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Sample records for high bending vibrational

  1. Active vibration control of structures undergoing bending vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An active vibration control subassembly for a structure (such as a jet engine duct or a washing machine panel) undergoing bending vibrations caused by a source (such as the clothes agitator of the washing machine) independent of the subassembly. A piezoceramic actuator plate is vibratable by an applied electric AC signal. The plate is connected to the structure such that vibrations in the plate induced by the AC signal cause canceling bending vibrations in the structure and such that the plate is compressively pre-stressed along the structure when the structure is free of any bending vibrations. The compressive prestressing increases the amplitude of the canceling bending vibrations before the critical tensile stress level of the plate is reached. Preferably, a positive electric DC bias is also applied to the plate in its poling direction.

  2. Bend-insensitive fiber based vibration sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanping; Lu, Ping; Baset, Farhana; Bhardwaj, Vedula Ravi; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2014-05-01

    We report two novel fiber-optic vibration sensors based on standard telecom bend-insensitive fiber (BIF). A tapered BIF forming a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer could measure continuous and damped vibration from 1 Hz up to 500 kHz. An enclosed microcantilever is fabricated inside the BIF by chemical etching and fusion spliced with a readout singlemode fiber that exhibits a frequency range from 5 Hz to 10 kHz with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) up to 68 dB. The unique double cladding structure of the BIF ensures both sensors with advantages of compactness, high resistance to the external disturbance and stronger mechanical strength.

  3. Torsional Oscillation Characteristics of Rotary Shafts Based on Torsion and Bending Coupled Vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The torsional oscillation characteristics on the bending and torsion coupled vibration of rotary shaft system were investigated using the elasto-dynamic theory and other mathematic methods, such as difference approach, Fourier transform, and wavelet transform. It is concluded that mass eccentricity and other exciting modalities affect the bending and torsion coupled vibration of rotary shafts. Torsional vibration caused by bending vibration features linearity along with the change of amplitude of bending vibration. Meanwhile, energy spectrum concentrates on high frequency area with the wavelet analysis.

  4. A cylindrical standing wave ultrasonic motor using bending vibration transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao; Shi, Shengjun

    2011-07-01

    A cylindrical standing wave ultrasonic motor using bending vibration transducer was proposed in this paper. The proposed stator contains a cylinder and a bending vibration transducer. The two combining sites between the cylinder and the transducer locate at the adjacent wave loops of bending vibration of the transducer and have a distance that equal to the half wave length of bending standing wave excited in the cylinder. Thus, the bending mode of the cylinder can be excited by the bending vibration of the transducer. Two circular cone type rotors are pressed in contact to the end rims of the teeth, and the preload between the rotors and stator is accomplished by a spring and nut system. The working principle of the proposed motor was analyzed. The motion trajectories of teeth were deduced. The stator was designed and analyzed with FEM. A prototype motor was fabricated and measured. Typical output of the prototype is no-load speed of 165rpm and maximum torque of 0.45Nm at an exciting voltage of 200V(rms).

  5. Stress-anneal-induced magnetic anisotropy in highly textured Fe-Ga and Fe-Al magnetostrictive strips for bending-mode vibrational energy harvesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Jin Park

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetostrictive Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys are promising materials for use in bending-mode vibrational energy harvesters. For this study, 50.8 mm × 5.0 mm × 0.5 mm strips of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al were cut from 0.50-mm thick rolled sheet. An atmospheric anneal was used to develop a Goss texture through an abnormal grain growth process. The anneal lead to large (011 grains that covered over 90% of sample surface area. The resulting highly-textured Fe-Ga and Fe-Al strips exhibited saturation magnetostriction values (λsat =  λ∥ − λ⊥ of ∼280 ppm and ∼130 ppm, respectively. To maximize 90° rotation of magnetic moments during bending of the strips, we employed compressive stress annealing (SA. Samples were heated to 500°C, and a 100-150 MPa compressive stress was applied while at 500°C for 30 minutes and while being cooled. The effectiveness of the SA on magnetic moment rotation was inferred by comparing post-SA magnetostriction with the maximum possible yield of rotated magnetic moments, which is achieved when λ∥ = λsat and λ⊥ = 0. The uniformity of the SA along the sample length and the impact of the SA on sensing/energy harvesting performance were then assessed by comparing pre- and post-SA bending-stress-induced changes in magnetization at five different locations along the samples. The SA process with a 150 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Ga actuation along the sample length from 170 to 225 ppm (from ∼60% to within ∼80% of λsat. The corresponding sensing/energy harvesting performance improved by as much as a factor of eight in the best sample, however the improvement was not at all uniform along the sample length. The SA process with a 100 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Al actuation along the sample length from 60 to 73 ppm (from ∼46% to ∼56% of λsat, indicating only a marginally effective SA and suggesting the need for modification of the SA protocol. In spite of this, the SA was effective at improving the sensing

  6. Stress-anneal-induced magnetic anisotropy in highly textured Fe-Ga and Fe-Al magnetostrictive strips for bending-mode vibrational energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Jin; Na, Suok-Min; Raghunath, Ganesh; Flatau, Alison B.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetostrictive Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys are promising materials for use in bending-mode vibrational energy harvesters. For this study, 50.8 mm × 5.0 mm × 0.5 mm strips of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al were cut from 0.50-mm thick rolled sheet. An atmospheric anneal was used to develop a Goss texture through an abnormal grain growth process. The anneal lead to large (011) grains that covered over 90% of sample surface area. The resulting highly-textured Fe-Ga and Fe-Al strips exhibited saturation magnetostriction values (λsat = λ∥ - λ⊥) of ˜280 ppm and ˜130 ppm, respectively. To maximize 90° rotation of magnetic moments during bending of the strips, we employed compressive stress annealing (SA). Samples were heated to 500°C, and a 100-150 MPa compressive stress was applied while at 500°C for 30 minutes and while being cooled. The effectiveness of the SA on magnetic moment rotation was inferred by comparing post-SA magnetostriction with the maximum possible yield of rotated magnetic moments, which is achieved when λ∥ = λsat and λ⊥ = 0. The uniformity of the SA along the sample length and the impact of the SA on sensing/energy harvesting performance were then assessed by comparing pre- and post-SA bending-stress-induced changes in magnetization at five different locations along the samples. The SA process with a 150 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Ga actuation along the sample length from 170 to 225 ppm (from ˜60% to within ˜80% of λsat). The corresponding sensing/energy harvesting performance improved by as much as a factor of eight in the best sample, however the improvement was not at all uniform along the sample length. The SA process with a 100 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Al actuation along the sample length from 60 to 73 ppm (from ˜46% to ˜56% of λsat, indicating only a marginally effective SA and suggesting the need for modification of the SA protocol. In spite of this, the SA was effective at improving the sensing/energy harvesting

  7. Torsional and Bending Vibration Measurement on Rotors Using Laser Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILES, T. J.; LUCAS, M.; HALLIWELL, N. A.; ROTHBERG, S. J.

    1999-09-01

    Based on the principles of laser Doppler velocimetry, the laser torsional vibrometer (LTV) was developed for non-contact measurement of torsional oscillation of rotating shafts, offering significant advantages over conventional techniques. This paper describes comprehensive theory to account for the sensitivity of the LTV's measurements to shaft motion in all degrees of freedom. The optical geometry of the LTV offers inherent immunity to translational motion of the target shaft, either axial or radial. However, its measurements are sensitive to angular lateral vibration of the shaft. The significance of this sensitivity is compared with the instrument noise floor and typical torsional and lateral vibration levels. Optimum alignments of the instrument are then specified to ensure effective immunity to all lateral motion in typical applications. To overcome this problem more reliably, a new technique is proposed permitting unambiguous measurement of pure torsional vibration in situations where use of a single LTV demonstrates unacceptable sensitivity to angular lateral vibrations. Practical application of this technology is demonstrated with torsional vibration measurements from a diesel engine crankshaft. Simultaneously, previously unattained measurements of shaft bending vibration measurements are made. The first bending mode of the crankshaft was identified and its vibration amplitude and damping estimated. This application of laser vibrometry for non-contact measurements of shaft vibration represents a further step forward in the use of this technology for machinery diagnostics.

  8. Method for Reducing Vibration Noise Transmission in Pipe Systems by Reducing Bending Vibrations Using Curved Tube Elements

    OpenAIRE

    王, 建春; 横田, 正二; 長屋, 幸助

    1995-01-01

    Bending vibrations of a pipe system are trasmitted to an evaporator and generate noise in an air conditioning system. Hence to reduce noise, bending vibrations should be reduced. This paper presents a method for reducing bending vibrations of a pipe system by use of curve tube elements. As a first step, to discuss the validity of the simulation program based on our previous analyses, experimental tests have been performed, and the simulation results are compared with the experimental data for...

  9. Improvement for design of beam structures in large vibrating screen considering bending and random vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭利平; 刘初升; 宋宝成; 武继达; 王帅

    2015-01-01

    Demand for large vibrating screen is huge in the mineral processing industry. As bending and random vibration are not considered in a traditional design method for beam structures of a large vibrating screen, fatigue damage occurs frequently to affect the screening performance. This work aims to conduct a systematic mechanics analysis of the beam structures and improve the design method. Total motion of a beam structure in screening process can be decomposed into the traditional followed rigid translation (FRT), bending vibration (BV) and axial linear-distributed random rigid translation (ALRRT) excited by the side-plates. When treated as a generalized single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) elastic system analytically, the BV can be solved by the Rayleigh’s method. Stochastic analysis for random process is conducted for the detailed ALRRT calculation. Expressions for the mechanics property, namely, the shearing force and bending-moment with respect to BV and ALRRT, are derived, respectively. Experimental and numerical investigations demonstrate that the largest BV exists at the beam center and can be nearly ignored in comparison with the FRT during a simplified engineering design. With the BV and FRT considered, the mechanics property accords well with the practical situation with the maximum error of 6.33%, which is less than that obtained by traditional method.

  10. Study on the Ultra High Cycle Bending Vibration Fatigue Test of Titanium Alloys%钛合金超高周弯曲振动疲劳性能试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申景生; 李全通; 吴晓峰; 高潮; 刘青川

    2011-01-01

    Based on the three-point bending method, an ultra high cycle bending vibration fatigue system is developed and the design method of fatigue test specimens is introduced too. The S - N curve of titanium alloy TC17 is determined by the ultra high cycle dissymmetrical bending fatigue system (20 kHz). The result shows that when stress ratio(R) is -1, the S - N curve of titanium alloy TC17 is a continuously declining curve, The specimens continue to fail over 107 stress cycles. In 107 weeks time, the samples don' t happen the fatigue damage, so it does not exist in the traditional sense fatigue limit.%在三点弯曲超高周疲劳试验的基础上,开发了悬臂梁式弯曲振动超高周疲劳试验系统,并介绍了疲劳试验试片的设计方法.利用超高周弯曲疲劳试验系统(20 kHz)测定了钛合金TC17的S-N曲线,结果表明,当应力比R=-1时TC17钛合金的S-N曲线是一条连续下降型曲线,在107周次以后,试样仍未发生疲劳破坏,不存在传统意义上的疲劳极限.

  11. Same phase drive-type ultrasonic motors using two degenerate bending vibration modes of a disk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, T; Tomikawa, Y; Kusakabe, C

    1992-01-01

    Same-phase drive-type ultrasonic motors, using two degenerate bending vibration modes of a disk, are presented. The distinctive feature of the motor is in using the standing wave modes. The motor is not driven by two input signals with different phases, but by input signals with the same phase. Therefore, only one amplifier is sufficient to drive the motor. The experimental results have proved that the motor can yield stable operational characteristics at low speed and high torque.

  12. Piezoelectric rotational mixer based on a first bending vibration mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashimo, Tomoaki

    2013-10-01

    We propose a miniature piezoelectric mixer that can rotate a liquid inside a hole of several millimeters diameter. The mixer has dimensions 14 × 14 × 10 mm with a through-hole (7 mm), and piezoelectric elements bonded to its four identical sides. When the first bending vibration mode of the mixer is excited by ac voltages, rotational flow of liquid is generated by the rotation of an acoustic field (acoustic streaming) in the through-hole. This technology is useful in automating mixing processes such as the mixing by hand of a few drops of blood in medical testing. In this paper, we verify the driving principle experimentally and examine the characteristics of a prototype mixer, including the induced flow velocity, under changes of the amplitude and frequency of the applied voltages. A plastic test tube, used to prevent contamination, is inserted to the through-hole, and the liquid inside the tube is mixed by rotation of the acoustic field.

  13. Channeling efficiency dependence on bending radius and thermal vibration amplitude of the model for the channeling of high-energy particles in straight and bent crystals implemented in Geant4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagli, Enrico [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Asai, Makoto; Dotti, Andrea [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Guidi, Vincenzo [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Verderi, Marc [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2015-07-15

    Monte Carlo simulations of the interaction of particles with matter are usually done with downloadable toolkits such as Geant4. A model suitable for the implementation into Geant4 for the interaction of high-energy particles in straight and bent crystals was developed and implemented. The model relies on the continuum potential approximation. The variation of the Geant4 model for the description of the orientational effect as a function of the physical parameters for the calculation of the interplanar potential is presented. The simulations are capable of reproducing the variation of the efficiency of channeling as a function of the thermal vibration amplitude and the bending radius of a bent Si strip. The study can be useful for the simulation of the channeling effect in experiments at GeV/c energies.

  14. Nonlinear dynamic behavior of rubbing rotor under interaction between bending and torsional vibrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamic behavior of a rubbing rotor system was studied with a mathematical model established with the eccentricity and interaction between bending and torsional vibrations taken into consideration.The nonlinear vibrational response of a rubbing rotor was analyzed using numerical integral,spectroscopic analysis and Poince mapping method,which made it possible to have better understanding of the vibrational characteristics of partial rubbing and complete circular rubbing rotors.The numerical results reveal the response of torsional vibration mainly takes a form of suporchronous motion,and its frequency decreases as the rotational speed increases when partial rubbing occurs,and the response of torsional vibration is synchronous when complete circular rubbing occurs.The comparison of the dynamics of rubbing rotors with and without the interaction between bending and torsional vibrations shows the interaction between bending and torsional vibrations advances the rotational speed,at which the response of bending vibration changes from a synchronous motion into a quasi-periodic motion,and the interaction between bending and torsional vibrations reduces stability of the rubbing rotor.

  15. ON THE BENDING, VIBRATION AND STABILITY OF LAMINATED RECTANGULAR PLATES WITH TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC LAYERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁皓江; 陈伟球; 徐荣桥

    2001-01-01

    A method based on newly presented state space formulations is developed for analyzing the bending, vibration and stability of laminated transversely isotropic rectangular plates with simply supported edges. By introducing two displacement functions and two stress functions, two independent state equations were constructed based on the three-dimensional elasticity equations for transverse isotropy. The original differential equations are thus decoupled with the order reduced that will facilitate obtaining solutions of various problems.For the simply supported rectangular plate, two relations between the state variables at the top and bottom surfaces were established. In particular, for the free vibration (stability)problem, it is found that there exist two independent classes: One corresponds to the pure in-plane vibration (stability) and the other to the general bending vibration ( stability).Numerical examples are finally presented and the effects of some parameters are discussed.

  16. Bending and torsional vibration control of composite beams through intelligent constrained-layer damping treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, I. Y.

    1995-05-01

    This paper is to develop a mathematical model to predict bending, twisting, and axial vibration response of a composite beam with intelligent constrained layer (ICL) or active constrained layer (ACL) damping treatments. In addition, preliminary experiments are conducted on composite beams to evaluate this new technique. The ICL composite beam model is obtained by integrating the existing ICL composite plate model proposed by Shen. When the plate width (along the x-axis) is much smaller than the plate length (along the y-axis), integration of the ICL composite plate equations and linearization of displacement fields with respect to x leads to a set of equations that couples bending, tosional, and axial vibrations of a composite beam. The equations of motion and associated boundary conditions are normalized and rearranged in a state-space matrix form, and the vibration response is predicted through the distributed transfer function method developed by Yang and Tan. A numerical example is illustrated on a composite beam with bending-torsion coupling stiffness. Numerical results show that ICL damping treatments may or may not reduce coupled bending and torsional vibrations of a composite beam simultaneously. When the deflection is fed back to actuate the ICL damping treatment, a sensitivity analysis shows that only those vibration modes with significant bending response are suppressed simultaneously with their torsional components. In the preliminary experiments, two different ICL setups are tested on a composite beam without bending-torsion coupling. Damping performance of both ICL setups agrees qualitatively with existing mathematical models and experimental results obtained from other researchers. The damping performance, however, is not optimized due to the availability of materials and their dimensions in the laboratory. An optimization strategy needs to be developed to facilitate design of ACL damping treatments with maximized damping performance.

  17. Numerical manifold method for the forced vibration of thin plates during bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Ding; Song, Chen; Wei-Bin, Wen; Shao-Ming, Luo; Xia, Huang

    2014-01-01

    A novel numerical manifold method was derived from the cubic B-spline basis function. The new interpolation function is characterized by high-order coordination at the boundary of a manifold element. The linear elastic-dynamic equation used to solve the bending vibration of thin plates was derived according to the principle of minimum instantaneous potential energy. The method for the initialization of the dynamic equation and its solution process were provided. Moreover, the analysis showed that the calculated stiffness matrix exhibited favorable performance. Numerical results showed that the generalized degrees of freedom were significantly fewer and that the calculation accuracy was higher for the manifold method than for the conventional finite element method.

  18. Numerical Manifold Method for the Forced Vibration of Thin Plates during Bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Jun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel numerical manifold method was derived from the cubic B-spline basis function. The new interpolation function is characterized by high-order coordination at the boundary of a manifold element. The linear elastic-dynamic equation used to solve the bending vibration of thin plates was derived according to the principle of minimum instantaneous potential energy. The method for the initialization of the dynamic equation and its solution process were provided. Moreover, the analysis showed that the calculated stiffness matrix exhibited favorable performance. Numerical results showed that the generalized degrees of freedom were significantly fewer and that the calculation accuracy was higher for the manifold method than for the conventional finite element method.

  19. Vibration sensing using a tapered bend-insensitive fiber based Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanping; Lu, Ping; Qin, Zengguang; Harris, Jeremie; Baset, Farhana; Lu, Ping; Bhardwaj, Vedula Ravi; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2013-02-11

    In this study, a novel fiber-optic sensor consisting of a tapered bend-insensitive fiber based Mach-Zehnder interferometer is presented to realize damped and continuous vibration measurement. The double cladding structure and the central coating region of the in-fiber interferometer ensure an enhanced mechanical strength, reduced external disturbance, and a more uniform spectrum. A damped vibration frequency range of 29-60 Hz as well as continuous vibration disturbances ranging from 1 Hz up to 500 kHz are successfully demonstrated.

  20. Terahertz Spectroscopy and Global Analysis of the Bending Vibrations of Acetylene 12C2D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shanshan; Drouin, Brian J.; Pearson, John C.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Lattanzi, Valerio; Walters, Adam

    2009-06-01

    Two hundred and fifty-one 12C2D2 transitions have been measured in the 0.2-1.6 THz region of its ν5-ν4 difference band and 202 of them were observed for the first time. The accuracy of these measurements is estimated to be ranging from 50 kHz to 100 kHz. The 12C2D2 molecules were generated under room temperature by passing 120-150 mTorr D2O vapor through calcium carbide (CaC2) powder. A multistate analysis was carried out for the bending vibrational modes ν4 and ν5 of 12C2D2, which includes the lines observed in this work and prior microwave, far-infrared and infrared data on the pure bending levels. Significantly improved molecular parameters were obtained for 12C2D2 by adding the new measurements to the old data set, which had only 10 lines with microwave measurement precision. New frequency and intensity predictions have been made based on the obtained molecular parameters. The more precise measurements and new predictions reported here will support the analyses of astronomical observations by the future high-resolution spectroscopy telescopes such as Herschel, SOFIA, and ALMA, which will work in the terahertz spectral region.

  1. Development of U-frame bending system for studying the vibration integrity of spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Jy-An John; Tan, Ting; Jiang, Hao; Cox, Thomas S.; Howard, Rob L.; Bevard, Bruce B.; Flanagan, Michelle

    2013-09-01

    A bending fatigue system developed to evaluate the response of spent nuclear fuel rods to vibration loads is presented. A U-frame testing setup is used for imposing bending loads on the fuel rod specimen. The U-frame setup consists of two rigid arms, side connecting plates to the rigid arms, and linkages to a universal testing machine. The test specimen's curvature is obtained through a three-point deflection measurement method. The tests using surrogate specimens with stainless steel cladding revealed increased flexural rigidity under unidirectional cyclic bending, significant effect of cladding-pellets bonding on the response of surrogate rods, and substantial cyclic softening in reverse bending mode. These phenomena may cast light on the expected response of a spent nuclear fuel rod. The developed U-frame system is thus verified and demonstrated to be ready for further pursuit in hot-cell tests.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF THE CONSTRUCTIVE PARAMETERS ON THE VIBRATION INHERENT FREQUENCIES AT BENDING FROM TWOSHAFTS TRANSMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion BULAC

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The shafts transmissions that can be treated as the elastic linkage systems of various sections, length and specific weights, suspended on elastic supports. The average fiber elastic deforms under the action of own weight static, generating a mass eccentric to the axis of rotation of its own.The eccentric mass during the even rotation produces a centrifugal force, which increases the elastic deformation leading to the occurrence of bending vibration. The own pulses of this vibrations depend on the mechanic and constructiv caracteristic of the cardan transmissions. This paper presents the influence these characteristic over the frequencies and vibration modes inherent at bending and based on numerical simulations will draw conclusions

  3. The bending vibration response and approximate calculation of elastic cylindrical shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao-li; SHENG Mei-ping; HE Chen

    2006-01-01

    Useful structure characteristics of elastic cylindrical shells have led them to being widely applied in virtual projects ,so it is important to conduct vibration research on the shells and find it's a simpler corresponding compact calculation method. Utilising the input and transfer point mobility of a thin plate structure, a theoretical expression of the cylindrical shell's bending vibration responsewas deduced and numerical simulations were done to simplify the theoretical expression within an acceptable error margin, greatly reducing the amount of computations. Furthermore, whole vibration response distributions of the cylindrical shell were analyzed. It was found thathe vibration energy propagates in helical form under mono-frequency excitation, while under bandwidth frequency excitation, it attenuates around in term of fluctuation. The axial attenuation rate of the vibration energy is larger than the circumferential attenuation rate.

  4. Terahertz Spectroscopy of the Bending Vibrations of Acetylene 12C2H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shanshan; Drouin, Brian J.; Pearson, John C.

    2009-11-01

    Twenty P-branch transitions of 12C2H2 have been measured in the 0.8-1.6 THz region of its bending vibrational difference band. The accuracy of these measurements is estimated to be 100 kHz. The 12C2H2 molecules were generated under room temperature by passing 150 mTorr H2O vapor through calcium carbide (CaC2) powder. The observed transitions were modeled together with prior far-infrared data involving the bending levels with ∑\

  5. High speed bending of 2nd level interconnects on printed circuit boards for automotive electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouters, M.H.M.; Ubachs, R.; Wiel, H.J. van de; Waal, A. van der; Veer, J. van der

    2011-01-01

    Standard drop tests for portable electronics are not representative for the qualification of automotive electronics. High-frequency vibrations are more dominant than abrupt shocks during normal operation. In this work a high speed board bending (HSB) method is developed to mimic the constant cyclic

  6. High speed bending of 2nd level interconnects on printed circuit boards for automotive electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouters, M.H.M.; Ubachs, R.; Wiel, H.J. van de; Waal, A. van der; Veer, J. van der

    2011-01-01

    Standard drop tests for portable electronics are not representative for the qualification of automotive electronics. High-frequency vibrations are more dominant than abrupt shocks during normal operation. In this work a high speed board bending (HSB) method is developed to mimic the constant cyclic

  7. Experimental study on vibration frequency response of micro-bend optic-fiber sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuxiang Qin; Honggang Li; Wande Fan; Qiuqin Sheng

    2009-01-01

    We make an experimental study on vibration frequency response of micro-bend optic-fiber sensor, and single-mode fibers and multi-mode fibers are used as the sensitive optic-fibers. Contrast between the two sensitive fibers is presented. Result shows that the micro-bend optic-fiber sensor has good frequency response characteristics and strong ability to restore the waveform. With the frequency varying in the range of 500 - 4762 Hz, the vibration sensors using multi-mode optic-fiber as the sensitive fiber is more sensitive than that using single-mode optic-fiber. And the former has better frequency response characteristics and stronger capacity of waveform revivification. But with the frequency in the range of 287 - 500 Hz, the latter is better.

  8. Active control of sound radiated by a submarine in bending vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caresta, Mauro

    2011-02-01

    This paper theoretically investigates the use of inertial actuators to reduce the sound radiated by a submarine hull in bending vibration under harmonic excitation from the propeller. The radial forces from the propeller are tonal at the blade passing frequency and are transmitted to the hull through the stern end cone. The hull is modelled as a fluid loaded cylindrical shell with ring stiffeners and two equally spaced bulkheads. The cylinder is closed by end-plates and conical end caps. The actuators are arranged in circumferential arrays and attached to the prow end cone. Both Active Vibration Control and Active Structural Acoustic Control are analysed. The inertial actuators can provide control forces with a magnitude large enough to reduce the sound radiated by the vibrations of the hull in some frequency ranges.

  9. Effects of magnetomechanical vibrations and bending stresses on three-phase three-leg transformers with amorphous cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chang-Hung; Chang, Yeong-Hwa; Lee, Chun-Yao; Yao, Chia-Shiang; He, Yan-Lou; Chu, Huei-Lung; Chang, Chia-Wen; Chan, Wei-Shou

    2012-04-01

    This paper explores the influence of bending stresses on the magnetic characteristics of three-phase transformers with amorphous cores. Different types of core structures, including C-cores and toroidal cores, and their magnetic properties are compared using VSM and XRD. The losses in the magnetic core of the three-phase transformer are analyzed using the finite element analysis for both design and measurement. In addition, experimental results indicated that amorphous-core transformers with rectangular corners had higher audible noise and vibration intensities. This is because the condensed distribution of magnetic flux lines in the corners of the core may create high magnetic inductions associated with high magnetostriction. Finally, experiments with three-phase amorphous-core transformers were performed to study the effects of magnetism and magnetostriction on their performance in terms of core loss, vibration, and audible noise.

  10. Bending and vibration of functionally graded material sandwich plates using an accurate theory

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, S

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the bending and the free flexural vibration behaviour of sandwich functionally graded material (FGM) plates are investigated using QUAD-8 shear flexible element developed based on higher order structural theory. This theory accounts for the realistic variation of the displacements through the thickness. The governing equations obtained here are solved for static analysis considering two types of sandwich FGM plates, viz., homogeneous face sheets with FGM core and FGM face sheets with homogeneous hard core. The in-plane and rotary inertia terms are considered for vibration studies. The accuracy of the present formulation is tested considering the problems for which three-dimensional elasticity solutions are available. A detailed numerical study is carried out based on various higher-order models to examine the influence of the gradient index and the plate aspect ratio on the global/local response of different sandwich FGM plates.

  11. A wearable, highly stable, strain and bending sensor based on high aspect ratio graphite nanobelts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaferdov, A. V.; Savu, R.; Rackauskas, T. A.; Rackauskas, S.; Canesqui, M. A.; de Lara, D. S.; Setti, G. O.; Joanni, E.; de Trindade, G. M.; Lima, U. B.; de Souza, A. S.; Moshkalev, S. A.

    2016-09-01

    A simple and scalable method was developed for the fabrication of wearable strain and bending sensors, based on high aspect ratio (length/thickness ˜103) graphite nanobelt thin films deposited by a modified Langmuir-Blodgett technique onto flexible polymer substrates. The sensing mechanism is based on the changes in contact resistance between individual nanobelts upon substrate deformation. Very high sensor response stability for more than 5000 strain-release cycles and a device power consumption as low as 1 nW were achieved. The device maximum stretchability is limited by the metal electrodes and the polymer substrate; the maximum strain that could be applied to the polymer used in this work was 40%. Bending tests carried out for various radii of curvature demonstrated distinct sensor responses for positive and negative curvatures. The graphite nanobelt thin flexible films were successfully tested for acoustic vibration and heartbeat sensing.

  12. Study on the application of active balancing device to solve the vibration problem for the rotor with bending fault

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Lidong; Shen Wei; Gao Jinji; Zhou Weihua

    2006-01-01

    The rotor with bending faults that occurrs on the rotating machinery usually vibrates seriously. This paper investigates to apply the active balancing device on a flexible rotor with bending faults to solve the vibration problem. Two problems are studied by finite element method firstly: Where the balance actuator is fixed on the shaft and how much the balancing capacity of the active balancing device is needed. The experiment is then carried out on the test rig, which consists of a flexible rotor with bending faults. The test results indicate that the bending rotor peak vibration response can be decreased from 550μm to 40μm below by using the active balancing device. The peak vibration response decreases approximately by 93%. The synchronous vibration due to the rotor bending faults can be controlled effectively by using active balancing device. The active balancing device is especially adapted to solve the problem caused by thermal distortion with time-variation and randomness, which is varied with working conditions, thus it has good practical value in practice.

  13. Vibrational relaxation of the bending mode of shock-heated CO2 by laser-absorption measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstrom, D. J.; Bershader, D.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the vibrational relaxation characteristics of shock-heated CO2 using a tuned CO2 laser absorption technique. Absorption-coefficient histories were obtained for a single rotational state in each of the -10 0- and -02 0- levels over the temperature range from 500 to 2000 K, and for 21 rotational states of the -10 0- level at 1000 K. These histories have been combined with translational-rotational temperature histories based on interferometer measurements to calculate vibrational relaxation times for the bending mode. The results verify the mutual equilibrium of the bending and symmetric-stretch modes due to Fermi resonance. The bending mode relaxation times are approximately 10% shorter than predicted from interferometer results using the ratio of specific heats. Furthermore, relaxation times based on measurements of different rotational states at 1000 K show a variation with quantum number J, indicating a possible rotational nonequilibrium during the vibration relaxation process.

  14. Research on Effective Electric-Mechanical Coupling Coefficient of Sandwich Type Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducer Using Bending Vibration Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model on electromechanical coupling coefficient and the length optimization of a bending piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer are proposed. The piezoelectric transducer consists of 8 PZT elements sandwiched between four thin electrodes, and the PZT elements are clamped by a screwed connection between fore beam and back beam. Firstly, bending vibration model of the piezoelectric transducer is built based on the Timoshenko beam theory. Secondly, the analytical model of effective electromechanical coupling coefficient is built based on the bending vibration model. Energy method and electromechanical equivalent circuit method are involved in the modelling process. To validate the analytical model, sandwich type piezoelectric transducer example in second order bending vibration mode is analysed. Effective electromechanical coupling coefficient of the transducer is optimized with simplex reflection technique, and the optimized ratio of length of the transducers is obtained. Finally, experimental prototypes of the sandwich type piezoelectric transducers are fabricated. Bending vibration mode and impedance of the experimental prototypes are tested, and electromechanical coupling coefficient is obtained according to the testing results. Results show that the analytical model is in good agreement with the experimental model.

  15. Localized bending fatigue behavior of high-strength steel monostrands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the localized bending fatigue behavior of pretensioned high strength steel monostrands is investigated. Furthermore, a new methodology using an optical photogrammetry system, which can quantify surface deformations on the strand is presented. The system allows measurement of the st......In this paper, the localized bending fatigue behavior of pretensioned high strength steel monostrands is investigated. Furthermore, a new methodology using an optical photogrammetry system, which can quantify surface deformations on the strand is presented. The system allows measurement...

  16. Modal disturbance investigation of rod-shaped ultrasonic motor using bending vibrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiantao ZHANG; Hua ZHU; Chunsheng ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    Modal disturbance of a rod-shaped ultrasonic motor using bending vibrations can cause problems such as low motor efficiency, instability, and poor control. In this paper, a dynamic analysis model of a stator is cre-ated on the basis of the finite element method (FEM) and Hamilton principle. The modal frequency sensitiv-ities of the stator to the structure parameters are inves-tigated by modal analysis. Accordingly, the structure parameters of the stator are modified to separate working modes from disturbance modes. A rod-shaped ultrasonic motor stator is fabricated, and the experi-mental results of its amplitude frequency response char-acteristics show that the purpose of modal separation is achieved. The frequency separation between working modes and disturbance modes is more than 2 kHz. The validity of the method is verified.

  17. Single variable refined beam theories for the bending, buckling and free vibration of homogenous beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyad A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, single variable beam theories taking into account effect of transverse shear deformation are developed and applied for the bending, buckling and free vibration analysis of thick isotropic beams. The most important feature of the present beam theories is that unlike any other higher order theory, the proposed class of theories contains only one unknown variable and does not require shear correction factor. The displacement field of the present theories is built upon the classical beam theory. The theories account for parabolic distribution of transverse shear stress using constitutive relations, satisfying the traction free conditions at top and bottom surfaces of the beam. Governing differential equation and boundary conditions of these theories are obtained using the principle of virtual work. Results obtained for the displacements, stresses, fundamental frequencies and critical buckling loads of simply supported isotropic solid beams are compared with those obtained by other theories to validate the accuracy of the present theories.

  18. Free Vibration and Bending Behaviour of CNT Reinforced Composite Plate using Different Shear Deformation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehar, K.; Panda, S. K.

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the free vibration and the bending behaviour of carbon nanotube reinforced composite plate are computed using three different shear deformation theories under thermal environment. The material properties of carbon nanotube and matrix are assumed to be temperature-dependent, and the extended rule of mixture is used to compute the effectivematerial properties of the composite plate. The convergence and validity of the present modelalso have been checked by computing the wide variety of the numerical example. The applicability of the proposed higher-order models has been highlighted by solving the wide variety of examples for different geometrical and material parameters underelevated thermal environment.The responses are also examined using the simulation model developed in commercial finite element package (ANSYS).

  19. An energy harvester using piezoelectric cantilever beams undergoing coupled bending-torsion vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkefi, A.; Najar, F.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Ben Ayed, S.

    2011-11-01

    Recently, piezoelectric cantilevered beams have received considerable attention for vibration-to-electric energy conversion. Generally, researchers have investigated a classical piezoelectric cantilever beam with or without a tip mass. In this paper, we propose the use of a unimorph cantilever beam undergoing bending-torsion vibrations as a new piezoelectric energy harvester. The proposed design consists of a single piezoelectric layer and a couple of asymmetric tip masses; the latter convert part of the base excitation force into a torsion moment. This structure can be tuned to be a broader band energy harvester by adjusting the first two global natural frequencies to be relatively close to each other. We develop a distributed-parameter model of the harvester by using the Euler-beam theory and Hamilton's principle, thereby obtaining the governing equations of motion and associated boundary conditions. Then, we calculate the exact eigenvalues and associated mode shapes and validate them with a finite element (FE) model. We use these mode shapes in a Galerkin procedure to develop a reduced-order model of the harvester, which we use in turn to obtain closed-form expressions for the displacement, twisting angle, voltage output, and harvested electrical power. These expressions are used to conduct a parametric study for the dynamics of the system to determine the appropriate set of geometric properties that maximizes the harvested electrical power. The results show that, as the asymmetry is increased, the harvester's performance improves. We found a 30% increase in the harvested power with this design compared to the case of beams undergoing bending only. We also show that the locations of the two masses can be chosen to bring the lowest two global natural frequencies closer to each other, thereby allowing the harvesting of electrical power from multi-frequency excitations.

  20. Equilibria and Free Vibration of a Two-Pulley Belt-Driven System with Belt Bending Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyu Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear equilibrium curvatures and free vibration characteristics of a two-pulley belt-driven system with belt bending stiffness and a one-way clutch are investigated. With nonlinear dynamical tension, the transverse vibrations of the translating belt spans and the rotation motions of the pulleys and the accessory shaft are coupled. Therefore, nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous governing equations are established. Considering the bending stiffness of the translating belt spans, the belt spans are modeled as axially moving beams. The pattern of equilibria is a nontrivial solution. Furthermore, the nontrivial equilibriums of the dynamical system are numerically determined by using two different approaches. The governing equations of the vibration near the equilibrium solutions are derived by introducing a coordinate transform. The natural frequencies of the dynamical systems are studied by using the Galerkin method with various truncations and the differential and integral quadrature methods. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is investigated. Numerical results reveal that the study needs 16 terms after truncation in order to determine the free vibration characteristics of the pulley-belt system with the belt bending stiffness. Furthermore, the first five natural frequencies are very sensitive to the bending stiffness of the translating belt.

  1. Coupled-Mode Flutter of Bending-Bending Type in Highly-Flexible Uniform Airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourazarm, Pariya; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2016-11-01

    We study the behavior of a highly flexible uniform airfoil placed in wind both numerically and experimentally. It is shown that for a non-rotating highly-flexible cantilevered airfoil, placed at very small angles of attack (less than 1 degree), the airfoil loses its stability by buckling. For slightly higher angles of attack (more than 1 degree) a coupled-mode flutter in which the first and the second flapwise modes coalesce toward a flutter mode is observed, and thus the observed flutter has a bending-bending nature. The flutter onset and frequency found experimentally matched the numerical predictions. If the same airfoil is forced to rotate about its fixed end, the static deflection decreases and the observed couple-mode flutter becomes of flapwise-torsional type, same as what has already been observed for flutter of rotating wind turbine blades. The support provided by the National Science Foundation, CBET-1437988, is greatly acknowledged.

  2. Quantum dynamics of dissociative chemisorption of CH(4) on Ni(111): Influence of the bending vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamohan, G P; Olsen, R A; Kroes, G-J; Gatti, F; Woittequand, S

    2010-10-14

    Two-dimensional, three-dimensional, and four-dimensional quantum dynamic calculations are performed on the dissociative chemisorption of CH(4) on Ni(111) using the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method. The potential energy surface used for these calculations is 15-dimensional (15D) and was obtained with density functional theory for points which are concentrated in the region that is dynamically relevant to reaction. Many reduced dimensionality calculations were already performed on this system, but the molecule was generally treated as pseudodiatomic. The main improvement of our model is that we try to describe CH(4) as a polyatomic molecule by including a degree of freedom describing a bending vibration in our three-dimensional and four-dimensional models. Using a polyspherical coordinate system, a general expression for the 15D kinetic energy operator is derived, which discards all the singularities in the operator and includes rotational and Coriolis coupling. We use seven rigid constraints to fix the CH(3) umbrella of the molecule to its gas phase equilibrium geometry and to derive two-dimensional, three-dimensional, and four-dimensional Hamiltonians, which were used in the MCTDH method. Only four degrees of freedom evolve strongly along the 15D minimum energy path: the distance of the center of mass of the molecule to the surface, the dissociative C[Single Bond]H bond distance, the polar orientation of the molecule, and the bending angle between the dissociative C[Single Bond]H bond and the umbrella. A selection of these coordinates is included in each of our models. The polar rotation is found to be important in determining the mode selective behavior of the reaction. Furthermore, our calculations are in good agreement with the finding of Xiang et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 7698 (2002)] in their reduced dimensional calculation that the helicopter motion of the umbrella symmetry axis is less efficient than its cartwheel motion for promoting

  3. BENDING VIBRATION AND STABILITY OF A MULTIPLE-NANOBEAM SYSTEM INFLUENCED BY TEMPERATURE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Karličić

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyzed the bending vibration and stability of a multiple-nanobeam system (MNBS coupled in elastic medium and influenced by temperature change and compressive axial load. The MNBS is modeled as the system consisting of a set of m identical and simply supported nanobeams mutually connected by Winkler’s type elastic layers. According to the Euler - Bernoulli beam and nonlocal thermo-elasticity theory, the system of m coupled partial differential equations is derived and solved by means of the method of separation of variables as well as the trigonometric one. Analytical solutions for natural frequencies and critical buckling loads of elastic MNBS are obtained. The effects of nonlocal parameter, temperature change and the number of nanobeams on the natural frequencies and the buckling loads are investigated through numerical examples. Thus, this work can represent a starting point to examine dynamical behavior and design of complex nanobeam structures, nanocomposites and nanodevices under the influence of various physical fields.

  4. An analysis of thermal stress and gas bending effects on vibrations of compressor rotor stages. [blade torsional rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.-T.; Dugundji, J.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary study conducted by Kerrebrock et al. (1976) has shown that the torsional rigidity of untwisted thin blades of a transonic compressor can be reduced significantly by transient thermal stresses. The aerodynamic loads have various effects on blade vibration. One effect is that gas bending loads may result in a bending-torsion coupling which may change the characteristics of the torsion and bending vibration of the blade. For a general study of transient-temperature distribution within a rotor stage, a finite-element heat-conduction analysis was developed. The blade and shroud are divided into annular elements. With a temperature distribution obtained from the heat-conduction analysis and a prescribed gas bending load distribution along the blade span, the static deformation and moment distributions of the blade can be solved iteratively using the finite-element method. The reduction of the torsional rigidity of pretwisted blades caused by the thermal stress effect is then computed. The dynamic behavior of the blade is studied by a modified Galerkin's method.

  5. An analysis of thermal stress and gas bending effects on vibrations of compressor rotor stages. [blade torsional rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.-T.; Dugundji, J.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary study conducted by Kerrebrock et al. (1976) has shown that the torsional rigidity of untwisted thin blades of a transonic compressor can be reduced significantly by transient thermal stresses. The aerodynamic loads have various effects on blade vibration. One effect is that gas bending loads may result in a bending-torsion coupling which may change the characteristics of the torsion and bending vibration of the blade. For a general study of transient-temperature distribution within a rotor stage, a finite-element heat-conduction analysis was developed. The blade and shroud are divided into annular elements. With a temperature distribution obtained from the heat-conduction analysis and a prescribed gas bending load distribution along the blade span, the static deformation and moment distributions of the blade can be solved iteratively using the finite-element method. The reduction of the torsional rigidity of pretwisted blades caused by the thermal stress effect is then computed. The dynamic behavior of the blade is studied by a modified Galerkin's method.

  6. A novel bending fatigue test device based on self-excited vibration principle and its application to superelastic Nitinol microwire study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jiaming; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Qi, Mingjing; Liu, Zhiwei; Huang, Dawei

    2017-10-01

    Most Nitinol-alloy-based biomedical devices are usually manufactured from straight drawn microwires or microbeams. Fatigue due to cyclic bending is interpreted as the primary failure mechanism in these devices. However, the bending fatigue performance of a Nitinol microwire is rarely studied because of the lack of test devices. Therefore, we firstly establish a bending fatigue test device based on the self-excited vibration principle. Then, we further improve and experimentally verify the device in three aspects to enlarge the strain amplitude: electrode distance optimization, electrode placement angle optimization and local stiffness enhancement. Based on these improvements, the strain amplitude is increased to 6%, successfully meeting the requirements of Nitinol microwire bending fatigue tests. Using the improved test device, a group of superelastic Nitinol (55.8% Ni-44.2% Ti) microwires with a diameter of 50.8 μm are tested. The test results show that the fatigue strain limit for the chosen life (1 × 106 cycles) is around 1.9%, and the inflexion appears at a strain amplitude of 2.3%. SEM observation shows the typical features of low-cycle and high-cycle fatigue on the fracture surfaces.

  7. Ro-vibrational spectrum of H2O-Ne in the ν2 H2O bending region: A combined ab initio and experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xunchen; Hou, Dan; Thomas, Javix; Li, Hui; Xu, Yunjie

    2016-12-01

    High resolution ro-vibrational transitions of the H2O-Ne complex in the ν2 bending region of H2O at 6 μm have been measured using a rapid scan infrared spectrometer based on an external cavity quantum cascade laser and an astigmatic multipass optical cell. To aid the spectral assignment, a four-dimension potential energy surface of H2O-Ne which depends on the intramolecular bending coordinate of the H2O monomer and the three intermolecular vibrational coordinates has been constructed and the rovibrational transitions have been calculated. Three ortho and two para H2O-20Ne bands have been identified from the experimental spectra. Some weaker transitions belonging to H2O-22Ne have also been identified experimentally. Spectroscopic fits have been performed for both the experimental and theoretical transition frequencies using a simple pseudo-diatomic Hamiltonian including both Coriolis coupling and Fermi resonance terms. The experimental and theoretical spectroscopic constants thus obtained have been compared. Further improvements needed in the potential energy surface and the related spectral simulation have been discussed.

  8. Fatigue crack behaviour: comparing three-point bend test and wedge splitting test data on vibrated concrete using Paris' law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Seitl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue behaviour of concrete has become more important for the design of constructions due to the desire to build slimmer structures, which are more sensitive to fatigue loading. This article aims to evaluate and compare the fatigue crack propagation rate in vibrated concrete for four different stress ratios using the Paris-Erdogan law. The data evaluation in this article is based on crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD measurements from cyclic three-point bending tests on single edge notched beams and from wedge splitting tests on notched cubes, obtained from experiments at Ghent University. For this study, finite element analysis is used to obtain a mathematical relationship between the CMOD and the relative crack length a/W, as well as a relationship between the stress intensity ratio ∆K and a/W. The obtained mathematical relationships were then combined with the measured CMOD values to correlate the test data to the Paris-Erdogan law. Herein, the crack propagation rate da/dN is plotted against the corresponding stress intensity range ∆K in a log-log graph. In a final step, the Paris-Erdogan law parameters C and m were obtained through linear curve fitting on the data points from the obtained graphs. The parameters C and m are then used to compare and evaluate the fatigue crack behavior in vibrated concrete, and the differences between the results from the three-point bend tests and wedge splitting tests.

  9. Bending and torsional vibrations of open tube booms on spinning spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, J. N.; Davis, R.

    1977-01-01

    The mathematical formulation is presented of the coupled bending and twisting equations of motion for open tube booms in spinning spacecraft. The equations are applicable to a general class of open tube booms whose shear center does not coincide with the centroid of the cross section. The emphasis in this paper is on the treatment of the coupled bending and twisting motions. The equations of motion of the center of mass are provided in other references. The results of a simulation of the bending and twisting motion of a circular cross-section boom having a small longitudinal slot on a spinning spacecraft is provided. The simulation demonstrates that the centrifugal forces will induce twisting motion due to offset shear center.

  10. Nonlinear bending-torsional vibration and stability of rotating, pretwisted, preconed blades including Coriolis effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.; Brown, G. V.; Lawrence, C.

    1986-01-01

    The coupled bending-bending-torsional equations of dynamic motion of rotating, linearly pretwisted blades are derived including large precone, second degree geometric nonlinearities and Coriolis effects. The equations are solved by the Galerkin method and a linear perturbation technique. Accuracy of the present method is verified by comparisons of predicted frequencies and steady state deflections with those from MSC/NASTRAN and from experiments. Parametric results are generated to establish where inclusion of only the second degree geometric nonlinearities is adequate. The nonlinear terms causing torsional divergence in thin blades are identified. The effects of Coriolis terms and several other structurally nonlinear terms are studied, and their relative importance is examined.

  11. Noncontact ultrasonic transportation of small objects over long distances in air using a bending vibrator and a reflector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2010-05-01

    Ultrasonic manipulation of small particles, including liquid droplets, over long distances is discussed. It is well known that particles can be trapped at the nodal points of an acoustic standing wave if the particles are much smaller than the wavelength of the standing wave. We used an experimental setup consisting of a 3-mm-thick, 605-mm-long duralumin bending vibrating plate and a reflector. A bolt-clamped Langevin transducer with horn was attached to each end of the vibrating plate to generate flexural vibrations along the plate. A plane reflector with the same dimensions as the vibrating plate was installed parallel to the plate at a distance of approximately 17 mm to generate an ultrasonic standing wave between them and to trap the small particles at the nodal lines. The acoustic field and acoustic radiation force between the vibrator and reflector were calculated by finite element analysis to predict the positions of the trapped particles. The sound pressure distribution was measured experimentally using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. By controlling the driving phase difference between the two transducers, a flexural traveling wave can be generated along the vibrating plate, and the vertical nodal lines of the standing wave and the trapped particles can be moved. The flexural wave was excited along the vibrator at 22.5 kHz. A lattice standing wave with a wavelength of 35 mm in the length direction could be excited between the vibrator and the reflector, and polystyrene spheres with diameters of several millimeters could be trapped at the nodal lines of the standing wave. The experimental and calculated results showed good agreement for the relationship between the driving phase difference and the positions of the trapped particles. Noncontact transportation of the trapped particles over long distances could be achieved by changing the driving phase difference. The position of the trapped particles could be controlled to an accuracy of 0.046 mm/deg. An

  12. Advanced System Identification for High-rise Building Using Shear-Bending Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Fujita

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify physical model parameters of a high-rise building, a new story stiffness identification method is presented based on a shear-bending model and the identification function. Although a shear building model may be the simplest conventional model for representing tall buildings, the system identification (SI method using that model is not necessarily appropriate. This is because the influence of bending deformation is predominant in such high-rise buildings. For this reason, a shear-bending model is used where the shear and bending stiffnesses are unknown. In the previous researches using the shear-bending model, it was difficult to identify the bending stiffnesses stably and reliably. In this paper, to overcome such instability of bending stiffness identification of the shear-bending model, a new SI algorithm using both the shear model and the shear-bending model is presented. The proposed SI algorithm is based on the observation that the fundamental-mode shape of the identified shear model is similar to that of the shear-bending model identified in the previous SI method. In order to verify the advanced SI method, two different 20-story building models are investigated in the numerical simulations. From the results of the simulations, both the shear and bending stiffnesses of the shear-bending model are identified reliably and stably in the proposed SI method.

  13. A study of the enhanced heat transfer of flow-induced vibration of a new type of heat transfer tube bundle—The planar bending elastic tube bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yancai, E-mail: boboxuanxuan1@163.com; Li, Mengli; Liu, Mingliang; Ma, Guodong

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • This tube bundle’s vibration modes contain transverse and longitudinal vibration modes. • The fluid can induce this tube bundle vibration along all directions. • The heat transfer enhancement effect of flow-induced the tube bundle vibration is obvious. - Abstract: Based on the idea of fully using flow-induced transverse vibration to enhance heat transfer, this paper proposes a new type of elastic heat transfer element—the planar bending elastic tube bundle. This elastic tube bundle has a large heat transfer area per unit volume and a small gap between the transverse and longitudinal stiffness. The inherent characteristics are numerically studied. The results showed that the natural vibration forms of the elastic tube bundle include the longitudinal vibration forms and the transverse vibration forms, and the two types of vibration modes appear alternately. In addition, the characteristics of flow-induced vibration and heat transfer are researched. Because the first two orders of the natural vibration modes are longitudinal vibration and transverse vibration, respectively, and the two vibration frequencies are low and similar, at the low flow velocity, the cross flow could induce the elastic tube bundle vibration along the three-dimensional directions. Along the X and Z axis directions, the two monitoring points A and B have the same vibration amplitude value and phase, whereas in the Y axis direction, the two monitoring points have a 180-degree phase difference, which is determined by the first-order and second-order natural vibration forms. The range of amplitudes of monitoring points A and B is from 2.3 mm to 5.3 mm, in agreement with the amplitude range of the heat transfer enhancement by flow-induced vibration. The effect of heat transfer enhancement of flow-induced tube bundle vibration is obvious. With the increase in flow velocity, the influence of tube vibration on heat transfer enhancement decreases greatly. Within the scope of this

  14. Change in resonance parameters of a linear molecule as it bends: Evidence in electron-impact vibrational transitions of hot COS and CO2 molecules*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Masamitsu; Ishijima, Yohei; Kato, Hidetoshi; Mogi, Daisuke; Takahashi, Yoshinao; Fukae, Katsuya; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Shimamura, Isao

    2016-04-01

    Inelastic and superelastic electron-impact vibrational excitation functions of hot carbonyl sulphide COS (and hot CO2) are measured for electron energies from 0.5 to 3.0 eV (1.5 to 6.0 eV) and at a scattering angle of 90°. Based on the vibrational populations and the principle of detailed balance, these excitation functions are decomposed into contributions from state-to-state vibrational transitions involving up to the second bending overtone (030) in the electronically ground state. Both the 2Π resonance for COS around 1.2 eV and the 2Πu resonance for CO2 around 3.8 eV are shifted to lower energies as the initial vibrational state is excited in the bending mode. The width of the resonance hump for COS changes only little as the molecule bends, whereas that of the overall boomerang resonance for CO2 becomes narrower. The angular distribution of the electrons resonantly scattered by hot COS and hot CO2 is also measured. The different shapes depending on the vibrational transitions and gas temperatures are discussed in terms of the symmetry of the vibrational wave functions. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.

  15. High Energy Vibration for Gas Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary Y. H.; Chan, K. B.; Lee, Aylwin Y. S.; Jia, ShengXiang

    2017-07-01

    In September 2016, a gas compressor in offshore Sarawak has its rotor changed out. Prior to this change-out, pipe vibration study was carried-out by the project team to evaluate any potential high energy pipe vibration problems at the compressor’s existing relief valve downstream pipes due to process condition changes after rotor change out. This paper covers high frequency acoustic excitation (HFAE) vibration also known as acoustic induced vibration (AIV) study and discusses detailed methodologies as a companion to the Energy Institute Guidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure, which is a common industry practice to assess and mitigate for AIV induced fatigue failure. Such detailed theoretical studies can help to minimize or totally avoid physical pipe modification, leading to reduce offshore plant shutdown days to plant shutdowns only being required to accommodate gas compressor upgrades, reducing cost without compromising process safety.

  16. A quantum model for bending vibrations and thermodynamic properties of C3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C. F.; Pearson, W. E.

    1973-01-01

    The investigation reported was conducted to clarify the thermodynamic properties of C3 by further developing the limit to the partition function suggested by Strauss and Thiele (1967). A quantum solution for the energy levels of a quadratically perturbed square well potential is presented and the consistency of this limit with observed energy levels is established. In the process a more complete physical picture of the bending C3 molecules emerges. The values of entropy deduced from various measurements of graphite pressure are compared with this limit, and the thermodynamic properties predicted for the limiting case are evaluated.

  17. High Burn-Up Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jiang, Hao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, Rob L [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Scaglione, John M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT) approach to successfully demonstrate the controllable fatigue fracture on high burnup (HBU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a normal vibration mode. CIRFT enables examination of the underlying mechanisms of SNF system dynamic performance. Due to the inhomogeneous composite structure of the SNF system, the detailed mechanisms of the pellet-pellet and pellet-clad interactions and the stress concentration effects at the pellet-pellet interface cannot be readily obtained from a CIRFT system measurement. Therefore, finite element analyses (FEAs) are used to translate the global moment-curvature measurement into local stress-strain profiles for further investigation. The major findings of CIRFT on the HBU SNF are as follows: SNF system interface bonding plays an important role in SNF vibration performance. Fuel structure contributes to SNF system stiffness. There are significant variations in stress and curvature of SNF systems during vibration cycles resulting from segment pellets and clad interactions. SNF failure initiates at the pellet-pellet interface region and appears to be spontaneous.

  18. On the nature of highly vibrationally excited states of Thiophosgene

    CERN Document Server

    Keshavamurthy, Srihari

    2011-01-01

    In this work an analysis of the highly vibrationally excited states of thiophosgene (SCCl$_{2}$) is made in order to gain insights into some of the experimental observations and spectral features. The states analyzed herein lie in a spectrally complex region where strong mode mixings are expected due to the overlap of several strong anharmonic Fermi resonances. Two recent techniques, a semiclassical angle space representation of the eigenstates and the parametric variation of the eigenvalues (level-velocities) are used to identify eigenstate sequences exhibiting common localization characteristics. Preliminary results on the influence of highly excited out-of-plane bending modes on the nature of the eigenstates suggest a possible bifurcation in the system.

  19. On the nature of highly vibrationally excited states of thiophosgene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srihari Keshavamurthy

    2012-01-01

    In this work an analysis of the highly vibrationally excited states of thiophosgene (SCCl2) is made in order to gain insights into some of the experimental observations and spectral features. The states analysed here lie in a spectrally complex region where strong mode mixings are expected due to the overlap of several strong anharmonic Fermi resonances. Two recent techniques, a semiclassical angle space representation of the eigenstates and the parametric variation of the eigenvalues (level-velocities) are used to identify eigenstate sequences exhibiting common localization characteristics. Preliminary results on the influence of highly excited out-of-plane bending modes on the nature of the eigenstates suggest a possible bifurcation in the system.

  20. High precision optical fiber alignment using tube laser bending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkersma, Ger; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Herder, Justus Laurens

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method to align optical fibers within 0.2 μm of the optimal position, using tube laser bending and in situ measuring of the coupling efficiency. For near-UV wavelengths, passive alignment of the fibers with respect to the waveguides on photonic integrated circuit chips

  1. Tunable far-IR laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled carbon clusters: the nu 2 bending vibration of C3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuttenmaer, C A; Cohen, R C; Pugliano, N; Heath, J R; Cooksy, A L; Busarow, K L; Saykally, R J

    1990-08-24

    Seven rovibrational transitions of the (01(1)0) fundamental bending band of C3 have been measured with high precision with the use of a tunable far-infrared laser spectrometer. The C3 molecules were produced by laser vaporization of a graphite rod and cooled in a supersonic expansion. The astrophysically important nu 2 fundamental frequency is determined to be 63.416529(40) cm-1. These measurements provide the basis for studies of C3 in the interstellar medium with far-infrared astronomy.

  2. Multi-scale bending, buckling and vibration analyses of carbon fiber/carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer nanocomposite plates with various shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, M.; Ansari, R.; Rouhi, H.

    2017-09-01

    Using a finite element-based multi-scale modeling approach, the bending, buckling and free vibration of hybrid polymer matrix composites reinforced by carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes (CF/CNT-RP) are analyzed herein. Thick composite plates with rectangular, circular, annular and elliptical shapes are considered. First, the equivalent material properties of CF/CNT-RP are calculated for different volume fractions of CF and CNT. To accomplish this aim, a two-step procedure is presented through which the coupled effects of nano- and micro-scale are taken into account. In the first step, modeling of dispersion of CNTs into the polymer matrix is done with considering interphase formed by their chemical interaction with the matrix, and the equivalent properties of resulting composite material are determined accordingly. CFs are then dispersed into CNT-RP which is considered a homogenous material in this step. Both distributions of CNTs and CFs are assumed to be random. After computing the equivalent properties of CF/CNT-RP for different volume fractions of its constituents, the bending, buckling and free vibration analyses of plates with different shapes are performed. It is shown that the reinforcement of the polymer matrix with both CF and CNT significantly affects the bending, buckling and free vibration characteristics of plates.

  3. Dynamical potential approach to dissociation of H-C bond in HCO highly excited vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Chao; Wu Guo-Zhen

    2009-01-01

    The highly excited vibrational levels of HCO in the electronic ground state, X1A', are employed to determine the coefficients of an algebraic Hamiltonian, by which the dynamical potential is derived and shown to be very useful for interpreting thc intramolecular vibrational relaxation (IVR) which operates via the HCO bending motion. The IVR inhibits the dissociation of H atom and enhances the stochastic degree of dynamical character. This approach is from a global viewpoint on a series of levels classified by the polyad number which is a constant of motion in a certain dynamical domain. In this way, the seemingly complicated level structure shows very regular picture, dynamically.

  4. High-Pressure Vibrational Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogson, Mark

    1987-09-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The study of solids at high pressure and variable temperature enables development of accurate interatomic potential functions over wide ranges of interatomic distances. A review of the main models used in the determination of these potentials is given in Chapter one. A discussion of phonon frequency as a variable physical parameter reflecting the interatomic potential is given. A high pressure Raman study of inorganic salts of the types MSCN, (M = K,Rb,Cs & NH_4^+ ) and MNO_2, (M = K,Na) has been completed. The studies have revealed two new phases in KNO_2 and one new phase in NaNO _2 at high pressure. The accurate phonon shift data have enabled the determination of the pure and biphasic stability regions of the phases of KNO _2. A discussion of the B1, B2 relationship of univalent nitrites is also given. In the series of thiocyanates studied new phases have been found in all four materials. In both the potassium and rubidium salts two new phases have been detected, and in the ceasium salt one new phase has been detected, all at high pressure, from accurate phonon shift data. These transitions are discussed in terms of second-order mechanisms with space groups suggested for all phases, based on Landau's theory of second-order phase transitions. In the ammonium salt one new phase has been detected. This new phase transition has been interpreted as a second-order transition. The series of molecular crystals CH_3 HgX, (X = Cl,Br & I) has been studied at high pressure and at variable temperature. In Chapter five, their phase behaviour at high pressure is detailed along with the pressure dependencies of their phonon frequencies. In the chloride and the bromide two new phases have been detected. In the bromide one has been detected at high temperature and one at high pressure, and latter being interpreted as the stopping of the methyl rotation. In the chloride one phase has been found at

  5. Laser assisted die bending: a new application of high power diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuöcker, D.; Schumi, T.; Spitzer, O.; Bammer, F.; Schuöcker, G.; Sperrer, G.

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays high power lasers are mainly used for cutting of sheet metals, for welding, hardening and rapid prototyping. In the forming of sheet metals as bending or deep drawing lasers are not used. Nevertheless a few years ago a new application of high power lasers has been invented, where bending of materials that break at room temperature becomes possible by heating them along the bending edge with high power lasers thus allowing their treatment without cracks and rupture. For this purpose a large number of diode lasers are arranged in the bottom tool of a bending machine (a V-shaped die) which heat up the initially flat sheet metal during the bending process what is performed by pressing it into the die with a knife shaped upper tool where due to the laser heating the material is softened and thus cracks are avoided. For the technical realization of the new process of laser assisted die bending, modules equipped with numerous laser diodes and a total beam power of 2,5 kW are used. The light emitted by these modules enters a tool with a length of 15cm and is deflected towards the workpiece. By using ten of these modules with adjacent dies and by integrating those in a bending press a bending edge of sheet metals with a length of 1500mm can be realized. Such a bending press with laser assistance also needs energization with a power of practically 50kW, a respective water flow, a heat exchanger system and also a control for all functions of this system. Special measures have also been developed to avoid radiating of those tools that are not covered by a workpiece in the case of bending edges shorter than the full length of the bending tools whereas individual short circuiting of diode modules can be performed. Specific measures to ensure a safe operation without any harm to the operational person have been realized. Exploitation of the bending process has been carried out for titanium, where material thicknesses up to 3mm have been bent successfully.

  6. Nonlinear Optimization of CLIC DRS New Design with Variable Bends and High Field Wigglers

    CERN Document Server

    Ghasem, H.; Alabau-Gonzalvo, J.; Papadopoulou, S.; Papaphilippou, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The new design of CLIC damping rings is based on longitudinal variable bends and high field superconducting wiggler magnets. It provides an ultra-low horizontal normalised emittance of 412 nm-rad at 2.86 GeV. In this paper, nonlinear beam dynamics of the new design of the damping ring (DR) with trapezium field profile bending magnets have been investigated in detail. Effects of the misalignment errors have been studied in the closed orbit and dynamic aperture.

  7. Bending, longitudinal and torsional wave transmission on Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beams with high propagation losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Hopkins, C

    2016-10-01

    Advanced Statistical Energy Analysis (ASEA) is used to predict vibration transmission across coupled beams which support multiple wave types up to high frequencies where Timoshenko theory is valid. Bending-longitudinal and bending-torsional models are considered for an L-junction and rectangular beam frame. Comparisons are made with measurements, Finite Element Methods (FEM) and Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA). When beams support at least two local modes for each wave type in a frequency band and the modal overlap factor is at least 0.1, measurements and FEM have relatively smooth curves. Agreement between measurements, FEM, and ASEA demonstrates that ASEA is able to predict high propagation losses which are not accounted for with SEA. These propagation losses tend to become more important at high frequencies with relatively high internal loss factors and can occur when there is more than one wave type. At such high frequencies, Timoshenko theory, rather than Euler-Bernoulli theory, is often required. Timoshenko theory is incorporated in ASEA and SEA using wave theory transmission coefficients derived assuming Euler-Bernoulli theory, but using Timoshenko group velocity when calculating coupling loss factors. The changeover between theories is appropriate above the frequency where there is a 26% difference between Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko group velocities.

  8. Influence of High Pressure on the Bending Rigidity of Model Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothaman, Sowmya; Cicuta, Pietro; Ces, Oscar; Brooks, Nicholas J

    2015-07-30

    Curvature is a fundamental lipid membrane property that influences many membrane-mediated biological processes and dynamic soft materials. One of the key parameters that determines the energetics of curvature change is the membrane bending rigidity. Understanding the intrinsic effect of pressure on membrane bending is critical to understanding the adaptation and structural behavior of biomembranes in deep-sea organisms as well as soft material processing. However, it has not previously been possible to measure the influence of high hydrostatic pressure on membrane bending energetics, and this bottleneck has primarily been due to a lack of technology platforms for performing such measurements. We have developed a new high-pressure microscopy cell which, combined with vesicle fluctuation analysis, has allowed us to make the first measurements of membrane bending rigidity as a function of pressure. Our results show a significant increase in bending rigidity at pressures up to 40 MPa. Above 40 MPa, the membrane mechanics become more complex. Corresponding small and wide-angle X-ray diffraction shows an increase in density and thickness of the bilayer with increasing pressure which correlates with the micromechanical measurements. These results are consistent with recent theoretical predictions of the bending rigidity as a function of hydrocarbon chain density. This technology has the potential to transform our quantitative understanding of the role of pressure in soft material processing, the structural behavior of biomembranes, and the adaptation mechanisms employed by deep-sea organisms.

  9. Progress Letter Report on Bending Fatigue Test System Development for Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study (Out-of-cell fatigue testing development - Task 2.4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL; Cox, Thomas S [ORNL; Baldwin, Charles A [ORNL; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    Vibration integrity of high burn-up spent nuclear fuel in transportation remains to be a critical component of US nuclear waste management system. The structural evaluation of package for spent fuel transportation eventually will need to see if the content or spent fuel is in a subcritical condition. However, a system for testing and characterizing such spent fuel is still lacking mainly due to the complication involved with dealing radioactive specimens in a hot cell environment. Apparently, the current state-of-the-art in spent fuel research and development is quite far away from the delivery of reliable mechanical property data for the assessment of spent fuels in the transport package evaluation. Under the sponsorship of US NRC, ORNL has taken the challenge in developing a robust testing system for spent fuel in hot cell. An extensive literature survey was carried out and unique requirements of such testing system were identified. The U-frame setup has come to the top among various designs examined for reverse bending fatigue test of spent fuel rod. The U-frame has many features that deserve mentioned here: Easy to install spent fuel rod in test; Less linkages than in conventional bending test setup such as three-point or four-point bending; Target the failure mode relevant to the fracture of spent fuel rod in transportation by focusing on pure bending; The continuous calibrations and modifications resulted in the third generation (3G) U-frame testing setup. Rigid arms are split along the LBB axis at rod sample ends. For each arm, this results in a large arm body and an end piece. Mating halves of bushings were modified into two V-shaped surfaces on which linear roller bearings (LRB) are embedded. The rod specimen is installed into the test fixture through opening and closing slide end-pieces. The 3G apparently has addressed major issues of setup identified in the previous stage and been proven to be eligible to be further pursued in this project. On the other

  10. High resolution synchrotron radiation Fourier transform infrared spectrum of the COH-bending mode in methanol-D1 (CH2DOH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Indra; Billinghurst, B. E.

    2017-09-01

    In this work the high resolution synchrotron radiation Fourier transform spectrum in the range 1180-1300 cm-1 corresponding to the COH-bending vibrational mode has been recorded and analyzed. The spectrum shows a structure analogous to a parallel band. Since the COH bending motion is one of the main contributors to the asymmetry in the torsional hindering potential barrier, the torsional barrier height in the excited state is expected to be quite different from that of the ground state. This makes the spectrum to spread over a wide region. Although the spectrum corresponding to the P- and R-branch looks very complicated, the Q-branches are well resolved and can be identified without much difficulty. It was possible to assign the spectra for K = 0 to 10 for the trans- (e0) species. The interesting feature of the spectra is the absence of the lines for two other lower lying gauche symmetry species e1 and o1. The spectra due to any perpendicular transitions were absent as well. However some weak c-type transitions from gauche states (o1 and e1) in the ground state to the trans-species (e0) in the COD bending mode for low K-values ΔK = 0 have been seen to be present in the spectra. These along with similar transitions for the OCD vibrational band are under investigation and the results will be communicated elsewhere. In the present work, analysis of the spectrum has been carried out to obtain precise term values and molecular parameters in the excited COH-bending state for the trans-species. The results will be shown valuable to assign similar spectra for the methanol-D2. This work represents the first reported high resolution study of this illusive vibrational mode in methanol-D1.

  11. Coupled bending-torsion vibration of a homogeneous beam with a single delamination subjected to axial loads and static end moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Shu, Dong-Wei

    2014-08-01

    Delaminations in structures may significantly reduce the stiffness and strength of the structures and may affect their vibration characteristics. As structural components, beams have been used for various purposes, in many of which beams are often subjected to axial loads and static end moments. In the present study, an analytical solution is developed to study the coupled bending-torsion vibration of a homogeneous beam with a single delamination subjected to axial loads and static end moments. Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and the "free mode" assumption in delamination vibration are adopted. This is the first study of the influences of static end moments upon the effects of delaminations on natural frequencies, critical buckling loads and critical moments for lateral instability. The results show that the effects of delamination on reducing natural frequencies, critical buckling load and critical moment for lateral instability are aggravated by the presence of static end moment. In turn, the effects of static end moments on vibration and instability characteristics are affected by the presence of delamination. The analytical results of this study can serve as a benchmark for finite element method and other numerical solutions.

  12. Experimental Analysis of Mast Lifting and Bending Forces on Vibration Patterns Before and After Pinion Reinstallation in an OH-58 Transmission Test Rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Edward M.; Lewicki, David G.; Tumer, Irem Y.; Decker, Harry; Barszez, Eric; Zakrajsek, James J.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    As part of a collaborative research program between NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), and the US Army Laboratory, a series of experiments is being performed in GRC's 500 HP OH-58 Transmission Test Rig facility and ARC's AH-I Cobra and OH-58c helicopters. The findings reported in this paper were drawn from Phase-I of a two-phase test-rig experiment, and are focused on the vibration response of an undamaged pinion gear operating in the transmission test rig. To simulate actual flight conditions, the transmission system was run at three torque levels, as well as two mast lifting and two mast bending levels. The test rig was also subjected to disassembly and reassembly of the main pinion housing to simulate the effect of maintenance operations. An analysis of variance based on the total power of the spectral distribution indicates the relative effect of each experimental factor, including Wong interactions with torque. Reinstallation of the main pinion assembly is shown to introduce changes in the vibration signature, suggesting the possibility of a strong effect of maintenance on HUMS design and use. Based on these results, further research will be conducted to compare these vibration responses with actual OH58c helicopter transmission vibration patterns.

  13. IR and SFG vibrational spectroscopy of the water bend in the bulk liquid and at the liquid-vapor interface, respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yicun; Skinner, J L

    2015-07-07

    Vibrational spectroscopy of the water bending mode has been investigated experimentally to study the structure of water in condensed phases. In the present work, we calculate the theoretical infrared (IR) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectra of the HOH bend in liquid water and at the water liquid/vapor interface using a mixed quantum/classical approach. Classical molecular dynamics simulation is performed by using a recently developed water model that explicitly includes three-body interactions and yields a better description of the water surface. Ab-initio-based transition frequency, dipole, polarizability, and intermolecular coupling maps are developed for the spectral calculations. The calculated IR and SFG spectra show good agreement with the experimental measurements. In the theoretical imaginary part of the SFG susceptibility for the water liquid/vapor interface, we find two features: a negative band centered at 1615 cm(-1) and a positive band centered at 1670 cm(-1). We analyze this spectrum in terms of the contributions from molecules in different hydrogen-bond classes to the SFG spectral density and also compare to SFG results for the OH stretch. SFG of the water bending mode provides a complementary picture of the heterogeneous hydrogen-bond configurations at the water surface.

  14. IR and SFG vibrational spectroscopy of the water bend in the bulk liquid and at the liquid-vapor interface, respectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Yicun; Skinner, J. L. [Theoretical Chemistry Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2015-07-07

    Vibrational spectroscopy of the water bending mode has been investigated experimentally to study the structure of water in condensed phases. In the present work, we calculate the theoretical infrared (IR) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectra of the HOH bend in liquid water and at the water liquid/vapor interface using a mixed quantum/classical approach. Classical molecular dynamics simulation is performed by using a recently developed water model that explicitly includes three-body interactions and yields a better description of the water surface. Ab-initio-based transition frequency, dipole, polarizability, and intermolecular coupling maps are developed for the spectral calculations. The calculated IR and SFG spectra show good agreement with the experimental measurements. In the theoretical imaginary part of the SFG susceptibility for the water liquid/vapor interface, we find two features: a negative band centered at 1615 cm{sup −1} and a positive band centered at 1670 cm{sup −1}. We analyze this spectrum in terms of the contributions from molecules in different hydrogen-bond classes to the SFG spectral density and also compare to SFG results for the OH stretch. SFG of the water bending mode provides a complementary picture of the heterogeneous hydrogen-bond configurations at the water surface.

  15. A New High-Speed, High-Cycle, Gear-Tooth Bending Fatigue Test Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, David B.; Dykas, Brian D.; LaBerge, Kelsen E.; Zakrajsek, Andrew J.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    A new high-speed test capability for determining the high cycle bending-fatigue characteristics of gear teeth has been developed. Experiments were performed in the test facility using a standard spur gear test specimens designed for use in NASA Glenn s drive system test facilities. These tests varied in load condition and cycle-rate. The cycle-rate varied from 50 to 1000 Hz. The loads varied from high-stress, low-cycle loads to near infinite life conditions. Over 100 tests were conducted using AISI 9310 steel spur gear specimen. These results were then compared to previous data in the literature for correlation. Additionally, a cycle-rate sensitivity analysis was conducted by grouping the results according to cycle-rate and comparing the data sets. Methods used to study and verify load-path and facility dynamics are also discussed.

  16. Prediction model for fundamental frequency of low frequency bending vibration piezoelectric vibrator of ultrasonic atomizing nozzle%低频弯振超声雾化喷头压电振子基频的预测模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建民; 滕悦

    2015-01-01

    vibration frequency of this kind of actuator was mainly applying Rayleigh-Ritz theory based on the minimal energy principle to search an approximate value without considering electronic-mechanical coupling. Because Rayleigh-Ritz theory ignored the effect of t electronic-mechanical, the calculation result error was too bigger. At the same time, this method was so complicated that it’s not suitable for engineering calculation. So it’s necessary to find a simple calculation formulation for engineering application. In order to find out how key structural parameters of axial symmetry bending composite piezoelectric actuators influence on their fundamental frequencies, a virtual testing system based on finite element method was established. In this virtual testing system, element Solid 98, an tetrahedral coupled-field solid element in ANSYS software was used to mesh the prototype of axial symmetry bending composite piezoelectric actuator. Combined with an orthogonal experimental design method, an orthogonal protocol of four factors and five levels was proposed. Based on virtual test data, a regression model between fundamental frequency and key structural parameters of piezoelectric vibrators (significance levelα=0.05) was established. The regression model indicated that: i)P-valuesof outer diameters, inner diameters of nozzle’s piezoelectric discs and diameters of metal discs were 1.2×10-8、9.97×10-6、2.093×10-3respectively. It indicated that fundamental frequencies of axial symmetry bending composite piezoelectric actuator were affected by outer diameters, inner diameters of nozzle’s piezoelectric discs and diameters of metal discs highly significantly; ii)P-valueof piezoelectric disc thickness was 0.012813. It indicated that fundamental frequencies were influenced by piezoelectric disc thickness significantly; iii) outer diameter, inner diameter, thickness of nozzle’s piezoelectric ceramic and diameter of metal disc influence frequencies of those actuators in

  17. Kic size effect study on two high-strength steels using notched bend specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonesifer, F. R.

    1974-01-01

    Five methods are used to calculate plane strain fracture toughness (K sub Q) values for bend-specimens of various sizes from two high-strength steels. None of the methods appeared to satisfactorily predict valid stress intensity factor (K sub IC) values from specimens of sizes well below that required by E399 standard tests.

  18. Design of pseudo-symmetric high bit rate, bend insensitive optical fiber applicable for high speed FTTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makouei, Somayeh; Koozekanani, Z. D.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, with sophisticated modification on modal-field distribution and introducing new design procedure, the single-mode fiber with ultra-low bending-loss and pseudo-symmetric high bit-rate of uplink and downlink, appropriate for fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) operation is presented. The bending-loss reduction and dispersion management are done by the means of Genetic Algorithm. The remarkable feature of this methodology is designing a bend-insensitive fiber without reduction of core radius and MFD. Simulation results show bending loss of 1.27×10-2 dB/turn at 1.55 μm for 5 mm curvature radius. The MFD and Aeff are 9.03 μm and 59.11 μm2. Moreover, the upstream and downstream bit-rates are approximately 2.38 Gbit/s-km and 3.05 Gbit/s-km.

  19. Friction role in deformation behaviors of high-strength TA18 tubes in numerical control bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jun; Liang, Chuang; Lu, Shiqiang; Wang, Kelu; Zheng, Deliang

    2017-09-01

    In order to reveal the friction role in deformation behaviors of high-strength TA18 tubes in numerical control (NC) bending, a three dimensional (3D) elastic-plastic finite element (FE) model of high-strength TA18 tubes for whole process in NC bending was established based on ABAQUS code, and its reliability was validated by the experimental results in literature. Then, the bending deformation behaviors under different friction coefficients between tube and various dies were studied with respect to multiple defects such as wall thinning, wall thickening and cross section deformation. The results show that the wall thinning ratio and cross section deformation ratio increase with the increase of the friction coefficient between mandrel and tube f m or decrease of the friction coefficient between pressure die and tube f p, while the friction coefficient between bending die and tube f b has no obvious effect on these. The wall thickening ratio decreases with the increase of f b, f m or decrease of f p.

  20. Using High-Resolution Field Measurements to Model Dune Kinematics in a Large Elongate Meander Bend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsoer, K. M.; Rhoads, B. L.; Best, J.; Frias, C. E.; Abad, J. D.; Langendoen, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    Due to recent advances in hydroacoustic technology, such as the development of multibeam echo sounders, it is now possible to obtain highly accurate and detailed bathymetric data for river channels. These data provide the basis for detailed characterizations of bed form morphology ranging from individual ripples to composite dune fields. Theoretical models suggest that bed forms reach an equilibrium morphology based on hydraulic conditions during steady flow. However, at the scale of individual meander bends, bed form morphology will vary according to the local flow structure as influenced by overall bed morphology and planform curvature. Thus, the coevolution of flow structure, bed form morphology, and sediment transport should vary throughout a meander bend. This paper examines spatial variation in bed form characteristics and rates of bed form migration, and thus bed material transport, within a large, actively migrating, elongate meander loop. During a May 2013 flood event on Maier Bend, Wabash River (IL-IN, USA), repeat multibeam echo sounding surveys were conducted ~4 hours apart, providing estimates of dune celerity and volumetric rates of sediment transport at different locations around the bend. Three-dimensional velocity measurements, obtained using an acoustic Doppler current profiler, provide hydraulic data for evaluating interactions between flow structure and bed form morphology. Results show that bed form morphology is highly variable within the bend, ranging from barchans dunes on the upstream limb, 2D ripples across the point bar, and 3D composite dunes with wavelength of ~20 meters near the bend apex. Rates of dune celerity varied from 0.3 m/hr to 0.7 m/hr and were dependent on bed form geometry and local hydraulic conditions. The high-resolution data on flow and form are used to calibrate a 2D numerical model of sediment transport through the bend. Simulations using the calibrated model are used to evaluate the fluvial processes underlying

  1. Performance of improved magnetostrictive vibrational power generator, simple and high power output for practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Toshiyuki, E-mail: ueno@ec.t.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa-city, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    Vibration based power generation technology is utilized effectively in various fields. Author has invented novel vibrational power generation device using magnetostrictive material. The device is based on parallel beam structure consisting of a rod of iron-gallium alloy wound with coil and yoke accompanied with permanent magnet. When bending force is applied on the tip of the device, the magnetization inside the rod varies with induced stress due to the inverse magnetostrictive effect. In vibration, the time variation of the magnetization generates voltage on the wound coil. The magnetostrictive type is advantageous over conventional such using piezoelectric or moving magnet types in high efficiency and high robustness, and low electrical impedance. Here, author has established device configuration, simple, rigid, and high power output endurable for practical applications. In addition, the improved device is lower cost using less volume of Fe-Ga and permanent magnet compared to our conventional, and its assembly by soldering is easy and fast suitable for mass production. Average power of 3 mW/cm{sup 3} under resonant vibration of 212 Hz and 1.2 G was obtained in miniature prototype using Fe-Ga rod of 2 × 0.5× 7 mm{sup 3}. Furthermore, the damping effect was observed, which demonstrates high energy conversion of the generator.

  2. Bending and free vibration analysis of functionally graded plates using new eight-unknown shear deformation theory by finite-element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Long, Nguyen; Quoc, Tran Huu; Tu, Tran Minh

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a new eight-unknown shear deformation theory is developed for bending and free vibration analysis of functionally graded plates by finite-element method. The theory based on full 12-unknown higher order shear deformation theory simultaneously satisfies zeros transverse stresses at top and bottom surfaces of FG plates. A four-node rectangular element with 16 degrees of freedom per node is used. Poisson's ratios, Young's moduli, and material densities vary continuously in thickness direction according to the volume fraction of constituents which is modeled as power-law functions. Results are verified with available results in the literature. Parametric studies are performed for different power-law indices, side-to-thickness ratios.

  3. Deriving position of inverse bending roll by experiment and analysis : High precision roll bending of titanium alloy wire for glasses frame

    OpenAIRE

    佐々木, 善教; 大津, 雅亮; 松村, 正三; 森下, 和幸; 田中, 大樹; 八木, 秀樹; 関根, 雄一郎; 浅川, 基男

    2015-01-01

    In forming of glasses frame, bending and inverse bending of rim wires with 4 rolls are usually employed. Only an inverse bending roll, the 4th roll, can change the position to control the curvature of the rim wire. A deriving method of inverse bending roll position is proposed in this study. The proposed method requires not the computational simulations but only some simple steady inverse bending experiments to obtain a relationship between inverse bending roll position and bent curvature whi...

  4. Vibrational relaxation in very high temperature nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C. Frederick

    1991-01-01

    Vibrational relaxation of N2 molecules is considered at temperatures up to 40,000 K in gas mixtures that contain electrons as well as heavy collision partners. The theory of vibrational relaxation due to N2-N2 collisions is fit to experimental data to 10,000 K by choice of the shape of the intermolecular potential and size of the collision cross section. These values are then used to extrapolate the theory to 40,000 K.

  5. An analytical model for the propagation of bending waves on a plant stem due to vibration of an attached insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, R N

    2016-03-01

    A mathematical model is presented to examine the propagation of bending waves on a plant stem that are induced by vibratory excitation from an attached insect. This idealized model represents the insect body as a mass and the legs as a linear spring along with a general time-varying force that is assumed to act in parallel with the spring. The spring connects the mass to a stem modeled as a beam having uniform geometric and material properties. The linearly elastic beam is assumed to undergo pure vibratory bending and to be infinitely long in each direction. The equations that govern the insect-induced, coupled motions of both the beam and the mass are solved for arbitrary time varying forces produced by the insect's legs. Solutions for the frequency response indicate that the response is dominated by frequency components near the natural resonant frequency of the attached insect while at higher frequencies the amplitude of the response is strongly influenced only by the properties of the stem.

  6. The C3-bending vibrational levels of the C3-Kr and C3-Xe van der Waals complexes studied by their Ã-X̃ electronic transitions and by ab initio calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jun-Mei; Tham, Keng Seng; Zhang, Guiqiu; Merer, Anthony J; Hsu, Yen-Chu; Hu, Wei-Ping

    2011-02-21

    Fluorescence excitation spectra and wavelength-resolved emission spectra of the C(3)-Kr and C(3)-Xe van der Waals (vdW) complexes have been recorded near the 2(2-)(0), 2(2+)(0), 2(4-)(0), and 1(1)(0) bands of the Ã(1)Π(u)-X̃(1)Σ(g)(+) system of the C(3) molecule. In the excitation spectra, the spectral features of the two complexes are red-shifted relative to those of free C(3) by 21.9-38.2 and 34.3-36.1 cm(-1), respectively. The emission spectra from the à state of the Kr complex consist of progressions in the two C(3)-bending vibrations (ν(2), ν(4)), the vdW stretching (ν(3)), and bending vibrations (ν(6)), suggesting that the equilibrium geometry in the X̃ state is nonlinear. As in the Ar complex [Zhang et al., J. Chem. Phys. 120, 3189 (2004)], the C(3)-bending vibrational levels of the Kr complex shift progressively to lower energy with respect to those of free C(3) as the bending quantum number increases. Their vibrational structures could be modeled as perturbed harmonic oscillators, with the dipole-induced dipole terms of the Ar and Kr complexes scaled roughly by the polarizabilities of the Ar and Kr atoms. Emission spectra of the Xe complex, excited near the Ã, 2(2-) level of free C(3), consist only of progressions in even quanta of the C(3)-bending and vdW modes, implying that the geometry in the higher vibrational levels (υ(bend) ≥ 4, E(vib) ≥ 328 cm(-1)) of the X̃ state is (vibrationally averaged) linear. In this structure the Xe atom bonds to one of the terminal carbons nearly along the inertial a-axis of bent C(3). Our ab initio calculations of the Xe complex at the level of CCSD(T)∕aug-cc-pVTZ (C) and aug-cc-pVTZ-PP (Xe) predict that its equilibrium geometry is T-shaped (as in the Ar and Kr complexes), and also support the assignment of a stable linear isomer when the amplitude of the C(3) bending vibration is large (υ(4) ≥ 4).

  7. Vibration-free stirling cryocooler for high definition microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riabzev, S. V.; Veprik, A. M.; Vilenchik, H. S.; Pundak, N.; Castiel, E.

    2009-12-01

    The normal operation of high definition Scanning Electronic and Helium Ion microscope tools often relies on maintaining particular components at cryogenic temperatures. This has traditionally been accomplished by using liquid coolants such as liquid Nitrogen. This inherently limits the useful temperature range to above 77 K, produces various operational hazards and typically involves elevated ownership costs, inconvenient logistics and maintenance. Mechanical coolers, over-performing the above traditional method and capable of delivering required (even below 77 K) cooling to the above cooled components, have been well-known elsewhere for many years, but their typical drawbacks, such as high purchasing cost, cooler size, low reliability and high power consumption have so far prevented their wide-spreading. Additional critical drawback is inevitable degradation of imagery performance originated from the wideband vibration export as typical for the operation of the mechanical cooler incorporating numerous movable components. Recent advances in the development of reliable, compact, reasonably priced and dynamically quiet linear cryogenic coolers gave rise to so-called "dry cooling" technologies aimed at eventually replacing the traditional use of outdated liquid Nitrogen cooling facilities. Although much improved these newer cryogenic coolers still produce relatively high vibration export which makes them incompatible with modern high definition microscopy tools. This has motivated further research activity towards developing a vibration free closed-cycle mechanical cryocooler. The authors have successfully adapted the standard low vibration Stirling cryogenic refrigerator (Ricor model K535-LV) delivering 5 W@40 K heat lift for use in vibration-sensitive high definition microscopy. This has been achieved by using passive mechanical counterbalancing of the main portion of the low frequency vibration export in combination with an active feed-forward multi

  8. Numerical study on flow separation in 90° pipe bend under high Reynolds number by k-ε modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun Dutta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper makes an effort to find the flow separation characteristics under high Reynolds number in pipe bends. Single phase turbulent flow through pipe bends is investigated using k-ε turbulence model. After the validation of present model against existing experimental results, a detailed study has been performed to study the influence of Reynolds number on flow separation and reattachment. The separation region and the velocity field of the primary and the secondary flows in different sections have been illustrated. Numerical results show that flow separation can be clearly visualized for bend with low curvature ratio. Distributions of the velocity vector show the secondary motion clearly induced by the movement of fluid from inner to outer wall of the bend leading to flow separation. This paper provides numerical results to understand the flow characteristics of fluid flow in 90° bend pipe.

  9. Influence of Suspended Equipment on the Carbody Vertical Vibration Behaviour of High-Speed Railway Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriu Mădălina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The equipment mounted on the carbody chassis of the railway vehicles is a critical component of the vehicle in terms of ride comfort. The reason for that is their large mass, able to visibly influence the vibrations mode of the carbody. The paper examines the influence of the equipment upon the mode of vertical vibrations of the carbody in the high-speed vehicles, reached on the basis of the frequency response functions of the acceleration in three carbody reference points - at the centre and above the bogies. These functions are derived from the numerical simulations developed on a rigid-flexible coupled model, with seven degrees of freedom. As a rule, the results herein prove the influence of the equipment mounting mode (rigid or elastic, along with the speed regime, upon the level of vibrations in the carbody reference points, at the resonance frequency of the symmetrical bending mode. Similarly, it is also demonstrated how the equipment mass and the damping degree of the suspension system affect the level of the vibrations in the carbody.

  10. Investigations on bending condition for welded carbon steel pipe by high frequency induction heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Toshimi; Matsumoto, Teruo; Tamai, Yasumasa

    1987-08-01

    The induction heating bent pipes of carbon steel welded pipes are used for the piping in nuclear power plants, in place of elbows. This application is useful to suppress the radiation exposure at in-service inspection. The quality of the bent pipes are controlled on the technical standards of welding for electrical equipments. However, the influence of the bending condition has not been yet sufficiently understood on the mechanical properties of the bent pipes. The purpose of this investigation is to establish the appropriate bending condition for the carbon steel weld pipe which corresponds to the carbon steel pipe STPT 42 in JIS G 3456, in relation to the transformation of the structures of the base metal and the weld metal during bending. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The maximum heating temperature should be set in the range from 900 deg C to 1000 deg C, in order to assure the high Charpy impact properties. (2) The maximum heating temperature which is lower than 900 deg C causes the imperfect transformation of the base metal and the weld metal, then is likely to spoil the Charpy impact properties. (3) Higher heating rate causes the increase of A/sub c1/ point, remarkably for the base metal which has higher carbon content than weld metal. (4) Higher cooling rate causes hardening of the base metal and weld metal, however, the transformation temperature does not change remarkably, except for the Ar/sub 1/ point of base metal.

  11. Focusing of Rayleigh waves generated by high-speed trains under the condition of ground vibration boom

    CERN Document Server

    Krylov, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, the effects of focusing of Rayleigh waves generated by high speed trains in the supporting ground under the condition of ground vibration boom are considered theoretically. These effects are similar to the effects of focusing of sound waves radiated by aircraft under the condition of sonic boom. In particular, if a railway track has a bend to provide the possibility of changing direction of train movement, the Rayleigh surface waves generated by high-speed trains under the condition of ground vibration boom may become focused. This results in concentration of their energy along a simple caustic line at one side of the track and in the corresponding increase in ground vibration amplitudes. The effect of focusing of Rayleigh waves may occur also if a train moves along a straight line with acceleration and its current speed is higher than Rayleigh wave velocity in the ground. The obtained results are illustrated by numerical calculations.

  12. Collisional deactivation of highly vibrationally excited pyrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurie A.; Barker, John R.

    1996-07-01

    The collisional deactivation of vibrationally excited pyrazine (C4N2H4) in the electronic ground state by 19 collider gases was studied using the time-resolved infrared fluorescence (IRF) technique. The pyrazine was photoexcited with a 308 nm laser and its vibrational deactivation was monitored following rapid radiationless transitions to produce vibrationally excited molecules in the electronic ground state. The IRF data were analyzed by a simple approximate inversion method, as well as with full collisional master equation simulations. The average energies transferred in deactivating collisions (d) exhibit a near-linear dependence on vibrational energy at lower energies and less dependence at higher energies. The deactivation of ground state pyrazine was found to be similar to that of ground state benzene [J. R. Barker and B. M. Toselli, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 12, 305 (1990)], but it is strikingly different from the deactivation of triplet state pyrazine [T. J. Bevilacqua and R. B. Weisman, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 6316 (1993)].

  13. Improvement of force factor of magnetostrictive vibration power generator for high efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, Shota, E-mail: happiest3.7@gmail.com; Ueno, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Sotoshi [Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa-city, Ishikawa 920-1164 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    We develop high power magnetostrictive vibration power generator for battery-free wireless electronics. The generator is based on a cantilever of parallel beam structure consisting of coil-wound Galfenol and stainless plates with permanent magnet for bias. Oscillating force exerted on the tip bends the cantilever in vibration yields stress variation of Galfenol plate, which causes flux variation and generates voltage on coil due to the law of induction. This generator has advantages over conventional, such as piezoelectric or moving magnet types, in the point of high efficiency, highly robust, and low electrical impedance. Our concern is the improvement of energy conversion efficiency dependent on the dimension. Especially, force factor, the conversion ratio of the electromotive force (voltage) on the tip velocity in vibration, has an important role in energy conversion process. First, the theoretical value of the force factor is formulated and then the validity was verified by experiments, where we compare four types of prototype with parameters of the dimension using 7.0 × 1.5 × 50 mm beams of Galfenol with 1606-turn wound coil. In addition, the energy conversion efficiency of the prototypes depending on load resistance was measured. The most efficient prototype exhibits the maximum instantaneous power of 0.73 W and energy of 4.7 mJ at a free vibration of frequency of 202 Hz in the case of applied force is 25 N. Further, it was found that energy conversion efficiency depends not only on the force factor but also on the damping (mechanical loss) of the vibration.

  14. Fretting fatigue behavior of high-strength steel monostrands under bending load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Georgakis, Christos T.; Fischer, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the fretting fatigue behavior of pretensioned high-strength steel monostrands is investigated. To measure the local deformations on the strands, a novel method based on the digital image correlation (DIC) technique was used to quantify the relative movement between individual wires...... along the length of the monostrand. Information about the monostrand bending stiffness and the extent of relative displacement between core and outer wires of a monostrand undergoing flexural deformations is provided. From the series of dynamic fatigue tests, a fretting fatigue spectrum is derived...

  15. High fidelity quantum gates with vibrational qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Eduardo; Gruebele, Martin; Shyshlov, Dmytro; Wang, Lei; Babikov, Dmitri

    2012-11-26

    Physical implementation of quantum gates acting on qubits does not achieve a perfect fidelity of 1. The actual output qubit may not match the targeted output of the desired gate. According to theoretical estimates, intrinsic gate fidelities >99.99% are necessary so that error correction codes can be used to achieve perfect fidelity. Here we test what fidelity can be accomplished for a CNOT gate executed by a shaped ultrafast laser pulse interacting with vibrational states of the molecule SCCl(2). This molecule has been used as a test system for low-fidelity calculations before. To make our test more stringent, we include vibrational levels that do not encode the desired qubits but are close enough in energy to interfere with population transfer by the laser pulse. We use two complementary approaches: optimal control theory determines what the best possible pulse can do; a more constrained physical model calculates what an experiment likely can do. Optimal control theory finds pulses with fidelity >0.9999, in excess of the quantum error correction threshold with 8 × 10(4) iterations. On the other hand, the physical model achieves only 0.9992 after 8 × 10(4) iterations. Both calculations converge as an inverse power law toward unit fidelity after >10(2) iterations/generations. In principle, the fidelities necessary for quantum error correction are reachable with qubits encoded by molecular vibrations. In practice, it will be challenging with current laboratory instrumentation because of slow convergence past fidelities of 0.99.

  16. Study on Sonic Focusing Properties of Ultrasonic Vibration Spherical Focusing System Based on Longitudinal-Bending Vibration Conversion%纵弯转换超声振动球面聚焦系统聚焦特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 任坤; 殷振; 赵江江; 曹自洋; 汪帮富

    2014-01-01

    The ultrasonic vibration spherical focusing system based on the longitudinal-bending vibration conver-sion is proposed in this paper,the spherical focusing system is composed of the sandwiched longitudinal vibration transducer and spherical shell with holes.With the plates and shells vibration theory and Helmholtz-Kirchhoff theo-ry the vibration and focusing properties of the new focusing system are analyzed and verified experimentally.It has been shown through above research that the acoustic radiation field of the new system is of good focusing property. The focal point position,shape and the sound intensity are influenced by the spherical radius.Under the same struc-ture,the focusing property is influenced by the resonant frequency.The new system is of better application as it has better impedance matching property.%该文提出了一种由夹心式纵振动换能器与带孔球壳组成的纵弯转换型球面聚焦系统。应用弹性力学的板壳振动理论和亥姆霍兹-基尔霍夫声场理论分析了新型聚焦系统的振动特征和声场聚焦特征,并通过实验进行了验证。研究结果表明,球壳弯曲振动的辐射声场具有显著的聚焦特性,焦点位置、声压强度、焦区形状受球壳曲率半径的影响。在结构一定的情况下,聚焦的特性受谐振频率的影响,高阶谐振频率的聚焦效果比低阶谐振频率好,但焦点声压低于低阶谐振频率。由于弯曲振动与气体介质的辐射阻抗匹配要好于纵向振动,因此这种新型聚焦系统具有更强的实际应用意义。

  17. Configurations of high-frequency ultrasonics complex vibration systems for packaging in microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujino, Jiromaru; Harada, Yoshiki; Ihara, Shigeru; Kasahara, Kohei; Shimizu, Masanori; Ueoka, Tetsugi

    2004-04-01

    Ultrasonic high-frequency complex vibrations are effective for various ultrasonic high-power applications. Three types of ultrasonic complex vibration system with a welding tip vibrating elliptical to circular locus for packaging in microelectronics were studied. The complex vibration sources are using (1) a longitudinal-torsional vibration converter with diagonal slits that is driven only by a longitudinal vibration source, (2) a complex transverse vibration rod with several stepped parts that is driven by two longitudinal vibration source crossed at a right angle and (3) a longitudinal vibration circular disk and three longitudinal transducers that are installed at the circumference of the disk.

  18. Bending and Free Vibration Analysis of Nonlocal Functionally Graded Nanocomposite Timoshenko Beam Model Rreinforced by SWBNNT Based on Modified Coupled Stress Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadimehr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the bending and free vibration analysis of functionally graded (FG nanocomposites Timoshenko beam model reinforced by single-walled boron nitride nanotube (SWBNNT using micro-mechanical approach embedded in an elastic medium is studied. The modified coupled stress (MCST and nonlocal elasticity theories are developed to take into account the size-dependent effect. The mechanical properties of FG boron nitride nanotube-reinforced composites are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction and estimated through the micro-mechanical approach. The governing equations of motion are obtained using Hamilton’s principle based on Timoshenko beam theory. The Navier's type solution is implemented to solve the equations that satisfy the simply supported boundary conditions. Furthermore, the influences of the slenderness ratio, length of nanocomposite beam, material length scale parameter, nonlocal parameter, power law index, axial wave number, and Winkler and Pasternak coefficients on the natural frequency of nanocomposite beam are investigated. Also, the effect of material length scale parameter on the dimensionless deflection of FG nanocomposite beam is studied.

  19. Crack initiation at high loading rates applying the four-point bending split Hopkinson pressure bar technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henschel Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic crack initiation with crack-tip loading rates of K̇ ≈ 2.106MPa√ms-1 in a high strength G42CrMoS4 steel was investigated. To this end, a previously developed split Hopkinson pressure bar with four-point bending was utilised. V-notched and pre-cracked Charpy specimens were tested. The detection of dynamic crack initiation was performed by analysing the dynamic force equilibrium between the incident and the transmission bar. Additionally, the signal of a near-field strain gauge and high-speed photography were used to determine the instant of crack initiation. To account for vibrations of the sample, a dynamic analysis of the stress intensity factor was performed. The dynamic and static analyses of the tests produced nearly the same results when a force equilibrium was achieved. Fracture-surface analysis revealed that elongated MnS inclusions strongly affected both the dynamic crack initiation and growth. Blunting of the precrack did not take place when a group of MnS inclusions was located directly at the precrack tip. Due to the direction of the elongated MnS inclusions perpendicular to the direction of crack growth, the crack could be deflected. The comparison with a 42CrMo4 steel without elongated MnS inclusions revealed the detrimental effect in terms of resistance to crack initiation. Taking the loading-rate dependency into consideration, it was shown that there was no pronounced embrittlement due to the high loading rates.

  20. Low intensity, high frequency vibration training to improve musculoskeletal function in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A Novotny

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine if low intensity, high frequency vibration training impacted the musculoskeletal system in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, relative to healthy mice. Three-week old wildtype (n = 26 and mdx mice (n = 22 were randomized to non-vibrated or vibrated (45 Hz and 0.6 g, 15 min/d, 5 d/wk groups. In vivo and ex vivo contractile function of the anterior crural and extensor digitorum longus muscles, respectively, were assessed following 8 wks of vibration. Mdx mice were injected 5 and 1 days prior to sacrifice with Calcein and Xylenol, respectively. Muscles were prepared for histological and triglyceride analyses and subcutaneous and visceral fat pads were excised and weighed. Tibial bones were dissected and analyzed by micro-computed tomography for trabecular morphometry at the metaphysis, and cortical geometry and density at the mid-diaphysis. Three-point bending tests were used to assess cortical bone mechanical properties and a subset of tibiae was processed for dynamic histomorphometry. Vibration training for 8 wks did not alter trabecular morphometry, dynamic histomorphometry, cortical geometry, or mechanical properties (P ≥ 0.34. Vibration did not alter any measure of muscle contractile function (P ≥ 0.12; however the preservation of muscle function and morphology in mdx mice indicates vibration is not deleterious to muscle lacking dystrophin. Vibrated mice had smaller subcutaneous fat pads (P = 0.03 and higher intramuscular triglyceride concentrations (P = 0.03. These data suggest that vibration training at 45 Hz and 0.6 g did not significantly impact the tibial bone and the surrounding musculature, but may influence fat distribution in mice.

  1. Low intensity, high frequency vibration training to improve musculoskeletal function in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Susan A; Mader, Tara L; Greising, Angela G; Lin, Angela S; Guldberg, Robert E; Warren, Gordon L; Lowe, Dawn A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine if low intensity, high frequency vibration training impacted the musculoskeletal system in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, relative to healthy mice. Three-week old wildtype (n = 26) and mdx mice (n = 22) were randomized to non-vibrated or vibrated (45 Hz and 0.6 g, 15 min/d, 5 d/wk) groups. In vivo and ex vivo contractile function of the anterior crural and extensor digitorum longus muscles, respectively, were assessed following 8 wks of vibration. Mdx mice were injected 5 and 1 days prior to sacrifice with Calcein and Xylenol, respectively. Muscles were prepared for histological and triglyceride analyses and subcutaneous and visceral fat pads were excised and weighed. Tibial bones were dissected and analyzed by micro-computed tomography for trabecular morphometry at the metaphysis, and cortical geometry and density at the mid-diaphysis. Three-point bending tests were used to assess cortical bone mechanical properties and a subset of tibiae was processed for dynamic histomorphometry. Vibration training for 8 wks did not alter trabecular morphometry, dynamic histomorphometry, cortical geometry, or mechanical properties (P ≥ 0.34). Vibration did not alter any measure of muscle contractile function (P ≥ 0.12); however the preservation of muscle function and morphology in mdx mice indicates vibration is not deleterious to muscle lacking dystrophin. Vibrated mice had smaller subcutaneous fat pads (P = 0.03) and higher intramuscular triglyceride concentrations (P = 0.03). These data suggest that vibration training at 45 Hz and 0.6 g did not significantly impact the tibial bone and the surrounding musculature, but may influence fat distribution in mice.

  2. Dynamic Features of the Highly Excited Vibrational States of the HOCl Non-Integrable System Based on the Dynamic Potential and Lyapunov Exponent Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aixing; Fang, Chao; Liu, Yibao

    2017-01-07

    In this article the dynamic features of the highly excited vibrational states of the hypochlorous acid (HOCl) non-integrable system are studied using the dynamic potential and Lyapunov exponent approaches. On the condition that the 3:1 resonance between the H-O stretching and H-O-Cl bending modes accompany the 2:1 Fermi resonance between the O-Cl stretching and H-O-Cl bending modes, it is found that the dynamic potentials of the highly excited vibrational states vary regularly with different Polyad numbers (P numbers). As the P number increases, the dynamic potentials of the H-O stretching mode remain the same, but those of the H-O-Cl bending mode gradually become complex. In order to investigate the chaotic and stable features of the highly excited vibrational states of the HOCl non-integrable system, the Lyapunov exponents of different energy levels lying in the dynamic potentials of the H-O-Cl bending mode (P = 4 and 5) are calculated. It is shown that the Lyapunov exponents of the energy levels staying in the junction of Morse potential and inverse Morse potential are relative large, which indicates the degrees of chaos for these energy levels is relatively high, but the stabilities of the corresponding states are good. These results could be interpreted as the intramolecular vibrational relaxation (IVR) acting strongly via the HOCl bending motion and causing energy transfers among different modes. Based on the previous studies, these conclusions seem to be generally valid to some extent for non-integrable triatomic molecules.

  3. A novel system-bath Hamiltonian for vibration-phonon coupling: Formulation, and application to the relaxation of Si-H and Si-D bending modes of H/D:Si(100)-(2 × 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, U.; Saalfrank, P.

    2017-01-01

    We present a rigorous method to set up a system-bath Hamiltonian for the coupling of adsorbate vibrations (the system) to surface phonons (the bath). The Hamiltonian is straightforward to derive and exact up to second order in the environment coordinates, thus capable of treating one- and two-phonon contributions to vibration-phonon coupling. The construction of the Hamiltonian uses orthogonal coordinates for system and bath modes, is based on an embedded cluster approach, and generalizes previous Hamiltonians of a similar type, but avoids several (additional) approximations. While the parametrization of the full Hamiltonian is in principle feasible by a first principles quantum mechanical treatment, here we adopt in the spirit of a QM/MM model a combination of density functional theory ("QM", for the system) and a semiempirical forcefield ("MM", for the bath). We apply the Hamiltonian to a fully H-covered Si(100)-(2 × 1) surface, using Fermi's Golden Rule to obtain vibrational relaxation rates of various H-Si bending modes of this system. As in earlier work it is found that the relaxation is dominated by two-phonon contributions because of an energy gap between the Si-H bending modes and the Si phonon bands. We obtain vibrational lifetimes (of the first excited state) on the order of 2 ps at T = 0 K. The lifetimes depend only little on the type of bending mode (symmetric vs. antisymmetric, parallel vs. perpendicular to the Si2H2 dimers). They decrease by a factor of about two when heating the surface to 300 K. We also study isotope effects by replacing adsorbed H atoms by deuterium, D. The Si-D bending modes are shifted into the Si phonon band of the solid, opening up one-phonon decay channels and reducing the lifetimes to few hundred fs.

  4. Vortex induced vibrations of pipe in high waves. Field measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen Ottesen, N.-E.; Pedersen, B.

    1999-07-01

    Vortex induced vibrations have been measured full scale on an instrumented pipe placed vertically in the crest zone of high and steep waves. The Reynolds numbers were in the range 105 to 106. It was found that the vortex induced vibrations in the wave motion were generated within a reduced velocity range of 4 and 8. The vibrations grew intermittently with the passing waves. The vibrations took place in 2-3 modes simultaneously. One mode, however, dominated over the other. The growths of the VIV using a modal analysis were consistent with a basic correlation length of 3 diameters for a stationary pipe with a linear growth of the correlation length of 10 diameter for each 0.1 diameter amplitude. (au)

  5. Bending Dynamics of Fluctuating Biopolymers Probed by Automated High-Resolution Filament Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brangwynne, Clifford P.; Koenderink, Gijsje H.; Barry, Ed; Dogic, Zvonimir; MacKintosh, Frederick C.; Weitz, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Microscope images of fluctuating biopolymers contain a wealth of information about their underlying mechanics and dynamics. However, successful extraction of this information requires precise localization of filament position and shape from thousands of noisy images. Here, we present careful measurements of the bending dynamics of filamentous (F-)actin and microtubules at thermal equilibrium with high spatial and temporal resolution using a new, simple but robust, automated image analysis algorithm with subpixel accuracy. We find that slender actin filaments have a persistence length of ∼17 μm, and display a q−4-dependent relaxation spectrum, as expected from viscous drag. Microtubules have a persistence length of several millimeters; interestingly, there is a small correlation between total microtubule length and rigidity, with shorter filaments appearing softer. However, we show that this correlation can arise, in principle, from intrinsic measurement noise that must be carefully considered. The dynamic behavior of the bending of microtubules also appears more complex than that of F-actin, reflecting their higher-order structure. These results emphasize both the power and limitations of light microscopy techniques for studying the mechanics and dynamics of biopolymers. PMID:17416612

  6. Long term bending behavior of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe-Alexandru BARBOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike normal concrete (NC the behavior of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC is different under long-term efforts, if we refer to creep, shrinkage or long-term deflections. It is well known that UHPC has special properties, like compressive strength higher than 150 MPa and tensile strength higher than 20 MPa - in case of UHPC reinforced with steel-fibers. Nevertheless, UHPC behavior is not completely elucidated in what concerns creep straining or serviceability behavior in case of structural elements. Some studies made on UHPC samples shown that creep is significantly reduced if the concrete is subjected to heat treatment and if it contains steel-fiber reinforcement. Relating thereto, it is important to know how does structural elements made of this type of concrete works in service life under long-term loadings. The results obtained on UHPC samples, regarding creep straining from tension or compression efforts may not be generalized in case of structural elements (e.g. beams, slabs, columns subjected to bending. By performing this study, it was aimed to understand the influence of heat treatment and steel-fiber addition on the rheological phenomena of UHPC bended beams.

  7. Analytical Solution for Free Vibration of Suspension Cables Considering Bending Stiffness%考虑弯曲刚度的悬索自由振动解析解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖一; 卓卫东; 范立础

    2013-01-01

    The accurate modelling of cables needs to consider bending stiffness. The existing work on free vibration analysis of the suspension cables considering bending stiffness takes a parabola as the cable profile, and considers only hinged or clamped conditions at both ends. To improve this, the analytical solutions based on the more accurate catenary with both kinds of boundary conditions are obtained, respectively, and some disadvantages found in literatures are corrected. A discussion demonstrates that differences are evident for different boundary conditions, and the differences of solutions based on catenary and parabola profiles are negligible. The results show that different kinds of constraints should be taken into account, and the results here could be treated as the upper and lower bound in reality. The parabola solution could be used in practice, which could also be regarded as a theoretical supplement.%对索的准确模拟应考虑弯曲刚度影响.已有的考虑弯曲刚度的悬索自由振动解析解均以抛物线为索静力构形,且仅考虑了两端铰接或是两端固接条件.对此,以更准确的悬链线为索构形,分别考虑两种边界条件推导了水平悬索的固有振动解析解,修正了已有文献中的不当之处.对比讨论认为,不同边界条件对结果的影响明显,悬链线解与抛物线解相差不大.结果表明,应考虑不同边界条件的影响,并可将结果作为实际情况的上下界,实用时可采用抛物线解.该解可作为现有理论的一个补充.

  8. The effect of multiple bending of wire on the residual stresses of high carbon steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kruzel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel tire cord, springs and rope wires belong to the group of metal products from which the low residual stresses are required. In this paper the effect of multiple bending of wire on residual stresses of high carbon steel wires has been assessed. It was found that the application of the multi-roller straightening machine in the banding wire process enables to reduce the residual stresses in the drawn wires. It should be also noted that the value of the residual stresses depends on the type of straightener construction. The residual stresses on the basis of stress-strain curve has been determined. It has been stated that the application of seven-rolls straightener gives the best effect of straightening.

  9. The bending potential energy function of HDO obtained from high-resolution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudert, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    Line position and line intensity analyses of the high-resolution spectrum of the HDO isotopic species of the water molecule are performed with an extended version of the Bending-Rotation approach up to the (0 1 0) state and J = 22 . The line position analysis involves 3992 microwave, far infrared and infrared lines, and 421 experimental energy levels which were reproduced with a 1.1 unitless standard deviation. The data set considered in the line intensity analysis consists of 1405 infrared absorpon lines and 4 Stark coefficients fitted with a 1.2 unitless standard deviation. The results of both analyses are compared with previous investigations and are used to build a spectroscopic database which is compared with other available databases and should be useful for interpreting measurements carried out with the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI).

  10. An Analysis of the Torsion-Rotation-Vibration Rotational Spectrum of the Lowest In-Plane Bend and First Excited Torsional State of the C(3V) Internal Rotor C2H5CN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J. C.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Sastry, K. V. L. N.

    2000-01-01

    C2H5CN (Propionitrile or ethyl cyanide) is a well known interstellar species abundantly observed in hot cores during the onset of star formation. The onset of star formation generally results in elevated temperature, which thermally populates may low lying vibrational states such as the 206/cm in-plane bend and the 212/cm first excited torsional state in C2H5CN. Unfortunately, these two states are strongly coupled through a complex series of torsion-vibration-rotation interactions, which dominate the spectrum. In order to understand the details of these interactions and develop models capable of predicting unmeasured transitions for astronomical observations in C2H5CN and similar molecules, several thousand rotational transitions in the lowest excited in-plane bend and first excited torsional state have been recorded, assigned and analyzed. The analysis reveals very strong a- and b-type Coriolis interactions and a number of other smaller interactions and has a number of important implications for other C3V torsion-rotation-vibration systems. The relative importance and the physical origins of the coupling among the rotational, vibrational and torsional motions will be presented along with a full spectroscopic analysis and supporting astronomical observations.

  11. High compressive pre-strains reduce the bending fatigue life of nitinol wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shikha; Pelton, Alan R; Weaver, Jason D; Gong, Xiao-Yan; Nagaraja, Srinidhi

    2015-04-01

    Prior to implantation, Nitinol-based transcatheter endovascular devices are subject to a complex thermo-mechanical pre-strain associated with constraint onto a delivery catheter, device sterilization, and final deployment. Though such large thermo-mechanical excursions are known to impact the microstructural and mechanical properties of Nitinol, their effect on fatigue properties is still not well understood. The present study investigated the effects of large thermo-mechanical pre-strains on the fatigue of pseudoelastic Nitinol wire using fully reversed rotary bend fatigue (RBF) experiments. Electropolished Nitinol wires were subjected to a 0%, 8% or 10% bending pre-strain and RBF testing at 0.3-1.5% strain amplitudes for up to 10(8) cycles. The imposition of 8% or 10% bending pre-strain resulted in residual set in the wire. Large pre-strains also significantly reduced the fatigue life of Nitinol wires below 0.8% strain amplitude. While 0% and 8% pre-strain wires exhibited distinct low-cycle and high-cycle fatigue regions, reaching run out at 10(8) cycles at 0.6% and 0.4% strain amplitude, respectively, 10% pre-strain wires continued to fracture at less than 10(5) cycles, even at 0.3% strain amplitude. Furthermore, over 70% fatigue cracks were found to initiate on the compressive pre-strain surface in pre-strained wires. In light of the texture-dependent tension-compression asymmetry in Nitinol, this reduction in fatigue life and preferential crack initiation in pre-strained wires is thought to be attributed to compressive pre-strain-induced plasticity and tensile residual stresses as well as the formation of martensite variants. Despite differences in fatigue life, SEM revealed that the size, shape and morphology of the fatigue fracture surfaces were comparable across the pre-strain levels. Further, the mechanisms underlying fatigue were found to be similar; despite large differences in cycles to failure across strain amplitudes and pre-strain levels, cracks

  12. Vibrational spectroscopy at high external pressures the diamond anvil cell

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R

    1984-01-01

    Vibrational Spectroscopy at High External Pressures: The Diamond Anvil Cell presents the effects of high pressure on the vibrational properties of materials as accomplished in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). The DAC serves the dual purpose of generating the pressures and being transparent to infrared radiation, allowing the observation of changes caused by pressure. The optical probes highlighted will deal principally with infrared and Raman scattering, although some observations in the visible region will also be presented. The book begins with a discussion of the effects of pressure and pres

  13. 转子热弯曲引起发电机组振动的诊断与处理%Remedy on Vibration of Turbogenerator Due to Thermal-caused Bending of Rotor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟; 杨新华; 马呈霞; 王宏伟

    2009-01-01

    对某热电公司9号机组发电机转子产生突发性振动的现象,进行了现场测试和理论分析,确定了发电机转子热弯曲是产生突发性振动的原因,并采取了相应的消除措施,有效消除了发电机转子的振动问题.%After testing and analyzing the reasons of rotor vibration of #9 generator set, It was concluded that the sudden vibration was caused by thermal-caused bending of rotor. According to the results of detecting and analyzing, relevant eliminating measures were adopted and the vibration of the generator set was reduced effectively.

  14. Modelling Bending Wave Transmission across Coupled Plate Systems Comprising Periodic Ribbed Plates in the Low-, Mid-, and High-Frequency Ranges Using Forms of Statistical Energy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Yin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of bending wave transmission across systems of coupled plates which incorporate periodic ribbed plates is considered using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA in the low- and mid-frequency ranges and Advanced SEA (ASEA in the high-frequency range. This paper investigates the crossover from prediction with SEA to ASEA through comparison with Finite Element Methods. Results from L-junctions confirm that this crossover occurs near the frequency band containing the fundamental bending mode of the individual bays on the ribbed plate when ribs are parallel to the junction line. Below this frequency band, SEA models treating each periodic ribbed plate as a single subsystem were shown to be appropriate. Above this frequency band, large reductions occur in the vibration level when propagation takes place across successive bays on ribbed plates when the ribs are parallel to the junction. This is due to spatial filtering; hence it is necessary to use ASEA which can incorporate indirect coupling associated with this transmission mechanism. A system of three coupled plates was also modelled which introduced flanking transmission. The results show that a wide frequency range can be covered by using both SEA and ASEA for systems of coupled plates where some or all of the plates are periodic ribbed plates.

  15. MULTIPLE RECIPROCITY METHOD WITH TWO SERIES OF SEQUENCES OF HIGH-ORDER FUNDAMENTAL SOLUTION FOR THIN PLATE BENDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁方允; 丁睿; 李炳杰

    2003-01-01

    The boundary value problem of plate bending problem on two-parameter foundation was discussed. Using two series of the high-order fundamental solution sequences, namely, the fundamental solution sequences for the multi-harmonic operator and Laplace operator, applying the multiple reciprocity method (MRM), the MRM boundary integral equation for plate bending problem was constructed. It proves that the boundary integral equation derived from MRM is essentially identical to the conventional boundary integral equation. Hence the convergence analysis of MRM for plate bending problem can be obtained by the error estimation for the conventional boundary integral equation. In addition, this method can extend to the case of more series of the high-order fundamental solution sequences.

  16. Effect of hydraulic bending roll on vibration energy of a hot continuous rolling mill%液压弯辊控制参数对热连轧机振动能量影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晓强; 么爱东; 刘克飞

    2016-01-01

    In recent years,hot continuous rolling mill vibration problems are more prominent,many enterprises urgently need to solve this problem.Here,the vibration problem of a hot continuous rolling mill was monitored online. Then,a coupled dynamic model of a rolling mill vertical system and a hydraulic bending roll system was built.According to the actual mill parameters.MATLAB was used to do a simulation study.The effects of the control performance of the hydraulic bending rolls system on the rollers system vibration energy were analyzed by changing the controller parameters of the hydraulic bending roll system.The results provided one of effective measures for suppressing vibrations of hot continuous rolling mills.%近年来,热连轧机振动问题显得更加突出和复杂化,众多企业迫切需要解决这一难题。首先对某热连轧机振动现象进行在线监测;然后依据轧机实际参数建立液压弯辊系统和轧机垂直系统的耦合动力学模型,利用 MATLAB进行了仿真研究,通过改变液压弯辊系统中控制器参数,获得液压弯辊的控制性能对辊系振动能量的影响,实践表明这是有效抑制振动的措施之一。

  17. Vibrational properties of cagelike diamondoid nitrogen at high pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hui

    2013-01-01

    Under high pressure,a cagelike diamondoid nitrogen structure was lately discovered by first-principles structure researches.This newly proposed structure is very unique and has not been observed in any other element.Using densityfunctional calculations,we study the pressure effect on its vibrational properties.The Born effective charges are calculated,and the resulting LO-TO splittings of certain infrared active modes are beyond 20 cm-1.We depict the Γ-point vibrational modes and find the breathing mode,rotational mode,and shearing mode.Frequencies of all the optical modes increase with pressure increasing.Moreover,the relation between the breathing mode frequency and the nitrogen cage diameter is discussed in detail.Our calculation results give a deeper insight into the vibrational properties of the cagelike diamondoid nitrogen.

  18. Experimental analysis of the effect of vegetation on flow and bed shear stress distribution in high-curvature bends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termini, Donatella

    2016-12-01

    The cross-sectional circulation, which develops in meandering bends, exerts an important role in velocity and the boundary shear stress redistributions. This paper considers the effect of vegetation on cross-sectional flow and bed shear distribution along a high-curvature bend. The analysis is conducted with the aid of data collected in a large-amplitude meandering flume during a reference experiment without vegetation and an experiment with vegetation on the bed. The results show that the presence of vegetation modifies the curvature-induced flow pattern and the directionality of turbulent structures. In fact, in the presence of vegetation, the turbulent structures tend to develop within and between the vegetated elements. The pattern of cross-sectional flow, modified by the presence of vegetation, affects the bed shear stress distribution along the bend so that the core of the highest value of the bed shear stress does not reach the outer bank.

  19. The Study of Dynamic Potentials of Highly Excited Vibrational States of DCP: From Case Analysis to Comparative Study with HCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aixing; Fang, Chao; Liu, Yibao

    2016-08-22

    The dynamic potentials of highly excited vibrational states of deuterated phosphaethyne (DCP) in the D-C and C-P stretching coordinates with anharmonicity and Fermi coupling are studied in this article and the results show that the D-C-P bending vibration mode has weak effects on D-C and C-P stretching modes under different Polyad numbers (P number). Furthermore, the dynamic potentials and the corresponding phase space trajectories of DCP are given, as an example, in the case of P = 30. In the end, a comparative study between deuterated phosphaethyne (DCP) and phosphaethyne (HCP) with dynamic potential is done, and it is elucidated that the uncoupled mode makes the original horizontal reversed symmetry breaking between the dynamic potential of HCP ( q 3 ) and DCP ( q 1 ), but has little effect on the vertical reversed symmetry, between the dynamic potential of HCP ( q 2 ) and DCP ( q 3 ).

  20. High force vibration testing with wide frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Edward F.; Jepsen, Richard A.; Gregory, Danny Lynn

    2013-04-02

    A shaker assembly for vibration testing includes first and second shakers, where the first shaker includes a piezo-electric material for generating vibration. A support structure permits a test object to be supported for vibration of the test object by both shakers. An input permits an external vibration controller to control vibration of the shakers.

  1. Active vibration isolation of high precision machines

    CERN Document Server

    Collette, C; Artoos, K; Hauviller, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of active control strategies used to isolate high precisionmachines (e.g. telescopes, particle colliders, interferometers, lithography machines or atomic force microscopes) from external disturbances. The objective of this review is to provide tools to develop the best strategy for a given application. Firstly, the main strategies are presented and compared, using single degree of freedom models. Secondly, the case of huge structures constituted of a large number of elements, like particle colliders or segmented telescopes, is considered.

  2. Therapeutic impact of low amplitude high frequency whole body vibrations on the osteogenesis imperfecta mouse bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanleene, Maximilien; Shefelbine, Sandra J

    2013-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterized by extremely brittle bone. Currently, bisphosphonate drugs allow a decrease of fracture by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing bone mass but with possible long term side effects. Whole body mechanical vibrations (WBV) treatment may offer a promising route to stimulate bone formation in OI patients as it has exhibited health benefits on both muscle and bone mass in human and animal models. The present study has investigated the effects of WBV (45Hz, 0.3g, 15minutes/days, 5days/week) in young OI (oim) and wild type female mice from 3 to 8weeks of age. Vibration therapy resulted in a significant increase in the cortical bone area and cortical thickness in the femur and tibia diaphysis of both vibrated oim and wild type mice compared to sham controls. Trabecular bone was not affected by vibration in the wild type mice; vibrated oim mice, however, exhibited significantly higher trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia. Femoral stiffness and yield load in three point bending were greater in the vibrated wild type mice than in sham controls, most likely attributed to the increase in femur cortical cross sectional area observed in the μCT morphology analyses. The vibrated oim mice showed a trend toward improved mechanical properties, but bending data had large standard deviations and there was no significant difference between vibrated and non-vibrated oim mice. No significant difference of the bone apposition was observed in the tibial metaphyseal trabecular bone for both the oim and wild type vibrated mice by histomorphometry analyses of calcein labels. At the mid diaphysis, the cortical bone apposition was not significantly influenced by the WBV treatment in both the endosteum and periosteum of the oim vibrated mice while a significant change is observed in the endosteum of the vibrated wild type mice. As only a weak impact in bone apposition between the vibrated and sham groups is observed in the

  3. Attaining high bending stiffness by full actuation in steerable minimally invasive surgical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, Filip; Gerboni, Giada; Henselmans, Paul W J; Pessers, Rob; Breedveld, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Steerable instruments are a promising trend in minimally invasive surgery (MIS), due to their manoeuvring capabilities enabling reaching over obstacles. Despite the great number of steerable joint designs, currently available steerable tips tend to be vulnerable to external loading, thus featuring low bending stiffness. This work aims to provide empirical evidence that the bending stiffness can be considerably increased by using fully actuated joint constructions, enabling left/right and up/down tip rotations with the minimum of two degrees of freedom (DOF), rather than conventional underactuated constructions enabling these rotations with more than two DOF. A steerable MIS instrument prototype with a fully actuated joint construction was compared to state-of-the-art underactuated steerable instruments in a number of tip deflection experiments. The tip deflections due to loading were measured by means of a universal testing machine in four bending scenarios: straight and bent over 20°, 40° and 60°. The experimental results support the claim that a fully actuated joint construction exhibits a significantly larger bending stiffness than an underactuated joint construction. Furthermore, it was shown that the underactuated instrument tips show a considerable difference between their neutral positions before and after loading, which could also be greatly minimised by full actuation.

  4. 样条有限点法分析旋转变截面Euler梁弯曲自由振动问题%Spline Finite Point Method for Free Bending Vibration Analysis of Rotating Tapered Euler-Bernoulli Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏; 刘红军; 林坤; 秦荣

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory (EBT),a new model for free bending vibration problems of rotating tapered beams using spline finite point method (SFPM)was investigated.The beam was discretized by a set of uniformly scattered spline nodes along the beam axis direction instead of me-shes,and the displacement field was approximated by the cubic B-spline interpolation functions.Both of the variations of cross-sectional dimension and the rotating centrifugally stiffened effect were considered in the proposed model,and the global stiffness and mass matrices of the structures were deduced based on the Hamilton principle.Computer programs were compiled to study the dynamic properties of rotating tapered beams.The finite element model (FEM)for the rotating tapered beams by using ANSYS was also built for validating the proposed model.The results show that the present results agree very well with the results of other reported literatures and the FEM,and the proposed model has the advantages of good computational accuracy,high modeling efficiency,simple boundary conditions,and convenience for compiling computer program.It is capable of studying the free bending vibration of rotating tapered beams with the variation of boundary conditions,taper ratios,cross-sectional types,rotating speeds,and hub radius.Both the taper ratios and rotating speeds have important roles on the dynamic properties of rotating tapered beams through parameter analysis.%基于Euler-Bernoulli梁理论,采用样条有限点法建立旋转变截面梁弯曲振动分析新模型。通过沿梁轴线均匀布置一定数量的样条节点对变截面梁样条离散化,采用三次B样条函数对变截面梁的位移场进行插值。考虑截面尺寸变化和旋转离心刚化效应的影响,基于 Hamilton原理推导出旋转变截面梁计算模型的总刚度和总质量矩阵表达式,编制程序对旋转变截面梁动力特性进行分析,并建立 ANSYS有限元模型进行比

  5. Characteristics of coated copper wire specimens using high frequency ultrasonic complex vibration welding equipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujino, J; Ihara, S; Harada, Y; Kasahara, K; Sakamaki, N

    2004-04-01

    Welding characteristic of thin coated copper wires were studied using 40, 60, 100 kHz ultrasonic complex vibration welding equipments with elliptical to circular vibration locus. The complex vibration systems consisted of a longitudinal-torsional vibration converter and a driving longitudinal vibration system. Polyurethane coated copper wires of 0.036 mm outer diameter and copper plates of 0.3 mm thickness and the other dimension wires were used as welding specimens. The copper wire part is completely welded on the copper substrate and the insulated coating material is driven from welded area to outsides of the wire specimens by high frequency complex vibration.

  6. Control of vibrational distribution functions in nonequilibrium molecular plasmas and high-speed flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Kraig; Hung, Yi-Chen; Lempert, Walter R.; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2017-01-01

    The control of the vibrational distribution of nitrogen by energy transfer to CO2 is studied in two closely related experiments. In the first experiment, the time-resolved N2(v  =  0-3) vibrational level populations and temperature in the afterglow of a diffuse filament nanosecond pulse discharge are measured using broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. The rotational-translational temperature in the afterglow is inferred from the partially rotationally resolved structure of the N2(v  =  0) band. The measurements are performed in nitrogen, dry air, and their mixtures with CO2. N2 vibrational excitation in the discharge occurs by electron impact, with subsequent vibration-vibration (V-V) energy transfer within the N2 vibrational manifold, vibration-translation (V-T) relaxation, and near-resonance V-V‧ energy transfer from the N2 to CO2 asymmetric stretch vibrational mode. The results show that rapid V-V‧ energy transfer to CO2, followed by collisional intramolecular energy redistribution to the symmetric stretch and bending modes of CO2 and their V-T relaxation, accelerate the net rate of energy thermalization and temperature increase in the afterglow. In the second experiment, injection of CO2 into a supersonic flow of vibrationally excited nitrogen demonstrates the effect of accelerated vibrational relaxation on a supersonic shear layer. The nitrogen flow is vibrationally excited in a repetitive nanosecond pulse/DC sustainer electric discharge in the plenum of a nonequilibrium flow supersonic wind tunnel. A transient pressure increase as well as an upward displacement of the shear layer between the supersonic N2 flow and the subsonic CO2 injection flow are detected when the source of N2 vibrational excitation is turned on. CO2 injection leads to the reduction of the N2 vibrational temperature in the shear layer, demonstrating that its displacement is caused by accelerated N2 vibrational relaxation by CO2, which produces a static

  7. The collisional relaxation of highly vibrationally excited molecules: Glimpses of the energy transfer mechanism and distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Chris Arthur

    The relaxation of highly vibrationally excited donor molecules, C4H4N2 and C6F6, (E vib ~ 5 eV), by collisions with a bath of CO2 is investigated using high resolution, infrared transient absorption spectroscopy. The vibrationally hot donor molecules are formed by 248 nm excimer laser pumping, followed by rapid radiationless decay to the ground electronic state. This technique yields the nascent bath quantum state distributions following a single donor/bath collision. Absolute energy transfer rates are measured along with the partitioning of energy among the bath degrees of freedom. These measurements provide insight into the nature of the intermolecular forces mediating the energy transfer and allow the construction of energy transfer distribution functions, P(E,E') for these systems. Pyrazine/CO2 collisions which result in the excitation of bath vibrational modes, including the anti- symmetric stretch (0001), the Fermi-mixed symmetric stretch/bending overtone (1000 r1 and 1000 r2) and the unmixed bending overtone (0220), are studied. The vibrational energy transfer is accompanied by very little rotational and translational excitation and displays the characteristic strong, inverse temperature dependence (probability of transfer increases with decreasing temperature) expected of energy transfer mediated by a long range attractive interaction. Collisions between highly vibrationally excited C6F6 and CO2, which result in significant excitation of the bath rotational and translational degrees of freedom, are examined. This type of energy transfer is mediated by the short range repulsive region of the C6F6/CO2 intermolecular potential. A gap law model is used to fit the weak temperature dependence of these scattering processes in an effort to quantify the energy transfer magnitudes. A prescription for mapping bath quantum state resolved energy transfer rate constants onto an energy transfer probability distribution function, P(E,E') is described in detail. Analysis of

  8. High efficiency bending of 450 GeV protons using channeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Atherton, H. W.; Clément, M.; Doble, N.; Elsener, K.; Gatignon, L.; Grafström, P.; Hage-Ali, M.; Siffert, P.

    1991-02-01

    For the first time more than 10% of a 450 GeV proton beam has bent using planar channeling in a 5 cm long single crystal of silicon. The bent beam is very narrow in angle (+/-5 μrad), symmetrical and has suffered an energy loss of ~60% of random energy loss. Some of the unbent particles, however, lose more energy than random particles and the straggling is 50% larger than random. From the unbent fraction the bending dechanneling is inferred and found to be in agreement with calculations. The bending efficiency is in good agreement with theoretical dechanneling estimates. The results present very interesting perspectives for extracting beams from future TeV accelerators.

  9. High efficiency bending of 450 GeV protons using channeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, S.P.; Uggerhoej, E. (Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Inst. for Synchrotron Radiation); Atherton, H.W.; Clement, M.; Doble, N.; Elsener, K.; Gatignon, L.; Grafstroem, P. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Hage-Ali, M.; Siffert, P. (Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires)

    1991-02-28

    For the first time more than 10% of a 450 GeV proton beam has been bent using planar channeling in a 5 cm long single crystal of silicon. The bent beam is very narrow in angle (+-5 {mu}rad), symmetrical and has suffered an energy loss of {approx equal} 60% of random energy loss. Some of the unbent particles, however, lose more energy than random particles and the straggling is 50% larger than random. From the unbent fraction the bending dechanneling is inferred and found to be in agreement with calculations. The bending efficiency is in good agreement with theoretical dechanneling estimates. The results present very interesting perspectives for extracting beams from future TeV accelerators. (orig.).

  10. 摩擦力作用下推进轴系弯-扭耦合振动特性分析%Bending and Torsional Coupled Vibration of a Propulsion Shafting System Excited by Friction Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃文源; 张志谊; 华宏星

    2013-01-01

    The load state of stern bearing of the propulsion shafting system is affected by the alignment between propeller and shafting. Unreasonable design or poor installation of the shafting system can result in poor lubrication of the rubber bearing, which can cause the stick-slip motion between the shaft and the bearing, and abnormal bending and torsional vibration of the shafting system. In this paper, the bending and torsional coupled vibration induced by the friction between the stern bearing and the propulsion shaft was analyzed theoretically based on a simplified propulsion-shafting system. The characteristics of friction induced shaft vibration and noise were revealed.%推进轴系的艉轴承负荷受螺旋桨、轴系对中等因素影响,不合理设计或安装可能导致轴承润滑不良,使轴颈与橡胶轴承间容易存在“粘着-滑动”状态,进而导致轴系的弯曲、扭转振动异常。通过简化的推进轴系模型,从机理上分析轴系在艉部橡胶轴承摩擦力作用下的弯-扭耦合振动特性及其主要影响因素,为识别轴系异常振动和噪声提供参考。

  11. Nonlinear free vibrations of centrifugally stiffened uniform beams at high angular velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhoucha, F.; Rechak, S.; Duigou, L.; Cadou, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we study the bending nonlinear free vibrations of a centrifugally stiffened beam with uniform cross-section and constant angular velocity. The nonlinear intrinsic equations of motion used here are geometrically exact and specific to beams exhibiting large amplitude displacements and rotations associated with small strains. Based on the Timoshenko beam model, these equations are derived from Hamilton's principle, in which the warping is considered. All coupling terms are considered including Coriolis terms. The studied beams are isotropic with clamped-free boundary conditions. By combining the Galerkin method with the harmonic balance method, the equations of motion are converted into a quadratic function treated with a continuation method: the Asymptotic Numerical Method, where the generalized displacement vector is presented as a series expansion. While analysing the effect of the angular velocity, we determine the amplitude versus frequency variations which are plotted as backbone curves. Considering the first lagging and flapping modes, the changes in beam behaviour from hardening to softening are investigated and identified as a function of the angular velocity and the effect of shear. Particular attention is paid to high angular velocities for both Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beams and the natural frequencies so obtained are compared with the results available in the literature.

  12. A new approach to electron diffraction analysis of symmetric triatomic molecules with large-amplitude bending motion : The equilibrium geometry, force field and vibrational frequencies of BaI2 as determined by electron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridonov, V. P.; Gershikov, A. G.; Altman, A. B.; Romanov, G. V.; Ivanov, A. A.

    1981-01-01

    Diffraction data on BaI 2, analyzed by a new approach, indicate an anharmonic potential with a barrier of 71(12) cm -1 at a linear geometry. The structural and vibrational parameters were found to be reh(Ba-I o) = 3.150(7)Å, ∠ eIBaI = 148.0(9) °, fq = 0.69(8) mdyn/Å, fqq= 0.14(6) mdyn/Å, k2 = -0.0075(15) mdyn/Å, k4 = 0.0025(9) mdyn/Å 3, v1 = 106(12) cm -1 and v3 = 145(21) cm -1. The bending frequency v2 is predicted to be near 16 cm -1.

  13. Sensor fusion methods for high performance active vibration isolation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collette, C.; Matichard, F.

    2015-04-01

    Sensor noise often limits the performance of active vibration isolation systems. Inertial sensors used in such systems can be selected through a wide variety of instrument noise and size characteristics. However, the most sensitive instruments are often the biggest and the heaviest. Consequently, high-performance active isolators sometimes embed many tens of kilograms in instrumentation. The weight and size of instrumentation can add unwanted constraint on the design. It tends to lower the structures natural frequencies and reduces the collocation between sensors and actuators. Both effects tend to reduce feedback control performance and stability. This paper discusses sensor fusion techniques that can be used in order to increase the control bandwidth (and/or the stability). For this, the low noise inertial instrument signal dominates the fusion at low frequency to provide vibration isolation. Other types of sensors (relative motion, smaller but noisier inertial, or force sensors) are used at higher frequencies to increase stability. Several sensor fusion configurations are studied. The paper shows the improvement that can be expected for several case studies including a rigid equipment, a flexible equipment, and a flexible equipment mounted on a flexible support structure.

  14. Anharmonic bend-stretch coupling in neat liquid water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, Joerg; Cringus, Dan; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Voehringer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Femtosecond mid-IR spectroscopy is used to study the vibrational relaxation dynamics in neat liquid water. By exciting the bending vibration and probing the stretching mode, it is possible to reliably determine the bending and librational lifetimes of water. The anharmonic coupling between the bendi

  15. A New Kind of Bend Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new kind of bend sensor is introduced.It can be used to detect the bend angle of an object or inclination between two objects.It has characteristics of small size, lightweight, high reliability, fine flexibility and plasticity.When this bend sensor is used with a proper converting circuit, it can implement dynamic measuring the bend angle of an object conveniently.The application of the bend sensor in dataglove is also described.

  16. Design of an impedance matching acoustic bend

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yuzhen; Jia, Han; Lu, Wenjia; Sun, Zhaoyong; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    We propose the design of an impedance matching acoustic bend in this article. The bending structure is composed of sub-wavelength unit cells with perforated plates and side pipes, whose mass density and bulk modulus can be tuned simultaneously. So the refraction index and the impedance of the acoustic bend can be modulated simultaneously to guarantee both the bending effect and the high transmission. The simulation results of sound pressure field distribution show that the bending effect of t...

  17. Vibrations in High Speed Milling of Thin-walled Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tongyue; HE Ning; LI Liang

    2006-01-01

    Thin-walled structures have been widely used in the aerospace industry. The dynamic interaction between the milling cutter and thin-walled workpiece can easily lead to vibration. This paper investigates the vibration caused during milling the thin-walled workpiece on the NC machining center, presents a theoretical milling vibration model of thin-walled beam. The model was verified by using milling experiments and numerical simulations. Some valuable conclusions are derived, this will be references to scientific research and guides to the vibration-free milling of thin-walled structures at different cutting speeds.

  18. A high-sensitive static vector magnetometer based on two vibrating coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jing; Pan, Cheng Liang; Wang, Hong Bo; Feng, Zhi Hua

    2011-12-01

    A static vector magnetometer based on two-dimensional (2D) vibrating coils actuated by a piezoelectric cantilever is presented. Two individual sensing coils are orthogonally fastened at the tip of cantilever and piezoelectric sheets are used to excite the cantilever bending. Due to off-axis coupler on the tip, the cantilever generates bending and twisting vibrations simultaneously on their corresponding resonant frequencies, realizing the 2D rotating vibrations of the coils. According to Faraday-Lenz Law, output voltages are induced from the coils. They are amplified by a pre-amplifier circuit, decoupled by a phase-sensitive detector, and finally used to calculate the vector of magnetic field at the coil location. The coil head of a prototype magnetometer possesses a dc sensitivity of around 10 μV/Gs with a good linearity in the measuring range from 0 to 16 μT. The corresponding noise level is about 13.1 nT in the bandwidth from 0.01 Hz to 1 Hz.

  19. Combined effect of noise and vibration produced by high-speed trains on annoyance in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pyoung Jik; Griffin, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    The effects of noise and vibration on annoyance in buildings during the passage of a nearby high-speed train have been investigated in a laboratory experiment with recorded train noise and 20 Hz vibration. The noises included the effects of two types of façade: windows-open and windows-closed. Subjects were exposed to six levels of noise and six magnitudes of vibration, and asked to rate annoyance using an 11-point numerical scale. The experiment consisted of four sessions: (1) evaluation of noise annoyance in the absence of vibration, (2) evaluation of total annoyance from simultaneous noise and vibration, (3) evaluation of noise annoyance in the presence of vibration, and (4) evaluation of vibration annoyance in the absence of noise. The results show that vibration did not influence ratings of noise annoyance, but that total annoyance caused by combined noise and vibration was considerably greater than the annoyance caused by noise alone. The noise annoyance and the total annoyance caused by combined noise and vibration were associated with subject self-ratings of noise sensitivity. Two classical models of total annoyance due to combined noise sources (maximum of the single source annoyance or the integration of individual annoyance ratings) provided useful predictions of the total annoyance caused by simultaneous noise and vibration.

  20. Modeling and characteristics of bending vibration for helicopter tail drive shaft during maneuver flight%机动飞行时直升机尾传动轴的横向振动建模与特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪德; 朱如鹏; 靳广虎; 李发家

    2014-01-01

    提出了直升机空间机动飞行及尾传动轴运动位姿的一种描述方法,建立了相关坐标系。基于扩展哈密顿原理,建立了直升机空间机动飞行下尾斜轴横向弯曲振动的动力学模型,并利用伽辽金法将偏微分方程转化为常微分方程。水平传动轴可以当作尾斜轴的一种特例,通过一坐标变换矩阵即可将尾斜轴的动力学方程变换为水平传动轴的动力学方程。分析了直升机空间机动飞行对尾传动轴横向弯曲振动特性的影响。结果表明:直升机的机动飞行会对尾传动轴的横向弯曲振动产生附加的刚度效应、阻尼效应和激励效应,使得传动轴轨迹中心的位置和运动轨道的大小发生改变。%A description method for spatial motions of helicopter maneuver flight and helicopter tail drive shaft was proposed and the corresponding coordinate systems were established.A lateral bending vibration model of the helicopter oblique tail drive shaft during maneuvering flight was established by using the extended Hamilton's principle,and the partial differential equations were converted into the ordinary differential ones by using Galerkin method.A horizontal shaft could be regarded as a special case of an oblique tail shaft,and the dynamic equations of the oblique tail drive shaft could be converted into those of a horizontal drive shaft by using a coordinate transformation matrix.The effects of spatial maneuver flight on the vibration characteristics of the tail drive shaft were discussed with the combination of mathematical model and numerical simulation.The study results revealed that the spatial maneuver flight of a helicopter can produce additional stiffness effect,damping effect and external excitation force effect on the bending vibration of the helicopter tail drive shoft,they may change the center position and the size of the motion orbit of the tail drive shaft.

  1. Innovative nanostructures for highly sensitive vibrational biosensing (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Juergen; Mayerhöfer, Thomas; Cialla-May, Dana; Weber, Karina; Huebner, Uwe

    2016-03-01

    Employing vibrational spectroscopy (IR-absorption and Raman spectroscopy) allows for the labelfree detection of molecular specific fingerprints of inorganic, organic and biological substances. The sensitivity of vibrational spectroscopy can be improved by several orders of magnitude via the application of plasmonic active surfaces. Within this contribution we will discuss two such approaches, namely surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as well as surface enhanced IR absorption (SEIRA). It will be shown that SERS using metal colloids as SERS active substrate in combination with a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device enables high throughput and reproducible measurements with highest sensitivity and specificity. The application of such a LOC-SERS approach for therapeutic drug monitoring (e.g. quantitative detection of antibiotics in a urine matrix) will be presented. Furthermore, we will introduce innovative bottom-up strategies to prepare SERS-active nanostructures coated with a lipophilic sensor layer as one-time use SERS substrates for specific food analysis (e.g. quantitative detection of toxic food colorants). The second part of this contribution presents a slit array metamaterial perfect absorber for IR sensing applications consisting of a dielectric layer sandwiched between two metallic layers of which the upper layer is perforated with a periodic array of slits. Light-matter interaction is greatly amplified in the slits, where also the analyte is concentrated, as the surface of the substrate is covered by a thin silica layer. Thus, already small concentrations of analytes down to a monolayer can be detected by refractive index sensing and identified by their spectral fingerprints with a standard mid-infrared lab spectrometer.

  2. Welding Characteristics of Ultrasonic Wire Bonding Using High-Frequency Vibration Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujino, Jiromaru; Mori, Takahiro; Hasegawa, Koichi

    1994-05-01

    Welding characteristics of ultrasonic wire bonding using 60 kHz, 90 kHz and 120 kHz complex vibration as well as 190 kHz linear vibration welding systems are studied. The locus shapes of the complex vibration welding tip are controlled from linear to elliptical or circular. Aluminum wire specimens of 0.1 mm diameter are welded successfully using complex and high-frequency welding equipment. The required vibration amplitudes of these complex vibration systems are about one-half to one-third and required weld time is shorter than those of a conventional system of linear vibration. The required vibration velocity of a high-frequency system is lower than that of a low-frequency system. The deformations of the welded specimens under adequate welding conditions are almost the same, even if the welding tip vibration locus is altered from linear to elliptical or circular, or the vibration frequency used is changed from 60 kHz to 190 kHz in the case where the same wire specimens are used. Using these methods, the weld strength of wire bonding becomes independent of the difference in the directions of the welding tip vibration and wire length.

  3. Calculation of diagonal section and cross-section bending capacity for strengthening RC structure using high-performance ferrocement laminate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shouping SHANG; Fangyuan ZHOU; Wei LIU

    2009-01-01

    Because there is a great demand of reinforce-ment and retrofitting of aged structures nationwide, as well as the rapid development of innovative building materials,the adoption of strengthening RC structures using new inorganic materials has become possible. High-performance ferrocement laminate (HPFL) is an effective method of strengthening concrete structure. High-performance ferrocement laminate is a new type of inorganic material with the advantages such as high strength, small contraction, good bonding properties, etc.This paper introduces the formula of cross-section bending capacity for strengthening concrete beams with HPEL. A comparative analysis of experimental data, as well as the calculation of diagonal section bearing capacity of concrete members, is given.

  4. Highly Robust Neutral Plane Oxide TFTs Withstanding 0.25 mm Bending Radius for Stretchable Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Eunji; Um, Jae Gwang; Mativenga, Mallory; Jang, Jin

    2016-05-01

    Advancements in thin-film transistor (TFT) technology have extended to electronics that can withstand extreme bending or even folding. Although the use of ultrathin plastic substrates has achieved considerable advancement towards this end, free-standing ultrathin plastics inevitably suffer from mechanical instability and are very difficult to handle during TFT fabrication. Here, in addition to the use of a 1.5 μm-thick polyimide (PI) substrate, a 1.5 μm-thick PI film is also deposited on top of the TFT devices to ensure that the devices are located at the neutral plane of the two PI films for high folding stability. For mechanical support during TFT fabrication up to the deposition of the top PI film, the PI substrate is spin coated on top of a carrier glass that is coated with a mixture of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene oxide (GO). The mixture of CNT and GO facilitates mechanical detachment of the neutral plane (NP) TFTs from the carrier glass before they are transferred to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate as islands. Being located in the neutral bending plane, the NP TFT can be transferred to the PDMS without performance degradation and exhibit excellent mechanical stability after stretching the PDMS substrate up to a 25% elastic elongation.

  5. Design and Fabrication of the Superconducting Horizontal Bend Magnet for the Super High Momentum Spectrometer at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouhan, Shailendra S. [Michigan State University; DeKamp, Jon [Michigan State University; Burkhart, E. E, [Michigan State University; Bierwagen, J. [Michigan State University; Song, H. [Michigan State University; Zeller, Albert F. [Michigan State University; Brindza, Paul D. [JLAB; Lassiter, Steven R. [JLAB; Fowler, Michael J. [JLAB; Sun, Qiuli (Eric) [JLAB

    2015-06-01

    A collaboration exists between NSCL and JLab to design and build JLab's Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS) horizontal bend magnet that allows the bending of the 12 GeV/c particles horizontally by 3° to allow SHMS to reach angles as low as 5.5°. Two full size coils have been wound and are cold tested for both magnetic and structural properties. Each coil is built from 90 layers of single-turn SSC outer conductor cable. An initial test coil with one third the turns was fabricated to demonstrate that the unique saddle shape with fully contoured ends could be wound with Rutherford superconducting cable. Learned lessons during the trial winding were integrated into the two complete full-scale coils that are now installed in the helium vessel. The fabrication of the iron yoke, cold mass, and thermal shield is complete, and assembly of the vacuum vessel is in progress. This paper presents the process and progress along with the modified magnet design to reduce the fringe field in the primary beam region and also includes the impact of the changes on coil forces and coil restraint system.

  6. Extended high order sandwich panel theory for bending analysis of sandwich beams with carbon nanotube reinforced face sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedari Salami, S.

    2016-02-01

    Bending analysis of a sandwich beam with soft core and carbon nanotube reinforced composite (CNTRC) face sheets in the literature is presented based on Extended High order Sandwich Panel Theory (EHSAPT). Distribution of fibers through the thickness of the face sheets could be uniform or functionally graded (FG). In this theory the face sheets follow the first order shear deformation theory (FSDT). Besides, the two dimensional elasticity is used for the core. The field equations are derived via the Ritz based solution which is suitable for any essential boundary condition. The influences of boundary conditions on bending response of the sandwich panel with soft core and CNTRC face sheet are investigated. In each type of boundary condition the effect of distribution pattern of CNTRCs on many essential involved parameters of the sandwich beam with functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite (FG- CNTRC) face sheets are studied in detail. Finally, experimental result have been compared with those obtained based on developed solution method. It is concluded that, the sandwich beam with X distribution figure of face sheets is the strongest with the smallest transverse displacement, and followed by the UD, O and ∧-ones, respectively.

  7. Microscale capillary wave turbulence excited by high frequency vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamey, Jeremy; Yeo, Leslie Y; Friend, James R

    2013-03-19

    Low frequency (O(10 Hz-10 kHz)) vibration excitation of capillary waves has been extensively studied for nearly two centuries. Such waves appear at the excitation frequency or at rational multiples of the excitation frequency through nonlinear coupling as a result of the finite displacement of the wave, most often at one-half the excitation frequency in so-called Faraday waves and twice this frequency in superharmonic waves. Less understood, however, are the dynamics of capillary waves driven by high-frequency vibration (>O(100 kHz)) and small interface length scales, an arrangement ideal for a broad variety of applications, from nebulizers for pulmonary drug delivery to complex nanoparticle synthesis. In the few studies conducted to date, a marked departure from the predictions of classical Faraday wave theory has been shown, with the appearance of broadband capillary wave generation from 100 Hz to the excitation frequency and beyond, without a clear explanation. We show that weak wave turbulence is the dominant mechanism in the behavior of the system, as evident from wave height frequency spectra that closely follow the Rayleigh-Jeans spectral response η ≈ ω(-17/12) as a consequence of a period-halving, weakly turbulent cascade that appears within a 1 mm water drop whether driven by thickness-mode or surface acoustic Rayleigh wave excitation. However, such a cascade is one-way, from low to high frequencies. The mechanism of exciting the cascade with high-frequency acoustic waves is an acoustic streaming-driven turbulent jet in the fluid bulk, driving the fundamental capillary wave resonance through the well-known coupling between bulk flow and surface waves. Unlike capillary waves, turbulent acoustic streaming can exhibit subharmonic cascades from high to low frequencies; here it appears from the excitation frequency all the way to the fundamental modes of the capillary wave at some four orders of magnitude in frequency less than the excitation frequency

  8. Refinement of Eutectic Silicon Phase of Aluminum A356 Alloy Using High-Intensity Ultrasonic Vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian, Xiaogang [ORNL; Han, Qingyou [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    The eutectic silicon in A356 alloy can be refined and modified using either chemical, quench, or superheating modification. We observed, for the first time, that the eutectic silicon can also be significantly refined using high-intensity ultrasonic vibration. Rosette-like eutectic silicon is formed during solidification of specimen treated with high-intensity ultrasonic vibration.

  9. On the Elastic Vibration Model for High Length-Diameter Ratio Rocket with Attitude Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伯立; 杨树兴

    2003-01-01

    An elastic vibration model for high length-diameter ratio spinning rocket with attitude control system which can be used for trajectory simulation is established. The basic theory of elastic dynamics and vibration dynamics were both used to set up the elastic vibration model of rocket body. In order to study the problem more conveniently, the rocket's body was simplified to be an even beam with two free ends. The model was validated by simulation results and the test data.

  10. High pressure structural, elastic and vibrational properties of green energetic oxidizer ammonium dinitramide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedukondalu, N.; Ghule, Vikas D.; Vaitheeswaran, G.

    2016-08-01

    Ammonium DiNitramide (ADN) is one of the most promising green energetic oxidizers for future rocket propellant formulations. In the present work, we report a detailed theoretical study on structural, elastic, and vibrational properties of the emerging oxidizer under hydrostatic compression using various dispersion correction methods to capture weak intermolecular (van der Waals and hydrogen bonding) interactions. The calculated ground state lattice parameters, axial compressibilities, and equation of state are in good accord with the available experimental results. Strength of intermolecular interactions has been correlated using the calculated compressibility curves and elastic moduli. Apart from this, we also observe discontinuities in the structural parameters and elastic constants as a function of pressure. Pictorial representation and quantification of intermolecular interactions are described by the 3D Hirshfeld surfaces and 2D finger print maps. In addition, the computed infra-red (IR) spectra at ambient pressure reveal that ADN is found to have more hygroscopic nature over Ammonium Perchlorate (AP) due to the presence of strong hydrogen bonding. Pressure dependent IR spectra show blue- and red-shift of bending and stretching frequencies which leads to weakening and strengthening of the hydrogen bonding below and above 5 GPa, respectively. The abrupt changes in the calculated structural, mechanical, and IR spectra suggest that ADN might undergo a first order structural transformation to a high pressure phase around 5-6 GPa. From the predicted detonation properties, ADN is found to have high and low performance characteristics (DCJ = 8.09 km/s and PCJ = 25.54 GPa) when compared with ammonium based energetic oxidizers (DCJ = 6.50 km/s and PCJ = 17.64 GPa for AP, DCJ = 7.28 km/s and PCJ = 18.71 GPa for ammonium nitrate) and well-known secondary explosives for which DCJ = ˜8-10 km/s and PCJ = ˜30-50 GPa, respectively.

  11. An experimental analysis of a vibrating guitar string using high-speed photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Scott B.; Flesch, Kurt B.

    2014-02-01

    We use high-speed photography (1200 frames/s) to investigate the vibrational motion of a plucked guitar string over several cycles. We investigate the vibrational pattern for plucking the string at two different locations along the string's length, and with different initial amplitudes. The vibrational patterns are then compared to a standing wave model of the string vibrations. We find excellent agreement between the observed vibrational patterns and the model for small-initial-amplitude displacement of the string. For larger amplitude displacements, the qualitative behavior of the string's vibrational pattern differs significantly from the small-amplitude displacement. This behavior may be due to the presence of inharmonicity, as suggested by its incorporation into the model calculations.

  12. 中空柱状定子二阶弯振的旋转-直线超声电机%Rotary-linear ultrasonic motor based on second bending vibration mode of hollow cylindrical stator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程廷海; 郭向东; 包钢

    2013-01-01

    To improve the utilizing efficiency of PZT plates and simplify the fixing in the application of ultrasonic motor, a novel plate-attached rotary-linear ultrasonic motor was proposed. For the prototype, the second bending vibration modes of a hollow cylindrical stator were excited orthogonally both in time and space. And a traveling wave was synthesized in the free end of stator. The output shaft was driven by the traveling wave to move in a rotary-linear motion through the screw thread. The bending vibration mode of stator and excitation mode of PZT plates were simulated by finite element method. And then a prototype was developed, whose stator adopts a hollow square column structure. A testing system based on virtual instrument was established and the basic output characteristics of prototype were tested. Testing results indicate that the resonant frequency of the prototype is 38. 90 kHz, and can be driven availably under a peak-peak value of 20 V.%为了提高贴片式旋转-直线超声电机压电片的利用效率,简化电机使用过程中的安装与固定,提出了一种新颖的贴片式旋转-直线超声电机.样机主要利用自由约束柱状定子空间上相互正交的二阶弯曲振动模态耦合,在定子自由端的内表面合成一个驱动行波,通过螺纹传动实现输出轴的旋转-直线运动输出.基于有限元法对定子的振动模态以及压电片的激振模式进行了仿真分析,研制出一台定子采用中空方柱型结构的原型样机.搭建了一套基于虚拟仪器技术的超声电机测试系统,完成了样机基本输出特性的测试.测试结果表明样机工作频率为38.90 kHz,驱动电压峰峰值20 V时即可实现样机的有效驱动.

  13. Bending in HVPE GaN free-standing films: effects of laser lift-off, polishing and high-pressure annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paskova, T. [Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Linkoeping University, 581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Darakchieva, V.; Paskov, P.P.; Monemar, B. [Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Linkoeping University, 581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Bukowski, M.; Suski, T. [High Pressure Research Center, Unipress, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Ashkenov, N.; Schubert, M. [Fakultaet fuer Physik and Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Hommel, D. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    We have studied the effects of laser lift-off and polishing processes on the bending of free-standing HVPE grown GaN thick films. Their structural characteristics were accessed by reciprocal space mapping and lattice parameters measurements as well as by Raman scattering and photoluminescence. The in-plane strain difference between the two faces was found to have determining effect on the bending of the free-standing films. Removing the high-defect-density near-interface region either by melting caused by laser lift-off, or by polishing, or by point defects dissociation caused by high-pressure annealing was found to lead to flattening of the strain distribution along the film thickness and a significant reduction of the bending of the free-standing films. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Active Damping of Vibrations in High-Precision Motion Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Babakhani, B.

    2012-01-01

    Technology advancements feed the need for ever faster and more accurate industrial machines. Vibration is a significant source of inaccuracy of such machines. A light-weight design in favor of the speed, and avoiding the use of energy-dissipating materials from the structure to omit any source of inaccuracy, contribute to a low structural damping. The goal of this research is to investigate the addition of damping to the rotational vibration mode of a linearly actuated motion system to •achie...

  15. The Effect of First-Order Bending Resonance of Wheelset at High Speed on Wheel-Rail Contact Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuoqiao Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The first-order bending deformation of wheelset is considered in the modeling vehicle/track coupling dynamic system to investigate its effect on wheel/rail contact behavior. In considering the effect of the first-order bending resonance on the rolling contact of wheel/rail, a new wheel/rail contact model is derived in detail in the modeling vehicle/track coupling dynamic system, in which the many intermediate coordinate systems and complex coordinate system transformations are used. The bending mode shape and its corresponding frequency of the wheelset are obtained through the modal analysis by using commercial software ANSYS. The modal superposition method is used to solve the differential equations of wheelset motion considering its flexible deformation due to the first-order bending resonance. In order to verify the present model and clarify the influence of the first-order bending deformation of wheelset on wheel/track contact behavior, a harmonic track irregularity with a fixed wavelength and a white-noise roughness are, respectively used as the excitations in the two models of vehicle-rail coupling dynamic system, one considers the effect of wheelset bending deformation, and the other does not. The numerical results indicate that the wheelset first-order bending deformation has an influence on wheel/rail rolling contact behavior and is easily excited under wheel/rail roughness excitation.

  16. High curvature bending characterization of ultra-thin chips and chip-on-foil assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D. van den; Verhoeven, F.; Eijnden, P. van der; Kusters, R.; Sridhar, A.; Cauwe, M.; Brand, J. van den

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-thin chips of less than 20μm become flexible, allowing integration of silicon IC technology with highly flexible electronics. This combination allows for highly intelligent products of unprecedented thinness, flexibility and cost. Examples include sensor systems integrated into food packaging

  17. High curvature bending characterization of ultra-thin chips and chip-on-foil assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D. van den; Verhoeven, F.; Eijnden, P. van der; Kusters, R.; Sridhar, A.; Cauwe, M.; Brand, J. van den

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-thin chips of less than 20μm become flexible, allowing integration of silicon IC technology with highly flexible electronics. This combination allows for highly intelligent products of unprecedented thinness, flexibility and cost. Examples include sensor systems integrated into food packaging

  18. DNA Bending elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, David Alexander

    DNA bending elasticity on length scales of tens of basepairs is of critical importance in numerous biological contexts. Even the simplest models of DNA bending admit of few simple analytic results, thus there is a need for numerical methods to calculate experimental observables, such as distance distributions, forces, FRET efficiencies, and timescales of particular large-scale motions. We have implemented and helped develop a coarse-grained representation of DNA and various other covalently-linked groups that allows simple calculation of such observables for varied experimental systems. The simple freely-jointed chain (FJC) model and extremely coarse resolution proved useful in understanding DNA threading through nanopores, identifying steric occlusion by other parts of the chain as a prime culprit for slower capture as distance to the pore decreased. Enhanced sampling techniques of a finer resolution discrete wormlike chain (WLC) model permitted calculation of cyclization rates for small chains and identified the ramifications of a thermodynamically-sound treatment of thermal melts. Adding treatment of double-stranded DNA's helical nature and single-stranded DNA provided a model system that helped demonstrate the importance of statistical fluctuations in even highly-stressed DNA mini-loops, and allowed us to verify that even these constructs show no evidence of excitation-induced softening. Additional incorporation of salt-sensitivity to the model allowed us to calculate forces and FRET efficiencies for such mini-loops and their uncircularized precursors, thereby furthering the understanding of the nature of IHF binding and bending of its recognition sequence. Adding large volume-excluding spheres linked to the ends of the dsDNA permits calculation of distance distributions and thus small-angle X-ray scattering, whereby we demonstrated the validity of the WLC in describing bending fluctuations in DNA chains as short as 42 bp. We also make important connections

  19. Field measurements and analyses of environmental vibrations induced by high-speed Maglev.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Zhi-Lu; Chen, Suwen; Xu, You-Lin

    2016-10-15

    Maglev, offers competitive journey-times compared to the railway and subway systems in markets for which distance between the stations is 100-1600km owing to its high acceleration and speed; however, such systems may have excessive vibration. Field measurements of Maglev train-induced vibrations were therefore performed on the world's first commercial Maglev line in Shanghai, China. Seven test sections along the line were selected according to the operating conditions, covering speeds from 150 to 430km/h. Acceleration responses of bridge pier and nearby ground were measured in three directions and analyzed in both the time and frequency domain. The effects of Maglev train speed on vibrations of the bridge pier and ground were studied in terms of their peak accelerations. Attenuation of ground vibration was investigated up to 30m from the track centerline. Effects of guideway configuration were also analyzed based on the measurements through two different test sections with same train speed of 300km/h. The results showed that peak accelerations exhibited a strong correlation with both train speed and distance off the track. Guideway configuration had a significant effect on transverse vibration, but a weak impact on vertical and longitudinal vibrations of both bridge pier and ground. Statistics indicated that, contrary to the commonly accepted theory and experience, vertical vibration is not always dominant: transverse and longitudinal vibrations should also be considered, particularly near turns in the track. Moreover, measurements of ground vibration induced by traditional high-speed railway train were carried out with the same testing devices in Bengbu in the Anhui Province. Results showed that the Maglev train generates significantly different vibration signatures as compared to the traditional high-speed train. The results obtained from this paper can provide good insights on the impact of Maglev system on the urban environment and the quality of human life

  20. High frequency dynamic bending response of piezoresistive GaN microcantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Abdul; Qazi, Muhammad; Koley, Goutam

    2012-12-01

    Static and dynamic ac responses of piezoresistive GaN microcantilevers, with integrated AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors as highly sensitive deflection transducers, have been investigated. Very high gauge factor exceeding 3500 was exhibited by the microcantilevers, with quality factor determined from electronically transduced ac response exceeding 200 in air and 4500 at low pressure. The gauge factor reduced at resonance frequency of the cantilevers, possibly due to reduced charge exchange with surface donor and trap states. Ultrasonic waves generated in air by a piezochip, and in the Si substrate through photoacoustic effect, could be detected by the cantilevers with high sensitivity.

  1. Passive Vibration Absorption for Extremely High Density Recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vakis, Antonis I.; Polycarpou, Andreas A.

    2012-01-01

    A method is proposed for passive vibration absorption in hard-disk drives during transient events such as the coming into proximity of the rotating disk within the context of thermal fly-height control nanotechnology or external shock. The method uses a nonlinear energy sink at the center of mass of

  2. Active Damping of Vibrations in High-Precision Motion Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babakhani, B.

    2012-01-01

    Technology advancements feed the need for ever faster and more accurate industrial machines. Vibration is a significant source of inaccuracy of such machines. A light-weight design in favor of the speed, and avoiding the use of energy-dissipating materials from the structure to omit any source of

  3. Investigation into high-frequency-vibration assisted micro-blanking of pure copper foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chunju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties encountered during the manufacture of microparts are often associated with size effects relating to material, process and tooling. Utilizing acoustoplastic softening, achieved through a high-frequency vibration assisted micro-blanking process, was introduced to improve the surface finish in micro-blanking. A frequency of 1.0 kHz was chosen to activate the longitudinal vibration mode of the horn tip, using a piezoelectric actuator. A square hole with dimensions of 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm was made, successfully, from a commercial rolled T2 copper foil with 100 μm in thickness. It was found that the maximum blanking force could be reduced by 5% through utilizing the high-frequency vibration. Proportion of the smooth, burnished area in the cut cross-section increases with an increase of the plasticity to fracture, under the high-frequency vibration, which suggests that the vibration introduced is helpful for inhibiting evolution of the crack due to its acoustoplastic softening effect. During blanking, roughness of the burnished surface could be reduced by increasing the vibration amplitude of the punch, which played a role as surface polishing. The results obtained suggest that the high-frequency vibration can be adopted in micro-blanking in order to improve quality of the microparts.

  4. A BEAMLINE FOR HIGH PRESSURE STUDIES AT THE ADVANCED LIGHT SOURCE WITH A SUPERCONDUCTING BENDING MAGNET AS THE SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, M; MacDowell, A A; Caldwell, W A; Cambie, D; Celestre, R S; Domning, E E; Duarte, R M; Gleason, A; Glossinger, J; Kelez, N; Plate, D W; Yu, T; Zaug, J M; Padmore, H A; Jeanloz, R; Alivisatos, A P; Clark, S M

    2005-04-19

    A new facility for high-pressure diffraction and spectroscopy using diamond anvil high-pressure cells has been built at the Advanced Light Source on Beamline 12.2.2. This beamline benefits from the hard X-radiation generated by a 6 Tesla superconducting bending magnet (superbend). Useful x-ray flux is available between 5 keV and 35 keV. The radiation is transferred from the superbend to the experimental enclosure by the brightness preserving optics of the beamline. These optics are comprised of: a plane parabola collimating mirror (M1), followed by a Kohzu monochromator vessel with a Si(111) crystals (E/{Delta}E {approx} 7000) and a W/B{sub 4}C multilayer (E/{Delta}E {approx} 100), and then a toroidal focusing mirror (M2) with variable focusing distance. The experimental enclosure contains an automated beam positioning system, a set of slits, ion chambers, the sample positioning goniometry and area detectors (CCD or image-plate detector). Future developments aim at the installation of a second end station dedicated for in situ laser-heating on one hand and a dedicated high-pressure single-crystal station, applying both monochromatic as well as polychromatic techniques.

  5. A Beamline for High-Pressure Studies at the Advanced Light Sourcewith a Superconducting Bending Magnet as the Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Martin; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Caldwell, Wendel A.; Cambie, Daniella; Celestre, Richard S.; Domning, Edward E.; Duarte,Robert M.; Gleason, Arianna E.; Glossinger, James M.; Kelez, Nicholas; Plate, David W.; Yu, Tony; Zaug, Joeseph M.; Padmore, Howard A.; Jeanloz,Raymond; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Clark, Simon M.

    2005-06-30

    A new facility for high-pressure diffraction and spectroscopy using diamond anvil high-pressure cells has been built at the Advanced Light Source on Beamline 12.2.2. This beamline benefits from the hard X-radiation generated by a 6 Tesla superconducting bending magnet (superbend). Useful x-ray flux is available between 5 keV and 35 keV. The radiation is transferred from the superbend to the experimental enclosure by the brightness preserving optics of the beamline. These optics are comprised of: a plane parabola collimating mirror (M1), followed by a Kohzu monochromator vessel with a Si(111) crystals (E/DE {approx}7000) and a W/B4C multilayers (E/DE {approx} 100), and then a toroidal focusing mirror (M2) with variable focusing distance. The experimental enclosure contains an automated beam positioning system, a set of slits, ion chambers, the sample positioning goniometry and area detectors (CCD or image-plate detector). Future developments aim at the installation of a second end station dedicated for in situ laser-heating on one hand and a dedicated high-pressure single-crystal station, applying both monochromatic as well as polychromatic techniques.

  6. The High Precision Vibration Signal Data Acquisition System Based on the STM32

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu Hui-Ling; Zhu Xin-Yin

    2014-01-01

    ... changes in cable resistance. Therefore, this paper proposed a high precision vibration signal acquisition with storage function based on STM32 microcontroller in order to promote safety in engineering construction...

  7. Actuator design for vibration assisted machining of high performance materials with ultrasonically modulated cutting speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinck, Philipp M.; Sitzberger, Sebastian; Zaeh, Michael F.

    2017-06-01

    In vibration assisted machining, an additional high-frequency oscillation is superimposed on the kinematics of the conventional machining process. This generates oscillations on the cutting edge in the range of a few micrometers, thereby causing a high-frequency change in the cutting speed or the feed. Consequently, a reduction of cutting forces, an increase of the tool life as well as an improvement of the workpiece quality can be achieved. In milling and grinding it has been shown that these effects are already partially present in the case of a vibration excitation in axial direction relative to the workpiece, which is perpendicular to the cutting direction. Further improvements of the process results can be achieved by superimposing a vibration in cutting direction and thus modifying the cutting speed at high frequency. The presented work shows the design of an ultrasonic actuator that enables vibration-assisted milling and grinding with ultrasonically modulated cutting speed. The actuator system superimposes a longitudinal torsional ultrasonic oscillation to the milling or grinding tool. It uses a bolt clamped Langevin transducer and a helically slotted horn, which degenerates the longitudinal vibration into a combined longitudinal torsional (L-T) vibration at the output surface. A finite element analysis is used to determine the vibration resonance frequency and mode shapes to maximize the torsional output. Afterwards, the simulation has been experimentally validated.

  8. Transverse Beam Halo Measurements at High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) using Vibrating Wire Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, M.; Hanna, B.; Scarpine, V.; Shiltsev, V.; Steimel, J.; Artinian, S.; Arutunian, S.

    2015-02-26

    The measurement and control of beam halos will be critical for the applications of future high-intensity hadron linacs. In particular, beam profile monitors require a very high dynamic range when used for the transverse beam halo measurements. In this study, the Vibrating Wire Monitor (VWM) with aperture 60 mm was installed at the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) front-end to measure the transverse beam halo. A vibrating wire is excited at its resonance frequency with the help of a magnetic feedback loop, and the vibrating and sensitive wires are connected through a balanced arm. The sensitive wire is moved into the beam halo region by a stepper motor controlled translational stage. We study the feasibility of the vibrating wire for the transverse beam halo measurements in the low-energy front-end of the proton linac.

  9. Simple method for measuring vibration amplitude of high power airborne ultrasonic transducer: using thermo-couple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffar, Saber; Abdullah, Amir

    2014-03-01

    Vibration amplitude of transducer's elements is the influential parameters in the performance of high power airborne ultrasonic transducers to control the optimum vibration without material yielding. The vibration amplitude of elements of provided high power airborne transducer was determined by measuring temperature of the provided high power airborne transducer transducer's elements. The results showed that simple thermocouples can be used both to measure the vibration amplitude of transducer's element and an indicator to power transmission to the air. To verify our approach, the power transmission to the air has been investigated by other common method experimentally. The experimental results displayed good agreement with presented approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High frequency vibration characteristics of electric wheel system under in-wheel motor torque ripple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu; Zuo, Shuguang; Wu, Xudong; Duan, Xianglei

    2017-07-01

    With the introduction of in-wheel motor, the electric wheel system encounters new vibration problems brought by motor torque ripple excitation. In order to analyze new vibration characteristics of electric wheel system, torque ripple of in-wheel motor based on motor module and vector control system is primarily analyzed, and frequency/order features of the torque ripple are discussed. Then quarter vehicle-electric wheel system (QV-EWS) dynamics model based on the rigid ring tire assumption is established and the main parameters of the model are identified according to tire free modal test. Modal characteristics of the model are further analyzed. The analysis indicates that torque excitation of in-wheel motor is prone to arouse horizontal vibration, in which in-phase rotational, anti-phase rotational and horizontal translational modes of electric wheel system mainly participate. Based on the model, vibration responses of the QV-EWS under torque ripple are simulated. The results show that unlike vertical low frequency (lower than 20 Hz) vibration excited by road roughness, broadband torque ripple will arouse horizontal high frequency (50-100 Hz) vibration of electric wheel system due to participation of the three aforementioned modes. To verify the theoretical analysis, the bench experiment of electric wheel system is conducted and vibration responses are acquired. The experiment demonstrates the high frequency vibration phenomenon of electric wheel system and the measured order features as well as main resonant frequencies agree with simulation results. Through theoretical modeling, analysis and experiments this paper reveals and explains the high frequency vibration characteristics of electric wheel system, providing references for the dynamic analysis, optimal design of QV-EWS.

  11. Beamline 9.3.2 - a high-resolution, bend-magnet beamline with circular polarization capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, E.J.; Hussain, Z.; Howells, M.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.2 is a high resolution, SGM beamline on an ALS bending magnet with access to photon energies from 30-1500 eV. Features include circular polarization capability, a rotating chamber platform that allows switching between experiments without breaking vacuum, an active feedback system that keeps the beam centered on the entrance slit of the monochromator, and a bendable refocusing mirror. The beamline optics consist of horizontally and vertically focussing mirrors, a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) with movable entrance and exit slits, and a bendable refocussing mirror. In addition, a movable aperature has been installed just upstream of the vertically focussing mirror which can select the x-rays above or below the plane of the synchrotron storage ring, allowing the user to select circularly or linearly polarized light. Circularly polarized x-rays are used to study the magnetic properties of materials. Beamline 9.3.2 can supply left and right circularly polarized x-rays by a computer controlled aperture which may be placed above or below the plane of the synchrotron storage ring. The degree of linear and circular polarization has been measured and calibrated.

  12. Three-point bending setup for piezoresistive gauge factor measurement of thin-film samples at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Nis Dam; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    We present a new method for measuring the piezoresistive gauge factor of a thin-film resistor based on three-point bending. A ceramic fixture has been designed and manufactured to fit a state-of-the-art mechanical testing apparatus (TA Instruments Q800). The method has been developed to test thin-film samples deposited on silicon substrates with an insulating layer of SiO2. The electrical connections to the resistor are achieved through contacts in the support points. This insures that the influence of the electrical contacts is reduced to a minimum and eliminates wire-bonding or connectors attached to the sample. During measurement, both force and deflection of the sample are recorded simultaneously with the electrical data. The data analysis extracts a precise measurement of the sample thickness (film resistor. This method provides a faster sample evaluation by eliminating an additional sample thickness measurement or alternatively an option for cross checking data. Furthermore, the method implements a full compensation of thermoelectrical effects, which could otherwise lead to significant errors at high temperature. We also discuss the magnitude of the error sources in the setup. The performance of the setup is demonstrated using a titanium nitride thin-film, which is tested up to 400 °C revealing the gauge factor behavior in this temperature span and the temperature coefficient of resistivity.

  13. 面内弯矩作用下弯管应力高次解%HIGH ORDER STRESSES FOR ELBOW UNDER IN-PLANE BENDING MOMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段志祥

    2012-01-01

    该文采用应变分析和能量法得出了面内弯矩作用下弯管环向和轴向应力的解析解,并提出了高次解的求解方法。该方法的计算结果与其他各种解析解的结果进行比较表明:该文提出的方法能得到更精确的结果,并适用于所有弯曲系数的弯管。该方法可用于计算弯管在面内闭合弯矩和面内张开弯矩下的应力。%By the strain analysis and energy method, the expressions of the axial stress and circumferential stress of an elbow under the action of an in-plane bending moment are gained, and the high order stress solution for an elbow subjected to an in-plane bending moment is suggested. The high order stress solution for an elbow subjected to an in-plane bending moment is compared with the solution using the other methods. It is obtained from the comparison that the high order solution is more accurate and is suitable for elbows without the limit of 2. The high order stress solution is suitable for an elbow under an in-plane close-bending moment or an in-plane open-bending moment.

  14. Vibration compensated high-resolution scanning white-light Linnik-interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereschenko, Stanislav; Lehmann, Peter; Gollor, Pascal; Kuehnhold, Peter

    2017-06-01

    We present a high-resolution Linnik scanning white-light interferometer (SWLI) with integrated distance measuring interferometer (DMI) for close-to-machine applications in the presence of environmental vibrations. The distance, measured by DMI during the depth-scan, is used for vibration compensation of SWLI signals. The reconstruction of the white-light interference signals takes place after measurement by reordering the captured images in accordance with their real positions obtained by the DMI and subsequent trigonometrical approximation. This system is the further development of our previously presented Michelson-interferometer. We are able to compensate for arbitrary vibrations with frequencies up to several kilohertz and amplitudes in the lower micrometer range. Completely distorted SWLI signals can be reconstructed and the surface topography can be obtained with high accuracy. We demonstrate the feasibility of the method by examples of practical measurements with and without vibrational disturbances.

  15. The impact of low-magnitude high-frequency vibration on fracture healing is profoundly influenced by the oestrogen status in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Wehrle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fracture healing is impaired in aged and osteoporotic individuals. Because adequate mechanical stimuli are able to increase bone formation, one therapeutical approach to treat poorly healing fractures could be the application of whole-body vibration, including low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV. We investigated the effects of LMHFV on fracture healing in aged osteoporotic mice. Female C57BL/6NCrl mice (n=96 were either ovariectomised (OVX or sham operated (non-OVX at age 41 weeks. When aged to 49 weeks, all mice received a femur osteotomy that was stabilised using an external fixator. The mice received whole-body vibrations (20 minutes/day with 0.3 g peak-to-peak acceleration and a frequency of 45 Hz. After 10 and 21 days, the osteotomised femurs and intact bones (contra-lateral femurs, lumbar spine were evaluated using bending-testing, micro-computed tomography (μCT, histology and gene expression analyses. LMHFV disturbed fracture healing in aged non-OVX mice, with significantly reduced flexural rigidity (−81% and bone formation (−80% in the callus. Gene expression analyses demonstrated increased oestrogen receptor β (ERβ, encoded by Esr2 and Sost expression in the callus of the vibrated animals, but decreased β-catenin, suggesting that ERβ might mediate these negative effects through inhibition of osteoanabolic Wnt/β-catenin signalling. In contrast, in OVX mice, LMHFV significantly improved callus properties, with increased flexural rigidity (+1398% and bone formation (+637%, which could be abolished by subcutaneous oestrogen application (0.025 mg oestrogen administered in a 90-day-release pellet. On a molecular level, we found an upregulation of ERα in the callus of the vibrated OVX mice, whereas ERβ was unaffected, indicating that ERα might mediate the osteoanabolic response. Our results indicate a major role for oestrogen in the mechanostimulation of fracture healing and imply that LMHFV might only be safe and

  16. Coarse-fine adaptive tuned vibration absorber with high frequency resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Yang, Bintang; You, Jiaxin; Gao, Zhe

    2016-11-01

    The speed fluctuation of satellite-rotary-mechanisms causes vibration of slightly different frequencies. The critical requirements of satellites need a vibration control device with high frequency resolution to suppress the vibration. This paper presents a coarse-fine adaptive tuned vibration absorber (ATVA) with high frequency resolution. The coarse-fine ATVA which simultaneously satisfies the requirements of high resolution and relatively wide effective bandwidth is capable of tracking the variable exciting frequency adaptively to suppress the vibration of the primary system. The coarse-fine ATVA is divided into a coarse tuning segment and a fine tuning segment. The coarse tuning segment is used to tune the required natural frequency in a relatively wide effective bandwidth and the fine tuning segment can achieve precise tune in a tiny-scale bandwidth. The mathematical model of the coarse tuning and the fine tuning is proposed to design the parameters of the coarse-fine ATVA. The experimental test results indicate the coarse tuning bandwidth of the coarse-fine ATVA is 8.7 Hz to 29 Hz and the minimum resolution of the fine tuning is 0.05 Hz. Moreover, a significant vibration attenuation of 15dB is verified in the effective bandwidth.

  17. Numerical Modeling for Hole-Edge Cracking of Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) Components in the Static Bend Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunok; Mohr, William; Yang, Yu-Ping; Zelenak, Paul; Kimchi, Menachem

    2011-08-01

    Numerical modeling of local formability, such as hole-edge cracking and shear fracture in bending of AHSS, is one of the challenging issues for simulation engineers for prediction and evaluation of stamping and crash performance of materials. This is because continuum-mechanics-based finite element method (FEM) modeling requires additional input data, "failure criteria" to predict the local formability limit of materials, in addition to the material flow stress data input for simulation. This paper presents a numerical modeling approach for predicting hole-edge failures during static bend tests of AHSS structures. A local-strain-based failure criterion and a stress-triaxiality-based failure criterion were developed and implemented in LS-DYNA simulation code to predict hole-edge failures in component bend tests. The holes were prepared using two different methods: mechanical punching and water-jet cutting. In the component bend tests, the water-jet trimmed hole showed delayed fracture at the hole-edges, while the mechanical punched hole showed early fracture as the bending angle increased. In comparing the numerical modeling and test results, the load-displacement curve, the displacement at the onset of cracking, and the final crack shape/length were used. Both failure criteria also enable the numerical model to differentiate between the local formability limit of mechanical-punched and water-jet-trimmed holes. The failure criteria and static bend test developed here are useful to evaluate the local formability limit at a structural component level for automotive crash tests.

  18. Fabrication of a high-precision spherical micromirror by bending a silicon plate with a metal pad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2011-09-20

    We demonstrate here the fabrication of a smooth mirror surface by bending a thin silicon plate. A spherical surface is achieved by the bending moment generated in the circumference of the micromirror. Both convex and concave spherical micromirrors are realized through the anodic bonding of silicon and Pyrex glass. Since the mirror surface is originated from the polished silicon surface and no additional etching is introduced for manufacturing, the surface roughness is thus limited to the polishing error. This novel approach opens possibilities for fabricating a smooth surface for micromirror and microlens applications.

  19. Numerical simulation of corona-induced vibration of high voltage conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. GOURBI; M. BRAHAMI; A. TILMATINE; P. PIROTTE

    2009-01-01

    When it rains, electric power transmission lines start vibrating due to corona effect. This type of vibration is known as "corona-induced vibration". The aim of this paper is to elaborate a mathematical model for numerical simulation of the corona-induced vibration, with consid-eration of the influence of the magnitude and the polarity of the electric field on the conductor surface. Finite element method was employed to develop the numerical model,and the finite difference method was used for the time discretisation. The moment of application of the corona-induced force is evaluated using the resultant vertical force applied to a water drop, suspended under a high voltage conductor. Some experimental results of other authors are exploited to evaluate the precision of the simulation and the validation of numerical results.

  20. Prediction and mitigation analysis of ground vibration caused by running high-speed trains on rigid-frame viaducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liangming; Xie, Weiping; He, Xingwen; Hayashikawa, Toshiro

    2016-03-01

    In this study a 3D numerical analysis approach is developed to predict the ground vibration around rigid-frame viaducts induced by running high-speed trains. The train-bridge-ground interaction system is divided into two subsystems: the train-bridge interaction and the soil-structure interaction. First, the analytical program to simulate bridge vibration with consideration of train-bridge interaction is developed to obtain the vibration reaction forces at the pier bottoms. The highspeed train is described by a multi-DOFs vibration system and the rigid-frame viaduct is modeled with 3D beam elements. Second, applying these vibration reaction forces as input external excitations, the ground vibration is simulated by using a general-purpose program that includes soil-structure interaction effects. The validity of the analytical procedure is confirmed by comparing analytical and experimental results. The characteristics of high-speed train-induced vibrations, including the location of predominant vibration, are clarified. Based on this information a proposed vibration countermeasure using steel strut and new barrier is found effective in reducing train-induced vibrations and it satisfies environmental vibration requirements. The vibration screening efficiency is evaluated by reduction VAL based on 1/3 octave band spectral analysis.

  1. Vibrational Spectral Signatures of Crystalline Cellulose Using High Resolution Broadband Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy (HR-BB-SFG-VS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Libing; Lu, Zhou; Velarde Ruiz Esparza, Luis A.; Fu, Li; Pu, Yunqiao; Ding, Shi-You; Ragauskas, Art J.; Wang, Hongfei; Yang, Bin

    2015-03-03

    Here we reported the first sub-wavenumber high-resolution broadband sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (HR-BB-SFG-VS) study on both the C-H and O-H region spectra of crystalline cellulose. HR-BB-SFG-VS has about 10 times better resolution than the conventional scanning SFG-VS and is known to be able to measure the intrinsic spectral lineshape and to resolve much more spectral details. With HR-BB-SFG-VS, we found that in cellulose from different sources, including Avicel and cellulose crystals isolated from algae Valonia (Iα) and tunicates (Iβ), the spectral signatures in the OH regions were unique for different allomorphs, i.e. Iα and Iβ, while the spectral signatures in the C-H regions varied in all samples examined. Even though the origin of the different behaviors of the crystalline cellulose in the O-H and C-H vibrational frequency regions is yet to be correlated to the structure of cellulose, these results provided new spectroscopic methods and opportunities to classify and understand the basic crystalline structure, as well as variations, in polymorphism of the crystalline cellulose structure.

  2. Spectroscopic Interpretation: The High Vibrations of CDBrClF

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, C; Taylor, H S

    2004-01-01

    We extract the dynamics implicit in an algebraic fitted model Hamiltonian for the deuterium chromophore's vibrational motion in the molecule CDBrClF. The original model has 4 degrees of freedom, three positions and one representing interbond couplings. A conserved polyad allows in a semiclassical approach the reduction to 3 degrees of freedom. For most quantum states we can identify the underlying motion that when quantized gives the said state. Most of the classifications, identifications and assignments are done by visual inspection of the already available wave function semiclassically transformed from the number representation to a representation on the reduced dimension toroidal configuration space corresponding to the classical action and angle variables. The concentration of the wave function density to lower dimensional subsets centered on idealized simple lower dimensional organizing structures and the behavior of the phase along such organizing centers already reveals the atomic motion. Extremely li...

  3. Vibration Mode Observation of Piezoelectric Disk-type Resonator by High Frequency Laser Doppler Vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Takeshi; Esashi, Masayoshi; Harada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shuji

    For future mobile phones based on cognitive radio technology, a compact multi-band RF front-end architecture is strongly required and an integrated multi-band RF filter bank is a key component in it. Contour-mode resonators are receiving increased attention for a multi-band filter solution, because its resonant frequency is mainly determined by its size and shape, which are defined by lithography. However, spurious responses including flexural vibration are also excited due to its thin structure. To improve resonator performance and suppress spurious modes, visual observation with a laser probe system is very effective. In this paper, we have prototyped a mechanically-coupled disk-array filter, which consists of a Si disk and 2 disk-type resonators of higher-order wine-glass mode, and observed its vibration modes using a high-frequency laser-Doppler vibrometer (UHF-120, Polytec, Inc.). As a result, it was confirmed that higher order wine-glass mode vibration included a compound displacement, and that its out-of-plane vibration amplitude was much smaller than other flexural spurious modes. The observed vibration modes were compared with FEM (Finite Element Method) simulation results. In addition, it was also confirmed that the fabrication error, e.g. miss-alignment, induced asymmetric vibration.

  4. Impact Analysis of Roller System Stability for Four-High Mill Horizontal Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-bin Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the hot Compact Strip Production (CSP, four-high mill vibration characteristics, and vibration suppression method, the roller system structure stability was analyzed and calculated at first in the paper. And then, the mill stand gap was measured at field and its influence on roll transverse vibration was analyzed. The drum gear coupling effect on the roller system stability and the automatic balance conditions of the coupling transmission torque were studied; the influence of axial force caused by the roller cross on the system stability was analyzed. Finally, the roller transverse friction chatter vibration mechanics model was established; the simulation analysis was carried out with eliminating mill house-bearing clearance and adding floating support for coupling, respectively. And the characteristics of the roller “jump vibration” were studied. We applied copper gaskets to eliminate or reduce mill house-bearing clearance for suppressing the rolling mill vibration on the spot; the test results show that the roller transverse vibration was suppressed after eliminating clearance.

  5. Fuzzy control on automatic frequency tracking of ultrasonic vibration system with high power and high quality factor Q

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wu; ZHANG Jia-min; LIU Hong-li; MENG Feng-feng; ZHANG Zhi-ming

    2009-01-01

    In order to realize automatic tracking drift of resonance frequency of ultrasonic vibration system with high power and high quality factor Q, adaptive fuzzy control was studied with a self-fabricated ultrasonic plastic welding machine. At first, relations between amplitude of vibration and frequency as well as main loop current and amplitude of vibration were analyzed. From this analysis, we deduced that frequency tracking process of the vibration system can be concluded as an optimizing problem of one dimensional fluctuant extremum of main loop current in vibration system. Then a method of self-optimizing fuzzy control, used for the realization of automatic frequency tracking in vibration system, is presented on the basis of self-optimizing adaptive control approach and fuzzy control approach. The result of experiments shows that the fuzzy self-optimizing method can solve the problem of tracking frequency drift very well. Response time of tracking in the system is less than 50 ms, which basically meets the requirements of frequency tracking in ultrasonic plastic welding machine.

  6. Uniformly valid solutions of the coupling turning-point problem in revolution shell vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The turning-point problem in free vibration of revolution shells has the coupling property between the bending and membrane solutions. The uniformly valid solutions for this coupling turning-point problem are obtained based on three categories of generalized functions. Furthermore, they are verified to be uniformly valid in the low, turning-point and high frequency ranges. The obtained solutions exhibit a symmetric coupling structure between the bending and membrane solutions.

  7. Vibration measurement of a model wind turbine using high speed photogrammetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalpoe, D.; Khoshelham, K.; Gorte, B.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the application of the photogrammetric approach to measuring the vibration of a model wind turbine in a sequence of stereo image pairs acquired by high speed cameras. The challenge of the photogrammetric measurement of a highly dynamic phenomenon is the efficiency of the point measure

  8. The development of studying flexible pipe bend reinforced by Kevlar fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUAI Chang-geng; HE Lin; LU Zhi-qiang

    2003-01-01

    The flexible pipe bend can not only reduce the structural vibration and fluid noise in pipeline, but also realize the flexible connection of a horizontal line and a vertical line and compensate the displacement of three dimensions produced by the shock or vibration of pipeline in the special situations. Up to now, little attention has been paid to study the flexible pipe bend applied in the pipeline of medium or high pressure, because no appropriate framework materials can be used to reinforce it which must endure the burst pressure higher than 10 MPa. The investigation shows that it is possible to produce the flexible pipe bend of medium or high pressure if such fibers with high performance as Kevlar fibers are used to be its reinforced materials. However, its structural designing theory, manufacturing technology and measuring techniques aren't yet perfect and systematic, which leads to the instability of the performance of products. Furthermore, few references about its research can be seen. Therefore, it is necessary to systematically and thoroughly develop the structural designing theory, manufacture technology and measuring techniques of flexible pipe bend.

  9. Study on the Out-plane Size Effects for Bending and Vibration Responses of Honeycomb Sandwich Panels%蜂窝夹芯板弯曲与振动响应的面外尺寸效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙士平; 赖余东

    2012-01-01

    A computational model, Tri- layer Unit Cell(TUC) model, which can reveal the out-plane size variation of sandwich panel unit cell, is proposed to study the out-plane size effects of honeycomb sandwich panels. In this model, based on homogenization method, the three dimensional unit cell of sandwich panel consisting of the upper and the lower skins and the homogenized core is constructed. It is compared with three methods, i. e, homogenization method, the finite element method and the classical laminated plate theory, to illustrate influences of the out-plane size variation on bending and vibration response of sandwich panel. Numerical results show that the proposed TUG model can characterize the out-plane size effects of sandwich panel with different configuration cores. Significant differences between the homogenization results and the solutions by the other two methods demonstrate the limitations of the homogenization method when the sandwich panel contains no more than three cell layers in out-plane direction.%针对蜂窝夹芯板的面外尺寸效应问题,提出了一种能揭示蜂窝夹芯板面外尺寸影响规律的“三层板体胞”计算模型;基于均匀化方法,建立了包含蒙皮和等效夹芯的夹芯板“三层板体胞”模型;采用有限元数值模拟与经典层合板理论公式,计算比较了在面外方向体胞数目变化时,不同蜂窝构型夹芯板弯曲响应和振动响应的变化规律.计算结果表明:夹芯板存在显著的面外尺寸效应,提出的“三层板体胞”模型能清晰地反映体胞面外尺寸对夹芯板性能的影响规律,当夹芯板在面外方向包含不多于3层体胞时,均匀化计算结果与有限元方法和层合板理论公式计算结果存在明显差异,反映了均匀化方法的局限性.

  10. High-speed 3D digital image correlation vibration measurement: Recent advancements and noted limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beberniss, Timothy J.; Ehrhardt, David A.

    2017-03-01

    A review of the extensive studies on the feasibility and practicality of utilizing high-speed 3 dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) for various random vibration measurement applications is presented. Demonstrated capabilities include finite element model updating utilizing full-field 3D-DIC static displacements, modal survey natural frequencies, damping, and mode shape results from 3D-DIC are baselined against laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV), a comparison between foil strain gage and 3D-DIC strain, and finally the unique application to a high-speed wind tunnel fluid-structure interaction study. Results show good agreement between 3D-DIC and more traditional vibration measurement techniques. Unfortunately, 3D-DIC vibration measurement is not without its limitations, which are also identified and explored in this study. The out-of-plane sensitivity required for vibration measurement for 3D-DIC is orders of magnitude less than LDV making higher frequency displacements difficult to sense. Furthermore, the digital cameras used to capture the DIC images have no filter to eliminate temporal aliasing of the digitized signal. Ultimately DIC is demonstrated as a valid alternative means to measure structural vibrations while one unique application achieves success where more traditional methods would fail.

  11. Quantitative analysis of vocal fold vibration during register change by high-speed digital imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumada, Masanobu; Kobayashi, Noriko; Hirose, Hajime; Tayama, Niro; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Nito, Takaharu; Kakurai, Shin'ichi; Kumada, Chieko; Wada, Mamiko; Niimi, Seiji

    2002-05-01

    The physiological study of prosody is indispensable in terms not only of the physiological interest but also of the evaluation and treatment for pathological cases of prosody. In free talk, the changes of vocal fold vibration are found frequently and these phenomena are very important prosodic events. To analyze quantitatively the vocal fold vibration at the register change as the model of prosodic event, our high-speed digital imaging system was used at a rate of 4500 images of 256-256 pixels per second. Four healthy Japanese adults (2 males and 2 females) were served as subjects. Tasks were sustained phonation containing register changes. Two major categories (Category A and B) were found in the ways of changing of vocal fold vibrations at the register change. In Category A, changes were very smooth in terms of the vocal fold vibration. In Category B, changes were not so smooth with some additional events at the register change, such as the anterior-posterior phase difference of the vibration, the abduction of the vocal folds, or the interruption of the phonation. The number of the subtypes for Category B is thought to increase if more subjects with a wider range of variety are analyzed. For the study of prosody, our high-speed digital imaging system is a very powerful tool by which physiological information can be obtained.

  12. Finite Element Simulation of Magnesium Alloy AZ31 Tube Bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Wenyun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A finite element method based model has been developed for magnesium alloy AZ31 tube bending process simulation, using the tensile (for bend outer radius and compressive (for bend inner radius properties of the AZ31 alloy at the bending temperature of 150°C. The results shown that very high compressive stresses are developed in the bend inner radius, limiting the minimum bend radius for the AZ31 tube. The simulation results suggest the minimum centerline bend radius to the tube outer diameter ratio is 1.5 to 2. The maximum diameter to thickness ratio is 30.

  13. Low-Magnitude, High-Frequency Vibration Fails to Accelerate Ligament Healing but Stimulates Collagen Synthesis in the Achilles Tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William R; Keller, Benjamin V; Davis, Matthew L; Dahners, Laurence E; Weinhold, Paul S

    2015-05-01

    Low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration accelerates fracture and wound healing and prevents disuse atrophy in musculoskeletal tissues. To investigate the role of low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration as a treatment to accelerate healing of an acute ligament injury and to examine gene expression in the intact Achilles tendon of the injured limb after low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration. Controlled laboratory study. Complete surgical transection of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) was performed in 32 Sprague-Dawley rats, divided into control and low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration groups. Low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration started on postoperative day 2, and rats received vibration for 30 minutes a day for 12 days. All rats were sacrificed 2 weeks after the operation, and their intact and injured MCLs were biomechanically tested or used for histological analysis. Intact Achilles tendons from the injured limb were evaluated for differences in gene expression. Mechanical testing revealed no differences in the ultimate tensile load or the structural stiffness between the control and vibration groups for either the injured or intact MCL. Vibration exposure increased gene expression of collagen 1 alpha (3-fold), interleukin 6 (7-fold), cyclooxygenase 2 (5-fold), and bone morphogenetic protein 12 (4-fold) in the intact Achilles tendon when compared with control tendons (P high-frequency vibration treatment, significant enhancements in gene expression were observed in the intact Achilles tendon. These included collagen, several inflammatory cytokines, and growth factors critical for tendons. As low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration had no negative effects on ligament healing, vibration therapy may be a useful tool to accelerate healing of other tissues (bone) in multitrauma injuries without inhibiting ligament healing. Additionally, the enhanced gene expression in response to low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration in the intact Achilles tendon suggests

  14. Effect of clearance on wrinkling of 21-6-9 high-strength stainless steel tubes in numerical control rotary draw bending process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lu; Fang, Jun; Li, Yuan; Dai, Li; Xiong, Mengsi; Lu, Shiqiang

    2017-03-01

    Clearance between tube and all kinds of dies has a significant and complicated influence on wrinkling of 21-6-9 high-strength stainless steel tubes (HSST) during numerical control (NC) rotary draw bending process. To explore the effect of that, a three dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model of the whole process for 21-6-9 HSST was build based on FE platform of ABAQUS and validated by the experiment. Then, simulation and study of the process was carried out based on the FE model and the influence laws of clearance on wrinkling of 21-6-9 HSST in NC rotary draw bending were obtained. The results show that the wrinkling wave degree increases obviously with the increase of clearance between mandrel and tube Cm and clearance between bending die and tube Cb, while decreases with increase of clearance between pressure die and tube Cp; the wrinkling wave degree decreases sharply when clearance between wiper die and tube Cw is less than 0.2mm, and the wrinkling wave degree hardly has no variation when Cw is greater than 0.2mm.

  15. Vibration-displacement measurements with a highly stabilised optical fiber Michelson interferometer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Ren, Junyu; Chen, Zhimin; Feng, Qibo

    2010-02-01

    A highly stabilised vibration-displacement measurement system, which employs fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) to interleave two fiber Michelson interferometers that share the common-interferometric-optical path, is presented. The phase change in the interferometric signals of the two fiber Michelson interferometers have been tracked, respectively, with two electronic feedback loops. One of the fiber interferometers is used to stabilise the system by the use of an electronic feedback loop to compensate the environmental disturbances. The second fiber interferometer is used to perform the measurement task and employs another electronic feedback loop to track the phase change in the interferometric signal. The measurement system is able to measure vibration-displacement and provide the sense of direction of the displacement. The frequency range of the measured vibration-displacement is from 0.1 to 200 Hz and the measurement resolution is 10 nm.

  16. Communication: Disorder-suppressed vibrational relaxation in vapor-deposited high-density amorphous ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalit, Andrey; Perakis, Fivos; Hamm, Peter

    2014-04-01

    We apply two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy to differentiate between the two polyamorphous forms of glassy water, low-density (LDA) and high-density (HDA) amorphous ices, that were obtained by slow vapor deposition at 80 and 11 K, respectively. Both the vibrational lifetime and the bandwidth of the 1-2 transition of the isolated OD stretch vibration of HDO in H2O exhibit characteristic differences when comparing hexagonal (Ih), LDA, and HDA ices, which we attribute to the different local structures - in particular the presence of interstitial waters in HDA ice - that cause different delocalization lengths of intermolecular phonon degrees of freedom. Moreover, temperature dependent measurements show that the vibrational lifetime closely follows the structural transition between HDA and LDA phases.

  17. Experimental research on vibration reduction of high-rise petrochemical equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, W.; He, L. D.; Chang, J.; Han, W. F.; Wang, L. X.

    2012-05-01

    The wind-induced vibration of high-rise petrochemical equipment would do great harm to equipment operation and cause fatigue damage easily. Thus it is necessary to install some control device to reduce the vibration actively. Existing reinforcement methods include enlarging structural section, welding wind girder, adding braced frame system, fixing taut cable, etc. But each has some shortcomings. Therefore, the tuned mass damper (TMD), rarely used in high-rise petrochemical equipment, is studied by experiment to minimize wind-induced vibration, ensure safety operation and prolong service life. In the experiment, high-rise petrochemical equipment is properly simplified in order to verify the feasibility of the TMD. Parameters of the TMD are mainly researched, which include mass ratio and damping ratio. During the process, different mass ratios and damping ratios have been taken into account to understand the characteristics of the TMD under different conditions. By experiment, the changing tendencies of the natural frequency, damping ratio and top maximum displacement have been given after the simulator is implemented with the TMD. Experimental results show that the TMD is feasible for the wind-induced vibration control of high-rise petrochemical equipment, and that top maximum displacement of the simulator reduces by about 45% in the experimental condition. The experimental research has provided valuable preferences for practical application of the TMD in petrochemical field.

  18. High Holocene coastal uplift gives insight into the seismic behavior at the Arica Bend (Peru-Chile subduction zone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madella, Andrea; Delunel, Romain; Szidat, Sönke; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2016-04-01

    KEYWORDS: northern Chile, coastal uplift, plate coupling, seismic cycle The Peru-Chile subduction zone offshore of the Arica Bend (18.3° S) is characterized by a seaward-concave geometry, which represents a very uncommon tectonic setting. Several published estimates of plate coupling suggest that the locking degree in the curved segment may be significantly lower than to the north and south of it, however, the lack of historical slip events hinders a full understanding of the seismic behavior in this particular portion of plate interface. We have mapped a terrace located at 35 m a.s.l. ca. 3 km onshore from the mouth of the Lluta river, which debouches immediately to the north of Arica. The sedimentology of the terrace has been described and three wood fragments embedded therein have been collected for radiocarbon dating. In addition, we compared the long stream profile of the Lluta river with its modeled steady-state profile, aiming to detect any possible tectonic perturbation along the trunk stream. Results show that the dated terrace consists of a thin storm deposit embedded within fluvial delta conglomerates, which have been most likely deposited near sea-level at ~10 ka. We thus infer that the coast of the Arica Bend, although characterized by long-term quiescence, has undergone remarkable uplift (~5 mm/y) throughout the Holocene. The vertical displacement has been inferred at roughly 175 km from the trench, which corresponds to the landward termination of the locked zone. Considering this structural position and the long-term absence of coseismic events in this trench segment, we propose that the inferred uplift signal might be related to interseismic flexural buckling, which does not result in permanent crustal deformation. Contrariwise, in the adjacent coastal regions north and south of the Arica Bend, repeated seismic cycles have resulted in long-term permanent crustal deformation, as observable in the uplifted Coastal Cordillera.

  19. Numerical investigation of piled raft foundation in mitigating embankment vibrations induced by high-speed trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付强; 刘汉龙; 丁选明; 郑长杰

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional dynamic finite element model of track-ballast-embankment and piled raft foundation system is established. Dynamic response of a railway embankment to a high-speed train is simulated for two cases: soft ground improved by piled raft foundation, and untreated soft ground. The obtained results are compared both in time domain and frequency domain to evaluate the effectiveness of the ground improvement in mitigating the embankment vibrations induced by high-speed trains. The results show that ground improving methods can significantly reduce the embankment vibrations at all considered train speeds(36-432 km/h). The ground response to a moving load is dictated largely by the relationship between load speed and characteristic value of wave velocities of the ground medium. At low speeds, the ground response from a moving load is essentially quasi-static. That is, the displacements fields are essential the static fields under the load simply moving with it. For the soft ground, the displacement on the ballast surface is large at all observed train speeds. For the model case where the ground is improved by piled raft foundation, the peak displacement is reduced at all considered train speeds compared with the case without ground improvement. Based on the effect of energy-dissipating of ballast-embankment-ground system with damping, the train-induced vibration waves moving in ballast and embankment are trapped and dissipated, and thus the vibration amplitudes of dynamic displacement outside the embankment are significantly reduced. But for the vibration amplitude of dynamic velocity, the vibration waves in embankment are absorbed or reflected back, and the velocity amplitudes at the ballast and embankment surface are enhanced. For the change of the vibration character of embankment and ballast, the bearing capacity and dynamic character are improved. Therefore, both of the static and dynamic displacements are reduced by ground improvement; the dynamic

  20. Numerical investigation of piled raft foundation in mitigating embankment vibrations induced by high-speed trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付强; 刘汉龙; 丁选明; 郑长杰

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional dynamic finite element model of track-ballast-embankment and piled raft foundation system is established. Dynamic response of a railway embankment to a high-speed train is simulated for two cases: soft ground improved by piled raft foundation, and untreated soft ground. The obtained results are compared both in time domain and frequency domain to evaluate the effectiveness of the ground improvement in mitigating the embankment vibrations induced by high-speed trains. The results show that ground improving methods can significantly reduce the embankment vibrations at all considered train speeds (36− 432 km/h). The ground response to a moving load is dictated largely by the relationship between load speed and characteristic value of wave velocities of the ground medium. At low speeds, the ground response from a moving load is essentially quasi-static. That is, the displacements fields are essential the static fields under the load simply moving with it. For the soft ground, the displacement on the ballast surface is large at all observed train speeds. For the model case where the ground is improved by piled raft foundation, the peak displacement is reduced at all considered train speeds compared with the case without ground improvement. Based on the effect of energy-dissipating of ballast-embankment-ground system with damping, the train-induced vibration waves moving in ballast and embankment are trapped and dissipated, and thus the vibration amplitudes of dynamic displacement outside the embankment are significantly reduced. But for the vibration amplitude of dynamic velocity, the vibration waves in embankment are absorbed or reflected back, and the velocity amplitudes at the ballast and embankment surface are enhanced. For the change of the vibration character of embankment and ballast, the bearing capacity and dynamic character are improved. Therefore, both of the static and dynamic displacements are reduced by ground improvement; the dynamic

  1. Bending fracture in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wen-Shyong; Lu, Hsin-Fang

    2008-12-10

    A novel approach was adopted to incur bending fracture in carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Expanded graphite (EG) was made by intercalating and exfoliating natural graphite flakes. The EG was deposited with nickel particles, from which CNTs were grown by chemical vapor deposition. The CNTs were tip-grown, and their roots were fixed on the EG flakes. The EG flakes were compressed, and many CNTs on the surface were fragmented due to the compression-induced bending. Two major modes of the bending fracture were observed: cone-shaped and shear-cut. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the crack growth within the graphene layers. The bending fracture is characterized by two-region crack growth. An opening crack first appears around the outer-tube due to the bending-induced tensile stress. The crack then branches to grow along an inclined direction toward the inner-tube due to the presence of the shear stress in between graphene layers. An inner-tube pullout with inclined side surface is formed. The onset and development of the crack in these two regions are discussed.

  2. Mechanical vibrations increase the proliferation of articular chondrocytes in high-density culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupp, J A; Waldman, S D

    2008-07-01

    Tissue engineering is a promising approach for articular cartilage repair; however, it still has proven a challenge to produce tissue from the limited number of cells that can be extracted from a single individual. Relatively few cell expansion methods exist without the problems of dedifferentiation and/or loss of potency. Previously, it has been shown that mechanical vibrations can enhance chondrocyte proliferation in monolayer culture. Thus, it was hypothesized that chondrocytes grown in high-density culture would respond in a similar fashion while maintaining phenotypic stability. Isolated bovine articular chondrocytes were seeded in high-density culture on Millicell filters and subjected to mechanical vibrations 48 h after seeding. Mechanical vibrations enhanced chondrocyte proliferation at frequencies above 350 Hz, with the peak response occurring at a 1g amplitude for a duration of 30 min. Under these conditions, the gene expression of cartilage-specific and dedifferentiation markers (collagen II, collagen I, and aggrecan) were unchanged by the imposed stimulus. To determine the effect of accumulated extracellular matrix (ECM) on this proliferative response, selected cultures were stimulated under the same conditions after varying lengths of preculture. The amount of accumulated ECM (collagen and proteoglycans) decreased this proliferative response, with the cultures becoming insensitive to the stimulus after 1 week of preculture. Thus, mechanical vibration can serve as an effective means preferentially to stimulate the proliferation of chondrocytes during culture, but its effects appear to be limited to the early stages where ECM accumulation is at a minimum.

  3. The Development of High Power Materials with Enhanced Vibrational Velocity and Related Origin Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Introduction Ultrasonic transducers for high power applications, such as ultrasonic motors and piezoelectric actuators have been intensively...investigated in recent years 1-5. The materials with low loss and high vibrational velocity vo are desirable for ultrasonic motors application. Higher...velocity are an important issue, which to date has proven difficult to achieve. Heat generation is the most serious problem in ultrasonic motors , which

  4. Bend me, shape me

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A Japanese team has found a way to bend and shape silicon substrates by growing a thin layer of diamond on top. The technique has been proposed as an alternative to mechanical bending, which is currently used to make reflective lenses for X-ray systems and particle physics systems (2 paragraphs).

  5. Collision dynamics of methyl radicals and highly vibrationally excited molecules using crossed molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, P.M.Y.

    1991-10-01

    The vibrational to translational (V{yields}T) energy transfer in collisions between large highly vibrationally excited polyatomics and rare gases was investigated by time-of-flight techniques. Two different methods, UV excitation followed by intemal conversion and infrared multiphoton excitation (IRMPE), were used to form vibrationally excited molecular beams of hexafluorobenzene and sulfur hexafluoride, respectively. The product translational energy was found to be independent of the vibrational excitation. These results indicate that the probability distribution function for V{yields}T energy transfer is peaked at zero. The collisional relaxation of large polyatomic molecules with rare gases most likely occurs through a rotationally mediated process. Photodissociation of nitrobenzene in a molecular beam was studied at 266 nm. Two primary dissociation channels were identified including simple bond rupture to produce nitrogen dioxide and phenyl radical and isomerization to form nitric oxide and phenoxy radical. The time-of-flight spectra indicate that simple bond rupture and isomerization occurs via two different mechanisms. Secondary dissociation of the phenoxy radicals to carbon monoxide and cyclopentadienyl radicals was observed as well as secondary photodissociation of phenyl radical to give H atom and benzyne. A supersonic methyl radical beam source is developed. The beam source configuration and conditions were optimized for CH{sub 3} production from the thermal decomposition of azomethane. Elastic scattering of methyl radical and neon was used to differentiate between the methyl radicals and the residual azomethane in the molecular beam.

  6. Collision dynamics of methyl radicals and highly vibrationally excited molecules using crossed molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Pamela Mei-Ying [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The vibrational to translational (V→T) energy transfer in collisions between large highly vibrationally excited polyatomics and rare gases was investigated by time-of-flight techniques. Two different methods, UV excitation followed by intemal conversion and infrared multiphoton excitation (IRMPE), were used to form vibrationally excited molecular beams of hexafluorobenzene and sulfur hexafluoride, respectively. The product translational energy was found to be independent of the vibrational excitation. These results indicate that the probability distribution function for V→T energy transfer is peaked at zero. The collisional relaxation of large polyatomic molecules with rare gases most likely occurs through a rotationally mediated process. Photodissociation of nitrobenzene in a molecular beam was studied at 266 nm. Two primary dissociation channels were identified including simple bond rupture to produce nitrogen dioxide and phenyl radical and isomerization to form nitric oxide and phenoxy radical. The time-of-flight spectra indicate that simple bond rupture and isomerization occurs via two different mechanisms. Secondary dissociation of the phenoxy radicals to carbon monoxide and cyclopentadienyl radicals was observed as well as secondary photodissociation of phenyl radical to give H atom and benzyne. A supersonic methyl radical beam source is developed. The beam source configuration and conditions were optimized for CH3 production from the thermal decomposition of azomethane. Elastic scattering of methyl radical and neon was used to differentiate between the methyl radicals and the residual azomethane in the molecular beam.

  7. Occipital bending in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maller, Jerome J; Anderson, Rodney J; Thomson, Richard H; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of occipital bending (an occipital lobe crossing or twisting across the midline) in subjects with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Occipital bending prevalence was investigated in 37 patients with schizophrenia and 44 healthy controls. Ratings showed that prevalence was nearly three times higher among schizophrenia patients (13/37 [35.1%]) than in control subjects (6/44 [13.6%]). Furthermore, those with schizophrenia had greater normalized gray matter volume but less white matter volume and had larger brain-to-cranial ratio. The results suggest that occipital bending is more prevalent among schizophrenia patients than healthy subjects and that schizophrenia patients have different gray matter-white matter proportions. Although the cause and clinical ramifications of occipital bending are unclear, the results infer that occipital bending may be a marker of psychiatric illness.

  8. Experimental Characterization of Stretch-Bending Formability of AHSS Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitting, Daniela; Ofenheimer, Aldo; Pauli, Heinrich; Till, Edwin T.

    2011-05-01

    Deformation conditions of combined stretching and bending are known to enhance material formability compared to forming conditions without bending (e.g. in-plane stretching). These phenomena can be observed for most conventional steel grades but is even more pronounced for Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) sheets. Consequently, there is an urgent need in industry to quantify the phenomena of enhanced material formability due to bending effects. In this work new stretch-bend test setups are presented which can be used in addition to the conventional Angular Stretch Bend Test to systematically investigate the influence of various stretch-bending deformation conditions on the formability of AHSS sheets.

  9. Bending effects on lasing action of semiconductor nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weisong; Ma, Yaoguang; Wang, Yipei; Meng, Chao; Wu, Xiaoqin; Ye, Yu; Dai, Lun; Tong, Limin; Liu, Xu; Yang, Qing

    2013-01-28

    High flexibility has been one of advantages for one-dimensional semiconductor nanowires (NWs) in wide application of nanoscale integrated circuits. We investigate the bending effects on lasing action of CdSe NWs. Threshold increases and differential efficiency decreases gradually when we decrease the bending radius step by step. Red shift and mode reduction in the output spectra are also observed. The bending loss of laser oscillation is considerably larger than that of photoluminescence (PL), and both show the exponential relationship with the bending radius. Diameter and mode dependent bending losses are investigated. Furthermore, the polarizations of output can be modulated linearly by bending the NWs into different angles continuously.

  10. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...... wave- and whipping induced bending moment is derived under the assumption that the maximum peak value in a whipping sequence occurs simultaneously with a peak in sagging wave-induced bending moment, but that the magnitudes of these two peaks are statistically independent. The expression can be written...... as the usual Rayleigh distribution for the wave response multiplied by a factor independent of the significant wave height. Finally, the springing and whipping predictions are compared with model test results....

  11. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. III. Computational vibrational spectroscopy of HDO in aqueous salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Lim, Sohee; Chon, Bonghwan; Cho, Minhaeng, E-mail: mcho@korea.ac.kr [Center for Molecular Spectroscopy and Dynamics, Institute for Basic Science, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Heejae; Kim, Seongheun [Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-28

    The vibrational frequency, frequency fluctuation dynamics, and transition dipole moment of the O—D stretch mode of HDO molecule in aqueous solutions are strongly dependent on its local electrostatic environment and hydrogen-bond network structure. Therefore, the time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy the O—D stretch mode has been particularly used to investigate specific ion effects on water structure. Despite prolonged efforts to understand the interplay of O—D vibrational dynamics with local water hydrogen-bond network and ion aggregate structures in high salt solutions, still there exists a gap between theory and experiment due to a lack of quantitative model for accurately describing O—D stretch frequency in high salt solutions. To fill this gap, we have performed numerical simulations of Raman scattering and IR absorption spectra of the O—D stretch mode of HDO in highly concentrated NaCl and KSCN solutions and compared them with experimental results. Carrying out extensive quantum chemistry calculations on not only water clusters but also ion-water clusters, we first developed a distributed vibrational solvatochromic charge model for the O—D stretch mode in aqueous salt solutions. Furthermore, the non-Condon effect on the vibrational transition dipole moment of the O—D stretch mode was fully taken into consideration with the charge response kernel that is non-local polarizability density. From the fluctuating O—D stretch mode frequencies and transition dipole vectors obtained from the molecular dynamics simulations, the O—D stretch Raman scattering and IR absorption spectra of HDO in salt solutions could be calculated. The polarization effect on the transition dipole vector of the O—D stretch mode is shown to be important and the asymmetric line shapes of the O—D stretch Raman scattering and IR absorption spectra of HDO especially in highly concentrated NaCl and KSCN solutions are in quantitative agreement with experimental results. We

  12. Correlation of critical temperature with the vibrational spectra of high-temperature superconducters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, A.A.; Dubenko, I.S.; Limonov, M.F.; Markov, IU.F.; Panfilov, A.G. (Moskovskii Institut Radiotekhniki, Elektroniki i Avtomatiki, Moscow (USSR) Fiziko-Tekhnicheskii Institut, Moscow (USSR))

    1989-09-01

    An empirical relation between an increase in Tc and an increase in the frequencies of the vibrational spectra of different high-temperature superconducters of perovskite type is established. Taking this relation into account, a new system (Y{sub 1-x}Sc{sub x})(Ba{sub 1-y}Sr{sub y})2 Cu{sub 3}O(delta) is proposed, in which an increase in Tc is observed at intermediate concentrations. 13 refs.

  13. Vibrational Distribution of Hydrogen Molecular Ions in High-Energy Ionization Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shao-Hao; HE Chun-Long; CHEN Chao; LI Jia-Ming

    2005-01-01

    @@ A theoretical time-dependent wave-packet dynamics method is applied to calculate the distribution of vibrational states of hydrogen molecular ions produced in high-energy ionization processes of hydrogen molecules. The isotope effect is elucidated in agreement with the available experimental measurements. Our proposed method should be readily applied in other atomic and molecular processes considering great advances in electronic computation science and technology.

  14. High-damping-performance magnetorheological material for passive or active vibration control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taixiang; Yang, Ke; Yan, Hongwei; Yuan, Xiaodong; Xu, Yangguang

    2016-10-01

    Optical assembly and alignment system plays a crucial role for the construction of high-power or high-energy laser facility, which attempts to ignite fusion reaction and go further to make fusion energy usable. In the optical assembly and alignment system, the vibration control is a key problem needs to be well handled and a material with higher damping performance is much desirable. Recently, a new kind of smart magneto-sensitive polymeric composite material, named magnetorheological plastomer (MRP), was synthesized and reported as a high-performance magnetorheological material and this material has a magneto-enhanced high-damping performance. The MRP behaves usually in an intermediate state between fluid-like magnetorheological fluid and solid-like magnetorheological elastomer. The state of MRP, as well as the damping performance of MRP, can be tuned by adjusting the ratio of hard segments and soft segments, which are ingredients to synthesize the polymeric matrix. In this work, a series of MRP are prepared by dispersing micron-sized, magneto-sensitive carbonyl iron powders with related additives into polyurethane-based, magnetically insensitive matrix. It is found that the damping performance of MRP depends much on magnetic strength, shear rate, carbonyl iron content and shear strain amplitude. Especially, the damping capacity of MRP can be tuned in a large range by adjusting external magnetic field. It is promising that the MRP will have much application in passive and active vibration control, such as vibration reduction in optical assembly and alignment system, vibration isolation or absorption in vehicle suspension system, etc.

  15. Effect of vibration frequency on microstructure and performance of high chromium cast iron prepared by lost foam casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-qi Zou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, high chromium cast irons (HCCIs were prepared using the lost foam casting (LFC process. To improve the wear resistance of the high chromium cast irons (HCCIs, mechanical vibration was employed during the solidification of the HCCIs. The effects of vibration frequency on the microstructure and performance of the HCCIs under as-cast, as-quenched and as-tempered conditions were investigated. The results indicated that the microstructures of the LFC-produced HCCIs were refined due to the introduction of mechanical vibration, and the hardness was improved compared to that of the alloy without vibration. However, only a slight improvement in hardness was found in spite of the increase of vibration frequency. In contrast, the impact toughness of the as-tempered HCCIs increased with an increase in the vibration frequency. In addition, the wear resistance of the HCCIs was improved as a result of the introduction of vibration and increased with an increase in the vibration frequency.

  16. Effect of vibration frequency on microstructure and performance of high chromium cast iron prepared by lost foam casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-qi Zou; Zhi-guo Zhang; Hao Yang; Wei Li

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, high chromium cast irons (HCCIs) were prepared using the lost foam casting (LFC) process. To improve the wear resistance of the high chromium cast irons (HCCIs), mechanical vibration was employed during the solidiifcation of the HCCIs. The effects of vibration frequency on the microstructure and performance of the HCCIs under as-cast, as-quenched and as-tempered conditions were investigated. The results indicated that the microstructures of the LFC-produced HCCIs were reifned due to the introduction of mechanical vibration, and the hardness was improved compared to that of the aloy without vibration. However, only a slight improvement in hardness was found in spite of the increase of vibration frequency. In contrast, the impact toughness of the as-tempered HCCIs increased with an increase in the vibration frequency. In addition, the wear resistance of the HCCIs was improved as a result of the introduction of vibration and increased with an increase in the vibration frequency.

  17. Vibration-rotation-tunneling dynamics in small water clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliano, N.

    1992-11-01

    The goal of this work is to characterize the intermolecular vibrations of small water clusters. Using tunable far infrared laser absorption spectroscopy, large amplitude vibration-rotation-tunneling (VRT) dynamics in vibrationally excited states of the water dimer and the water trimer are investigated. This study begins with the measurement of 12 VRT subbands, consisting of approximately 230 transitions, which are assigned to an 82.6 cm{sup {minus}1} intermolecular vibration of the water dimer-d{sub 4}. Each of the VRT subbands originate from K{sub a}{double_prime}=0 and terminate in either K{sub a}{prime}=0 or 1. These data provide a complete characterization of the tunneling dynamics in the vibrationally excited state as well as definitive symmetry labels for all VRT energy levels. Furthermore, an accurate value for the A{prime} rotational constant is found to agree well with its corresponding ground state value. All other excited state rotational constants are fitted, and discussed in terms of the corresponding ground state constants. In this vibration, the quantum tunneling motions are determined to exhibit large dependencies with both the K{sub a}{prime} quantum number and the vibrational coordinate, as is evidenced by the measured tunneling splittings. The generalized internal-axis-method treatment which has been developed to model the tunneling dynamics, is considered for the qualitative description of each tunneling pathway, however, the variation of tunneling splittings with vibrational excitation indicate that the high barrier approximation does not appear to be applicable for this vibrational coordinate. The data are consistent with a motion possessing a{prime} symmetry, and the vibration is assigned as the {nu}{sub 12} acceptor bending coordinate. This assignment is in agreement with the vibrational symmetry, the resultsof high level ab initio calculations, and preliminary data assigned to the analogous vibration in the D{sub 2}O-DOH isotopomer.

  18. Vibration-rotation-tunneling dynamics in small water clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliano, N.

    1992-11-01

    The goal of this work is to characterize the intermolecular vibrations of small water clusters. Using tunable far infrared laser absorption spectroscopy, large amplitude vibration-rotation-tunneling (VRT) dynamics in vibrationally excited states of the water dimer and the water trimer are investigated. This study begins with the measurement of 12 VRT subbands, consisting of approximately 230 transitions, which are assigned to an 82.6 cm[sup [minus]1] intermolecular vibration of the water dimer-d[sub 4]. Each of the VRT subbands originate from K[sub a][double prime]=0 and terminate in either K[sub a][prime]=0 or 1. These data provide a complete characterization of the tunneling dynamics in the vibrationally excited state as well as definitive symmetry labels for all VRT energy levels. Furthermore, an accurate value for the A[prime] rotational constant is found to agree well with its corresponding ground state value. All other excited state rotational constants are fitted, and discussed in terms of the corresponding ground state constants. In this vibration, the quantum tunneling motions are determined to exhibit large dependencies with both the K[sub a][prime] quantum number and the vibrational coordinate, as is evidenced by the measured tunneling splittings. The generalized internal-axis-method treatment which has been developed to model the tunneling dynamics, is considered for the qualitative description of each tunneling pathway, however, the variation of tunneling splittings with vibrational excitation indicate that the high barrier approximation does not appear to be applicable for this vibrational coordinate. The data are consistent with a motion possessing a[prime] symmetry, and the vibration is assigned as the [nu][sub 12] acceptor bending coordinate. This assignment is in agreement with the vibrational symmetry, the resultsof high level ab initio calculations, and preliminary data assigned to the analogous vibration in the D[sub 2]O-DOH isotopomer.

  19. Diffusion regime for high-frequency vibrations of randomly heterogeneous structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Eric

    2008-12-01

    The evolution of the high-frequency vibrational energy density of slender heterogeneous structures such as Timoshenko beams or thick shells is depicted by transport equations or radiative transfer equations (RTEs) in the presence of random heterogeneities. A diffusive regime arises when their correlation lengths are comparable to the wavelength, among other possible situations, and waves are multiply scattered. The purpose of this paper is to expound how diffusion approximations of the RTEs for elastic structures can be derived and to discuss the relevance of the vibrational conductivity analogy invoked in the structural acoustics literature. Its main contribution is the consideration of a heterogeneous background medium with varying parameters and the effects of polarization of elastic waves. The paper also outlines some of the remarkable features of the diffusive regime: depolarization of waves, energy equipartition, and asymptotic Fick's law.

  20. Vibration damping of elastic waves in electrically conducting media subjected to high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwath, T. G.

    1992-01-01

    The propagation of vibrational energy in bulk, torsional, and flexural modes, in electrically conducting media can undergo strong attenuation if subjected to high magnetic fields in certain spatial arrangements. The reasons for this are induced Eddy currents which are generated by the volume elements in the media moving transversally to the magnetic field at acoustic velocities. In magnetic fields achievable with superconductors, the non-conservative (dissipative) forces are compared to the elastic and inertial forces for most metals. Strong dissipation of vibrational energy in the form of heat takes place as a result. A simplified theory is presented based on engineering representations of electrodynamics, attenuation values for representative metals are calculated, and problems encountered in formulating a generalized theory based on electrodynamics of moving media are discussed. General applications as well as applications specific to maglev are discussed.

  1. Vibration effects of the space shuttle main engine high pressure oxidizer turbopump bellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    A welded metal bellows was subjected to a series of vibration tests in a 400 psi oxygen environment to evaluate the effects of the bellows convolutes rubbing on the damper ring in the high pressure oxidizer turbopump of the space shuttle main engine. The bellows was subjected to approximately 2 million cycles at 0.007 in. double amplitude displacement during this series of tests, at a frequency of 400 Hz. Intrumentation of the test specimen revealed no significant heat buildup caused by the rubbing of the bellows convolutes on the damper ring. A final destruct test was made to determine if a fire would result if the bellows ruptured in the 400 psi oxygen environment, thus exposing a fresh metal surface. The vibration input was changed to 0.8 in. double amplitude displacement at 20 Hz to intentionally rupture the bellows. Failure occurred after 2.5 sec; no fire or heat buildup was encountered.

  2. Vibration analysis and robust control of highly deformable beams in a heavy pinched loop configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nikhil; Kern, Dominik; Seemann, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    A heavy pinched loop is formed by bringing and clamping the two ends of a highly deformable slender beam, elastica. A collocation solution technique is implemented for studying the formation statically and dynamically, i.e. small vibrations around the large deformed static solutions, and the earlier work using a shooting method is validated. A new and clear Galerkin formulation capable of modelling damping is established for finding transients, and a new theoretical multi-point boundary value problem approach is used for numerically obtaining the frequency response function. Lastly, the obtained dynamic model is used for active vibration control, wherein a controller is designed using H ∞ algorithm for active damping in a heavy pinched loop for two simplified cases, and the simulated results are shown.

  3. Vibration measurement through high speed vision system in a civil structure under impact loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Belén; García, Juan I.; Roig, Ana B.; Mas, David

    2014-05-01

    The method presented in this work is a simple, cheap and non-contact method. It is based on image processing using a circular target. It has subpixel accuracy and it only needs a low cost high-speed camera and a tripod. In the work presented in this paper, a Casio Exilim camera was used to measure the vibration of a pedestrian bridge. An impact load was applied on the bridge through one person jumping in the middle of the bridge. Tracking of the circle border give the center trajectory and therefore the displacement and frequency of the movement. Some accelerometers were used as a contrast device for the frequency. The displacement obtained by our procedure was previously checked in laboratory using a micrometric bench. The results show that this method is suitable for measuring successfully the vibration of civil structures.

  4. Distributed Multiple Tuned Mass Dampers for Wind Vibration Response Control of High-Rise Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Elias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple tuned mass dampers (MTMDs distributed along height of a high-rise building are investigated for their effectiveness in vibration response control. A 76-storey benchmark building is modeled as shear type structure with a lateral degree of freedom at each floor, and tuned mass dampers (TMDs are installed at top/different floors. Suitable locations for installing the TMDs and their tuning frequencies are identified based, respectively, on the mode shapes and frequencies of the uncontrolled and controlled buildings. Multimode control strategy has been adopted, wherein each TMD is placed where the mode shape amplitude of the building is the largest or large in the particular mode being controlled and tuned with the corresponding modal frequency. Newmark’s method is used to solve the governing equations of motion for the structure. The performance of the distributed MTMDs (d-MTMDs is compared with single tuned mass damper (STMD and all the MTMDs placed at top floor. The variations of top floor acceleration and displacement under wind loads are computed to study the effectiveness of the MTMDs in vibration control of the high-rise building. It is concluded that the d-MTMDs are more effective to control wind induced vibration than the STMD and the MTMDs placed at top floor.

  5. Effect of High-Frequency Vertical Vibration of Track on Formation and Evolution of Corrugations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金学松; 温泽峰; 王开云; 张卫华

    2004-01-01

    The effect of high-frequency curved track vibrations in the vertical direction on the formation and development of rail corrugation was analyzed.Kalker's non-Hertzian rolling contact theory was modified and used to calculate the frictional work density on the contact area of the wheel and rail in rolling when a wheelset is steadily curving.The material loss unit area was assumed to be proportional to the frictional work density to determine the wear depth of the contact surface of the rail.The combined influences of the corrugation and the coupled dynamics of the railway vehicle and track were taken into consideration in the numerical simulation.For simplicity, the model considered one fourth of freight car without lateral motion, namely, a wheelset and the equivalent one fourth freight car body above it.The Euler beam was used to model the rails with the track structure under the rails replaced with equivalent springs, dumpers, and mass bodies.The numerical results show that the high-frequency track vibration causes formation of the initial corrugation on the smooth contact surface of the rail when a wheelset is steadily curving.The corrugation wave length depends on the frequencies and the rolling speed of the wheelset.The vibration frequencies also affect the depth and increase the corrugation.

  6. Vibration reduction using autoparametric resonance in a high-Tc superconducting levitation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Takazakura, Toyoki; Sakaguchi, Ryunosuke; Sugiura, Toshihiko

    2014-05-01

    High-Tc superconducting levitation systems have very small damping and enable stable levitation without control. Therefore, they can be applied to various kinds of application. However, there are some problems that small damping produces large vibration and nonlinearity of magnetic force can generate complicated phenomena. Accordingly, analysis of these phenomena and reduction of vibration occurring in the system are important. In this study, we examined reduction of vibration without using any absorbers, but utilizing autoparametric resonance caused by nonlinear coupling between vertical oscillation and horizontal oscillation. We conducted numerical analysis and experiments in order to investigate motions of a rigid bar levitated by the electromagnetic force from high-Tc superconductors. As a result, if the ratio of the natural frequency of vertical oscillation and that of horizontal oscillation is two to one, the vertical oscillation decreases while the horizontal oscillation is excited. Thus, it was confirmed that the amplitude of a primary resonance can be reduced by occurrence of autoparametric resonance without using any absorbers.

  7. [Study on Enhancing Characteristic Vibration of the Molecular Vibration Spectrum for BDE-15 Based on Solvent Effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Long; Meng, Chong; Li, Yu

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the molecular vibrational spectra (IR spectra and Raman spectra) of 4, 4'-dibrominated diphenyl ethers (BDE-15) in atmosphere and 24 kinds of solvents were calculated, at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level by density functional theory and self-consistent reaction field separately. Taking the spectra in atmosphere as benchmark, the spectra information of selected characteristic vibrations which were sensitive to the polarity of solvent were used to establish the solvent effect index system for BDE-15, evaluate the specific solvent effect on vibrational frequency, IR vibrational intensity, Raman vibrational intensity and comprehensive solvent effect of each solvent and search the organic solvent which significantly affected the frequency shift/intensity. From the view of molecular vibrational frequency, the characteristic vibrations sensitive to polarity of solvent (frequency shift > 1 cm⁻¹) are all correlated with stretching and out-surface bending vibrations, the solvent effect on the vibrational frequency of BDE-15 of 24 kinds of solvents are all insignificant, with the index values between 1.01-1.03, compared with standard index value 1 of atmosphere spectra. From the view of molecular vibrational intensity, 24 kinds of solvents have all strengthen the vibrational intensities of most of vibrations, locating at the high frequency region of Raman spectra and the middle/low frequency region of IR spectra. The solvents which enhance the vibrational intensities significantly (index value greater than 6 and 5 for IR and Raman intensity separately) include alcohols, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide, nitrobenzene, dimethyl sulfoxide. The solvent effect index values on Raman vibrational intensity of BDE-15 increase along with the dielectric constant of solvents from linear to logarithmic growth trend, while the solvent effect index values on IR vibrational intensity only leaving the linear relationship. The comprehensive solvent effect index values have presented

  8. Experimental Study on Surrogate Nuclear Fuel Rods under Reversed Cyclic Bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong [ORNL; Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) rods under reversed cyclic bending or bending fatigue must be understood to evaluate their vibration integrity in a transportation environment. This is especially important for high-burnup fuels (>45 GWd/MTU), which have the potential for increased structural damage. It has been demonstrated that the bending fatigue of SNF rods can be effectively studied using surrogate rods. In this investigation, surrogate rods made of stainless steel (SS) 304 cladding and aluminum oxide pellets were tested under load or moment control at a variety of amplitude levels at 5 Hz using the Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The behavior of the rods was further characterized using flexural rigidity and hysteresis data, and fractography was performed on the failed rods. The proposed surrogate rods captured many of the characteristics of deformation and failure mode observed in SNF, including the linear-to-nonlinear deformation transition and large residual curvature in static tests, PPI and PCMI failure mechanisms, and large variation in the initial structural condition. Rod degradation was measured and characterized by measuring the flexural rigidity; the degradation of the rigidity depended on both the moment amplitude applied and the initial structural condition of the rods. It was also shown that a cracking initiation site can be located on the internal surface or the external surface of cladding. Finally, fatigue damage to the bending rods can be described in terms of flexural rigidity, and the fatigue life of rods can be predicted once damage model parameters are properly evaluated. The developed experimental approach, test protocol, and analysis method can be used to study the vibration integrity of SNF rods in the future.

  9. Ultrasonic motors with polymer-based vibrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang; Mizuno, Yosuke; Tabaru, Marie; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    With their characteristics of low density and elastic moduli, polymers are promising materials for making ultrasonic motors (USMs) with high energy density. Although it has been believed for a long time that polymers are too lossy to be applied to high-amplitude vibrators, there are several new polymers that exhibit excellent vibration characteristics. First, we measure the damping coefficients of some functional polymers to explore the applicability of polymers as vibrators for USMs. Second, to investigate the vibration characteristics, we fabricate bimorph vibrators using several kinds of polymers that have low attenuation. Third, a bending mode USM is fabricated with a polymer rod and four piezoelectric plates bonded on the rod as a typical example of a USM. Through an experimental investigation of the motor performance, it was found that the polymer-based USMs exhibited higher rotation velocity than the aluminum-based USM under a light preload, although the maximum torque of the polymer-based USMs was smaller than the aluminum-based USM. Among the tested polymers, polyphenylenesulfide was a prospective material for USMs under light preloads because of the high amplitude and lightweight of polyphenylenesulfide.

  10. Measurement of mechanical quality factors of polymers in flexural vibration for high-power ultrasonic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang; Mizuno, Yosuke; Tabaru, Marie; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2016-07-01

    A method for measuring the mechanical quality factor (Q factor) of materials in large-amplitude flexural vibrations was devised on the basis of the original definition of the Q factor. The Q factor, the ratio of the reactive energy to the dissipated energy, was calculated from the vibration velocity distribution. The bar thickness was selected considering the effect of the thickness on the estimation error. In the experimental setup, a 1-mm-thick polymer-based bar was used as a sample and fixed on the top of a longitudinal transducer. Using transducers of different lengths, flexural waves in the frequency range of 20-90kHz were generated on the bar. The vibration strain in the experiment reached 0.06%. According to the Bernoulli-Euler model, the reactive energy and dissipated energy were estimated from the vertical velocity distribution on the bar, and the Q factors were measured as the driving frequency and strain were varied. The experimental results showed that the Q factors decrease as the driving frequencies and strains increase. At a frequency of 28.30kHz, the Q factor of poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS) reached approximately 460 when the strain was smaller than 0.005%. PPS exhibited a much higher Q factor than the other tested polymers, which implies that it is a potentially applicable material as the elastomer for high-power ultrasonic devices.

  11. On the efficacy of the wavelet decomposition for high frequency vibration analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Cheng, L.

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the extraordinary ability of the wavelet decomposition for vibration analyses under the framework of Rayleigh-Ritz method. Using a beam as an example, Daubechies wavelet scale functions are used as admissible functions for decomposing the flexural displacement of the structure, along with the artificial springs at the boundary, to predict vibration of an Euler-Bernoulli beam in an extremely large frequency range. It is shown that the use of wavelet basis allows reaching very high frequencies, typically covering more than 1000 modes using conventional computational facility within the available numerical dynamics of the computers with no particular care needed for round-off errors. As a side benefit, the use of spring boundary also allows handling any elastic boundary conditions through a dynamic contribution in the Hamiltonian of the beam. The wavelet decomposed approach combines the flexibility of the global methods and the accuracy of local methods by inheriting the versatility of the Rayleigh-Ritz approach and the superior fitting ability of the wavelets. Numerical results on both free and forced vibrations are given, in excellent agreement with predictions of classical methods.

  12. State observers and Kalman filtering for high performance vibration isolation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beker, M. G.; Bertolini, A.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Bulten, H. J.; Hennes, E.; Rabeling, D. S.

    2014-03-01

    There is a strong scientific case for the study of gravitational waves at or below the lower end of current detection bands. To take advantage of this scientific benefit, future generations of ground based gravitational wave detectors will need to expand the limit of their detection bands towards lower frequencies. Seismic motion presents a major challenge at these frequencies and vibration isolation systems will play a crucial role in achieving the desired low-frequency sensitivity. A compact vibration isolation system designed to isolate in-vacuum optical benches for Advanced Virgo will be introduced and measurements on this system are used to present its performance. All high performance isolation systems employ an active feedback control system to reduce the residual motion of their suspended payloads. The development of novel control schemes is needed to improve the performance beyond what is currently feasible. Here, we present a multi-channel feedback approach that is novel to the field. It utilizes a linear quadratic regulator in combination with a Kalman state observer and is shown to provide effective suppression of residual motion of the suspended payload. The application of state observer based feedback control for vibration isolation will be demonstrated with measurement results from the Advanced Virgo optical bench suspension system.

  13. State observers and Kalman filtering for high performance vibration isolation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beker, M G; Bertolini, A; van den Brand, J F J; Bulten, H J; Hennes, E; Rabeling, D S

    2014-03-01

    There is a strong scientific case for the study of gravitational waves at or below the lower end of current detection bands. To take advantage of this scientific benefit, future generations of ground based gravitational wave detectors will need to expand the limit of their detection bands towards lower frequencies. Seismic motion presents a major challenge at these frequencies and vibration isolation systems will play a crucial role in achieving the desired low-frequency sensitivity. A compact vibration isolation system designed to isolate in-vacuum optical benches for Advanced Virgo will be introduced and measurements on this system are used to present its performance. All high performance isolation systems employ an active feedback control system to reduce the residual motion of their suspended payloads. The development of novel control schemes is needed to improve the performance beyond what is currently feasible. Here, we present a multi-channel feedback approach that is novel to the field. It utilizes a linear quadratic regulator in combination with a Kalman state observer and is shown to provide effective suppression of residual motion of the suspended payload. The application of state observer based feedback control for vibration isolation will be demonstrated with measurement results from the Advanced Virgo optical bench suspension system.

  14. Vibrationally resolved high-resolution NEXAFS and XPS spectra of phenanthrene and coronene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fronzoni, Giovanna; Baseggio, Oscar; Stener, Mauro, E-mail: stener@univ.trieste.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università di Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 1, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali, INSTM, Unita’ di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Hua, Weijie; Tian, Guangjun [Department of Theoretical Chemistry and Biology, School of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Luo, Yi [Department of Theoretical Chemistry and Biology, School of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Apicella, Barbara; Alfé, Michela [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, IRC-CNR, P.le Tecchio, 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Simone, Monica de; Kivimäki, Antti [CNR-IOM, Laboratorio TASC, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Coreno, Marcello [CNR-IMIP, 00016 Montelibretti (Italy)

    2014-07-28

    We performed a combined experimental and theoretical study of the C1s Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine-Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy in the gas phase of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene and coronene), typically formed in combustion reactions. In the NEXAFS of both molecules, a double-peak structure appears in the C1s → LUMO region, which differ by less than 1 eV in transition energies. The vibronic coupling is found to play an important role in such systems. It leads to weakening of the lower-energy peak and strengthening of the higher-energy one because the 0 − n (n > 0) vibrational progressions of the lower-energy peak appear in nearly the same region of the higher-energy peak. Vibrationally resolved theoretical spectra computed within the Frank-Condon (FC) approximation and linear coupling model agree well with the high-resolution experimental results. We find that FC-active normal modes all correspond to in-plane vibrations.

  15. Nystagmus induced by high frequency vibrations of the skull in total unilateral peripheral vestibular lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Georges; Perrin, Philippe; Schmerber, Sebastien

    2008-03-01

    The skull vibration-induced nystagmus test (SVINT) is a useful complementary test to the caloric test, which evaluates very low frequencies, and the head shaking test (HST), which explores medium range frequencies. These three tests are fully correlated in total unilateral vestibular lesions (tUVL) with a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 94% for the SVINT. The results of the interference of the SVINT with the cold caloric test on the intact ear suggest that different vestibular sensory cells are involved in these two tests. The stimulus location optimization suggests that vibrations directly stimulate the inner ear on the intact side. The aim of this study was to establish the effectiveness of a rapid, non-invasive test used to detect vestibular asymmetry at 30, 60 and 100 Hz stimulation in tUVL. The high frequency vibration test applied to the skull using the SVINT was compared to the results of HST and caloric test in 134 patients and 95 normal subjects: 131 patients had a total unilateral vestibular dysfunction and 3 had a bilateral total lesion (tBVL). The effects of stimulus frequency, topography and head position were studied using a video-nystagmograph. In tUVL, the SVINT always revealed a lesional nystagmus beating toward the healthy side at all frequencies. The mastoid site was more efficient than the cervical and vertex sites (p0.005). The mean skull vibratory nystagmus (SVN) slow phase velocity (SPV) is 10.7 degrees (SD =7.5; n=20). Mastoid stimulation efficiency was not correlated with the side of stimulation. SVN SPV was correlated with the total caloric efficiency on the healthy ear (p=0.03). The interference of the SVINT during the cold caloric test on the intact ear demonstrated a reversal of the caloric nystagmus at each application of the vibrator. In tBVL, SVINT revealed no nystagmus.

  16. Shear dependent nonlinear vibration in a high quality factor single crystal silicon micromechanical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H.; Shan, G. C.; Shek, C. H.; Lee, J. E.-Y.

    2012-07-01

    The frequency response of a single crystal silicon resonator under nonlinear vibration is investigated and related to the shear property of the material. The shear stress-strain relation of bulk silicon is studied using a first-principles approach. By incorporating the calculated shear property into a device-level model, our simulation closely predicts the frequency response of the device obtained by experiments and further captures the nonlinear features. These results indicate that the observed nonlinearity stems from the material's mechanical property. Given the high quality factor (Q) of the device reported here (˜2 × 106), this makes it highly susceptible to such mechanical nonlinear effects.

  17. Prediction of ground vibration due to the collapse of a 235 m high cooling tower under accidental loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Feng; Li, Yi [Department of Building Engineering, Tongji University, No. 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Gu, Xianglin, E-mail: gxl@tongji.edu.cn [Department of Building Engineering, Tongji University, No. 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhao, Xinyuan [Department of Building Engineering, Tongji University, No. 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Tang, Dongsheng [Guangdong Electric Power Design Institute, No. 1 Tianfeng Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510663 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Ground vibration due to the collapse of a huge cooling tower was predicted. ► Accidental loads with different characteristics caused different collapse modes. ► Effect of ground vibration on the nuclear-related facilities cannot be ignored. -- Abstract: A comprehensive approach is presented in this study for the prediction of the ground vibration due to the collapse of a 235 m high cooling tower, which can be caused by various accidental loads, e.g., explosion or strong wind. The predicted ground motion is to be used in the safety evaluation of nuclear-related facilities adjacent to the cooling tower, as well as the plant planning of a nuclear power station to be constructed in China. Firstly, falling weight tests were conducted at a construction site using the dynamic compaction method. The ground vibrations were measured in the form of acceleration time history. A finite element method based “falling weight-soil” model was then developed and verified by field test results. Meanwhile, the simulated collapse processes of the cooling tower under two accidental loads were completed in a parallel study, the results of which are briefly introduced in this paper. Furthermore, based on the “falling weight-soil” model, “cooling tower-soil” models were developed for the prediction of the ground vibrations induced by two collapse modes of the cooling tower. Finally, for a deep understanding of the vibration characteristics, a parametric study was also conducted with consideration of different collapse profiles, soil geologies as well as the arrangements of an isolation trench. It was found that severe ground vibration occurred in the vicinity of the cooling tower when the collapse happened. However, the vibration attenuated rapidly with the increase in distance from the cooling tower. Moreover, the “collapse in integrity” mode and the rock foundation contributed to exciting intense ground vibration. By appropriately arranging an isolation

  18. Differential Cross Sections for High-Lying Vibrational Excitations(v = O→v' =1, 2,..., 9, 10) of e-H2 Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yang-Yang; FENG Hao; SUN Wei-Guo; WANG Bin

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical investigation on the differential cross section (DCS) from low-energy electron scattering of high-lying vibrational excited 112 molecules is reported. The body-frame vibrational close-coupling (BFVCC) approach is used to solve the scattering equations. Quantum scattering potentials include static, exchange, and polarization contributions based on ab initio calculations. By including the contributions of 9 partial waves (Ne=9), 18 Morse vibrational states (Nv = 18), and 16 molecular symmetries (A=0, 1,..., 7), the calculated DCSs have good agreement with available experimental measurements and theoretical studies, and show that high angular momenta and good vibrational wavefunctions are necessary to better describe the scattering physics of electron-molecule vibrational excitation collisions.

  19. A study on springback of bending linear flow split profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, P.; Taplick, C.; Özel, M.; Groche, P.

    2016-11-01

    The bending of linear flow split profiles made up of high strength materials involves high bending loads leading to high springback and geometrical defects. In addition, the linear flow split profiles are made stronger due to the high plastic deformation applied by the process itself. The bending method proposed in this paper combines the linear flow splitting process with a movable bending tool. The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of superimposed stresses exerted by the linear flow splitting process on bending load and springback of the profile by using a finite element model. The latter was validated by means of experimental results. The results show that the bending loads and the springback were reduced by increasing the superposition of stress applied by the linear flow splitting process. The reduction in the bending loads leads to a reduction in the cross-sectional distortion. Furthermore, the springback was compensated by controlling the amount of superimposed stress.

  20. Generation of highly vibrationally excited H2 and detection by 2+1 resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, Daniel C.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Bischel, William K.

    1990-02-01

    We report the first detection by optical means of highly vibrationally excited H2 X1Σ+g(vx=6-11). Vibrationally excited H2 was generated using a recently discovered hot-wire effect in H2 gas, and was detected in 40 bands with 2+1 resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization via the EF state (vEF=0-14). Rotational temperatures are in the range 200-650 K, well below that required for thermal excitation of the observed vibrational levels.

  1. Analysis theory of spatial vibration of high-speed train and slab track system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Jun; HE Dan; ZENG Qing-yuan

    2008-01-01

    The motor and trailer cars of a high-speed train were modeled as a multi-rigid body system with two suspensions. According to structural characteristic of a slab track, a new spatial vibration model of track segment element of the slab track was put forward. The spatial vibration equation set of the high-speed train and slab track system was then established on the basis of the principle of total potential energy with stationary value in elastic system dynarrties and the rule of "set-in-right-position" for formulating system matrices. The equation set was solved by the Wilson-0 direct integration method. The contents mentioned above constitute the analysis theory of spatial vibration of high-speed train and slab track system. The theory was then verified by the high-speed running experiment carried out on the slab track in the Qinghuangdao-Shenyang passenger transport line. The results show that the calculated results agree well with the measured results, such as the calculated lateral and vertical rail displacements are0.82 mm and 0.9 mm and the measured ones 0.75 mm and 0.93 mm, respectively; the calculated lateral and vertical wheel-rail forcesare 8.9 kN and 102.3 kN and the measured ones 8.6 kN and 80.2 kN, respectively. The interpolation method, that is, the lateral finitestrip and slab segment element, for slab deformation proposed is of simplification and applicability compared with the traditionalplate element method. All of these demonstrate the reliability of the theory proposed.

  2. Bending stresses in Facetted Glass Shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne; Jönsson, Jeppe; Almegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    A shell structure of glass combines a highly effective structural principle with a material of optimal permeability to light. A facetted shell structure has a piecewise plane geometry, and together the facets form an approximation to a curved surface. A distributed load on a plane-based facetted...... structure will locally cause bending moments in the loaded facets. The bending stresses are dependent on the stiffness of the joints. Approximate solutions are developed to estimate the magnitude of the bending stresses. A FE-model of a facetted glass shell structure is used to validate the expressions...

  3. Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Torsional and Bending Effect on Four Cylinders Engine Crankshafts by Using Finite Element Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. R. G. Desavale , A. M. Patil

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of torsional vibration of the crankshaft of high-speed diesel engine has become critical with increase in excitation forces. This results in high torsional vibration amplitudes and hence high stresses the paper aims at complete FEM analysis of a crankshaft for torsional and bending vibrations, identification of stresses. It is analyzed for natural frequency, rigid body mode shape by ANSYS and Holzer method. The complete simulation of actual boundary conditions is done for journal bearing support, inertia lumping for reciprocating parts and bearing stiffness. Customized code is developed in ANSYS-Macros, which will convert user input Pressure-Crank angle variation to excitation forces for various orders through FFT. The dynamic responses obtained for displacement and stresses. Finally all results are combined to obtain the variation of Fillet Stress as a function of engine speed and harmonic orders. The critical dynamic response is compared with results obtained experimentally for torsional amplitudes.

  4. Submillimeter-wave rotational spectra of DNC in highly excited vibrational states observed in an extended negative glow discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, T.

    2011-05-01

    Rotational transitions of DNC have been observed in the submillimeter-wave region in an extended negative glow discharge in a gas mixture of CD 4 and N 2. The dissociative recombination reaction of DCND + with electrons is thought to be a dominant channel to produce DNC in highly excited vibrational states. The vibrational temperature for the ν3 vibrational mode is found to be about 4000 K, and the rotational lines in levels up to (0 0 8) are observed. The rotational and centrifugal distortion constants are determined for these states along with those for the (1 0 0) state. The measurement accuracy is high enough to determine some higher order vibration-rotation interaction constants.

  5. The Impact of Traffic-Induced Bridge Vibration on Rapid Repairing High-Performance Concrete for Bridge Deck Pavement Repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on forced vibration tests for high-performance concrete (HPC, the influence of bridge vibration induced by traveling vehicle on compressive strength and durability of HPC has been studied. It is concluded that 1 d and 2 d compressive strength of HPC decreased significantly, and the maximum reduction rate is 9.1%, while 28 d compressive strength of HPC had a slight lower with a 3% maximal drop under the action of two simple harmonic vibrations with 2 Hz, 3 mm amplitude, and 4 Hz, 3 mm amplitude. Moreover, the vibration had a slight effect on the compressive strength of HPC when the simple harmonic vibration had 4 Hz and 1 mm amplitude; it is indicated that the amplitude exerts a more prominent influence on the earlier compressive strength with the comparison of the frequency. In addition, the impact of simple harmonic vibration on durability of HPC can be ignored; this shows the self-healing function of concrete resulting from later hydration reaction. Thus, the research achievements mentioned above can contribute to learning the laws by which bridge vibration affects the properties of concrete and provide technical support for the design and construction of the bridge deck pavement maintenance.

  6. Degradation of bimorph piezoelectric bending beams in energy harvesting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillatsch, P.; Xiao, B. L.; Shashoua, N.; Gramling, H. M.; Yeatman, E. M.; Wright, P. K.

    2017-03-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting is an attractive alternative to battery powering for wireless sensor networks. However, in order for it to be a viable long term solution the fatigue life needs to be assessed. Many vibration harvesting devices employ bimorph piezoelectric bending beams as transduction elements to convert mechanical to electrical energy. This paper introduces two degradation studies performed under symmetrical and asymmetrical sinusoidal loading. It is shown that besides a loss in output power, the most dramatic effect of degradation is a shift in resonance frequency which is highly detrimental to resonant harvester designs. In addition, micro-cracking was shown to occur predominantly in piezoelectric layers under tensile stress. This opens the opportunity for increased life time through compressive operation or pre-loading of piezoceramic layers.

  7. High-speed system for FBG-based measurements of vibration and sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Devrez M.; Ibrahim, Selwan K.; Koumans, Yorick; Meulblok, Bastiaan; Knoppers, Rik

    2016-05-01

    Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) allow for optical detection of localized physical effects without the need to couple the light out and back into a fiber, enabling robust and multiplexed sensor systems. The need of combining wide bandwidth and high resolution for dynamic sensing applications, like acoustics and vibrations, has presented significant challenges for FBG-based solutions. Here, we present a novel FBG-based measurement system enabled by using high-speed and highprecision tunable laser-based optical interrogation scheme. Multiple levels of integrated wavelength referencing coupled with low-noise high-speed electronics allow for spectral feature tracking at a resolution of flat-sensitivity down to static pressures are demonstrated. The sensors are demonstrated to be customizable to application-specific requirements, and designed to be scalable to large quantity reproducible manufacturing. In contrast to interferometry-based solutions, the tunable swept-laser detection scheme in combination with strain-based FBG sensors provides a cost-effective system that allows for easy scaling of sensor counts per fiber with multiple fibers being simultaneously recorded. Finally, the integrated high accuracy triggering and hybrid measurement capabilities present the potential to monitor sounds and vibrations in a wide range of applications from seismic surveys to machine and structural monitoring applications in harsh environments.

  8. High-spin states in the vibrational nucleus {sup 114}Cd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungclaus, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, E-28006, Madrid (Spain); Algora, A. [IFIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071, Valencia (Spain); Axiotis, M.; Gadea, A.; Martinez, T.; Napoli, D.R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020, Legnaro (Italy); Borge, M.J.G.; Piqueras, I. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, E-28006, Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, M.A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049, Madrid (Spain); Galindo, E.; Hausmann, M. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Goettingen, D-37073, Goettingen (Germany); Lenzi, S.; Ur, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131, Padova (Italy); Schwengner, R. [Institut fuer Kern- und Hadronenphysik, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, D-01314, Dresden (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    High-spin states of the neutron-rich vibrational nucleus {sup 114}Cd have been studied using the incomplete fusion reaction {sup 110}Pd({sup 7}Li,p2n) and the GASP spectrometer in conjunction with the ISIS Si ball. About 50 new states with excitation energies up to 7 MeV and angular momentum I {<=}(18 +) were observed and for many of them, spin and parity could be firmly assigned. The band-like structures in {sup 114}Cd are compared to the corresponding ones in the even-even neighbour {sup 112}Cd. (orig.)

  9. Vibrational Properties of High- Superconductors Levitated Above a Bipolar Permanent Magnetic Guideway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Wang, Jiasu

    2014-05-01

    A bipolar permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) has a unique magnetic field distribution profile which may introduce a better levitation performance and stability to the high- superconducting (HTS) maglev system. The dynamic vibration properties of multiple YBCO bulks arranged into different arrays positioned above a bipolar PMG and free to levitate were investigated. The acceleration and resonance frequencies were experimentally measured, and the stiffness and damping coefficients were evaluated for dynamic stability. Results indicate that the levitation stiffness is closely related to the field-cooling-height and sample positioning. The damping ratio was found to be low and nonlinear for the Halbach bipolar HTS-PMG system.

  10. Fiber optic vibration sensor for high-power electric machines realized using 3D printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igrec, Bojan; Bosiljevac, Marko; Sipus, Zvonimir; Babic, Dubravko; Rudan, Smiljko

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate a lightweight and inexpensive fiber-optic vibration sensor, built using 3D printing technology, for high-power electric machines and similar applications. The working principle is based on modulating the light intensity using a blade attached to a bendable membrane. The sensor prototype was manufactured using PolyJet Matrix technology with DM 8515 Grey 35 Polymer. The sensor shows linear response, expected bandwidth (< 150 Hz), and from our measurements we estimated the damping ratio for used polymer to be ζ ≍ 0.019. The developed prototype is simple to assemble, adjust, calibrate and repair.

  11. Dynamical Lie algebra method for highly excited vibrational state of asymmetric linear tetratomic molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯东太; 丁世良; 王美山

    2003-01-01

    The highly excited vibrational states of asymmetric linear tetratomic molecules are studied in the framework of Lie algebra. By using symmetric group U1(4) U2(4) U3(4), we construct the Hamiltonian that includes not only Casimir operators but also Majorana operators M12,M13 and M23, which are useful for getting potential energy surface and force constants in Lie algebra method. By Lie algebra treatment, we obtain the eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian, and make the concrete calculation for molecule C2HF.

  12. Significance of the Formal Quantum Number in the Highly Excited Vibration of the DCN Molecule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑敦胜; 吴国祯

    2002-01-01

    For the eigenstates of the highly excited vibration of the simple molecule DCN with two stretching modes, a classical approach in a multi-dimensional coset phase space is employed to show that the formal quantum numbers are related to regular or 1east "irregular" trajectories, with zero or least Lyapunov exponents, and are always located in the inner regions of the phase space. This property reflects that they are the approximate constants of motion. It is also demonstrated that formal quantum numbers correspond to the significant phase space density.

  13. The dynamics of "stretched molecules": Experimental studies of highly vibrationally excited molecules with stimulated emission pumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, M.; Jongma, R.; Field, R. W.; Wodtke, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    We review stimulated emission pumping as used to study molecular dynamics. The review presents unimolecular as well as scattering studies. Topics include intramolecular vibrational redistribution, unimolecular isomerization and dissociation, van der Waals clusters, rotational energy transfer, vibrat

  14. Research on a Novel Exciting Method for a Sandwich Transducer Operating in Longitudinal-Bending Hybrid Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingxiang; Shen, Qiangqiang; Shi, Shengjun; Deng, Jie; Chen, Weishan; Wang, Liang

    2017-06-27

    A novel exciting method for a sandwich type piezoelectric transducer operating in longitudinal-bending hybrid vibration modes is proposed and discussed, in which the piezoelectric elements for the excitations of the longitudinal and bending vibrations share the same axial location, but correspond to different partitions. Whole-piece type piezoelectric plates with three separated partitions are used, in which the center partitions generate the first longitudinal vibration, while the upper and lower partitions produce the second bending vibration. Detailed comparisons between the proposed exciting method and the traditional one were accomplished by finite element method (FEM) calculations, which were further verified by experiments. Compared with the traditional exciting method using independent longitudinal ceramics and bending ceramics, the proposed method achieves higher electromechanical coupling factors and larger vibration amplitudes, especially for the bending vibration mode. This novel exciting method for longitudinal-bending hybrid vibrations has not changed the structural dimensions of the sandwich transducer, but markedly improves the mechanical output ability, which makes it very helpful and meaningful in designing new piezoelectric actuators operated in longitudinal-bending hybrid vibration modes.

  15. Vibration extraction based on fast NCC algorithm and high-speed camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiujun; Jin, Yi; Guo, Jie; Zhu, Chang'an

    2015-09-20

    In this study, a high-speed camera system is developed to complete the vibration measurement in real time and to overcome the mass introduced by conventional contact measurements. The proposed system consists of a notebook computer and a high-speed camera which can capture the images as many as 1000 frames per second. In order to process the captured images in the computer, the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) template tracking algorithm with subpixel accuracy is introduced. Additionally, a modified local search algorithm based on the NCC is proposed to reduce the computation time and to increase efficiency significantly. The modified algorithm can rapidly accomplish one displacement extraction 10 times faster than the traditional template matching without installing any target panel onto the structures. Two experiments were carried out under laboratory and outdoor conditions to validate the accuracy and efficiency of the system performance in practice. The results demonstrated the high accuracy and efficiency of the camera system in extracting vibrating signals.

  16. Piezo Ceramic Actuators versus High Magnetostrictive Actuators in the Active control of Tool Vibration

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Linus; Håkansson, Lars; Claesson, Ingvar; Lagö, Thomas L.

    1999-01-01

    In the turning operation chatter or vibration is a frequent problem, which affects the result of the machining, and, in particular, the surface finish. Tool life is also influenced by vibration. Severe acoustic noise in the working environment frequently occurs as a result of dynamic motion between the cutting tool and the workpiece. These problems can be reduced by active control of machine-tool vibration. In the active control system for the control of tool vibration a tool holder construct...

  17. slice of a LEP bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a slice of a LEP dipole bending magnet, made as a concrete and iron sandwich The bending field needed in LEP is small (about 1000 Gauss), equivalent to two of the magnets people stick on fridge doors. Because it is very difficult to keep a low field steady, a high field was used in iron plates embedded in concrete. A CERN breakthrough in magnet design, LEP dipoles can be tuned easily and are cheaper than conventional magnets.

  18. Slice of a LEP bending magnet

    CERN Document Server

    This is a slice of a LEP dipole bending magnet, made as a concrete and iron sandwich. The bending field needed in LEP is small (about 1000 Gauss), equivalent to two of the magnets people stick on fridge doors. Because it is very difficult to keep a low field steady, a high field was used in iron plates embedded in concrete. A CERN breakthrough in magnet design, LEP dipoles can be tuned easily and are cheaper than conventional magnets.

  19. Coupling creep and damage in concrete under high sustained loading: Experimental investigation on bending beams and application of Acoustic Emission technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grondin F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Creep and damage in concrete govern the long-term deformability of concrete. Thus, it is important to understand the interaction between creep and damage in order to design reliable civil engineering structures subjected to high level loading during a long time. Many investigations have been performed on the influence of concrete mixture, the effect of the bond between the matrix and the aggregates, temperature, aging and the size effect on the cracking mechanism and fracture parameters of concrete. But there is a lack of results on the influence of the creep loading history. In the present paper, an experimental investigation on the fracture properties of concrete beams submitted to three point bending tests with high levels of sustained load that deals with creep is reported. The results aim first to investigate the ranges of variation of the time response due to creep damage coupled effects under constant load and secondly to evaluate the residual capacity after creep. For this purpose a series of tests were carried out on geometrically similar specimens of size 100x200x800mm with notch to depth ratio of 0.2 in all the test specimens. The exchange of moisture was prevented and beams were subjected to a constant load of 70% and 90% of the maximum capacity. Three point bending test were realized on specimen at the age of 28 days to determine the characteristics of concrete and the maximum load so we could load the specimens in creep. Threepoint bend creep tests were performed on frames placed in a climate controlled chamber [1]. Then after four months of loading, the beams subjected to creep were removed from the creep frames and then immediately subjected to three-point bending test loading up to failure with a constant loading rate as per RILEM-FMC 50 recommendations. The residual capacity on the notched beams and the evolution of the characteristics of concrete due to the basic creep was considered. The results show that sustained loading

  20. Highly vibrationally excited CO generated in a low-temperature chemical reaction between carbon vapor and molecular oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, E.; Frederickson, K.; Yurkovich, M.; Musci, B.; Rich, J. W.; Adamovich, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    A chemical flow reactor is used to study the vibrational population distribution of CO produced by a reaction between carbon vapor generated in an arc discharge and molecular oxygen. The results demonstrate formation of highly vibrationally excited CO, up to vibrational level v = 14, at low temperatures, T = 400-450 K, with population inversion at v = 4-7, in a collision-dominated environment, 15-20 Torr. The average vibrational energy per CO molecule formed by the reaction is 0.6-1.2 eV/molecule, which corresponds to 10-20% of reaction enthalpy. The results show feasibility of development of a new CO chemical laser using carbon vapor and oxygen as reactants.

  1. Piezoelectric Shunt Vibration Damping of F-15 Panel under High Acoustic Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Yau; Turner, Travis L.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2000-01-01

    At last year's SPIE symposium, we reported results of an experiment on structural vibration damping of an F-15 underbelly panel using piezoelectric shunting with five bonded PZT transducers. The panel vibration was induced with an acoustic speaker at an overall sound pressure level (OASPL) of about 90 dB. Amplitude reductions of 13.45 and 10.72 dB were achieved for the first and second modes, respectively, using single- and multiple-mode shunting. It is the purpose of this investigation to extend the passive piezoelectric shunt-damping technique to control structural vibration induced at higher acoustic excitation levels, and to examine the controllability and survivability of the bonded PZT transducers at these high levels. The shunting experiment was performed with the Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) at the NASA Langley Research Center using the same F-15 underbelly panel. The TAFA is a progressive wave tube facility. The panel was mounted in one wall of the TAFA test section using a specially designed mounting fixture such that the panel was subjected to grazing-incidence acoustic excitation. Five PZT transducers were used with two shunt circuits designed to control the first and second modes of the structure between 200 and 400 Hz. We first determined the values of the shunt inductance and resistance at an OASPL of 130 dB. These values were maintained while we gradually increased the OASPL from 130 to 154 dB in 6-dB steps. During each increment, the frequency response function between accelerometers on the panel and the acoustic excitation measured by microphones, before and after shunting, were recorded. Good response reduction was observed up to the 148dB level. The experiment was stopped at 154 dB due to wire breakage from vibration at a transducer wire joint. The PZT transducers, however, were still bonded well on the panel and survived at this high dB level. We also observed shifting of the frequency peaks toward lower frequency when the OASPL

  2. Longitudinal-bending mode micromotor using multilayer piezoelectric actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, K; Koc, B; Uchino, K

    2001-07-01

    Longitudinal-bending mode ultrasonic motors with a diameter of 3 mm were fabricated using stacked multilayer piezoelectric actuators, which were self-developed from hard lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic. A bending vibration was converted from a longitudinal vibration with a longitudinal-bending coupler. The motors could be bidirectionally operated by changing driving frequency. Their starting and braking torque were analyzed based on the transient velocity response. With a load of moment of inertia 2.5 x 10(-7) kgm2, the motor showed a maximum starting torque of 127.5 microNm. The braking torque proved to be a constant independent on the motor's driving conditions and was roughly equivalent to the maximum starting torque achievable with our micromotors.

  3. Vibration Frequencies Extraction of the Forth Road Bridge Using High Sampling GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a scheme for vibration frequencies extraction of the Forth Road Bridge in Scotland from high sampling GPS data. The interaction between the dynamic response and the ambient loadings is carefully analysed. A bilinear Chebyshev high-pass filter is designed to isolate the quasistatic movements, the FFT algorithm and peak-picking approach are applied to extract the vibration frequencies, and a GPS data accumulation counter is suggested for real-time monitoring applications. To understand the change in the structural characteristics under different loadings, the deformation results from three different loading conditions are presented, that is, the ambient circulation loading, the strong wind under abrupt wind speed change, and the specific trial with two 40 t lorries passing the bridge. The results show that GPS not only can capture absolute 3D deflections reliably, but also can be used to extract the frequency response accurately. It is evident that the frequencies detected using the filtered deflection time series in different direction show quite different characteristics, and more stable results can be obtained from the height displacement time series. The frequency responses of 0.105 and 0.269 Hz extracted from the lateral displacement time series correlate well with the data using height displacement time series.

  4. Global stabilization of high-energy resonance for a nonlinear wideband electromagnetic vibration energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Arata; Sato, Takeru

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an experimental verification of a wideband nonlinear vibration energy harvester which has a globally stabilized high-energy resonating response. For the conventional linear vibration energy harvester, the maximum performance of the power generation and its bandwidth are in a relation of trade-off. The resonance frequency band can be expanded by introducing a Duffing-type nonlinear resonator in order to enable the harvester to generate larger electric power in a wider frequency range. However, since such nonlinear resonators often have multiple stable steady-state solutions in the resonance band, it is difficult for the nonlinear harvester to maintain the high performance of the power generation constantly. The principle of self-excitation and entrainment has been utilized to provide the global stability to the highest-energy solution by destabilizing other unexpected lower-energy solutions by introducing a switching circuit of the load resistance between positive and the negative values depending on the response amplitude of the oscillator. In this study, an experimental verification of this concept are carried out. An experimental prototype harvester is designed and fabricated and the performance of the proposed harvester is experimentally verified. It has been shown that the numerical and experimental results agreed very well, and the highest-energy solutions above the threshold value were successfully stabilized globally.

  5. Optimum placement of piezoelectric ceramic modules for vibration suppression of highly constrained structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloli, Alberto; Ermanni, Paolo

    2007-10-01

    The vibration suppression efficiency of so-called shunted piezoelectric systems is decisively influenced by the number, shape, dimensions and position of the piezoelectric ceramic elements integrated into the structure. This paper presents a procedure based on evolutionary algorithms for optimum placement of piezoelectric ceramic modules on highly constrained lightweight structures. The optimization loop includes the CAD software CATIA V5, the FE package ANSYS and DynOPS, a proprietary software tool able to connect the Evolving Object library with any simulation software that can be started in batch mode. A user-defined piezoelectric shell element is integrated into ANSYS 9.0. The generalized electromechanical coupling coefficient is used as the optimization objective. Position, dimensions, orientation, embedding location in the composite lay-up and wiring of customized patches are determined for optimum vibration suppression under consideration of operational and manufacturing constraints, such as added mass, maximum strain and requirements on the control circuit. A rear wing of a racing car is investigated as the test object for complex, highly constrained geometries.

  6. Trajectory study of supercollision relaxation in highly vibrationally excited pyrazine and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziman; Sansom, Rebecca; Bonella, Sara; Coker, David F; Mullin, Amy S

    2005-09-01

    Classical trajectory calculations were performed to simulate state-resolved energy transfer experiments of highly vibrationally excited pyrazine (E(vib) = 37,900 cm(-1)) and CO(2), which were conducted using a high-resolution transient infrared absorption spectrometer. The goal here is to use classical trajectories to simulate the supercollision energy transfer pathway wherein large amounts of energy are transferred in single collisions in order to compare with experimental results. In the trajectory calculations, Newton's laws of motion are used for the molecular motion, isolated molecules are treated as collections of harmonic oscillators, and intermolecular potentials are formed by pairwise Lennard-Jones potentials. The calculations qualitatively reproduce the observed energy partitioning in the scattered CO(2) molecules and show that the relative partitioning between bath rotation and translation is dependent on the moment of inertia of the bath molecule. The simulations show that the low-frequency modes of the vibrationally excited pyrazine contribute most to the strong collisions. The majority of collisions lead to small DeltaE values and primarily involve single encounters between the energy donor and acceptor. The large DeltaE exchanges result from both single impulsive encounters and chattering collisions that involve multiple encounters.

  7. LEAR bending magnet quadrant

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    During 1981, the PS South-Hall, no longer used for physics experiments, was cleared for the installation of the Low Energy Antiproton Ring, LEAR. In October 1981, 3 of the 4 bending magnet quadrants were in place, this is one of them.

  8. STUDY ON CATASTROPHIC MECHANISM FOR ROTOR DROP TRANSIENT VIBRATION FOLLOWING MAGNETIC BEARING FAILURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方之楚

    2002-01-01

    The nonlinear and transient vibration of a rotor, which dropped onto back-up bearings when its active magnetic bearings were out of order, was investigated. After strictly deriving its equations of motion and performing numerical simulations, the timehistories of rotating speed of the dropping rotor, and normal force at the rubbing contact point as well as the frequency spectrum of the vibration displacement of back-up bearings are fully analyzed. It is found that the strong and unsteady forced bending vibration of the unbalanced and damped rotor decelerating through its first bending vibtation of the unbalanced and damped rotor decelerating through its first critical speed as well as chattering at high frequencies caused by the nonlinearity at the rubbing contact point between the journal and back-up bearings may lead to the catastrophic damage of the system.

  9. Bending artificial muscle from nylon filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvakili, Seyed M.; Hunter, Ian W.

    2016-04-01

    Highly oriented nylon and polyethylene fibers shrink in length and expand in diameter when heated. Using this property, in this work, for the first time we are introducing a type of bending artificial muscle from nylon filaments such as fishing line. Reversible radius of curvature of 0.23 mm-1 was achieved with maximum reversible bending amplitude of 115 mm for the nylon bending actuator. Peak force of up to 2040 mN was measured with a catch-state force of up to 40% of the active force. A 3 dB roll-off frequency of around 0.7 Hz was observed in the frequency response of the bending actuator in water.

  10. Study of seismic response and vibration control of High voltage electrical equipment damper based on TMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuncheng; Wang, Chongyang; Mao, Long; Zha, Chuanming

    2016-11-01

    Substation high voltage electrical equipment such as mutual inductor, circuit interrupter, disconnecting switch, etc., has played a key role in maintaining the normal operation of the power system. When the earthquake disaster, the electrical equipment of the porcelain in the transformer substation is the most easily to damage, causing great economic losses. In this paper, using the method of numerical analysis, the establishment of a typical high voltage electrical equipment of three dimensional finite element model, to study the seismic response of a typical SF6 circuit breaker, at the same time, analysis and contrast the installation ring tuned mass damper (TMD damper for short), by changing the damper damping coefficient and the mass block, install annular TMD vibration control effect is studied. The results of the study for guiding the seismic design of high voltage electrical equipment to provide valuable reference.

  11. Vibrational resonance: a study with high-order word-series averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Murua, Ander

    2016-01-01

    We study a model problem describing vibrational resonance by means of a high-order averaging technique based on so-called word series. With the tech- nique applied here, the tasks of constructing the averaged system and the associ- ated change of variables are divided into two parts. It is first necessary to build recursively a set of so-called word basis functions and, after that, all the required manipulations involve only scalar coefficients that are computed by means of sim- ple recursions. As distinct from the situation with other approaches, with word- series, high-order averaged systems may be derived without having to compute the associated change of variables. In the system considered here, the construction of high-order averaged systems makes it possible to obtain very precise approxima- tions to the true dynamics.

  12. Five intermolecular vibrations of the CO2 dimer observed via infrared combination bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norooz Oliaee, J.; Dehghany, M.; Rezaei, Mojtaba; McKellar, A. R. W.; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

    2016-11-01

    The weakly bound van der Waals dimer (CO2)2 has long been of considerable theoretical and experimental interest. Here, we study its low frequency intermolecular vibrations by means of combination bands in the region of the CO2 monomer ν3 fundamental (≈2350 cm-1), which are observed using a tunable infrared laser to probe a pulsed supersonic slit jet expansion. With the help of a recent high level ab initio calculation by Wang, Carrington, and Dawes, four intermolecular frequencies are assigned: the in-plane disrotatory bend (22.26 cm-1); the out-of-plane torsion (23.24 cm-1); twice the disrotatory bend (31.51 cm-1); and the in-plane conrotatory bend (92.25 cm-1). The disrotatory bend and torsion, separated by only 0.98 cm-1, are strongly mixed by Coriolis interactions. The disrotatory bend overtone is well behaved, but the conrotatory bend is highly perturbed and could not be well fitted. The latter perturbations could be due to tunneling effects, which have not previously been observed experimentally for CO2 dimer. A fifth combination band, located 1.3 cm-1 below the conrotatory bend, remains unassigned.

  13. Eulerian frequency analysis of structural vibrations from high-speed video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venanzoni, Andrea; De Ryck, Laurent; Cuenca, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    An approach for the analysis of the frequency content of structural vibrations from high-speed video recordings is proposed. The techniques and tools proposed rely on an Eulerian approach, that is, using the time history of pixels independently to analyse structural motion, as opposed to Lagrangian approaches, where the motion of the structure is tracked in time. The starting point is an existing Eulerian motion magnification method, which consists in decomposing the video frames into a set of spatial scales through a so-called Laplacian pyramid [1]. Each scale - or level - can be amplified independently to reconstruct a magnified motion of the observed structure. The approach proposed here provides two analysis tools or pre-amplification steps. The first tool provides a representation of the global frequency content of a video per pyramid level. This may be further enhanced by applying an angular filter in the spatial frequency domain to each frame of the video before the Laplacian pyramid decomposition, which allows for the identification of the frequency content of the structural vibrations in a particular direction of space. This proposed tool complements the existing Eulerian magnification method by amplifying selectively the levels containing relevant motion information with respect to their frequency content. This magnifies the displacement while limiting the noise contribution. The second tool is a holographic representation of the frequency content of a vibrating structure, yielding a map of the predominant frequency components across the structure. In contrast to the global frequency content representation of the video, this tool provides a local analysis of the periodic gray scale intensity changes of the frame in order to identify the vibrating parts of the structure and their main frequencies. Validation cases are provided and the advantages and limits of the approaches are discussed. The first validation case consists of the frequency content

  14. Portable vibration exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, L. C.; Williams, F. T.

    1970-01-01

    Gas-driven vibration exciter produces a sinusoidal excitation function controllable in frequency and in amplitude. It allows direct vibration testing of components under normal loads, removing the possibility of component damage due to high static pressure.

  15. Analysis and wafer-level design of a high-order silicon vibration isolator for resonating MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sang Won; Lee, Sangwoo; Perkins, Noel C.; Najafi, Khalil

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis and preliminary design, fabrication, and measurement for mechanical vibration-isolation platforms especially designed for resonating MEMS devices including gyroscopes. Important parameters for designing isolation platforms are specified and the first platform (in designs with cascaded multiple platforms) is crucial for improving vibration-isolation performance and minimizing side-effects on integrated gyroscopes. This isolation platform, made from a thick silicon wafer substrate for an environment-resistant MEMS package, incorporates the functionalities of a previous design including vacuum packaging and thermal resistance with no additional resources. This platform consists of platform mass, isolation beams, vertical feedthroughs, and bonding pads. Two isolation platform designs follow from two isolation beam designs: lateral clamped-clamped beams and vertical torsion beams. The beams function simultaneously as mechanical springs and electrical interconnects. The vibration-isolation platform can yield a multi-dimensional, high-order mechanical low pass filter. The isolation platform possesses eight interconnects within a 12.2 × 12.2 mm2 footprint. The contact resistance ranges from 4-11 Ω depending on the beam design. Vibration measurements using a laser-Doppler vibrometer demonstrate that the lateral vibration-isolation platform suppresses external vibration having frequencies exceeding 2.1 kHz.

  16. Bending Back To Move Forward: Using Reflective Practice To Develop a High School Civic Education/Aikido Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Lane, Jonathan

    This paper describes the development of a high school social studies course, Citizenship and World Affairs. Course development involved two forms of reflection: deliberative and personalistic. The author's deliberative reflection, reported in part one of the paper, began as he reviewed research regarding how teachers should foster citizenship…

  17. Acute effect of whole-body vibration on high velocity squat and jump performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ugrinowitsch

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV on power production of the lower limbs during squat exercise and on vertical jump height. The performance of 30 strength-trained subjects was assessed during high velocity squat exercise (HVS and countermovement vertical jump (CMJ before and after being submitted to four different vibration protocols in a counterbalanced random manner. The HVS and CMJ assessments were performed 3 min before and 6, 9 and 12 min after the WBV interventions, and 6 min before and 9 and 15 min after the interventions, respectively. The different WBV protocols did not change relative peak or average power production during HVS and CMJ. However, time exerted a main effect, with a decrease in CMJ height at 3 min (-2% and 15 min (-3.1% after treatment. These results suggest that the WBV protocols employed in this study do not induce acute improvement in performance. However, this finding does not rule out the application of WBV as a useful strategy for training or warm-up routines.

  18. Energy Dissipation Analysis of Bended SMA Bar in Isothermal State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Gang; LI Li; TAN Jia-xiang

    2004-01-01

    The theory calculation formula is deduced about stress distribution in cross section and changes in Martensite percentages with the section height of random section shape bar under the action of the bending moment according to the Brinson's Constitutive Relation.The bar's energy dissipation capability under circulation of bending moment was analyzed and the calculation theory was set up. By using MATLAB program and the numerical calculation for uniform rectangle cross section bar, the relationships among the maximal stress and strain on cross section edge with bend load, the stress and Martensite percent's with cross section height, the energy dissipation capability with cross section height, and the energy dissipation capability with maximal strain on cross section edge are gained, also those curves are discused. It is put forward that the SMA material can be used for passive structure vibration control to dissipate energy of bend load.

  19. Coupling creep and damage in concrete under high sustained loading: Experimental investigation on bending beams and application of Acoustic Emission technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, J.; Loukili, A.; Grondin, F.

    2010-06-01

    Creep and damage in concrete govern the long-term deformability of concrete. Thus, it is important to understand the interaction between creep and damage in order to design reliable civil engineering structures subjected to high level loading during a long time. Many investigations have been performed on the influence of concrete mixture, the effect of the bond between the matrix and the aggregates, temperature, aging and the size effect on the cracking mechanism and fracture parameters of concrete. But there is a lack of results on the influence of the creep loading history. In the present paper, an experimental investigation on the fracture properties of concrete beams submitted to three point bending tests with high levels of sustained load that deals with creep is reported. The results aim first to investigate the ranges of variation of the time response due to creep damage coupled effects under constant load and secondly to evaluate the residual capacity after creep. For this purpose a series of tests were carried out on geometrically similar specimens of size 100x200x800mm with notch to depth ratio of 0.2 in all the test specimens. The exchange of moisture was prevented and beams were subjected to a constant load of 70% and 90% of the maximum capacity. Three point bending test were realized on specimen at the age of 28 days to determine the characteristics of concrete and the maximum load so we could load the specimens in creep. Threepoint bend creep tests were performed on frames placed in a climate controlled chamber [1]. Then after four months of loading, the beams subjected to creep were removed from the creep frames and then immediately subjected to three-point bending test loading up to failure with a constant loading rate as per RILEM-FMC 50 recommendations. The residual capacity on the notched beams and the evolution of the characteristics of concrete due to the basic creep was considered. The results show that sustained loading had a strengthening

  20. Vibration measurements of high-heat-load monochromators for DESY PETRA III extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristiansen, Paw, E-mail: paw.kristiansen@fmb-oxford.com [FMB Oxford Ltd, Unit 1 Ferry Mills, Oxford OX2 0ES (United Kingdom); Horbach, Jan; Döhrmann, Ralph; Heuer, Joachim [DESY, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron Hamburg, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-05-09

    Vibration measurements of a cryocooled double-crystal monochromator are presented. The origins of the vibrations are identified. The minimum achieved vibration of the relative pitch between the two crystals is 48 nrad RMS and the minimum achieved absolute vibration of the second crystal is 82 nrad RMS. The requirement for vibrational stability of beamline optics continues to evolve rapidly to comply with the demands created by the improved brilliance of the third-generation low-emittance storage rings around the world. The challenge is to quantify the performance of the instrument before it is installed at the beamline. In this article, measurement techniques are presented that directly and accurately measure (i) the relative vibration between the two crystals of a double-crystal monochromator (DCM) and (ii) the absolute vibration of the second-crystal cage of a DCM. Excluding a synchrotron beam, the measurements are conducted under in situ conditions, connected to a liquid-nitrogen cryocooler. The investigated DCM utilizes a direct-drive (no gearing) goniometer for the Bragg rotation. The main causes of the DCM vibration are found to be the servoing of the direct-drive goniometer and the flexibility in the crystal cage motion stages. It is found that the investigated DCM can offer relative pitch vibration down to 48 nrad RMS (capacitive sensors, 0–5 kHz bandwidth) and absolute pitch vibration down to 82 nrad RMS (laser interferometer, 0–50 kHz bandwidth), with the Bragg axis brake engaged.

  1. Investigation of load effect on macro-bend losses for an SMS fiber structure with a small bend radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmah, Fitri; Sekartedjo, Sekartedjo; Hatta, Agus Muhamad

    2016-11-01

    Modelling of load effect on macro-bend losses for a singlemode-multimode-singlemode (SMS) fiber structure with small bend radius is presented. Load effect on macro-bend losses for the SMS fiber structure placed between two high-density polyethylene (HDPE) boards are investigated theoretically and experimentally. A model on macro-bend losses for SMS fiber structure is constructed by using the light transmission formula in a straight SMS fiber structure and taking into account the effective number of guided modes due to the macrobending. In the experimental, a mandrel with a diameter of 0.8 mm is used to induce the bend. When the loads are applied on the system, the mandrel will affect the bend losses for the SMS fiber structure. It is shown numerically and experimentally that the bend-loss of SMS fiber structure strongly depends on the applied loads and the multimode fiber (MMF) lengths.

  2. A multipurpose tissue bending machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesely, I; Boughner, D R

    1985-01-01

    A unique tissue bending machine was developed to test the bending properties of normal and bioprosthetic heart valve material. It can be operated in air or in a tissue bath and can measure bending torques with an accuracy in excess of 1.0 microN m. Three contrasting substances were tested to compare their stiffness and to demonstrate the machine.

  3. High-Pressure Crystal Structure, Lattice Vibrations, and Band Structure of BiSbO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errandonea, Daniel; Muñoz, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Hernández, Placida; Gomis, Oscar; Achary, S Nagabhusan; Popescu, Catalin; Patwe, Sadeque J; Tyagi, Avesh K

    2016-05-16

    The high-pressure crystal structure, lattice-vibrations, and electronic band structure of BiSbO4 were studied by ab initio simulations. We also performed Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and diffuse-reflectance measurements, as well as synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. High-pressure X-ray diffraction measurements show that the crystal structure of BiSbO4 remains stable up to at least 70 GPa, unlike other known MTO4-type ternary oxides. These experiments also give information on the pressure dependence of the unit-cell parameters. Calculations properly describe the crystal structure of BiSbO4 and the changes induced by pressure on it. They also predict a possible high-pressure phase. A room-temperature pressure-volume equation of state is determined, and the effect of pressure on the coordination polyhedron of Bi and Sb is discussed. Raman- and infrared-active phonons were measured and calculated. In particular, calculations provide assignments for all the vibrational modes as well as their pressure dependence. In addition, the band structure and electronic density of states under pressure were also calculated. The calculations combined with the optical measurements allow us to conclude that BiSbO4 is an indirect-gap semiconductor, with an electronic band gap of 2.9(1) eV. Finally, the isothermal compressibility tensor for BiSbO4 is given at 1.8 GPa. The experimental (theoretical) data revealed that the direction of maximum compressibility is in the (0 1 0) plane at ∼33° (38°) to the c-axis and 47° (42°) to the a-axis. The reliability of the reported results is supported by the consistency between experiments and calculations.

  4. Multiple-cladding fibers with reduced bend loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Bulla, Douglas A. P.; Ankiewicz, Adrian; Love, John D.; Bailey, Ron

    2007-04-01

    We demonstrate that a highly bend-resistant fiber can be realized. It is shown theoretically that, by introducing both depressed and elevated rings into the cladding, bending loss can be reduced significantly. A fiber based on this design has been fabricated and characterized as a first step toward achieving this goal. The results show that a multiple-cladding fiber is highly bend resistant when compared with the standard telecom single-mode fiber.

  5. Hightower Engineering Academy Prepares High School Students for the Engineering Professions - A Program by the Fort Bend Independent School District - II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Lee; Verret, Doug; Griffin, Richard

    1998-10-01

    Hightower Engineering Academy, a project of the Fort Bend Independent School District, near Houston Texas, introduces high school students to the engineering professions. It has a college preparatory curriculum in which students are first grounded in the fundamentals of science and mathematics. Then more specific courses help them develop an appreciation for, and many of the skills of, the engineering profession. The Academy will implement a consistent teaching philosophy using a diverse array of innovative technology. The Academy is unique in the degree of partnership with local industry and state universities. It is committed to using the best known science pedagogy in combination with proven teaching art, experienced science educators and state-of-the art facilities all aimed at providing future engineers with complete mastery of the foundation knowledge of the profession. Hightower is committed to a "constructivist" teaching philosophy, the synergy of teamwork, and an appreciation of personal and professional ethics To the greatest extent possible, Hightower will have working engineers present the profession to students. There will be guest lecturers, field trips, and mentorships. Students will participate in engineering-specific organizations and competitions. Students will build a portfolio of their accomplishments at Hightower. They will experience project-based learning, culminating in a senior project that will encompass college-level research, experimentation, data analysis, and technical writing.

  6. Numerical modelling of ground vibration caused by elevated high-speed railway lines considering structure-soil-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucinskas, Paulius; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Persson, Kent

    2016-01-01

    Construction of high speed railway lines has been an increasing trend in recent years. Countries like Denmark and Sweden plan to expand and upgrade their railways to accommodate high-speed traffic. To benefit from the full potential of the reduced commuting times, these lines must pass through...... densely populated urban areas with the collateral effect of increased noise and vibrations levels. This paper aims to quantify the vibrations levels in the area surrounding an elevated railway line built as a multi-span bridge structure. The proposed model employs finite-element analysis to model...

  7. A preliminary bending fatigue spectrum for steel monostrand cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the experimental study on the bending fatigue resistance of high-strength steel monostrand cables. From the conducted fatigue tests in the high-stress, low-cycle region, a preliminary bending fatigue spectrum is derived for the estimation of monostrand cable...... service life expectancy. The presented preliminary bending fatigue spectrum of high-strength monostrands is currently unavailable in the published literature. The presented results provide relevant information on the bending mechanism and fatigue characteristics of monostrand steel cables in tension...

  8. [Vibration, back pain and physical exercise in high-risk professionals: a cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, M; Prosperini, V; Falzano, P; Hendel, M; Raimondi, P

    2004-01-01

    Repeated loads and vibration stress in professional settings are relevant risk factors for back pain. Aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate: a) the prevalence of back pain in two high-risk professional samples (helicopter pilots and bus drivers); b) the association between physical/sports exercise and back pain subjective perception across age. Prevalence of back pain is 94% in helicopter pilots and 74% in bus drivers; prevalence of back pain significantly increases with age. The positive effect of regular physical/sports exercise on subjective back pain significantly decreases with age. Physical or sports exercise adapted to structural characteristic of patients can result effective in diminishing personal impairment in subjects at professional risk.

  9. Method and apparatus for conducting structural health monitoring in a cryogenic, high vibration environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xinlin (Inventor); Beard, Shawn J. (Inventor); Li, Irene (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Sensors affixed to various such structures, where the sensors can withstand, remain affixed, and operate while undergoing both cryogenic temperatures and high vibrations. In particular, piezoelectric single crystal transducers are utilized, and these sensors are coupled to the structure via a low temperature, heat cured epoxy. This allows the transducers to monitor the structure while the engine is operating, even despite the harsh operating conditions. Aspects of the invention thus allow for real time monitoring and analysis of structures that operate in conditions that previously did not permit such analysis. A further aspect of the invention relates to use of piezoelectric single crystal transducers. In particular, use of such transducers allows the same elements to be used as both sensors and actuators.

  10. A magnetic bearing momentum wheel for high pointing accuracy and vibration sensitive space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichler, U. J.

    The paper describes a magnetic bearing momentum wheel (MW-X) theoretically and experimentally with attention given to its low-noise application to spacecraft attitude-control systems. The MW-X gyroscopic actuator comprises a rotor, emergency bearings, a locking mechanisms, and a drive motor, and Vernier gimballing is employed so that the rotor and the momentum vector can be tilted actively with about one degree. The MW-X utilizes a suspension-control system for noise attenuation and active vibration suppression to reduce noise from the sensor surface. The actively controlled magnetic bearing wheels are shown to provide active damping of flexible structures by means of fully controllable translational bearing forces. The MW-X devices are of interest for applications to optical communications links, space telescopes, and earth-observation satellites with high resolutions.

  11. Dynamic Analysis of a High-Static-Low-Dynamic-Stiffness Vibration Isolator with Time-Delayed Feedback Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the time-delayed cubic velocity feedback control strategy to improve the isolation performance of High-Static-Low-Dynamic-Stiffness (HSLDS vibration isolator. Firstly, the primary resonance of the controlled HSLDS vibration isolator is obtained by using multiple scales method. The equivalent damping ratio and equivalent resonance frequency are defined to study the effects of feedback gain and time delay on the primary resonance. The jump phenomenon analysis of the controlled system without and with time delay is investigated by using Sylvester resultant method and optimization method, respectively. The stability analysis of the controlled system is also considered. Then, the 1/3 subharmonic resonance of the controlled system is studied by using multiple scales method. The effects of feedback gain and time delay on the 1/3 subharmonic resonance are also presented. Finally, force transmissibility is proposed to evaluate the performance of the controlled system and compared with an equivalent linear passive vibration isolator. The results show that the vibration amplitude of the controlled system around the resonance frequency region decreases and the isolation frequency band is larger compared to the equivalent one. A better isolation performance in the high frequency band can be achieved compared to the passive HSLDS vibration isolator.

  12. High fidelity simulation of non-synchronous vibration for aircraft engine fan/compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hong-Sik

    The objectives of this research are to develop a high fidelity simulation methodology for turbomachinery aeromechanical problems and to investigate the mechanism of non-synchronous vibration (NSV) of an aircraft engine axial compressor. A fully conservative rotor/stator sliding technique is developed to accurately capture the unsteadiness and interaction between adjacent blade rows. Phase lag boundary conditions (BC) based on the time shift (direct store) method and the Fourier series phase lag BC are implemented to take into account the effect of phase difference for a sector of annulus simulation. To resolve the nonlinear interaction between flow and vibrating blade structure, a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) procedure that solves the structural modal equations and time accurate Navier-Stokes equations simultaneously is adopted. An advanced mesh deformation method that generates the blade tip block mesh moving with the blade displacement is developed to ensure the mesh quality. An efficient and low diffusion E-CUSP (LDE) scheme as a Riemann solver designed to minimize numerical dissipation is used with an improved hybrid RANS/LES turbulence strategy, delayed detached eddy simulation (DDES). High order accuracy (3rd and 5th order) weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes for inviscid flux and a conservative 2nd and 4th order viscous flux differencing are employed. Extensive validations are conducted to demonstrate high accuracy and robustness of the high fidelity FSI simulation methodology. The validated cases include: (1) DDES of NACA 0012 airfoil at high angle of attack with massive separation. The DDES accurately predicts the drag whereas the URANS model significantly over predicts the drag. (2) The AGARD Wing 445.6 flutter boundary is accurately predicted including the point at supersonic incoming flow. (3) NASA Rotor 67 validation for steady state speed line and radial profiles at peak efficiency point and near stall point. The

  13. Effect of train carbody's parameters on vertical bending stiffness performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangwu; Wang, Changke; Xiang, Futeng; Xiao, Shoune

    2016-10-01

    Finite element analysis(FEA) and modal test are main methods to give the first-order vertical bending vibration frequency of train carbody at present, but they are inefficiency and waste plenty of time. Based on Timoshenko beam theory, the bending deformation, moment of inertia and shear deformation are considered. Carbody is divided into some parts with the same length, and it's stiffness is calculated with series principle, it's cross section area, moment of inertia and shear shape coefficient is equivalent by segment length, and the fimal corrected first-order vertical bending vibration frequency analytical formula is deduced. There are 6 simple carbodies and 1 real carbody as examples to test the formula, all analysis frequencies are very close to their FEA frequencies, and especially for the real carbody, the error between analysis and experiment frequency is 0.75%. Based on the analytic formula, sensitivity analysis of the real carbody's design parameters is done, and some main parameters are found. The series principle of carbody stiffness is introduced into Timoshenko beam theory to deduce a formula, which can estimate the first-order vertical bending vibration frequency of carbody quickly without traditional FEA method and provide a reference to design engineers.

  14. Flexural Vibration Characteristics of Initially Stressed Composite Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Daripa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of localised in-plane load on the flexural vibration characteristics of isotropic and composite plates have been studied using a four-noded shear flexible high precision plate bending finite element. First, the critical buckling loads of such plates subjected to partial or concentrated compressive loads were calculated, then the linear and nonlinear flexural vibration frequencies were obtained. Limited parametric study was carried out to study the influences of location and distribution of tensile or compressive in-plane load on the vibration frequencies of such plates.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(1, pp.106-111, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.117

  15. On the Bending, Vibration and Stability of Laminated Rectangular Plates With Transversely Isotropic Layers%横观各向同性层合矩形板弯曲、振动 和稳定的三维精确分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁皓江; 陈伟球; 徐荣桥

    2001-01-01

    针对四边简支的横观各向同性矩形板的弯曲 、 振动和稳定给出了新的状态空间分析方法从横观各向同性弹性力学的三维基本方程出发, 通过引入位移函数和应力函数, 构造了两类相互独立的状态空间方程, 不仅使原方程得到解耦而且降低了阶数,十分有利于具体问题的求解对于四边简支的矩形板, 建立了层合板上下表面状态变量间的关系式特别针 对矩形板的自由振动(稳定)问题, 发现存在两类彼此无关的形式, 一类对应板的纯面内振动(稳定), 而另一类则是一般意义上的板的弯曲振动(稳定)给出了数值结果, 并考察了相关参数的影响%A method based on newly presented state space formulations is developed for analyzing the bending, vibratio n and stability of laminated transversely isotropicrectangular plates with simp ly supported edges. By introducing two displacement functions and two stress fun ctions, two independent state equations were constructed based on the three-dime n sional elasticity equations for transverse isotropy. The original differential e quations are thus decoupled with the order reduced that will facilitate obtainin g solutions of various problems. For the simply supported rectangular plate, two relations between the state variables at the top and bottom surfaces were estab l ished. In particular, for the free vibration (stability) problem, it is found th at there exist two independent classes: One corresponds to the pure in-plane vib ration (stability) and the other to the general bending vibration (stability). N umerical examples are finally presented and the effects of some parameters are discussed.

  16. Combined Effects of High-Speed Railway Noise and Ground Vibrations on Annoyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoshima, Shigenori; Morihara, Takashi; Sato, Tetsumi; Yano, Takashi

    2017-07-27

    The Shinkansen super-express railway system in Japan has greatly increased its capacity and has expanded nationwide. However, many inhabitants in areas along the railways have been disturbed by noise and ground vibration from the trains. Additionally, the Shinkansen railway emits a higher level of ground vibration than conventional railways at the same noise level. These findings imply that building vibrations affect living environments as significantly as the associated noise. Therefore, it is imperative to quantify the effects of noise and vibration exposures on each annoyance under simultaneous exposure. We performed a secondary analysis using individual datasets of exposure and community response associated with Shinkansen railway noise and vibration. The data consisted of six socio-acoustic surveys, which were conducted separately over the last 20 years in Japan. Applying a logistic regression analysis to the datasets, we confirmed the combined effects of vibration/noise exposure on noise/vibration annoyance. Moreover, we proposed a representative relationship between noise and vibration exposures, and the prevalence of each annoyance associated with the Shinkansen railway.

  17. High resolution IR diode laser study of collisional energy transfer between highly vibrationally excited monofluorobenzene and CO2: the effect of donor fluorination on strong collision energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kilyoung; Johnson, Alan M; Powell, Amber L; Mitchell, Deborah G; Sevy, Eric T

    2014-12-21

    Collisional energy transfer between vibrational ground state CO2 and highly vibrationally excited monofluorobenzene (MFB) was studied using narrow bandwidth (0.0003 cm(-1)) IR diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Highly vibrationally excited MFB with E' = ∼41,000 cm(-1) was prepared by 248 nm UV excitation followed by rapid radiationless internal conversion to the electronic ground state (S1→S0*). The amount of vibrational energy transferred from hot MFB into rotations and translations of CO2 via collisions was measured by probing the scattered CO2 using the IR diode laser. The absolute state specific energy transfer rate constants and scattering probabilities for single collisions between hot MFB and CO2 were measured and used to determine the energy transfer probability distribution function, P(E,E'), in the large ΔE region. P(E,E') was then fit to a bi-exponential function and extrapolated to the low ΔE region. P(E,E') and the biexponential fit data were used to determine the partitioning between weak and strong collisions as well as investigate molecular properties responsible for large collisional energy transfer events. Fermi's Golden rule was used to model the shape of P(E,E') and identify which donor vibrational motions are primarily responsible for energy transfer. In general, the results suggest that low-frequency MFB vibrational modes are primarily responsible for strong collisions, and govern the shape and magnitude of P(E,E'). Where deviations from this general trend occur, vibrational modes with large negative anharmonicity constants are more efficient energy gateways than modes with similar frequency, while vibrational modes with large positive anharmonicity constants are less efficient at energy transfer than modes of similar frequency.

  18. On-line Monitoring System based on Vibration Signal of High Voltage Circuit Breaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Fu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available High voltage circuit breaker is one of the most important switch apparatus in electrical power system. It play a role in the switch control, which can be used to switch the operating mode during normal operation (the equipment run or quit. In order to ensure the normal operation of the grid, it can be removed quickly when a malfunction on the device or circuit. Real-time online monitoring of high voltage circuit breaker can understand the running status, master the operation characteristics and its tend of development. As early as possible find the potential faults then take preventive measures timely, so as to ensure the reliable operation of power system. Online monitoring of high voltage circuit breakers can reduce the premature or unnecessary maintenance and maintenance cost, improve pertinence of the maintenance firstly. Secondly, it can improve the life of the switching device and improve the reliability of electric power system significantly. In this paper, on-line monitoring system based on vibration signal of high voltage circuit breaker is presented

  19. High-resolution monochromator for iron nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy of biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Yoshitaka; Okada, Kyoko; Wang, Hongxin; Cramer, Stephen P.; Seto, Makoto

    2016-12-01

    A new high-resolution monochromator for 14.4-keV X-rays has been designed and developed for the Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy of biological samples. In addition to high resolution, higher flux and stability are especially important for measuring biological samples, because of the very weak signals produced due to the low concentrations of Fe-57. A 24% increase in flux while maintaining a high resolution better than 0.9 meV is achieved in the calculation by adopting an asymmetric reflection of Ge, which is used as the first crystal of the three-bounce high-resolution monochromator. A 20% increase of the exit beam size is acceptable to our biological applications. The higher throughput of the new design has been experimentally verified. A fine rotation mechanics that combines a weak-link hinge with a piezoelectric actuator was used for controlling the photon energy of the monochromatic beam. The resulting stability is sufficient to preserve the intrinsic resolution.

  20. High-resolution synchrotron infrared spectroscopy of acrolein: The vibrational levels between 700 and 820 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, A. R. W.; Billinghurst, B. E.

    2015-09-01

    The weak combination bands ν12 + ν18 and ν17 + ν18 of trans-acrolein in the 700-760 cm-1 region are observed at high resolution (facility. A detailed rotational analysis of the 121181 and 171181 upper states is made which includes the nearby perturbing states 185, 132181, and 131183. Taking the results of this 5-state fit, together with earlier results on lower lying vibrations, we now have experimental characterization for all 15 excited vibrational states of acrolein lying below 820 cm-1.

  1. A novel smart rotor support with shape memory alloy metal rubber for high temperatures and variable amplitude vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanhong; Zhang, Qicheng; Zhang, Dayi; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Liu, Baolong; Hong, Jie

    2014-12-01

    The work describes the design, manufacturing and testing of a smart rotor support with shape memory alloy metal rubber (SMA-MR) elements, able to provide variable stiffness and damping characteristics with temperature, motion amplitude and excitation frequency. Differences in damping behavior and nonlinear stiffness between SMA-MR and more traditional metal rubber supports are discussed. The mechanical performance shown by the prototype demonstrates the feasibility of using the SMA-MR concept for active vibration control in rotordynamics, in particular at high temperatures and large amplitude vibrations.

  2. Fuel pump with brushless motor for high vibration applications; Kraftstoffpumpe mit buerstenlosen Motor fuer Anwendungen mit starken Vibrationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenchow, Frank [Federal-Mogul, Bad Camberg (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Vehicle Safety and Protection; Harvey, Richard; Richards, Michael [Federal-Mogul Corporation, Logansport, IN (United States). Business Unit Vehicle Safety and Protection

    2012-03-15

    Electrifying components in commercial vehicles can be a challenge. High vibration levels, for instance, amplify carbon brush and commutator erosion in a conventional electric motor. To offer a solution Federal-Mogul has developed the brushless fuel pump. This BLDC pump has successfully passed 10,000 h of operation in B100 fuel. (orig.)

  3. New architectures for integrated optics: low-loss tight bends and on-chip high-index-contrast potassium double Tungstate waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sefünç, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis concentrates on improving the performance of low-index-contrast waveguides in terms of reducing the bend losses and increasing the index contrast of waveguides by heterogeneous adhesive bonding and thinning. In the first part of this thesis, we have demonstrated that introducing a thin m

  4. Highly Accurate Quartic Force Fields, Vibrational Frequencies, and Spectroscopic Constants for Cyclic and Linear C3H3(+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinchuan; Taylor, Peter R.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of theory have been used to compute quartic force fields (QFFs) for the cyclic and linear forms of the C H + molecular cation, referred to as c-C H + and I-C H +. Specifically the 33 3333 singles and doubles coupled-cluster method that includes a perturbational estimate of connected triple excitations, CCSD(T), has been used in conjunction with extrapolation to the one-particle basis set limit and corrections for scalar relativity and core correlation have been included. The QFFs have been used to compute highly accurate fundamental vibrational frequencies and other spectroscopic constants using both vibrational 2nd-order perturbation theory and variational methods to solve the nuclear Schroedinger equation. Agreement between our best computed fundamental vibrational frequencies and recent infrared photodissociation experiments is reasonable for most bands, but there are a few exceptions. Possible sources for the discrepancies are discussed. We determine the energy difference between the cyclic and linear forms of C H +, 33 obtaining 27.9 kcal/mol at 0 K, which should be the most reliable available. It is expected that the fundamental vibrational frequencies and spectroscopic constants presented here for c-C H + 33 and I-C H + are the most reliable available for the free gas-phase species and it is hoped that 33 these will be useful in the assignment of future high-resolution laboratory experiments or astronomical observations.

  5. Flexible bending of aluminum profiles with polyurethane pad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Zhu-bin; LIU Gang; WANG Zhong-ren

    2006-01-01

    The high flexibility of profile bending with hyperelastic pad enables it to be a promising method for small lot or single part production, especially for space frame and roof-rail parts in automotive and aerospace industries. Bending of two aluminum profiles with different sections was carried out to investigate the effect of main process parameters on the bending process. Results show that the shape of the cross-section and its relative thickness and section modulus in bending are the main factors that determine the bending properties of the profiles. Roller stroke, properties of polyurethane pad and constraints on profiles are key factors that determine the bending radius and section deformation of bent profiles. Failures and quality problems met in experiments were also analyzed.

  6. Tunable thermoelectric properties in bended graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Ning, Pan; Jun, He; Mao-Fa, Fang

    2016-07-01

    The ballistic thermoelectric properties in bended graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are systematically investigated by using atomistic simulation of electron and phonon transport. We find that the electron resonant tunneling effect occurs in the metallic-semiconducting linked ZZ-GNRs (the bended GNRs with zigzag edge leads). The electron-wave quantum interference effect occurs in the metallic-metallic linked AA-GNRs (the bended GNRs with armchair edge leads). These different physical mechanisms lead to the large Seebeck coefficient S and high electron conductance in bended ZZ-GNRs/AA-GNRs. Combined with the reduced lattice thermal conduction, the significant enhancement of the figure of merit ZT is predicted. Moreover, we find that the ZTmax (the maximum peak of ZT) is sensitive to the structural parameters. It can be conveniently tuned by changing the interbend length of bended GNRs. The magnitude of ZT ranges from the 0.15 to 0.72. Geometry-controlled ballistic thermoelectric effect offers an effective way to design thermoelectric devices such as thermocouples based on graphene. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61401153) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province, China (Grant Nos. 2015JJ2050 and 14JJ3126).

  7. Tunable thermoelectric properties in bended graphene nanoribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘长宁; 何军; 方卯发

    2016-01-01

    The ballistic thermoelectric properties in bended graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are systematically investigated by using atomistic simulation of electron and phonon transport. We find that the electron resonant tunneling effect occurs in the metallic–semiconducting linked ZZ-GNRs (the bended GNRs with zigzag edge leads). The electron-wave quan-tum interference effect occurs in the metallic–metallic linked AA-GNRs (the bended GNRs with armchair edge leads). These different physical mechanisms lead to the large Seebeck coefficient S and high electron conductance in bended ZZ-GNRs/AA-GNRs. Combined with the reduced lattice thermal conduction, the significant enhancement of the figure of merit ZT is predicted. Moreover, we find that the ZTmax (the maximum peak of ZT) is sensitive to the structural parameters. It can be conveniently tuned by changing the interbend length of bended GNRs. The magnitude of ZT ranges from the 0.15 to 0.72. Geometry-controlled ballistic thermoelectric effect offers an effective way to design thermoelectric devices such as thermocouples based on graphene.

  8. A vibrating wire susceptometer with a special electronic control for fast measurements at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asti, G.; Solzi, M.; Podini, P.; Pellicelli, R.; Morbarigazzi, M.

    2002-04-01

    The measurement of the temperature behaviour of initial magnetic susceptibility is a powerful method for the thermomagnetic analysis of ferromagnetic materials. However, its application to nanostructured materials with technical relevance, particularly in the case of metastable systems, is made difficult by several conflicting conditions: the necessity to employ low magnetic fields, the required high sensitivity and the need for rapid scans in the high-temperature range. The vibrating wire susceptometer, an instrument belonging to the class of alternating gradient force magnetometers, has, in theory, the right characteristics to make such measurements. However, management of the instrument when carrying out rapid scans is intrinsically complex and requires a special electronic controller described here in detail. A combination of two phase-locked loop blocks is needed to provide the correct phase shift to ensure the locking of the resonance frequency while the instrument is working. A new measurement procedure that keeps the oscillation amplitude constant has also been implemented and it has proved to be very useful for rapid overview of the sample magnetic properties. The limitations of the controller performance due to the presence of noise are discussed. Extensive test measurements were carried out and analysed.

  9. Hot bending with a fiber coupled solid state laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bammer, F.; Schumi, T.; Schuöcker, D.

    2010-09-01

    For bending of brittle materials it is necessary to heat up the forming zone. This can be done with a fiber coupled solid state laser, whose beam is evenly distributed on the bending line with a beam splitter installed in the lower tool (die) of a bending press. With polarization optics the laser beam is divided there into partial beams that are evenly distributed on the bending line with lenses and prisms. A setup for a bending length of 200mm heated by a fiber-coupled 3kW Nd:YAG-laser shows the feasibility of the concept. Successful operation was shown for the Mg-alloy AZ31, which breaks during forming at room temperature, but can be well formed at temperatures in the range of 200-300°C. Other materials benefiting from this method are Ti-alloys, high-strength-Al-alloys, and high-strength-steels. Typical heating times are in the range of up to 5s and much of the heat input is generated during the bending operation where the laser continues to work. Laser Assisted Bending with a fiber coupled solid state laser is a straightforward way to perform the bending of brittle materials in a process as simple as cold bending.

  10. Transparent Window Vibrational Probes for the Characterization of Proteins With High Structural and Temporal Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Ramkrishna; Zimmermann, Jörg; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2017-02-08

    Vibrational spectroscopy provides a direct route to the physicochemical characterization of molecules. While both IR and Raman spectroscopy have been used for decades to provide detailed characterizations of small molecules, similar studies with proteins are largely precluded due to spectral congestion. However, the vibrational spectra of proteins do include a "transparent window", between ∼1800 and ∼2500 cm(-1), and progress is now being made to develop site-specifically incorporated carbon-deuterium (C-D), cyano (CN), thiocyanate (SCN), and azide (N3) "transparent window vibrational probes" that absorb within this window and report on their environment to facilitate the characterization of proteins with small molecule-like detail. This Review opens with a brief discussion of the advantages and limitations of conventional vibrational spectroscopy and then discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the different transparent window vibrational probes, methods by which they may be site-specifically incorporated into peptides and proteins, and the physicochemical properties they may be used to study, including electrostatics, stability and folding, hydrogen bonding, protonation, solvation, dynamics, and interactions with inhibitors. The use of the probes to vibrationally image proteins and other biomolecules within cells is also discussed. We then present four case studies, focused on ketosteroid isomerase, the SH3 domain, dihydrofolate reductase, and cytochrome c, where the transparent window vibrational probes have already been used to elucidate important aspects of protein structure and function. The Review concludes by highlighting the current challenges and future potential of using transparent window vibrational probes to understand the evolution and function of proteins and other biomolecules.

  11. Theoretical study of highly vibrational states of nonlinear triatomic molecules using Lie algebraic approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雨军; 丁世良

    2000-01-01

    The vibrational excitations of bent triatomic molecules are studied by using Lie algebra. The RMS error of fitting 30 spectroscopic data is 1.66 cm-1 for SO2. The results show that the expansion of a molecular algebraic Hamiltonian can well describe the experimental data. And the total vibrational levels can be calculated using this Hamiltonian. At the same time, the potential energy surface can also be obtained with the algebraic Hamiltonian.

  12. Vibration measurements of high-heat-load monochromators for DESY PETRA III extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Paw; Horbach, Jan; Döhrmann, Ralph; Heuer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The requirement for vibrational stability of beamline optics continues to evolve rapidly to comply with the demands created by the improved brilliance of the third-generation low-emittance storage rings around the world. The challenge is to quantify the performance of the instrument before it is installed at the beamline. In this article, measurement techniques are presented that directly and accurately measure (i) the relative vibration between the two crystals of a double-crystal monochromator (DCM) and (ii) the absolute vibration of the second-crystal cage of a DCM. Excluding a synchrotron beam, the measurements are conducted under in situ conditions, connected to a liquid-nitrogen cryocooler. The investigated DCM utilizes a direct-drive (no gearing) goniometer for the Bragg rotation. The main causes of the DCM vibration are found to be the servoing of the direct-drive goniometer and the flexibility in the crystal cage motion stages. It is found that the investigated DCM can offer relative pitch vibration down to 48 nrad RMS (capacitive sensors, 0–5 kHz bandwidth) and absolute pitch vibration down to 82 nrad RMS (laser interferometer, 0–50 kHz bandwidth), with the Bragg axis brake engaged. PMID:26134790

  13. Spectroscopic investigation of the vibrational quasi-continuum arising from internal rotation of a methyl group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hougen, J.T. [NIST, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this project is to use spectroscopic techniques to investigate in detail phenomena involving the vibrational quasi-continuum in a simple physical system. Acetaldehyde was chosen for the study because: (i) methyl groups have been suggested to be important promotors of intramolecular vibrational relaxation, (ii) the internal rotation of a methyl group is an easily describle large-amplitude motion, which should retain its simple character even at high levels of excitation, and (iii) the aldehyde carbonyl group offers the possibility of both vibrational and electronic probing. The present investigation of the ground electronic state has three parts: (1) understanding the {open_quotes}isolated{close_quotes} internal-rotation motion below, at, and above the top of the torsional barrier, (2) understanding in detail traditional (bond stretching and bending) vibrational fundamental and overtone states, and (3) understanding interactions involving states with multiquantum excitations of at least one of these two kinds of motion.

  14. Ro-vibrational averaging of the isotropic hyperfine coupling constant for the methyl radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, Ahmad Y.; Jensen, Per, E-mail: jensen@uni-wuppertal.de [Fakultät Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften, Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Yachmenev, Andrey; Yurchenko, Sergei N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-28

    We present the first variational calculation of the isotropic hyperfine coupling constant of the carbon-13 atom in the CH{sub 3} radical for temperatures T = 0, 96, and 300 K. It is based on a newly calculated high level ab initio potential energy surface and hyperfine coupling constant surface of CH{sub 3} in the ground electronic state. The ro-vibrational energy levels, expectation values for the coupling constant, and its temperature dependence were calculated variationally by using the methods implemented in the computer program TROVE. Vibrational energies and vibrational and temperature effects for coupling constant are found to be in very good agreement with the available experimental data. We found, in agreement with previous studies, that the vibrational effects constitute about 44% of the constant’s equilibrium value, originating mainly from the large amplitude out-of-plane bending motion and that the temperature effects play a minor role.

  15. A Low Frequency FBG Accelerometer with Symmetrical Bended Spring Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fufei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the requirements for low-frequency vibration monitoring, a new type of FBG (fiber Bragg grating accelerometer with a bended spring plate is proposed. Two symmetrical bended spring plates are used as elastic elements, which drive the FBG to produce axial strains equal in magnitude but opposite in direction when exciting vibrations exist, leading to doubling the wavelength shift of the FBG. The mechanics model and a numerical method are presented in this paper, with which the influence of the structural parameters on the sensitivity and the eigenfrequency are discussed. The test results show that the sensitivity of the accelerometer is more than 1000 pm/g when the frequency is within the 0.7–20 Hz range.

  16. A Low Frequency FBG Accelerometer with Symmetrical Bended Spring Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fufei; Dai, Yutang; Karanja, Joseph Muna; Yang, Minghong

    2017-01-01

    To meet the requirements for low-frequency vibration monitoring, a new type of FBG (fiber Bragg grating) accelerometer with a bended spring plate is proposed. Two symmetrical bended spring plates are used as elastic elements, which drive the FBG to produce axial strains equal in magnitude but opposite in direction when exciting vibrations exist, leading to doubling the wavelength shift of the FBG. The mechanics model and a numerical method are presented in this paper, with which the influence of the structural parameters on the sensitivity and the eigenfrequency are discussed. The test results show that the sensitivity of the accelerometer is more than 1000 pm/g when the frequency is within the 0.7–20 Hz range. PMID:28117740

  17. Vibration Control of High-speed Cannonball Transport Mechanism Driven by Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-qing; LIU Hong-zhao; HE Chang-an; YANG Song-feng

    2005-01-01

    A method is presented to control the vibration of high-speed cannonball transport mechanism due to the reduction of its weight, which adhere a nonlinear Zn-27Al-1Cu damping alloy layer and a constraint layer partly to the part of mechanism driven by impact. Based on the equivalent viscous damping theory and using curve fitting to describe the rule of the dissipation factor of damping alloy changing with stress, the nonlinear constitutive relation of Zn-27Al-1Cu damping alloy is given. The nonlinear spring damping contact model is adopted to describe the contact force of the clearance joint.Based on the nonlinear finite element contact theory, the outer impact contact force between the mechanism and its working environment is analyzed, and a coupled dynamic model of structural impact and mechanism motion with clearance joint is put forward. A dynamic model is established for the cannonball transport mechanism partly adhering Zn-27Al-1Cu damping alloy layer and constraint layer under complex impact conditions. At last, the feasibility of the method presented is proved by numerical simulation.

  18. A Novel Vibrating Finger Viscometer for High-Temperature Measurements in Liquid Metals and Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubberstein, T.; Schürmann, M.; Chaves, H.; Heller, H.-P.; Aneziris, C. G.

    2016-10-01

    A novel vibrating finger viscometer for high-temperature measurement in liquid metals and alloys up to 1823 K was constructed. The dynamic viscosity (η ) of the liquid fluid is measured as a product of (ρ \\cdot η )^{0.5} and the relative change of the field coil input for a constant amplitude recording at the resonant frequency of the oscillator. The viscometer was calibrated at 298 K using reference silicon oils with varying kinematic viscosities (ν ), (0.79 to 200)× 10^{-6} m2\\cdot s^{-1}. In the present study, the viscosity of liquid gold (99.99 % Au), silver (99.9 % Ag), and tin (99.9 % Sn) was measured. The viscosities expressed as an Arrhenius function of temperature are: {for Au:}quad quad ln η= & {} -0.1990+2669/T {for Ag:} quad quad ln η= & {} -0.4631+2089/T {for Sn:} quad quad ln η= & {} -0.5472+671/T The viscosity values are consistent within the range of available literature data.

  19. Platonic scattering cancellation for bending waves in a thin plate

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2014-04-10

    We propose an ultra-thin elastic cloak to control the scattering of bending waves in isotropic heterogeneous thin plates. The cloak design makes use of the scattering cancellation technique applied, for the first time, to the biharmonic operator describing the propagation of bending waves in thin plates. We first analyze scattering from hard and soft cylindrical objects in the quasistatic limit, then we prove that the scattering of bending waves from an object in the near and far-field regions can be suppressed significantly by covering it with a suitably designed coating. Beyond camouflaging, these findings may have potential applications in protection of buildings from earthquakes and isolating structures from vibrations in the motor vehicle industry.

  20. The rotational spectra of the ground and first excited bending states of deuterium isocyanide, DNC, up to 2 THz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brünken, S.; Müller, H. S. P.; Thorwirth, S.; Lewen, F.; Winnewisser, G.

    2006-01-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of deuterium isocyanide (DNC) was recorded in the frequency range from approximately 680 to 1985 GHz. Twenty-one new transitions in the vibrational ground and first excited bending states (01e,f 0) have been assigned, namely R-branch transitions from J=9-8 to 25-24. In a least squares analysis of these new transition frequencies together with previously reported millimeter-wave data, spectroscopic parameters up to sextic order could be derived with high precision for both states. Furthermore, the l-type doubling constant q and its centrifugal distortion terms qJ and qJJ were obtained for the first excited bending state.

  1. Ab Initio Determination of the Torsion-Wagging and Wagging-Bending Infrared Band Structure Spectrum of Methylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeyers; Villa; Senent

    1998-10-01

    The infrared band structure for the methyl torsion and amine hydrogen symmetric wagging in methylamine is calculated by ab initio procedures. The influence of the amine hydrogen symmetric bending on the wagging spectrum is considered explicitly. For this purpose, the potential energy surfaces and kinetic parameters were determined at the RHF/MP2 level with the 6-311G++(3df, 3dp) basis set. The numerical results were fitted to symmetry adapted functional forms. The Schrödinger equations for the nuclear motions were solved by expanding the solutions into products of trigonometric functions. The band frequencies and intensities were calculated from the energy levels, the vibrational functions, and the electric dipole moment variations. The calculated spectra were compared with the available experimental data. It was found that the torsional splittings and frequencies are relatively well reproduced, whereas the wagging and bending frequencies are slightly too high. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  2. Flexible Fiber-Optic High-Speed Imaging of Vocal Fold Vibration: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Peak; Baxter, Peter

    2017-03-01

    High-speed video (HSV) imaging of vocal fold vibration has been possible only through the rigid endoscope. This study reports that a fiberscope-based high-speed imaging system may allow HSV imaging of naturalistic voicing. Twenty-two subjects were recorded using a commercially available black and white high-speed camera (Photron Motion Tools, 256 × 120 pixel, 2000 frames per second, 8 second acquisition time). The camera gain is set to +6 db. The camera is coupled to a standard fiber-optic laryngoscope (Olympus ENF P-4) with a 300-W Xenon light. Image acquisition was done by asking the subject to perform repeated phonation at modal phonation. Video images were processed using commercial video editing and video noise reduction software (After effects, Magix, and Neat Video 4.1). After video processing, the video images were analyzed using digital kymography (DKG). The HSV black and white video acquired by the camera is gray and lacks contrast. By adjustment of image contrast, brightness, and gamma and using noise reduction software, the flexible laryngoscopy image can be converted to video image files suitable for DKG and waveform analysis. The increased noise still makes edge tracking for objective analysis difficult, but subjective analysis of DKG plot is possible. This is the first report of HSV acquisition in an unsedated patient using a fiberscope. Image enhancement and noise reduction can enhance the HSV to allow extraction of the digital kymogram. Further image enhancement may allow for objective analysis of the vibratory waveform. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultra-High Temperature Sensors Based on Optical Property Modulation and Vibration-Tolerant Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabeel A. Riza

    2006-09-30

    The goals of the Year 2006 Continuation Phase 2 three months period (April 1 to Sept. 30) of this project were to (a) conduct a probe elements industrial environment feasibility study and (b) fabricate embedded optical phase or microstructured SiC chips for individual gas species sensing. Specifically, SiC chips for temperature and pressure probe industrial applications were batch fabricated. Next, these chips were subject to a quality test for use in the probe sensor. A batch of the best chips for probe design were selected and subject to further tests that included sensor performance based on corrosive chemical exposure, power plant soot exposure, light polarization variations, and extreme temperature soaking. Experimental data were investigated in detail to analyze these mentioned industrial parameters relevant to a power plant. Probe design was provided to overcome mechanical vibrations. All these goals have been achieved and are described in detail in the report. The other main focus of the reported work is to modify the SiC chip by fabricating an embedded optical phase or microstructures within the chip to enable gas species sensing under high temperature and pressure. This has been done in the Kar UCF Lab. using a laser-based system whose design and operation is explained. Experimental data from the embedded optical phase-based chip for changing temperatures is provided and shown to be isolated from gas pressure and species. These design and experimentation results are summarized to give positive conclusions on the proposed high temperature high pressure gas species detection optical sensor technology.

  4. Optimal deployment schedule of an active twist rotor for performance enhancement and vibration reduction in high-speed flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young H. YOU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The best active twist schedules exploiting various waveform types are sought taking advantage of the global search algorithm for the reduction of hub vibration and/or power required of a rotor in high-speed conditions. The active twist schedules include two non-harmonic inputs formed based on segmented step functions as well as the simple harmonic waveform input. An advanced Particle Swarm assisted Genetic Algorithm (PSGA is employed for the optimizer. A rotorcraft Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD code CAMRAD II is used to perform the rotor aeromechanics analysis. A Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD code is coupled with CSD for verification and some physical insights. The PSGA optimization results are verified against the parameter sweep study performed using the harmonic actuation. The optimum twist schedules according to the performance and/or vibration reduction strategy are obtained and their optimization gains are compared between the actuation cases. A two-phase non-harmonic actuation schedule demonstrates the best outcome in decreasing the power required while a four-phase non-harmonic schedule results in the best vibration reduction as well as the simultaneous reductions in the power required and vibration. The mechanism of reduction to the performance gains is identified illustrating the section airloads, angle-of-attack distribution, and elastic twist deformation predicted by the present approaches.

  5. High pressure structural and vibrational properties of the spin-gap system Cu2PO4(OH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavi, Pallavi S.; Karmakar, S.; Karmakar, Debjani; Mishra, A. K.; Bhatt, H.; Patel, N. N.; Sharma, Surinder M.

    2013-01-01

    The structural and vibrational properties of the spin-gapped system Cu2PO4(OH) have been investigated at room temperature under high pressure up to ˜20 GPa by Raman scattering and synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction and infrared (IR) spectroscopic measurements. The orthorhombic phase (space group Pnnm, z = 4) remains stable up to at least 7 GPa where it undergoes a weakly first order structural transition (with negligible volume drop) to a monoclinic phase (space group P21/n, z = 4) with an abrupt monoclinic distortion. Refinement of atomic positions has been performed for the low pressure phase. The conspicuous changes in the vibrational spectra (Raman as well as far-IR) confirm this phase transition. At further higher pressures the monoclinic angle increases rapidly and the system transforms irreversibly into a disordered phase. Detailed vibrational analyses have been performed in the orthorhombic phase and pressure-induced structural evolution has been correlated with the vibrational modes corresponding to the Cu-O bonds. A strong negative pressure dependence of hydroxyl mode frequencies (as observed from the mid-IR absorption spectra) supports the pressure-induced structural disordering at higher pressures.

  6. Frame junction vibration transmission with a modified frame deformation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J A

    1990-12-01

    A previous paper dealt with vibration transmission through junctions of connected frame members where the allowed frame deformations included bending, torsion, and longitudinal motions [J.A. Moore, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 2766-2776 (1990)]. In helicopter and aircraft structures the skin panels can constitute a high impedance connection along the length of the frames that effectively prohibits in-plane motion at the elevation of the skin panels. This has the effect of coupling in-plane bending and torsional motions within the frame. This paper discusses the transmission behavior through frame junctions that accounts for the in-plane constraint in idealized form by assuming that the attached skin panels completely prohibit inplane motion in the frames. Also, transverse shear deformation is accounted for in describing the relatively deep web frame constructions common in aircraft structures. Longitudinal motion in the frames is not included in the model. Transmission coefficient predictions again show the importance of out-of-plane bending deformation to the transmission of vibratory energy in an aircraft structure. Comparisons are shown with measured vibration transmission data along the framing in the overhead of a helicopter airframe, with good agreement. The frame junction description has been implemented within a general purpose statistical energy analysis (SEA) computer code in modeling the entire airframe structure including skin panels.

  7. High-end software design for automatic bending machine%嵌入式自动折弯机接口协议及高端软件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭碧云; 王宜怀

    2012-01-01

    Automatic bending machine follows the traditional CNC bending machine in the processing of the high precision and high efficiency, in addition to this, it increases the function of automatically feed and automatically slot, which further enhances the selectivity and adaptability of the processing materials. Based on the automatic bending machine system structure and function, this paper defines PC and bottom interface protocols, which makes the instruction generated by PC be directly used by bottom via USBo Bottom executes the corresponding instruction and finally realizes the function of automatically feed and automatically slot. Simultaneously, this paper expounds system PC software design scheme which integrated several advanced technologies such as word-model extraction, digital image process and bend and generated a special command file for bottom to use.%自动折弯机沿袭了传统数控折弯机在加工方面的高精度、高效率,在此基础上增加了自动送料及自动开槽功能,进一步增强了加工材料的选择性和适应性。本文基于自动折弯机系统的结构和功能,定义了PC端与底端接口协议,使得PC端生成的命令通过USB直接被底端使用。底端执行相应命令,最终实现自动送料及自动开槽功能。同时本文详细阐述了系统PC端软件设计方案,采用字模提取、数字图像处理、折弯加工等先进技术,生成了特定的命令文件供底端使用。

  8. 高速列车弹性车体与转向架耦合振动分析%Coupled vibration analysis of flexible car body and bogie for high-speed train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫岛; 周劲松; 孙文静; 谢维达

    2011-01-01

    A finite element model of car body for a high-speed train was built,and the modal parameters were calculated by using Guyan reduction method.A system dynamics model including flexible car body was established by using multi-body dynamics software SIMPACK.The influence of car body elastic mode on riding quality was analyzed based on the model,and the vertical coupled vibration between flexible car body and bogie frame was studied.Analysis result shows that when the first vertical bending frequency of car body closes to the null nod response frequency of car body,the vertical flexible resonance of car body will happen.When the diagonal distortion frequency is higher than 9 Hz,and first vertical bending frequency is higher than 10 Hz,car body flexibility almost has no effect on riding quality.The primary suspension vertical stiffness of bogie for the train matches with the first vertical bending frequency of car body,even if frame bounce and nod frequencies coincide with the first vertical bending frequency,there will not have the flexible resonance of car body and bogie.1 tab,9 figs,15 refs.%建立了某高速列车车体有限元模型,采用Guyan缩减进行模态求解,结合SIMPACK多体动力学软件建立包含弹性车体的系统动力学模型。运用模型分析了车体弹性模态对运行平稳性的影响,研究了弹性车体与转向架构架垂向耦合振动。分析结果表明:当车体垂向一阶弯曲频率与车体点头振动空响应点频率接近时,会发生车体的垂向弹性共振;当车体菱形变形弯曲频率高于9 Hz,垂向一阶弯曲频率高于10 Hz时,车体弹性对运行平稳性影响不大;该高速列车转向架一系悬挂垂向刚度与车体垂向一阶弯曲频率匹配合适,即使构架浮沉及点头频率与车体垂向一

  9. High level seismic/vibrational tests at the HDR: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kot, C.A.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Hsieh, B.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Schrammel, D.; Malcher, L. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Steinhilber, H. [Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg, Giessen (Germany); Costello, J.F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1991-12-31

    As part of the Phase II testing at the HDR Test Facility in Kahl/Main, FRG, two series of high-level seismic/vibrational experiments were performed. In the first of these (SHAG) a coast-down shaker, mounted on the reactor operating floor and capable of generating 1000 tonnes of force, was used to investigate full-scale structural response, soil-structure interaction (SSI), and piping/equipment response at load levels equivalent to those of a design basis earthquake. The HDR soil/structure system was tested to incipient failure exhibiting highly nonlinear response. In the load transmission from structure to piping/equipment significant response amplifications and shifts to higher frequencies occurred. The performance of various pipe support configurations was evaluated. This latter effort was continued in the second series of tests (SHAM), in which an in-plant piping system was investigated at simulated seismic loads (generated by two servo-hydraulic actuators each capable of generating 40 tonnes of force), that exceeded design levels manifold and resulted in considerable pipe plastification and failure of some supports (snubbers). The evaluation of six different support configurations demonstrated that proper system design (for a given spectrum) rather than number of supports or system stiffness is essential to limiting pipe stresses. Pipe strains at loads exceeding the design level eightfold were still tolerable, indicating that pipe failure even under extreme seismic loads is unlikely inspite of multiple support failures. Conservatively, an excess capacity (margin) of at least four was estimated for the piping system, and the pipe damping was found to be 4%. Comparisons of linear and nonlinear computational results with measurements showed that analytical predictions have wide scatter and do not necessarily yield conservative responses, underpredicting, in particular, peak support forces.

  10. High level seismic/vibrational tests at the HDR: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kot, C.A.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Hsieh, B.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Schrammel, D.; Malcher, L. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany)); Steinhilber, H. (Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg, Giessen (Germany)); Costello, J.F. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research)

    1991-01-01

    As part of the Phase II testing at the HDR Test Facility in Kahl/Main, FRG, two series of high-level seismic/vibrational experiments were performed. In the first of these (SHAG) a coast-down shaker, mounted on the reactor operating floor and capable of generating 1000 tonnes of force, was used to investigate full-scale structural response, soil-structure interaction (SSI), and piping/equipment response at load levels equivalent to those of a design basis earthquake. The HDR soil/structure system was tested to incipient failure exhibiting highly nonlinear response. In the load transmission from structure to piping/equipment significant response amplifications and shifts to higher frequencies occurred. The performance of various pipe support configurations was evaluated. This latter effort was continued in the second series of tests (SHAM), in which an in-plant piping system was investigated at simulated seismic loads (generated by two servo-hydraulic actuators each capable of generating 40 tonnes of force), that exceeded design levels manifold and resulted in considerable pipe plastification and failure of some supports (snubbers). The evaluation of six different support configurations demonstrated that proper system design (for a given spectrum) rather than number of supports or system stiffness is essential to limiting pipe stresses. Pipe strains at loads exceeding the design level eightfold were still tolerable, indicating that pipe failure even under extreme seismic loads is unlikely inspite of multiple support failures. Conservatively, an excess capacity (margin) of at least four was estimated for the piping system, and the pipe damping was found to be 4%. Comparisons of linear and nonlinear computational results with measurements showed that analytical predictions have wide scatter and do not necessarily yield conservative responses, underpredicting, in particular, peak support forces.

  11. Microscopic structure of high-spin vibrational states in superdeformed A=190 nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsukasa, Takashi [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada); Matsuyanagi, Kenichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Mizutori, Shoujirou [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Microscopic RPA calculations based on the cranked shell model are performed to investigate the quadrupole and octupole correlations for excited superdeformed (SD) bands in even-even A=190 nuclei. The K = 2 octupole vibrations are predicted to be the lowest excitation modes at zero rotational frequency. The Coriolis coupling at finite frequency produces different effects depending on the neutron and proton number of nucleus. The calculations also indicate that some collective excitations may produce moments of inertia almost identical to those of the yrast SD band. An interpretation of the observed excited bands invoking the octupole vibrations is proposed, which suggests those octupole vibrations may be prevalent in even-even SD A=190 nuclei.

  12. Normalization of vibration signals generated under highly varying speed and load with application to signal separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Jacek; Barszcz, Tomasz; Strączkiewicz, Marcin; Jablonski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a normalization dedicated to transform non-stationary vibration signals into signals characterized by purely stationary properties. For this purpose, a novel class of generalized periodic signals is defined followed by a proposition of a normalization technique, which takes advantage of available, instantaneous values of operational parameters. Within the paper, a well-known discrete-random separation (DRS) technique is recalled as an exemplary technique, which has been restricted to stationary signals so far. The authors present a step-by-step adoption of the DRS to non-stationary signals. The method is applied to simulated signal, test rig signal, and a vibration signal from industrial object. Additionally, for the purpose of synthesis of simulated signal, a new model of multi-component vibrations generated under varying regime is proposed. The presented method aims to expand existing solutions dealing with varying frequency to a more general solution dealing with independent, simultaneous varying frequency and amplitude of signal components.

  13. Monitoring the Bending Stiffness of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chongli; Lou, Xiongwen; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Chen, Huimin; Archer, Lynden

    2007-03-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the accessibility of genomic sequences provides an inherent regulation mechanism for gene expression through variations in bending stiffness encoded by the nucleic acid sequence. Cyclization of dsDNA is the prevailing method for determining DNA bending stiffness. Recent cyclization data for short dsDNA raises several fundamental questions about the soundness of the cyclization method, particularly in cases where the probability of highly bent DNA conformations is low. We herein evaluate the role of T4 DNA ligase in the cyclization reaction by inserting an environmental sensitive base analogue, 2-amino purine, to the DNA molecule. By monitoring the 2-AP fluorescence under standard cyclization conditions, it is found that in addition to trapping highly-bent cyclic DNA conformations, T4 DNA ligase enhances the apparent base pair flip out rate, thus exaggerating the measured flexibility. This result is further confirmed using fluorescence anisotropy experiments. We show that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements on suitably labeled dsDNA provides an alternative approach for quantifying the bending stiffness of short fragments. DNA bending stiffness results obtained using FRET are compared with literature values.

  14. Fuzzy model for Laser Assisted Bending Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini Oliviero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fuzzy model was developed to predict the residual bending in a conventional metal bending process assisted by a high power diode laser. The study was focused on AA6082T6 aluminium thin sheets. In most dynamic sheet metal forming operations, the highly nonlinear deformation processes cause large amounts of elastic strain energy stored in the formed material. The novel hybrid forming process was thus aimed at inducing the local heating of the mechanically bent workpiece in order to decrease or eliminate the related springback phenomena. In particular, the influence on the extent of springback phenomena of laser process parameters such as source power, scan speed and starting elastic deformation of mechanically bent sheets, was experimentally assessed. Consistent trends in experimental response according to operational parameters were found. Accordingly, 3D process maps of the extent of the springback phenomena according to operational parameters were constructed. The effect of the inherent uncertainties on the predicted residual bending caused by the approximation in the model parameters was evaluated. In particular, a fuzzy-logic based approach was used to describe the model uncertainties and the transformation method was applied to propagate their effect on the residual bending.

  15. Assessment of the Vibrations Effects Caused by Technical Seismicity Due to the Railway traffic on High-sensitivity Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papán, Daniel; Valašková, Veronika; Demeterová, Katarína

    2016-10-01

    The numerical and experimental approach in structural dynamics problems is more and more current nowadays. This approach is applied and solved in many research and developing institutions of the all the world. Vibrations effect caused by passing trains used in manufacturing facilities can affect the quality of the production activity. This effect is possible to be solved by a numerical or an experimental way. Numerical solution is not so financially and time demanding. The main aim of this article is to focus on just experimental measurement of this problem. In this paper, the case study with measurement due to cramped conditions realized in situ is presented. The case study is located close to railway. The vibration effect caused by passing trains on the high-sensitivity machinery contained in this object were observed. The structure was a high-sensitivity machine that was placed in a construction process. For the measurements, the high-sensitivity standard vibrations equipment was used. The assessments of measurements’ results were performed for the technological conditions and Slovak Standard Criteria. Both of these assessments were divided to amplitude and frequency domain. The amplitude criterion is also divided to peak particle velocity and RMS (Root Mean Square). Frequency domain assessment were realised using the frequency response curves obtained from high-sensitivity machinery manufacturer. The frequency limits are established for each axis of triaxle system. The measurement results can be predicted if the vibration have to be reduced. Measurement implemented in the production hall should obtain materials to determine the seismic loading and response of production machinery caused by technical seismicity.

  16. Thermal Vibrational Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershuni, G. Z.; Lyubimov, D. V.

    1998-08-01

    Recent increasing awareness of the ways in which vibrational effects can affect low-gravity experiments have renewed interest in the study of thermal vibrational convection across a wide range of fields. For example, in applications where vibrational effects are used to provide active control of heat and mass transfer, such as in heat exchangers, stirrers, mineral separators and crystal growth, a sound understanding of the fundamental theory is required. In Thermal Vibrational Convection, the authors present the theory of vibrational effects caused by a static gravity field, and of fluid flows which appear under vibration in fluid-filled cavities. The first part of the book discusses fluid-filled cavities where the fluid motion only appears in the presence of temperature non-uniformities, while the second considers those situations where the vibrational effects are caused by a non-uniform field. Throughout, the authors concentrate on consideration of high frequency vibrations, where averaging methods can be successfully applied in the study of the phenomena. Written by two of the pioneers in this field, Thermal Vibrational Convection will be of great interest to scientists and engineers working in the many areas that are concerned with vibration, and its effect on heat and mass transfer. These include hydrodynamics, hydro-mechanics, low gravity physics and mechanics, and geophysics. The rigorous approach adopted in presenting the theory of this fascinating and highly topical area will facilitate a greater understanding of the phenomena involved, and will lead to the development of more and better-designed experiments.

  17. High-pressure compressibility and vibrational properties of (Ca,Mn)CO 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jin; Caracas, Razvan; Fan, Dawei; Bobocioiu, Ema; Zhang, Dongzhou; Mao, Wendy L.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of potential carbon carriers such as carbonates is critical for our understanding of the deep-carbon cycle and related geological processes within the planet. Here we investigated the high-pressure behavior of (Ca,Mn)CO3 up to 75 GPa by synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction, laser Raman spectroscopy, and theoretical calculations. MnCO3-rich carbonate underwent a structural phase transition from the CaCO3-I structure into the CaCO3-VI structure at 45–48 GPa, while CaCO3-rich carbonate transformed into CaCO3-III and CaCO3-VI at approximately 2 and 15 GPa, respectively. The equation of state and vibrational properties of MnCO3-rich and CaCO3-rich carbonates changed dramatically across the phase transition. The CaCO3-VI-structured CaCO3-rich and MnCO3-rich carbonates were stable at room temperature up to at least 53 and 75 GPa, respectively. The addition of smaller cations (e.g., Mn2+, Mg2+, and Fe2+) can enlarge the stability field of the CaCO3-I phase as well as increase the pressure of the structural transition into the CaCO3-VI phase.

  18. High-frequency skull vibration-induced nystagmus test in partial vestibular lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Georges; Karkas, Alexandre; Perrin, Philippe; Chahine, Karim; Schmerber, Sébastien

    2011-10-01

    To establish the effectiveness of the skull vibration-induced nystagmus test (SVINT) as a rapid high-frequency stimulation test, in the evaluation of partial unilateral vestibular lesions (pUVL). SVINT (30, 60, and 100 Hz), caloric, and head-shaking tests were performed in 99 patients with pUVL. These results were compared with those in 9 patients with symmetrical partial bilateral labyrinthine malformations, 131 patients with total unilateral vestibular lesions (tUVL), and 95 control subjects. A skull vibratory nystagmus (SVN) was found in 75% of patients with pUVL and 98% with tUVL. In pUVL: SVINT revealed asymmetric responses in 20% of patients where other tests were normal; SVN direction at 100 Hz was opposite to the head-shaking nystagmus direction in 30% and opposite to SVN at 30 Hz in 10% of cases. At 100 Hz, SVN beat toward the safe side in 91% of cases; SVN values at 60 and 100 Hz were higher than those at 30 Hz (p < 0.005). SVN was found in unilateral superior canal dehiscences. Partial bilateral labyrinthine malformations revealed no nystagmus. SVINT complements head-shaking and caloric tests in multifrequency assessment of patients with pUVL, as a global vestibular test. In contrast with tUVL results, SVINT does not always indicate the side of partial lesions, neither does it locate their level on the vestibulo-ocular pathway. This test is useful to reveal a vestibular asymmetry as a bedside examination test and may be used as a "vestibular Weber."

  19. Vertical Random Vibration Analysis of Track-Subgrade Coupled System in High Speed Railway with Pseudoexcitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwen Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the ground-borne vibration caused by wheel/rail interaction in the ballastless track of high speed railways, viscoelastic asphalt concrete materials are filled between the track and the subgrade to attenuate wheel/rail force. A high speed train-track-subgrade vertical coupled dynamic model is developed in the frequency domain. In this model, coupling effects between the vehicle and the track and between the track and the subgrade are considered. The full vehicle is represented by some rigid body models of one body, two bogies, and four wheelsets connected to each other with springs and dampers. The track and subgrade system is considered as a multilayer beam model in which layers are connected to each other with springs and damping elements. The vertical receptance of the rail is discussed and the receptance contribution of the wheel/rail interaction is investigated. Combined with the pseudoexcitation method, a solution of the random dynamic response is presented. The random vibration responses and transfer characteristics of the ballastless track and subgrade system are obtained under track random irregularity when a high speed vehicle runs through. The influences of asphalt concrete layer’s stiffness and vehicle speed on track and subgrade coupling vibration are analyzed.

  20. The effects of photobiomodulation and low-amplitude high-frequency vibration on bone healing process: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei Jafarabadi, M; Rouhi, G; Kaka, G; Sadraie, S H; Arum, J

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of photobiomodulation (PBM) and low-amplitude high-frequency (LAHF) whole body mechanical vibration on bone fracture healing process when metallic plates are implanted in rats' femurs. Forty male rats weighing between 250 and 350 g, 12 weeks old, were employed in this study. A transverse critical size defect (CSD) was made in their right femurs that were fixed by stainless steel plates. After the surgery, the rats were divided equally into four groups: low-level laser therapy group (GaAlAs laser, 830 nm, 40 mW, 4 J/cm(2), 0.35 cm beam diameter, LLLT), whole body vibration group (60 Hz, 0.1 mm amplitude, 1.5 g, WBV), a combination of laser and vibration group (LV), and the control group (C). Each group was divided into two subgroups based on sacrifice dates. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 3 and 6 weeks after the surgery to extract their right femurs for radiography and biomechanical and histological analyses, and the results were analyzed using standard statistical methods. Radiographic analyses showed greater callus formation in the LLLT and WBV groups than in control group at both 3 (P low-amplitude high-frequency WBV both had a positive impact on bone healing process, for critical size defects in the presence of a stainless steel implant. But their combination, i.e., low-level laser therapy and low-amplitude high-frequency whole body vibration (LV), interestingly did not accelerate the fractured bone healing process.

  1. Sheet Bending using Soft Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinke, J.

    2011-05-01

    Sheet bending is usually performed by air bending and V-die bending processes. Both processes apply rigid tools. These solid tools facilitate the generation of software for the numerical control of those processes. When the lower rigid die is replaced with a soft or rubber tool, the numerical control becomes much more difficult, since the soft tool deforms too. Compared to other bending processes the rubber backed bending process has some distinct advantages, like large radius-to-thickness ratios, applicability to materials with topcoats, well defined radii, and the feasibility of forming details (ridges, beads). These advantages may give the process exclusive benefits over conventional bending processes, not only for industries related to mechanical engineering and sheet metal forming, but also for other disciplines like Architecture and Industrial Design The largest disadvantage is that also the soft (rubber) tool deforms. Although the tool deformation is elastic and recovers after each process cycle, the applied force during bending is related to the deformation of the metal sheet and the deformation of the rubber. The deformation of the rubber interacts with the process but also with sheet parameters. This makes the numerical control of the process much more complicated. This paper presents a model for the bending of sheet materials using a rubber lower die. This model can be implemented in software in order to control the bending process numerically. The model itself is based on numerical and experimental research. In this research a number of variables related to the tooling and the material have been evaluated. The numerical part of the research was used to investigate the influence of the features of the soft lower tool, like the hardness and dimensions, and the influence of the sheet thickness, which also interacts with the soft tool deformation. The experimental research was focused on the relation between the machine control parameters and the most

  2. Vibration-induced displacement using high-frequency resonators and friction layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical model is set up to quantify vibration-induced motions of a slider with an imbedded resonator. A simple approximate expression is presented for predicting average velocities of the slider, agreeing fairly well with numerical integration of the full equations of motion. The simple...... expression can be used to the estimate influence of system parameters, and to plan and interpret laboratory experiments....

  3. Relationships between longitudinal and radial Picea genera sound vibration parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jun

    2006-01-01

    Longitudinal sawn wood are usually selected as samples in the study of sound properties of a musical instrument board.But in real production,radial sawn timber are cut and are also widely used as vibration component.Therefore,it is very important to evaluate the vibration properties of the board in the round,especially for the sound radiation characteristic of radial sawn timber and its relationship to longitudinal sawn timber.However,for the national and international experts,researches on radial sawn timber and its role and function in sound emission have not yet been developed.This paper describes a study of seven important spruces that grow up in the Sichuan and Heilongjiang provinces of China,and one Picea sitchensis specimen from North America.Under the high bending vibration mode,resonance frequency and other parameters of longitudinal and radial wood were tested.Analysis result disclosed the relationship between longitudinal and radial wood vibration property.An important conclusion of wood for musical instruments with proper anisotropy,fine toughness,and weak shear of longitudinal and radial vibration was inducted.

  4. Homogeneity analysis of high yield manufacturing process of mems-based pzt thick film vibrational energy harvesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Xu, Ruichao; Pedersen, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a high yield wafer scale fabrication of MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvesters aimed towards vibration sources with peak frequencies in the range of a few hundred Hz. By combining KOH etching with mechanical front side protection, SOI wafer...... to accurately define the thickness of the silicon part of the harvester and a silicon compatible PZT thick film screen-printing technique, we are able to fabricate energy harvesters on wafer scale with a yield higher than 90%. The characterization of the fabricated harvesters is focused towards the full wafer....../mass-production aspect; hence the analysis of uniformity in harvested power and resonant frequency....

  5. Precision measurements and test of molecular theory in highly excited vibrational states of H2 ( v = 11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivikram, T. Madhu; Niu, M. L.; Wcisło, P.; Ubachs, W.; Salumbides, E. J.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate EF^1Σ^+_g{-}X^1Σ^+_g transition energies in molecular hydrogen were determined for transitions originating from levels with highly excited vibrational quantum number, v = 11, in the ground electronic state. Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy was applied on vibrationally excited H_2^*, produced via the photodissociation of H2S, yielding transition frequencies with accuracies of 45 MHz or 0.0015 cm-1. An important improvement is the enhanced detection efficiency by resonant excitation to autoionizing 7pπ electronic Rydberg states, resulting in narrow transitions due to reduced ac-Stark effects. Using known EF level energies, the level energies of X( v = 11, J = 1, 3-5) states are derived with accuracies of typically 0.002 cm-1. These experimental values are in excellent agreement with and are more accurate than the results obtained from the most advanced ab initio molecular theory calculations including relativistic and QED contributions.

  6. Comparison of high-intensity sound and mechanical vibration for cleaning porous titanium cylinders fabricated using selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Gary; Hopkins, Carl; Sutcliffe, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Orthopedic components, such as the acetabular cup in total hip joint replacement, can be fabricated using porous metals, such as titanium, and a number of processes, such as selective laser melting. The issue of how to effectively remove loose powder from the pores (residual powder) of such components has not been addressed in the literature. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of two processes, acoustic cleaning using high-intensity sound inside acoustic horns and mechanical vibration, to remove residual titanium powder from selective laser melting-fabricated cylinders. With acoustic cleaning, the amount of residual powder removed was not influenced by either the fundamental frequency of the horn used (75 vs. 230 Hz) or, for a given horn, the number of soundings (between 1 and 20). With mechanical vibration, the amount of residual powder removed was not influenced by the application time (10 vs. 20 s). Acoustic cleaning was found to be more reliable and effective in removal of residual powder than cleaning with mechanical vibration. It is concluded that acoustic cleaning using high-intensity sound has significant potential for use in the final preparation stages of porous metal orthopedic components. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 117-123, 2017.

  7. Layer-number dependent high-frequency vibration modes in few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides induced by interlayer couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qing-Hai; Zhang, Xin; Luo, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Jun; Tan, Ping-Heng

    2017-03-01

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted extensive attention due to their many novel properties. The atoms within each layer in two-dimensional TMDs are joined together by covalent bonds, while van der Waals interactions combine the layers together. This makes its lattice dynamics layer-number dependent. The evolutions of ultralow frequency ( 50 cm‑1) vibration modes in few-layer TMDs and demonstrate how the interlayer coupling leads to the splitting of high-frequency vibration modes, known as Davydov splitting. Such Davydov splitting can be well described by a van der Waals model, which directly links the splitting with the interlayer coupling. Our review expands the understanding on the effect of interlayer coupling on the high-frequency vibration modes in TMDs and other two-dimensional materials. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2016YFA0301200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11225421, 11474277, 11434010, 61474067, 11604326, 11574305 and 51527901), and the National Young 1000 Talent Plan of China.

  8. A High-Speed Vision-Based Sensor for Dynamic Vibration Analysis Using Fast Motion Extraction Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dashan; Guo, Jie; Lei, Xiujun; Zhu, Changan

    2016-04-22

    The development of image sensor and optics enables the application of vision-based techniques to the non-contact dynamic vibration analysis of large-scale structures. As an emerging technology, a vision-based approach allows for remote measuring and does not bring any additional mass to the measuring object compared with traditional contact measurements. In this study, a high-speed vision-based sensor system is developed to extract structure vibration signals in real time. A fast motion extraction algorithm is required for this system because the maximum sampling frequency of the charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor can reach up to 1000 Hz. Two efficient subpixel level motion extraction algorithms, namely the modified Taylor approximation refinement algorithm and the localization refinement algorithm, are integrated into the proposed vision sensor. Quantitative analysis shows that both of the two modified algorithms are at least five times faster than conventional upsampled cross-correlation approaches and achieve satisfactory error performance. The practicability of the developed sensor is evaluated by an experiment in a laboratory environment and a field test. Experimental results indicate that the developed high-speed vision-based sensor system can extract accurate dynamic structure vibration signals by tracking either artificial targets or natural features.

  9. Algebraic Hamiltonian for Vibrational Spectra of Stibine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xi-Wen

    2004-01-01

    @@ An algebraic Hamiltonian, which in a limit can be reduced to an extended local mode model by Law and Duncan,is proposed to describe both stretching and bending vibrational energy levels of polyatomic molecules, where Fermi resonances between the stretches and the bends are considered. The Hamiltonian is used to study the vibrational spectra of stibine (SbH3). A comparison with the extended local mode model is made. Results of fitting the experimental data show that the algebraic Hamiltonian reproduces the observed values better than the extended local mode model.

  10. Sorting of bending magnets for the SSRF booster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Jie; LIU Gui-Min; LI Hao-Hu; ZHANG Man-Zhou

    2008-01-01

    The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility(SSRF)booster ring,a full energy injector for the storage ring,is deigned to accelerate the electron beam energy from 150MeV to 3.5GeV that demands high extraction efficiency at the extraction energy with low beam loss rate when electrons are ramping.Closed orbit distortion(COD)caused by bending magnet field uniformity errors which affects the machine performance harmfully could be effectively reduced by bending magnet location sorting.Considering the affections of random errors in measurement,both ideal sorting and realistic sorting are studied based on measured bending magnet field uniformity errors and one reasonable combination of bending magnets which can reduce the horizontal COD by a factor of 5is given as the final installation sequence of the booster bending magnets in this paper.

  11. Sorting of bending magnets for the SSRF booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jie; Liu, Gui-Min; Li, Hao-Hu; Zhang, Man-Zhou

    2008-04-01

    The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF)booster ring, a full energy injector for the storage ring, is deigned to accelerate the electron beam energy from 150 MeV to 3.5 GeV that demands high extraction efficiency at the extraction energy with low beam loss rate when electrons are ramping. Closed orbit distortion (COD) caused by bending magnet field uniformity errors which affects the machine performance harmfully could be effectively reduced by bending magnet location sorting. Considering the affections of random errors in measurement, both ideal sorting and realistic sorting are studied based on measured bending magnet field uniformity errors and one reasonable combination of bending magnets which can reduce the horizontal COD by a factor of 5 is given as the final installation sequence of the booster bending magnets in this paper. Supported by SSRF Project

  12. Revisit the anomalous bending elasticity of sharply bent DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Cong, Peiwen; Chen, Hu; van der Maarel, Johan R C; Doyle, Patrick S; Yan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Several recent experiments have suggested that sharply bent DNA has a surprisingly high bending flexibility, but the cause is poorly understood. It has been demonstrated that excitation of flexible defects can explain the results; while whether such defects can be excited under the level of DNA bending in those experiments has remained unclear and been debated. Interestingly, due to experimental design DNA contained pre-existing nicks in nearly all those experiments, while the potential effect of nicks have never been considered. Here, using full-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we show that nicks promote DNA basepair disruption at the nicked sites which drastically reduced DNA bending energy. In the absence of nicks, basepair disruption can also occur, but it requires a higher level of DNA bending. Overall, our results challenge the interpretations of previous sharp DNA bending experiments and highlight that the micromechanics of sharply bent DNA still remains an open question.

  13. Formation of hypereutectic silicon particles in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys under the influence of high-intensity ultrasonic vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Jian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The modification of eutectic silicon is of general interest since fine eutectic silicon along with fine primary aluminum grains improves mechanical properties and ductilities. In this study, high intensity ultrasonic vibration was used to modify the complex microstructure of aluminum hypoeutectic alloys. The ultrasonic vibrator was placed at the bottom of a copper mold with molten aluminum. Hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy specimens with a unique in-depth profile of microstructure distribution were obtained. Polyhedral silicon particles, which should form in a hypereutectic alloy, were obtained in a hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy near the ultrasonic radiator where the silicon concentration was higher than the eutectic composition. The formation of hypereutectic silicon near the radiator surface indicates that high-intensity ultrasonic vibration can be used to influence the phase transformation process of metals and alloys. The size and morphology of both the silicon phase and the aluminum phase varies with increasing distance from the ultrasonic probe/radiator. Silicon morphology develops into three zones. Polyhedral primary silicon particles present in zone I, within 15 mm from the ultrasonic probe/radiator. Transition from hypereutectic silicon to eutectic silicon occurs in zone II about 15 to 20 祄 from the ultrasonic probe/radiator. The bulk of the ingot is in zone III and is hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy containing fine lamellar and fibrous eutectic silicon. The grain size is about 15 to 25 祄 in zone I, 25 to 35 祄 in zone II, and 25 to 55 祄 in zone III. The morphology of the primary ?Al phase is also changed from dendritic (in untreated samples to globular. Phase evolution during the solidification process of the alloy subjected to ultrasonic vibration is described.

  14. Vibrational frequencies and structural determination of tetraazidogermane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, James O.

    2003-10-01

    The vibrational frequencies and corresponding normal mode assignments of tetraazidogermane are examined theoretically using the Gaussian98 set of quantum chemistry codes. All normal modes were successfully assigned to one of seven types of motion predicted by a group theoretical analysis (NNN asymmetric stretch, NNN symmetric stretch, GeN stretch, NNN bend, GeNN bend, NGeN bend, and NGeNN torsion) utilizing the S 4 symmetry of the molecule. The molecular orbitals of Ge(N 3) 4 are examined.

  15. Three-Dimensional Vibration Isolator for Suppressing High-Frequency Responses for Sage III Contamination Monitoring Package (CMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Cutright, S.; Dyke, R.; Templeton, J.; Gasbarre, J.; Novak, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III - International Space Station (ISS) instrument will be used to study ozone, providing global, long-term measurements of key components of the Earth's atmosphere for the continued health of Earth and its inhabitants. SAGE III is launched into orbit in an inverted configuration on SpaceX;s Falcon 9 launch vehicle. As one of its four supporting elements, a Contamination Monitoring Package (CMP) mounted to the top panel of the Interface Adapter Module (IAM) box experiences high-frequency response due to structural coupling between the two structures during the SpaceX launch. These vibrations, which were initially observed in the IAM Engineering Development Unit (EDU) test and later verified through finite element analysis (FEA) for the SpaceX launch loads, may damage the internal electronic cards and the Thermoelectric Quartz Crystal Microbalance (TQCM) sensors mounted on the CMP. Three-dimensional (3D) vibration isolators were required to be inserted between the CMP and IAM interface in order to attenuate the high frequency vibrations without resulting in any major changes to the existing system. Wire rope isolators were proposed as the isolation system between the CMP and IAM due to the low impact to design. Most 3D isolation systems are designed for compression and roll, therefore little dynamic data was available for using wire rope isolators in an inverted or tension configuration. From the isolator FEA and test results, it is shown that by using the 3D wire rope isolators, the CMP high-frequency responses have been suppressed by several orders of magnitude over a wide excitation frequency range. Consequently, the TQCM sensor responses are well below their qualification environments. It is indicated that these high-frequency responses due to the typical instrument structural coupling can be significantly suppressed by a vibration passive control using the 3D vibration isolator. Thermal and contamination

  16. Investigation into rail corrugation in high-speed railway tracks from the viewpoint of the frictional self-excited vibration of a wheel–rail system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, G X; Cui, X L; Qian, W J

    2016-01-01

    A finite element vibration model of a multiple wheel–rail system which consists of four wheels, one rail, and a series of sleepers is established to address the problem of rail corrugation in high-speed tracks...

  17. Investigation into rail corrugation in high-speed railway tracks from the viewpoint of the frictional self-excited vibration of a wheel-raU system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    G. X. Chen X. L. Cui W. J. Qian

    2016-01-01

    A finite element vibration model of a multiple wheel-rail system which consists of four wheels, one rail, and a series of sleepers is established to address the problem of rail corrugation in high-speed tracks...

  18. Recent developments in bend-insensitive and ultra-bend-insensitive fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, David; de Montmorillon, Louis-Anne; Provost, Lionel; Montaigne, Nelly; Gooijer, Frans; Aldea, Eugen; Jensma, Jaap; Sillard, Pierre

    2010-02-01

    Designed to overcome the limitations in case of extreme bending conditions, Bend- and Ultra-Bend-Insensitive Fibers (BIFs and UBIFs) appear as ideal solutions for use in FTTH networks and in components, pigtails or patch-cords for ever demanding applications such as military or sensing. Recently, however, questions have been raised concerning the Multi-Path-Interference (MPI) levels in these fibers. Indeed, they are potentially subject to interferences between the fundamental mode and the higher-order mode that is also bend resistant. This MPI is generated because of discrete discontinuities such as staples, bends and splices/connections that occur on distance scales that become comparable to the laser coherent length. In this paper, we will demonstrate the high MPI tolerance of all-solid single-trench-assisted BIFs and UBIFs. We will present the first comprehensive study combining theoretical and experimental points of view to quantify the impact of fusion splices on coherent MPI. To be complete, results for mechanical splices will also be reported. Finally, we will show how the single-trench- assisted concept combined with the versatile PCVD process allows to tightly control the distributions of fibers characteristics. Such controls are needed to massively produce BIFs and to meet the more stringent specifications of the UBIFs.

  19. Electrostatic tuning of the bending stiffness of a large scale GFRP-CFRP beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, A.; Christen, R.; Motavalli, M.

    2006-03-01

    The suppression of vibrations of a structure is commonly considered a necessary measure for the extension of its lifetime, when high amplitude vibrations are observed. As an alternative to the introduction of discrete damping devices, the modification of the stiffness of a beam is proposed as a means to suppress vibrations due to resonance, thank to the ability to reject mechanical energy input at specific frequencies. Previous work has outlined the principle and the potential advantages of such an approach based on the behavior of a small scale system. In order to confirm the feasibility of the approach on macro-scale systems, such as a light weight pedestrian bridge, experiments for the tuning of a 2.5 m long glass fiber reinforced polymer I-beam were performed. The results of the experiments show that it is possible to modify the bending stiffness of structural elements that can be used for real life engineering applications. Measurements show that it is possible to shift the resonance peak of a beam while maintaining a reasonably good q-factor in the transfer function, thus indicating that the change in behavior happens in connection with an increased stiffness rather than with the introduction of substantial damping. Based on the presented feasibility study, the development of an adaptive bridge deck will be considered.

  20. A hybrid single-end-access MZI and Φ-OTDR vibration sensing system with high frequency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixin; Xia, Lan; Cao, Chunqi; Sun, Zhenhong; Li, Yanting; Zhang, Xuping

    2017-01-01

    A hybrid single-end-access Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and phase sensitive OTDR (Φ-OTDR) vibration sensing system is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. In our system, the narrow optical pulses and the continuous wave are injected into the fiber through the front end of the fiber at the same time. And at the rear end of the fiber, a frequency-shift-mirror (FSM) is designed to back propagate the continuous wave modulated by the external vibration. Thus the Rayleigh backscattering signals (RBS) and the back propagated continuous wave interfere with the reference light at the same end of the sensing fiber and a single-end-access configuration is achieved. The RBS can be successfully separated from the interference signal (IS) through digital signal process due to their different intermediate frequency based on frequency division multiplexing technique. There is no influence between these two schemes. The experimental results show 10 m spatial resolution and up to 1.2 MHz frequency response along a 6.35 km long fiber. This newly designed single-end-access setup can achieve vibration events locating and high frequency events response, which can be widely used in health monitoring for civil infrastructures and transportation.

  1. High-intensity interval training with vibration as rest intervals attenuates fiber atrophy and prevents decreases in anaerobic performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Manuel Mueller

    Full Text Available Aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIT improves cardiovascular capacity but may reduce the finite work capacity above critical power (W' and lead to atrophy of myosin heavy chain (MyHC-2 fibers. Since whole-body vibration may enhance indices of anaerobic performance, we examined whether side-alternating whole-body vibration as a replacement for the active rest intervals during a 4 x 4 min HIT prevents decreases in anaerobic performance and capacity without compromising gains in aerobic function. Thirty-three young recreationally active men were randomly assigned to conduct either conventional 4 x 4 min HIT, HIT with 3 min of WBV at 18 Hz (HIT+VIB18 or 30 Hz (HIT+VIB30 in lieu of conventional rest intervals, or WBV at 30 Hz (VIB30. Pre and post training, critical power (CP, W', cellular muscle characteristics, as well as cardiovascular and neuromuscular variables were determined. W' (-14.3%, P = 0.013, maximal voluntary torque (-8.6%, P = 0.001, rate of force development (-10.5%, P = 0.018, maximal jumping power (-6.3%, P = 0.007 and cross-sectional areas of MyHC-2A fibers (-6.4%, P = 0.044 were reduced only after conventional HIT. CP, V̇O2peak, peak cardiac output, and overall capillary-to-fiber ratio were increased after HIT, HIT+VIB18, and HIT+VIB30 without differences between groups. HIT-specific reductions in anaerobic performance and capacity were prevented by replacing active rest intervals with side-alternating whole-body vibration, notably without compromising aerobic adaptations. Therefore, competitive cyclists (and potentially other endurance-oriented athletes may benefit from replacing the active rest intervals during aerobic HIT with side-alternating whole-body vibration.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01875146.

  2. Four point bending setup for characterization of semiconductor piezoresistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Jacob; Arnoldus, Morten Berg; Hansen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    We present a four point bending setup suitable for high precision characterization of piezoresistance in semiconductors. The compact setup has a total size of 635 cm3. Thermal stability is ensured by an aluminum housing wherein the actual four point bending fixture is located. The four point...... bending fixture is manufactured in polyetheretherketon and a dedicated silicon chip with embedded piezoresistors fits in the fixture. The fixture is actuated by a microstepper actuator and a high sensitivity force sensor measures the applied force on the fixture and chip. The setup includes heaters...

  3. Lattice Vibrations Change the Solid Solubility of an Alloy at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulumba, Nina; Hellman, Olle; Raza, Zamaan; Alling, Björn; Barrirero, Jenifer; Mücklich, Frank; Abrikosov, Igor A.; Odén, Magnus

    2016-11-01

    We develop a method to accurately and efficiently determine the vibrational free energy as a function of temperature and volume for substitutional alloys from first principles. Taking Ti1 -xAlxN alloy as a model system, we calculate the isostructural phase diagram by finding the global minimum of the free energy corresponding to the true equilibrium state of the system. We demonstrate that the vibrational contribution including anharmonicity and temperature dependence of the mixing enthalpy have a decisive impact on the calculated phase diagram of a Ti1 -xAlxN alloy, lowering the maximum temperature for the miscibility gap from 6560 to 2860 K. Our local chemical composition measurements on thermally aged Ti0.5Al0.5N alloys agree with the calculated phase diagram.

  4. Highly localized clustering states in a granular gas driven by a vibrating wall

    OpenAIRE

    Livne, Eli; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V.

    2000-01-01

    An ensemble of inelastically colliding grains driven by a vibrating wall in 2D exhibits density clustering. Working in the limit of nearly elastic collisions and employing granular hydrodynamics, we predict, by a marginal stability analysis, a spontaneous symmetry breaking of the extended clustering state (ECS). 2D steady-state solutions found numerically describe localized clustering state (LCSs). Time-dependent granular hydrodynamic simulations show that LCSs can develop from natural initia...

  5. Low-amplitude high frequency vibration down-regulates myostatin and atrogin-1 expression, two components of the atrophy pathway in muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Gabriele; Benedetti, Laura; Galli, Daniela; Prè, Deborah; Silvani, Giulia; Crosetto, Nicola; Magenes, Giovanni; Cusella De Angelis, Maria Gabriella

    2014-05-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is a very widespread mechanical stimulus used in physical therapy, rehabilitation and fitness centres. It has been demonstrated that vibration induces improvements in muscular strength and performance and increases bone density. We investigated the effects of low-amplitude, high frequency vibration (HFV) at the cellular and tissue levels in muscle. We developed a system to produce vibrations adapted to test several parameters in vitro and in vivo. For in vivo experiments, we used newborn CD1 wild-type mice, for in vitro experiments, we isolated satellite cells from 6-day-old CD1 mice, while for proliferation studies, we used murine cell lines. Animals and cells were treated with high frequency vibration at 30 Hz. We analyzed the effects of mechanical stimulation on muscle hypertrophy/atrophy pathways, fusion enhancement of myoblast cells and modifications in the proliferation rate of cells. Results demonstrated that mechanical vibration strongly down-regulates atrophy genes both in vivo and in vitro. The in vitro experiments indicated that mechanical stimulation promotes fusion of satellite cells treated directly in culture compared to controls. Finally, proliferation experiments indicated that stimulated cells had a decreased growth rate compared to controls. We concluded that vibration treatment at 30 Hz is effective in suppressing the atrophy pathway both in vivo and in vitro and enhances fusion of satellite muscle cells.

  6. [A study of phonon vibration like modes for aggregation structure in silicate melts by high temperature Raman spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei-Cang; Li, Ru-Bi; Shang, Tong-Ming; Zhou, Jian; Sun, Jian-Hua; You, Jing-Lin

    2010-05-01

    Silicate melts are special fractal dimension system that is metastable state of near-way order and far-way disorder. In this paper, the size of nanometer aggregation structure and the frequences of phonon vibration like mode in the low dimension silicate series (CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 and Na2-Al2O3-SiO2 series) synthesized via high temperature melting and sol gel methods were measured by means of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), low wavenumber Raman spectrum (LWRS) and high temperature Raman spectrum (HTRS in situ measuring). The nanometer self-similarity aggregation structure(it's size is about a few nm to a few tens nm) and phonic phonon vibration like modes of low temperature silicate gel, high temperature silicate melts and it's quenching glasses phases were obtained. So a quantitative method by HTRS for measuring the aggregation size in the high temperature melts was established. The results showed that the aggregation size of the silicate melts is smaller at high temperature than at room temperature and the number of bridge oxygen in one Si-O tetrahedron in network structure units is decreasing at high temperature. This study work provides important theory and information for deliberating geochemistry characteristic, crystallization & evolution of natural magma and enhancing performance of low dimension silicate matelials.

  7. Gender differences in variability patterns of forward bending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Morten; Madeleine, Pascal; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2016-01-01

    The variability pattern is highly relevant in the analysis of occupational physical exposures. It is hypothesized that gender differences exist in the variability pattern of forward bending between work and leisure....

  8. A Numerical Study of the Spring-Back Phenomenon in Bending with a Rebar Bending Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Hwan Choi; Lawrence Kulinsky; Joon Soo Jun; Jin Ho Kim

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the rebar bending methodology started to change from field processing to utilizing rebar bending machines at plant sites prior to transport to the construction locations. Computerized control of rebar plant bending machines provides more accurate and faster bending of rebars than the low quality inefficient field processing alternative. The bending process involves plastic deformation of rebars, where bending stress beyond the yield point of the material is applied. When the bending...

  9. Temperature dependence of the photodissociation of CO2 from high vibrational levels: 205-230 nm imaging studies of CO(X1Σ+) and O(3P, 1D) products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutradhar, S.; Samanta, B. R.; Samanta, A. K.; Reisler, H.

    2017-07-01

    The 205-230 nm photodissociation of vibrationally excited CO2 at temperatures up to 1800 K was studied using Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization (REMPI) and time-sliced Velocity Map Imaging (VMI). CO2 molecules seeded in He were heated in an SiC tube attached to a pulsed valve and supersonically expanded to create a molecular beam of rotationally cooled but vibrationally hot CO2. Photodissociation was observed from vibrationally excited CO2 with internal energies up to about 20 000 cm-1, and CO(X1Σ+), O(3P), and O(1D) products were detected by REMPI. The large enhancement in the absorption cross section with increasing CO2 vibrational excitation made this investigation feasible. The internal energies of heated CO2 molecules that absorbed 230 nm radiation were estimated from the kinetic energy release (KER) distributions of CO(X1Σ+) products in v″ = 0. At 230 nm, CO2 needs to have at least 4000 cm-1 of rovibrational energy to absorb the UV radiation and produce CO(X1Σ+) + O(3P). CO2 internal energies in excess of 16 000 cm-1 were confirmed by observing O(1D) products. It is likely that initial absorption from levels with high bending excitation accesses both the A1B2 and B1A2 states, explaining the nearly isotropic angular distributions of the products. CO(X1Σ+) product internal energies were estimated from REMPI spectroscopy, and the KER distributions of the CO(X1Σ+), O(3P), and O(1D) products were obtained by VMI. The CO product internal energy distributions change with increasing CO2 temperature, suggesting that more than one dynamical pathway is involved when the internal energy of CO2 (and the corresponding available energy) increases. The KER distributions of O(1D) and O(3P) show broad internal energy distributions in the CO(X1Σ+) cofragment, extending up to the maximum allowed by energy but peaking at low KER values. Although not all the observations can be explained at this time, with the aid of available theoretical studies of CO2 VUV

  10. FREE VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF FLAT THIN MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. HARSHA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the vibration analysis for predicating the behavior of flat thin inflatable membrane structure. This is having rectangular shaped with a thickness in millimeter fabricated using the various smart materials. Within structural member, it is subjected to pre-stress rather than bending or moments. The deployable structure has the low weight (minimal mass to achieve high acceleration; large area & durable (easily withstand the temperature changes, micrometeoroid hazards in outer space. The objective of this paper is to optimize the smart material for the space satellite technology so that the light weight inflatable structure attracts in satellite application. The observations show the good agreement between finite element and analytical results.

  11. Vibrationally high-resolved electronic spectra of MCl2 (M = C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) and photoelectron spectra of MCl2-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Yibin; Pang, Min; Shen, Wei; Li, Ming; He, Rongxing

    2016-10-01

    We systematically studied the vibrational-resolved electronic spectra of group IV dichlorides using the Franck-Condon approximation combined with the Duschinsky and Herzberg-Teller effects in harmonic and anharmonic frameworks (only the simulation of absorption spectra includes the anharmonicity). Calculated results showed that the band shapes of simulated spectra are in accordance with those of the corresponding experimental or theoretical ones. We found that the symmetric bend mode in progression of absorption is the most active one, whereas the main contributor in photoelectron spectra is the symmetric stretching mode. Moreover, the Duschinsky and anharmonic effects exert weak influence on the absorption spectra, except for PbCl2 molecule. The theoretical insights presented in this work are significant in understanding the photophysical properties of MCl2 (M = C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) and studying the Herzberg-Teller and the anharmonic effects on the absorption spectra of new dichlorides of this main group.

  12. Structural, vibrational and bonding properties of hydro-nitrogen solids under high pressure: An ab-initio study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G VAITHEESWARAN; N YEDUKONDALU; B MOSES ABRAHAM

    2016-10-01

    Hydro-nitrogen solids are potential high energy density materials (HEDMs) due to high mass ratio of nitrogen which find wide range of applications as propellants and explosives. In the present work, we report the structural and vibrational properties of Tetramethyl Ammonium Azide (TMAA) and HydroZonium Azide(HZA) using density functional theory calculations by treating weak intermolecular interactions. The obtained ground state parameters using vdW-TS method are in good agreement with the experimental data. The pressure dependent lattice constants, compressibility and equation of state are discussed. The obtained equilibrium bulk moduli show the soft nature of these materials. The compressibility curves reveal that these compounds are highly compressible along crystallographic a-axis.We have also calculated the zone-center phonon frequencies and made a complete analysis of vibrational spectra at ambient as well as at high pressure. Contraction and elongation of C-H and N-H (NH₃ stretching) bonds under pressure lead to blue- and red-shift of the frequencies in the mid-IR region for TMAA and HZA compounds, respectively

  13. Structural, electronic, and vibrational properties of high-density amorphous silicon: a first-principles molecular-dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Tetsuya

    2009-05-21

    We report a first-principles study of the structural, electronic, and dynamical properties of high-density amorphous (HDA) silicon, which was found to be formed by pressurizing low-density amorphous (LDA) silicon (a normal amorphous Si) [T. Morishita, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 055503 (2004); P. F. McMillan, M. Wilson, D. Daisenberger, and D. Machon, Nature Mater. 4, 680 (2005)]. Striking structural differences between HDA and LDA are revealed. The LDA structure holds a tetrahedral network, while the HDA structure contains a highly distorted tetrahedral network. The fifth neighboring atom in HDA tends to be located at an interstitial position of a distorted tetrahedron composed of the first four neighboring atoms. Consequently, the coordination number of HDA is calculated to be approximately 5 unlike that of LDA. The electronic density of state (EDOS) shows that HDA is metallic, which is consistent with a recent experimental measurement of the electronic resistance of HDA Si. We find from local EDOS that highly distorted tetrahedral configurations enhance the metallic nature of HDA. The vibrational density of state (VDOS) also reflects the structural differences between HDA and LDA. Some of the characteristic vibrational modes of LDA are dematerialized in HDA, indicating the degradation of covalent bonds. The overall profile of the VDOS for HDA is found to be an intermediate between that for LDA and liquid Si under pressure (high-density liquid Si).

  14. Oide Effect and Radiation in Bending Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco, Oscar; Bambade, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Including radiation effects during lattice design optimization is crucial in high energy accelerators. Oide effect and radiation in bending magnets are reviewed aiming to include them in the optical design process to minimize the IP beam size. The Oide double integral is expressed in simpler terms in order to speed up calculations, concluding in how longer quadrupoles with lower gradients may help reducing the Oide effect. Radiation in bending magnets is reviewed for linear lattices, generalizing to the case when the final dispersion is different from zero and making comparisons with theoretical results and particle tracking. An agreement between the theory, the implemented approximation included in MAPCLASS2 and the six-dimensional tracking in PLACET has been found.

  15. Ultrasonic fatigue testing device under biaxial bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Brugger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new fatigue testing device has been developed to test specimens under biaxial loading at 20 kHz. A flat smooth specimen with a disc geometry is placed on a torus frame and cyclically loaded at the center of its upper face. Disc bending generates a biaxial proportional stress state at the center of the lower face. Any positive loading ratio can be applied. A cast aluminum alloy (used to produce cylinder heads has been tested under biaxial bending using this device in order to determine its fatigue strength at 109 cycles under high hydrostatic pressure. Self-heating is moderate but macroscopic fatigue cracks after testing are very long. First results in VHCF regime are consistent with literature results obtained under similar stress state but in HCF regime and at 20 Hz.

  16. Thermal Analysis of Bending Under Tension Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Bay, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The tribological conditions in deep drawing can be simulated in the Bending Under Tension test to evaluate the performance of new lubricants, tool materials, etc. Deep drawing production with automatic handling runs normally at high rate. This implies considerable heating of the tools, which...... sometimes can cause lubricant film breakdown and galling. In order to replicate the production conditions in bending under tension testing it is thus important to control the tool/workpiece interface temperature. This can be done by pre-heating the tool, but it is essential that the interface temperature...... during testing is similar to the one in the production tool. A universal sheet tribo-tester has been developed, which can run multiple tests automatically from coil. This allows emulating the temperature increase as in production. The present work performs finite element analysis of the evolution...

  17. Parallel monostrand stay cable bending fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan Pawel

    of damage and replacement of bridge stay cables due to wind and traffic-induced fatigue. The understanding of fatigue mechanisms in most steel structures is well established. However, in the case of cables composed of steel strands, many important aspects related with bending fatigue remain to be clarified......This dissertation investigates the bending fatigue response of high-strength steel monostrands and multistrand stay cables to cyclic transverse deformations. Increasing bridge stock numbers and a push for longer cable-supported span lengths have led to an increased number of reported incidents...... associated with variable loading, and different testing procedures. As most of the contemporary stay cables are comprised of a number of individual highstrength steel monostrands, the research study started with an extensive experimental work on the fatigue response of a single monostrand to cyclic flexural...

  18. Holey fibers for low bend loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kazuhide; Saito, Kotaro; Yamada, Yusuke; Kurokawa, Kenji; Shimizu, Tomoya; Fukai, Chisato; Matsui, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Bending-loss insensitive fiber (BIF) has proved an essential medium for constructing the current fiber to the home (FTTH) network. By contrast, the progress that has been made on holey fiber (HF) technologies provides us with novel possibilities including non-telecom applications. In this paper, we review recent progress on hole-assisted type BIF. A simple design consideration is overviewed. We then describe some of the properties of HAF including its mechanical reliability. Finally, we introduce some applications of HAF including to high power transmission. We show that HAF with a low bending loss has the potential for use in various future optical technologies as well as in the optical communication network.

  19. High-precision evaluation of the Vibrational spectra of long-range molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Tannous, C

    2001-01-01

    Vibrational spectra of long-range molecules are determined accurately and to arbitrary accuracy with the Canonical Function Method. The energy levels of the $0^-_g$ and $1_u$ electronic states of the $^{23}{\\rm Na}_2$ molecule are determined from the Ground state up to the continuum limit. The method is validated by comparison with previous results obtained by Stwalley et al. using the same potential and Trost et al. whose work is based on the Lennard-Jones potential adapted to long-range molecules.

  20. Tube bending on the roll machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepershin, Rostislav I.

    2013-10-01

    Computer simulation of the elastic-plastic tube bending by pushing on three-roll machine with work hardening effect consideration is presented. Non-steady tube bending process for specified curvature is simulated with axis of bending roll displacement, followed by transfer to the steady-state bending process. Estimation of curvature, constrained by tube section elliptical distortion modeled by plastic hinge mechanism is given. Elastic-plastic bending moment versus curvature and critical curvature estimation reasonably correlated with experiments.

  1. A Novel Rotary Piezoelectric Motor Using First Bending Hybrid Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel rotary piezoelectric motor using bending transducers in this work. Three transducers are used to drive a disk-shaped rotor together by the elliptical movements of their driving tips; these motions are produced by the hybrid of two first bending vibration modes. The proposed piezoelectric transducer has a simple structure as it only contains an aluminum alloy beam and four pieces of PZT plates. Symmetrical structure is the only necessary condition in the design process as it will ensure the resonance frequencies of the two orthogonal first bending modes are equal. Transducers with first bending resonance frequency of about 53 kHz were fabricated and assembled into a rotary motor. The proposed motor exhibits good performance on speed and torque control. Under a working frequency of 53.2 kHz, the maximum no-load speed and the maximum torque of the prototype are tested to be 53.3 rpm and of 27 mN·m.

  2. A study on the contribution of body vibrations to the vibratory sensation induced by high-level, complex low-frequency noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Takahashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the contribution of body vibrations to the vibratory sensation induced by high-level, complex low-frequency noise, we conducted two experiments. In Experiment 1, eight male subjects were exposed to seven types of low-frequency noise stimuli: two pure tones [a 31.5-Hz, 100-dB(SPL tone and a 50-Hz, 100-dB(SPL tone] and five complex noises composed of the pure tones. For the complex noise stimuli, the sound pressure level of one tonal component was 100 dB(SPL and that of another one was either 90, 95, or 100 dB(SPL. Vibration induced on the body surface was measured at five locations, and the correlation with the subjective rating of the vibratory sensation at each site of measurement was examined. In Experiment 2, the correlation between the body surface vibration and the vibratory sensation was similarly examined using seven types of noise stimuli composed of a 25-Hz tone and a 50-Hz tone. In both the experiments, we found that at the chest and the abdomen, the rating of the vibratory sensation was in close correlation with the vibration acceleration level (VAL of the body surface vibration measured at each corresponding location. This was consistent with our previous results and suggested that at the trunk of the body (the chest and the abdomen, the mechanoreception of body vibrations plays an important role in the experience of the vibratory sensation in persons exposed to high-level low-frequency noise. At the head, however, no close correlation was found between the rating of the vibratory sensation and the VAL of body surface vibration. This suggested that at the head, the perceptual mechanisms of vibration induced by high-level low-frequency noise were different from those in the trunk of the body.

  3. Bending characteristics of resin concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Maria Cristina Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work the influence of composition and curing conditions in bending strength of polyester and epoxy concrete is analyzed. Various mixtures of resin and aggregates were considered in view of an optimal combination. The Taguchi methodology was applied in order to reduce the number of tests, and in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters in concrete properties. This methodology is very useful for the planning of experiments. Test results, analyzed by this methodology, shown that the most significant factors affecting bending strength properties of resin concretes are the type of resin, resin content and charge content. An optimal formulation leading to a maximum bending strength was achieved in terms of material parameters.

  4. Fabrication of highly reproducible polymer solar cells using ultrasonic substrate vibration posttreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Zabihi, Fatemeh; Eslamian, Morteza

    2016-10-01

    Organic solar cells are usually nonreproducible due to the presence of defects in the structure of their constituting thin films. To minimize the density of pinholes and defects in PEDOT:PSS, which is the hole transporting layer of a standard polymer solar cell, i.e., glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al, and to reduce scattering in device performance, wet spun-on PEDOT:PSS films are subjected to imposed ultrasonic substrate vibration posttreatment (SVPT). The imposed vibration improves the mixing and homogeneity of the wet spun-on films, and consequently the nanostructure of the ensuing thin solid films. For instance, our results show that by using the SVPT, which is a mechanical, single-step and low-cost process, the average power conversion efficiency of 14 identical cells increases by 25% and the standard deviation decreases by 22% indicating that the device photovoltaic performance becomes more consistent and significantly improved. This eliminates several tedious and expensive chemical and thermal treatments currently performed to improve the cell reproducibility.

  5. Vibrational entropy changes the solid solubility of a random alloy at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulumba, Nina; Hellman, Olle; Raza, Zamaan; Barrirero, Jenifer; Mücklich, Frank; Abrikosov, Igor A.; Odén, Magnus

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a method to accurately and efficiently determine vibrational entropy as a function of temperature and volume for substitutional alloys from first principles. Using Ti1-xAlxN metal alloy as a model system we calculate the isostructural phase diagram by minimization of the free energy, solving the original Gibbs problem of finding its global minimum corresponding to the true equilibrium state of the system. We demonstrate that the vibrational contribution to the free energy has a decisive impact on the calculated phase diagram of Ti1-xAlxN alloy, lowering the maximum temperature for the miscibility gap from 9000 K to 2400 K. The solubility limit of the predicted phase diagram is experimentally verified by local chemical composition measurements of thermally aged Ti50Al50N alloys. DocMASE, SECO Tools AB, SSF RMA 08-0069 and SRL 10-002, VR 2012-4401 and 637-2013-7296, Vinnova M-ERA.net, MC2, (KAW) (Isotopic Control for Ultimate Material Properties).

  6. PARALLEL FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF HIGH FREQUENCY VIBRATIONS OF QUARTZ CRYSTAL RESONATORS ON LINUX CLUSTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Wang; Yu Wang; Wenke Hu; Wenhua Zhao; Jianke Du; Dejin Huang

    2008-01-01

    Quartz crystal resonators are typical piezoelectric acoustic wave devices for frequency control applications with mechanical vibration frequency at the radio-frequency (RF) range. Precise analyses of the vibration and deformation are generally required in the resonator design and improvement process. The considerations include the presence of electrodes, mountings, bias fields such as temperature, initial stresses, and acceleration. Naturally, the finite element method is the only effective tool for such a coupled problem with multi-physics nature. The main challenge is the extremely large size of resulted linear equations. For this reason, we have been employing the Mindlin plate equations to reduce the computational difficulty. In addition, we have to utilize the parallel computing techniques on Linux clusters, which are widely available for academic and industrial applications nowadays, to improve the computing efficiency. The general principle of our research is to use open source software components and public domain technology to reduce cost for developers and users on a Linux cluster. We start with a mesh generator specifically for quartz crystal resonators of rectangular and circular types, and the Mindlin plate equations are implemented for the finite element analysis. Computing techniques like parallel processing, sparse matrix handling, and the latest eigenvalue extraction package are integrated into the program. It is clear from our computation that the combination of these algorithms and methods on a cluster can meet the memory requirement and reduce computing time significantly.

  7. High frequent total station measurements for the monitoring of bridge vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienhart, Werner; Ehrhart, Matthias; Grick, Magdalena

    2017-03-01

    Robotic total stations (RTS) are frequently used for the measurement of temperature induced bridge deformations or during load testing of bridges. In experimental setups, total stations have also been used for the measurement of dynamic bridge deformations. However, with standard configurations the measurement rate is not constant and on average an update rate of 7-10Hz can be achieved. This is not sufficient for the vibration monitoring of bridges considering their natural frequencies which are also in the same range. In this paper, we present different approaches to overcome these problems. In the first two approaches we demonstrate how the measurement rate to prisms can be increased to 20Hz to determine vertical deformations of bridges. Critical aspects like the measurement resolution of the automated target tracking and the correct sequence of steering commands are discussed. In another approach we demonstrate how vertical bridge vibrations can be measured using an image assisted total station (IATS) and corresponding processing techniques. The advantage of image-based methods is that structural features of a bridge like bolts can be used as targets. Therefore, no expensive prisms have to be mounted and access to the bridge is not required. All approaches are verified by laboratory investigations and their suitability is proven in a field experiment on a 74m long footbridge. In this field experiment the natural frequencies derived from the total station measurements are compared to the results of accelerometer measurements.

  8. Vibrational relaxation of pure liquid water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, J; Vohringer, P; Pshenichnikov, MS; Cringus, D; Wiersma, DA; Mostovoy, M; Vöhringer, Peter; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.

    2006-01-01

    Multicolor infrared ultrafast spectroscopy is applied to investigate the vibrational relaxation dynamics in liquid water at room temperature. In a sequence of experiments, both the stretching and the bending mode are photoexcited and probed. A unified model, capable of the reproduction of as much as

  9. Morphometric and mechanical characteristics of Equisetum hyemale stem enhance its vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajączkowska, Urszula; Kucharski, Stanisław; Nowak, Zdzisław; Grabowska, Kamila

    2017-04-01

    The order of the internodes, and their geometry and mechanical characteristics influence the capability of the Equisetum stem to vibrate, potentially stimulating spore liberation at the optimum stress setting along the stem. Equisetum hyemale L. plants represent a special example of cellular solid construction with mechanical stability achieved by a high second moment of area and relatively high resistance against local buckling. We proposed the hypothesis that the order of E. hyemale L. stem internodes, their geometry and mechanical characteristics influence the capability of the stem to vibrate, stimulating spore liberation at the minimum stress setting value along the stem. An analysis of apex vibration was done based on videos presenting the behavior of an Equisetum clump filmed in a wind tunnel and also as a result of excitation by bending the stem by 20°. We compared these data with the vibrations of stems of the same size but deprived of the three topmost internodes. Also, we created a finite element model (FEM), upon which we have based the 'natural' stem vibration as a copy of the real object, 'random' with reshuffled internodes and 'uniform', created as one tube with the characters averaged from all internodes. The natural internode arrangement influences the frequency and amplitude of the apex vibration, maintaining an equal stress distribution in the stem, which may influence the capability for efficient spore spreading.

  10. a Vibrational Analysis of Crystalline Diketopiperazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheam, Toon Chee

    DKP, (CONHCH(,2))(,2), is considered a simple model compound in studying the vibrational modes of the cis peptide group, cyclic peptides, and peptide crystals. Raman and infrared spectra at room and liquid nitrogen temperature were obtained for DKP and 5 isotopic species: (CONDCH(,2))(,2), (CONHCD(,2))(,2), (CONDCD(,2))(,2), (('13)CONHCH(,2))(,2), (('13)CONDCH(,2))(,2). Polarized single crystal Raman spectra were measured for all isotopes except (('13)CONDCH(,2))(,2). Using the Raman and ir isotopic data, the spectra of (CONHCH(,2))(,2) are assigned completely except in the far ir. The ir 1400 -1500 cm('-1) region has been resolved, and all 3 modes identified--NH in-plane bend (1482), out-of-phase C('(alpha))CN stretch (1470), and CH(,2) bend (1445). The previously unassigned ir CO out-of-plane bend is found at 553. In the Raman a band at 1519 cm('-1) is found and characterized as out-of-phase C('(alpha))CN stretch. Strong mixing of CO stretch with NH in-plane bend occurs in both Raman and ir. The NH and ND stretch bands are extremely broad with multiple subbands. Normal mode calculations were done of all 6 isotopes using the exact X-ray crystal structure and including intermolecular interactions. Intramolecular valence force fields were refined for all isotopes and for (CONHCH(,2))(,2) alone; the force constants are expressed in a non-redundant basis. Descriptions of the normal modes, including atomic displacements, are given. The NH out -of-plane bend ((TURN)835) is highly localized on the CONH group. Since the trans amide V is near 700 cm('-1), the NH opb may be effective in distinguishing cis from trans peptides. Atom-atom potentials of Momany, Hagler, and Dashevsky were used in the crystal calculations. Momany's potentials gave excellent agreement with observed lattice modes and internal mode splittings. The splittings ((TURN)20 cm('-1)) of the CO stretch Raman and ir bands were not predicted by the atom-atom interactions. Transition dipole coupling can

  11. RESEARCH OF THE HIGH HARMONICS INDIVIDUAL BLADE CONTROL EFFECT ON VIBRATIONS CAUSED BY THE HELICOPTER MAIN ROTOR THRUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents numerical results analysis of main rotor vibration due to helicopter main rotor thrust pulsation.The calculation method, the object of research and numerical research results with the aim to reduce the amplitude of the vibrations transmitted to the hub from the helicopters main rotor by the individual blade control in azimuth by the installation angle of blades cyclic changes are set out in the article. The individual blades control law for a five-blade main rotor based on the blade frequencies is made. It allows reducing the vibration from thrust. Research takes into account the main rotor including and excluding the blade flapping motion. The minimal vibrations regime is identified.Numerical study of variable loads caused by unsteady flow around the main rotor blades at high relative speeds of flight, which transmitted to the rotor hub, is made. The scheme of a thin lifting surface and the rotor vortex theory are used for simulation of the aerodynamic loads on blades. Non - uniform loads caused by the thrust, decomposed on the blade harmonic and its overtones. The largest values of deviation from the mean amplitude thrust are received. The analysis of variable loads with a traditional control system is made. Algorithms of higher harmonics individual blade control capable of reducing the thrust pulsation under the average value of thrust are developed.Numerical research shows that individual blade control of high harmonics reduces variable loads. The necessary change in the blade installation is about ± 0,2 degree that corresponds to the maximum displacement of the additional con- trol stick is about 1 mm.To receive the overall picture is necessary to consider all six components of forces and moments. Control law with own constants will obtained for each of them. It is supposed, that each of six individual blade control laws have an impact on other components. Thus, the problem reduces to the optimization issue. The

  12. Bending elastic moduli of lipid bilayers : modulation by solutes

    OpenAIRE

    Duwe, H.P.; Kaes, J.; Sackmann, E.

    1990-01-01

    We present high precision measurements of the bending elastic moduli for bilayers of a variety of different lipids and of modifications of the flexural rigidity by solutes. The measurements are based on the Fourier analysis of thermally excited membrane undulations (vesicle shape fluctuations) using a recently developed dynamic image processing method. Measurements of the bending modulus as a function of the undulation wave vector provide information on the limitation of the excitations by th...

  13. High-frequency vibration energy harvesting from impulsive excitation utilizing intentional dynamic instability caused by strong nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remick, Kevin; Dane Quinn, D.; Michael McFarland, D.; Bergman, Lawrence; Vakakis, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    The authors investigate a vibration-based energy harvesting system utilizing essential (nonlinearizable) nonlinearities and electromagnetic coupling elements. The system consists of a grounded, weakly damped linear oscillator (primary system) subjected to a single impulsive load. This primary system is coupled to a lightweight, damped oscillating attachment (denoted as nonlinear energy sink, NES) via a neodymium magnet and an inductance coil, and a piano wire, which generates an essential geometric cubic stiffness nonlinearity. Under impulsive input, the transient damped dynamics of this system exhibit transient resonance captures (TRCs) causing intentional large-amplitude and high-frequency instabilities in the response of the NES. These TRCs result in strong energy transfer from the directly excited primary system to the light-weight attachment. The energy is harvested by the electromagnetic elements in the coupling and, in the present case, dissipated in a resistive element in the electrical circuit. The primary goal of this work is to numerically, analytically, and experimentally demonstrate the efficacy of employing this type of intentional high-frequency dynamic instability to achieve enhanced vibration energy harvesting under impulsive excitation.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON BED SCOUR IN A 90°CHANNEL BEND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoud GHODSIAN; S. Kamal MOUSAVI

    2006-01-01

    The special feature of bend flow leads to scouring of the bed and bank. Various parameters like flow depth, flow velocity or discharge, geometry of bend and characteristics of bed material may affect the scour process. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of some important parameters on bend scour under clear water condition. Experiments were conducted in a 0.6m wide and 0.7m high flume with 90 degree bend. The lateral variations of bed slope were studied. The maximum depth of scour was correlated to densimetric Froude number, relative bend radius and relative depth of flow.

  15. Metamaterials, from electromagnetic waves to water waves, bending waves and beyond

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, G.

    2015-08-04

    We will review our recent work on metamaterials for different types of waves. Transposition of transform optics to water waves and bending waves on plates will be considered with potential applications of cloaking to water waves protection and anti-vibrating systems.

  16. Darling-Dennison resonance and Coriolis coupling in the bending overtones of the A 1A(u) state of acetylene, C2H2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merer, Anthony J; Yamakita, Nami; Tsuchiya, Soji; Steeves, Adam H; Bechtel, Hans A; Field, Robert W

    2008-08-01

    Rotational analyses have been carried out for the overtones of the nu(4) (torsion) and nu(6) (in-plane cis-bend) vibrations of the A (1)A(u) state of C(2)H(2). The v(4)+v(6)=2 vibrational polyad was observed in high-sensitivity one-photon laser-induced fluorescence spectra and the v(4)+v(6)=3 polyad was observed in IR-UV double resonance spectra via the ground state nu(3) (Sigma(+) (u)) and nu(3)+nu(4) (Pi(u)) vibrational levels. The structures of these polyads are dominated by the effects of vibrational angular momentum: Vibrational levels of different symmetry interact via strong a-and b-axis Coriolis coupling, while levels of the same symmetry interact via Darling-Dennison resonance, where the interaction parameter has the exceptionally large value K(4466)=-51.68 cm(-1). The K-structures of the polyads bear almost no resemblance to the normal asymmetric top patterns, and many local avoided crossings occur between close-lying levels with nominal K-values differing by one or more units. Least squares analysis shows that the coupling parameters change only slightly with vibrational excitation, which has allowed successful predictions of the structures of the higher polyads: A number of weak bands from the v(4)+v(6)=4 and 5 polyads have been identified unambiguously. The state discovered by Scherer et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6315 (1986)], which appears to interact with the K=1 levels of the 3(3) vibrational state at low J, is identified as the second highest of the five K=1 members of the v(4)+v(6)=4 polyad. After allowing for the Darling-Dennison resonance, the zero-order bending structure can be represented by omega(4)=764.71, omega(6)=772.50, x(44)=0.19, x(66)=-4.23, and x(46)=11.39 cm(-1). The parameters x(46) and K(4466) are both sums of contributions from the vibrational angular momentum and from the anharmonic force field. For x(46) these contributions are 14.12 and -2.73 cm(-1), respectively, while the corresponding values for K(4466) are -28.24 and -23

  17. An equipment test for grading lumber by transverse vibration technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigo Carreira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the great variability of its mechanical properties, the rational use of lumber for structural purposes is directly conditioned to its grading. There are several techniques available for grading structural lumber. The most relevant one is the transverse vibration technique which obtained reliable results in non-destructive evaluation of lumber. The purpose of this work is to present the bases for the mechanical grading of lumber and the results of the calibration test of the frst transverse vibration equipment developed in Brazil. In this research 30 beams of cupiúba (Goupia glabra with nominal dimensions of 5 cm X 10 cm X 300 cm, were used. The tests were accomplished at the Wood and Timber Structures Laboratory (LaMEM of the University of São Paulo (USP. The results showed a strong correlation between the elasticity modulus measured by the static bending test and the one obtained with the transverse vibration equipment, showing the high reliability of the vibration method for the grading of structural lumber. A determination coeffcient (R² of 0.896 was obtained with the Brazilian equipment, showing that it can be used in the grading of lumber.

  18. Full dimensional Franck-Condon factors for the acetylene à (1)Au-X̃ (1)Σ(g)(+) transition. II. Vibrational overlap factors for levels involving excitation in ungerade modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, G Barratt; Baraban, Joshua H; Field, Robert W

    2014-10-07

    A full-dimensional Franck-Condon calculation has been applied to the à (1)Au-X̃ 1Σg+ transition in acetylene in the harmonic normal mode basis. Details of the calculation are discussed in Part I of this series. To our knowledge, this is the first full-dimensional Franck-Condon calculation on a tetra-atomic molecule undergoing a linear-to-bent geometry change. In the current work, the vibrational intensity factors for levels involving excitation in ungerade vibrational modes are evaluated. Because the Franck-Condon integral accumulates away from the linear geometry, we have been able to treat the out-of-plane component of trans bend (ν4('')) in the linear X̃ state in the rotational part of the problem, restoring the χ Euler angle and the a-axis Eckart conditions. A consequence of the Eckart conditions is that the out-of-plane component of ν4('') does not participate in the vibrational overlap integral. This affects the structure of the coordinate transformation and the symmetry of the vibrational wavefunctions used in the overlap integral, and results in propensity rules involving the bending modes of the X̃ state that were not previously understood. We explain the origin of some of the unexpected propensities observed in IR-UV laser-induced fluorescence spectra, and we calculate emission intensities from bending levels of the à state into bending levels of the X̃ state, using normal bending mode and local bending mode basis sets. Our calculations also reveal Franck-Condon propensities for the Cartesian components of the cis bend (ν5('')), and we predict that the best Ã-state vibrational levels for populating X̃-state levels with large amplitude bending motion localized in a single C-H bond (the acetylene↔vinylidene isomerization coordinate) involve a high degree of excitation in ν6(') (cis-bend). Mode ν4(') (torsion) populates levels with large amplitude counter-rotational motion of the two hydrogen atoms.

  19. Structural, electronic and vibrational properties of lanthanide monophosphide at high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, J. M., E-mail: amitjignesh@yahoo.co.in [Government Engineering College, Gandhinagar382028, Gujarat (India); Department of Physics, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380009, Gujarat (India); Joshi, Mitesh [Government Polytechnic for Girls, Athwagate, Surat395001, Gujarat (India); Gajjar, P. N., E-mail: pngajjar@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380009, Gujarat (India)

    2016-05-06

    A first-principles plane wave self-consistent method with the ultra-soft-pseudopotential scheme in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) is performed to study structural, electronic and vibrational properties of LaP for Rock-salt (NaCl/Bl) and Cesium-chloride (CsCl/B2) phases. The instability of Rock-salt (NaCl/Bl) phases around the transition is discussed. Conclusions based on electronic energy band structure, density of state, phonon dispersion and phonon density of states in both phases are outlined. The calculated results are consistence and confirm the successful applicability of quasi-harmonic phonon theory for structural instability studies for the alloys.

  20. A Highly Accurate and Efficient Analytical Approach to Bridge Deck Free Vibration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Gorman

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The superposition method is employed to obtain an accurate analytical type solution for the free vibration frequencies and mode shapes of multi-span bridge decks. Free edge conditions are imposed on the long edges running in the direction of the deck. Inter-span support is of the simple (knife-edge type. The analysis is valid regardless of the number of spans or their individual lengths. Exact agreement is found when computed results are compared with known eigenvalues for bridge decks with all spans of equal length. Mode shapes and eigenvalues are presented for typical bridge decks of three and four span lengths. In each case torsional and non-torsional modes are studied.

  1. Effect of Thickness on Very High Cycle Bending Fatigue Properties of 5083 Aluminum Alloy Sheet%厚度对5083铝合金薄板超高周弯曲疲劳性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁凌宇; 王弘; 董轩成

    2016-01-01

    在超声振动载荷下,对2 mm 和5 mm 厚5083铝合金薄板进行了超高周弯曲疲劳试验,研究了铝合金薄板厚度对其超高周弯曲疲劳性能的影响。结果表明:5083铝合金薄板的 S-N曲线呈连续下降特征,试样在109周次处仍会发生断裂,与一般铝合金的疲劳特征一致,即传统的疲劳极限并不存在;受尺寸效应影响,2 mm 厚薄板的弯曲疲劳强度高于5 mm 厚薄板的;尺寸效应在高周阶段对薄板疲劳性能的影响最大,超高周阶段的影响逐渐减弱;试样的疲劳裂纹起源于表面,表现为多源萌生;同应力幅值下不同厚度的5083铝合金薄板断口具有相同的解理特征。%Very high cycle bending fatigue test was carried out on 5083 aluminum alloy sheet with thickness of 2 mm and 5 mm at ultrasonic vibratory load,and the effect of thickness of aluminum alloy sheet on very high cycle bending fatigue properties of the sheet was studied.Results show that the S-N curves of the sheet exhibited continuous decline characteristics,the specimens fractured in the life cycle of 10 9 .There was no traditional fatigue limit in the testing as conventional aluminum alloys used to be.Bending fatigue strength of the sheet with thickness of 2 mm was higher than that of the sheet with thickness of 5 mm,this was the result of size effect.In high cycle stage,the effect of size effect on fatigue property was the largest,and the effect gradually weakened in very high cycle stage.It was found that all fatigue cracks emanated from the specimen surface,and the crack was multiple sources.5083 aluminum alloy sheet with different thicknesses had the same cleavage fracture characteristics at the same stress amplitude.

  2. Turbulent flow computation in a circular U-Bend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloud Abdelkrim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Turbulent flows through a circular 180° curved bend with a curvature ratio of 3.375, defined as the the bend mean radius to pipe diameter is investigated numerically for a Reynolds number of 4.45×104. The computation is performed for a U-Bend with full long pipes at the entrance and at the exit. The commercial ANSYS FLUENT is used to solve the steady Reynolds–Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS equations. The performances of standard k-ε and the second moment closure RSM models are evaluated by comparing their numerical results against experimental data and testing their capabilities to capture the formation and extend this turbulence driven vortex. It is found that the secondary flows occur in the cross-stream half-plane of such configurations and primarily induced by high anisotropy of the cross-stream turbulent normal stresses near the outer bend.

  3. Bending behavior of lapped plastic ehv cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, G H; Muller, A C

    1980-01-01

    One of the factors delaying the development of lapped polymeric cables has been their reputed poor bending characteristics. Complementary programs were begun at BNL several years ago to mathematically model the bending of synthetic tape cables and to develop novel plastic tapes designed to have moduli more favorable to bending. A series of bend tests was recently completed to evaluate the bending performance of several tapes developed for use in experimental superconducting cables. The program is discussed and the results of the bend tests are summarized.

  4. Fatigue Crack Propagation in Steel A131 Under Ice Loading of Crushing, Bending and Buckling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Menglan(段梦兰); SONG Lisong(宋立崧); FAN Xiaodong(樊晓东); James C.M.LId; FANG Huacan(方华灿)

    2001-01-01

    Three types of ice loading, which are most commonly present when ice acts on structures,are chosen and simulated for use of fatigue crack propagation tests on offshore structural steel Al31. The three types of ice categorized in accordance with the failure modes when acting on structures called crushing ice, bending ice, and buckling ice,respectively. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the fatigue crack propagation behavior of widely used high strength steel A 131 for offshore jackets in the loading environment of ice crushing, bending, and buckling. The test results of fatigue crack propagation in steel A 13 l under these simulated ice loading at temperature 292K are presented and analyzed in detail in this paper. The amplitude root mean square stress intensity factor is optimized to be the fundamental parameter of fatigue crack propagation for all types of ice loading histories. The results are also compared with constant amplitude fatigue crack propagation conclusions as in wave load mode, and a joint investigation on the results from ice forces, ice-induced vibrations, and ice-induced fatigue crack propagation is conducted, Conclusions are drawn for reference in structural design and material selection for offshore structures in ice environments.

  5. The in-plane free vibration of an elastically supported thin ring rotating at high speeds revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, T.; Tsouvalas, A.; Metrikine, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    The in-plane free vibration of a rotating thin ring is revisited in this paper. A new model is proposed which accounts for the elastic foundation and the through-thickness variation of the radial stress. The emphasis is placed on a proper consideration of the geometrical nonlinearity, which is essential for the consistent modelling of the ring stiffening resulting from the radial expansion caused by rotation. The in-plane stability of a thin ring rotating at relatively high speeds is analysed thoroughly. It is shown that the ring can become unstable should the rotational speed exceed a critical value. This result is new as in most known to the authors previous studies the stability problem is either not considered or it is stated that the in-plane vibration of a rotating ring is stable. In the studies which did address the instability, the conclusions and the employed models are prone to criticism. A parametric study is conducted to illustrate the effects of the ring properties on the in-plane stability. Finally, modes, which appear as stationary displacement patterns of the ring to an observer in the space-fixed reference system, are investigated. It is shown that the stationary patterns can occur prior to the onset of the instability for certain ring parameters.

  6. Viscoelastic material properties’ identification using high speed full field measurements on vibrating plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierron F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an experimental application of a method leading to the identification of the elastic and damping material properties of isotropic vibrating plates. The theory assumes that the searched parameters can be extracted from curvature and deflection fields measured on the whole surface of the plate at two particular instants of the vibrating motion. The experimental application consists in an original excitation fixture, a particular adaptation of an optical full-field measurement technique, a data preprocessing giving the curvature and deflection fields and finally in the identification process using the Virtual Fields Method (VFM. The principle of the deflectometry technique used for the measurements is presented. First results of identification on an acrylic plate are presented and compared to reference values. Details about a new experimental arrangement, currently in progress, is presented. It uses a high speed digital camera to over sample the full-field measurements.

  7. Observations of high vibrational levels of the 4 f σ 4 1Σu+ state of H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrand, A. M.; Ekey, R. C.; McCormack, E. F.

    2016-07-01

    Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization via the E F 1Σg+, v' = 6 double-well state has been used to probe the energy region below the third dissociation limit of H2 where several high vibrational levels of the 4 1Σu+ state are expected. Theoretical ab initio potential energy curves for this state predict a deep inner well and shallow outer well where vibrational levels above v = 8 are expected to exhibit the double-well character of the state. Since the 4 1Σu+ state has f-state character, transitions to it from the ground state are nominally forbidden. However, the d character of the outer well of the E F 1Σg+ state allows access to this state. We report observations of transitions to the v = 9-12 levels of the 4 1Σu+ state and compare their energies to predicted energies calculated from an ab initio potential energy curve with adiabatic corrections. Assignments are based on measured energies and linewidths, rotational constants, and expected transition strengths. The amount of agreement between the predicted values and the observations is mixed, with the largest discrepancies arising for the v = 9 level, owing to strong nonadiabatic electronic mixing in this energy region.

  8. Precision measurements and test of molecular theory in highly-excited vibrational states of H$_2$ $(v=11)$

    CERN Document Server

    Trivikram, T Madhu; Wcisło, P; Ubachs, W; Salumbides, E J

    2016-01-01

    Accurate $EF{}^1\\Sigma^+_g-X{}^1\\Sigma^+_g$ transition energies in molecular hydrogen were determined for transitions originating from levels with highly-excited vibrational quantum number, $v=11$, in the ground electronic state. Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy was applied on vibrationally excited H$_2^*$, produced via the photodissociation of H$_2$S, yielding transition frequencies with accuracies of $45$ MHz or $0.0015$ cm$^{-1}$. An important improvement is the enhanced detection efficiency by resonant excitation to autoionizing $7p\\pi$ electronic Rydberg states, resulting in narrow transitions due to reduced ac-Stark effects. Using known $EF$ level energies, the level energies of $X(v=11, J=1,3-5)$ states are derived with accuracies of typically 0.002 cm$^{-1}$. These experimental values are in excellent agreement with, and are more accurate than the results obtained from the most advanced ab initio molecular theory calculations including relativistic and QED contributions.

  9. Hormonal regulation of gravitropic bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X.; Cui, D.; Xu, X.; Hu, L.; Cai, W.

    Gravitropic bending is an important subject in the research of plant Recent data support the basics of the Cholodny-Went hypothesis indicating that differential growth in gravitropism is due to redistribution of auxin to the lower sides of gravistimulated roots but little is known regarding the molecular details of such effects So we carried a series of work surround the signals induced by auxin end center We found the endogenous signaling molecules nitric oxide NO and cGMP mediate responses to gravistimulation in primary roots of soybean Glycine max Horizontal orientation of soybean roots caused the accumulation of both NO and cGMP in the primary root tip Fluorescence confocal microcopy revealed that the accumulation of NO was asymmetric with NO concentrating in the lower side of the root Auxin induced NO accumulation in root protoplasts and asymmetric NO accumulation in root tips Gravistimulation NO and auxin also induced the accumulation of cGMP a response inhibited by removal of NO or by inhibitors of guanylyl cyclase compounds that also reduced gravitropic bending Asymmetric NO accumulation and gravitropic bending were both inhibited by an auxin transport inhibitor and the inhibition of bending was overcome by treatment with NO or 8-bromo-cGMP a cell-permeable analog of cGMP These data indicate that auxin-induced NO and cGMP mediate gravitropic curvature in soybean roots From Hu et al Plant Physiol 2005 137 663-670 The asymmetric distribution of auxin plays a fundamental role in plant gravitropic bending

  10. Physical and numerical investigation of the flow induced vibration of the hydrofoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q.; Wang, G. Y.; Huang, B.

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the flow induced vibration of a flexible hydrofoil in cavitating flows via combined experimental and numerical studies. The experiments are presented for the modified NACA66 hydrofoil made of POM Polyacetate in the closed-loop cavitation tunnel at Beijing Institute of Technology. The high-speed camera and the single point Laser Doppler Vibrometer are applied to analyze the transient flow structures and the corresponding structural vibration characteristics. The hybrid coupled fluid structure interaction model is conducted to couple the incompressible and unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes solver with a simplified two-degree-of-freedom structural model. The k-ω SST turbulence model with the turbulence viscosity correction and the Zwart cavitation model are introduced to the present simulations. The results showed that with the decreasing of the cavitation number, the cavitating flows display incipient cavitation, sheet cavitation, cloud cavitation and supercavitation. The vibration magnitude increases dramatically for the cloud cavitation and decline for the supercavitation. The cloud cavitation development strongly affects the vibration response, which is corresponding to the periodically developing and shedding of the large-scale cloud cavity. The main frequency of the vibration amplitude is accordance with the cavity shedding frequency and other two frequencies of the vibration amplitude are corresponding to the natural frequencies of the bending and twisting modes.

  11. Measurement of dynamic patterns of an elastic membrane at bi-modal vibration using high speed electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preciado, Jorge Sanchez; Lopez, Carlos Perez; Santoyo, Fernando Mendoza [Grupo de Metrología Optica, Centro de Investigaciones en Óptica, A. C. Loma del Bosque 115, Col. Lomas del Campestre, León, Guanajuato, 37150 (Mexico)

    2014-05-27

    Implementing a hybrid arrangement of Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) and high speed Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) we were able to measure the dynamic patterns of a flat rectangular elastic membrane clamped at its edges stimulated with the sum of two resonance frequencies. ESPI is a versatile technique to analyze in real-time the deformation of a membrane since its low computational cost and easy implementation of the optical setup. Elastic membranes present nonlinear behaviors when stimulated with low amplitude signals. The elastic membrane under test, with several non rational related vibrating modals below the 200 Hz, was stimulated with two consecutives resonant frequencies. The ESPI patterns, acquired at high speed rates, shown a similar behavior for the dual frequency stimulation as in the case of patterns formed with the entrainment frequency. We think this may be related to the effects observed in the application of dual frequency stimulation in ultrasound.

  12. Quantitative measurement of vocal fold vibration in male radio performers and healthy controls using high-speed videoendoscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Warhurst

    Full Text Available Acoustic and perceptual studies show a number of differences between the voices of radio performers and controls. Despite this, the vocal fold kinematics underlying these differences are largely unknown. Using high-speed videoendoscopy, this study sought to determine whether the vocal vibration features of radio performers differed from those of non-performing controls.Using high-speed videoendoscopy, recordings of a mid-phonatory/i/ in 16 male radio performers (aged 25-52 years and 16 age-matched controls (aged 25-52 years were collected. Videos were extracted and analysed semi-automatically using High-Speed Video Program, obtaining measures of fundamental frequency (f0, open quotient and speed quotient. Post-hoc analyses of sound pressure level (SPL were also performed (n = 19. Pearson's correlations were calculated between SPL and both speed and open quotients.Male radio performers had a significantly higher speed quotient than their matched controls (t = 3.308, p = 0.005. No significant differences were found for f0 or open quotient. No significant correlation was found between either open or speed quotient with SPL.A higher speed quotient in male radio performers suggests that their vocal fold vibration was characterised by a higher ratio of glottal opening to closing times than controls. This result may explain findings of better voice quality, higher equivalent sound level and greater spectral tilt seen in previous research. Open quotient was not significantly different between groups, indicating that the durations of complete vocal fold closure were not different between the radio performers and controls. Further validation of these results is required to determine the aetiology of the higher speed quotient result and its implications for voice training and clinical management in performers.

  13. Mitigation of electron attachment to oxygen in high pressure air plasmas by vibrational excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, K.; Lee, W.; Palm, P.; Adamovich, I. V.; Rich, J. W.; Lempert, W. R.

    2007-05-01

    A series of time resolved microwave attenuation measurements are performed of the electron number density of an electron beam generated, CO laser excited nonequilibrium O2/N2 plasma. Resonant absorption of infrared radiation from the CO laser produces the nonequilibrium state, in which the heavy species vibrational modes are disproportionately excited, compared to the rotational and translational modes (Tvib≈2000-3000K vs TR /T≈300K). It is shown that this results in an increase in the plasma free electron lifetime by two orders of magnitude compared to the unexcited cold gas, an effect which is ascribed to complete mitigation of rapid three-body electron attachment to molecular oxygen. A series of heavy species filtered pure rotational Raman scattering measurements are also presented, which exhibit minimal temperature change (+50K), indicating that the observed lifetime increase cannot be due to heavy-species thermal effects. Finally, computational modeling results infer an increase in the rate of O2- detachment by four to five orders of magnitude, compared to the equilibrium value.

  14. Predicting wind-induced vibrations of high-rise buildings using unsteady CFD and modal analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the wind-induced vibration of the CAARC standard tall building model, via unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and a structural modal analysis. In this numerical procedure, the natural unsteady wind in the atmospheric boundary layer is modeled with an artificial inflow turbulence generation method. Then, the turbulent flow is simulated by the second mode of a Zonal Detached-Eddy Simulation, and a conservative quadrature-projection scheme is adopted to transfer unsteady loads from fluid to structural nodes. The aerodynamic damping that represents the fluid-structure interaction mechanism is determined by empirical functions extracted from wind tunnel experiments. Eventually, the flow solutions and the structural responses in terms of mean and root mean square quantities are compared with experimental measurements, over a wide range of reduced velocities. The significance of turbulent inflow conditions and aeroelastic effects is highlighted. The current methodology provides predictions of good accuracy and can be considered as a preliminary design tool to evaluate the unsteady wind effects on tall buildings.

  15. Waves & vibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas, Maxime

    2016-01-01

    Engineering school; This course is designed for students of Polytech Marseille, engineering school. It covers first the physics of vibration of the harmonic oscillator with damping and forcing, coupled oscillators. After a presentation of the wave equation, the vibration of strings, beams and membranes are studied.

  16. Combined high-pressure and high-temperature vibrational studies of dolomite: phase diagram and evidence of a new distorted modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiopoulos, I.; Jahn, S.; Kuras, A.; Schade, U.; Koch-Müller, M.

    2017-02-01

    A combined high-pressure mid-infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy study on a natural CaMg0.98Fe0.02(CO3)2 dolomite sample was performed both at ambient and high temperatures. A pressure-temperature phase diagram was constructed for all the reported dolomite ambient- and high-pressure polymorphs. In addition, a local distortion of the ambient-pressure dolomite structure was identified close to 11 GPa, just before the transition toward the first known high-pressure phase. All the Clausius-Clapeyron slopes are found to be positive with similar magnitudes. Complementary first-principles calculations suggest a metastable nature of the high-pressure dolomite polymorphs. Finally, theoretical spectroscopy is used to interpret and discuss the observed changes in the measured vibrational spectra.

  17. Vibrational Spectroscopy of PTSA—Doped Polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manju; Gupta, S. K.

    2008-11-01

    Infrared transmittance spectra of polyaniline emeraldine base (EB) form and its different PTSA (p-toulene sulphonic acid) concentration doped samples were measured in 4000-400 cm-1 region at ambient temperature to reveal the polymeric chain oligomeric unit, interaction of sulphonate ions with these chains and effect of its concentration. The vibrational peaks of benzenoid (B) ring, quinoid (Q) ring, their combination modes and semiquinone units in PTSA doped emeraldine salts (PTSA:ES) are observed and assigned by using Oligomer Compound Approach. The para-substitution of B rings is confirmed by the appearance of B ring C-H out-of-plane deformation mode as a medium intensity band at 827 cm-1 in EB and at 824 cm-1 in ES:PTSA salts. The out-of-plane wagging mode of five adjacent hydrogen in end capped phenyl group due to conformational deformation of rings in polymeric chain is obtained as very weak bands at 712 and 682 cm-1 in EB and PTSA doped salts. These studies showed that B4Q1 is the basic oligomeric unit in polymer chain formation with their ends capped with phenyl rings. The strong and broad sulphonate ion stretching vibration and C-H bending of Q ring is observed at 1120 cm-1 due to the high degree of electron delocalization in PANI polymeric chain. On increasing PTSA concentration minor variations in intensity and position of peaks were observed.

  18. Study of vibrational spectra of NH sub 4 Cl and NH sub 4 Br at high pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Glazkov, V P; Syrykh, G F; Kozlenko, D P; Savenko, B N; Telepnev, A S

    2002-01-01

    The NH sub 4 Cl vibrational spectra at the pressures up to 2.6 GPa and the NH sub 4 Br spectra at the pressures up to 7 GPa are studied through the method of the neutrons inelastic incoherent scattering. It is established that the linear baric dependence of the libration mode changes its inclination in the area above the pressure of transition from the disordered cubic phase to the ordered cubic phase with the CsCl-type structure. The baric dependence inclination of the cross-sectional optical translation mode remains unchanged. The evaluations of the Grueneisen parameters are presented in the one-dimensional approximation and the form of the potential function for the libration oscillations in the disordered and ordered cubic phases with the CsCl-type structure is calculated. It is shown that the observed effects are related to the high anharmonism of the potential in the disordered phase

  19. Down-regulation of adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells by oscillating high-gradient magnetic fields and mechanical vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotskii, V.; Lunov, O.; Novotná, B.; Churpita, O.; Trošan, P.; HoláÅ, V.; Syková, E.; Dejneka, A.; Kubinová, Š.

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays, the focus in medicine on molecular genetics has resulted in a disregard for the physical basis of treatment even though many diseases originate from changes in cellular mechanics. Perturbations of the cellular nanomechanics promote pathologies, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Furthermore, whilst the biological and therapeutic effects of magnetic fields are a well-established fact, to date the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Here, we show that oscillating high-gradient magnetic field (HGMF) and mechanical vibration affect adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells by the transmission of mechanical stress to the cell cytoskeleton, resulting in F-actin remodelling and subsequent down-regulation of adipogenic genes adiponectin, PPARγ, and AP2. Our findings propose an insight into the regulation of cellular nanomechanics, and provide a basis for better controlled down-regulation of stem cell adipogenesis by HGMF, which may facilitate the development of challenging therapeutic strategies suitable for the remote control of biological systems.

  20. Pipeline Bending Strain Measurement and Compensation Technology Based on Wavelet Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The bending strain of long distance oil and gas pipelines may lead to instability of the pipeline and failure of materials, which seriously deteriorates the transportation security of oil and gas. To locate the position of the bending strain for maintenance, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU is usually adopted in a Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG. The attitude data of the IMU is usually acquired to calculate the bending strain in the pipe. However, because of the vibrations in the pipeline and other system noises, the resulting bending strain calculations may be incorrect. To improve the measurement precision, a method, based on wavelet neural network, was proposed. To test the proposed method experimentally, a PIG with the proposed method is used to detect a straight pipeline. It can be obtained that the proposed method has a better repeatability and convergence than the original method. Furthermore, the new method is more accurate than the original method and the accuracy of bending strain is raised by about 23% compared to original method. This paper provides a novel method for precisely inspecting bending strain of long distance oil and gas pipelines and lays a foundation for improving the precision of inspection of bending strain of long distance oil and gas pipelines.

  1. FFAG lattice without opposite bends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trbojevic, Dejan; Courant, Ernest D.; Garren, Al

    2000-08-01

    A future "neutrino factory" or Muon Collider requires fast muon acceleration before the storage ring. Several alternatives for fast muon acceleration have previously been considered. One of them is the FFAG (Fixed Field Alternating Gradient) synchrotron. The FFAG concept was developed in 1952 by K. R. Symon (ref. 1). The advantages of this design are the fixed magnetic field, large range of particle energy, simple RF; power supplies are simple, and there is no transition energy. But a drawback is that reverse bending magnets are included in the configuration; this increases the size and cost of the ring. Recently some modified FFAG lattice designs have been described where the amount of opposite bending was significantly reduced (ref. 2, ref. 3).

  2. FFAG lattice without opposite bends

    CERN Document Server

    Trbojevic, D; Garren, A

    2000-01-01

    A future 'neutrino factory' or Muon Collider requires fast muon acceleration before the storage ring. Several alternatives for fast muon acceleration have previously been considered. One of them is the FFAG (Fixed Field Alternating Gradient) synchrotron. The FFAG concept was developed in 1952 by K. R. Symon (ref. 1). The advantages of this design are the fixed magnetic field, large range of particle energy, simple RF; power supplies are simple, and there is no transition energy. But a drawback is that reverse bending magnets are included in the configuration; this increases the size and cost of the ring. Recently some modified FFAG lattice designs have been described where the amount of opposite bending was significantly reduced (ref. 2, ref. 3).

  3. Note: High frequency vibration rejection using a linear shaft actuator-based image stabilizing device via vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation control method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Doo-Yeol; Kim, Young-Kook; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2013-08-01

    In mobile robotics, obtaining stable image of a mounted camera is crucial for operating a mobile system to complete given tasks. This note presents the development of a high-speed image stabilizing device using linear shaft actuator, and a new image stabilization method inspired by human gaze stabilization process known as vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). In the proposed control, the reference is adaptively adjusted by the VOR adaptation control to reject residual vibration of a camera as the VOR gain converges to optimal state. Through experiments on a pneumatic vibrator, it will be shown that the proposed system is capable of stabilizing 10 Hz platform vibration, which shows potential applicability of the device to a high-speed mobile robot.

  4. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  5. The high overtone and combination levels of SF6 revisited at Doppler-limited resolution: A global effective rovibrational model for highly excited vibrational states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, M.; Boudon, V.; Loëte, M.; Roy, P.; Manceron, L.

    2017-03-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride is an important prototypal molecule for modeling highly excited vibrational energy flow and multi quanta absorption processes in hexafluoride molecules of technological importance. It is also a strong greenhouse gas of anthropogenic origin. This heavy species, however, features many hot bands at room temperature (at which only 30% of the molecules lie in the ground vibrational state), especially those originating from the lowest, v6=1 vibrational state. Using a cryogenic long path cell with variable optical path length and temperatures regulated between 120 and 163 K, coupled to Synchrotron Radiation and a high resolution interferometer, Doppler-limited spectra of the 2ν1 +ν3 , ν1 +ν2 +ν3 , ν1 +ν3 , ν2 +ν3 , 3ν3, ν2 + 3ν3 and ν1 + 3ν3 from 2000 to 4000 cm-1 near-infrared region has been recorded. Low temperature was used to limit the presence of hot bands. The spectrum has been analyzed thanks to the XTDS software package. Combining with previously observed weak difference bands in the far infrared region involving the v1, v2, v3=1 states, we are thus able to use the tensorial model to build a global fit of spectroscopic parameters for v1=1,2, v2=1, v3=1,2,3. The model constitutes a consistent set of molecular parameters and enable spectral rovibrational simulation for all multi-quanta transitions involving v1, v2 and v3 up to v1-3 = 3 . Tests simulation on rovibrational transitions not yet rovibrationally assigned are presented and compared to new experimental data.

  6. Structure-Dependent Vibrational Dynamics of Mg(BH4)2 Polymorphs Probed with Neutron Vibrational Spectroscopy and First-Principles Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrievska, Mirjana; White, James L.; Zhou, Wei; Stavila, Vitalie; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Udovic, Terrence J.

    2016-09-28

    The structure-dependent vibrational properties of different Mg(BH4)2 polymorphs (..alpha.., ..beta.., ..gamma.., and ..delta.. phases) were investigated with a combination of neutron vibrational spectroscopy (NVS) measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, with emphasis placed on the effects of the local structure and orientation of the BH4- anions. DFT simulations closely match the neutron vibrational spectra. The main bands in the low-energy region (20-80 meV) are associated with the BH4- librational modes. The features in the intermediate energy region (80-120 meV) are attributed to overtones and combination bands arising from the lower-energy modes. The features in the high-energy region (120-200 meV) correspond to the BH4- symmetric and asymmetric bending vibrations, of which four peaks located at 140, 142, 160, and 172 meV are especially intense. There are noticeable intensity distribution variations in the vibrational bands for different polymorphs. This is explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of BH4- anions within various structures. An example of the possible identification of products after the hydrogenation of MgB2, using NVS measurements, is presented. These results provide fundamental insights of benefit to researchers currently studying these promising hydrogen-storage materials.

  7. Calculation of the vibrational frequencies of carbon clusters and fullerenes with empirical potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hainam; Besley, Nicholas A

    2015-02-07

    Vibrational frequencies for carbon clusters, fullerenes and nanotubes evaluated using empirical carbon-carbon potentials are presented. For linear and cyclic clusters, frequencies evaluated with the reactive empirical bond order (REBO) potential provide the closest agreement with experiment. The mean absolute deviation (MAD) between experiment and the calculated harmonic frequencies is 79 cm(-1) for the bending modes and 76 cm(-1) for the stretching modes. The effects of anharmonicity are included via second order vibrational perturbation theory and tend to increase the frequency of the bending modes while the stretching modes have negative shifts in the region of 20-60 cm(-1), with larger shifts for the higher frequency modes. This results in MADs for the bending and stretching modes of 84 cm(-1) and 58 cm(-1), respectively. For the fullerene molecule C60, the high frequency modes are predicted to have harmonic frequencies that are significantly higher than experiment, and this is not corrected by accounting for anharmonicity. This overestimation of experimental observed frequencies is also evident in the calculated frequencies of the G band in nanotubes. This suggests that the REBO potential is not optimal for these larger systems and it is shown that adjustment of the parameters within the potential leads to closer agreement with experiment, particularly if higher and lower frequency modes are considered separately.

  8. Advances and Trends on Tube Bending Forming Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG He; LI Heng; ZHANG Zhiyong; ZHAN Mei; LIU Jing; LI Guangjun

    2012-01-01

    As one kind of key components with enormous quantities and diversities,the bent tube parts satisfy the increasing needs for lightweight and high-strength product from both materials and structure aspects.The bent tubes have been widely used in many high-end industries such as aviation,aerospaee,shipbuilding,automobile,energy and health care.The tube bending has become one of the key manufacturing technologies for lightweight product forming.Via the analysis of bending characteristics and multiple defects,advances on exploring the common issues in tube bending are summarized regarding wrinkling instability at the intrados,wall thinning (cracking) at the extrados,springback phenomenon,cross-section deformation,forming limit and process/tooling design/optimization.Some currently developed bending techniques are reviewed in terms of their advantages and limitations.Finally,in view of the urgent requirements of high-performance complex bent tube components with difficult-to-deform and lightweight materials in aviation and aerospace fields,the development trends and corresponding challenges are presented for realizing the precise and high-efficiency tube bending deformation.

  9. Vibrating wire alignment technique

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao-Long, Wang; lei, Wu; Chun-Hua, Li

    2013-01-01

    Vibrating wire alignment technique is a kind of method which through measuring the spatial distribution of magnetic field to do the alignment and it can achieve very high alignment accuracy. Vibrating wire alignment technique can be applied for magnet fiducialization and accelerator straight section components alignment, it is a necessary supplement for conventional alignment method. This article will systematically expound the international research achievements of vibrating wire alignment technique, including vibrating wire model analysis, system frequency calculation, wire sag calculation and the relation between wire amplitude and magnetic induction intensity. On the basis of model analysis this article will introduce the alignment method which based on magnetic field measurement and the alignment method which based on amplitude and phase measurement. Finally, some basic questions will be discussed and the solutions will be given.

  10. Vibrational Frequencies and Spectroscopic Constants for 1(sup 3)A' HNC and 1(sup 3)A' HOC+ from High-Accuracy Quartic Force Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Crawford, T. Daniel; Lee, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The spectroscopic constants and vibrational frequencies for the 1(sup 3)A' states of HNC, DNC, HOC+, and DOC+ are computed and discussed in this work. The reliable CcCR quartic force field based on high-level coupled cluster ab initio quantum chemical computations is exclusively utilized to provide the anharmonic potential. Then, second order vibrational perturbation theory and vibrational configuration interaction methods are employed to treat the nuclear Schroedinger equation. Second-order perturbation theory is also employed to provide spectroscopic data for all molecules examined. The relationship between these molecules and the corresponding 1(sup 3)A' HCN and HCO+ isomers is further developed here. These data are applicable to laboratory studies involving formation of HNC and HOC+ as well as astronomical observations of chemically active astrophysical environments.

  11. Vibrational frequencies and structure determination of silylgermane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, James O.

    2003-11-01

    The normal mode frequencies and corresponding vibrational assignments of silylgermane are examined theoretically using the GAUSSIAN 98 set of quantum chemistry codes. All normal modes were successfully assigned to one of seven types of motion predicted by a group theoretical analysis (SiH stretch, GeH stretch, SiGe stretch, HSiH bend, HGeH bend, SiH 3 wag/GeH 3 wag and SiGe torsion) utilizing the C3 v symmetry of the molecule. Predicted infrared and Raman intensities are presented. Molecular orbitals are presented and bonding is examined in terms of the molecular orbitals.

  12. Fermi resonance-algebraic model for molecular vibrational spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯喜文; 董世海; 谢汨; 马中骐

    1999-01-01

    A Fermi resonance-algebraic model is proposed for molecular vibrations, where a U(2) algebra is used for describing the vibrations of each bond, and Fermi resonances between stretching and bending modes are taken into account. The model for a bent molecule XY2 and a molecule XY3 is successfully applied to fitting the recently observed vibrational spectrum of the water molecule and arsine (AsH3), respectively, and the results are compared with those of other models. Calculations show that algebraic approaches can be used as an effective method to describe molecular vibrations with small standard deviations.

  13. Good Vibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Panesar, Lucy

    2007-01-01

    Good Vibrations was a market research exercise conducted by Felicity (my alter-ego) and assistants to help develop marketing and packaging for an electro-therapeutic device (vibrator) used to treat hysteria and other female stress related disorders. It was a live art work commissioned by The Live Art Development Agency for East End Collaborations on 6th May 2007 and the South London Gallery for Bonkersfest on 2nd June 2007.

  14. Numerical simulation of high-speed train induced ground vibrations using 2.5D finite element approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An efficient 2.5D finite element numerical modeling approach was developed to simulate wave motions generated in ground by high-speed train passages. Fourier transform with respect to the coordinate in the track direction was applied to re-ducing the three-dimensional dynamic problem to a plane strain problem which has been solved in a section perpendicular to the track direction. In this study, the track structure and supporting ballast layer were simplified as a composite Euler beam resting on the ground surface, while the ground with complicated geometry and physical properties was modeled by 2.5D quadrilateral elements. Wave dissipation into the far field was dealt with the transmitting boundary constructed with fre-quency-dependent dashpots. Three-dimensional responses of track structure and ground were obtained from the wavenumber expansion in the track direction. The simulated wave motions in ground were interpreted for train moving loads traveling at speeds below or above the critical velocity of a specific track-ground system. It is found that, in the soft ground area, the high-speed train operations can enter the transonic range, which can lead to resonances of the track structure and the sup-porting ground. The strong vibration will endanger the safe operations of high-speed train and accelerate the deterioration of railway structure.

  15. Numerical simulation of high-speed train induced ground vibrations using 2.5D finite element approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN XueCheng; OHEN YunMin; HU Ting

    2008-01-01

    An efficient 2.5D finite element numerical modeling approach was developed to simulate wave motions generated in ground by high-speed train passages.Fourier transform with respect to the coordinate in the track direction was applied to re-ducing the three-dimensional dynamic problem to a plane strain problem which has been solved in a section perpendicular to the track direction.In this study,the track structure and supporting ballast layer were simplified as a composite Euler beam resting on the ground surface,while the ground with complicated geometry and physical properties was modeled by 2.5D quadrilateral elements.Wave dissipation into the far field was dealt with the transmitting boundary constructed with fre-quency-dependent dashpots.Three-dimensional responses of track structure and ground were obtained from the wavenumber expansion in the track direction.The simulated wave motions in ground were interpreted for train moving loads traveling at speeds below or above the critical velocity of a specific track-ground system.It is found that,in the soft ground area,the high-speed train operations can enter the transonic range,which can lead to resonances of the track structure and the sup-porting ground.The strong vibration will endanger the safe operations of high-speed train and accelerate the deterioration of railway structure.

  16. Vibration sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amita; Singh, Ranvir; Ahmad, Amir; Kumar, Mahesh

    2003-10-01

    Today, vibration sensors with low and medium sensitivities are in great demand. Their applications include robotics, navigation, machine vibration monitoring, isolation of precision equipment & activation of safety systems e.g. airbags in automobiles. Vibration sensors have been developed at SSPL, using silicon micromachining to sense vibrations in a system in the 30 - 200 Hz frequency band. The sensing element in the silicon vibration sensor is a seismic mass suspended by thin silicon hinges mounted on a metallized glass plate forming a parallel plate capacitor. The movement of the seismic mass along the vertical axis is monitored to sense vibrations. This is obtained by measuring the change in capacitance. The movable plate of the parallel plate capacitor is formed by a block connected to a surrounding frame by four cantilever beams located on sides or corners of the seismic mass. This element is fabricated by silicon micromachining. Several sensors in the chip sizes 1.6 cm x 1.6 cm, 1 cm x 1 cm and 0.7 cm x 0.7 cm have been fabricated. Work done on these sensors, techniques used in processing and silicon to glass bonding are presented in the paper. Performance evaluation of these sensors is also discussed.

  17. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  18. Particle deposition in industrial duct bends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Thomas M; Leith, David

    2004-07-01

    A study of particle deposition in industrial duct bends is presented. Particle deposition by size was measured by comparing particle size distributions upstream and downstream of bends that had geometries and flow conditions similar to those used in industrial ventilation. As the interior surface of the duct bend was greased to prevent particle bounce, the results are applicable to liquid drops and solid particles where duct walls are sticky. Factors investigated were: (i) flow Reynolds number (Re = 203 000, 36 000); (ii) particle Reynolds number (10 vertical); and (vii) construction technique (smooth, gored, segmented). Measured deposition was compared with models developed for bends in small diameter sampling lines (Re 20 microm, deposition was slightly greater in the horizontal-to-horizontal orientation than in the horizontal-to-vertical orientation due to gravitational settling. Penetration was not a multiplicative function of bend angle as theory predicts, due to the developing nature of turbulent flow in bends. Deposition in a smooth bend was similar to that in a gored bend; however, a tight radius segmented bend (R0 = 1.7) exhibited much lower deposition. For more gradual bends (3 < R0 < 12), curvature ratio had negligible effect on deposition.

  19. High resolution IR diode laser study of collisional energy transfer between highly vibrationally excited monofluorobenzene and CO{sub 2}: The effect of donor fluorination on strong collision energy transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kilyoung; Johnson, Alan M.; Powell, Amber L.; Mitchell, Deborah G.; Sevy, Eric T., E-mail: esevy@byu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602 (United States)

    2014-12-21

    Collisional energy transfer between vibrational ground state CO{sub 2} and highly vibrationally excited monofluorobenzene (MFB) was studied using narrow bandwidth (0.0003 cm{sup −1}) IR diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Highly vibrationally excited MFB with E′ = ∼41 000 cm{sup −1} was prepared by 248 nm UV excitation followed by rapid radiationless internal conversion to the electronic ground state (S{sub 1}→S{sub 0}*). The amount of vibrational energy transferred from hot MFB into rotations and translations of CO{sub 2} via collisions was measured by probing the scattered CO{sub 2} using the IR diode laser. The absolute state specific energy transfer rate constants and scattering probabilities for single collisions between hot MFB and CO{sub 2} were measured and used to determine the energy transfer probability distribution function, P(E,E′), in the large ΔE region. P(E,E′) was then fit to a bi-exponential function and extrapolated to the low ΔE region. P(E,E′) and the biexponential fit data were used to determine the partitioning between weak and strong collisions as well as investigate molecular properties responsible for large collisional energy transfer events. Fermi's Golden rule was used to model the shape of P(E,E′) and identify which donor vibrational motions are primarily responsible for energy transfer. In general, the results suggest that low-frequency MFB vibrational modes are primarily responsible for strong collisions, and govern the shape and magnitude of P(E,E′). Where deviations from this general trend occur, vibrational modes with large negative anharmonicity constants are more efficient energy gateways than modes with similar frequency, while vibrational modes with large positive anharmonicity constants are less efficient at energy transfer than modes of similar frequency.

  20. The SOLEIL view on sulfur rich oxides: The S2O bending mode ν2 at 380 cm-1 and its analysis using an Automated Spectral Assignment Procedure (ASAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Endres, C. P.; Zingsheim, O.; Salomon, T.; van Wijngaarden, J.; Pirali, O.; Gruet, S.; Lewen, F.; Schlemmer, S.; McCarthy, M. C.; Thorwirth, S.

    2015-09-01

    The fundamental vibrational bending mode ν2 of disulfur monoxide, S2O, and the associated hot band 2ν2 -ν2 have been observed at high spectral resolution for the first time at the SOLEIL synchrotron facility using Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopy. This transient species has been produced in a radio-frequency discharge by flowing SO2 over elemental sulfur. The spectroscopic analysis has been performed using the newly developed Automated Spectral Assignment Procedure (ASAP) which has enabled the accurate determination of more than 3500 energy levels of the v2 = 1and 2 vibrational states. The procedure provides a fast and convenient way to analyze large data sets in a straightforward manner, if one of the two vibrational states involved in the transition is accurately known from prior work. In addition to the high-resolution synchrotron study, pure rotational spectra of S2O in the v2 = 1 and 2 vibrational states were observed in the frequency range 250-500 GHz by absorption spectroscopy in a long-path absorption cell. From these combined measurements, extensive molecular parameter sets have been determined, including full sets of sextic and two octic centrifugal distortion terms. Highly accurate band centers (to better than 10-5 cm-1) have been derived for both vibrational bands.

  1. Vibrational properties of silanol group: from alkylsilanol to small silica cluster. Effects of silicon substituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carteret, Cédric

    2006-06-01

    Structural and vibrational features of silanol group are investigated in detail by quantum calculations and normal mode analysis. The structural parameters, charge distributions, force fields, vibrational wavenumbers, potential energy distributions of normal modes and derivatives of the electric dipole moment are analyzed in relation to the nature of the substituents adjacent to the silanol group. The calculations results are discussed in light of available experimental data. Although the OH stretching mode has already been well localized in various silanols, both the Si-(OH) stretching and SiOH bending vibrations have not been yet finely analyzed leading to some discrepancies reported in literature. Clarified assignments of these vibrations are proposed on the basis of normal mode analysis and of SiOH-->SiOD isotopic exchange. The following spectral ranges are determined: 790-1030 cm-1 for nuSi-(OH), 790-1010 cm-1 for nuSi-(OD), 790-900 cm-1 for deltaOH and 580-640 cm-1 for deltaOD. The nuSi-(OH)/nuSi-(OD) wavenumbers are highly dependent on silicon substituents: electron-withdrawing groups induce shifts to higher wavenumbers while electron-releasing groups induce shifts to lower wavenumbers. In alkylsilanols, the SiOH bending is observed at higher wavenumber than the stretching vibration. Analysis of infrared intensities and dipole derivatives in internal coordinates gives explanations to spectral "anomalies" observed in experimental measurements such as well defined and intense nuSi-(OD) absorption in contrast with very low intensity for nuSi-(OH). Numerous empirical correlations are established allowing reconstruction of both SiOH force field and SiOH structural parameters with knowledge of few experimental data.

  2. Intramolecular vibrational dynamical barrier due to extremely irrational couplings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The intramolecular vibrational dynamics due to extremely irrational couplings is demonstrated by contrast to the resonance couplings, for the three-mode case of H2O as an example. The extremely irrational couplings are shown to impose such strong hindrance to intramolecular vibrational relaxation (IVR) that they act as barriers. They restrict the direct action/energy transfer between the two stretching modes, though they allow the transfer between a stretching and a bending modes. In contrast, the resonance is more mediated by the bending mode and leads to chaotic IVR. It is also shown that there is a region in the dynamical space in which resonance and extremely irrational couplings coexist.

  3. Interaction of Parametric and Forced Vibrations in High Speed Rotor-Bearing-Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weyh, Bernhardt

    1997-01-01

    ... and the manifold of inhomogeneous solutions are discussed. The application to a realisation of a high speed twin-disc rotor-bearing-system of a textile spinning turbine illustrates the resonance effects...

  4. Consideration on longitudinal bending moment in waves of a large high-speed ship; Ogata kosokutei no haro tatemage moment ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deguchi, M.; Takimoto, T.; Kasuda, T.; Tozawa, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-10

    While high-speed ships are on a trend of increased speed, size and diversity, one of the most important items is a discussion on large high-speed ships with a total length of 100 m class on their longitudinal strength in waves. With such a background, a model ship intended of realizing a large high-speed was assumed, and verification of reliability in structural strength and establishment of a design method for this ship were intended. Therefore, oceanographic condition setting, design load setting, FEM analysis, and strength assessment were carried out. This paper reports the results of comparison with and consideration on conventional criteria and linear calculations, mainly the results of simulated calculations on non-linear hull movement/wave load which have been performed in discussing the loads. The result of the non-linear simulation is thought to have well simulated non-linearity characteristic to the ship. Conventional criteria which have been arranged on the record of use for small ships are considered impossible to be applied to large high-speed ships. Under such a situation, the simplified equations by Kaneko et al are judged effective in making an initial plan for this type of ship. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Garment-Integrated Bend Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gioberto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Garment-integrated sensors equip clothes with a smart sensing capability, while preserving the comfort of the user. However, this benefit can be to the detriment of sensing accuracy due to the unpredictability of garment movement (which affects sensor positioning and textile folds (which can affect sensor orientation. However, sensors integrated directly into garments or fabric structures can also be used to detect the movement of the garment during wearing. Specifically, a textile bend sensor could be used to sense folds in the garment. We tested a garment-integrated stitched sensor for five types of folds, stitched on five different weights of un-stretchable denim fabric and analyzed the effects of fold complexity and fabric stiffness, under un-insulated and insulated conditions. Results show that insulation improves the linearity and repeatability of the sensor response, particularly for higher fold complexity. Stiffer fabrics show greater sensitivity, but less linearity. Sensor response amplitude is larger for more complex fold geometries. The utility of a linear bending response (insulated and a binary shorting response (un-insulated is discussed. Overall, the sensor exhibits excellent repeatability and accuracy, particularly for a fiber-based, textile-integrated sensor.

  6. Lattice Metamaterials with Mechanically Tunable Poisson's Ratio for Vibration Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyu; Li, Tiantian; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Wang, Lifeng

    2017-02-01

    Metamaterials with artificially designed architectures are increasingly considered as new paradigmatic material systems with unusual physical properties. Here, we report a class of architected lattice metamaterials with mechanically tunable negative Poisson's ratios and vibration-mitigation capability. The proposed lattice metamaterials are built by replacing regular straight beams with sinusoidally shaped ones, which are highly stretchable under uniaxial tension. Our experimental and numerical results indicate that the proposed lattices exhibit extreme Poisson's-ratio variations between -0.7 and 0.5 over large tensile deformations up to 50%. This large variation of Poisson's-ratio values is attributed to the deformation pattern switching from bending to stretching within the sinusoidally shaped beams. The interplay between the multiscale (ligament and cell) architecture and wave propagation also enables remarkable broadband vibration-mitigation capability of the lattice metamaterials, which can be dynamically tuned by an external mechanical stimulus. The material design strategy provides insights into the development of classes of architected metamaterials with potential applications including energy absorption, tunable acoustics, vibration control, responsive devices, soft robotics, and stretchable electronics.

  7. Non-equilibrium vibrational and electron energy distribution functions in mtorr, high-electron-density nitrogen discharges and afterglows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitelli, M.; Colonna, G.; D’Ammando, G.; Laricchiuta, A.; Pietanza, L. D.

    2017-03-01

    Non-equilibrium vibrational distributions (vdf) and non-equilibrium electron energy distribution functions (eedf) in a nitrogen plasma at low pressure (mtorr) have been calculated by using a time-dependent plasma physics model coupled to the Boltzmann equation and heavy particle kinetics. Different case studies have been selected showing the non-equilibrium character of both vdf and eedf under discharge and post-discharge conditions in the presence of large concentrations of electrons. Particular attention is devoted to the electron-molecule resonant vibrational excitation cross sections acting in the whole vibrational ladder. The results in the post-discharge conditions show the interplay of superelastic vibrational and electronic collisions in forming structures in the eedf. The link between the present results in the mtorr afterglow regime with the existing eedf in the torr and atmospheric regimes is discussed.

  8. High-resolution synchrotron infrared spectroscopy of acrolein: The vibrational levels between 850 and 1020 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, A. R. W.; Billinghurst, B. E.; Xu, Li-Hong; Lees, R. M.

    2015-11-01

    Using spectra obtained at the Canadian Light Source synchrotron radiation facility, a previously unobserved out-of-plane vibration of trans-acrolein (propenal) is reliably assigned for the first time. Its origin is at 1002.01 cm-1, which is about 20 cm-1 higher than usually quoted in the past. This mode is thus labelled as v14, leaving the label v15 for the known vibration at 992.66 cm-1. Weak combination bands 171182 ← 182, 171131 ← 131, 121182 ← 181, and 171182 ← 181 are studied for the first time, and assignments in the known v11, v16, and v15 fundamental bands are also extended. The seven excited vibrations involved in these bands are analyzed, together with five more unobserved vibrations in the same region (850-1020 cm-1), in a large 12-state simultaneous fit which accounts for most of the many observed perturbations in the spectra.

  9. Experimental Determination of Bending Resonances of Millimeter Size PVF2 Cantilevers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Thompson

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The polymer piezoelectric polvinylidene fluoride has found widespread use in sensors and actuators. The bending mode of piezoelectricity offers very high sensitivities and low mechanical input impedance, but has not been studied in as much detail for sensor applications. We report the dynamic electromechanical properties of millimeter size cantilevers made from electroded films of PVF2. All devices tested had a single polymer layer. Several resonances are found below 1 kHz and the experimentally observed resonance frequency dependence on cantilever thickness and length are seen to agree well with published models which take the properties of the electrodes into account. It is found that bending resonances are also modulated by the width of the cantilever. Therefore, though the length and thickness control the resonance frequency most strongly, the actual realized value can be fine-tuned by changing cantilever width and the electrode material and its thickness. Further, all resonances display high piezoelectric coupling coefficients (keff, ranging between 0.2 - 0.35. The data presented here will be extremely useful in the design of sensors and actuators for a number of applications, since the combination of millimeter size scales and high piezoelectric sensitivities in the low audio range can be realized with this marriage of polymeric materials and cantilever geometries. Such an array of sensors can be used in cochlear implant applications, and when integrated with a resonance interrogation circuit can be used for the detection of low frequency vibrations of large structures. If appropriate mass/elasticity sensitive layers are coated on the electrodes, such a sensor can be used for the detection of a wide range of chemicals and biochemicals.

  10. Bending moment of galvanized iron glass fiber sandwich panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurustal Somnath Swamy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this project is to prepare a laminated with Galvanized iron thickness fractions, fiber volume fractions and orientation in the layers of GF were fabricated by hand lay-up method and evaluated for their bending moment properties of the sandwich panel using universal testing machine. This paper theoretically calculates the bending behavior of sandwich panel. The recent need to develop a new range of materials has resulted in the development of high performance lightweight composites with excellent properties. Metal– composite systems consist of alternating layers of metal and fiber-reinforced polymer composites which are bonded by an adhesive. Sandwich beams were tested under Air Bending. Stress-strain and stress-displacement were recorded by using AIMIL UTM. The beam face sheets exhibited a softening non-linearity on the bending side. Experimental results were in good agreement with predictions from simple models. On an overall basis, the sandwich panel exhibited better bending moment performance than the monolithic galvanized iron

  11. Curvature optical fiber sensor by using bend enhanced method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianrong ZHANG; Hairong LIU; Xinkun WU

    2009-01-01

    Deflection curvature measurement can offer a number of advantages compared with the well-established strain measurement alternative. It is able to measure thin structure; fiber has no resistance with force, which leads to a high precision. There are many kinds of curvature gauges with different operation principles. A low-cost curvature optical fiber sensor using bend enhanced method to improve its curvature measurement sensitivity was devel-oped in recent years. This sensor can distinguish between convex bending and concave bending and has a good linearity in measuring large curvature deformation. Whisper gallery ray theory and Monte Carlo simulation are new achievements by computer experiment. The operation mechanism of this curvature optical fiber sensor is presented based on light scattering theory. The attenuation is ascribed to the transmission mode changing by the curvature of the fiber, which affects the attenuation of the surface scattering. The mathematical model of relationship among light loss, bending curvature, surface roughness, and parameters of the fiber's configuration is also presented. We design different kinds of shapes of sensitive zones; each zone has different parameters. Through detecting their output optical attenuations in different curvatures and fitting the results by exponential decaying functions, the proposed model is demonstrated by experimental results. Also, we compare the experi-mental results with the theoretical analysis and discuss the sensitivity dependence on bending direction.

  12. Ultra-High Temperature Sensors Based on Optical Property Modulation and Vibration-Tolerant Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabeel A. Riza

    2006-01-26

    The goals of the second six months of the Phase 2 of this project were to conduct first time experimental studies using optical designs and some initial hardware developed in the first 6 months of Phase 2. One focus is to modify the SiC chip optical properties to enable gas species sensing with a specific gas species under high temperature and pressure. The goal was to acquire sensing test data using two example inert and safe gases and show gas discrimination abilities. A high pressure gas mixing chamber was to be designed and assembled to achieve the mentioned gas sensing needs. Another goal was to initiate high temperature probe design by developing and testing a probe design that leads to accurately measuring the thickness of the deployed SiC sensor chip to enable accurate overall sensor system design. The third goal of this phase of the project was to test the SiC chip under high pressure conditions using the earlier designed calibration cell to enable it to act as a pressure sensor when doing gas detection. In this case, experiments using a controlled pressure system were to deliver repeatable pressure measurement data. All these goals have been achieved and are described in detail in the report. Both design process and diagrams for the mechanical elements as well as the optical systems are provided. Photographs or schematics of the fabricated hardware are provided. Experimental data from the three optical sensor systems (i.e., Thickness, pressure, and gas species) is provided. The design and experimentation results are summarized to give positive conclusions on the proposed novel high temperature high pressure gas species detection optical sensor technology.

  13. FACTORS INFLUENCING BENDING RIGIDITY OF SUBMERGED VEGETATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Long-hua; YANG Xiao-li

    2011-01-01

    The bending rigidity of submerged vegetation is closely related with vegetative drag force.This work aims at determining the effects of flow conditions and characteristics of vegetation on the bending rigidity of submerged vegetation.Based on the dimensional analysis method,the factors influencing the bending rigidity of individual submerged vegetation were analyzed.The relationship between the relative bending rigidity and its influencing factors was investigated by experimental observation,and a relative bending rigidity expression for submerged vegetation was obtained by means of multiple linear regression method.The results show that the submerged vegetation has three states under different inflow conditions,and the each critical relative bending rigidity of individual submerged vegetation was determined for the different states of submerged vegetation.

  14. Elastic bending modulus of monolayer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Qiang; Huang Rui [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Arroyo, Marino [Department of Applied Mathematics 3, LaCaN, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Barcelona 08034 (Spain)

    2009-05-21

    An analytic formula is derived for the elastic bending modulus of monolayer graphene based on an empirical potential for solid-state carbon atoms. Two physical origins are identified for the non-vanishing bending stiffness of the atomically thin graphene sheet, one due to the bond-angle effect and the other resulting from the bond-order term associated with the dihedral angles. The analytical prediction compares closely with ab initio energy calculations. Pure bending of graphene monolayers into cylindrical tubes is simulated by a molecular mechanics approach, showing slight nonlinearity and anisotropy in the tangent bending modulus as the bending curvature increases. An intrinsic coupling between bending and in-plane strain is noted for graphene monolayers rolled into carbon nanotubes. (fast track communication)

  15. VIBRATION ISOLATION SYSTEM PROBABILITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vladimir Alexandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the probability analysis for a vibration isolation system of high-precision equipment, which is extremely sensitive to low-frequency oscillations even of submicron amplitude. The external sources of low-frequency vibrations may include the natural city background or internal low-frequency sources inside buildings (pedestrian activity, HVAC. Taking Gauss distribution into account, the author estimates the probability of the relative displacement of the isolated mass being still lower than the vibration criteria. This problem is being solved in the three dimensional space, evolved by the system parameters, including damping and natural frequency. According to this probability distribution, the chance of exceeding the vibration criteria for a vibration isolation system is evaluated. Optimal system parameters - damping and natural frequency - are being developed, thus the possibility of exceeding vibration criteria VC-E and VC-D is assumed to be less than 0.04.

  16. Study on active vibration control for high order mode of flexible beam using smart material piezoelectric ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Da-fang; Huang, Liang; Mu, Meng; Wang, Yue-wu; Wu, Shuang

    2012-04-01

    In order to reduce effective load and lower the launch cost, many light-weight flexible structures are employed in spacecraft. The research of active control on flexible structural vibration is very important in spacecraft design. Active vibration control on a flexible beam with smart material piezoelectric pieces bonded in surface is investigated experimentally using independent modal space control method, which is able to control the first three modes independently. A comparison between the systems responses before and after control indicates that the modal damping of flexible structure is greatly improved after active control is performed, indicating remarkable vibration suppression effect. Dynamic equation of the flexible beam is deducted by Hamilton principle, and numerical simulation of active vibration control on the first three order vibration modes is also conducted in this paper. The simulation result matches experimental result very well. Both experimental and numerical results indicate that the independent modal control method using piezoelectric patch as driving element is a very effective approach to realize vibration suppression, which has promising applications in aerospace field.

  17. First high resolution ro-vibrational study of the (0200), (0101) and (0002) vibrational states of MGeH4 (M=76,74)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Gromova, O. V.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Raspopova, N. I.; Fomchenko, A. L.; Sennikov, P. G.; Koshelev, M. A.; Velmuzhova, I. A.; Velmuzhov, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    The infrared spectra of GeH4 (88.1% of 76GeH4, 11.5% of 74GeH4, and a minor amounts of three other stable isotopic species in the sample) were measured in the region of 1450 - 2000cm-1 with a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform interferometer (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) and analyzed. 2254 transitions with Jmax=19 were assigned for the first time to the bands 2ν4(F2), 2ν4(E), ν2 +ν4(F2), ν2 +ν4(F1), 2ν2(A1) and 2ν2(E) of the 76GeH4 isotopologue. Numerous "hot" Dyad-Pentad transitions also were recorded and assigned for the first time in the region of 700 - 1080cm-1 (in general, about 1000 transitions). Rotational, centrifugal distortion, tetrahedral splitting, and interaction parameters for the (0002 ,F2), (0002 , E), (0002 ,A1), (0101 ,F2), (0101 ,F1), (0200 ,A1) and (0200 , E) vibrational states were determined from the fit of experimental line positions. The obtained set of parameters reproduces the initial experimental data with accuracy close to experimental uncertainties. Results of the analogous analysis of the 74GeH4 isotopologue (the number of assigned transitions is 309 "cold" and 99 "hot" ones) are presented also. Obtained from the weighted fit set of spectroscopic parameters of the effective Hamiltonian reproduces the initial experimental data with the drms better than 3 ×10-4cm-1.

  18. Modelling of vibration of gear transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Vladimir; Nemecek, Josef

    The method for mathematical modeling of spatial vibrations of the spur gear transmissions is presented. This method enables a substantial reduction of the number of degrees of freedom with relatively high accuracy in calculating vibration amplitude.

  19. Demonstration of acoustic waveguiding and tight bending in phononic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi Baboly, M.; Raza, A.; Brady, J.; Reinke, C. M.; Leseman, Z. C.; El-Kady, I.

    2016-10-01

    The systematic design, fabrication, and characterization of an isolated, single-mode, 90° bend phononic crystal (PnC) waveguide are presented. A PnC consisting of a 2D square array of circular air holes in an aluminum substrate is used, and waveguides are created by introducing a line defect in the PnC lattice. A high transmission coefficient is observed (-1 dB) for the straight sections of the waveguide, and an overall 2.3 dB transmission loss is observed (a transmission coefficient of 76%) for the 90° bend. Further optimization of the structure may yield higher transmission efficiencies. This manuscript shows the complete design process for an engineered 90° bend PnC waveguide from inception to experimental demonstration.

  20. Linear static structural and vibration analysis on high-performance computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddourah, M. A.; Storaasli, O. O.; Bostic, S. W.

    1993-01-01

    Parallel computers offer the oppurtunity to significantly reduce the computation time necessary to analyze large-scale aerospace structures. This paper presents algorithms developed for and implemented on massively-parallel computers hereafter referred to as Scalable High-Performance Computers (SHPC), for the most computationally intensive tasks involved in structural analysis, namely, generation and assembly of system matrices, solution of systems of equations and calculation of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Results on SHPC are presented for large-scale structural problems (i.e. models for High-Speed Civil Transport). The goal of this research is to develop a new, efficient technique which extends structural analysis to SHPC and makes large-scale structural analyses tractable.

  1. High-frequency vibration effects on hole entrance chipping in rotary ultrasonic drilling of BK7 glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dongxi; Zhang, Yuanming; Peng, Yunfeng

    2016-12-01

    This present investigation exhibited some fundamental information about the influence of the high-frequency vibration on the hole entrance chipping formation involved in rotary ultrasonic drilling (RUD) of BK7 glass process. The entrance chipping morphologies, produced with and without ultrasonic, were observed and evaluated with respect to the fracture mechanics of brittle material. Giving consideration to the variation characteristics of the plastic deformation region in the interior material induced by the specific kinematics principles of the abrasive, the ultrasonic effects on the chipping formation mechanisms were investigated by assessing the groove morphologies obtained in the scratching experiment utilizing the formation mechanisms of the lateral cracking. Furthermore, the formal confirmatory tests with and without ultrasonic were performed to validate these chipping formation mechanisms. It was found that the plastic deformed region reached its maximum at the trajectory bottom. Moreover, the propagation of the lateral cracking initially nucleated at the bottom of the ductile deformation zone resulted in the formation of the entrance chipping in formal RUD process. The slight deformation of the material at the two terminals of each groove produced with ultrasonic would provide the inhibitory effects to the further extending of the lateral cracks, which would shrink with the increased spindle speed, and the inhibitory effect dominated in determining the improvement effects on the hole entrance quality. Additionally, a theoretical relationship between the nucleation depth and the propagation length of the lateral cracking was developed for the conventional drilling (CD) process.

  2. The two-dimensional vibrating reed technique. A study of anisotropic pinning in high-temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karelina, Anna

    2004-02-18

    In this work the anisotropy of the pinning forces of vortices in a-b plane of high temperature-supraconductors was examined. For this purpose vibrating reed with two degrees of freedom of the oscillation was constructed. The pinning forces were examined in single crystals of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. The experiments with YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} show that at temperatures lower than 78 K the vortices are in a nonequilibrium state. This leads to a flux creep and to a drift of the resonance frequency with time. This prevents the comparison of resonance curves in different directions of oscillations. In Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} single crystals the vortices are in more stable state, but the measurements of the resonance curves in different directions show no indication of the four-fold symmetry. At temperatures below 60 K a strong hysteresis of the resonance frequency and the resonance-oscillation amplitude was found in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} crystals as a function of the magnetic field. (orig.)

  3. Flexible Helicoids, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM Cantilevers in High Mode Vibration, and Concave Notch Hinges in Precision Measurements and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakov Tseytlin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexible structures are the main components in many precision measuring and research systems. They provide miniaturization, repeatability, minimal damping, low measuring forces, and very high resolution. This article focuses on the modeling, development, and comparison of three typical flexible micro- nano-structures: flexible helicoids, atomic force microscopy (AFM cantilevers, and concave notch hinges. Our theory yields results which allow us to increase the accuracy and functionality of these structures in new fields of application such as the modeling of helicoidal DNA molecules’ mechanics, the definition of instantaneous center of rotation in concave flexure notch hinges, and the estimation of the increase of spring constants and resolution at higher mode vibration in AFM cantilevers with an additional concentrated and end extended mass. We developed the original kinetostatic, reverse conformal mapping of approximating contours, and non-linear thermomechanical fluctuation methods for calculation, comparison, and research of the micromechanical structures. These methods simplify complicated solutions in micro elasticity but provide them with necessary accuracy. All our calculation results in this article and in all corresponding referenced author’s publications are in a good agreement with experimental and finite element modeling data within 10% or less.

  4. Acute and cumulative effects of focused high-frequency vibrations on the endocrine system and muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodice, Pierpaolo; Bellomo, Rosa Grazia; Gialluca, Glaugo; Fanò, Giorgio; Saggini, Raoul

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute and long-term effects of local high-intensity vibration (HLV, f = 300 Hz) on muscle performance and blood hormone concentrations in healthy young men. Totally 18 subjects (cV group) were studied in two sessions, either without (control) or with HLV treatment. The protocol was the same on both control and test days, except that, in the second session, subjects underwent HLV treatment. Counter-movement jumping (CMJ), maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC) test, and hormonal levels were measured before the procedure, immediately thereafter, and 1 h later. To assess the long-term effects of HLV, the cV group was subjected to HLV on the leg muscles for 4 weeks, and a second group (cR group, n = 18) embarked upon a resistance training program. All subjects underwent an MVC test and an isokinetic (100 deg/s) test before training, 4 weeks after training, and 2 months after the end of training. The HLV protocol significantly increased the serum level of growth hormone (GH, P neuromuscular performance. Our results indicate that HLV has a long-term beneficial effect comparable to that of resistance training.

  5. Particle fracture and plastic deformation in vanadium pentoxide powders induced by high energy vibrational ball-mill

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Partha Chatterjee; S P Sen Gupta; Suchitra Sen

    2001-04-01

    An X-ray powder profile analysis in vanadium pentoxide powder milled in a high energy vibrational ball-mill for different lengths of time (0–250 h), is presented. The strain and size induced broadening of the Bragg reflection for two different crystallographic directions ([001] and [100]) was determined by Warren–Averbach analysis using a pattern-decomposition method assuming a Pseudo–Voigt function. The deformation process caused a decrease in the crystallite size and a saturation of crystallite size of ∼ 10 nm was reached after severe milling. The initial stages of milling indicated a propensity of size-broadening due to fracture of the powder particles caused by repeated ball-to-powder impact whereas with increasing milling time microstrain broadening was predominant. WA analysis indicated significant plastic strain along with spatial confinement of the internal strain fields in the crystallite interfaces. Significant strain anisotropy was noticed in the different crystallographic directions. A near-isotropy in the crystallite size value was noticed for materials milled for 200 h and beyond. The column-length distribution function obtained from the size Fourier coefficients progressively narrowed down with the milling time.

  6. Designing of monitoring setup for vibration signature analysis of steam turbine driven high capacity rotary screw compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyne, T.; Vinod, J. [Birla VXL Ltd., Porbandar (India)

    1997-12-31

    Tracking the behaviour by signature analysis of machines like Screw Compressor having large number of auxiliaries, high power transmissions, variation of process gas properties, changes of load condition, fluctuating revolutions is truly a challenging job. These unavoidable process conditions often disturb the whole setup and there is every possibility to miss important and relevant information. Standards for overall monitoring as well as for peak-amplitudes responsible for root cause identification are not always available because these machines are `custom designed` and manufacturer`s standards are of paramount importance to consider. The health of these machines cannot be assessed by simply comparing with the international standards unlike most common machines such as fans, pumps, motors etc. with minimum number of auxiliaries. There may also be limitations in the features of the instruments used for the purpose. In this presentation, an attempt has been made to setup a monitoring approach for screw compressor which will help the industries initially setting base-line data to implement vibration analysis based off-line predictive maintenance programme either with the help of an analyser or with a latest software. (orig.) 3 refs.

  7. Adsorption and Vibration of O Atoms on Fe Low-index and Fe (211) High-index Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The 5-parameter Morse potential(5-MP) of the interaction between oxygen atoms and iron surfaces was constructed. The adsorption and diffusion of O atoms on Fe low-index and Fe(211 ) high-index surfaces were investigated by using 5-MP. All the critical characteristics of the system, such as adsorption site, adsorption geometry, binding energy, and eigenvalues for vibration, were calculated. The calculation results show that O atoms are located at the fourfold hollow site of the Fe(100) surface with an eigenvibration at 437 cm-1. These results are in good agreement with the experimental and theoretical results obtained previously. With regard to the adsorption site of O-Fe(110) system, the authors of this study assume that the preferential adsorption state is the H3 site and not the LB site, which is not in agreement with the experimental inferences obtained earlier. However, on the Fe( 111 ) and Fe(211 ) surfaces,O atoms predominantly occupy the quasi-3-fold site.

  8. Effects of rim thickness on spur gear bending stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibel, G. D.; Reddy, S. K.; Savage, M.; Handschuh, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    Thin rim gears find application in high-power, light-weight aircraft transmissions. Bending stresses in thin rim spur gear tooth fillets and root areas differ from the stresses in solid gears due to rim deformations. Rim thickness is a significant design parameter for these gears. To study this parameter, a finite element analysis was conducted on a segment of a thin rim gear. The rim thickness was varied and the location and magnitude of the maximum bending stresses reported. Design limits are discussed and compared with the results of other researchers.

  9. Vibration damping of superalloys and thermal barrier coatings at high-temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregori, Giuliano [California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93160-5050 (United States)], E-mail: g.gregori@fkf.mpg.de; Li Li [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93160-5050 (United States); Nychka, John A. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0046 (United States); Clarke, David R. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93160-5050 (United States)

    2007-09-25

    A high-temperature mechanical spectroscopy system, based on non-contact laser vibrometry, has been developed to investigate the temperature dependence of the flexural damping properties of materials and coatings up to 900 deg. C. Results for the damping coefficient and Young's modulus have been obtained for several high temperature alloys (FeCrAlY and a single crystal, Ni-based superalloy PWA 1484), ceramics (polycrystalline alumina and yttria-stabilized zirconia) and an electron-beam deposited thermal barrier coating. The results indicate that the thermally grown oxide, formed by high-temperature oxidation does not confer significant damping, whereas, coatings of the yttria-stabilized zirconia produce measurable damping over the entire temperature range with a peak centered at {approx}200 deg. C. The damping peak appears to be an intrinsic property of the YSZ material whether in the form of a bulk material or a metastable coating. Data on the temperature dependent in-plane Young's modulus of the 7 wt.% yttria-stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coating between room temperature (22 GPa) and 900 deg. C (18 GPa) is also reported for the first time.

  10. A Study on the Uncertainty of Flow-Induced Vibration in a Cross Flow over Staggered Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-Su; Park, Jong-Woon [Dongguk univ, Gyeong Ju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyeon-Kyeong [HanNam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Cross-flow in many support columns of very high temperature reactor (VHTR) lower plenum would have FIV issues under high speed flow jetting from the core. For a group of multiple circular cylinders subjected to a cross-flow, three types of potential vibration mechanisms may exist: (1) Vortex-induced vibration (VIV), (2) Fluid-elastic vibration (FEV) and (3) Turbulence-induced vibration (TIV). Kevalahan studied the free vibration of circular cylinders in a tightly packed periodic square inline array of cylinders. Pandey et al. studied the flue gas flow distribution in the Low Temperature Super Heater (LTSH) tube bundles situated in second pass of a utility boiler and the phenomenon of flow induced vibration. Nakamura et al. studied flow instability of cylinder arrays resembling U-bend tubes in steam generators. The FIV evaluation is usually performed with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis to obtain unknown frequency of oscillation of the multiple objects under turbulent flow and thus the uncertainty residing in the turbulence model used should be quantified. In this paper, potential FIV uncertainty arising from the turbulence phenomena are evaluated for a typical cross flow through staggered tube bundles resembling the VHTR lower plenum support columns. Flow induced vibration (FIV) is one of the important mechanical and fatigue issues in nuclear systems. Especially, cross-flow in many support structures of VHTR lower plenum would have FIV issues under highly turbulent jet flows from the core. The results show that the effect of turbulence parameters on FIV is not negligible and the uncertainty is 5 to 10%. Present method can be applied to future FIV evaluations of nuclear systems. More extensive studies on flow induced vibration in a plant scale by using more rigorous computational methods are under way.

  11. Ovalization of Tubes Under Bending and Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demer, L J; Kavanaugh, E S

    1944-01-01

    An empirical equation has been developed that gives the approximate amount of ovalization for tubes under bending loads. Tests were made on tubes in the d/t range from 6 to 14, the latter d/t ratio being in the normal landing gear range. Within the range of the series of tests conducted, the increase in ovalization due to a compression load in combination with a bending load was very small. The bending load, being the principal factor in producing the ovalization, is a rather complex function of the bending moment, d/t ratio, cantilever length, and distance between opposite bearing faces. (author)

  12. Improvements in springback control by external force laser-assisted sheet bending of titanium and aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisario, A.; Barletta, M.; Venettacci, S.

    2016-12-01

    The present investigation deals with an external-force laser assisted bending process of Grade 2 CP titanium and AA 7075 T6 aluminum sheets. High bending angles, sharp fillet radii and control of springback were achieved by tuning the contact pressure of a hydraulically driven tool with the local and selective heating of the bending zone by irradiation with a high power diode laser. First, the role of laser operational parameters, namely power, scanning speed and number of passes, in metal bending was investigated, allowing to identify the most suitable processing window. Second, a custom-built equipment to measure the bending angle during the forming process, together with the metal temperature, was implemented. Real-time monitoring of the bending angle and temperature allowed to evaluate the continuous evolution of the geometry of the metal substrates during the external force laser-assisted bending process. Experimental results showed both metal sheets could be bent to high angles with very low fillet radii by the appropriate combination of the tooling contact pressure and selective laser heating of the bending zone. Laser heating also reduces the risk of rupture in both metals during bending at high angles, limits the springback extent up to 10 times on titanium and 30 times on aluminum in comparison with conventional bending process and does not affect significantly the visual appearance of the bending zone.

  13. PERMEABILITY OF SALTSTONE MEASUREMENT BY BEAM BENDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J; Tommy Edwards, T; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-01-30

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and, quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone mixes. A performance property for Saltstone mixes that is important but not routinely measured is the liquid permeability or saturated hydraulic conductivity of the cured Saltstone mix. The value for the saturated hydraulic conductivity is an input into the Performance Assessment for the SRS Z-Area vaults. Therefore, it is important to have a method available that allows for an accurate and reproducible measurement of permeability quickly and inexpensively. One such method that could potentially meet these requirements for the measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity is the technique of beam bending, developed by Professor George Scherer at Princeton University. In order to determine the feasibility of this technique for Saltstone mixes, a summer student, David Feliciano, was hired to work at Princeton under the direction of George Scherer. This report details the results of this study which demonstrated the feasibility and applicability of the beam bending method to measurement of permeability of Saltstone samples. This research effort used samples made at Princeton from a Modular Caustic side solvent extraction Unit based simulant (MCU) and premix at a water to premix ratio of 0.60. The saturated hydraulic conductivities for these mixes were measured by the beam bending technique and the values determined were of the order of 1.4 to 3.4 x 10{sup -9} cm/sec. These values of hydraulic conductivity are consistent with independently measured values of this property on similar MCU based mixes by Dixon and Phifer. These values are also consistent with the hydraulic conductivity of a generic Saltstone mix measured by Langton in 1985. The high water to premix ratio used for Saltstone along with the relatively low degree of hydration for

  14. Vibrations on board and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2014-01-01

    There is only limited knowledge of the exposure to vibrations of ships’ crews and their risk of vibration-induced health effects. Exposure to hand-arm vibrations from the use of vibrating tools at sea does not differ from that in the land-based trades. However, in contrast to most other work places......, seafarers are also exposed to vibrations to the feet when standing on vibrating surfaces onboard. Anecdotal reports have related the development of “white feet” to local exposure to vibration, e.g. in mining, but this connection has not been investigated in the maritime setting. As known from studies...... of the health consequences of whole body vibrations in land-transportation, such exposure at sea may affect ships’ passengers and crews. While the relation of back disorders to high levels of whole body vibration has been demonstrated among e.g. tractor drivers, there are no reported epidemiological evidence...

  15. Vibration Compensation for Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng-chao; FU Xing; WEI Xiao-lei; HU Xiao-tang

    2003-01-01

    The influence of vibration is already one of main obstacles for improving the nano measuring accuracy.The techniques of anti-vibration,vibration isolation and vibration compensation become an important branch in nano measuring field.Starting with the research of sensitivity to vibration of scanning tunneling microscope(STM),the theory,techniques and realization methods of nano vibration sensor based on tunnel effect are initially investigated,followed by developing the experimental devices.The experiments of the vibration detection and vibration compensation are carried out.The experimental results show that vibration sensor based on tunnel effect is characterized by high sensitivity,good frequency characteristic and the same vibratory response characteristic consistent with STM.

  16. Urban vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Knudsen, L.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    In   this   paper   we   describe   a   field   study   conducted   with   a   wearable   vibration   belt   where   we   test   to   determine   the   vibration   intensity   sensitivity   ranges   on   a   large   diverse   group   of   participants   with   evenly   distributed  ages  and......   lab   studies   in   that   we   found   a   decreased   detection   rate   in   busy   environments.   Here   we   test   with   a   much   larger   sample   and   age   range,   and   contribute   with   the   first   vibration  sensitivity  testing  outside  the  lab  in  an  urban   public...

  17. The range of interaction between DNA-bending proteins is controlled by the second-longest correlation length for bending fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    When a DNA molecule is stretched, the zero-force correlation length for its bending fluctuations – the persistence length A – bifurcates into two different correlation lengths - the shorter “longitudinal” correlation length ξ‖(f) and the longer “transverse” correlation length ξ⊥(f). In the high-force limit, ξ‖(f)=ξ⊥(f)/2=kBTA/f/2. When DNA-bending proteins bind to the DNA molecule, there is an effective interaction between the protein-generated bends mediated by DNA elasticity and bending fluctuations. Surprisingly, the range of this interaction is not the longest correlation length associated with transverse fluctuations of the tangent vector along the polymer, but instead is the second longest longitudinal correlation length ξ‖ (f, μ). The effect arises from the protein-bend contribution to the Hamiltonian having an axial rotational symmetry which eliminates its coupling to the transverse fluctuations. PMID:23368394

  18. Nonlinear analysis of wind-induced vibration of high-speed railway catenary and its influence on pantograph-catenary interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Hongrui; Lu, Xiaobing; Zhang, Jing

    2016-06-01

    The wind-induced vibration of the high-speed catenary and the dynamic behaviour of the pantograph-catenary under stochastic wind field are firstly analysed. The catenary model is established based on nonlinear cable and truss elements, which can fully describe the nonlinearity of each wire and the initial configuration. The model of the aerodynamic forces acting on the messenger/contact wire is deduced by considering the effect of the vertical and horizontal fluctuating winds. The vertical and horizontal fluctuating winds are simulated by employing the Davenport and Panofsky spectrums, respectively. The aerodynamic coefficients of the contact/messenger wire are calculated through computational fluid dynamics. The wind-induced vibration response of catenary is analysed with different wind speeds and angles. Its frequency-domain characteristics are discussed using Auto Regression model. Finally, a pantograph model is introduced and the contact force of the pantograph-catenary under stochastic wind is studied. The results show that both the wind speed and the attack angle exert a significant effect on the wind-induced vibration. The existence of the groove on the contact wire cross-section leads to a significant change of the aerodynamic coefficient, which affects largely the aerodynamic forces applied on the catenary wires, as well as the vibration response. The vibration frequency with high spectral power mainly concentrates on the predominant frequency of the fluctuating wind and the natural frequency of catenary. The increase in the wind speed results in a significant deterioration of the current collection. The numerical example shows that a relatively stable current collection can be ensured when the wind flows at the relatively horizontal direction.

  19. Using strong nonlinearity and high-frequency vibrations to control effective mechanical stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2008-01-01

    High-frequency excitation (HFE) can be used to change the effective stiffness of an elastic structure, and related quanti-ties such as resonance frequencies, wave speed, buckling loads, and equilibrium states. There are basically two ways to do this: By using parametrical HFE (with or without non...... the method of direct separation of motions with results of a modified multiple scales ap-proach, valid also for strong nonlinearity, the stiffening ef-fect is predicted for a generic 1-dof system, and results are tested against numerical simulation and ((it is planned)) laboratory experiments....

  20. Using strong nonlinearity and high-frequency vibrations to control effective mechanical stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2008-01-01

    High-frequency excitation (HFE) can be used to change the effective stiffness of an elastic structure, and related quanti-ties such as resonance frequencies, wave speed, buckling loads, and equilibrium states. There are basically two ways to do this: By using parametrical HFE (with or without non...... the method of direct separation of motions with results of a modified multiple scales ap-proach, valid also for strong nonlinearity, the stiffening ef-fect is predicted for a generic 1-dof system, and results are tested against numerical simulation and ((it is planned)) laboratory experiments....

  1. Vibration control of a ship engine system using high-load magnetorheological mounts associated with a new indirect fuzzy sliding mode controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phu, Do Xuan; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-02-01

    In this work, a new high-load magnetorheological (MR) fluid mount system is devised and applied to control vibration in a ship engine. In the investigation of vibration-control performance, a new modified indirect fuzzy sliding mode controller is formulated and realized. The design of the proposed MR mount is based on the flow mode of MR fluid, and it includes two separated coils for generating a magnetic field. An optimization process is carried out to achieve maximal damping force under certain design constraints, such as the allowable height of the mount. As an actuating smart fluid, a new plate-like iron-particle-based MR fluid is used, instead of the conventional spherical iron-particle-based MR fluid. After evaluating the field-dependent yield stress of the MR fluid, the field-dependent damping force required to control unwanted vibration in the ship engine is determined. Subsequently, an appropriate-sized MR mount is manufactured and its damping characteristics are evaluated. After confirming the sufficient damping force level of the manufactured MR mount, a medium-sized ship engine mount system consisting of eight MR mounts is established, and its dynamic governing equations are derived. A new modified indirect fuzzy sliding mode controller is then formulated and applied to the engine mount system. The displacement and velocity responses show that the unwanted vibrations of the ship engine system can be effectively controlled in both the axial and radial directions by applying the proposed control methodology.

  2. Probing highly-obscured galaxy nuclei with vibrationally excited HCN - Extreme luminosity densities inside self-absorbed v=0 HCN and HCO+

    CERN Document Server

    Aalto, S; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E; Muller, S; Sakamoto, K; Fuller, G A; Garcia-Burillo, S; van der Werf, P; Neri, R; Spaans, M; Combes, F; Viti, S; Muehle, S; Armus, L; Evans, A; Sturm, E; Cernicharo, J; Henkel, C; Greve, T R

    2015-01-01

    We present high resolution (0."4) IRAM PdBI and ALMA mm and submm observations of the (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies ((U)LIRGs) IRAS17208-0014, Arp220, IC860 and Zw049.057 that reveal intense line emission from vibrationally excited (v2=1) J=3-2 and 4-3 HCN. The emission is emerging from buried, compact (r5e13 Lsun/kpc2. These nuclei are likely powered by accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and/or hot (>200 K) extreme starbursts. Vibrational, v2=1, lines of HCN are excited by intense 14 micron mid-infrared emission and are excellent probes of the dynamics, masses and physical conditions of (U)LIRG nuclei when H2 column densities exceed 1e24 cm-2. It is clear that these lines open up a new interesting avenue to gain access to the most obscured AGNs and starbursts. Vibrationally excited HCN acts as a proxy for the absorbed mid-infrared emission from the embedded nuclei, which allows for reconstruction of the intrinsic, hotter dust SED. In contrast, the ground vibrational state (v=0), J=3-2 and 4-3 ro...

  3. 高对称型声子晶体自准直弯曲及分束∗%Bending and splitting of self-collimated b eams in high symmetry sonic crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宗根; 邓科; 何兆剑; 赵鹤平

    2016-01-01

    Self-collimation, a peculiar effect that allows acoustic signals to propagate in sonic crystals (SCs) along a definite direction with almost no diffraction, possesses a promising prospect in integrated acoustics as it provides an effective way to transmit acoustic signals between on-chip functionalities. There exists, however, the intrinsic inability of self-collimation to efficiently bend and split acoustic signals. Most of existing schemes for bending and splitting of self-collimated acoustic beams are based on SC of square lattice, thus their bending and splitting angles are restricted to 90◦. In this paper, the finite element method is used to investigate self-collimation of acoustic beams in an SC of hexagonal lattice. It is shown that 60◦ and 120◦ bending of self-collimated acoustic waves can be simultaneously realized by simply truncating the two-dimensional hexagonal SC. Bended imaging for a point source with a subwavelength resolution of 0.38λ0 can also be realized by truncating the SC structure. In addition, a scheme for 60◦ and 120◦ splitting of self-collimated acoustic waves is also proposed by introducing line-defects into the hexagonal SC. It is demonstrated that an incoming self-collimated beam can be split into a 60◦ (or 120◦ bended one and a transmitted one, with the power ratio adjusted by the value of defect size. We believe that this hexagonal-SC-based bending and splitting mechanism will offer more flexibilities to the beam control in the design of acoustic devices and will be useful in integrated acoustic applications.

  4. Vibration properties of low-fraction hydrogen in deuterium ices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ya; Dong Shun-Le

    2005-01-01

    Inelastic incoherent neutron scattering spectra of D2O high-density amorphous (hda) ice, ice-Ⅷ and ice-Ⅱ mixed with small amount of H2O (<5%) have been measured recently on high-energy transfer spectrometer at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK). The hydrogen atom on D2O ice lattices has three distinguished vibrational modes, two bending at low frequencies and one stretching at high frequencies, and their frequencies are slightly different for different phases of ice. It was found that the lower one of the bending modes is located at ~95 meV for hda-ice, at ~95 meV for ice-Ⅷ and at ~96 meV for ice-Ⅱ and they are all lower than the value of 104 meV for ice-Ih. It was also measured that the O-D and O-H covalent bond stretching modes of ice-Ⅷ are at ~315 and ~425 meV, ice-Ⅱ at 307 and ~415 meV, hda-ice at 312 and ~418 meV, respectively. They are significantly higher than the values of ice-Ih at ~299 and ~406 meV,respectively.

  5. Peeling, sliding, pulling and bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, John; Peng, Gunnar

    2016-11-01

    The peeling of an elastic sheet away from thin layer of viscous fluid is a simply-stated and generic problem, that involves complex interactions between the flow and elastic deformation on a range of length scales. Consider an analogue of capillary spreading, where a blister of injected viscous fluid spreads due to tension in the overlying elastic sheet. Here the tension is coupled to the deformation of the sheet, and thus varies in time and space. A key question is whether or not viscous shear stresses ahead of the blister are sufficient to prevent the sheet sliding inwards and relieving the tension. Our asymptotic analysis reveals a dichotomy between fast and slow spreading, and between two-dimensional and axisymmetric spreading. In combination with bending stresses and gravity, which may dominate parts of the flow but not others, there is a plethora of dynamical regimes.

  6. Sharp bends associated with deep scours in a tropical river: The river Mahakam (East Kalimantan, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, B.; Hoitink, A. J. F.; Berkum, S. W.; Hidayat, H.

    2014-07-01

    Autogenic scouring in sharp river bends has received ample attention in laboratory and modeling studies. These studies have significantly advanced our understanding of how flow processes are influenced by strong curvature and how they affect the bathymetry. Here we present a 300 km reach of the Mahakam River in Indonesia, which features several sharp bends (W/R > 0.5), providing a unique field data set to validate existing knowledge on sharp bends. Scour depths were found to strongly exceed what can be expected based on existing understanding of sharp bends and are highly correlated with curvature. A comprehensive stream reconnaissance was carried out to compare the occurrence of sharp bends and deep scours with lateral bank migration. Histograms of the occurrence of erosive, stable, advancing, and bar-type banks as a function of curvature quantify the switch from a mildly curved bend regime to a sharp bend regime. In mild bends, outer banks erode and inner banks advance. In sharp bends the erosion pattern inverts. Outer banks stabilize or advance, while inner banks erode. In sharply curved river bends, bars occur near the outer banks that become less erosive for higher curvatures. Inner banks become more erosive for higher curvatures but nevertheless accommodate the larger portion of exposed bars. No relation was found between the land cover adjacent to the river and the occurrence of sharp bends. Soil processes may play a crucial role in the formation of sharp bends, which is inferred from iron and manganese concretions observed in the riverbanks, indicating ferric horizons and early stages of the formation of plinthic horizons. Historical topographic maps show the planform activity of the river is low, which may relate to the scour holes slowing down planimetric development.

  7. High temperature performance of a piezoelectric micro cantilever for vibration energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, E.; Jia, Y.; Du, S.; Chen, ST; Seshia, A.

    2016-11-01

    Energy harvesters withstanding high temperatures could provide potentially unlimited energy to sensor nodes placed in harsh environments, where manual maintenance is difficult and costly. Experimental results on a classical microcantilever show a 67% drop of the maximum power when the temperature is increased up to 160 °C. This decrease is investigated using a lumped-parameters model which takes into account variations in material parameters with temperature, damping increase and thermal stresses induced by mismatched thermal coefficients in a composite cantilever. The model allows a description of the maximum power evolution as a function of temperature and input acceleration. Simulation results further show that an increase in damping and the apparition of thermal stresses are contributing to the power drop at 59% and 13% respectively.

  8. Atomization off thin water films generated by high-frequency substrate wave vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David J; Manor, Ofer; Winkler, Andreas; Schmidt, Hagen; Friend, James R; Yeo, Leslie Y

    2012-11-01

    Generating aerosol droplets via the atomization of thin aqueous films with high frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) offers several advantages over existing nebulization methods, particularly for pulmonary drug delivery, offering droplet sizes in the 1-5-μm range ideal for effective pulmonary therapy. Nevertheless, the physics underlying SAW atomization is not well understood, especially in the context of thin liquid film formation and spreading and how this affects the aerosol production. Here, we demonstrate that the film geometry, governed primarily by the applied power and frequency of the SAW, indeed plays a crucial role in the atomization process and, in particular, the size of the atomized droplets. In contrast to the continuous spreading of low surface energy liquids atop similar platforms, high surface energy liquids such as water, in the present case, are found to undergo transient spreading due to the SAW to form a quasisteady film whose height is determined by self-selection of the energy minimum state associated with the acoustic resonance in the film and whose length arises from a competition between acoustic streaming and capillary effects. This is elucidated from a fundamental model for the thin film spreading behavior under SAW excitation, from which we show good agreement between the experimentally measured and theoretically predicted droplet dimension, both of which consistently indicate a linear relationship between the droplet diameter and the mechanical power coupled into the liquid by the SAW (the latter captured by an acoustic Weber number to the two thirds power, and the reciprocal of the SAW frequency).

  9. Stretching and bending dynamics in triatomic ultralong-range Rydberg molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Fey, Christian; Schmelcher, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We investigate polyatomic ultralong-range Rydberg molecules consisting of three ground state atoms bound to a Rydberg atom via $s$- and $p$-wave interactions. By employing the finite basis set representation of the unperturbed Rydberg electron Green's function we reduce the computational effort to solve the electronic problem substantially. This method is subsequently applied to determine the potential energy surfaces of triatomic systems in electronic $s$- and $p$-Rydberg states. Their molecular geometry and resulting vibrational structure are analyzed within an adiabatic approach that separates the vibrational bending and stretching dynamics. This procedure yields information on the radial and angular arrangement of the nuclei and indicates in particular that kinetic couplings between bending and stretching modes induce a linear structure in triatomic $l=0$ ultralong-range Rydberg molecules.

  10. A miniature ultransonic pump using a bending disk transducer and a gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takeshi; Nakamura, Kentaro; Ueha, Sadayuki

    2006-12-22

    It is known that if a pipe end is faced at a vibrating surface in liquid with a small gap, liquid is suctioned into the pipe. As a miniature configuration, we introduce a bending disk transducer 30 mm in diameter using a ring-shaped PZT element. The disk vibrator is worked at the fundamental resonance frequency of 19 kHz of the bending mode. To optimize the pipe geometry, we experimentally investigated the effect of the outer diameter on the pump performance. As a result, the outer/inner diameter ratio of 3:2 is optimum for the gap smaller than 20 microm. We achieved the maximum pump pressure of 14.8 kPa and the maximum flow rate of 10 ml/min. using the prototype pump.

  11. Stretching and bending dynamics in triatomic ultralong-range Rydberg molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Christian; Kurz, Markus; Schmelcher, Peter

    2016-07-01

    We investigate polyatomic ultralong-range Rydberg molecules consisting of three ground-state atoms bound to a Rydberg atom via s - and p -wave interactions. By employing the finite basis set representation of the unperturbed Rydberg electron Green's function we reduce the computational effort to solve the electronic problem substantially. This method is subsequently applied to determine the potential energy surfaces of triatomic systems in electronic s - and p -Rydberg states. Their molecular geometry and resulting vibrational structure are analyzed within an adiabatic approach that separates the vibrational bending and stretching dynamics. This procedure yields information on the radial and angular arrangement of the nuclei and indicates in particular that kinetic couplings between bending and stretching modes induce a linear structure in triatomic l =0 ultralong-range Rydberg molecules.

  12. Bending Angle Prediction Model Based on BPNN-Spline in Air Bending Springback Process

    OpenAIRE

    Zhefeng Guo; Wencheng Tang

    2017-01-01

    In order to rapidly and accurately predict the springback bending angle in V-die air bending process, a springback bending angle prediction model on the combination of error back propagation neural network and spline function (BPNN-Spline) is presented in this study. An orthogonal experimental sample set for training BPNN-Spline is obtained by finite element simulation. Through the analysis of network structure, the BPNN-Spline black box function of bending angle prediction is established, an...

  13. Experiments on co-located feedback vibration suppression in a space frame using new magnetic actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P.-Y.; Moon, Francis C.

    A 6.5-m experimental space truss was built to implement the concept of colocated velocity-feedback control with multiple channels using magnetic actuators to damp out large motions. Nonlocal self-equilibrated internal control forces are applied to suppress the bending vibration of this experimental truss. The control forces are generated through voice-coil type magnetic actuators with a high force-to-mass ratio. A moving magnet inside a solenoid is employed to pick up the corresponding velocity signal. This magnetic velocity sensor was designed as an integral part of the actuator to achieve colocation of sensor and actuator force. In order to transmit the nonlocal torque-free control forces, an actuator mechanism is invented which is not prestressed so that the truss members are not weakened. It is shown that there exist optimal damping ratios for the feedback gains. Vibration amplitudes of several centimeters can be suppressed with this device.

  14. Effects of local vibration on bone loss in -tail-suspended rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L W; Luan, H Q; Huang, Y F; Wang, Y; Fan, Y B

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effects of vibration (35 Hz, 45 Hz and 55 Hz) as countermeasure locally applied to unloading hind limbs on bone, muscle and Achilles tendon. 40 female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups (n=8, each): tail-suspension (TS), TS plus 35 Hz/0.3 g vibration (TSV35), TS plus 45 Hz/0.3 g vibration (TSV45), TS plus 55 Hz/0.3 g vibration (TSV55) and control (CON). After 21 days, bone mineral density (BMD) and the microstructure of the femur and tibia were evaluated by μCT in vivo. The biomechanical properties of the femur and Achilles tendon were determined by a materials testing system. Ash weight of bone, isotonic contraction and wet weight of soleus were also investigated. 35 Hz and 45 Hz localized vibration were able to significantly ameliorate the decrease in trabecular BMD (expressed as the percentage change from TS, TSV35: 48.11%, TSV45: 31.09%), microstructure and ash weight of the femur and tibia induced by TS. Meanwhile, 35 Hz vibration significantly improved the biomechanical properties of the femur (57.24% bending rigidity and 41.66% Young's modulus vs. TS) and Achilles tendon (45.46% maximum load and 66.67% Young's modulus vs. TS). Additionally, Young's modulus of the femur was highly correlated with microstructural parameters. Localized vibration was useful for counteracting microgravity-induced musculoskeletal loss. In general, the efficacy of 35 Hz was better than 45 Hz or 55 Hz in tail-suspended rats. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Bending of pipes with inconel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachpitz, Leonardo; Menezes, Carlos Eduardo B.; Vieira, Carlos R. Tavares [Primus Processamento de Tubos S.A. (PROTUBO), Macae, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The high-frequency induction bending process, using API pipes coated with Inconel 625 reconciled to a mechanical transformation for a higher degree of resistance, was developed through a careful specification and control of the manufacturing parameters and inherent heat treatments. The effects of this technology were investigated by a qualification process consisting of a sequence of tests and acceptance criteria typically required by the offshore industry, and through the obtained results was proved the effectiveness of this entire manufacturing process, without causing interference in the properties and the quality of the inconel cladding, adding a gain of resistance to the base material, guaranteed by the requirements of the API 5L Standard. (author)

  16. A Numerical Study of the Spring-Back Phenomenon in Bending with a Rebar Bending Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hwan Choi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the rebar bending methodology started to change from field processing to utilizing rebar bending machines at plant sites prior to transport to the construction locations. Computerized control of rebar plant bending machines provides more accurate and faster bending of rebars than the low quality inefficient field processing alternative. The bending process involves plastic deformation of rebars, where bending stress beyond the yield point of the material is applied. When the bending stress is removed, spring back is caused by the elastic restoring stress. Therefore, an accurate numerical analysis of the spring-back process is required to reduce the bending process errors. The most sensitive factors affecting the spring-back process are the bending radius, the bending angle, the diameter of the rebar, the friction coefficient, and the yielding strength of material. In this paper, we suggest a numerical modeling method using these factors. The finite element modeling of the dynamic mechanical behavior of the material during bending is performed using a commercial dynamic analysis program “DAFUL.” We use the least squares approach to derive the spring-back deflection as a function of the rebar bending parameters.

  17. Deformation scenarios of combined stretching and bending in complex shaped deep drawing parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kitting, D.; Ofenheimer, A.; Boogaard, van den A.H.; Dietmaier, P.

    2013-01-01

    Bending effects, especially for Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS), are known to influence the material formability when stretching and bending is combined in sheet forming. Traditional formability measures (e.g. the conventional forming limit curve (FLC)) fail to reliably predict formability when

  18. Remote-Time Division Multiplexing of Bending Sensors Using a Broadband Light Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Bravo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work experimentally demonstrates a remote sensing network which interrogates bending sensors using time-division multiplexing techniques and a broadband light source. The bending sensors are located 50 km away from the monitoring station. They are based on a simple tie displacement sensor and offer high-resolution measurements of displacement.

  19. Deformation scenarios of combined stretching and bending in complex shaped deep drawing parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kitting, D.; Ofenheimer, A.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Dietmaier, P.

    2013-01-01

    Bending effects, especially for Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS), are known to influence the material formability when stretching and bending is combined in sheet forming. Traditional formability measures (e.g. the conventional forming limit curve (FLC)) fail to reliably predict formability when

  20. Miniature bending manipulator for fetoscopic intrauterine laser therapy to treat twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, H; Matsumiya, K; Masamune, K; Liao, H; Chiba, T; Dohi, T

    2008-02-01

    Recent typical therapy for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is selective laser photocoagulation of anastomotic communicating vessels on the placenta using the fetoscopic approach. The difficulty of a conventional laser device approach for this procedure depends significantly on the placental location, so a new robotized device is required to bend the direction of laser irradiation flexibly within the narrow uterus. The authors designed a miniature bending mechanism impelled by a wire-guided linkage driving method that provides a stable procedure for bending laser irradiation from -90 degrees to 90 degrees . Using this bending mechanism, the authors developed a bending manipulator with a diameter of 3.5 mm and a hollow central channel with a diameter of 0.8 mm for passing a glass fiber for neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser photocoagulation. The bending mechanism is motorized by an electrical actuator and controlled by a grip-type interface with a small joystick. The robotized tip's part and the actuator's part are easily separable for cleaning and sterilization. In performance evaluations of the manipulator, the bending characteristics with a glass fiber were examined. The bending range was -52.6 degrees to 80 degrees, with a very small hysteresis error, and the bending repeatability error was 0.5 degrees +/- 0.2 degrees, which corresponds with the high accuracy of 0.2 +/- 0.1-mm positioning error at the glass fiber's tip. In the evaluation of Nd:YAG laser photocoagulation, the study confirmed that the manipulator performed effective laser photocoagulation of the placental phantom surface (underwater chicken liver). The large bending range, reaching 80 degrees, enabled a flexible approach from various directions with a high irradiation efficiency of no less than 96.6%. The authors' original miniature bending manipulator can change the laser irradiating direction with highly repeatable positioning accuracy for speedy, safe, and effective vessel