration instrumental headspace parameters, thereby ensuring that minor instrumental variations, which occur as a matter of normal work, do not appreciably affect the final results of this analysis. This study discusses both the QBD principles as well as the results of the experiments, which allow for determination of more favorable instrumental headspace conditions. Additionally, method detection limits will also be reported in order to determine a reporting threshold and the degree of uncertainty at the common threshold value of 0.08 g/dL. Furthermore, the comparison of two internal standards, n-propanol and t-butanol, will be investigated. The study showed that an altered parameter of 85 °C headspace oven temperature and 15 psi headspace vial pressurization produces the lowest percent relative standard deviation of 1.3% when t-butanol is implemented as an internal standard, at least for one very common platform. The study also showed that an altered parameter of 100 °C headspace oven temperature and 15-psi headspace vial pressurization

  19. Decreased MiR-155 Level in the Peripheral Blood of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients may Serve as a Biomarker and may Influence LXR Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is now a common risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Thus, it is important to explore its underlying mechanisms. Methods: Total RNA was extracted from peripheral whole blood samples from 50 NAFLD patients and 50 healthy controls. In addition, human liver specimens were obtained through liver biopsies from NAFLD patients and healthy controls. The level of miRNA was studied using real-time PCR. The expression of lipogenic genes was analyzed using western blot, and a dual luciferase reporter assay was conducted to identify the possible target gene. Adenovirus vectors were injected into the tail vein of the high fat diet (HFD-fed mice to study the role of miR-155 on lipid accumulation in vivo. Results: The level of miR-155 was markedly reduced in the livers and peripheral blood of NAFLD patients compared with healthy controls. Upregulation of miR-155 decreased intracellular lipid content and the SREBP1 and FAS protein levels, while inhibition of miR-155 enhanced the intracellular lipid content. The dual luciferase reporter assay showed that Liver X receptor (LXRα was the target gene of miR-155, and silencing miR-155 reduced the expression of SREBP1 and FAS. An in vivo study showed that upregulation of miR-155 decreased the hepatic lipid accumulation mainly by suppressing the LXRα-dependent lipogenic signaling pathway. Conclusions: In summary, decreased expression of miR-155 in the peripheral blood may be utilized as a potential novel biomarker for NAFLD screening mainly by targeting LXRα.

  20. The association between alcohol and tobacco use among elementary and high school students in Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiligianni Ioanna G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco and alcohol use during adolescence have potential long term health consequences and a possibility of future addiction. Methods This cross sectional study took place in 2007 among a convenience sample of 981 adolescents from public elementary and high schools in Eastern Crete, Greece. Following parental consent, an anonymous structured questionnaire including information on personal and family use of alcohol and tobacco was distributed. Results Among the entire study population, cigarette experimentation was found to be associated with current alcohol use, with an Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR of 38.8; (95%C.I: 5.33-58.2 and with having a smoker in the immediate family (aOR 10.3; 95%C.I: 3.14-34.0. Among the subset of elementary school children, cigarette smoking was strongly associated with current alcohol use aOR 9.7; (95%C.I: 2.12-44.3, while the association between smoking experimentation and sibling and parental alcohol use was statistically significant within the entire population (however not among elementary students with an aOR of 2.76 (95%C.I: 1.24-6.15 and aOR 3.66, (95%C.I: 1.97-6.81 respectively. The elementary child’s gender was not found to be associated with cigarette experimentation among this study population. Conclusions Strong associations were found between alcohol use and tobacco experimentation. The potential parental influence on consequent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use was also noted. Potential community based interventions, if launched in Greece, should take the role of the Greek family into account.

  1. Factors associated with reductions in alcohol use between high school and college: an analysis of data from the College Alcohol Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swann CA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Christopher A Swann,1 Michelle Sheran,1 Diana Phelps2 1Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA; 2RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA Background: The consumption of alcohol by college students is a significant public health concern, and a large amount of literature explores this issue. Much of the focus is on the prevalence and correlates of binge drinking. Relatively few studies explore reductions in drinking, and these generally focus on reductions that occur during college. Aims: We examined the transition between high school and college and sought to understand the characteristics and behaviors of students that are related to reductions in the consumption of alcohol during this transition. Methods: We used data from all four rounds of the Harvard School of Public Health's College Alcohol Survey and logistic regression models to relate the status of reduced alcohol consumption to five groups of variables: demographic and parental variables, other substance use, social environment, student activities, and alcohol policies. Results: A number of characteristics were related to reductions in drinking. Students whose fathers did not attend college were more likely to reduce alcohol consumption (odds ratio [OR] =1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.06–1.55, whereas students who prioritize parties (OR =0.35; CI =0.30–0.43 and who have recently smoked cigarettes (OR =0.52; CI =0.41–0.64 or marijuana (OR =0.52; CI =0.40–0.67 or whose fathers are moderate (OR =0.73; CI =0.55–0.96 or heavy (OR =0.72; CI =0.53–0.96 drinkers were less likely to reduce alcohol consumption. Conclusion: The results highlight the importance of family background and social environment on reductions in drinking. Keywords: binge drinking, College Alcohol Study, college drinking, reductions in alcohol consumption

  2. Impact of chronic low to moderate alcohol consumption on blood lipid and heart energy profile in acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fan; Cao, Quan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Xin; Shen, Cheng; Liu, Xiang-wei; Bu, Li-ping; Zou, Yun-zeng; Hu, Kai; Sun, Ai-jun; Ge, Jun-bo

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the roles of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), the key enzyme of ethanol metabolism, in chronic low to moderate alcohol consumption-induced heart protective effects in mice. Twenty-one male wild-type (WT) or ALDH2-knockout (KO) mice were used in this study. In each genotype, 14 animals received alcohol (2.5%, 5% and 10% in week 1-3, respectively, and 18% in week 4-7), and 7 received water for 7 weeks. After the treatments, survival rate and general characteristics of the animals were evaluated. Serum ethanol and acetaldehyde levels and blood lipids were measured. Metabolomics was used to characterize the heart and serum metabolism profiles. Chronic alcohol intake decreased the survival rate of KO mice by 50%, and significantly decreased their body weight, but did not affect those of WT mice. Chronic alcohol intake significantly increased the serum ethanol levels in both WT and KO mice, but KO mice had significantly higher serum acetaldehyde levels than WT mice. Chronic alcohol intake significantly increased the serum HDL cholesterol levels in WT mice, and did not change the serum HDL cholesterol levels in KO mice. After chronic alcohol intake, WT and KO mice showed differential heart and serum metabolism profiles, including the 3 main energy substrate types (lipids, glucose and amino acids) and three carboxylic acid cycles. Low to moderate alcohol consumption increases HDL cholesterol levels and improves heart energy metabolism profile in WT mice but not in ALDH2-KO mice. Thus, preserved ALDH2 function is essential for the protective effect of low to moderate alcohol on the cardiovascular system.

  3. Development of alcoholic and malolactic fermentations in highly acidic and phenolic apple musts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, Gloria; Berregi, Iñaki; Santos, José Ignacio; Dueñas, Maite; Irastorza, Ana

    2008-05-01

    This work reports the influence of the high acidity and high phenolic content in apple musts on the development of alcoholic and malolactic fermentations and on the final chemical and microbiological composition of the ciders. Four different musts were obtained by pressing several varieties and proportions of cider apples from the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Specially acidic and phenolic varieties were selected. Three musts were obtained in experimental stations and the fourth one, in a cider factory following usual procedures. The evolution of these musts was monitored during five months by measuring 18 parameters throughout eight samplings. In the most acidic of the three experimental musts, yeasts were added to complete the alcoholic fermentation. In the rest of the musts, alcoholic and malolactic fermentations took place spontaneously due to natural microflora and no chemical was added to control these processes. Malolactic fermentation (MLF) finished before alcoholic fermentation in the three tanks obtained in experimental stations, even in the most acidic and phenolic one (pH 3.18, 1.78 g tannic acid/l). After four months, these ciders maintained low levels of lactic acid bacteria (10(4)CFU/ml) and low content of acetic acid (cider factory, but MLF finished 10 days after alcoholic fermentation. Subsequently, this must maintained a high population of lactic acid bacteria (>10(6)CFU/ml), causing a higher production of acetic acid (>1.00 g/l) than in the other ciders. These results show the possible advantages of MLF finishing before alcoholic fermentation.

  4. The product of resting heart rate times blood pressure is associated with high brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anxin; Tao, Jie; Guo, Xiuhua; Liu, Xuemei; Luo, Yanxia; Liu, Xiurong; Huang, Zhe; Chen, Shuohua; Zhao, Xingquan; Jonas, Jost B; Wu, Shouling

    2014-01-01

    To investigate potential associations between resting heart rate, blood pressure and the product of both, and the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) as a maker of arterial stiffness. The community-based "Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community (APAC) Study" examined asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities in a general Chinese population and included participants with an age of 40+ years without history of stroke and coronary heart disease. Arterial stiffness was defined as baPWV≥1400 cm/s. We measured and calculated the product of resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure (RHR-SBP) and the product of resting heart rate and mean arterial pressure (RHR-MAP). The study included 5153 participants with a mean age of 55.1 ± 11.8 years. Mean baPWV was 1586 ± 400 cm/s. Significant (Pheart rate or higher arterial blood pressure, with the highest baPWV observed in individuals from the highest quartiles of resting heart rate and blood pressure. After adjusting for confounding parameters such as age, sex, educational level, body mass index, fasting blood concentrations of glucose, blood lipids and high-sensitive C-reactive protein, smoking status and alcohol consumption, prevalence of arterial stiffness increased significantly (Pheart rate in combination with higher blood pressure are risk factors for arterial stiffness.

  5. Moderate doses of alcoholic beverages with dinner and postprandial high density lipoprotein composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.J.; Veenstra, J.; Tol, A. van; Groener, J.E.M.; Schaafsma, G.

    1998-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. In this study, postprandial changes in plasma lipids, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity levels we

  6. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Psychoactive Drug Use among High School Students in Bogota, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Miguel A.; Pinzon-Perez, Helda

    2000-01-01

    Investigated health behaviors practiced by 10th graders in Bogota, Colombia. Data from a modified version of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that there was a high use of gateway substances (tobacco and alcohol) among respondents, but lower usage, when compared to U.S. students, of other mind-altering substances such as marijuana,…

  7. The Effects of Alcohol Use on Academic Achievement in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, Ana I.; Giuliano, Laura M.; French, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol use on high school students' quality of learning. We estimate fixed-effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our primary measure of academic achievement is the student's grade point average (GPA) abstracted from official school transcripts. We find that…

  8. Venues, patrons, and alcohol use dynamics: the creation of a high risk sexual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balán, Iván C; Barreda, Victoria; Marone, Rubén; Avila, María Mercedes; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2014-11-01

    Venue-based HIV prevention interventions, especially in sex on premise venues, can disrupt high-risk sexual networks. However, prior to intervening, it is essential to understand the person-venue dynamics that contribute to HIV risk. As such, we conducted five ethnographic observations at each of six venues where alcohol is sold and sex occurs onsite (2 each porn theaters, sex clubs, and dance clubs) frequented by gay and other men who have sex with men (G&MSM) in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. Alcohol use, sexual behavior, and person-venue dynamics differed markedly across venue types. In dance clubs, substantial alcohol consumption often preceded visits to the darkroom for sex which, at times, included unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse. Condoms, although available, were not easily accessible. HIV prevention messaging was generally non-existent. These venues are in critical need of interventions to reduce HIV transmission risk.

  9. Venues, Patrons, and Alcohol Use Dynamics: The Creation of a High Risk Sexual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balán, Iván C.; Barreda, Victoria; Marone, Rubén; Ávila, María Mercedes; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Venue-based HIV prevention interventions, especially in sex on premise venues, can disrupt high-risk sexual networks. However, prior to intervening, it is essential to understand the person-venue dynamics that contribute to HIV risk. As such, we conducted five ethnographic observations at each of six venues where alcohol is sold and sex occurs onsite (2 each porn theaters, sex clubs, and dance clubs) frequented by gay and other men who have sex with men (G&MSM) in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. Alcohol use, sexual behavior, and person-venue dynamics differed markedly across venue types. In dance clubs, substantial alcohol consumption often preceded visits to the darkroom for sex which, at times, included unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse. Condoms, although available, were not easily accessible. HIV prevention messaging was generally non-existent. These venues are in critical need of interventions to reduce HIV transmission risk. PMID:24691922

  10. Blood coagulation using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc V.; Oh, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2014-03-01

    High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) technology provides a feasible method of achieving thermal coagulation during surgical procedures. One of the potential clinical benefits of HIFU can induce immediate hemostasis without suturing. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of a HIFU system for blood coagulation on severe vascular injury. ngHIFU treatment was implemented immediately after bleeding in artery. The ultrasound probe was made of piezoelectric material, generating a central frequency of 2.0 MHz as well as an ellipsoidal focal spot of 2 mm in lateral dimension and 10 mm in axial dimension. Acoustic coagulation was employed on a perfused chicken artery model in vitro. A surgical incision (1 to 2 mm long) was made with a scapel on the arterial wall, and heparinized autologous blood was made to leak out from the incision with a syringe pump. A total of 5 femoral artery incisions was treated with the HIFU beam. The intensity of 4500 W/cm2 at the focus was applied for all treatments. Complete hemostasis was achieved in all treatments, along with the treatment times of 25 to 50 seconds. The estimated intraoperative blood loss was from 2 to 5 mL. The proposed HIFU system may provide an effective method for immediate blood coagulation for arteries and veins in clinical applications.

  11. Sensitive and precise monitoring of phosphatidylethanol in human blood as a biomarker for alcohol intake by ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siming; Yang, Ruiyue; Ji, Fusui; Li, Hongxia; Dong, Jun; Chen, Wenxiang

    2017-05-01

    Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is a special phospholipid that is only formed in the presence of ethanol, and therefore, serves as a promising biomarker for alcohol intake. In this study, a simple, rapid and precise method based on LC-MS/MS combined with ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed and validated for the measurements of PEth (16:0/18:1, 16:0/18:2, 16:0/16:0, and 18:1/18:1) in human blood. The influences of several variables for sample extraction and MS detection were carefully investigated. The extraction efficiencies for all the four PEth species were markedly increased compared with the traditional extractions. A limit of detection below 0.56ngmL(-1) was obtained. This high sensitivity makes it possible to monitor various alcohol consumption levels in light to heavy drinkers. Good linearity was obtained for all the analytes without interference from the sample matrix. The imprecisions of the intra-run and total assays were lower than 3.1% and 6.5%, respectively, with an average recovery of 99.87%. In addition, the utility of the method was evaluated in an alcohol intake status study. The results indicate that the developed protocol is simple, precise, and sensitive, and can be easily adapted for objective and reliable assessments of alcohol intake in clinical research.

  12. Alcohol enhances unprovoked 22–28 kHz USVs and suppresses USV mean frequency in High Alcohol Drinking (HAD-1) male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, Neha; Reno, James M.; Gonzales, Rueben A.; Schallert, Timothy; Bell, Richard L.; Maddox, W. Todd; Duvauchelle, Christine L.

    2016-01-01

    Heightened emotional states increase impulsive behaviors such as excessive ethanol consumption in humans. Though positive and negative affective states in rodents can be monitored in real-time through ultrasonic vocalization (USV) emissions, few animal studies have focused on the role of emotional status as a stimulus for initial ethanol drinking. Our laboratory has recently developed reliable, high-speed analysis techniques to compile USV data during multiple-hour drinking sessions. Since High Alcohol Drinking (HAD-1) rats are selectively bred to voluntarily consume intoxicating levels of alcohol, we hypothesized that USVs emitted by HAD-1 rats would reveal unique emotional phenotypes predictive of alcohol intake and sensitive to alcohol experience. In this study, male HAD-1 rats had access to water, 15% and 30% EtOH or water only (i.e., Controls) during 8 weeks of daily 7-hr drinking-in-the-dark (DID) sessions. USVs, associated with both positive (i.e., 50–55 kHz frequency-modulated or FM) and negative (i.e., 22–28 kHz) emotional states, emitted during these daily DID sessions were examined. Findings showed basal 22–28 kHz USVs were emitted by both EtOH-Naïve (Control) and EtOH-experienced rats, alcohol experience enhanced 22–28 kHz USV emissions, and USV acoustic parameters (i.e., mean frequency in kHz) of both positive and negative USVs were significantly suppressed by chronic alcohol experience. These data suggest that negative affective status initiates and maintains excessive alcohol intake in selectively bred HAD-1 rats and support the notion that unprovoked emissions of negative affect-associated USVs (i.e., 22–28 kHz) predict vulnerability to excessive alcohol intake in distinct rodent models. PMID:26802730

  13. Population blood pressure and low to moderate alcohol intake in an untreated population followed over 20years. Copenhagen City heart study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2011-01-01

    make out the majority of the population. The Copenhagen City Heart Study is a prospective longitudinal epidemiological study. The untreated study population was followed over 20years. Specially trained technicians using a blinded sphygmomanometer measured BP once with the subject in the sitting......The aim of this study is to evaluate whether a changing population alcohol intake is capable of setting off a shift in the blood pressure distribution in the untreated part of a population. The focus is on subjects with an alcohol intake well below the limits of alcoholism because these subjects...... position. The BP measurement was fully standardised and the measurement method was unchanged throughout the observation period. A questionnaire concerning drinking habits was completed by the participants and double-checked by the technicians. The results were a decreasing population systolic BP...

  14. Alcoholism: Current Marker Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    mongolism are high-risk candidates for certain types of leukemia. Similarly, hemophiliacs have a correspondingly high incidence of color blindness . (4...genetically determined characteristics such as color blindness and blood type. GENETIC MARKER STUDIES In 1966 Dr. Cruz-Coke and Dr. Varela reported that...their study had linked color blindness , cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism. They further hypothesized the existence of a sex-linked carrier gene

  15. Excessive alcohol consumption favours high risk polyp or colorectal cancer occurrence among patients with adenomas: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Bardou, M; Montembault, S; Giraud, V.; Balian, A; Borotto, E; Houdayer, C.; Capron, F.; Chaput, J-C; Naveau, S

    2002-01-01

    Background and aims: Excessive alcohol consumption is a risk factor for developing colorectal adenomas. This study aimed to investigate the influence of excessive alcohol consumption on the occurrence of high risk polyps (adenoma ≥10 mm, villous component, high grade dysplasia) or colorectal cancer among patients with at least one colonic adenoma.

  16. Detecting alcohol abuse: traditional blood alcohol markers compared to ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) measurement in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastedt, Martin; Büchner, Mara; Rothe, Michael; Gapert, René; Herre, Sieglinde; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Tsokos, Michael; Kienast, Thorsten; Heinz, Andreas; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol abuse is a common problem in society; however, the technical capabilities of evaluating individual alcohol consumption using objective biomarkers are rather limited at present. In recent years research has focused on alcohol markers using hair analysis but data on performance and reliable cut-off values are still lacking. In this study 169 candidates were tested to compare traditional biomarkers, such as carbohydrate-deficient-transferrin (CDT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase and the mean corpuscular volume of the erythrocytes, with alcohol markers detectable in hair such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). This study revealed that EtG, GGT and CDT showed the best results, demonstrating areas under the curve calculated from receiver operating characteristics of 0.941, 0.943 and 0.899 respectively. The lowest false-negative and false-positive rates were obtained by using a combined interpretation system for hair EtG and FAEEs. All markers demonstrated only low to moderate correlations. Optimum cut-off values for differentiation between social and chronic excessive drinking calculated for hair EtG and FAEEs were 28 pg/mg and 0.675 ng/mg, respectively. The critical values published in the "Consensus on Alcohol Markers 2012" by the Society of Hair Testing were confirmed.

  17. Vitamin D and high blood pressure: causal association or epiphenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunutsor, Setor K; Burgess, Stephen; Munroe, Patricia B; Khan, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    High plasma levels of vitamin D are associated with a reduced risk of high blood pressure, but whether this association is causal remains to be ascertained. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials, to examine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and supplemented these results with a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the causal relationship between vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]) and BP. Pooled random effects meta-analysis of weighted mean differences across 16 trials of vitamin D supplementation showed a non-significant reduction in SBP (-0.94, 95% CI -2.98, 1.10 mmHg) and DBP (-0.52, 95% CI -1.18, 0.14 mmHg), with evidence of heterogeneity (I(2) = 67.9%, P causal effects of a doubling of genetically-elevated risk of vitamin D deficiency were 0.14 mmHg (95% CI -0.19, 0.47, P = 0.42), and 0.12 mmHg (95% CI -0.09, 0.33, P = 0.25) on SBP and DBP respectively. Additional evidence from genetic data are directionally consistent with clinical trial data, though underpowered to reliably demonstrate a strong causal effect of vitamin D status on BP. Further investigation may be warranted.

  18. Intermittent access to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet attenuates alcohol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Sunil; Van Cleef, Arriel; Davis, Jon F

    2017-02-01

    Binge eating disorder and alcohol use disorder (AUD) frequently co-occur in the presence of other psychiatric conditions. Data suggest that binge eating engages similar behavioral and neurochemical processes common to AUD, which might contribute to the etiology or maintenance of alcoholism. However, it is unclear how binge feeding behavior and alcohol intake interact to promote initiation or maintenance of AUD. We investigated the impact of binge-like feeding on alcohol intake and anxiety-like behavior in male Long Evans rats. Rats received chow (controls) or extended intermittent access (24h twice a week; Int-HFD) to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet for six weeks. Standard rodent chow was available ad-libitum to all groups and food intake was measured. Following HFD exposure, 20.0% ethanol, 2.0% sucrose intake and endocrine peptide levels were evaluated. Anxiety-like behavior was measured using a light-dark (LD) box apparatus. Rats in the Int-HFD group displayed a binge-like pattern of feeding (alternations between caloric overconsumption and voluntary caloric restriction). Surprisingly, alcohol intake was significantly attenuated in the Int-HFD group whereas sugar consumption was unaffected. Plasma acyl-ghrelin levels were significantly elevated in the Int-HFD group, whereas glucagon-like peptide-1 levels did not change. Moreover, rats in the Int-HFD group spent more time in the light side of the LD box compared to controls, indicating that binge-like feeding induced anxiolytic effects. Collectively, these data suggest that intermittent access to HFD attenuates alcohol intake through reducing anxiety-like behavior, a process potentially controlled by elevated plasma ghrelin levels.

  19. High speed optical holography of retinal blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzari, M; Simonutti, M; Degardin, J; Sahel, J-A; Fink, M; Paques, M; Atlan, M

    2016-08-01

    We performed noninvasive video imaging of retinal blood flow in a pigmented rat by holographic interferometry of near-infrared laser light backscattered by retinal tissue, beating against an off-axis reference beam sampled at a frame rate of 39 kHz with a high throughput camera. Local Doppler contrasts emerged from the envelopes of short-time Fourier transforms and the phase of autocorrelation functions of holograms rendered by Fresnel transformation. This approach permitted imaging of blood flow in large retinal vessels (∼30 microns diameter) over 400×400  pixels with a spatial resolution of ∼8 microns and a temporal resolution of ∼6.5  ms.

  20. Drugs for treatment of very high blood pressure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duley, Lelia; Meher, Shireen; Jones, Leanne

    2013-07-31

    Very high blood pressure during pregnancy poses a serious threat to women and their babies. The aim of antihypertensive therapy is to lower blood pressure quickly but safety, to avoid complications. Antihypertensive drugs lower blood pressure but their comparative effectiveness and safety, and impact on other substantive outcomes is uncertain. To compare different antihypertensive drugs for very high blood pressure during pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (9 January 2013). Studies were randomised trials. Participants were women with severe hypertension during pregnancy. Interventions were comparisons of one antihypertensive drug with another. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and assessed trial quality. Two review authors extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Thirty-five trials (3573 women) with 15 comparisons were included. Women allocated calcium channel blockers were less likely to have persistent high blood pressure compared to those allocated hydralazine (six trials, 313 women; 8% versus 22%; risk ratio (RR) 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21 to 0.66). Ketanserin was associated with more persistent high blood pressure than hydralazine (three trials, 180 women; 27% versus 6%; RR 4.79, 95% CI 1.95 to 11.73), but fewer side-effects (three trials, 120 women; RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.53) and a lower risk of HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and lowered platelets) syndrome (one trial, 44 women; RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.81).Labetalol was associated with a lower risk of hypotension compared to diazoxide (one trial 90 women; RR 0.06, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.99) and a lower risk of caesarean section (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.02), although both were borderline for statistical significance.Both nimodipine and magnesium sulphate were associated with a high incidence of persistent high blood pressure, but this risk was lower for nimodipine compared to magnesium sulphate (one trial

  1. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  2. A mild and highly chemoselective iodination of alcohol using polymer supported DMAP

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DIPARJUN DAS; JASHA MOMO H ANAL; LALTHAZUALA ROKHUM

    2016-11-01

    The synthesis of organic compounds using polymer supported catalysts and reagents, where the required product is always in solution, has been of great interest in recent years, both in industries and academia especially in pharmaceutical research. Here, a simple and efficient method for conversion of alcohols into their iodides in high yield using polymer supported 4-(Dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) is described. Polymer supported DMAP is used in catalytic amount and is recovered and reused several times. Additionally, this method is highly chemoselective.

  3. Prevalence of 12-Month Alcohol Use, High-Risk Drinking, and DSM-IV Alcohol Use Disorder in the United States, 2001-2002 to 2012-2013: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Bridget F; Chou, S Patricia; Saha, Tulshi D; Pickering, Roger P; Kerridge, Bradley T; Ruan, W June; Huang, Boji; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Fan, Amy; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-09-01

    Lack of current and comprehensive trend data derived from a uniform, reliable, and valid source on alcohol use, high-risk drinking, and DSM-IV alcohol use disorder (AUD) represents a major gap in public health information. To present nationally representative data on changes in the prevalences of 12-month alcohol use, 12-month high-risk drinking, 12-month DSM-IV AUD, 12-month DSM-IV AUD among 12-month alcohol users, and 12-month DSM-IV AUD among 12-month high-risk drinkers between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013. The study data were derived from face-to-face interviews conducted in 2 nationally representative surveys of US adults: the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, with data collected from April 2001 to June 2002, and the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III, with data collected from April 2012 to June 2013. Data were analyzed in November and December 2016. Twelve-month alcohol use, high-risk drinking, and DSM-IV AUD. The study sample included 43 093 participants in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and 36 309 participants in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III. Between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013, 12-month alcohol use, high-risk drinking, and DSM-IV AUD increased by 11.2%, 29.9%, and 49.4%, respectively, with alcohol use increasing from 65.4% (95% CI, 64.3%-66.6%) to 72.7% (95% CI, 71.4%-73.9%), high-risk drinking increasing from 9.7% (95% CI, 9.3%-10.2%) to 12.6% (95% CI, 12.0%-13.2%), and DSM-IV AUD increasing from 8.5% (95% CI, 8.0%-8.9%) to 12.7% (95% CI, 12.1%-13.3%). With few exceptions, increases in alcohol use, high-risk drinking, and DSM-IV AUD between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013 were also statistically significant across sociodemographic subgroups. Increases in all of these outcomes were greatest among women, older adults, racial/ethnic minorities, and individuals with lower educational level and family income. Increases were also

  4. Alcohol consumption and awareness of the risks related in alcohol-abuse in high school students: evidence from a Health Education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, A M; Rossi, R; Bartolomei, G; Di Carlo, D; Fabiani, L; Necozione, S; di Orio, F

    2013-01-01

    The unceasing and widespread increase of alcohol consumption represents an important problem for the European Union. For this reason, we wanted to investigate the patterns of alcohol consumption among high-school students of Rieti, a city in central Italy, and of surrounding rural areas. Furthermore, the study intends to investigate students' awareness on alcohol-related health risks and on the consequences of driving in a state of intoxication. In the investigation 7 schools including senior high schools and technical schools were involved, for a total of 669 students aged between 15 and 19 years. As part of a program of health education, a self-administered anonymous questionnaire was proposed to each student. A descriptive and multivariate analysis was carried out. The prevalence of usual drinkers was equal to 12.7 per cent. The logistic regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between usual consumption of alcohol and the attendance of Technical Institutes (OR=3.43; 95% IC: 2.07 - 5.69), and the residence in rural areas (OR=2.19; 95% IC: 1.38 - 3.47). The area of residence in the multivariate analysis loses significance. Only 54.6 % of the students answered the questions regarding the state of driving under the effect of alcohol; of these, 11.0 % declared of having driven at least once under the effect of alcohol, whereas 18.0 % declared that they had been passengers of a driver who was drunk. The answer to the question whether the consumption of alcohol is harmful to health was "no" for 15.7 % of usual drinkers against 2.2 % of the non drinkers or occasional (episodic) drinkers. Our study shows that the drinking habits of high school students of Rieti are worse for those attending technical schools. Usual drinkers show lower consciousness of alcohol-related harm. Our study may provide clues useful for the identification of the target population at high risk for alcohol abuse in order to create targeted prevention programs.

  5. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  6. High altitude hypoxia and blood pressure dysregulation in adult chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, E A; Salinas, C E; Blanco, C E; Villena, M; Giussani, D A

    2013-02-01

    Although it is accepted that impaired placental perfusion in complicated pregnancy can slow fetal growth and programme an increased risk of cardiovascular dysfunction at adulthood, the relative contribution of reductions in fetal nutrition and in fetal oxygenation as the triggering stimulus remains unclear. By combining high altitude (HA) with the chick embryo model, we have previously isolated the direct effects of HA hypoxia on embryonic growth and cardiovascular development before hatching. This study isolated the effects of developmental hypoxia on cardiovascular function measured in vivo in conscious adult male and female chickens. Chick embryos were incubated, hatched and raised at sea level (SL, nine males and nine females) or incubated, hatched and raised at HA (seven males and seven females). At 6 months of age, vascular catheters were inserted under general anaesthesia. Five days later, basal blood gas status, basal cardiovascular function and cardiac baroreflex responses were investigated. HA chickens had significantly lower basal arterial PO2 and haemoglobin saturation, and significantly higher haematocrit than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. HA chickens had significantly lower arterial blood pressure than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. Although the gain of the arterial baroreflex was decreased in HA relative to SL male chickens, it was increased in HA relative to SL female chickens. We show that development at HA lowers basal arterial blood pressure and alters baroreflex sensitivity in a sex-dependent manner at adulthood.

  7. The effects of low alcohol beers on the blood alcohol concentration. [Die Wirkung von Bier mit geringem Alkoholgehalt auf die Blutalkoholkonzentration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuteboom, W. & Vis, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    During the last decade the consumption of low alcohol beers has increased considerably in the Netherlands. The improved taste and appearance of these beers, compared to those of previous years, combined with a more general trend for a healthier life-style might explain this increase. The permanent p

  8. Blood pressure percentile charts to identify high or low blood pressure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, Ashish; Bell, Cynthia; Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Samuels, Joshua

    2016-07-19

    The goal was to develop familiar blood pressure (BP) charts representing BP percentile curves similar to CDC growth charts to improve screening of both high and low BP in children. Since height accounts for substantially more BP variability than age and is a more direct measure of body size and maturation in children, height-specific BP percentile curves were drawn separately for males and females. We used the 2004 Fourth Report data source and equations to calculate the BP threshold value for each gender and 5 cm height group. By slightly underestimating a child's BP percentile for high BP and slightly overestimating a child's BP percentile for low BP, these charts guarantee 100 % sensitivity in detecting abnormal BP. Sensitivity and specificity of the chart cut-offs were confirmed in a sample of 1254 healthy children from a school-based blood pressure screening program. The 1st, 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 95th, and 99th BP percentile curves are depicted in the chart for each corresponding gender and height from 85 to 190 cm, mimicking the ubiquitous CDC "growth charts". Shaded areas of the chart differentiate abnormal BP status categories: hypotension, normal BP, prehypertension, Stage 1 hypertension, and Stage 2 hypertension. Sensitivity was confirmed to be 100 % with specificity above 94 %. These simplified BP charts improve upon currently available BP screening reference with the following features: (a) tracking BP longitudinally in an individual child, (b) full physiological range of BP percentiles represented in percentile curve format for rapid identification both high and low BP, (c) easy to use with absolute height alone avoiding the additional step of determining height percentile, (d) incorporation of adult threshold for pre-hypertension to assist in accurate transition from adolescence into adulthood, (e) high sensitivity and specificity to ensure all children at risk are identified with very few false positives.

  9. Chronic Diarrhea Associated with High Teriflunomide Blood Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Duquette, André; Frenette, Anne Julie; Doré, Maxime

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report the case of a patient treated with leflunomide that presented with chronic diarrhea associated with high teriflunomide blood concentration. Case Summary An 84-year-old woman taking leflunomide 20 mg once daily for the past 2 years to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was investigated for severe chronic diarrhea that had been worsening for the past 5 months. The patient’s general condition progressively deteriorated and included electrolyte imbalances and a transient loss of ...

  10. Characterization of blood donors with high haemoglobin concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Hasselbalch, H C; Ullum, H;

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives  The literature contains little on the prevalence and causes of high predonation haemoglobin levels among blood donors. This study aimed to characterize and develop an algorithm to manage would-be donors with polycythaemia. Materials and Methods  Between November 2009......, erythropoietin, ferritin, platelet count and leucocyte count, JAK2 V617 and JAK2 exon12 analysis, as well as other routine measurements. Results  Among 46 such donors, 39 had a history of smoking, which contributes to erythrocytosis. Two had PV, five had severe hypertension, one of them because of renal artery...

  11. Translating evidence into policy: lessons learned from the case of lowering the legal blood alcohol limit for drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Shawna L; Sleet, David A; Elder, Randy W; Cole, Krista Hopkins; Shults, Ruth A; Nichols, James L

    2010-06-01

    This case study examines the translation of evidence on the effectiveness of laws to reduce the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of drivers into policy. It was reconstructed through discussions among individuals involved in the processes as well as a review of documentation and feedback on oral presentations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated extensively with federal and non-federal partners and stakeholders in conducting a rigorous systematic review, using the processes of the Guide to Community Preventive Services to evaluate the body of empirical evidence on 0.08% BAC laws. The timely dissemination of the findings and related policy recommendations-made by the independent Task Force on Community Preventive Services-to Congress very likely contributed to the inclusion of strong incentives to States to adopt 0.08 BAC laws by October 2003. Subsequent dissemination to partners and stakeholders informed decision-making about support for state legislative and policy action. This case study suggests the value of: clearly outlining the relationships between health problems, interventions and outcomes; systematically assessing and synthesizing the evidence; using a credible group and rigorous process to assess the evidence; having an impartial body make specific policy recommendations on the basis of the evidence; being ready to capitalize in briefly opening policy windows; engaging key partners and stakeholders throughout the production and dissemination of the evidence and recommendations; undertaking personalized, targeted and compelling dissemination of the evidence and recommendations; involving multiple stakeholders in encouraging uptake and adherence of policy recommendations; and addressing sustainability. These lessons learned may help others working to translate evidence into policy.

  12. Regulatory Behaviors and Stress Reactivity among Infants at High Risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Chen, Maida; Nash, Jennifer; Gendler, Beth; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This article examines regulatory behaviors and physiological stress reactivity among 6-15 month-old infants with moderate to heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), a group at very high risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and self-regulation impairments, compared to low risk infants with no/low exposure. Participants: Eighteen…

  13. Biomass to fuels : Upgrading of flash pyrolysis oil by reactive distillation using a high boiling alcohol and acid catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahfud, F.H.; Melian Cabrera, I.V.; Manurung, R.M.; Heeres, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    We here report our studies on the upgrading of flash pyrolysis oil using an improved alcohol treatment method. The method consists of treating pyrolysis oil with a high boiling alcohol like n-butanol in the presence of a (solid) acid catalyst at 323-353 K under reduced pressure (<10 kPa). Using this

  14. Contribution of parental blood pressures to association between low birth weight and adult high blood pressure: cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brian R; McConnachie, Alex; Noon, Joseph P; Webb, David J; Watt, Graham C M

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To examine the possibility that low birth weight is a feature of the inherited predisposition to high blood pressure. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Primary care medical centre in Edinburgh. Subjects: One offspring of 452 families (231 men and 221 women aged 16-26 years) in whom blood pressure, weight, and height were measured in 1986 and whose parents had blood pressure measured in 1979. Birth weights were obtained from case records (270 offspring) or by questionnaires sent to the mothers (182 offspring). Main outcome measures: Birth weight and adult systolic blood pressure in offspring in relation to parental blood pressure. Results: If parental blood pressures were not considered, a 1 kg decrease in birth weight was associated with a 2.24 mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure of offspring (P=0.06) after correction for current weight and sex. However, parental blood pressures correlated positively with blood pressure of offspring, and higher maternal blood pressure was associated with lower birth weight (−3.03 g/mm Hg, Ppressures, a 1 kg decrease in birth weight was associated with only a 1.71 mm Hg increase in the systolic blood pressure of the offspring (P=0.15). Conclusions: Low birth weight is a feature of the inherited predisposition to hypertension, perhaps because it is associated with higher maternal blood pressure during pregnancy. Parental blood pressure may be an important confounding factor in the relation between low birth weight and subsequent hypertension. Key messages Hypertension has both inherited and environmental causes The relation between low birth weight and hypertension in later life may result from the mother’s nutritional environment during pregnancy This study found that mothers who have higher blood pressure in later life deliver babies with lower birth weight, who also develop higher blood pressure Hereditary factors therefore explain part of the relation between low birth weight and adult

  15. Stretching Behavior of Red Blood Cells at High Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Jordan; Ristenpart, William

    2016-11-01

    Most work on the mechanical behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) has focused on simple shear flows. Relatively little work has examined RBC deformations in the physiologically important extensional flow that occurs at the entrance to a constriction. In particular, previous work suggests that RBCs rapidly stretch out and then retract upon entering the constriction, but to date no model predicts this behavior for the extremely high strain rates typically experienced there. In this work, we use high speed video to perform systematic measurements of the dynamic stretching behavior of RBCs as they enter a microfluidic constriction. We demonstrate that a simple viscoelastic model captures the observed stretching dynamics, up to strain rates as high as 1000 s-1. The results indicate that the effective elastic modulus of the RBC membrane at these strain rates is an order of magnitude larger than moduli measured by micropipette aspiration or other low strain rate techniques.

  16. Visceral adiposity, not abdominal subcutaneous fat area, is associated with high blood pressure in Japanese men: the Ohtori study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hideo; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Sato, Kyoko Kogawa; Harita, Nobuko; Maeda, Isseki; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Endo, Ginji; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Boyko, Edward J; Hikita, Yonezo

    2011-05-01

    Visceral adiposity is considered to have a key role in cardiometabolic diseases. The purpose of this study is to investigate cross-sectionally the association between intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) measured by computed tomography (CT) and high blood pressure independent of abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA) and insulin resistance. Study participants included 624 Japanese men not taking oral hypoglycemic medications or insulin. Abdominal, thoracic and thigh fat areas were measured by CT. Total fat area (TFA) was calculated as the sum of abdominal, thoracic and thigh fat area. Total subcutaneous fat area (TSFA) was defined as TFA minus IAFA. Hypertension and high normal blood pressure were defined using the 1999 criteria of the World Health Organization. Multiple-adjusted odds ratios of hypertension for tertiles of IAFA were 2.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.35-5.16) for tertile 2, and 5.08 (2.48-10.39) for tertile 3, compared with tertile 1 after adjusting for age, fasting immunoreactive insulin, diabetes status, ASFA, alcohol consumption, regular physical exercise and smoking habit. IAFA remained significantly associated with hypertension even after adjustment for ASFA, TSFA, TFA, body mass index or waist circumference, and no other measure of regional or total adiposity was associated with the odds of hypertension in models, which included IAFA. Similar results were obtained for the association between IAFA and the prevalence of high normal blood pressure or hypertension. In conclusion, greater visceral adiposity was associated with a higher odds of high blood pressure in Japanese men.

  17. Photochemical activation of extremely weak nucleophiles: highly fluorinated urethanes and polyurethanes from polyfluoro alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Marc; Sebastián, Rosa María; Marquet, Jordi

    2014-06-06

    An efficient and environmentally friendly photoreaction between phenyl isocyanate or pentafluorophenyl isocyanate and polyfluorinated alcohols and diols is described for the first time. New highly fluorinated urethanes and diurethanes, derived from aromatic isocyanates, are produced in good yields in a photoreaction that is apparently governed by the acidic properties of the polyfluoro alcohols and diols. The wettability properties of the new polyfluorinated diurethanes have been tested, some of them showing significantly high values of hydrophobicity and oleophobicity. This new photoreaction has also been tested in the production of a model polyfluorinated polyurethane, establishing the influence of the irradiation power in the outcome of the process, and directly achieving a molecular weight distribution corresponding to a number-average DP(n) = 12 and a highest DP(n) = 20 after 4 h of irradiation (DP(n): "number-average degree of polymerization").

  18. Highly Regioselective Palladium-Catalyzed Carboxylation of Allylic Alcohols with CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Tsuyoshi; Higuchi, Yuki; Sato, Yoshihiro

    2015-11-01

    Various allylic alcohols were carboxylated in the presence of a catalytic amount of PdCl2 and PPh3 using ZnEt2 as a stoichiometric transmetalation agent under a CO2 atmosphere (1 atm). This carboxylation proceeded in a highly regioselective manner to afford branched carboxylic acids predominantly. The β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acid thus obtained was successfully converted into an optically active γ-butyrolactone, a known intermediate of (R)-baclofen.

  19. Neither perceived job stress nor individual cardiovascular reactivity predict high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvel, Jean Pierre; M'Pio, Ignasse; Quelin, Pierre; Rigaud, Jean-Pierre; Laville, Maurice; Ducher, Michel

    2003-12-01

    We have reported that high job strain was associated with a significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 4.5 mm Hg during the working hours, irrespective of BP reactivity to a stress test. We report the final results of the first 5-year follow-up study, which aimed to assess the respective influences of perception of professional strain and cardiovascular reactivity to a mental stress test on BP. A cohort of 292 healthy subjects (mean+/-SEM age, 38+/-1 years) was followed up for progression to hypertension outcome, which was defined as an increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or DBP >7 mm Hg or a DBP >95 mm Hg during follow-up. None of the subjects was lost to follow-up, and 209 subjects completed the study. The high-strain (HS) group, representing 20.9% of the subjects, was compared with the remaining subjects (non-high-strain [NHS]). Similarly, the subjects with the highest BP stress reactivity (HR; 20.9% of subjects) were compared with the remaining subjects (NHR). Progression to hypertension was reached by 93 subjects (31.8%). Kaplan-Meier survival estimates revealed that neither HS nor HR increased the incidence of progression to hypertension. End-of-follow-up 24-hour ambulatory BPs that were similar in HS and NHS (120+/-2 vs 120+/-1 mm Hg, respectively) and in HR and NHR (122+/-2 vs 120+/-1 mm Hg, respectively) confirmed our findings. Age, alcohol, salt diet, body mass index, and occupation did not interfere with our results. In conclusion, cardiovascular HR and HS do not appear to be major risk markers for future high BP in healthy, young adults.

  20. The Legal Importance of Blood Alcohol Limits for Driving in German Law with a Comparative Study of Emirati and Egyptian Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsallam A. Bakdash

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs (DUI is a crime or offence according to the laws of most countries. DUI increases the risk of traffic accidents as well as the severity and outcome of injuries that result from them. Some countries have a sophisticated control system to monitor DUI of alcohol in all traffic accidents. There is variation between different countries regarding the concept of driving under the influence of alcohol as well as the legal limits of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC and the requirements to test the victims of accidents. This paper reviews the limit values for BAC in German traffic law (Administrative Offences Act, which stipulates a BAC value of 0.50 mg/g and a breath alcohol value of 0.25 mg/L as a marginal value for the application of punitive measures. German criminal law defines the minimum BAC values of relative unfitness to drive and absolute unfitness to drive as 0.3 mg/g and 1.10 mg/g, respectively (1.60 mg/g for cyclists.The minimum BAC values representing significant impairment and absolute impairment in criminal cases are 2.00 mg/g and 3.00 mg/g, respectively. Different penalties and legal consequences result according to the BAC level of an offender. In contrast, only eight out of twenty-two Arab countries recognise BAC limit values only in traffic laws. In Jordan, the BAC limit is 0.75 mg/g (0.08 g/dL.in the UAE, the BAC limit is 0.094 mg/g (0.01 g/dL, while Egyptian law does not recognise BAC values in the application of sanctions: the mere presence of alcohol in blood, regardless of its concentration and effect, is a sufficient and adequate condition for punishment. Accordingly, this study encourages lawmakers in Arab countries to define the limit values for BAC when investigating any crime in general and traffic offences in particular, in close cooperation with forensic doctors and toxicologists. It urges them to consider different BAC and their effects in relation to traffic offences. It

  1. More Folic Acid in Pregnancy May Protect Kids from High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Folic Acid in Pregnancy May Protect Kids From High Blood Pressure If mothers have heart disease risk factors, nutrient ... levels during pregnancy may reduce the risk of high blood pressure in children if their mothers have heart disease ...

  2. Many People Don't Take Their High Blood Pressure Meds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163928.html Many People Don't Take Their High Blood Pressure Meds: Study Failure to follow doctors' orders leads ... 20 percent of patients seeking care for stubborn high blood pressure take all the medicine they're supposed to, ...

  3. High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix

    2005-01-01

    Corticosterone levels in blood may be used as a marker of stress in rodents, provided that the blood sampling procedure itself is non-stressful. Automated blood sampling equipment (Accusampler) allows blood sampling without any interference with the animal and might be useful as a tool for an on...... the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels...... may affect the normal physiology of the animals....

  4. Alcohol intake and triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in men with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2013-07-01

    The triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio has been proposed to be a good predictor of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between alcohol consumption and TG/HDL-C ratio in patients with hypertension is unknown. Subjects were normotensive and hypertensive men aged 35-60 years who were divided by daily ethanol intake into non-, light (<22g/day), heavy (≥22 but <44g/day), and very heavy (≥44g/day) drinkers. The TG/HDL-C ratio was significantly higher in the hypertensive group than in the normotensive group. Both in the normotensive and hypertensive groups, TG/HDL-C ratio was significantly lower in light, heavy, and very heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers and was lowest in light drinkers. In the hypertensive group, odds ratios (ORs) for high TG/HDL-C ratio (≥3.75) in light, heavy, and very heavy drinkers vs. nondrinkers were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than a reference level of 1.00 (light drinkers: OR = 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40-0.59; heavy drinkers: OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.52-0.67; very heavy drinkers: OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.61-0.80) and were significantly lower than the corresponding ORs in the normotensive group. The ORs for hypertension in subjects with vs. subjects without high TG/HDL-C ratio were significantly higher than the reference level in all the alcohol groups and were significantly lower in light, heavy, and very heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers. The results suggest that there is an inverted J-shaped relationship between alcohol and TG/HDL-C ratio in individuals with hypertension and that alcohol weakens the positive association between TG/HDL-C ratio and hypertension.

  5. A versatile UHPLC–MSMS method for simultaneous quantification of various alcohol intake related compounds in human urine and blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monosik, Rastislav; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol intake has been associated with preventive as well as negative effects on health. However, the intake estimates are often based on subjective reporting and therefore biased and the types of beverages consumed are often inaccurately reported. Accurate and specific quantification of alcohol...... related compounds in biological samples may help to understand dietary exposure and metabolic kinetics. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, rapid and versatile UHPLC–MSMS method able of quantifying various alcohol derived compounds or potential effect markers. The method was thoroughly...

  6. High blood pressure in school children: prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivers Patrick A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP and associated risk factors in school children 8 to 13 years of age. Methods Elementary school children (n = 1,066 were examined. Associations between HBP, body mass index (BMI, gender, ethnicity, and acanthosis nigricans (AN were investigated using a school based cross-sectional study. Blood pressure was measured and the 95th percentile was used to determine HBP. Comparisons between children with and without HBP were utilized. The crude and multiple logistic regression adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. Results Females, Hispanics, overweight children, and children with AN had an increased likelihood of HBP. Overweight children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile and those with AN were at least twice as likely to present with HBP after controlling for confounding factors. Conclusion Twenty one percent of school children had HBP, especially the prevalence was higher among the overweight and Hispanic group. The association identified here can be used as independent markers for increased likelihood of HBP in children.

  7. Novel, high-yield red blood cell production methods from CD34-positive cells derived from human embryonic stem, yolk sac, fetal liver, cord blood, and peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Emmanuel; Qiu, Caihong; Bouhassira, Eric E

    2012-08-01

    The current supply of red blood cells expressing rare blood groups is not sufficient to cover all the existing transfusion needs for chronically transfused patients, such as sickle cell disease homozygous carriers, because of alloimmunization. In vitro production of cultured red blood cells is slowly emerging as a possible complement to the existing collection-based red blood cell procurement system. The yield of cultured red blood cells can theoretically be maximized by amplifying the stem, progenitor, or precursor compartment. Here, we combined methods designed to expand these three compartments to optimize the yield of cultured red blood cells and found that exposing CD34(+) cells to a short pulse of cytokines favorable for erythroid differentiation prior to stem cell expansion followed by progenitor expansion produced the highest yield of erythroid cells. This novel serum-free red blood cell production protocol was efficient on CD34(+) cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, 6-8-week yolk sacs, 16-18-week fetal livers, cord blood, and peripheral blood. The yields of cells obtained with these new protocols were larger by an order of magnitude than the yields observed previously. Globin expression analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that these expansion protocols generally yielded red blood cells that expressed a globin profile similar to that expected for the developmental age of the CD34(+) cells.

  8. Highly practical copper(I)/TEMPO catalyst system for chemoselective aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Jessica M; Stahl, Shannon S

    2011-10-26

    Aerobic oxidation reactions have been the focus of considerable attention, but their use in mainstream organic chemistry has been constrained by limitations in their synthetic scope and by practical factors, such as the use of pure O(2) as the oxidant or complex catalyst synthesis. Here, we report a new (bpy)Cu(I)/TEMPO catalyst system that enables efficient and selective aerobic oxidation of a broad range of primary alcohols, including allylic, benzylic, and aliphatic derivatives, to the corresponding aldehydes using readily available reagents, at room temperature with ambient air as the oxidant. The catalyst system is compatible with a wide range of functional groups and the high selectivity for 1° alcohols enables selective oxidation of diols that lack protecting groups.

  9. Cytochrome P450 2E1 high activity polymorphism in alcohol abuse and end-organ disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark T Cartmell; Hans-Ulrich Schulz; Derek A O'Reilly; Bing-Mei Yang; Volker Kielstein; Simon P Dunlop; Walter Halangk; Andrew G Demaine; Andrew N Kingsnorth

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate a possible role for a recently identified polymorphism in the gene of cytochrome P450 2E1, the presence of which is associated with high activity of the enzyme. METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-nine alcohol consumers, ICD 10.1/.2 (ALC), and 208 normal controls were studied. PCR amplification of the CYP2E1 gene region was performed to assess polymorphic variation. Fisher's exact test was used to assess the data.RESULTS: Twelve normal controls (5.8%) possessed the insertion. Five ALC (2.1%) had the insertion; of these 2 of 144 with,alcohol induced chronic pancreatitis, none of 28 with alcoholic liver disease and 3 of 67 without endorgan disease had the polymorphism. A significantly Lower frequency of subjects possessed the insertion than normal controls [P = 0.049 (genotype analysis P = 0.03)]. To further assess, if there was a relationship to alcohol problems per se or end-organ disease, we compared patients with alcohol induced end-organ disease vs alcoholic controls without end-organ disease vs normal controls which again showed a significant difference [P = 0.045 (genotype analysis,P = 0.011)], further sub-group analysis did not identify which group(s) accounted for these differences.CONCLUSION: We have shown the frequencies of this high-activity polymorphism in alcohol related patient groups for the first time. The frequency is significantly less in alcoholics than normal controls, as with high activity polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase. The biological significance, and whether the relevance is solely for alcoholism or is there a relationship to end-organ disease,would benefit from the assessment in the populations with a greater frequency of this polymorphism.

  10. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  11. Gender, age, and educational level attribute to blood alcohol concentration in hospitalized intoxicated adolescents: A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zanten, Eva; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; van der Lely, Nicolaas

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of adolescents hospitalized with acute alcohol intoxication, mainly because of severe reduced consciousness, is increasing. However, the characteristics of these adolescents are mainly unidentified. In this clinical research, we aimed to identify factors that attribute to

  12. Gender, age, and educational level attribute to blood alcohol concentration in hospitalized intoxicated adolescents: A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van E.; Ploeg, van der T.; Van Hoof, Joris J.; Lely, van der Nicolaas

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of adolescents hospitalized with acute alcohol intoxication, mainly because of severe reduced consciousness, is increasing. However, the characteristics of these adolescents are mainly unidentified. In this clinical research, we aimed to identify factors that attribute to h

  13. How to Prevent High Blood Pressure: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines that are causing it. Who is at risk for high blood pressure? Anyone can develop high blood pressure, but there ... it. Lifestyle - Certain lifestyle habits can raise your risk for high blood pressure, such as eating too much sodium or not ...

  14. Alcohol Use, Depression, and High-Risk Occupations Among Young Adults in the Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polshkova, Svitlana; Chaban, Oleg; Walton, Maureen A

    2016-06-06

    This study examined alcohol consumption in relation to anxiety, depression, and involvement with high risk occupations (HRO; e.g., coal miners), among young adults in the Ukraine (aged 18-25) (N = 192; 60.9% male; 100% Caucasian). Participants were grouped on the basis of drinking status: (1) current drinkers (CDs; n = 132) or (2) nondrinkers (NDs; n = 60). Questionnaires assessed frequency of alcohol use, motives for drinking, problem identification, as well as anxiety and depression (i.e., Hamilton scales). Bivariate analyses showed that CDs were more likely than NDs to be single, have a HRO, and have greater anxiety and depression; for example, 91.7% of CDs had a HRO as compared to 56.7% of NDs. Drinking status was not significantly related to age or gender. Among CDs, common motives for use included: to reduce anxiety and fears (60.6%), because my friends use alcohol (75.0%), to fight stress (78.8%), and to increase self-esteem (64.4%). Among CDs, past month drinking days were: 25% 1-2 days, 37.9% 3-7 days, 25% 8-21 days, and 12.1% 22-30 days. Regarding problem identification, 29.5% reported not having a problem, 34.8% reported possibly having a problem, 21.9% reported having a problem but not needing help, and 13.6% reported having a problem/needing help. Young adults involved in HRO may be a particularly high risk population given increased likelihood of alcohol use, anxiety, and depression. Early intervention strategies that incorporate motivational interviewing approaches to address coping and social motives for use may be beneficial to address substance use and mental health problems.

  15. Naltrexone and amperozide modify chocolate and saccharin drinking in high alcohol-preferring P rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, T A; Myers, R D

    1998-06-01

    Previous studies showed that the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, amperozide, is somewhat more potent than the opiate antagonist, naltrexone, in reducing alcohol drinking in high alcohol-preferring (P) rats. The purpose of this study was to determine in the P rat whether the effect of either drug could be due, in part, to an alteration in gustatory function. In an unlimited, 24-h free choice paradigm, P rats were offered water simultaneously with either a highly palatable 0.1% saccharin solution or a 1:4 dilution of Nestlé Sweet Success chocolate drink. Throughout all phases of the study, the P rats always consumed significantly greater volumes of the chocolate drink than of the saccharin solution, i.e., 526 ml/kg vs. 181 ml/kg, respectively. Successive 12-day experimental periods consisted of three phases: a 4-day predrug control interval; 4 days of administration of saline control vehicle or either drug; and a final 4 day postdrug interval. In a counterbalance design, saline, amperozide (1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg) or naltrexone (2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously twice daily at 1600 and 2200 h for 4 days. Amperozide and naltrexone significantly reduced the drinking of chocolate in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, only the two higher doses of amperozide and naltrexone decreased the intake of saccharin significantly. Thus, these findings suggest that different populations of central serotonin and opioid receptors concurrently underpin, in part, the preferences for both palatable and/or nutrient fluids. Finally, because both the opiate and 5-HT2A antagonists reduce the ingestion of saccharin and chocolate solutions differentially, it is apparent that preferences for alternative palatable fluids should be examined when candidate drugs are screened for suppressing alcohol drinking and ultimately the treatment of alcohol abuse.

  16. High risk alcohol-related trauma among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, Rama; Thomas, Mahiban; Thomson, Valerie; Griffin, Carolyn; Mayo, Luke; Whitty, Megan; d'Abbs, Peter; Nagel, Tricia

    2012-08-03

    High risk drinking is linked with high rates of physical harm. The reported incidence of alcohol - related trauma among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the Northern Territory is the highest in the world. Facial fractures are common among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. They are often linked with misuse of alcohol in the Northern Territory and are frequently secondary to assault. This review focuses on alcohol-related trauma in the Territory and draws attention to an urgent need for preventative health approach to address this critical issue.

  17. Highly diastereoselective synthesis of enantiopure β-trifluoromethyl β-amino alcohols from chiral trifluoromethyl oxazolidines (Fox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Julien; Chelain, Evelyne; Brigaud, Thierry

    2012-01-20

    The organolithium species addition to 2-hydroxymethyl fluorinated oxazolidines (Fox) provides a highly diastereoselective and straightforward route for the synthesis of enantiopure trifluoromethyl β-amino alcohols quaternarized at the β-position.

  18. Effects of alcohol consumption and other lifestyle behaviors on blood pressure for the middle-aged and elderly in the Guangxi Hei Yi Zhuang and Han populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ruixing; Li, Hui; Wu, Jinzhen; Lin, Weixiong; Yang, Dezhai; Pan, Shangling; Huang, Jiandong; Long, Xiuyan

    2007-12-01

    Han is the largest group and Zhuang is the largest minority among the 56 ethnic groups in China. Geographically and linguistically, Zhuang can be classified into 43 ethnic subgroups, in which Hei Yi Zhuang is proved to be the most conservative subgroup. Little is known about the relationship between alcohol consumption and blood pressure levels in this population. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to compare the effects of alcohol consumption and other lifestyle behaviors on blood pressure levels for the middle-aged and elderly in the Guangxi Hei Yi Zhuang and Han populations. A total of 657 subjects of Hei Yi Zhuang aged 40 and older were surveyed by a stratified randomized cluster sampling. Information on demography, diet, and other lifestyle factors was collected by standard questionnaires. Anthropometric parameters and serum lipid levels were also obtained in all subjects. The results were compared with those in 520 participants of Han Chinese from the same region. The levels of systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure in Hei Yi Zhuang were higher than those in Han (P sodium intake, educational level, physical activity, and even genetic factors.

  19. ALCOHOL ETÍLICO: Un tóxico de alto riesgo para la salud humana socialmente aceptado Ethyl alcohol: high risk toxin for human healt socially accepted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Téllez Mosquera

    2006-03-01

    consumer of alcohol. Alcohol is the first psicoactivas substances use for people than after use illegal substances. When ethyl alcohol is used in permanent and frequent way produced acute and chronic adverses effect on the health. The long run alcohol abusers has adverse effect in the nutricions, neurological, hepatic and teratogenic. The neurological, gastrointestinal, endocrine and acid-base equilibrium area affected in acute ways principally. The social aspects in quite important too alcohol has been related to interfamiliar violence, traffic accidents and violence in general. The high incidence in use and consumption, its toxic effect over human health, its negative social effect and the fact that it´s a legal and social accept substance made alcohol and real public health problem. Its necessary to say "be careful with alcohol in general".

  20. Detection of alcohol consumption in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis during the evaluation process for liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Johann-Martin; Greif-Higer, Gertrud; Kaufmann, Thomas; Beutel, Manfred E

    2012-11-01

    Alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC) is a commonly accepted indication for liver transplantation (LT). Any alcohol consumption is considered a contraindication for LT. However, the assessment of abstinence in everyday practice mostly relies on patient self-reporting, which must be considered highly unreliable. After consumption, ethanol is eliminated by alcohol dehydrogenase, with methanol accumulating in the blood. Methanol, which is known to be a sensitive and specific indicator for recent alcohol consumption, has not been used for verifying alcohol consumption in LT assessments yet. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using methanol testing to identify recent alcohol consumption in LT candidates during routine and short-notice appointments. We compared methanol and ethanol measurements with self-reported alcohol consumption for 41 patients with ALC during the evaluation process before they were accepted onto the waiting list. In 32 of the 92 blood samples drawn from these 41 patients during the study, a relapse was detected by the methanol test. Both the ethanol test results and the self-reported data were positive in only 3 cases. Thus, the methanol test identified 29 additional cases of alcohol consumption. Furthermore, the methanol test discovered recent alcohol consumption in 5 of 10 transplant patients when both self-reported data and ethanol test results were negative. As a part of blood alcohol analysis, the methanol test is more sensitive than self-reporting and ethanol testing for the detection of recent alcohol consumption. Also, short-notice appointments for blood alcohol analysis reveal more cases of alcohol relapse than routine, long-term appointments. The measurement of methanol as a sensitive screening test for recent alcohol consumption should be implemented both in law and in daily, routine practice. Liver Transpl 18:1310-1315, 2012. © 2012 AASLD.

  1. Alcohol homograph priming in alcohol-dependent inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Salemink, E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Rinck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Alcohol dependency is characterized by alcohol-related interpretation biases (IBs): Individuals with high levels of alcohol consumption generate more alcohol-related than alcohol-unrelated interpretations in response to ambiguous alcohol-related cues. However, a response bias could be an altern

  2. Instability and "Sausage-String" Appearance in Blood Vessels during High Blood Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Alstrøm, P; Colding-Jorgensen, M; Gustafsson, F; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Alstrom, Preben; Eguiluz, Victor M.; Colding-Jorgensen, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    1999-01-01

    A new Rayleigh-type instability is proposed to explain the `sausage-string' pattern of alternating constrictions and dilatations formed in blood vessels under influence of a vasoconstricting agent. Our theory involves the nonlinear elasticity characteristics of the vessel wall, and provides predictions for the conditions under which the cylindrical form of a blood vessel becomes unstable.

  3. Nursing Education in High Blood Pressure Control. Report of the Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. High Blood Pressure Information Center.

    This curriculum guide on high blood pressure (hypertension) for nursing educators has five sections: (1) Introduction and Objectives provides information regarding the establishment and objectives of the National Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control and briefly discusses nursing's role in hypertension control; (2) Goals…

  4. Fast co-pyrolysis of waste newspaper with high-density polyethylene for high yields of alcohols and hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weimin; Shi, Shukai; Chen, Minzhi; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2017-09-01

    Waste newspaper (WP) was first co-pyrolyzed with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) to enhance the yields of alcohols and hydrocarbons. The effects of WP: HDPE feed ratio (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100) and temperature (500-800°C) on products distribution were investigated and the interaction mechanism during co-pyrolysis was also proposed. Maximum yields of alcohols and hydrocarbons reached 85.88% (feed ratio 50:50wt.%, 600°C). Hydrogen supplements and deoxidation by HDPE and subsequently fragments recombination result in the conversion of aldehydes and ketones into branched hydrocarbons. Radicals from WP degradation favor the secondary crack for HDPE products resulting in the formation of linear hydrocarbons with low carbon number. Hydrocarbons with activated radical site from HDPE degradation were interacted with hydroxyl from WP degradation promoting the formation of linear long chain alcohols. Moreover, co-pyrolysis significantly enhanced condensable oil qualities, which were close to commercial diesel No. 0. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Blood-Brain Barrier Changes in High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, José V; Bermudez, Garazi; Camargo-Arce, Lorena; Bulnes, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral syndromes related to high-altitude exposure are becoming more frequent as the number of trips to high altitudes has increased in the last decade. The commonest symptom is headache, followed by acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE), which can be fatal. The pathophysiology of these syndromes is not fully understood. The classical "tight-fit hypothesis" posits that there are some anatomical variations that would obstruct the sinovenous outflow and worsen vasogenic edema and intracranial hypertension reactive to hypoxia. This could explain microhemorrhages seen in autopsies. However, recent magnetic resonance imaging studies have demonstrated some components of cytotoxic edema in HACE absent in AMS, suggesting a dysfunction in water balance at the cellular level. Currently, the "red-ox theory" supports trigemino-vascular system activation by free radicals formed after hypoxia and the consequent oxidative stress cascades. Apart from trigemino-vascular system activation, free radicals can also provoke membrane destabilisation mediated by lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and local hypoxia inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor activation, resulting in gross blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. Besides alterations in endothelial cells such as increased pinocytotic vesicles and disassembly of interendothelial tight junction proteins, capillary permeability may also increase with subsequent swelling of astrocyte end-feet. In conclusion, although the pathophysiology of AMS and HACE is not completely understood, recent evidence proposes a multifactorial entity, with brain swelling and compromise of the BBB considered to play an important role. A fuller comprehension of these processes is crucial to reduce and prevent BBB alterations during high-altitude exposure.

  6. High-Tech Blood Sugar Monitors May Help People with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163211.html High-Tech Blood Sugar Monitors May Help People With Type 1 Diabetes ... need insulin shots every day manage their blood sugar levels safely, two new studies suggest. Also known ...

  7. Family Adaptability and Cohesion and High Blood Pressure among Urban African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Wu, Chun Yi

    2010-11-01

    African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family functioning, specifically family adaptability, in African American women who are at risk for high blood pressure or diagnosed with high blood pressure to minimize complications associated with hypertension.

  8. The lack of influence of food and local alcoholic brew on the blood level of Mectizan(®) (ivermectin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeida, Mamoun M; Malcolm, Stephen B; ElTayeb, A Z; Eversole, Rob R; Elassad, Asma S; Geary, Timothy G; Ali, Magdi M; Mackenzie, Charles D

    2013-08-01

    There is concern that extraneous factors, such as food and drink, may alter the pharmacodynamics of Mectizan(®) (ivermectin) in patients receiving this important anti-parasitic drug, and thus might put such individuals in danger of serious adverse events. The effects of a common local alcohol-containing beverage and a local food on plasma levels of ivermectin were studied in Sudanese volunteers after administration of the standard dose used in mass drug administration programs for onchocerciasis and filariasis. Plasma levels of ivermectin at various time points (0-48h) after administration of ivermectin were ascertained by HPLC assay in ten volunteers given 150μgkg(-1) ivermectin together with either a local sorghum-based food ('assida'), or a locally brewed alcoholic beverage ('arangi' made from sorghum grain) or in those who were fasting. Maximum mean (±SD) plasma levels of ivermectin (67±49ngml(-1)) were reached within 2h in fasting patients, and had dropped to 26±20ngml(-1) after 30h. The coadministration of local food or alcoholic beverage did not cause an increase in ivermectin plasma levels above those observed in people who were fasting. However, at 2h after ivermectin administration, patients given alcohol had significantly lower plasma ivermectin levels than fed patients or fasting patients. There were no significant differences among treatments for AUC0-30, Cmax, or tmax, and so the coadministration of local food or alcoholic beverage did not cause any change in pharmacokinetic parameters of ivermectin in the plasma in comparison with fasting. None of the measured levels of plasma ivermectin were greater than those reported in previous studies with this compound. These findings do not support the hypothesis that acute intake of alcohol is an important factor in the development of the serious adverse reactions that can occur during the treatment of loaisis patients with ivermectin (Mectizan(®)).

  9. Alcohol consumption in Polish middle and high school pupils – has this rapidly increased during 2009–11?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojtyła-Buciora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction.[/b] The dynamic rise of alcohol consumption in adolescents is a matter of serious concern, requiring frequently updated monitoring. By such means, it is possible to optimise preventative measures for dealing with this problem. [b]Objective[/b]. To estimate the magnitude/amount and frequency of alcohol consumed by middle and high school pupils in Poland, including the circumstances when alcohol was first drunk. [b]Materials and Methods[/b]. A randomised survey was performed throughout Poland on middle school (junior high school pupils, (n=9360 in 2009, followed by both middle and high school pupils in 2011 (n=7971. The questionnaire was devised by the Polish Chief Sanitary Inspectorate (GIS. [b]Results[/b]. A strikingly sharp increase in alcohol consumption (29% was observed in subjects between 2009 – 2011. In the latter year, 1 month prior to survey, respectively, 50% and 71% of middle school and high school pupils drank alcohol, and correspondingly, 36% and 63% of these pupils ever became intoxicated/drunk. [b]Conclusions[/b]. 1 Adolescent alcohol consumption increases with age and is highest in girls. Monitoring as well as in-depth analysis thus becomes necessary. 2 Systematic monitoring and analysis of changing healthy lifestyle behaviour should be used for taking the necessary corrective action. This should happen concurrently and consist of planned health education programmes, including health promotion.

  10. Intensive trapping of blood-fed Anopheles darlingi in Amazonian Peru reveals unexpectedly high proportions of avian blood-meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Marlon P.; Bickersmith, Sara A.; Prussing, Catharine; Michalski, Adrian; Tong Rios, Carlos; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Conn, Jan E.

    2017-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi, the main malaria vector in the Neotropics, has been considered to be highly anthropophilic. However, many behavioral aspects of this species remain unknown, such as the range of blood-meal sources. Barrier screens were used to collect resting Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes from 2013 to 2015 in three riverine localities (Lupuna, Cahuide and Santa Emilia) in Amazonian Peru. Overall, the Human Blood Index (HBI) ranged from 0.58–0.87, with no significant variation among years or sites. Blood-meal analysis revealed that humans are the most common blood source, followed by avian hosts (Galliformes-chickens and turkeys), and human/Galliforme mixed-meals. The Forage Ratio and Selection Index both show a strong preference for Galliformes over humans in blood-fed mosquitoes. Our data show that 30% of An. darlingi fed on more than one host, including combinations of dogs, pigs, goats and rats. There appears to be a pattern of host choice in An. darlingi, with varying proportions of mosquitoes feeding only on humans, only on Galliformes and some taking mixed-meals of blood (human plus Galliforme), which was detected in the three sites in different years, indicating that there could be a structure to these populations based on blood-feeding preferences. Mosquito age, estimated in two localities, Lupuna and Cahuide, ranged widely between sites and years. This variation may reflect the range of local environmental factors that influence longevity or possibly potential changes in the ability of the mosquito to transmit the parasite. Of 6,204 resting An. darlingi tested for Plasmodium infection, 0.42% were infected with P. vivax. This study provides evidence for the first time of the usefulness of barrier screens for the collection of blood-fed resting mosquitoes to calculate the Human Blood Index (HBI) and other blood-meal sources in a neotropical malaria endemic setting. PMID:28231248

  11. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks: prevalence and key correlates among Canadian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Langille, Don; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research has reported high consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young adults, particularly college students. However, little is known about adolescents' consumption of these drinks. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks and to examine its correlates among Canadian high school students. We used a nationally representative sample of 36 155 Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2010/2011 Youth Smoking Survey. About 20% of Canadian high school students reported consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks in the last year, with considerable variation across provinces. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of consumption of these drinks were higher among students in lower grades (grades 7 and 8) and among students who identified their ethnicity as black or "other." Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks was positively associated with substance use (current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.95], past-year heavy drinking [adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.84-4.09] and marijuana use [adjusted OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.90-2.76]), absence from school, participation in school team sports and having more weekly spending money. Students who felt more connected to school and had an academic average of 70% or higher were less likely to consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks is an emerging public health concern. Consumption of these drinks is substantial among Canadian high school students and can lead to many potential harms, both acute (e.g., injury) and long term (e.g., increased alcohol dependence). Our findings highlight the need for further research into the long-term effects of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young people, as well as the development of interventions aimed at reducing consumption of these drinks.

  12. Rapid ester biosynthesis screening reveals a high activity alcohol-O-acyltransferase (AATase) from tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jyun-Liang; Zhu, Jie; Wheeldon, Ian

    2016-05-01

    Ethyl and acetate esters are naturally produced in various yeasts, plants, and bacteria. The biosynthetic pathways that produce these esters share a common reaction step, the condensation of acetyl/acyl-CoA with an alcohol by alcohol-O-acetyl/acyltransferase (AATase). Recent metabolic engineering efforts exploit AATase activity to produce fatty acid ethyl esters as potential diesel fuel replacements as well as short- and medium-chain volatile esters as fragrance and flavor compounds. These efforts have been limited by the lack of a rapid screen to quantify ester biosynthesis. Enzyme engineering efforts have also been limited by the lack of a high throughput screen for AATase activity. Here, we developed a high throughput assay for AATase activity and used this assay to discover a high activity AATase from tomato fruit, Solanum lycopersicum (Atf-S.l). Atf1-S.l exhibited broad specificity towards acyl-CoAs with chain length from C4 to C10 and was specific towards 1-pentanol. The AATase screen also revealed new acyl-CoA substrate specificities for Atf1, Atf2, Eht1, and Eeb1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Atf-C.m from melon fruit, Cucumis melo, thus increasing the pool of characterized AATases that can be used in ester biosynthesis of ester-based fragrance and flavor compounds as well as fatty acid ethyl ester biofuels.

  13. Epigallocatechin gallate attenuates experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, Nalan; Bahcecioglu, Ibrahim Halil; Dagli, Adile Ferda; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanifi; Ustündag, Bilal; Sahin, Kazim

    2008-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the preventive role of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in an experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis model induced by a high fat diet. The study included 21 male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were equally divided into three groups. The first group was fed on a standard rat diet, the second group on a high fat diet (HFD), and the third group on a HFD + EGCG. The study concluded after 6 weeks. Histopathological examination was performed. Plasma and tissue MDA levels, glucose, insulin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels were studied. Insulin resistance was calculated by the homeostasis model of insulin resistance method. Steatosis, inflammation, ballooning degeneration, and necrosis increased significantly in the HFD group, compared to the control group (P EGCG group, in comparison to the HFD group (P EGCG group, when compared to the HFD group. Plasma and liver MDA levels in the HFD + EGCG group were lower than those of the HFD group; the difference was significant (P EGCG group was significantly higher those in the HFD group. CYP 2E1 and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression decreased in the HFD + EGCG group, in comparison to the HFD group (P EGCG reduces the development of experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis induced by a high fat diet. It seems to exercise this effect through its effect on lipid metabolism and antioxidant characteristics.

  14. High Resolution Genomic Scans Reveal Genetic Architecture Controlling Alcohol Preference in Bidirectionally Selected Rat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Ling Lo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the influence of nature vs. nurture on Alcoholism (Alcohol Use Disorder in human have yet to provide a clear view on potential genomic etiologies. To address this issue, we sequenced a replicated animal model system bidirectionally-selected for alcohol preference (AP. This model is uniquely suited to map genetic effects with high reproducibility, and resolution. The origin of the rat lines (an 8-way cross resulted in small haplotype blocks (HB with a corresponding high level of resolution. We sequenced DNAs from 40 samples (10 per line of each replicate to determine allele frequencies and HB. We achieved ~46X coverage per line and replicate. Excessive differentiation in the genomic architecture between lines, across replicates, termed signatures of selection (SS, were classified according to gene and region. We identified SS in 930 genes associated with AP. The majority (50% of the SS were confined to single gene regions, the greatest numbers of which were in promoters (284 and intronic regions (169 with the least in exon's (4, suggesting that differences in AP were primarily due to alterations in regulatory regions. We confirmed previously identified genes and found many new genes associated with AP. Of those newly identified genes, several demonstrated neuronal function involved in synaptic memory and reward behavior, e.g. ion channels (Kcnf1, Kcnn3, Scn5a, excitatory receptors (Grin2a, Gria3, Grip1, neurotransmitters (Pomc, and synapses (Snap29. This study not only reveals the polygenic architecture of AP, but also emphasizes the importance of regulatory elements, consistent with other complex traits.

  15. High Resolution Genomic Scans Reveal Genetic Architecture Controlling Alcohol Preference in Bidirectionally Selected Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chiao-Ling; Lossie, Amy C; Liang, Tiebing; Liu, Yunlong; Xuei, Xiaoling; Lumeng, Lawrence; Zhou, Feng C; Muir, William M

    2016-08-01

    Investigations on the influence of nature vs. nurture on Alcoholism (Alcohol Use Disorder) in human have yet to provide a clear view on potential genomic etiologies. To address this issue, we sequenced a replicated animal model system bidirectionally-selected for alcohol preference (AP). This model is uniquely suited to map genetic effects with high reproducibility, and resolution. The origin of the rat lines (an 8-way cross) resulted in small haplotype blocks (HB) with a corresponding high level of resolution. We sequenced DNAs from 40 samples (10 per line of each replicate) to determine allele frequencies and HB. We achieved ~46X coverage per line and replicate. Excessive differentiation in the genomic architecture between lines, across replicates, termed signatures of selection (SS), were classified according to gene and region. We identified SS in 930 genes associated with AP. The majority (50%) of the SS were confined to single gene regions, the greatest numbers of which were in promoters (284) and intronic regions (169) with the least in exon's (4), suggesting that differences in AP were primarily due to alterations in regulatory regions. We confirmed previously identified genes and found many new genes associated with AP. Of those newly identified genes, several demonstrated neuronal function involved in synaptic memory and reward behavior, e.g. ion channels (Kcnf1, Kcnn3, Scn5a), excitatory receptors (Grin2a, Gria3, Grip1), neurotransmitters (Pomc), and synapses (Snap29). This study not only reveals the polygenic architecture of AP, but also emphasizes the importance of regulatory elements, consistent with other complex traits.

  16. THE STUDY OF HEART MUSCLE IN CHRONIC ALCOHOLICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Alcohol affects many organs, especially the liver, pancreas and brain. Although, the beneficial effects of mild or moderate ethanol consumption have been implied with respect to coronary artery disease, excessive ethanol consumption can result in Alcoholic Heart Muscle Disease (AHMD. AIMS Alcohol consumption, mainly arrack, is common social problem in Mangalore. This study has been undertaken to assess the effects of alcohol on cardiovascular system. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty patient with history of consumption of about 6 units of alcohol per day for at least 5 days a week for at least 5 years who were admitted to Government Wenlock Hospital, Attavar K.M.C. and University Medical Centre, Mangalore, were selected as case and studied. RESULTS Alcohol intake is predominantly observed in males, majority of alcoholic had high blood pressure, serum levels of CPK-MB and LDH are elevated in chronic alcoholic patients, left ventricular hypertrophy, premature ventricular contraction and sinus tachycardia were common findings in the electrocardiograms of chronic alcoholic patients and development of alcoholic heart muscle disease is directly proportional to the quantity and duration of alcohol intake. CONCLUSION Overall, the present study has found high morbidity from chronic alcohol consumption highlighting the need for preventive measures to tackle this preventable hazard.

  17. [Alcohol consumption in the emergency room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, Ethel; Bianchini, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    We examined patterns of alcohol consumption and blood alcohol levels in emergency room patients. The study was conducted in a public hospital of the province of Jujuy, Argentina. A survey was conducted among all patients during the 24 hours of 4 consecutive days (N = 500) using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, short version (AUDIT-C). Blood samples were collected in 84% of participants. Results showed that 37% were hazardous drinkers (men 50% vs. women 23%), 29% had symptoms of dependence (men 48% vs. women 11%); 17% of men and 3% of women had high blood alcohol levels, equal or greater than 50 mg/dl. In multivariate logistic regression models men had increased likelihood of hazardous drinking (Adjusted OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.1-5.0), symptoms of dependence (Adjusted OR 7.5; 95% CI 4.4-12.7) and increased blood alcohol levels (Adjusted OR 8.0; 95% CI 2.2-28.8), compared with women. Patients admitted due to accidents, violence, or drug use, had increased likelihood of hazardous drinking (Adjusted OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.5-3.9), dependence symptoms (Adjusted OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.3) and increased blood alcohol levels (Adjusted OR 7.7; 95% CI 3.0-19.8), compared with those admitted for other reasons. Alcoholism has a significant impact on the occurrence of injuries and on the demand imposed on health services. Prevention programs can potentially reduce the negative health and social impact of alcoholism.

  18. A Method for Gray-Scale Imaging of Blood Flow Using High-Frequency Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Pang, Chao; Song, Xue-Dong; Gao, Xuan

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a new method that complements current techniques available in the high-frequency blood imaging field. A comprehensive scattering model was established to determine the feasibility and frequency range of the blood flow imaging of superficial organs and tissues using high-frequency ultrasound. The transmitting and receiving modes and an algorithm were designed to obtain blood flow information based on differentiation between tissues and blood flow. The system was created and tested first with a model that simulates blood flow and was then used on human tissue. A fine-scale image of a blood vessel could be obtained with this system. Moreover, this method can obtain weak blood flow signal using single pulse rather than the traditional pulse-code method and maintains a high resolution that can be matched to high-frequency structural imaging. This study provides a reliable method for further applications related to diagnoses of superficial organs.

  19. High-dose baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence (BACLAD study): a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christian A; Geisel, Olga; Pelz, Patricia; Higl, Verena; Krüger, Josephine; Stickel, Anna; Beck, Anne; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Hellweg, Rainer; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Previous randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of the selective γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-B receptor agonist baclofen in the treatment of alcohol dependence have reported divergent results, possibly related to the low to medium dosages of baclofen used in these studies (30-80mg/d). Based on preclinical observations of a dose-dependent effect and positive case reports in alcohol-dependent patients, the present RCT aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of individually titrated high-dose baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Out of 93 alcohol-dependent patients initially screened, 56 were randomly assigned to a double-blind treatment with individually titrated baclofen or placebo using dosages of 30-270mg/d. The multiple primary outcome measures were (1) total abstinence and (2) cumulative abstinence duration during a 12-week high-dose phase. More patients of the baclofen group maintained total abstinence during the high-dose phase than those receiving placebo (15/22, 68.2% vs. 5/21, 23.8%, p=0.014). Cumulative abstinence duration was significantly higher in patients given baclofen compared to patients of the placebo group (mean 67.8 (SD 30) vs. 51.8 (SD 29.6) days, p=0.047). No drug-related serious adverse events were observed during the trial. Individually titrated high-dose baclofen effectively supported alcohol-dependent patients in maintaining alcohol abstinence and showed a high tolerability, even in the event of relapse. These results provide further evidence for the potential of baclofen, thereby possibly extending the current pharmacological treatment options in alcohol dependence.

  20. A Conceptual Framework for Studying Alcohol Intake and Blood Pressure on Historically Black College and University Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Edwards, Lori; Godette, Dionne C.; White, Sumitra Shantakumar; Tyson, William

    2009-01-01

    Drinking increases the risk of elevated blood pressure, a risk factor for chronic ailments such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The experience of elevated blood pressure in young adulthood may be critical for the development of these diseases later in life. College campuses are venues replete with young adults, and drinking is a…

  1. [Diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wieringen, Hester; Letteboer, Tom G W; Pereira, Rob Rodrigues; de Ruiter, Sanne; Balemans, Walter A F; Lindhout, Dick

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure may cause decreased growth of the child, congenital abnormalities, specific facial characteristics, and, most importantly, mental retardation and behavioural disorders, all known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). A significant number of pregnant women in the Netherlands drink alcohol, but the prevalence of FASD in our country is unknown. Repeated and high peak blood alcohol concentrations, for example in the case of binge drinking by the mother, result in more severe abnormalities; a safe limit for alcohol consumption in pregnancy cannot be defined. In 2007 and 2008, Dutch paediatricians reported a total of 56 diagnosed cases of FASD, mostly adopted and foster children. Possibly the condition has not always been diagnosed. Use of international guidelines for diagnosis by the medical profession may improve detection. The guidelines of the Canadian Public Health Agency provide a useful and generally accepted classification, with strict cut-off points to avoid overdiagnosis; attention should always be paid to the broad differential diagnosis.

  2. Alcohol intake and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    Alcohol is used all over the world and in most Western societies, the average intake is high. Alcohol is associated with more than 60 diseases and globally, 4% of all deaths are attributable to alcohol. The aim of the present thesis is to study associations between alcohol intake and risk...... with increasing HDL cholesterol and non-fasting triglycerides, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreasing fibrinogen. In contrast, ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes were not associated with risk of CHD or with any of the cardiovascular biomarkers, and there was no indication that associations between...... that the association between alcohol and relative risk of CHD was similar in young adults (39-50 years), middle-aged (50-60 years) and older individuals (60+ years). However, since the incidence of CHD is low in young adults, the incidence rate difference between nondrinkers and moderate drinkers was much smaller...

  3. Ag@polypyrrole: A highly efficient nanocatalyst for the N-alkylation of amines using alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandi, Usha; Kundu, Sudipta K; Salam, Noor; Bhaumik, Asim; Islam, Sk Manirul

    2016-04-01

    We have synthesized Ag@polypyrrole nanomaterial by dispersing ultrafine silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) over the organic polymer polypyrrole. The Ag@polypyrrole material has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible absorption (UV-vis) and atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AAS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD pattern suggested the cubic crystalline phase of Ag NPs in Ag@polypyrrole. TEM image analysis revealed that silver nanoparticles are highly dispersed in the polymer matrix. The Ag@polypyrrole acts as an efficient and versatile heterogeneous nanocatalyst in the N-alkylation of amines using alcohols. The catalyst can be easily prepared, highly robust and reused several times without decrease in its catalytic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Highly Dispersed Gold Nanoparticles Supported on SBA-15 for Vapor Phase Aerobic Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Sreedhar, Bojja; Chary, Komandur V R

    2015-02-01

    Gold nanoparticles supported on SBA-15 are prepared by homogenous deposition-precipitation method (HDP) using urea as the precipitating agent. The structural features of the synthesized catalysts were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption (BET), pore size distribution (PSD), CO chemisorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The catalytic activity and stability of the Au/SBA-15 catalysts are investigated during the vapor phase aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The BJH pore size distribution results of SBA-15 support and Au/SBA-15 catalysts reveals that the formation of mesoporous structure in all the samples. TEM results suggest that Au nanoparticles are highly dispersed over SBA-15 and long range order of hexagonal mesopores of SBA-15 is well retained even after the deposition of Au metallic nanoparticles. XPS study reveals the formation of Au (0) after chemical reduction by NaBH4. The particle size measured from CO-chemisorption and TEM analysis are well correlated with the TOF values of the reaction. Au/SBA-1 5 catalysts are found to show higher activity compare to Au/TiO2 and Au/MgO catalysts during the vapor phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The catalytic functionality are well substantiated with particle size measured from TEM. The crystallite size of Au in both fresh and spent catalysts were measured from X-ray diffraction.

  5. Alcohol Recognition by Flexible, Transparent and Highly Sensitive Graphene-Based Thin-Film Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xuezhu

    2017-06-22

    Chemical sensors detect a variety of chemicals across numerous fields, such as automobile, aerospace, safety, indoor air quality, environmental control, food, industrial production and medicine. We successfully assemble an alcohol-sensing device comprising a thin-film sensor made of graphene nanosheets (GNs) and bacterial cellulose nanofibers (BCNs). We show that the GN/BCN sensor has a high selectivity to ethanol by distinguishing liquid-phase or vapor-phase ethanol (C2H6O) from water (H2O) intelligently with accurate transformation into electrical signals in devices. The BCN component of the film amplifies the ethanol sensitivity of the film, whereby the GN/BCN sensor has 12400% sensitivity for vapor-phase ethanol compared to the pure GN sensor, which has only 21% sensitivity. Finally, GN/BCN sensors demonstrate fast response/recovery times and a wide range of alcohol detection (10-100%). The superior sensing ability of GN/BCN compared to GNs alone is due to the improved wettability of BCNs and the ionization of liquids. We prove a facile, green, low-cost route for the assembly of ethanol-sensing devices with potential for vast application.

  6. Longitudinal assessment of high blood pressure in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwimmer, Jeffrey B; Zepeda, Anne; Newton, Kimberly P; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Behling, Cynthia; Hallinan, Erin K; Donithan, Michele; Tonascia, James

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 9.6% of children and may put these children at elevated risk of high blood pressure and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for high blood pressure in children with NAFLD. Cohort study performed by the NIDDK NASH Clinical Research Network. There were 484 children with NAFLD ages 2 to 17 at enrollment; 382 children were assessed both at enrollment and 48 weeks afterwards. The main outcomes were high blood pressure at baseline and persistent high blood pressure at both baseline and 48 weeks. Prevalence of high blood pressure at baseline was 35.8% and prevalence of persistent high blood pressure was 21.4%. Children with high blood pressure were significantly more likely to have worse steatosis than children without high blood pressure (mild 19.8% vs. 34.2%, moderate 35.0% vs. 30.7%, severe 45.2% vs. 35.1%; P = 0.003). Higher body mass index, low-density lipoprotein, and uric acid were independent risk factors for high blood pressure (Odds Ratios: 1.10 per kg/m2, 1.09 per 10 mg/dL, 1.25 per mg/dL, respectively). Compared to boys, girls with NAFLD were significantly more likely to have persistent high blood pressure (28.4% vs.18.9%; P = 0.05). In conclusion, NAFLD is a common clinical problem that places children at substantial risk for high blood pressure, which may often go undiagnosed. Thus blood pressure evaluation, control, and monitoring should be an integral component of the clinical management of children with NAFLD.

  7. Longitudinal assessment of high blood pressure in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B Schwimmer

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD affects 9.6% of children and may put these children at elevated risk of high blood pressure and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for high blood pressure in children with NAFLD.Cohort study performed by the NIDDK NASH Clinical Research Network. There were 484 children with NAFLD ages 2 to 17 at enrollment; 382 children were assessed both at enrollment and 48 weeks afterwards. The main outcomes were high blood pressure at baseline and persistent high blood pressure at both baseline and 48 weeks.Prevalence of high blood pressure at baseline was 35.8% and prevalence of persistent high blood pressure was 21.4%. Children with high blood pressure were significantly more likely to have worse steatosis than children without high blood pressure (mild 19.8% vs. 34.2%, moderate 35.0% vs. 30.7%, severe 45.2% vs. 35.1%; P = 0.003. Higher body mass index, low-density lipoprotein, and uric acid were independent risk factors for high blood pressure (Odds Ratios: 1.10 per kg/m2, 1.09 per 10 mg/dL, 1.25 per mg/dL, respectively. Compared to boys, girls with NAFLD were significantly more likely to have persistent high blood pressure (28.4% vs.18.9%; P = 0.05.In conclusion, NAFLD is a common clinical problem that places children at substantial risk for high blood pressure, which may often go undiagnosed. Thus blood pressure evaluation, control, and monitoring should be an integral component of the clinical management of children with NAFLD.

  8. High Blood Glucose: What It Means and How To Treat It

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leave this field empty High Blood Glucose: What It Means and How To Treat It What is high blood glucose? People who do ... glucose, also called 'hyperglycemia', is considered "high" when it is 160 mg/dl or above your individual ...

  9. 17 Million U.S. Adults May Have Tough-to-Spot High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Million U.S. Adults May Have Tough-to-Spot High Blood Pressure 'Masked' hypertension doesn't show up in a ... Health and Human Services. More Health News on: High Blood Pressure Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics High ...

  10. Highly efficient direct aerobic oxidative esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with alkyl alcohols catalysed by gold nanoparticles incarcerated in a nanoporous polymer matrix: a tool for investigating the role of the polymer host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonerba, Antonio; Noschese, Annarita; Grassi, Alfonso

    2014-04-25

    The selective aerobic oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol to cinnamaldehyde, as well as direct oxidative esterification of this alcohol with primary and secondary aliphatic alcohols, were achieved with high chemoselectivity by using gold nanoparticles supported in a nanoporous semicrystalline multi-block copolymer matrix, which consisted of syndiotactic polystyrene-co-cis-1,4-polybutadiene. The cascade reaction that leads to the alkyl cinnamates occurs through two oxidation steps: the selective oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol to cinnamaldehyde, followed by oxidation of the hemiacetal that results from the base-catalysed reaction of cinnamaldehyde with an aliphatic alcohol. The rate constants for the two steps were evaluated in the temperature range 10-45 °C. The cinnamyl alcohol oxidation is faster than the oxidative esterification of cinnamaldehyde with methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-hexanol or 1-octanol. The rate constants of the latter reaction are pseudo-zero order with respect to the aliphatic alcohol and decrease as the bulkiness of the alcohol is increased. The activation energy (Ea) for the two oxidation steps was calculated for esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with 1-butanol (Ea = 57.8±11.5 and 62.7±16.7 kJ mol(-1) for the first and second step, respectively). The oxidative esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with 2-phenylethanol follows pseudo-first-order kinetics with respect to 2-phenylethanol and is faster than observed for other alcohols because of fast diffusion of the aromatic alcohol in the crystalline phase of the support. The kinetic investigation allowed us to assess the role of the polymer support in the determination of both high activity and selectivity in the title reaction.

  11. Polymer brushes interfacing blood as a route toward high performance blood contacting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surman, František; Riedel, Tomáš; Bruns, Michael; Kostina, Nina Yu; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2015-05-01

    In the current study, well-defined polymer brushes are shown as an effective surface modification to resist the adhesion of whole blood and its components. Poly[oligo(ethylene glycol)methylether methacrylate] (poly(MeOEGMA)), poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly(HEMA)), poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide] (poly(HPMA)), and poly(carboxybetaine acrylamide) (poly(CBAA)) brushes were grown by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and subsequently characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. All brushes decreased the fouling from blood plasma over 95% and prevented the adhesion of platelets, erythrocytes, and leukocytes as evidenced by SPR and SEM measurements.

  12. Effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the red blood cell count and RBC indices in the HIV infected patients on d4T/3TC/NVP drug regimen in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey S. Bbosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is common problem in Uganda. Among the types of alcohols consumed include beers, spirits, liqueurs, wines and traditional brew. These alcohols are easily accessible and consumed by many people including the HIV infected patients who are on the d4T/3TC/NVP regimen. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intake on the red blood cell count (RBC and the RBC indices in the HIV-infected patients on d4T/3TC/NVP regimen. It was a case control study that used a repeated measures design model where serial measurements of the red blood cell count (RBC and RBC indices were determined at 3 month interval for 9 months. A total of 41 HIV infected patients were recruited and grouped into two arms; the control group had 21 patients and the chronic alcohol group had 20 patients. The RBC and RBC indices of the whole blood were determined using automated hematological Coulter CBC-5 Hematology Analyzer system using standard procedures. The data was sorted into alcohol-use self reporting by WHO AUDIT tool and alcohol-use biomarkers groups. It was analysed using the SAS 2003 version 9.1 statistical package with the repeated measures fixed model. The means were compared using the student t-test. The mean MCV and MCH values in the chronic alcohol use group were higher than in the control group and there was a significant difference between the 2 groups (p<0.05 for both the WHO AUDIT tool group and chronic alcohol use biomarkers group. The mean RBC count, Hct, HGB and MCHC values in both the control and chronic alcohol use groups were within the normal reference ranges for both groups though the trend was lower in alcohol group. Chronic alcohol use affects the RBC and RBC indices in the HIV infected patients on d4T/3TC/NVP treatment regimen. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 528-536

  13. Family Adaptability and Cohesion and High Blood Pressure among Urban African American women

    OpenAIRE

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi

    2010-01-01

    African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely...

  14. Do parents still matter? Parent and peer influences on alcohol involvement among recent high school graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mark D; Read, Jennifer P; Mitchell, Roger E; Brand, Nancy H

    2004-03-01

    This study investigated the influences of peer and parent variables on alcohol use and problems in a sample of late adolescents in the summer immediately prior to entry into college. Participants (N = 556) completed a mail survey assessing peer influences (alcohol offers, social modeling, perceived norms), parental behaviors (nurturance, monitoring), and attitudes and values (disapproval for heavy drinking, permissiveness for drinking), and alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated significant associations between both peer and parental influences and alcohol involvement, and showed that parental influences moderated peer-influence-drinking behavior, such that higher levels of perceived parental involvement were associated with weaker relations between peer influences and alcohol use and problems. These findings suggest that parents continue to exert an influential role in late adolescent drinking behavior.

  15. High-intensity therapist-guided internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for alcohol use disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Christopher; Kraepelien, Martin; Eék, Niels; Fahlke, Claudia; Kaldo, Viktor; Berman, Anne H

    2017-05-26

    A large proportion of individuals with alcohol problems do not seek psychological treatment, but access to such treatment could potentially be increased by delivering it over the Internet. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is widely recognized as one of the psychological treatments for alcohol problems for which evidence is most robust. This study evaluated a new, therapist-guided internet-based CBT program (entitled ePlus) for individuals with alcohol use disorders. Participants in the study (n = 13) were recruited through an alcohol self-help web site ( www.alkoholhjalpen.se ) and, after initial internet screening, were diagnostically assessed by telephone. Eligible participants were offered access to the therapist-guided 12-week program. The main outcomes were treatment usage data (module completion, treatment satisfaction) as well as glasses of alcohol consumed the preceding week, measured with the self-rated Timeline Followback (TLFB). Participant data were collected at screening (T0), immediately pre-treatment (T1), post-treatment (T2) and 3 months post-treatment (T3). Most participants were active throughout the treatment and found it highly acceptable. Significant reductions in alcohol consumption with a large within-group effect size were found at the three-month follow-up. Secondary outcome measures of craving and self-efficacy, as well as depression and quality of life, also showed significant improvements with moderate to large within-group effect sizes. Therapist-guided internet-based CBT may be a feasible and effective alternative for people with alcohol use disorders. In view of the high acceptability and the large within-group effect sizes found in this small pilot, a randomized controlled trial investigating treatment efficacy is warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02384278 , February 26, 2015).

  16. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FUNCTIONALIZED CARBON BLACK/POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL) HIGH REFRACTIVE INDEX NANOCOMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-fei Xue; Ji-bin Wang; Yu-bin Bao; Qiu-ying Li; Chi-fei Wu

    2012-01-01

    Carbon black (CB)/polymer composites with high refractive index (RI) were fabricated from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and covalently functionalized nano-CB (PVA-es-CB) by simple esterification reaction.Transmission electron microscopy showed that uniform aggregates of PVA-es-CB nanoparticles with a size smaller than 100 nm formed in the nanocomposite films.Ellipsometric measurements indicated that the PVA-es-CB/PVA composite films had a RI in the range 1.520-1.598 linearly increased with the PVA-es-CB volume content.Theoretical equation based on Lorentz-Lorenz theory provided reasonably close estimation of the refractive indices to the experimentally observed values.The hybrid films also revealed relatively good surface planarity,thermal stability and optical transparency.

  17. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  18. Discrimination of individuals in a general population at high-risk for alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease based on liver stiffness: a cross section study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasai Kenji

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors associated with liver stiffness (LS are unknown and normal reference values for LS have not been established. Individuals at high risk for alcoholic (ALD and non-alcoholic fatty (NAFLD liver disease need to be non-invasively discriminated during routine health checks. Factors related to LS measured using a FibroScan and normal reference values for LS are presented in this report. Methods We measured LS using a FibroScan in 416 consecutive individuals who presented for routine medical checks. We also investigated the relationship between LS and age, body mass index (BMI, liver function (LF, alcohol consumption, and fatty liver determined by ultrasonography. We identified individuals at high-risk for ALD and NAFLD as having a higher LS value than the normal upper limit detected in 171 healthy controls. Results The LS value for all individuals was 4.7 +/- 1.5 kPa (mean +/- SD and LS significantly and positively correlated with BMI and LF test results. The LS was significantly higher among individuals with, than without fatty liver. Liver stiffness in the 171 healthy controls was 4.3 +/- 0.81 kPa and the upper limit of LS in the normal controls was 5.9 kPa. We found that 60 (14.3% of 416 study participants had abnormal LS. The proportion of individuals whose LS values exceeded the normal upper limit was over five-fold higher among those with, than without fatty liver accompanied by abnormal LF test results. Conclusions Liver stiffness could be used to non-invasively monitor the progression of chronic liver diseases and to discriminate individuals at high risk for ALD and NAFLD during routine health assessments.

  19. High Blood Pressure in Adolescents of Curitiba: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bozza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population. Objective: To determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents. Methods: A random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure. Results: The high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6. Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR, 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28 had higher chances to develop high blood pressure. Conclusion: Positive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population.

  20. Alcohol use amongst learners in rural high school in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thembisile M. Chauke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drinking behaviour by adolescents is a significant public health challenge nationally and internationally. Alcohol use has serious challenges that continue to deprive adolescents of their normal child growth and development. Drinking is associated with dangers that include fighting, crime, unintentional accidents, unprotected sex, violence and others.Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate drinking patterns, and factors contributing to drinking, amongst secondary school learners in South Africa.Method: The sample included 177 male (46.6% and 206 female (53.4% respondents in the age range from 15–23 years, selected by stratified random sampling.Results: The results indicated that 35.5% of male and 29.7% of female respondents used alcohol. Both male and female respondents consumed six or more alcohol units (binge drinking within 30 days; on one occasion the consumption was 17.5% and 15.9% respectively. It was found that alcohol consumption increases with age, 32.2% of 15–17 year-olds and 53.2% of 18–20 year-olds consumed different types of alcohol. It was deduced that 28.9% respondents reported that one of the adults at home drank alcohol regularly, and 9.3% reported that both their parents drank alcohol daily. It was found that 27.6% of the respondents agreed that friends made them conform to drinking. The tenth and eleventh grade reported 15.2% of male and 13.9% of female respondents were aware that alcohol can be addictive.Conclusion: This study found that age, gender, parental alcohol use and peer pressure were found to be the major contributing factors to alcohol use amongst learners Prevention campaigns such as introducing the harmful effects of alcohol use amongst learners are of utmost importance in reducing alcohol use amongst learners in South Africa.

  1. Inhibition and deactivation effects in catalytic wet oxidation of high-strength alcohol-distillery liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkacemi, K.; Larachi, F.; Hamoudi, S.; Turcotte, G.; Sayari, A. [Laval Univ., Sainte-Foy, Quebec (Canada)

    1999-06-01

    The removal efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) from raw high-strength alcohol-distillery waste liquors was evaluated using three different treatments: thermolysis (T), noncatalytic wet oxidation (WO), and solid-catalyzed wet oxidation (CWO). The distillery liquors (TOC = 22,500 mg/l, sugars = 18,000 mg/l, and proteins = 13,500 mg/l) were produced by alcoholic fermentation of enzymatic hydrolyzates from steam-exploded timothy grass. TOC-abatement studies were conducted batchwise in a stirred autoclave to evaluate the influence of the catalyst (7:3, MnO{sub 2}/CeO{sub 2} mixed oxide), oxygen partial pressure (0.5--2.5 MPa), and temperature (453--523 K) on T, WO, and CWO processes. Although CWO outperformed T and WO, TOC conversions did not exceed {approximately}60% at the highest temperature used. Experiments provided prima facie evidence for a gradual fouling of the catalyst and a developing inhibition in the liquors which impaired deep TOC removals. Occurrence of catalyst deactivation by carbonaceous deposits was proven experimentally through quantitative and qualitative experiments such as elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Inhibition toward further degradation of the liquors was ascribed to the occurrence of highly stable antioxidant intermediates via the Maillard reactions between dissolved sugars and proteins. A lumping kinetic model involving both reaction inhibition by dissolved intermediates and catalyst deactivation by carbonaceous deposits was proposed to account for the distribution of carbon in the liquid, solid, and the vapor phases.

  2. Alcohol's effect on aggression identification: a two-channel theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, James E

    2002-03-01

    Identification of ambiguous behaviors may be affected by alcohol first by the activation of associated mental representations and second by an increase in the imbiber's motivation of need for closure (NFC; A. Kruglanski, 1989), because cognitive effort is increased for epistemic activities. Combined, these effects should increase correspondence between mental representations of alcohol and the identification of others' behaviors. Three studies were conducted to test this hypothesis. The results were consistent with this hypothesis: Participants who associated alcohol with amiable concepts perceived less aggressive intent when blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were high versus low. Alternatively, those who associated alcohol with aggressive concepts perceived the same or more aggressive intent when BACs were high versus low. Priming alcohol concepts and trait-level NFC were also sufficient to replicate these effects.

  3. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Feeley, O.C.; Johansson, M.A.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize oxygenated fuel ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from coal-derived H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} synthesis via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-proanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers. Both organic and inorganic catalysts will be investigated, and the better catalysts will be subjected to long term performance studies. The project is divided into the following three tasks: (1) synthesis of high octane ethers from alcohol mixtures containing predominantly methanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol over superacid resins, (2) inorganic catalysts for the synthesis of high octane ethers form alcohols, and (3) long term performance and reaction engineering for scale-up of the alcohols-to-ether process. A summary of technical progress is provided in this report.

  4. High blood pressure at old age : The Leiden 85 plus study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, Thomas van

    2010-01-01

    The last decades have shown an increasing interest in treatment of high blood pressure. Copious amounts of data have been published on the mortality and morbidity risks of high blood pressure. Overall these data have resulted in an increasing awareness of the deleterious effects of only modest eleva

  5. High blood pressure at old age : The Leiden 85 plus study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, Thomas van

    2010-01-01

    The last decades have shown an increasing interest in treatment of high blood pressure. Copious amounts of data have been published on the mortality and morbidity risks of high blood pressure. Overall these data have resulted in an increasing awareness of the deleterious effects of only modest

  6. For People with Diabetes or High Blood Pressure: Get Checked for Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Language URL Español For People with Diabetes or High Blood Pressure: Get Checked for Kidney Disease Page Content Make ... I be checked for kidney disease? Diabetes and high blood pressure can damage the kidneys and lead to kidney ...

  7. 采血管中添加剂对血样中乙醇含量的影响%Effects of Additives in Blood Collection Tubes on Testing the Alcohol Concentra-tion in Blood Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬娴; 贺江南

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss blood collection tubes with different additives and their effects on the testing results of alcohol concentration in blood sam ples. Methods Blood sam ples from 10 volunteers were collected 2 hours after drinking with seven different types of disposable vacuum blood collection tubes, including ordinary tube without anticoagulant, coagulant tube, separating gel-coagulant tube, sodi-um citrate (1∶4) tube, sodium citrate (1∶9) tube, sodium citrate (9∶1) tube and EDTA-K2 tube. The al-cohol concentrations in these blood sam ples were analyzed by headspace gas chrom atography. Results The concentration testing results of the sam e blood sam ples in different types of tubes were different from one to another. The sequence was as follows:separating gel-coagulant tube>coagulant tube>ordi-nary tube without anticoagulant>EDTA-K2 tube>sodium citrate (1∶9) tube>sodium citrate (1∶4) tube, whereas the results of the sam e blood sam ple in sodium citrate (1∶9) tube and sodium citrate (9∶1) tube showed no obvious difference. Conclusion It is better to collect a suspicious drunk driver’s blood sam-ple using a disposable vacuum blood collection tube, with the EDTA-K2 tube being preferred.%目的:探讨不同种类采血管对血样中乙醇含量检测结果的影响。方法分别用7种一次性真空采血管[无抗凝剂管、促凝剂管、分离胶-促凝剂管、枸橼酸钠(1∶4)管、枸橼酸钠(1∶9)管、柠檬酸钠(9∶1)管、EDTA-K2管]采集10名志愿者饮酒后2 h血液,用顶空气相色谱法检测血样中乙醇含量。结果相同血样用不同的采血管,其乙醇含量检测结果不同,依次为分离胶-促凝剂管>促凝剂管>无抗凝剂管>EDTA-K2管>枸橼酸钠(1∶9)管>枸橼酸钠(1∶4)管,柠檬酸钠(9∶1)管与枸橼酸钠(1∶9)管检测结果基本一致。结论采集涉嫌酒后驾驶的驾驶员血样,应选用一次性真空采血管,首选EDTA-K2管。

  8. High-Resolution Crystal Structures Elucidate the Molecular Basis of Cholera Blood Group Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggelund, Julie Elisabeth; Burschowsky, Daniel; Bjørnestad, Victoria Ariel; Hodnik, Vesna; Anderluh, Gregor; Krengel, Ute

    2016-04-01

    Cholera is the prime example of blood-group-dependent diseases, with individuals of blood group O experiencing the most severe symptoms. The cholera toxin is the main suspect to cause this relationship. We report the high-resolution crystal structures (1.1-1.6 Å) of the native cholera toxin B-pentamer for both classical and El Tor biotypes, in complexes with relevant blood group determinants and a fragment of its primary receptor, the GM1 ganglioside. The blood group A determinant binds in the opposite orientation compared to previously published structures of the cholera toxin, whereas the blood group H determinant, characteristic of blood group O, binds in both orientations. H-determinants bind with higher affinity than A-determinants, as shown by surface plasmon resonance. Together, these findings suggest why blood group O is a risk factor for severe cholera.

  9. Moderate alcohol consumption aggravates high fat-diet induced steatohepatitis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) develops in the absence of chronic and excessive alcohol consumption. However, it remains unknown whether moderate alcohol consumption aggravates liver inflammation in pre-existing NASH condition. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were first fed ad libitum...

  10. Alcohol, Medicines and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... declines with age, older people reach higher blood alcohol concentrations after each drink than younger people. Meanwhile, as we age we become more sensitive to some of the impairments alcohol produces. On tests that require ... younger adults after a few drinks. Similarly, balance, concentration, ...

  11. [Progress in engineering Escherichia coli for production of high-value added organic acids and alcohols].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiming; Liu, Wei; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Haibo; Xian, Mo

    2013-10-01

    Confronted with the gradual exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources and the grimmer environmental deterioration, the bio-based process to produce high-value added platform chemicals from renewable biomass is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to various advantages, such as clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. This review focuses on recent progresses in metabolic engineering of E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for production of high-value organic acids such as succinic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like glycerol and xylitol. Besides, this review also discusses several other platform chemicals, including 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, itaconic acid, levulinic acid, 3-hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone and sorbitol, which have not been produced by E. coli until now.

  12. Ir/Sn dual-reagent catalysis towards highly selective alkylation of arenes and heteroarenes with benzyl alcohols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sujit Roy; Susmita Podder; Joyanta Choudhury

    2008-09-01

    A catalytic combination of [Ir(COD)Cl]2-SnCl4 efficiently promotes the reactions of arenes and heteroarenes with 1°/2°/3° benzyl alcohols as the alkylating agents to afford the corresponding diarylmethane and triarylmethane derivatives in high yields. The scope and limitation of the reaction with respect to catalyst and substrates variation has been studied in detail.

  13. A Systematic Literature Review of Alcohol Education Programmes in Middle and High School Settings (2000-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Timo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Schuster, Lisa; Connor, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Social marketing benchmark criteria were used to understand the extent to which single-substance alcohol education programmes targeting adolescents in middle and high school settings sought to change behaviour, utilised theory, included audience research and applied the market segmentation process. The paper aims to discuss these issues.…

  14. Alterations in total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin after 3 weeks of moderate alcohol consumption in premenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with increased concentrations of adiponectin. Whether this is the case for both total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin is uncertain. Furthermore, the rate at which this increase occurs is unclear. Therefore, we examined the effect of moderate

  15. A Gold(I)-Catalyzed Domino Coupling of Alcohols with Allenes Enables the Synthesis of Highly Substituted Indenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preinfalk, Alexander; Misale, Antonio; Maulide, Nuno

    2016-10-04

    The reaction of aryl-substituted allenes with alcohols under gold catalysis led to highly substituted indenes in good yields, with low catalyst loading and under mild conditions. During this domino transformation, two C-C bonds are formed with water as the only byproduct. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Poly(vinyl alcohol) composite films with high percent elongation prepared from amylose-fatty ammonium salt inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylose inclusion complexes prepared from cationic fatty ammonium salts and jet-cooked high amylose starch were combined with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) to form glycerol-plasticized films. Their tensile properties were compared with similar films prepared previously with analogous anionic fatty acid...

  17. Correlates of Alcohol and Marijuana Use among Junior High School Students: Family, Peers, School Problems, and Psychosocial Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBroom, James R.

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes survey data from over 400 junior high school students in grades 7 and 8 to determine the relations among family drug use factors; peer drug use factors; school problems; psychosocial concerns; alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use; and abstinence. (SLD)

  18. The Impact of Abuse Trauma on Alcohol and Drug Use: A Study of High-Risk Incarcerated Girls*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, S. Lynne; Wilson, Janet K.; Robertson, Angela A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the impact of abuse trauma (physical and sexual) on alcohol and drug use of high-risk girls (12–18 years of age) who were surveyed within the first two weeks of their incarceration. One-way ANOVA analyses and Tukey post-hoc tests indicate physical abuse with a weapon was associated with higher marijuana use and number of drugs used. Sexual abuse, especially within the past year increased marijuana use, alcohol use, number of drugs used, and alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems. Policy implications reflect the need for treatment protocols within substance abuse programs to address abuse trauma, particularly, forced sex which has occurred within the last year. PMID:27795662

  19. Acute High-Dose and Chronic Lifetime Exposure to Alcohol Consumption and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: T-CALOS Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunji Hwang

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of acute high-dose and chronic lifetime exposure to alcohol and exposure patterns on the development of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC.The Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS included 2,258 DTC patients (449 men and 1,809 women and 22,580 healthy participants (4,490 men and 18,090 women who were individually matched by age, gender, and enrollment year. In-person interviews were conducted with a structured questionnaire to obtain epidemiologic data. Clinicopathologic features of the patients were obtained by chart reviews. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were estimated using conditional regression models.While light or moderate drinking behavior was related to a reduced risk of DTC, acute heavy alcohol consumption (151 g or more per event or on a single occasion was associated with increased risks in men (OR = 2.22, 95%CI = 1.27-3.87 and women (OR = 3.61, 95%CI = 1.52-8.58 compared with never-drinkers. The consumption of alcohol for 31 or more years was a significant risk factor for DTC for both men (31-40 years: OR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.10-2.28; 41+ years: OR = 3.46, 95%CI = 2.06-5.80 and women (31-40 years: OR = 2.18, 95%CI = 1.62-2.92; 41+ years: OR = 2.71, 95%CI = 1.36-5.05 compared with never-drinkers. The consumption of a large amount of alcohol on a single occasion was also a significant risk factor, even after restricting DTC outcomes to tumor size, lymph node metastasis, extrathyroidal extension and TNM stage.The findings of this study suggest that the threshold effects of acute high-dose alcohol consumption and long-term alcohol consumption are linked to an increased risk of DTC.

  20. Clinical research of influence by chronic alcoholism on blood glucose and induced diabetes mellitus%慢性酒精中毒对血糖的影响及引发糖尿病的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆钻芳; 吴琼

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨慢性酒精中毒对血糖的影响,分析其与糖尿病的关系。方法135例慢性酒精中毒者作为观察组,80例不饮酒或偶尔饮酒者作为对照组,比较两组糖尿病、糖耐量减低(IGT)、空腹血糖受损(IFG)发生情况,分析糖尿病患病的危险因素。结果观察组糖尿病、IGT、IFG 发生率35.56%、25.93%、17.04%均明显高于对照组10.00%、13.75%、7.50%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);多因素 Logistic 回归分析显示,年龄、BMI、糖尿病家族史、慢性酒精中毒为糖尿病患病危险因素(P<0.05)。结论慢性酒精中毒可导致较高的糖耐量异常和糖尿病发病率,需加强对该类人群进行健康教育,建议控制饮酒量,以降低糖耐量异常和糖尿病发病率。%Objective To investigate influence by chronic alcoholism on blood glucose, and to analyze its relationship with diabetes mellitus. Methods There were 135 patients with chronic alcoholism as observation group and 80 non or occasionally drinking people as control group. Comparison was made on diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) between the two groups to analyze risk factors of diabetes mellitus. Results The observation group had obviously higher incidences of diabetes mellitus, IGT and IFT as 35.56%, 25.93% and 17.04% than 10.00%, 13.75% and 7.50% of the control group, and the difference had statistical significance (P<0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed age, BMI, family history of diabetes mellitus, and chronic alcoholism as risk factors of diabetes mellitus (P<0.05). Conclusion Due to high incidences of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus induced by chronic alcoholism, it is necessary to enhance specific health education to control drinking volume and reduce incidences of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus.

  1. Protective effects of tiopronin against high fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-qing WANG; Yu-hong ZOU; Cheng HUANG; Chao LU; Lei ZHANG; Yong JIN; Xiong-wen L(U); Li-ping LIU; Jun LI

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To study the protective effects of tiopronin against high fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in rats.Methods:Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a high-fat diet for 10 weeks.The rats were administered tiopronin (20 mg/kg) or a positive control drug ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA,15 mg/kg) via garage daily from week 5 to week 10.After the rats were sacrificed,serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT),aspartate aminotransferase (AST),total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),free fatty acids (FFA),high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C),and liver homogenate FFA.superoxide dismutase (SOD),glutathione peroxidase (GSH Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured using commercial analysis kitS.The expression levels of CYP2E1 mRNA and protein were determined using RT-PCR and immunoblot assays,respectively.Results:Tiopronin significantly lowered both the serum ALT and AST levels,while only the serum ALT level was lowered by UDCA.Tiopronin significantly decreased the serum and liver levels of TG,TC and FFA as well as the serum LDL-C level,and increased the serum HDL-C level,while UDCA decreased the serum and liver TC levels as well as the serum LDL-C level,but did not change the serum levels of TG,FFA and HDL-C.Tiopronin apparently ameliorated the hepatocyte degeneration and the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the livers,but UDCA did not affect the pathological features of the livers.Both tiopronin and UDCA ameliorated the mitochondrial abnormality in the livers.The benefits of tiopronin were associated with increased SOD and GSH-Px activities,and with decreased MDA activity and CYP2E1 expression in the livers.Conclusion:Tiopronin exerts protective effects against non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in rats,which may be associated with its antioxidant properties and regulation of lipid metabolism.

  2. Multiprofessional Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Very Elderly Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Luciana Muniz Sanches Siqueira Veiga; Jardim, Thiago Veiga; de Souza, Weimar Kunz Sebba Barroso; Pimenta, Camila Dutra; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga

    2017-01-01

    Background As the world population ages, patients older than 80 years, known as very elderly, are more frequently found. There are no studies in this age group aimed at analyzing the multidisciplinary intervention in the treatment of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and some comorbidities. Objectives To assess the effect of a multidisciplinary approach in very elderly hypertensives cared for at a specialized service. Methods Longitudinal retrospective cohort study in a multidisciplinary service specialized in the SAH treatment in the Brazilian West-Central region. Patients aged 80 years and older by June 2015 were included. Data from the first (V1) and last visit (Vf) were assessed. Anthropometric variables, blood pressure (BP), renal function, pharmacological treatment, lifestyle, comorbidities and cardiovascular events were studied, comparing data from V1 and Vf. Controlled BP was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) lower than 140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) lower than 90 mm Hg. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSSR software, version 21.0. Values of p<0,05 were considered significant. Results Data of 71 patients were assessed with a mean follow-up time of 15,22 years. Their mean age at V1 was 69.2 years, and, at Vf, 84.53 years, and 26.8% of them were males. There was a significant reduction in mean SBP (157.3 x 142.1 mm Hg; p<0.001) and DBP (95.1 x 77.8 mm Hg; p<0.001), with an increase in BP control rates from V1 to Vf (36.6 x 83.1%; p<0.001). The number of antihypertensive drugs used increased (1.49 x 2.85; p<0.001), with an increase in the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (22.5 x 46.5%; p=0.004), angiotensin II receptor blockers (4.2 x 35.2%; p<0.001) and calcium-channel blockers (18.3 x 67.6%; p<0.001). There was a reduction in total cholesterol (217.9 x 191 mg/dL; p<0.001) and LDL-cholesterol (139.6 x 119.0 mg/dL; p<0.001), but worsening of the glomerular filtration rate (62.5 x 45.4 mL/min; p<0.001). Conclusion

  3. Highly efficient aerobic oxidation of alcohols by using less-hindered nitroxyl-radical/copper catalysis: optimum catalyst combinations and their substrate scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yusuke; Kogure, Naoki; Nishiyama, Tomohiro; Nagasawa, Shota; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu

    2015-04-01

    The oxidation of alcohols into their corresponding carbonyl compounds is one of the most fundamental transformations in organic chemistry. In our recent report, 2-azaadamantane N-oxyl (AZADO)/copper catalysis promoted the highly chemoselective aerobic oxidation of unprotected amino alcohols into amino carbonyl compounds. Herein, we investigated the extension of the promising AZADO/copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of alcohols to other types of alcohol. During close optimization of the reaction conditions by using various alcohols, we found that the optimum combination of nitroxyl radical, copper salt, and solution concentration was dependent on the type of substrate. Various alcohols, including highly hindered and heteroatom-rich ones, were efficiently oxidized into their corresponding carbonyl compounds under mild conditions with lower amounts of the catalysts.

  4. The Prevalence of Tobacco, Hubble-Bubble, Alcoholic Drinks, Drugs, and Stimulants among High-School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Alaee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of tobacco, hubble-bubble, alcoholic drinks, and other drugs among Karaj high-school students in 2011. Methods: The research method was a descriptive-sectional study. Participants of this study were 447 girl and boy high-school students of Karaj that were selected by clustering random sampling. For data gathering, drug abuse questionnaire, and risk and protective factors inventory were administered among selected sample. Results: According to the results, 57% of students in this study said that they have had experiences with a kind of drug including tobacco, hubble-bubble, alcoholic drinks, and other drugs at least once in their lives. The study showed the prevalence for soft drugs: hubble-bubble, tobacco, and alcoholic drinks, and for hard drugs ecstasy, opium, hashish, meth, crack, and heroin respectively. Conclusion: Soft drugs including hubble-bubble, tobacco, and alcoholic drinks, are the most common among Karaj high-school students. The prevalence of hard drugs among them is rather low.

  5. Anthropometric indicators of obesity as screening tools for high blood pressure in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Neto, João de Souza; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Freitas, Roberta Souza; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique; Oliveira, Daniela Sousa; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues

    2013-08-01

    The study objectives were to investigate the indicators of obesity most associated with high blood pressure in community-dwelling elderly and identify among these which one best discriminates high blood pressure. This is an epidemiological, population, cross-sectional and home-based study of elderly people (≥ 60 years, n = 316) residing in northeastern Brazil. The results showed that the body mass index and the body adiposity index were the indicators more closely associated with high blood pressure in both sexes. Both in female and male genders, body mass index showed high values of specificity and low sensitivity values for discriminating high blood pressure, whereas the body adiposity index showed high sensitivity and moderate specificity values. In clinical practice and health surveillance, it is suggested that both indicators be used as screening tools for hypertension in the elderly.

  6. Nutritional physiology of high temperature alcohol washed rapeseed protein concentrate%高温菜籽粕醇洗浓缩蛋白营养生理学研究评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉兰; 石龙凯; 胡月; 薛武军; 高经梁

    2014-01-01

    Rats were fed with semisynthetic feeds prepared with high temperature rapeseed meal, high temperature alcohol washed rapeseed protein concentrate, high temperature alcohol washed soybean pro-tein concentrate and low temperature alcohol washed soybean protein concentrate as the main protein sources respectively. The growth, physiological and biochemical indexes of rats were detected and ana-lyzed to compare the effects of different protein sources so as to evaluate the nutritional function of high temperature alcohol washed rapeseed protein concentrate. The results showed that according to the com-prehensive comparisons of the growth, digestion and metabolism, blood routine and blood biochemical in-dexes of rats and nutritional value of protein, the group of high temperature alcohol washed rapeseed pro-tein concentrate was the best, followed by the groups of high temperature rapeseed meal, low temperature alcohol washed soybean protein concentrate and high temperature alcohol washed soybean protein concen-trate;the levels of aminotransferase ( ALT) , uric acid ( UA) ,triglyceride ( TG) and low density lipopro-tein cholesterol ( LDL-C) of rats in the group of high temperature alcohol washed rapeseed protein con-centrate were the lowest, and anti-atherosclerotic index ( AAI) of rats was the highest among the four groups, which indicated that the rats in the group of high temperature alcohol washed rapeseed protein concentrate had lower risk of diabetes and atherosclerosis than the other three groups. Therefore, high temperature alcohol washed rapeseed protein concentrate was a high - quality feed protein source.%分别以高温菜籽粕、高温菜籽粕醇洗浓缩蛋白、高温豆粕醇洗浓缩蛋白、低温豆粕醇洗浓缩蛋白为主要蛋白源配制的半合成饲料进行大鼠饲喂试验,通过对大鼠生长发育和生理生化指标的检测分析,比较不同蛋白源对大鼠饲喂效果的影响,研究评价高温菜籽粕醇洗浓缩蛋白

  7. The Effects of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease on Forensic Breath Alcohol Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, James L; Renfroe, Kathryn

    2015-11-01

    Fifteen test subjects, 10 of whom were diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), were dosed with alcohol to BACs above 0.150 g/dL. Blood and breath assays taken at 20-min intervals for 8 h after dosing demonstrated close agreement between postabsorptive BAC and BrAC values. Three subjects exhibited elevated breath alcohol concentrations up to 0.105 g/dL during the absorptive phase that were apparently due to the passage of gastric alcohol through the lower esophageal sphincter not attributable to eruction or regurgitation. The effect of gastric alcohol was not consistently proportional to the amount of unabsorbed gastric alcohol. Absorption of alcohol in the esophagus explains the nonproportionality. Breath samples contaminated by GERD-related alcohol leakage from the stomach into a breath sample were found only when there was a high concentration of alcohol in the stomach. When contaminated breath samples were encountered, they were irreproducible in magnitude.

  8. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for biotechnological production of high-value organic acids and alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chao; Cao, Yujin; Zou, Huibin; Xian, Mo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels

    2011-02-15

    Confronted with the gradual and inescapable exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources, the bio-based process to produce platform chemicals from renewable carbohydrates is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to its clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. Compared to previous reviews, this review focuses on recent advances in metabolic engineering of the industrial model bacteria E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for the production of high-value organic acids like succinic acid, lactic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like 1,3-propanediol, xylitol, mannitol, and glycerol with the discussion of the future research in this area. Besides, this review also discusses several platform chemicals, including fumaric acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, sorbitol, itaconic acid, and 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, which have not been produced by E. coli until now. (orig.)

  9. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for biotechnological production of high-value organic acids and alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Cao, Yujin; Zou, Huibin; Xian, Mo

    2011-02-01

    Confronted with the gradual and inescapable exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources, the bio-based process to produce platform chemicals from renewable carbohydrates is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to its clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. Compared to previous reviews, this review focuses on recent advances in metabolic engineering of the industrial model bacteria E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for the production of high-value organic acids like succinic acid, lactic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like 1,3-propanediol, xylitol, mannitol, and glycerol with the discussion of the future research in this area. Besides, this review also discusses several platform chemicals, including fumaric acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, sorbitol, itaconic acid, and 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, which have not been produced by E. coli until now.

  10. Alcohol solutions of triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride as high-dose radiochromic dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, A.; Wojnarovits, L.; El-Assy, N.B.; Afeefy, H.Y.; Al-Sheikhly, M.; Walker, M.L.; McLaughlin, W.L. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NML), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Ionizing Radiation Div.

    1995-10-01

    The radiolytic reduction of colorless tetrazolium salts in aqueous solution to the highly colored formazan dye is a well-known acid-forming radiation chemical reaction. Radiochromic thin films and three-dimensional hydrocolloid gels have been used for imaging and mapping absorbed dose distributions. The high solubility of 2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) in alcohols provides a useful liquid dosimeter (45 mM TTC in aerated ethanol) and shows a linear response of absorbance increase ({lambda}{sub max} = 480 nm) with dose over the range 1-16 kGy. The linear molar absorption coefficient ({epsilon}{sub m}) for the formazan at the absorption peak is 1.5 x 10{sup 3} m{sup 2} mol{sup -1}, and the radiation chemical yield for the above solution is G (formazan) 0.014 {mu}mol J{sup -1}. The irradiation temperature coefficient is about 0.8 percent per degree Celsius rise in temperature over the temperature range 0-30 {sup o}C but is much larger between 30{sup o} and 60 {sup o}C. The unirradiated and irradiated solutions are stable over at least five days storage at normal laboratory temperature in the dark, but when stored in daylight at elevated temperature, the unirradiated solution in sealed amber glass ampoules undergoes slow photolytic dye formation, and the irradiated solution experiences initial fading and subsequent reversal (photochromism) when exposed to direct sunlight. (author).

  11. Enhanced alcohol self-administration and reinstatement in a highly impulsive, inattentive recombinant inbred mouse strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten eLoos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in executive control have frequently been associated with alcohol use disorder. Here we investigated to what extent pre-existing genetically encoded levels of impulsive/inattentive behavior associate with motivation to take alcohol and vulnerability to cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in an operant self-administration paradigm. We took advantage of BXD16, a recombinant inbred strain previously shown to have enhanced impulsivity and poor attentional control. We compared BXD16 with C57BL/6J mice in a simple choice reaction time task (SCRTT and confirmed its impulsive/inattentive phenotype. BXD16 mice were less active in a novel open field, and were equally active in an automated home cage environment, showing that increased impulsive responding of BXD16 mice could not be explained by enhanced general activity compared to C57BL/6J mice. After training in a sucrose/alcohol fading self-administration procedure, BXD16 showed increased motivation to earn 10% alcohol solution, both under fixed ratio (FR1 and progressive ratio (PR2 schedules of reinforcement. Responding on the active lever readily decreased during extinction training with no apparent differences between strains. However, upon re-exposure to alcohol-associated cues, alcohol seeking was reinstated to a larger extent in BXD16 than in C57BL/6J mice. Although further studies are needed to determine whether impulsivity/inattention and alcohol seeking depend on common or separate genetic loci, these data show that in mice enhanced impulsivity coincides with increased motivation to take alcohol, as well as relapse vulnerability.

  12. Suitability of blood-pressure-to-height ratio as the criterion for high blood pressure in children in an environmental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunović, Katarina; Jakovljević, Branko

    2017-01-01

    Blood-pressure-to-height ratio is considered a simple, accurate, inexpensive and non-age-dependent index for screening high blood pressure in a clinical setting, but its suitability in epidemiological surveys was not taken into consideration. The aim of this study was to test the suitability of blood-pressure-to-height ratio against blood pressure for age percentiles for the identification of high blood pressure in an environmental study. The sample consisted of 2195 children, aged 3 to 15 years, whose blood pressure was measured as part of an environmental study in Belgrade, Serbia. High blood pressure was estimated using percentiles (gold standard) and blood-pressure-to-height ratios for systolic and diastolic pressures separately (proposed criterion). The optimal cut-offs of the blood-pressure-to-height ratio (BPHR) were selected based on Youden's index (sensitivity + specificity - 1) calculated from the receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. The proposed criterion identified five times more cases of high blood pressure in the investigated children of all age groups in comparison to the gold standard. The optimal cut-off values were selected based on the sensitivity and specificity values by age groups and gender. Blood-pressure-to-height ratio can be a reliable criterion for the estimation of high blood pressure in epidemiological studies. This is the first study on the applicability of blood-pressure-to-height ratio in Serbian children, but it may not be easily generalized to other populations due to small sample size across the examined age groups and potential diversities in risk factors for high blood pressure. Applied in epidemiological studies, BPHR would help researchers estimate the role of certain environmental factors on blood pressure in children.

  13. Hispanics, Blacks Less Likely to Get High Blood Pressure Treatment: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hispanics, Blacks Less Likely to Get High Blood Pressure Treatment: Study Less than half from any group had BP under good control To use the ... and what differences exist across racial and ethnic groups," Argulian said in ... blood pressure treatment. But, "There are multiple factors that contribute ...

  14. Obesity promotes oxidative stress and exacerbates blood-brain barrier disruption after high-intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Tae Roh

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Our study suggests that episodic vigorous exercise can increase oxidative stress and blood neurotrophic factor levels and induce disruption of the BBB. Moreover, high levels of neurotrophic factor in the blood after exercise in the obese group may be due to BBB disruption, and it is assumed that oxidative stress was the main cause of this BBB disruption.

  15. Characterizing subjective responses to alcohol among adolescent problem drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Robert; Monti, Peter M; Ray, Lara; Treloar, Hayley R; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Ramirez, Jason; Chun, Thomas; Gwaltney, Chad J; Justus, Alicia; Tidey, Jennifer; Blanchard, Alexander; Magill, Molly

    2014-02-01

    Theoretical models of alcoholism emphasize the acute reinforcing properties of alcohol as chief determinants of drinking, and animal research suggests adolescents are uniquely sensitive to these effects. Human studies of these phenomena, however, are virtually nonexistent. We used ecological momentary assessment methods to capture adolescents' subjective responses to alcohol in real time in their natural environments. Adolescent participants were 22 problem drinkers, ages 15 to 19 years (M = 18.3, SD = 0.09; 55% female; 55% alcohol dependent). Participants consumed alcohol on 38% of days during a 1-week monitoring period, with an average of 5 drinks per occasion. Momentary data revealed that adolescents experience decreased stimulation and increased sedation and "high" across the ascending limb of the blood alcohol curve. Notably, greater craving predicted higher volumes of subsequent alcohol consumption during the episode, whereas greater "high" attenuated use. To test for developmental differences in these effects, we pooled these data with data from a similarly ascertained sample of 36 adult heavy drinkers, ages 24 to 64 years (M = 38.1, SD = 11.8; 50% female; 61% alcohol dependent). Adolescents were more sensitive to the stimulant effects of alcohol than adults. This study provides novel data on how adolescent problem drinkers experience alcohol in their natural contexts and illustrates how these effects, which appear to differ from adult problem drinkers, confer liability for future drinking. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. (Lead concentration in the blood and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in the erythrocytes depending on sex, age, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the group of persons exposed to industrial dust)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuliczkowski, K.

    1981-01-01

    A population of 399 persons (180 women and 219 men) has been examined. Anamnesis included detailed inquiries about smoking habit and alcohol drinking. In the laboratory, lead concentration in blood and ALAD activity in erythrocytes have been determined on empty stomach. No differences have been found in the mean lead concentration determined by sex, whereas the mean ALAD activity is higher in women than in men. The subjects' age has affected the test parameters neither in men nor women. In smoking men no changes in the mean lead concentration in blood and mean ALAD activity in erythrocytes have been found. In smoking women, the mean lead concentration is not changed, but the mean ALAD activity is lower. Alcohol drinking in men does not change the values of the test parameters, whereas drinking women have revealed higher mean blood lead concentration.

  17. Habit formation: implications for alcoholism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Tousa, David; Grahame, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Characteristics of individuals with severe alcohol use disorders include heightened cue sensitivity, compulsive seeking, craving, and continued alcohol use in the face of negative consequences. Animal models are useful for understanding behavioral and neurological mechanisms underlying problematic alcohol use. Seeking of operant reinforcers including alcohol is processed by two mechanisms, commonly referred to as "goal-directed" (action-outcome) and "habitual" (stimulus-response). As substance use disorders are characterized by continued use regardless of unfavorable outcomes, it is plausible that drug use causes an unnatural disruption of these mechanisms. We present a critical analysis of literature pertaining to behavioral neuroscience alcoholism research involving habit formation. Traditionally, when operant behavior is unaffected by a loss of subjective value of a reinforcer (devaluation), the behavior is considered habitual. Acquisition of instrumental behavior requires corticostriatal mechanisms that depend heavily on the prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, whereas practiced behavior is more predominantly controlled by the dorsal striatum. Dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the neurological adaptations involved in stimulus-response action, and drugs of abuse appear to facilitate habitual behavior through high levels of dopamine release. Evidence suggests that the use of alcohol as a reinforcer expedites habit formation, and that a history of alcohol use produces alterations in striatal morphology, aids habit learning for non-psychoactive reinforcers, and promotes alcohol drinking despite aversive adulterants. In this review, we suggest directions for future alcoholism research that seeks to measure action made despite a devalued outcome, including procedural modifications and genotypic, pharmacological, or neurological manipulations. Most alcoholism models currently in use fail to reach substantial blood ethanol concentrations, a shortcoming that

  18. Preparative isolation and analysis of alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza uralensis root using ultrafiltration combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miao; Liu, Liangliang; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2014-07-01

    A simple, rapid, and effective assay based on ultrafiltration combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography was developed for screening and purifying alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extract. Experiments were carried out to optimize binding conditions including alcohol dehydrogenase concentration, incubation time, temperature, and pH. By comparing the chromatograms, three compounds were found possessing alcohol dehydrogenase binding activity in Glycyrrhiza uralensis root. Under the target-guidance of ultrafiltration combined with the high-performance liquid chromatography experiment, liquiritin (1), isoliquiritin (2), and liquiritigenin (3) were separated by high-speed countercurrent chromatography using ethyl acetate/methanol/water (5:1:4) as the solvent system. The alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitory activities of these three isolated compounds were assessed; compound 2 showed strongest inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 8.95 μM. The results of the present study indicated that the combinative method using ultrafiltration, high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography could be widely applied for the rapid screening and isolation of enzyme inhibitors from complex mixtures.

  19. Identification of subpopulations of prairie voles differentially susceptible to peer influence to decrease high alcohol intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M.J. Anacker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Peer influences are critical in the decrease of alcohol (ethanol abuse and maintenance of abstinence. We previously developed an animal model of inhibitory peer influences on ethanol drinking using prairie voles and here sought to understand whether this influential behavior was due to specific changes in drinking patterns and to variation in a microsatellite sequence in the regulatory region of the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (avpr1a. Adult prairie voles’ drinking patterns were monitored in a lickometer apparatus that recorded each lick a subject exhibited during continuous access to water and 10% ethanol during periods of isolation, pair housing of high and low drinkers, and subsequent isolation. Analysis of fluid consumption confirmed previous results that high drinkers typically decrease ethanol intake when paired with low drinkers, but that a subset of voles do not decrease. Analysis of bout structure revealed differences in the number of ethanol drinking bouts in the subpopulations of high drinkers when paired with low drinkers. Lickometer drinking patterns analyzed by visual and by cross-correlation analyses demonstrated that pair housing did not increase the rate of subjects drinking in bouts occurring at the same time. The length of the avpr1a microsatellite did not predict susceptibility to peer influence or any other drinking behaviors. In summary, subpopulations of high drinkers were identified by fluid intake and number of drinking bouts, which did or did not lower their ethanol intake when paired with a low drinking peer, and these subpopulations should be explored for testing the efficacy of treatments to decrease ethanol use in groups that are likely to be responsive to different types of therapy.

  20. Clinical applications of high-speed blood flow measurements with diffuse correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Ashwin B.; Baker, Wesley B.; Gannon, Kimberly; Mullen, Michael T.; Detre, John A.; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2017-02-01

    Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) is an increasingly popular non-invasive optical technique to clinically measure deep tissue blood flow, albeit at slow measurement rates of 0.5-1 Hz. We recently reported the development of a new `fast' DCS instrument that continuously measures blood flow at 50-100 Hz (simultaneously from 8 channels), using conventional DCS sources/detectors, and optimized software computations. A particularly interesting result was our ability to optically record pulsatile micro-vascular blood flow waveforms, and therein readily identify high frequency features such as the dicrotic notch. Here, we showcase the utility and potential of high-speed measurements of blood flow (and arterial blood pressure) in a few clinical applications. First, we employ the fast-DCS instrumentation to measure cerebral autoregulation (CVAR) dynamics. Cerebral autoregulation refers to the mechanism by which cerebral blood flow (CBF) is maintained during fluctuations in blood pressure; CVAR is impaired in the injured brain. We derive an index of autoregulation by measuring the rates of decrease (and recovery) of blood flow and blood pressure following a sudden, induced change in systemic blood pressure (e.g., bilateral thigh cuff deflation). Our pilot experiments in healthy volunteers show that DCS measured rates of micro-vascular regulation are comparable to conventional large vessel regulatory metrics (e.g., measured with transcranial Doppler ultrasound). Second, we utilized pulsatile blood flow oscillations in cerebral arteries to estimate the critical closing pressure (CrCP), i.e., the arterial blood pressure at which CBF approaches zero. Pilot experiments in healthy subjects show good agreement between CrCP measured with DCS and transcranial Doppler ultrasound.