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Sample records for high beer consumption

  1. Analysis of beer consumption preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Horňák, Josef

    2016-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the preferences of beer consumption. The thesis focuses on finding and subsequent evaluation of the factors that can significantly influence consumer behavior in the field of beer consumption and it is based on marketing research conducted on the basis of a questionnaire survey. Theoretical part of the thesis, composed on basis of academic literature describes the history of beer, its brewing procedures and a description of various types of beer. This part is followed ...

  2. Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Castro-Sepulveda; Neil Johannsen; Sebastián Astudillo; Carlos Jorquera; Cristian Álvarez; Hermann Zbinden-Foncea; Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo

    2016-01-01

    Fluid and electrolyte status have a significant impact on physical performance and health. Pre-exercise recommendations cite the possibility of consuming beverages with high amounts of sodium. In this sense, non-alcoholic beer can be considered an effective pre-exercise hydration beverage. This double-blind, randomized study aimed to compare the effect of beer, non-alcoholic beer and water consumption before exercise on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Seven male soccer players performed 45...

  3. Craft vs. industrial: Habits, attitudes and motivations towards beer consumption in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Corona, Carlos; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; García, Mauricio; Chollet, Sylvie; Valentin, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Food choices tend to be stable over time; they do not change fast, since consumers tend to act like creatures of habits. However, food habits can evolve, like currently the craft beer category. A change of habits involves a change of perception towards a product. Therefore, what is changing in the perception of beer? Two studies were conducted to address this question. First study was preliminary and aimed at exploring beer consumption habits in Mexico and a better understanding of craft beer representation among beer users. A questionnaire was administrated to 207 consumers in Mexico City during a beer festival. Results showed that respondents could be classified in: industrial beer (41.1%), occasional industrial (24.1%), and craft beer (34.8%) consumers. Craft cluster included mostly 25-35 years old men with high-income level. Among the craft beers cited by respondents from this cluster some are industrial, suggesting that the concept of craft beer might not be well defined, or defined in ideological terms. The second and main study was conducted using consumer ethnographies to understand the motivations and benefits of craft beer consumption. Opposite to industrial, craft beer emerges as an experience-based and symbolic product rather than a utilitarian one. The main motivation for drinking craft beer seems to be the quest of authenticity. Respondents' motivations to drink craft beer are generated by three important factors: desire for more knowledge, new taste experiences, and move away from the mainstream beer consumption. Craft consumers do not drink the product for its functional attributes, they consume it for what it means and as a consequence they build an identity, perceived as more authentic and unique, in comparison to the mainstream industrial beer consumption in Mexico.

  4. Functional or emotional? How Dutch and Portuguese conceptualise beer, wine and non-alcoholic beer consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Ana Patricia; Jager, Gerry; Bommel, van Roelien; Zyl, van Hannelize; Voss, Hans Peter; Hogg, Tim; Pintado, Manuela; Graaf, de Cees

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic beer (NAB) may be a healthier alternative to wine and beer consumption, however has little appeal to consumers. Conceptualisations, i.e. functional and emotional associations that consumers have with foods/beverages, were explored to understand how NAB consumption is perceived, and

  5. Functional or emotional? How Dutch and Portuguese conceptualise beer, wine and non-alcoholic beer consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Ana Patricia; Jager, Gerry; Bommel, van Roelien; Zyl, van Hannelize; Voss, Hans Peter; Hogg, Tim; Pintado, Manuela; Graaf, de Cees

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic beer (NAB) may be a healthier alternative to wine and beer consumption, however has little appeal to consumers. Conceptualisations, i.e. functional and emotional associations that consumers have with foods/beverages, were explored to understand how NAB consumption is perceived, and

  6. Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sepulveda, Mauricio; Johannsen, Neil; Astudillo, Sebastián; Jorquera, Carlos; Álvarez, Cristian; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo

    2016-06-07

    Fluid and electrolyte status have a significant impact on physical performance and health. Pre-exercise recommendations cite the possibility of consuming beverages with high amounts of sodium. In this sense, non-alcoholic beer can be considered an effective pre-exercise hydration beverage. This double-blind, randomized study aimed to compare the effect of beer, non-alcoholic beer and water consumption before exercise on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Seven male soccer players performed 45 min of treadmill running at 65% of the maximal heart rate, 45 min after ingesting 0.7 L of water (W), beer (AB) or non-alcoholic beer (NAB). Body mass, plasma Na⁺ and K⁺ concentrations and urine specific gravity (USG) were assessed before fluid consumption and after exercise. After exercise, body mass decreased (p beer before exercise could help maintain electrolyte homeostasis during exercise. Alcoholic beer intake reduced plasma Na⁺ and increased plasma K⁺ during exercise, which may negatively affect health and physical performance, and finally, the consumption of water before exercise could induce decreases of Na⁺ in plasma during exercise.

  7. Effects of moderate beer consumption on health and disease: A consensus document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gaetano, G; Costanzo, S; Di Castelnuovo, A; Badimon, L; Bejko, D; Alkerwi, A; Chiva-Blanch, G; Estruch, R; La Vecchia, C; Panico, S; Pounis, G; Sofi, F; Stranges, S; Trevisan, M; Ursini, F; Cerletti, C; Donati, M B; Iacoviello, L

    2016-06-01

    A large evidence-based review on the effects of a moderate consumption of beer on human health has been conducted by an international panel of experts who reached a full consensus on the present document. Low-moderate (up to 1 drink per day in women, up to 2 in men), non-bingeing beer consumption, reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. This effect is similar to that of wine, at comparable alcohol amounts. Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate consumption of either beer or wine may confer greater cardiovascular protection than spirits. Although specific data on beer are not conclusive, observational studies seem to indicate that low-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of developing neurodegenerative disease. There is no evidence that beer drinking is different from other types of alcoholic beverages in respect to risk for some cancers. Evidence consistently suggests a J-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption (including beer) and all-cause mortality, with lower risk for moderate alcohol consumers than for abstainers or heavy drinkers. Unless they are at high risk for alcohol-related cancers or alcohol dependency, there is no reason to discourage healthy adults who are already regular light-moderate beer consumers from continuing. Consumption of beer, at any dosage, is not recommended for children, adolescents, pregnant women, individuals at risk to develop alcoholism, those with cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, depression, liver and pancreatic diseases, or anyone engaged in actions that require concentration, skill or coordination. In conclusion, although heavy and excessive beer consumption exerts deleterious effects on the human body, with increased disease risks on many organs and is associated to significant social problems such as addiction, accidents, violence and crime, data reported in this document show evidence for no harm of moderate beer consumption for major chronic conditions and some benefit against

  8. Beer consumption increases human attractiveness to malaria mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lefèvre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria and alcohol consumption both represent major public health problems. Alcohol consumption is rising in developing countries and, as efforts to manage malaria are expanded, understanding the links between malaria and alcohol consumption becomes crucial. Our aim was to ascertain the effect of beer consumption on human attractiveness to malaria mosquitoes in semi field conditions in Burkina Faso. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a Y tube-olfactometer designed to take advantage of the whole body odour (breath and skin emanations as a stimulus to gauge human attractiveness to Anopheles gambiae (the primary African malaria vector before and after volunteers consumed either beer (n = 25 volunteers and a total of 2500 mosquitoes tested or water (n = 18 volunteers and a total of 1800 mosquitoes. Water consumption had no effect on human attractiveness to An. gambiae mosquitoes, but beer consumption increased volunteer attractiveness. Body odours of volunteers who consumed beer increased mosquito activation (proportion of mosquitoes engaging in take-off and up-wind flight and orientation (proportion of mosquitoes flying towards volunteers' odours. The level of exhaled carbon dioxide and body temperature had no effect on human attractiveness to mosquitoes. Despite individual volunteer variation, beer consumption consistently increased attractiveness to mosquitoes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that beer consumption is a risk factor for malaria and needs to be integrated into public health policies for the design of control measures.

  9. Beer Consumption Increases Human Attractiveness to Malaria Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Thierry; Gouagna, Louis-Clément; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Elguero, Eric; Fontenille, Didier; Renaud, François; Costantini, Carlo; Thomas, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria and alcohol consumption both represent major public health problems. Alcohol consumption is rising in developing countries and, as efforts to manage malaria are expanded, understanding the links between malaria and alcohol consumption becomes crucial. Our aim was to ascertain the effect of beer consumption on human attractiveness to malaria mosquitoes in semi field conditions in Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a Y tube-olfactometer designed to take advantage of the whole body odour (breath and skin emanations) as a stimulus to gauge human attractiveness to Anopheles gambiae (the primary African malaria vector) before and after volunteers consumed either beer (n = 25 volunteers and a total of 2500 mosquitoes tested) or water (n = 18 volunteers and a total of 1800 mosquitoes). Water consumption had no effect on human attractiveness to An. gambiae mosquitoes, but beer consumption increased volunteer attractiveness. Body odours of volunteers who consumed beer increased mosquito activation (proportion of mosquitoes engaging in take-off and up-wind flight) and orientation (proportion of mosquitoes flying towards volunteers' odours). The level of exhaled carbon dioxide and body temperature had no effect on human attractiveness to mosquitoes. Despite individual volunteer variation, beer consumption consistently increased attractiveness to mosquitoes. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that beer consumption is a risk factor for malaria and needs to be integrated into public health policies for the design of control measures. PMID:20209056

  10. Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Castro-Sepulveda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluid and electrolyte status have a significant impact on physical performance and health. Pre-exercise recommendations cite the possibility of consuming beverages with high amounts of sodium. In this sense, non-alcoholic beer can be considered an effective pre-exercise hydration beverage. This double-blind, randomized study aimed to compare the effect of beer, non-alcoholic beer and water consumption before exercise on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Seven male soccer players performed 45 min of treadmill running at 65% of the maximal heart rate, 45 min after ingesting 0.7 L of water (W, beer (AB or non-alcoholic beer (NAB. Body mass, plasma Na+ and K+ concentrations and urine specific gravity (USG were assessed before fluid consumption and after exercise. After exercise, body mass decreased (p < 0.05 in W (−1.1%, AB (−1.0% and NAB (−1.0%. In the last minutes of exercise, plasma Na+ was reduced (p < 0.05 in W (−3.9% and AB (−3.7%, plasma K+ was increased (p < 0.05 in AB (8.5%, and USG was reduced in W (−0.9% and NAB (−1.0%. Collectively, these results suggest that non-alcoholic beer before exercise could help maintain electrolyte homeostasis during exercise. Alcoholic beer intake reduced plasma Na+ and increased plasma K+ during exercise, which may negatively affect health and physical performance, and finally, the consumption of water before exercise could induce decreases of Na+ in plasma during exercise.

  11. Urinary isoxanthohumol is a specific and accurate biomarker of beer consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quifer-Rada, Paola; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Jáuregui, Olga; Estruch, Ramon; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2014-04-01

    Biomarkers of food consumption are a powerful tool to obtain more objective measurements of dietary exposure and to monitor compliance in clinical trials. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of urinary isoxanthohumol (IX) excretion as an accurate biomarker of beer consumption. A dose-response clinical trial, a randomized, crossover clinical trial, and a cohort study were performed. In the dose-response trial, 41 young volunteers (males and females, aged 28 ± 3 y) consumed different doses of beer at night and a spot urine sample was collected the following morning. In the clinical trial, 33 males with high cardiovascular risk (aged 61 ± 7 y) randomly were administered 30 g of ethanol/d as gin or beer, or an equivalent amount of polyphenols as nonalcoholic beer for 4 wk. Additionally, a subsample of 46 volunteers from the PREDIMED (Prevenciόn con Dieta Mediterránea) study (males and females, aged 63 ± 5 y) was also evaluated. Prenylflavonoids were quantified in urine samples by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. IX urinary recovery increased linearly with the size of the beer dose in male volunteers. A significant increase in IX excretion (4.0 ± 1.6 μg/g creatinine) was found after consumption of beer and nonalcoholic beer for 4 wk (P beer consumers and abstainers with a sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 100% (positive predictive value = 70%, negative predictive value = 100% in real-life conditions). IX in urine samples was found to be a specific and accurate biomarker of beer consumption and may be a powerful tool in epidemiologic studies.

  12. Plasma circulating fibrinogen stability and moderate beer consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, Shela; Caspi, Abraham; Zemser, Marina; Libman, Imanuel; Goshev, Ivan; Trakhtenberg, Simon

    2003-12-01

    MODERATE BEER CONSUMPTION (MBC) IS CARDIOPROTECTIVE: it positively influences plasma lipid levels and plasma antioxidant activity in beer-consuming individuals. The connection between MBC and blood coagulation is not clearly defined. Forty-two volunteers were equally divided into experimental (EG) and control (CG) groups following coronary bypass surgery. For 30 consecutive days, only patients of the EG consumed 330 mL of beer per day (about 20 g of alcohol). A comprehensive clinical investigation of 42 patients was done. Blood samples were collected before and after the investigation for a wide range of laboratory tests. The plasma fibrinogen was denatured with 8 M urea and intrinsic fluorescence (IF), hydrophobicity and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to reveal possible qualitative changes. After 30 days of moderate beer consumption, positive changes in the plasma lipid levels, plasma anticoagulant and plasma antioxidant activities were registered in patients of the EG group. In 17 out of 21 patients of the same group, differences in plasma circulating fibrinogen's (PCF), secondary and tertiary structures were found. The stability of fibrinogen, expressed in thermodynamic parameters, has shown that the loosening of the structure takes place under ethanol and urea denaturation. Also fluorescence stability of PCF was decreased. No changes in the lipid levels, anticoagulant and antioxidant activity or changes in PCF were detected in patients of CG. In conclusion, for the first time after a short term of moderate beer consumption some qualitative changes in the plasma circulating fibrinogen were detected: differences in the emission peak response, fluorescence intensity and all thermodynamic data. Together, with the decrease in the PCF concentration it may lead to an elevation of the blood anticoagulant activity.

  13. Beer consumption and changes in stability of human serum proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, S; Caspi, A; Goshev, I; Moncheva, S; Zemser, M; Weisz, M; Libman, I; Lerner, H T; Trakhtenberg, S; Martín-Belloso, O

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of beer consumption (BC) on the functional and structural properties of human serum proteins (HSP). Thirty-eight volunteers (after coronary bypass) were divided into two groups: experimental (EG) and control (CG). Nineteen volunteers of the EG consumed 330 mL per day of beer (about 20 g of alcohol) for 30 consecutive days. The CG volunteers consumed mineral water instead of beer. Blood samples were collected from EG and CG patients before and after the experiment. Albumin (Alb), globulin (Glo), and methanol-precipitable proteins (MPP) from human serum were denatured with 8 M urea. Fluorescence and electrophoresis were employed in order to elucidate urea-induced conformational changes and structural behavior of proteins. The measured fluorescence emission spectra were used to estimate the stability of native and denatured protein fractions before and after BC. It was found that before BC the fractions most stable to urea denaturation were Glo, Alb, and MPP fractions. After BC in most of the beer-consuming patients (EG) some changes in native and denatured protein fractions were detected: a tendency to lower stability and minor structural deviations. These qualitative changes were more profound in MPP than in Alb and Glo. Thus, Glo is more resistible to alcohol influence than Alb, which in turn is more resistible than MPP. No serum protein changes were detected in patients of CG.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of iso-α-acids in volunteers following the consumption of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2014-01-01

    Hop-derived iso-α-acid (IAA) ingredient congeners are specific to beer. Concentrations of IAAs were determined in blood of five volunteers over 6 h following the consumption of small volumes of beer containing relatively high (Pale Ale beer) or low (wheat beer) concentrations of IAAs. IAAs were quickly absorbed with peak trans-IAA concentrations at 0.5 h followed by a drop of generally 10-fold at 2 h and low or not detectable trans-IAA levels at 6 h. However, the qualitative monitoring showed that the cis-IAAs were detected at all time-points. Preliminary pharmacokinetics of these compounds in humans shows relatively small interindividual differences and an estimated short half-life of ∼30 min. Comparison of 0.5 and 2 h blood specimens demonstrated that the trans isomers were eliminated faster than the cis counterparts. Preliminary urine analysis showed only unmodified 'co' analytes detectable throughout the 6 h. In authentic forensic casework where typically large amounts of conventionally hopped beer are consumed, this approach may provide a novel method to target ingredient congeners consistent with beer ingestion.

  15. Predictive Model of Energy Consumption in Beer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiecheng Pu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The predictive model of energy consumption is presented based on subtractive clustering and Adaptive-Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System (for short ANFIS in the beer production. Using the subtractive clustering on the historical data of energy consumption, the limit of artificial experience is conquered while confirming the number of fuzzy rules. The parameters of the fuzzy inference system are acquired by the structure of adaptive network and hybrid on-line learning algorithm. The method can predict and guide the energy consumption of the factual production process. The reducing consumption scheme is provided based on the actual situation of the enterprise. Finally, using concrete examples verified the feasibility of this method comparing with the Radial Basis Functions (for short RBF neural network predictive model.

  16. Effect of consumption of red wine, spirits and beer on serum homocysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, M.S. van der; Ubbink, J.B.; Sillanaukee, P.; Nikkari, S.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2000-01-01

    Serum homocysteine increases after moderate consumption of red wine and spirits, but not after moderate consumption of beer. Vitamin B6 in beer seems to prevent the alcohol-induced rise in serum homocysteine. Chemicals/CAS: Homocysteine, 454-28-4; Pyridoxine, 65-23-6

  17. Detection of iso-α-acids to confirm beer consumption in postmortem specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2015-01-01

    Iso-α-acids (IAAs) can be used as markers for the consumption of beer. Postmortem specimens from a range of coronial cases were analyzed for IAAs in order to determine the prevalence of beer consumption and any correlation to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC). A total of 130 cases were included in this study including those where beer was mentioned in the case circumstances, cases where beer was not mentioned specifically but alcohol was detected, and cases where neither beer was mentioned nor a positive BAC was present. Available blood, serum, vitreous humour and urine specimens were analyzed. Of the 50 cases where beer was mentioned, 86% had one or more IAAs detected. In cases that only had a positive BAC (n = 60), 57% of these cases also showed the presence of these beer markers. IAAs were detected in specimens obtained from traumatized, burnt, and decomposed cases with a mention of beer consumption or where BAC was positive in blood. No IAAs were detected in cases where BAC was negative. There was little or no correlation between blood IAA concentrations and BAC. This study demonstrates the possible detection of IAAs as a marker for beer consumption.

  18. Is beer consumption related to measures of abdominal and general obesity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Christensen, Robin; Bartels, Else Marie

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to assess the evidence linking beer consumption to abdominal and general obesity. Following a systematic search strategy, 35 eligible observational studies and 12 experimental studies were identified. Regarding abdominal obesity, most observational data pointed t...... data provide inadequate scientific evidence to assess whether beer intake at moderate levels (...

  19. Occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins and their dietary intake through beer consumption by the European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Fattore, Margherita; Albrizio, Stefania; Berrada, Houda; Mañes, Jordi

    2015-07-01

    Since cereals are raw materials for production of beer and beer-based drinks, the occurrence mycotoxins in 154 beer samples was topic of investigation in this study. The analyses were conducted using QuEChERS extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination. The analytical method showed recoveries for vast majority of analytes ranged from 70% to 110%, relative standard deviations lower than 15% and limits of detection from 0.05 to 8 μg/L. A significant incidence of HT-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) were found in 9.1% and 59.7% of total samples, respectively. The exposure of European population to mycotoxins through beer consumption was assessed. No toxicological concern was associated to mycotoxins exposure for average beer consumers. Despite that, for heavy beer drinkers, the contribution of this commodity to the daily intake is not negligible, approaching or even exceeding the safety levels.

  20. Moderate beer consumption does not change early or mature atherosclerosis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco-Vaca Francisco; Ribas Vicent; Calpe-Berdiel Laura; Escolà-Gil Joan

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Although the consumption of wine in particular has been associated with a lower risk of atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease, systematic reviews differ as to the relative protective effect of beer, wine and spirits. Two previous studies showed that red wine reduces fatty streak formation (early atherosclerosis) but not mature atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein (apo) E-deficient (apoE-/-) mice. Aim of the study To determine whether a moderate beer intake would affect earl...

  1. On the relationship between the indirectly measured attitude towards beer and beer consumption: the role of attitude accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descheemaeker, Mathilde; Spruyt, Adriaan; Hermans, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Although some studies have demonstrated that the indirectly measured attitude towards alcohol is related to alcohol use, this relationship has not always been confirmed. In the current study, we attempted to shed light on this issue by investigating whether the predictive validity of an indirect attitude measure is dependent upon attitude accessibility. In a sample of 88 students, the picture-picture naming task, an adaptation of the affective priming paradigm, was used to measure the automatically activated attitude towards beer. Attitude accessibility was measured using a speeded evaluative categorization task. Behavioral measures were the amount of beer poured and drunk during a bogus taste test and the choice between a bottle of beer or water at the end of the experiment. In line with our hypothesis, the indirectly measured attitude towards beer predicted behavior during the taste test only when it was highly accessible. In contrast, this attitude was related to choice behavior irrespective of attitude accessibility. This study confirms that indirect attitude measures can be valuable predictors of alcohol-related behavior, but that it is sometimes necessary to take attitude accessibility into account.

  2. [Could the moderate consumption of beer be included within a healthy diet?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, A; López Díaz-Ufano, M; Pascual Fuster, V

    2015-05-01

    Beer is a beverage that has been usually included in our habitual diet from immemorial time. However, beer consumption depends on food habits and lifestyle in different populations. In Mediterranean countries, fermented beverages like beer, takes up a key space in the Mediterranean diet that has been declared in 2010 as Cultural Immaterial World Heritage by UNESCO. The positioning where the Spanish Society of Primary Care Medicine and the Beer and Health Information Centre have conjointly worked on has the following beer consumption-related aims: a) to update its knowledge based on the scientific evidence; b) to evaluate the possibility to include it within a healthy diet for healthy adults; c) to inform health professionals and the general population about its possible health benefits. A panel of experts, represented by clinicians and researchers in the field of nutrition held a meeting with the purpose to review the scientific literature related to the effects of the moderate consumption of fermented beverages, particularly beer, and to reach a consensus on the results, conclusions and recommendations suggested and established by other experts at an international level. The current scientific evidence reflects that moderate consumption of beer does not affect anthropometry related variables. Although energy supply from beer is very low, its nutrients and bioactive compound contents are interesting, since its potential antioxidant effect together with the fact that anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral effects have been demonstrated, as well as its beneficial effect on cardiovascular health, leading to a greater protection than even in the abstemious population. In view of the results obtained from the literature consulted by the expert panel, we can conclude that the moderate consumption of beer can be considered within a healthy diet. Nevertheless, the general recommendation is addressed only to healthy adults, never to children, adolescents or

  3. Pharmacokinetics of reduced iso-α-acids in volunteers following clear bottled beer consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2015-05-01

    Reduced iso-α-acids (reduced IAA) consisting of the rho-, tetrahydro- and hexahydro-IAA groups (RIAA, TIAA and HIAA, respectively) are ingredient congeners specific to beer and generally found in clear and also occasionally green bottled beer. Concentrations of reduced IAA were determined in the blood and urine of five volunteers over 6h following the consumption of small volumes of beer containing each of the reduced IAA. The reduced IAA were absorbed and bioavailable with peak concentrations at 0.5h followed by a drop of generally fivefold by 2h. Preliminary pharmacokinetics of these compounds in humans shows relatively small inter-individual differences and an estimated short half-life varying between ∼38 and 46min for the three groups. Comparison of RIAA analyte ratios within the group indicate that some analytes eliminate relatively faster than others and the formation of metabolite products was observed. Preliminary urine analysis showed only unmodified RIAA analytes were detectable throughout 6h and suggests extensive phase I metabolism of TIAA and HIAA analytes. In authentic forensic casework where clear or green bottled beers are consumed, the identification of reduced IAA groups may provide a novel method to target ingredient congeners consistent with beer ingestion and suggest the type of beer consumed.

  4. BEER IS FOOD, ISN’T IT? THE EFFECT OF BEER ADVERTISING ON DRINKING AMONG YOUTH

    OpenAIRE

    Glavaš, Josipa; Rumboldt, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of beer advertising on attitudes and drinking behavior among adolescents. A total of 934 high school students in Split were interviewed using a confidential questionnaire. The results showed that the extent of beer consumption corrrelated to male gender, lower academic performance, type of school, owning of promotional items, likability of beer ads, and risky behavior. Although beer ads are popular among most of the participants, beer promoti...

  5. [Benefits of moderate beer consumption at different stages of life of women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Medina, Tirso; de Argila Fernández-Durán, Nuria; Pereira Sánchez, Augusto; Serrano González, Lucía

    2015-07-18

    Beer is a natural beverage low calorie, low degree of alcohol, no fats or sugars and a significant amount of carbohydrates, vitamins, and proteins. Beneficial health qualities are based on the presence in the beer of antioxidant compounds (polyphenols), which reduce the presence of free radicals in the organism, and phytoestrogens, elements biosimilars to natural estrogens. In pregnant women, beer, obviously alcohol-free, presents elements in its composition that differ it from other fermented beverages as it is the folic acid, vitamin necessary to prevent defects of the neural tube in the fetus or regulate homocysteine. With regard to breastfeeding, beer alcohol-free supplementation increases the antioxidant activity in breast milk and therefore reduces the oxidative stress of the newborn after birth In menopause, the presence of antioxidants, vitamins, nutrients, and dietetic fiber, as well as phytoestrogens, is highly beneficial in the prevention of pathologies arising from the decline in estrogens. Osteoporosis also is effectively combated by the beer. The intake of beer, favors a greater bone mass in women, irrespective of their gonadal status.

  6. Is beer consumption related to measures of abdominal and general obesity? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendsen, Nathalie T; Christensen, Robin; Bartels, Else M; Kok, Frans J; Sierksma, Aafje; Raben, Anne; Astrup, Arne

    2013-02-01

    A systematic review was conducted to assess the evidence linking beer consumption to abdominal and general obesity. Following a systematic search strategy, 35 eligible observational studies and 12 experimental studies were identified. Regarding abdominal obesity, most observational data pointed towards a positive association or no association between beer intake and waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio in men, whereas results for women were inconsistent. Data from a subset of studies indicated that beer intake > 500 mL/day may be positively associated with abdominal obesity. Regarding general obesity, most observational studies pointed towards an inverse association or no association between beer intake and body weight in women and a positive association or no association in men. Data from six experimental studies in men, in which alcoholic beer was compared with low-alcoholic beer, suggested that consumption of alcoholic beer (for 21-126 days) results in weight gain (0.73 kg; P beer with intake of no alcohol did not support this finding. Generally, experimental studies had low-quality data. In conclusion, the available data provide inadequate scientific evidence to assess whether beer intake at moderate levels (<500 mL/day) is associated with general or abdominal obesity. Higher intake, however, may be positively associated with abdominal obesity.

  7. Overweight, obesity and beer consumption. Alcohol drinking habits in Belgium and body mass index.

    OpenAIRE

    Janssens, J; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Joossens, J.V.; Molenberghs, Geert; VINCK, Jan; Renard, Didier; Tafforeau, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The relationship between body weight and alcohol, particularly beer, consumption was studied in a representative sample of the Belgian population using a quantity frequency (QF)index, which measures the units of alcohol weekly consumed. The data of the health questionnaires 1997 were used. Design: A total of 10000 individuals were interviewed, after ommission of individuals younger than 15 years of age, the questionnaires of 7809 subjects were used for analysis. The most important ...

  8. Cheers, Proost, Saúde: Cultural, Contextual and Psychological Factors of Wine and Beer Consumption in Portugal and in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Ana Patricia; Jager, G.; Zyl, van Hannelize; Voss, Hans Peter; Pintado, Manuela; Graaf, de C.

    2017-01-01

    Wine and beer consumption are an integral part of European culture: Southern Europe is associated with wine and Northern Europe is associated with beer. When consumed in moderation, these alcoholic beverages can be part of a balanced and healthy diet. In the 1990s, non-alcoholic beer, which has no c

  9. Cheers, Proost, Saúde: Cultural, Contextual and Psychological Factors of Wine and Beer Consumption in Portugal and in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Ana Patricia; Jager, G.; Zyl, van Hannelize; Voss, Hans Peter; Pintado, Manuela; Graaf, de C.

    2017-01-01

    Wine and beer consumption are an integral part of European culture: Southern Europe is associated with wine and Northern Europe is associated with beer. When consumed in moderation, these alcoholic beverages can be part of a balanced and healthy diet. In the 1990s, non-alcoholic beer, which has no

  10. Cheers, Proost, Saúde: Cultural, Contextual and Psychological Factors of Wine and Beer Consumption in Portugal and in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Ana Patricia; Jager, G.; Zyl, van Hannelize; Voss, Hans Peter; Pintado, Manuela; Graaf, de C.

    2017-01-01

    Wine and beer consumption are an integral part of European culture: Southern Europe is associated with wine and Northern Europe is associated with beer. When consumed in moderation, these alcoholic beverages can be part of a balanced and healthy diet. In the 1990s, non-alcoholic beer, which has no c

  11. Post-exercise rehydration: Effect of consumption of beer with varying alcohol content on fluid balance after mild dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarthe Wijnen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The effects of moderate beer consumption after physical activity on rehydration and fluid balance are not completely clear. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effect of beer consumption, with varying alcohol content, on fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration.Methods: Eleven healthy males were included in this cross over study (age 24.5 ± 4.7 yrs, body weight 75.4 ± 3.3 kg, VO2max 58.3 ± 6.4 mL · kg · min-1. Subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer for 45 min at 60 % of their maximal power output (Wmax until mild dehydration (1 % body mass loss. Thereafter, in random order, one of five experimental beverages was consumed, in an amount equal to 100% of their sweat loss: non-alcoholic beer (0.0 %, low-alcohol beer (2.0 %, full-strength beer (5.0 %, an isotonic sports drink and water. Fluid balance was assessed up till 5 hours after rehydration.Results: After 1 hour, urine production was significantly higher for 5 % beer compared to the isotonic sports drink (299 ± 143 mL vs 105 ± 67 mL; p < 0.01. At the end of the 5 h observation period net fluid balance (NFB was negative for all conditions (p = 0.681, with the poorest fluid retention percentage for 5 % beer (21 % fluid retention and the best percentage for the isotonic sports drink (42 %. Non-alcoholic beer, low-alcoholic beer and water resulted in fluid retention of 36 %, 36 % and 34 % respectively (p = 0.460. Conclusions: There was no difference in NFB between the different beverages. Only a short-lived difference between full-strength beer and the isotonic sports drink in urine output and NFB was observed after mild exercise-induced dehydration. Fluid replacement – either in the form of non-alcoholic beer, low-alcoholic beer, full-strength beer, water or an isotonic sports drink of 100 % of body mass loss was not sufficient to achieve full rehydration. The combination of a moderate amount of beer, with varying alcohol content, enough water or electrolyte

  12. Post-Exercise Rehydration: Effect of Consumption of Beer with Varying Alcohol Content on Fluid Balance after Mild Dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Annemarthe H C; Steennis, Jora; Catoire, Milène; Wardenaar, Floris C; Mensink, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The effects of moderate beer consumption after physical activity on rehydration and fluid balance are not completely clear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of beer consumption, with varying alcohol content, on fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration. Eleven healthy males were included in this cross over study (age 24.5 ± 4.7 years, body weight 75.4 ± 3.3 kg, VO2max 58.3 ± 6.4 mL kg min(-1)). Subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer for 45 min at 60% of their maximal power output (Wmax) until mild dehydration (1% body mass loss). Thereafter, in random order, one of five experimental beverages was consumed, in an amount equal to 100% of their sweat loss: non-alcoholic beer (0.0%), low-alcohol beer (2.0%), full-strength beer (5.0%), an isotonic sports drink, and water. Fluid balance was assessed up till 5 h after rehydration. After 1 h, urine production was significantly higher for 5% beer compared to the isotonic sports drink (299 ± 143 vs. 105 ± 67 mL; p sports drink (42%). Non-alcoholic beer, low-alcoholic beer, and water resulted in fluid retention of 36, 36, and 34%, respectively (p = 0.460). There was no difference in NFB between the different beverages. Only a short-lived difference between full-strength beer and the isotonic sports drink in urine output and NFB was observed after mild exercise-induced dehydration. Fluid replacement - either in the form of non-alcoholic beer, low-alcoholic beer, full-strength beer, water, or an isotonic sports drink of 100% of body mass loss was not sufficient to achieve full rehydration. The combination of a moderate amount of beer, with varying alcohol content, enough water or electrolyte- and carbohydrate beverages, and salty foods might improve rehydration, but more research is needed.

  13. Exploring Low Alcohol Beer Consumption Among College Students: Implications for Drunk Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Nason W.; Geller, E. Scott

    1988-01-01

    When given a "blind" taste test prior to a party, college students (N=137) showed no clear preference for Budweiser beer, Bud Light, or low-alcohol beer, but later drank significantly less low-alcohol beer. It was concluded that without improved marketing intervention, low-alcohol beer will not impact on drunk driving among college…

  14. Cheers, proost, saúde: Cultural, contextual and psychological factors of wine and beer consumption in Portugal and in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Patricia; Jager, Gerry; Van Zyl, Hannelize; Voss, Hans-Peter; Pintado, Manuela; Hogg, Tim; De Graaf, Cees

    2017-05-03

    Wine and beer consumption are an integral part of European culture: Southern Europe is associated with wine and Northern Europe is associated with beer. When consumed in moderation, these alcoholic beverages can be part of a balanced and healthy diet. In the 1990s, non-alcoholic beer (NAB), which has no cultural roots, became available in the market. This review identifies determinants for consumption of wine, beer, and NAB, using data on consumption patterns from Portugal and the Netherlands. Since the 1960s the image of Portugal as a wine country declined, whereas the image of the Netherlands as a beer country remained stable. In each country beer is now the most consumed alcoholic beverage and is mainly a men's beverage, whereas wine is the second most consumed and is consumed by both genders. Cultural differences define Portuguese as "outdoors, everyday drinkers", within a meal context, and Dutch as "at home, weekend drinkers." Wine is perceived as the healthiest beverage, followed by NAB, and regular beer. Motivation for consumption is related to context: wine for special occasions, beer for informal occasions, and NAB for occasions when alcohol is not convenient. Moderate wine and beer consumption seems to be surrounded by positive emotions. This review is relevant for public health, for industry market strategies, and identifies opportunities of future research on drinking behaviour.

  15. EVALUATION OF FERMENTATION PARAMETERS DURING HIGH-GRAVITY BEER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Almeida

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A large number of advantages are obtained from the use of highly concentrated worts during the production of beer in a process referred to as "high-gravity". However, problems related to slow or stuck fermentations, which cause the lower productivity and possibility of contamination, are encountered. This study examines the influence of factors pH, percentage of corn syrup, initial wort concentration and fermentation temperature on the fermentation parameters, namely productivity, wort attenuation and the yield coefficient for sugar-to-ethanol conversion. The results show that productivity increased when the higher temperature, the higher wort concentration and the lower syrup percentage were used, while wort attenuation increased when lower wort concentration and no syrup were used. The yield coefficient for sugar-to-ethanol conversion was not influenced by any of the factors studied.

  16. Determination and fractionation of metals in beer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Pawel

    2008-06-01

    Major, minor and trace metals are important in beer fermentation since they supply the appropriate environment for yeast growth and influence yeast metabolism. A real concern is the content of copper (Cu) and iron (Fe), which are involved in beer conditioning and ageing through reactions resulting in formation of reactive oxygen species. The reactive oxygen species readily oxidize organic compounds present in beer, changing the quality of foaming and the flavour stability of beer. In view of brewing technology and beer processing, knowledge regarding functions of metals and their speciation in brewing liquors and beer is of special significance. Metals in beer also have a certain nutritional importance, but their actual effect related to beer consumption depends on the type of species they form with low and high molecular mass organic ligands which naturally occur in beer. This review covers the determination and fractionation of metals in beer using atomic spectrometry methods. Special attention is drawn to the role of metals in beer and brewing, possible metal associations, methods of beer preparation before analysis on the total metal content, and approaches to metal partitioning in beer.

  17. Beer potomania: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattarai, Nimesh; Kafle, Poonam; Panda, Mukta

    2010-01-01

    A syndrome of hyponatraemia associated with excessive beer drinking was first recognised in 1971. This syndrome has been referred to as beer potomania. Dilutional hyponatraemia occurs due to excessive consumption of an exclusive beer diet which is poor in salt and protein. We report a case of beer potomania who improved dramatically with introduction of solute load, with no subsequent neurological sequelae.

  18. Beer potomania: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Nimesh; Kafle, Poonam; Panda, Mukta

    2010-04-29

    A syndrome of hyponatraemia associated with excessive beer drinking was first recognised in 1971. This syndrome has been referred to as beer potomania. Dilutional hyponatraemia occurs due to excessive consumption of an exclusive beer diet which is poor in salt and protein. We report a case of beer potomania who improved dramatically with introduction of solute load, with no subsequent neurological sequelae.

  19. Beer potomania: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Nimesh; Kafle, Poonam; Panda, Mukta

    2010-01-01

    A syndrome of hyponatraemia associated with excessive beer drinking was first recognised in 1971. This syndrome has been referred to as beer potomania. Dilutional hyponatraemia occurs due to excessive consumption of an exclusive beer diet which is poor in salt and protein. We report a case of beer potomania who improved dramatically with introduction of solute load, with no subsequent neurological sequelae. PMID:22736559

  20. High Antibiotic Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malo, Sara; José Rabanaque, María; Feja, Cristina;

    2014-01-01

    with highest consumption) were responsible for 21% of the total DDD consumed and received ≥6 packages per year. Elderly adults (≥60 years) and small children (0-9 years) were those exposed to the highest volume of antibiotics and with the most frequent exposure, respectively. Heavy users received a high...... proportion of antibiotics not recommended as first choice in primary health care. In conclusion, heavy antibiotic users consisted mainly of children and old adults. Inappropriate overuse of antibiotics (high quantity, high frequency, and inappropriate antibiotic choice) leads to a substantial risk...

  1. Characterisation of brewpub beer carbohydrates using high performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfelli, Giuseppe; Sartini, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    High performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) was optimised in order to quantify mannose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentaose, maltohexaose and maltoheptaose content of beer. The method allows the determination of above mentioned oligosaccharides, in a single chromatographic run, without any pre-treatment. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were suitable for beer. Accuracy and repeatability were good for the entire amount considered. Once optimised HPAEC PAD for the specific matrix, the second goal of this research was to verify the possibility to discriminate beers, depending on their style. The carbohydrates content of brewpub commercial beers was very variable, ranging from 19.3 to 1469mg/L (mannose), 34.5 to 2882mg/L (maltose), 141.9 to 20731mg/L (maltotriose), 168.5 to 7650mg/L (maltotetraose), 20.1 to 2537mg/L (maltopentaose), 22.9 to 3295mg/L (maltohexaose), 8.5 to 2492mg/L (maltoeptaose), even in the same style of beer. However, the carbohydrates content was useful, jointed with other compounds amount, to discriminate different styles of beer. As a matter of fact, principal component analysis put in evidence beer differences considering some fermentation conditions and colour.

  2. Influencia del consumo moderado de cerveza sobre la toxicocinética del aluminio: estudio agudo Influence of moderate beer consumption on aluminium toxico-kynetics: acute study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peña

    2007-06-01

    neurodegenerative disorders due to this metal is conducive to oxidative stress in the brain. According to different researches, it has been suggested that silicon may interfere in the toxicokinetic of this metal. The present study has examined the effect of beer consumption as a source of silicon on the bioavailability of aluminium and the possible role of beer consumption in averting aluminium's neurotoxicity. Material and methods: In a three-day study, male rats were subjected to acute exposure to aluminium while being given two types of beer, i.e., alcoholic and non-alcoholic beer, to drink at two intake levels, one equivalent to moderate to low consumption in humans (0.5 l/d; 27.5 g alcohol/d and another equivalent to moderate to high consumption in humans (1 l/d; 55 g alcohol/day. Aluminium and silicon were determined by ICP-MS and ICPOES, respectively. Results: The results obtained seem indicate that at moderately high levels of alcoholic beer intake the silicon present in the beer was able to reduce aluminium uptake in the digestive tract, increasing its excretion by faecal route. In addition, a possible interaction of both elements at level of distribution and renal excretion is suggested. Conclusion: In consequence, moderate beer consumption, possibly affording a protective factor for the toxic effect of aluminium, one of the environmental factors for Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Potentiometric Determination of Fluoride Concentration in Beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaudenes, Juan Ramón; Hardisson, Arturo; Paz, Soraya; Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Angel José; Burgos, Antonio; Revert, Consuelo

    2017-04-26

    Beer is a widely consumed drink throughout the world, and because its manufacture involves the use of water, beer can be, in some cases, a source of fluorides. For this reason, the objective of this study was to determine the concentration of fluorides in 50 samples of beers from different sources sold in two different types of container (aluminum can and glass bottle). The possible significant differences between the different types of packaging and the intake of fluoride from the consumption of these beers were evaluated. The concentration of fluoride in beers has been determined using the potentiometric method of fluoride determination by standard addition. The concentration of fluoride ranged between 0.06 and 1.77 mg/L. In general, the concentration was below 1 mg/L, except for three beer samples from Ireland and the USA, whose concentration was over 1.5 mg/L. No significant differences were found between the types of packaging. The contribution of fluoride to the diet from beer consumption is not high (fluoride in the water supply.

  4. ¿Influye la cerveza en el aumento de peso?: Efectos de un consumo moderado de cerveza sobre la composición corporal Does beer have an impact weight gain?: Effects of moderate beer consumption on body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Romeo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Son numerosos los estudios que han investigado los efectos del consumo de alcohol en el peso corporal, sugiriendo una relación tanto inversa como positiva en relación al peso y la grasa corporal. Objetivo: Examinar la relación entre un consumo moderado de cerveza y el peso corporal en una población adulta española sana. Material y métodos: Después de un período de 30 días de abstinencia alcohólica, 58 voluntarios sanos (31 varones y 27 mujeres fueron sometidos a un consumo moderado de cerveza diario durante los 30 días siguientes. Se evaluaron los parámetros antropométricos correspondientes a la talla, peso, pliegues cutáneos y perímetros, al principio del estudio (a, tras un mes de abstinencia de alcohol (b, y tras un mes de consumo moderado de cerveza (c. Resultados: Se observó un aumento significativo (p Background: The effects of alcohol consumption on body weight have been evaluated in a large number of studies suggesting to be inversely as well as positively related to body weight and body fat. Objective: This study examined the relationships between moderate beer consumption and anthropometrical parameters in Spanish healthy adults. Method: After a 30 day alcohol abstemious period, 58 healthy volunteers were submitted to a daily moderate consumption of beer during the following 30 days. Weight, height, skinfolds and circumferences were measured at three points: a basal; b abstemious and c after moderate consumption of beer. Results: Biceps skinfold (mm increased (p < 0.05 in men after moderate beer consumption in regard to abstinence period (5.74 ± 1.70 vs 6.23 ± 1.74. No significant differences were observed in the rest of anthropometrical parameters studied in both women and men along the study intervention. Conclusion: Moderate beer consumption during one month did not mostly change weight and weight-related parameters in healthy adults.

  5. Experimental Study on Extruded Beer Adjunct Used for Brewing Beer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN De-chao

    2004-01-01

    The properties of saccharified and boiled worts between extruded and traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts were studied at the laboratory and a small beer brewing equipment( 100 L) in this paper. Test results indicate that the main saccharification indices and filtration speeds of worts between extruded and traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts are similar basically. The collected rate of extracted material of worts of extruded beer adjuncts is 8%more than that of traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts. Fermentation time of worts of extruded beer adjuncts is 10 %less than that of traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts. The energy consumption of extruded beer adjuncts in saccharification process is 13 % less than that of traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts.

  6. Magnetic mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction of xanthohumol in beer coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jie; Zhao, Qi; Sun, Lei; Ding, Lan; Ren, Nanqi

    2011-06-01

    In this study, silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)/SiO(2) NPs) modified by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were synthesized. They were successfully applied for extraction of xanthohumol in beer based on magnetic mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (MMHSPE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet determination. The main factors influencing the extraction efficiency including the surfactant amount, the beer pH, the extraction time, the desorption condition and the maximum extraction beer volume were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, a concentration factor of 60 was achieved by extracting 120 mL beer sample using MMHSPE and the detection limit of xanthohumol is 0.0006 mg/L. The proposed method was successfully applied for determination of xanthohumol in various beer samples with the xanthohumol contents in the range of 0.031-0.567 mg/L. The satisfactory recoveries (90-103%) were obtained in analyzing spiked beer samples.

  7. Patterns of Consumption of Beer and Wine, Retail Availability, and DUI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Larry L.; Holman, C. B.

    1991-01-01

    Examined effectiveness of public policies designed to curtail alcohol consumption by restricting physical availability of alcoholic beverages. Gave particular attention to impact of prohibiting concurrent sales of alcohol and gasoline at gasoline minimarts in California. Findings revealed that restriction on physical availability of alcohol had…

  8. Nutritional and health benefits of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denke, M A

    2000-11-01

    Physicians should be aware of the growing evidence supporting the nutritional and health benefits of moderate consumption of alcohol as part of a healthy lifestyle. The recently approved voluntary label on wine ("the proud people who made this wine encourage you to consult your family doctor about the health effects of wine consumption") implies that physicians should promote wine as the preferred source of dietary alcohol. However, studies evaluating the relative benefits of wine versus beer versus spirits suggest that moderate consumption of any alcoholic beverage is associated with lower rates of cardiovascular disease. From a nutritional standpoint, beer contains more protein and B vitamins than wine. The antioxidant content of beer is equivalent to that of wine, but the specific antioxidants are different because the barley and hops used in the production of beer contain flavonoids different from those in the grapes used in the production of wine. The benefits of moderate alcohol consumption have not been generally endorsed by physicians for fear that heavy consumers may consider any message as a permissive license to drink in excess. Discussions with patients regarding alcohol consumption should be made in the context of a general medical examination. There is no evidence to support endorsement of one type of alcoholic beverage over another. The physician should define moderate drinking (1 drink per day for women and 2 drinks per day for men) for the patient and should review consumption patterns associated with high risk.

  9. Free Beer and Engaging Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    This paper presents an analysis of art collective Superflex' FREE BEER project; a beer brand and an art work that seeks to promote a critical understanding of free creativity and intellectual property rights by inviting beer enthusiasts to brew their own beer. The paper seeks to demonstrate how...... the project contributes to Superflex' profile as contemporary avant-garde artists and how their work has contributed to the field of design. More specifically the paper seeks to demonstrate how the FREE BEER project succeeds in establishing a context of meaning that involves a political as well as a business...... dimension, and which makes possible the exchange of values to and from these dimensions as well as that of art. In the paper, this context of meaning is constructed in terms of a complex chain of analogies by means of which amateur beer production and beer consumption becomes an expression of the belief...

  10. Determination of xanthohumol in beer based on cloud point extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ligang; Zhao, Qi; Jin, Haiyan; Zhang, Xiaopan; Xu, Yang; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Hanqi; Ding, Lan

    2010-04-15

    A method based on coupling of cloud point extraction (CPE) with high performance liquid chromatography separation and ultraviolet detection was developed for determination of xanthohumol in beer. The nonionic surfactant Triton X-114 was chosen as the extraction medium. The parameters affecting the CPE were evaluated and optimized. The highest extraction yield of xanthohumol was obtained with 2.5% of Triton X-114 (v/v) at pH 5.0, 15% of sodium chloride (w/v), 70 degrees C of equilibrium temperature and 10 min of equilibrium time. Under these conditions, the limit of detection of xanthohumol is 0.003 mg L(-1). The intra- and inter-day precisions expressed as relative standard deviations are 4.6% and 6.3%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for determination of xanthohumol in various beer samples. The contents of xanthohumol in these samples are in the range of 0.052-0.628 mg L(-1), and the recoveries ranging from 90.7% to 101.9% were obtained. The developed method was demonstrated to be efficient, green, rapid and inexpensive for extraction and determination of xanthohumol in beer.

  11. [Beer potomania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouallem, Meir; Potashnik, Yael

    2004-01-01

    Beer potomania is a rare syndrome which is manifested by severe hyponatremia and various mental changes related to binge beer drinking and poor dietary intake. This article is a case study describing an alcoholic that was admitted because of this syndrome. We also discuss the pathophysiology of hyponatremia in alcoholics and especially in the syndrome of beer potomania.

  12. An industrial heating plant that delivers water at high temperatures and incorporates a mechanical compressor for beer vapor. Blockheizkraftwerk mit hohen Nutz-Wassertemperaturen und mechanischer Bruedenverdichtungsanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemm, W. (Stuttgarter Hofbraeu AG, Stuttgart (Germany)); Grosshans, D. (Technische Werke der Stadt Stuttgart AG (Germany))

    1992-03-01

    A new approach to energy utilization at the Stuttgarter Hofbraeu AG brewery is highlighted. Fired by natural gas, the power plant comprises a hot water reservoir and a compressor for beer vapor. Its special features at the high (140deg C) temperature of circulating water and efficient fuel consumption. Initial performance data for the plant, which was placed in service at the end of 1990, are now available. In June, 1991 the city of Stuttgart conferred its first environmental award on the plant. (orig.).

  13. Beer induced angioedema – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Beer is a popular alcoholic beverage consumed all over the world. Type I hypersensitivity reactions like urticaria and anaphylaxis due to beer have been reported very infrequently in the literature. We report a case of a 29 year old male who presented with episodes of acute urticaria and angioedema after intake of beer while tolerating other alcoholic beverages. A positive prick test to beer was observed which confirmed the diagnosis of beer induced angioedema. On cessation of beer consumption, no recurrence was observed over a follow-up period of six months.

  14. You save money when you buy in bulk: does volume-based pricing cause people to buy more beer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Jeremy W; Loomis, Brett R; Engelen, Mark

    2009-05-01

    This paper uses supermarket scanner data to estimate brand- and packaging-specific own- and cross-price elasticities for beer. We find that brand- and packaging-specific beer sales are highly price elastic. Cross-price elasticity estimates suggest that individuals are more likely to buy a higher-volume package of the same brand of beer than they are to switch brands. Policy simulations suggest that regulation of volume-based price discounts is potentially more effective than a tax increase at reducing beer consumption. Our results suggest that volume-based price discounting induces people to buy larger-volume packages of beer and may lead to an increased overall beer consumption. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. PREFERENCES AND BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF STUDENTS ON THE BEER MARKET

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karolina Jąder

    2013-01-01

    .... The aim was study the preferences and buying behaviour of students on the beer market. It shows the place of beer among other alcohols, frequency and place of consumption, as well the place of beer shopping and the criteria of beer purchase...

  16. Revealing the beneficial effect of protease supplementation to high gravity beer fermentations using "-omics" techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Workman Chris

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addition of sugar syrups to the basic wort is a popular technique to achieve higher gravity in beer fermentations, but it results in dilution of the free amino nitrogen (FAN content in the medium. The multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme has beneficial effect on the brewer's yeast fermentation performance during high gravity fermentations as it increases the initial FAN value and results in higher FAN uptake, higher specific growth rate, higher ethanol yield and improved flavour profile. Results In the present study, transcriptome and metabolome analysis were used to elucidate the effect on the addition of the multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme and its influence on the metabolism of the brewer's yeast strain Weihenstephan 34/70. The study underlines the importance of sufficient nitrogen availability during the course of beer fermentation. The applied metabolome and transcriptome analysis allowed mapping the effect of the wort sugar composition on the nitrogen uptake. Conclusion Both the transcriptome and the metabolome analysis revealed that there is a significantly higher impact of protease addition for maltose syrup supplemented fermentations, while addition of glucose syrup to increase the gravity in the wort resulted in increased glucose repression that lead to inhibition of amino acid uptake and hereby inhibited the effect of the protease addition.

  17. Revealing the beneficial effect of protease supplementation to high gravity beer fermentations using "-omics" techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piddocke, Maya Petrova; Fazio, Alessandro; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa

    2011-01-01

    Background: Addition of sugar syrups to the basic wort is a popular technique to achieve higher gravity in beer fermentations, but it results in dilution of the free amino nitrogen (FAN) content in the medium. The multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme has beneficial effect on the brewer......'s yeast fermentation performance during high gravity fermentations as it increases the initial FAN value and results in higher FAN uptake, higher specific growth rate, higher ethanol yield and improved flavour profile. Results: In the present study, transcriptome and metabolome analysis were used...... syrup to increase the gravity in the wort resulted in increased glucose repression that lead to inhibition of amino acid uptake and hereby inhibited the effect of the protease addition....

  18. Silicon in beer and brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Troy R; Bamforth, Charles W

    2010-04-15

    It has been claimed that beer is one of the richest sources of silicon in the diet; however, little is known of the relationship between silicon content and beer style and the manner in which beer is produced. The purpose of this study was to measure silicon in a diversity of beers and ascertain the grist selection and brewing factors that impact the level of silicon obtained in beer. Commercial beers ranged from 6.4 to 56.5 mg L(-1) in silicon. Products derived from a grist of barley tended to contain more silicon than did those from a wheat-based grist, likely because of the high levels of silica in the retained husk layer of barley. Hops contain substantially more silicon than does grain, but quantitatively hops make a much smaller contribution than malt to the production of beer and therefore relatively less silicon in beer derives from them. During brewing the vast majority of the silicon remains with the spent grains; however, aggressive treatment during wort production in the brewhouse leads to increased extraction of silicon into wort and much of this survives into beer. It is confirmed that beer is a very rich source of silicon. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Correlates of in-store promotions for beer: differential effects of market and product characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Jeremy W; Loomis, Brett; Engelen, Mark

    2007-03-01

    We estimated the strength and direction of the association between product characteristics (beer type, package size, and brand name) and market-area socioeconomic characteristics, and promoted sales of beer in grocery stores. Supermarket scanner data from 64 market areas across the United States over 5 years were used to estimate regression models of the share of beer sales that are promoted, controlling for beer price, packaging, and type; and for market-level age, race/ethnicity, income, unemployment rate, and percentage of the population living in an alcohol control state. Large-volume units, such as 144-oz and 288-oz packages, are more likely to be promoted than smaller package sizes. Malt-liquor beverages are less likely to be promoted than non-malt-liquor beverages. Age, race/ethnicity, income, and geographic location of the market area are not significantly related to promoted beer sales. Marketing research has shown that in-store merchandising and promotions can substantially increase beer sales and that purchasing large package sizes may increase total consumption. Our results suggest that high levels of promoted sales for large-volume beer packages may result in increased beer consumption.

  20. High performance liquid chromatography--atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination of arsenic species in beer samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo Coelho, N.M.; Parrilla, Carmen; Cervera, M.L.; Pastor, A.; Guardia, M. de la

    2003-04-10

    A method has been developed for the direct determination of As(III), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and As(V) in beers by hydride generation--atomic fluorescence spectrometry after separation of arsenic species by high performance liquid chromatography. Compounds were separated by anion-exchange chromatography with isocratic elution using KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}/K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} as mobile phase with elution times of 1.67, 2.08, 6.52 and 10.72 min for As(III), DMA, MMA and As(V), respectively. Parameters affecting the hydride generation of all arsenic species were studied and the best conditions were established as a reaction coil of 150 cm, for a sample injected volume of 100 {mu}l, a 4.0% (m/v) solution of sodium tetrahydroborate and 2.0 mol l{sup -1} hydrochloric acid with flow rates of 2.7 and 1.7 ml min{sup -1}, respectively and a flow rate of 500 ml min{sup -1} for the argon carrier gas. Under the best experimental conditions, the detection limit was found to be 0.12, 0.20, 0.27 and 0.39 {mu}g l{sup -1} for As(III), DMA, MMA and As(V), respectively. The relative standard deviation for eight independent determinations varied from 3.9 till 8.9% for species considered at a concentration level of 10.0 {mu}g l{sup -1}. Recovery and comparative studies evidenced that the method is suitable for the accurate determination of arsenic species in water and beer samples.

  1. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  2. A comprehensive characterisation of beer polyphenols by high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quifer-Rada, Paola; Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Jáuregui, Olga; Estruch, Ramon; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa

    2015-02-15

    Beer is the second most consumed alcoholic beverage in Europe and shown by the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort study to be the main food contributor to hydroxybenzoic acid intake. About 70-80% of the total polyphenol content in beer comes from malt, and the remaining 30-20% from hops. In this work, liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization hybrid linear ion trap quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry technique has been used for an accurate identification of beer polyphenols. 47 phenolic compounds were identified using high mass accuracy and confirmed by MS(2) experiments, including simple phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamoylquinics, flavanols, flavonols, flavones, alkylmethoxyphenols, alpha- and iso-alpha-acids, hydroxyphenylacetic acids and prenylflavonoids. As far as we know, 7 of these compounds have been recognised in beer for the first time: feruloylquinic acid, caffeic acid-O-hexoside, coumaric acid-O-hexoside, sinapic acid-O-hexoside, catechin-O-dihexoside, kaempferol-O-hexoside, and apigenin-C-hexoside-pentoside.

  3. Toxicity profile of commercially produced indigenous banana beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shale, K; Mukamugema, J; Lues, R J; Venter, P

    2012-08-01

    Mycotoxins, together with endotoxins, represent important classes of naturally occurring contaminants in food products, posing significant health risks to consumers. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of both Fusarium mycotoxins and endotoxins in commercially produced traditional banana beer. Two brands of commercially produced traditional banana beer were collected from a local retail market in Kigali, Rwanda. Beer samples were analysed for the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B₁ and zearalenone (ZEA), using an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) method. The quantification of bacterial endotoxin using Limulus amoeboecyte lysate (LAL) assay was also conducted. The contamination levels were 20 and 6.7 µg kg⁻¹ for DON; 34 and 31.3 µg kg⁻¹ for FB₁; 0.66 and 2.2 µg kg⁻¹ for ZEA in brands A and B of the beers, respectively. Results indicate that the levels of Fusarium toxins and bacterial endotoxin reported in this study did not pose adverse human health effects as a result of drinking/consuming banana beer. However, exposure to low/sub-threshold doses or non-toxic levels of endotoxins magnifies the toxic effect of xenobiotic agents (e.g. fungal toxins) on liver and other target organs. Considering Fusarium toxins and/or endotoxin contamination levels in other agricultural commodities intended for human consumption, health risks might be high and the condition is aggravated when beer is contaminated by mixtures of the mycotoxins, as indicated in this study.

  4. The Chemistry of Beer Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Graham G.

    2004-07-01

    Compared to most other alcoholic beverages, beer is unique because it is unstable when in the final package. This instability can be divided into biological and nonbiological instability. Nonbiological stability of beer involves a wide range of chemical processes and can be considered in a number of categories: physical, flavor, light, foam, and gushing. It is the balance between flavanoid polyphenols (tannoids) and sensitive proteins that specifically combine with polyphenols to form haze that largely dictates physical stability. The flavor stability of beer primarily depends on the oxygen concentration of packaged beer but is influenced by all stages of the brewing process. Foam stability in a glass of beer reflects the quality of the beverage. The backbone of foam is hydrophobic polypeptides. Novel brewing processes such as high-gravity brewing result in a disproportionate loss of these polypeptides and have a negative effect on the foam stability of the resulting beer. Beer is light sensitive, especially in the 350 500 nm range. Beer exposed to this wavelength range in clear or green glass containers quickly develop nauseous skunky-like off-flavors resulting from the formation of 3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol. Methods of enhancing all of these types of beer stability are discussed.

  5. High tobacco consumption lowers body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winsløw, Ulrik C; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has been found regarding the association between high tobacco consumption and body weight among smokers. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with low body weight. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study...... with a genetic variant in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) as proxy for high tobacco consumption. The cohort consisted of 80,342 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with details on body weight, smoking habits and CHRNA3 genotype, including 15,220 current smokers. RESULTS: In observational analyses, high...... tobacco consumption was associated with high body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio. In multivariable adjusted models a 1-cigarette/day higher tobacco consumption was associated with 0.05 kg (95% confidence interval 0.02; 0.08) higher body weight, 0.02 kg...

  6. Beer and beer compounds: physiological effects on skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Becker, T; Qian, F; Ring, J

    2014-02-01

    Beer is one of the earliest human inventions and globally the most consumed alcoholic beverage in terms of volume. In addition to water, the 'German Beer Purity Law', based on the Bavarian Beer Purity Law from 1516, allows only barley, hops, yeasts and water for beer brewing. The extracts of these ingredients, especially the hops, contain an abundance of polyphenols such as kaempferol, quercetin, tyrosol, ferulic acid, xanthohumol/isoxanthohumol/8-prenylnaringenin, α-bitter acids like humulone and β-bitter acids like lupulone. 8-prenylnaringenin is the most potent phytoestrogen known to date. These compounds have been shown to possess various anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-angiogenic, anti-melanogenic, anti-osteoporotic and anti-carcinogenic effects. Epidemiological studies on the association between beer drinking and skin disease are limited while direct evidence of beer compounds in clinical application is lacking. Potential uses of these substances in dermatology may include treatment of atopic eczema, contact dermatitis, pigmentary disorders, skin infections, skin ageing, skin cancers and photoprotections, which require an optimization of the biostability and topical delivery of these compounds. Further studies are needed to determine the bioavailability of these compounds and their possible beneficial health effects when taken by moderate beer consumption. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  7. Determination of resveratrol and piceid in beer matrices by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Rotchés-Ribalta, Maria; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Llorach, Rafael; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Estruch, Ramon; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina

    2011-02-04

    Beer is one of the most commonly consumed undistilled alcoholic beverages in many countries. In recent studies, the stilbenes resveratrol and piceid have been found in some hop varieties which are used in the production of beer. Therefore, they could be transferred to beer. The aim of the present work was to validate a method to study the potential content of trans- and cis-resveratrol and piceid in 110 commercial beers from around the world. The resveratrol and piceid contents of 110 beers were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after a solid-phase extraction (SPE) using optimized and validated procedures for the beer matrix. The beer matrix effect was also studied. Stilbenes were found in quantifiable amounts in 92 beers, while concentrations below the limit of quantification (LOQ) were found in 18 beers. Resveratrol was found in the range of 1.34-77.0μg/L in 79% of the beers analyzed, and piceid was found in the range of 1.80-27.3μg/L in only 33% of them. The mean of total resveratrol in all the beers was 14.7±20.5μg/L. The content of resveratrol has been compared with other resveratrol containing foods. A serving of beer contains similar amounts of stilbenes as berries, less than chocolate and grape products but more than pistachios, peanuts or tomatoes. Overall, beer is one of the products with the lowest levels of total resveratrol (μg/L), and despite its high consumption it should not be considered as a representative source of resveratrol.

  8. A Historical Review of the Beer Economy.

    OpenAIRE

    Poelmans, Eline; Swinnen, Jo

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews beer production, consumption and the industrial organization of breweries throughout history. Monasteries were the centers of the beer economy in the early Middle Ages. Innovation and increased demand later induced the growth of commercial breweries. Globalization and scientific discoveries transformed the beer industry and increased competition from the 16th through the 19th century. The 20th century was characterized by dramatic (domestic and international) consolidatio...

  9. Physiological characterization of brewer's yeast in high-gravity beer fermentations with glucose or maltose syrups as adjuncts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piddocke, Maya P; Kreisz, Stefan; Heldt-Hansen, Hans Peter; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2009-09-01

    High-gravity brewing, which can decrease production costs by increasing brewery yields, has become an attractive alternative to traditional brewing methods. However, as higher sugar concentration is required, the yeast is exposed to various stresses during fermentation. We evaluated the influence of high-gravity brewing on the fermentation performance of the brewer's yeast under model brewing conditions. The lager brewer's strain Weihenstephan 34/70 strain was characterized at three different gravities by adding either glucose or maltose syrups to the basic wort. We observed that increased gravity resulted in a lower specific growth rate, a longer lag phase before initiation of ethanol production, incomplete sugar utilization, and an increase in the concentrations of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate in the final beer. Increasing the gravity by adding maltose syrup as opposed to glucose syrup resulted in more balanced fermentation performance in terms of higher cell numbers, respectively, higher wort fermentability and a more favorable flavor profile of the final beer. Our study underlines the effects of the various stress factors on brewer's yeast metabolism and the influence of the type of sugar syrups on the fermentation performance and the flavor profile of the final beer.

  10. Beer Potomania—An Unusual Cause of Hyponatremia

    OpenAIRE

    Kujubu, Dean A; Khosraviani, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    The first case of severe hyponatremia, since referred to as beer potomania, in a heavy beer drinker patient was reported in 1972. Excessive consumption of beer in particular, which has a low solute content, may result in severe hyponatremia. We report a case of severe hyponatremia that occurred in a patient who, owing to his underlying colon cancer, was drinking beer and ingesting little food.

  11. Beer Potomania--An Unusual Cause of Hyponatremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujubu, Dean A; Khosraviani, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    The first case of severe hyponatremia, since referred to as beer potomania, in a heavy beer drinker patient was reported in 1972. Excessive consumption of beer in particular, which has a low solute content, may result in severe hyponatremia. We report a case of severe hyponatremia that occurred in a patient who, owing to his underlying colon cancer, was drinking beer and ingesting little food.

  12. EFFECT OF KIESELGUHR FILTRATION ON OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF BEER

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Frančáková; Štefan Dráb; Miriam Solgajová; Žigmund Tóth; Tatiana Bojňanská

    2013-01-01

    Looks of beer is an important factor which is associated with high clarity. Clarity of beer is a basic precondition of its good marketability and consumer satisfaction. Beer filtration is ideal tool to create required optical properties. There is a high accent on this operation in brewery and minibrewery. The process of filtering removes unwanted haze-active substances in order to increase clarity and overall stability of beer. Objective method to expressing clarity of beer is nephelometric d...

  13. Does High Tobacco Consumption Cause Psychological Distress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise S; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Petersen, Christina B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that smoking influences mental health negatively. This study investigated whether high tobacco consumption is causally related to psychological distress in a Mendelian randomization design, using a variant in the nicotine acetylcholine receptor gene CHRNA3......-known to influence individual tobacco consumption-as instrumental variable for tobacco consumption. METHODS: Data from 90 108 participants in the Copenhagen General Population Study was used. Exposures included self-reported cigarettes/day and pack years and the CHRNA3 rs1051730 genotype as instrumental...... variable for tobacco consumption. Three dimensions of psychological distress were studied: Stress, fatigue, and hopelessness. Analyses with the CHRNA3 genotype were stratified by smoking status. RESULTS: Self-reported amount of smoking was associated with all three dimensions of psychological distress...

  14. 高浓麦汁改良提高啤酒酵母发酵性能的研究进展%Research Progress in High-Gravity Wort to Improve the Fermenting Performance of Beer Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伯辰; 雷宏杰

    2016-01-01

    啤酒高浓酿造技术由于可在不增加生产设备的基础上大幅提高啤酒产量、降低能耗和劳动力、改善啤酒口感而深受啤酒酿造商的青睐。但该技术对酵母菌种的要求非常苛刻,高渗透压胁迫和高乙醇毒性导致酵母生长缓慢、细胞活性降低,严重影响到酵母的发酵性能和啤酒品质。目前,多种酵母营养添加物已经应用于高浓麦汁中来改善酵母的发酵性能,包括金属离子、脂肪酸、甾醇和氮源等。改善麦汁营养组成可降低酵母细胞对外界压力的敏感性从而提高其发酵性能。但是,麦汁组成的改变很可能对啤酒口感、酒体稳定性和啤酒泡沫产生不利的影响。系统综述了国内外通过添加多种营养物质优化麦汁组成改善细胞生理特性、酵母发酵性能及啤酒产品质量的研究进展。%High-gravity brewing technology of beer is quite popular among breweries because it could greatly increase beer yield, reduce ener-gy consumption and labor force, and improve beer taste without any addition of production equipments. However, such technology has extreme requirements for beer yeast species because osmotic stress and high-alcohol toxicity would result in slow growth of yeast and low cell activity which would further deteriorate yeast fermenting performance and beer quality. At present, multiple yeast nutritional additives including metal ions, fatty acids, sterol and nitrogen source etc. are used in high-gravity wort to improve the fermenting performance of yeast. The change in wort nutritional composition could decrease the sensitivity of yeast cells to ambient pressure and further improve yeast fermenting perfor-mance. However, the change in wort nutritional composition would possibly damage beer taste, beer stability and beer foam. In this paper, the research progress in the change of wort nutritional composition by adding multiple nutritional substances to improve yeast

  15. PREFERENCES AND BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF STUDENTS ON THE BEER MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jąder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research conducted in November among 220 students at the University of Life Sciences in Poznań. The aim was study the preferences and buying behaviour of students on the beer market. It shows the place of beer among other alcohols, frequency and place of consumption, as well the place of beer shopping and the criteria of beer purchase. The most popular brands and tastes of beer were researched. Otherwise was analysed preference for beer packaging and promotion effects on students. It was found that beer is the most often chosen alcohol among this group of consumers, and vast majority of them consume it at least once a week. Students often drink beer at home or at friends, and favourite brands are: Lech, Redd’s, Desperados and Żubr.

  16. LIVE/DEAD YEAST VIABILITY STAINING AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING ARTISANAL PILSNER BEER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Bottari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of an artisanal beer, made by brewers using traditional practices on a small scale, is founded on the empirical adjustment of parameters, including yeasts handling and serial repitching. The aim of this study was to monitor yeast viability during different stages of artisanal beer productions through the Live/Dead Yeast viability staining and to correlate it with fermentation dynamics in order to increase process standardization and to maintain the quality of final products. Yeast viability and fermentation activities were evaluated during seven fermentation cycles of an artisanal pilsner beer. Yeast inoculated with higher viability performed generally better in fermentation, resulting in faster sugar consumption, faster ethanol production and stability. Handling yeast and serial repitching based on Live/Dead viability measurements, could be the key way to ensure reliable manufacture of high quality beer and to improve process standardization particularly for microbreweries, where variability of production can be a challenging point.

  17. Evaluating MT systems with BEER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Miloš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present BEER, an open source implementation of a machine translation evaluation metric. BEER is a metric trained for high correlation with human ranking by using learning-to-rank training methods. For evaluation of lexical accuracy it uses sub-word units (character n-grams while for measuring word order it uses hierarchical representations based on PETs (permutation trees. During the last WMT metrics tasks, BEER has shown high correlation with human judgments both on the sentence and the corpus levels. In this paper we will show how BEER can be used for (i full evaluation of MT output, (ii isolated evaluation of word order and (iii tuning MT systems.

  18. Contributors to dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in the Netherlands: the role of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluik, Diewertje; Atkinson, Fiona S; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-04-14

    Diets high in glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) have been associated with a higher diabetes risk. Beer explained a large proportion of variation in GI in a Finnish and an American study. However, few beers have been tested according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) methodology. We tested the GI of beer and estimated its contribution to dietary GI and GL in the Netherlands. GI testing of pilsner beer (Pilsner Urquell) was conducted at The University of Sydney according to ISO international standards with glucose as the reference food. Subsequently, GI and GL values were assigned to 2556 food items in the 2011 Dutch food composition table using a six-step methodology and consulting four databases. This table was linked to dietary data from 2106 adults in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010. Stepwise linear regression identified contribution to inter-individual variation in dietary GI and GL. The GI of pilsner beer was 89 (SD 5). Beer consumption contributed to 9·6 and 5·3% inter-individual variation in GI and GL, respectively. Other foods that contributed to the inter-individual variation in GI and GL included potatoes, bread, soft drinks, sugar, candy, wine, coffee and tea. The results were more pronounced in men than in women. In conclusion, beer is a high-GI food. Despite its relatively low carbohydrate content (approximately 4-5 g/100 ml), it still made a contribution to dietary GL, especially in men. Next to potatoes, bread, sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages, beer captured a considerable proportion of between-person variability in GI and GL in the Dutch diet.

  19. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... appropriate TTB officer that the beer cannot be salvaged and returned to the market for consumption or sale... unmerchantable, and must state why the beer cannot be salvaged and returned to the market for consumption or sale... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer lost by fire, theft...

  20. Producing high adjunct beer by high gravity brewing%高浓酿造法生产高辅料啤酒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪应应; 胡鹏刚

    2012-01-01

    该文通过试验研究,确定了75%高辅料的糖化工艺、麦汁16°P高浓度的发酵工艺、高浓稀释工艺.采用上述工艺不仅生产的产品质量达到GB4927标准,而且感官指标和风味都比较稳定.从而提高了现有设备的利用率,增加了产量,降低了成本,提高了企业的经济效益.%In this study, a beer brewing technology including saccharification with 75% rice (adjunct), fermentation with high-gravity worts (16°P) and a dilution technology of high gravity beer was determined by experiments. Using this technology, the quality of beer reached Chinese national standard GB4927 with stable sensory indexes and flavors. Thus, the utilization of existing equipments was improved, the yield was increased while the cost was decreased and the economic efficiency was improved.

  1. Progress in Brewing Science and Beer Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamforth, C W

    2017-06-07

    The brewing of beer is an ancient biotechnology, the unit processes of which have not changed in hundreds of years. Equally, scientific study within the brewing industry not only has ensured that modern beer making is highly controlled, leading to highly consistent, high-quality, healthful beverages, but also has informed many other fermentation-based industries.

  2. Physiological characterization of brewer's yeast in high-gravity beer fermentations with glucose or maltose syrups as adjuncts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piddocke, Maya Petrova; kreisz, Stefan; Heldt-Hansen, Hans Peter

    2009-01-01

    High-gravity brewing, which can decrease production costs by increasing brewery yields, has become an attractive alternative to traditional brewing methods. However, as higher sugar concentration is required, the yeast is exposed to various stresses during fermentation. We evaluated the influence...... of high-gravity brewing on the fermentation performance of the brewer’s yeast under model brewing conditions. The lager brewer’s strain Weihenstephan 34/70 strain was characterized at three different gravities by adding either glucose or maltose syrups to the basic wort. We observed that increased gravity...... resulted in a lower specific growth rate, a longer lag phase before initiation of ethanol production, incomplete sugar utilization, and an increase in the concentrations of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate in the final beer. Increasing the gravity by adding maltose syrup as opposed to glucose syrup...

  3. New Type of BeerBeer with Improved Functionality and Defined Pharmacodynamic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Despotović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the facts about the possibilities of improving the functionality of beer with extracts of thyme (Thymus vulgaris, lemon balm (Melissa officinalis and mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. It briefly summarizes the most important data about possible positive action of moderate beer consumption and the benefits of beer as a base for developing a variety of products with enhanced functionality. It gives an overview about the mentioned herbs and the mushroom, their use in traditional medicine, chemical composition, pharmacodynamic properties and possible benefits from the brewing point of view. Procedures for extraction of biological material, experimental results of antimicrobial properties, antioxidant capacity and sensory evaluation of beer enriched with these extracts are given. Experimental results indicate that commercially produced and bottled pils beer enriched with tinctures of Thymus vulgaris and Melissa officinalis shows improved antimicrobial and antioxidative properties. Ganoderma is particularly important because of its unique functional properties and sensory compatibility with beer. Products obtained like this could fulfill several goals: developing novel beer types, developing products with health-promoting properties that meet market needs and eventually gain new beer consumers. Alcohol content of such products depends on the type and alcohol content of initial beer.

  4. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of diacetyl in beer using 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine as the derivatization reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pingliang; Zhu, Yuncong; He, Shun; Fan, Jiqiao; Hu, Qiongbo; Cao, Yongsong

    2012-03-28

    Diacetyl is a natural byproduct of fermentation and known to be an important flavor compound in many food products. Because of the potential undesirable effects of diacetyl on health safety and beer flavor, determination of its concentration in beer samples is essential and its analytical methods have attracted close attention recently. The aim of the present work is to develop and validate a novel high-performance liquid chromatography method for the quantification of diacetyl in beer based on the derivatization reaction of diacetyl with 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPDA). After the derivatization with NPDA in pH 3.0 at 45 °C for 20 min, diacetyl was separated on a kromasil C(18) column at room temperature in the form of the resulting 6-nitro-2,3-dimethylquinoxaline and detected by the ultraviolet detector at 257 nm. The results showed that the correlation coefficient for the method was 0.9992 in the range of 0.0050-10.0 mg L(-1) and the limit of detection was 0.0008 mg L(-1) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The applicability of the proposed method was evaluated in the analysis of beer samples with the recovery range of 94.0-99.0% and relative standard deviation range of 1.20-3.10%. The concentration levels of diacetyl detected in beer samples from 12 brands ranged from 0.034 to 0.110 mg L(-1). The proposed method showed efficient chromatographic separation, excellent linearity, and good repeatability that can be applied to quantification of diacetyl in beer samples.

  5. 41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? 102-41.205 Section 102-41.205 Public..., and Beer § 102-41.205 Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? (a) Yes, except do not report distilled spirits, wine, and beer not fit for human consumption or...

  6. Contribución a la ingesta de macro y micronutrientes que ejerce un consumo moderado de cerveza Contribution to the intake of macro and micro nutrients exerted by moderate beer consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Romeo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El consumo moderado de cerveza puede formar parte de una dieta saludable, como la dieta mediterránea. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la contribución del consumo moderado de cerveza a la ingestión de energía y nutrientes en adultos españoles sanos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Como parte de un estudio intervencionista más amplio, se midió la ingestión dietética mediante un registro de 7 días de los alimentos de la dieta en 24 hombres y 22 mujeres (edad: 34,18 ± 5,80 años dos veces: durante la última semana de un periodo de 30 días de abstinencia absoluta de alcohol y durante la última semana de un periodo de 30 días de consumo moderado de cerveza. Se analizó el contenido energético y en nutrientes de los alimentos mediante el programa GEA, basado en las tablas españolas de composición de los alimentos¹. RESULTADOS: En las mujeres, el consumo moderado de cerveza aumentó de forma significativa (p OBJECTIVE: Moderate beer consumption can be part of a healthy diet, like the Mediterranean diet. The aim of the present study was to analyse the contribution a moderate beer consumption makes to energy and nutrient intake in Spanish healthy adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: As part of a larger intervention study, dietary intake was measured by means of a 7-day food dietary record in 24 men and 22 women (age 34.18 ± 5.80 years twice: during the last week of the 30 days of complete alcohol abstinence and during the last week of 30 days of moderate beer consumption. Energy and nutrient content of food was analysed by means of the GEA program, based on the Spanish food composition tables. RESULTS: In women, moderate beer consumption increased significantly (p < 0.05 mean vitamin B6 (1.24 ± 0.32 to 1.47 ± 0.34 mg, B12 (3.87 ± 1.46 to 5.58 ± 2.76 µg, A (614.45 ± 224.75 to 788.3 ± 486.1 µg, and folate (139.5 ± 39.88 to 168.25 ± 56.32 µg intake, whereas there was a decrease in mean iodine intake (327.1 ± 148.4 to 281.2

  7. [Some features of teenage beer alcoholism combined with hashish addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogosov, A V; Anosova, E V

    2010-01-01

    Sixty male teenagers with beer alcoholism combined with hashish addiction were examined. The beer consumption was promoted by drinking customs existing in the microsociety, curiosity, pressure of other people, the existing opinion on harmlessness of beer and its availability. In all cases, subjects began to use hashish after the development of beer alcoholism. Peculiarities of combined pathologies were as follows: one disease (beer alcoholism) created conditions for the development of another one (hashish addiction); the polymorphism of clinical symptoms (the syndrome of addiction included symptoms of both diseases); reciprocity of these diseases. Psychosensory disorders played a central role in clinical presentations of mixed intoxication. There was the increase of tolerance to hashish while the amount of consumed beer remained stable. Symptoms characteristic of dependence of both psychoactive substances were present in the clinical presentations of the syndrome. Mental disorders (dysphoric signs) were observed more frequently in the abstinent syndrome in the combined beer and hashish reception. Personality changes in teenagers promoted criminal activity.

  8. Retail beer market. Opportunities for beer category

    OpenAIRE

    Caldová, Marie

    2015-01-01

    My bachelors thesis deals with design of better utilization of sales space in traditional retail formats. I focus on the beer category . I describe the basic principles of retailing. I imagine the food retailing division according to the company Pilsner Urquell. I mention all the legal requirements for the labeling of beer products. I mention the beer category share in total sales in the retail market . I describe the main beer producers who are active on the Czech market. The main topic is t...

  9. EFFECT OF KIESELGUHR FILTRATION ON OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF BEER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Frančáková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Looks of beer is an important factor which is associated with high clarity. Clarity of beer is a basic precondition of its good marketability and consumer satisfaction. Beer filtration is ideal tool to create required optical properties. There is a high accent on this operation in brewery and minibrewery. The process of filtering removes unwanted haze-active substances in order to increase clarity and overall stability of beer. Objective method to expressing clarity of beer is nephelometric determination of turbidity, which is highly sensitive and achieved by reliable results directly in the units used to express the turbidity values in beer. The objective of our study was to measure haze before and after filtration in various types of beer with different length of lagering. Kieselguhr was used as filtration material. Haze of beer was measured by haze meter in determination under 2 angles and values were expressed in European Brewery Convention units directly.

  10. The Color of Safety: Ingroup Associated Colors make Beer Safer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loersch, Chris; Bartholow, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals display high levels of trust and express feelings of safety when interacting with social ingroup members. Here, we investigated whether cues related to ingroup membership would change perceptions of the safety of alcohol. Participants were exposed to images of beer in either a standard can or a can featuring the colors of their university (i.e., ‘fan cans’). We hypothesized that exposure to fan cans would change perceptions of the risks of beer drinking. Results showed that participants exposed to fan cans rated beer consumption as less dangerous (Experiment 1), were more likely to automatically activate safety-related mental content after unconscious perception of beer cues (Experiment 2), and viewed their ingroup’s party practices as less dangerous (Experiment 3). These results provide evidence that ingroup-associated colors can serve as a safety cue for alcohol, which may in theory perpetuate alcohol-related risk-taking, already a cause for concern on college and university campuses. PMID:21499547

  11. Beer identity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Martens, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this study a sensory profiling and a consumer test including 10 commercially Danish beers were conducted. The 10 beer samples covered four types of beer namely; lager, strong lager, ale and wheat beer, representing both new and more established beers on the Danish market. A trained panel...... liking scores than the new types of beer; however, consumer segments were revealed. Relating the sensory profiling and the consumer tests made it possible to tell which sensory characteristics influenced consumer liking and the appropriateness of the beers in various situations and uses. (c) 2005...... (PLSR) and a new three-block L-shaped-PLSR predicting consumer liking from both consumer background characteristics and product descriptors, were used to describe the relationships between the various sets of data. The results showed that the more established beers on the Danish market were given higher...

  12. Beer Snobs do Exist: Estimation of Beer Demand by Type

    OpenAIRE

    Toro-González, Daniel; Jill J. McCluskey; Ron C. Mittelhammer

    2014-01-01

    Although mass-produced beers still represent the vast majority of U.S. beer sales, there has been a significant growth trend in the craft beer segment. This study analyzes the demand for beer as a differentiated product and estimates own-price, cross-price, and income elasticities for beer by type: craft beer, mass-produced beer, and imported beer. We verify that beer is a normal good with a considerably inelastic demand and also find that the cross-price elasticity across types of beer is cl...

  13. Evaluation of non-volatile metabolites in beer stored at high temperature and utility as an accelerated method to predict flavour stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Adam L; Broeckling, Corey D; Sedin, Dana; Holbrook, Christian; Barr, Lindsay; Kirkpatrick, Kaylyn; Prenni, Jessica E

    2016-06-01

    Flavour stability is vital to the brewing industry as beer is often stored for an extended time under variable conditions. Developing an accelerated model to evaluate brewing techniques that affect flavour stability is an important area of research. Here, we performed metabolomics on non-volatile compounds in beer stored at 37 °C between 1 and 14 days for two beer types: an amber ale and an India pale ale. The experiment determined high temperature to influence non-volatile metabolites, including the purine 5-methylthioadenosine (5-MTA). In a second experiment, three brewing techniques were evaluated for improved flavour stability: use of antioxidant crowns, chelation of pro-oxidants, and varying plant content in hops. Sensory analysis determined the hop method was associated with improved flavour stability, and this was consistent with reduced 5-MTA at both regular and high temperature storage. Future studies are warranted to understand the influence of 5-MTA on flavour and aging within different beer types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biogenic amines in beer

    OpenAIRE

    Čiháková, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the technological process of brewing beer, describes the raw materials needed for its production, and points out the useful and harmful substances contained in beer as biogenic amines (BA). Furthermore, there are described the issues of biogenic amines in food and primarily in beer, which is a histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine and tryptamine. In the practical section BA was determined in lager bottom-fermented beers from local microbreweries and large industri...

  15. Changes in postprandial lipoproteins of low and high density caused by moderate alcohol consumption with dinner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, A. van; Gaag, M.S. van der; Scheek, L.M.; Gent, T. van; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    1998-01-01

    We measured the effects of consumption of moderate amounts of beer, wine or spirits with evening dinner on plasma LDL and HDL levels as well as composition in 11 healthy middle-aged men. Forty grams of alcohol were consumed daily with dinner for a period of 3 weeks. Mineral water was used as a

  16. Changes in postprandial lipoproteins of low and high density caused by moderate alcohol consumption with dinner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, A. van; Gaag, M.S. van der; Scheek, L.M.; Gent, T. van; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    1998-01-01

    We measured the effects of consumption of moderate amounts of beer, wine or spirits with evening dinner on plasma LDL and HDL levels as well as composition in 11 healthy middle-aged men. Forty grams of alcohol were consumed daily with dinner for a period of 3 weeks. Mineral water was used as a negat

  17. Metabolic strategies of beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Andreas J; Behr, Jürgen; von Kamp, Kristina; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-04

    Beer contains only limited amounts of readily fermentable carbohydrates and amino acids. Beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have to come up with metabolic strategies in order to deal with selective nutrient content, high energy demand of hop tolerance mechanisms and a low pH. The metabolism of 26 LAB strains of 6 species and varying spoilage potentialwas investigated in order to define and compare their metabolic capabilities using multivariate statistics and outline possible metabolic strategies. Metabolic capabilities of beer spoilage LAB regarding carbohydrate and amino acids did not correlate with spoilage potential, but with fermentation type (heterofermentative/homofermentative) and species. A shift to mixed acid fermentation by homofermentative (hof) Pediococcus claussenii and Lactobacillus backii was observed as a specific feature of their growth in beer. For heterofermentative (hef) LAB a mostly versatile carbohydrate metabolism could be demonstrated, supplementing the known relevance of organic acids for their growth in beer. For hef LAB a distinct amino acid metabolism, resulting in biogenic amine production, was observed, presumably contributing to energy supply and pH homeostasis.

  18. Validation of a high-performance size-exclusion chromatography method to determine and characterize β-glucans in beer wort using a triple-detector array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Ivan; Marconi, Ombretta; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Beer wort β-glucans are high-molecular-weight non-starch polysaccharides of that are great interest to the brewing industries. Because glucans can increase the viscosity of the solutions and form gels, hazes, and precipitates, they are often related to poor lautering performance and beer filtration problems. In this work, a simple and suitable method was developed to determine and characterize β-glucans in beer wort using size exclusion chromatography coupled with a triple-detector array, which is composed of a light scatterer, a viscometer, and a refractive-index detector. The method performances are comparable to the commercial reference method as result from the statistical validation and enable one to obtain interesting parameters of β-glucan in beer wort, such as the molecular weight averages, fraction description, hydrodynamic radius, intrinsic viscosity, polydispersity and Mark-Houwink parameters. This characterization can be useful in brewing science to understand filtration problems, which are not always explained through conventional analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Beer and health: preventive effects of beer components on lifestyle-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keiji

    2004-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the light-to-moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages is associated with significant reductions in all-cause and particularly cardiovascular mortality. While the inverse association between red-wine consumption and cardiovascular risk is globally recognized as the French paradox, many epidemiological studies have concluded that beer and red wine are equally beneficial. Moderate alcohol intake improves lipoprotein metabolism and lowers cardiovascular mortality risk. The question now is whether additional health benefits associated with the non-alcohol components in beer may be expected. This article summarizes the results of the latest studies on the health benefits of beer while referring to our recent results, which demonstrate the preventive effects of beer and its components on lifestyle-related diseases. A series of studies using animal models have shown that beer may prevent carcinogenesis and osteoporosis; beer provides plasma with significant protection from oxidative stress; and isohumulones, the bitter substances derived from hops, may prevent and improve obesity and type-2 diabetes, improve lipid metabolism, and suppress atherosclerosis. Further studies are needed to clarify the components in addition to isohumulones that are responsible for these beneficial effects of beer, and the underlying mechanisms must be addressed.

  20. China's Oil Consumption Hits Record High in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Soaring oil prices have not slowed China's consumption of oil as statistics show that china's apparent consumption of crude oil and refined oil products both hit record highs in the first quarter of the year.

  1. Does beer, wine or liquor consumption correlate with the risk of renal cell carcinoma? A dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Zhu, Yi; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Despite plenty of evidence supports an inverse association between alcohol drinking and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), sex-specific and beverage-specific dose-response relationships have not been well established. We examined this association by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Studies were identified by comprehensively searching PubMed and EMBASE databases through February 21, 2015. Categorical and dose-response meta-analyses were conducted to identify the effects of alcohol on RCC. A total of eight publications (including seven cohort studies and one pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies) were eligible for this meta-analysis. Dose-response analysis showed that each 5 g/day increment of alcohol intake corresponded to a 5% decrease in risk of RCC for males and 9% for females. Alcohol intakes from wine, beer, and liquor were each associated with a reduced risk of RCC. When these associations were examined separately by gender, statistically significant inverse associations were restricted to alcohol from wine among females (RR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.73–0.91) and to alcohol from beer and from liquor among males (RR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.83–0.91 and RR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.99, respectively). In conclusion, there exist gender-specific and beverage-specific differences in the association between alcohol intake and RCC risk. PMID:25965820

  2. Separation and quantification of beer carbohydrates by high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Luciana C; Silva, Filipe; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Trugo, L C

    2005-02-18

    An HPLC method with an evaporative light scattering detector was optimized and validated for quantification of carbohydrates in beer. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Spherisorb NH2, 5 microm chromatographic column and gradient elution with acetonitrile/water. The determinations were performed in the linear range of 0.05-5.0 g/L for fructose, 0.05-5.0 g/L for glucose, 0.05-15.0 g/L for maltose, 0.05-10.0 g/L for maltotriose, and 0.05-5.0 g/L for maltotetraose. The detection limits were 0.005 g/L for fructose, 0.008 g/L for glucose, and 0.01 g/L for maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose. The reliability of the method in terms of precision and accuracy was evaluated in three beer matrices, low alcohol beer, 6% alcohol beer, and beer made with part of adjuncts (4.5% alcohol). Relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged between 1.59 and 5.95% (n = 10), and recoveries ranged between 94 and 98.4%.

  3. Foaming in stout beers

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, W T

    2011-01-01

    We review the differences between bubble formation in champagne and other carbonated drinks, and stout beers which contain a mixture of dissolved nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The presence of dissolved nitrogen in stout beers gives them a number of properties of interest to connoisseurs and physicists. These remarkable properties come at a price: stout beers do not foam spontaneously and special technology, such as the widgets used in cans, is needed to promote foaming. Nevertheless the same mechanism, nucleation by gas pockets trapped in cellulose fibres, responsible for foaming in carbonated drinks is active in stout beers, but at an impractically slow rate. This gentle rate of bubble nucleation makes stout beers an excellent model system for the scientific investigation of the nucleation of gas bubbles. The equipment needed is very modest, putting such experiments within reach of undergraduate laboratories. Finally we consider the suggestion that a widget could be constructed by coating the inside of a beer...

  4. Construction of amylolytic industrial brewing yeast strain with high glutathione content for manufacturing beer with improved anti-staling capability and flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjing; Wang, Zhao-Yue; He, Xiu-Ping; Zhang, Bo-Run

    2010-11-01

    Glutathione in beer works as the main antioxidant compounds which correlates with beer flavor stability. High residual sugars in beer contribute to major non-volatile components which correlate to high caloric content. In this work, Saccharomyces cerevisiae GSH1 gene encoding glutamylcysteine synthetase and Scharomycopsis fibuligera ALP1 gene encoding alpha-amylase were co-expressed in industrial brewing yeast strain Y31 targeting at alpha-acetolactate synthase (AHAS) gene (ILV2) and alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH2), and new recombinant strain TY3 was constructed. The glutathione content from the fermentation broth of TY3 increased to 43.83 mg/l compared to 33.34 mg/l from Y31. The recombinant strain showed high alpha-amylase activity and utilized more than 46% of starch after 5 days growing on starch as sole carbon source. European Brewery Convention tube fermentation tests comparing the fermentation broth of TY3 and Y31 showed that the flavor stability index increased to 1.3 fold and residual sugar concentration were reduced by 76.8%, respectively. Due to the interruption of ILV2 gene and ADH2 gene, the amounts of off-flavor compounds diacetyl and acetaldehyde were reduced by 56.93% and 31.25%, comparing with the amounts of these from Y31 fermentation broth. In addition, as no drug-resistance genes were introduced to new recombinant strain, consequently, it should be more suitable for use in beer industry because of its better flavor stability and other beneficial characteristics.

  5. Foaming in stout beers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, W. T.; M. G. Devereux

    2011-01-01

    We review the differences between bubble formation in champagne and other carbonated drinks, and stout beers which contain a mixture of dissolved nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The presence of dissolved nitrogen in stout beers gives them a number of properties of interest to connoisseurs and physicists. These remarkable properties come at a price: stout beers do not foam spontaneously and special technology, such as the widgets used in cans, is needed to promote foaming. Nevertheless the same m...

  6. Beer and Organic Labels: Do Belgian Consumers Care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Poelmans

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether beer drinkers are willing to pay a price premium for organic beer compared to conventional beer. Moreover, we identify subgroups of consumers with different preference patterns by investigating whether specific personal characteristics of the purchasers have an influence on this willingness-to-pay. Specifically, results are reported from a survey including a stated choice experiment of consumer decisions concerning beer purchases in Flanders (Belgium, focusing on organic labels. A non-probabilistic sampling method was used over the Internet and 334 responses were useable for the empirical analysis. Each respondent was asked to choose their preferred beer from a series of nine choice cards describing three different beer varieties. In this respect, we created a two-block design, each consisting of nine choice cards. Each respondent was randomly presented with one of the two blocks, so that an equal distribution of the blocks could be obtained. Overall, we find that our sample is statistically indifferent between a beer with an organic label and a similar beer without an organic label. This is in line with previous research that stated that consumers are unwilling to pay high price premiums for organic vice products, such as beer. We find no statistically different preferences for male or female respondents, or for members or non-members of nature protection organizations. However, we find a significant difference (p-value = 0.029 between primary beer shoppers who have a zero willingness-to-pay (WTP for organic beer compared to similar non-organic beer and the reference group that has a negative WTP of 14 Euro per 1.5 L for organic beer. In addition, the WTP for beer drinkers older than 40 (negative WTP of 22 Euro per 1.5 L and the WTP for frequent beer drinkers (zero WTP are statistically different from the reference group (p-value = 0.019 and 0.000 respectively.

  7. Alcohol consumption and academic performance in a population of Spanish high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Frías, M; de la fe Fernandez, M; Planells, E; Miranda, M T; Mataix, J; Llopis, J

    2001-11-01

    The present study was designed to identify patterns of alcohol consumption among Spanish high school students and describe the relationship between alcohol intake and school performance. The sample population consisted of students, aged 14 to 19 years, who were attending high school during the academic year 1994-95 in the city of Granada in southern Spain. We studied 1,602 (861 female) students (alpha error - 0.05, sampling error = 5%), using a self-administered questionnaire that contained items about individual and family demographics, quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, and school performance. Total alcohol consumption was recorded as grams (g) of alcohol per week and per day for three categories of alcoholic drinks: wine, beer and distilled spirits. The percentage of nondrinkers was 21.05% for male adolescents and 28.56% for female adolescents. The mean amount of alcohol consumed per week was larger in male than in female students (F= 18.36, l/l,594 df, p alcohol consumed. No significant differences in drinking patterns were found between students at public and private schools. The risk of academic failure increased considerably when more than 150 g of alcohol were consumed per week (OR: 2.91; 95% CI: 1.94-4.43). Although we cannot draw any conclusions about the causes of the association between academic failure and teenage drinking, our results do show that the risk of failing increases together with alcohol intake. However, it should be noted that academic achievement is also influenced by many factors other than alcohol consumption.

  8. 液体静高压处理啤酒研究进展%Progress in High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment of Beer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东升; 罗先群; 王新广

    2015-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP), also known as High pressure processing (HPP), is an alternative for pasteurization of beer as a method of nonthermal preservation. Both HHP and heat treatments gave the same microbial inactivation through microbiological analyses. It had been revealed that chemical constituents of both beer samples had not been affected by HHP and heat treatments. HHP treatment of beer en-riched the beer foaming, enhanced the beer colloid stability. HHP could be an alternative of low temperature storage for removal of unwanted haze. The flavor compounds in HHP-treated samples such as higher alcohol, ester, bitterness were similar to controls, while diacetyl changed under different pressure levels. HHP are suitable for the nonthermal pasteurization of beer before filling. The techniques include:pressurize the chamber→hold under pressure→depressurize the chamber. The application of HHP treatment of beer industry is difficult due to the limited production capacity of equipment and batch operation. The semi-continuous and continuous process modes are the direction of researching for the HHP application in beer industry.%液体静高压(HHP)是一种可以在啤酒生产中代替巴斯德灭菌的非加热保藏方法。微生物学实验分析证实,HHP处理有着与热处理相当的灭菌效果。HHP处理未对啤酒样品的主要化学成分产生影响,同时可以丰富啤酒泡沫,提高啤酒胶体稳定性,能够代替激冷方法去除啤酒中的冷浑浊物。经HHP处理后的啤酒风味物质如高级醇、酯类、苦味质等与样品值相近,双乙酰随着压力变化会发生不同变化。HHP适合于灌装前进行冷灭菌处理,处理啤酒工艺分为“升压→动态保压→卸压”3个过程。HHP设备在工业上的应用主要以间歇工艺为主,单台设备生产能力较小,制约了其在啤酒生产中的推广应用。正在研究中的半连续式及连续式的HHP设备是应用于啤酒生产的方向。

  9. Progress in brewing science and beer production

    OpenAIRE

    Bamforth, CW

    2017-01-01

    Copyright © 2017 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. The brewing of beer is an ancient biotechnology, the unit processes of which have not changed in hundreds of years. Equally, scientific study within the brewing industry not only has ensured that modern beer making is highly controlled, leading to highly consistent, high-quality, healthful beverages, but also has informed many other fermentation-based industries.

  10. Novel optical sensing film based on a functional nonwoven nanofibre mat for an easy, fast and highly selective and sensitive detection of tryptamine in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon-Marquez, Teresa; Medina-Castillo, Antonio L; Fernandez-Gutierrez, Alberto; Fernandez-Sanchez, Jorge F

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, the combination of Solid Surface-Room Temperature Phosphorescence (SS-RTP) and nanotechnology has led to a new approach in the detection of biogenic amines in complex matrices. This novel approach allows, for the first time, the direct determination of the concentration of tryptamine in beers. The novelty of the proposed optical sensor resides in its simplicity, rapidity, absence of complex chromatographic separation, sample clean-up, preconcentration, and derivatization protocols. Therefore, this novel methodology simplifies and reduces considerably the time and cost of the analysis, resolving the two major problems of the determination of tryptamine in beer up to now: low sensitivity and matrix effects. The proposed sensor is based on a novel white, uncharged, and non-luminescent functional nonwoven nanofibre mat (Tiss®-Link) formed by hydrophilic nanofibres of 300 nm of diameter functionalized with a high concentration of active vinyl groups (330 µmol g(-1)). It is used to carry out a kinetically controlled covalent immobilisation of tryptamine via Michael type-reaction. The transduction of the sensor is phosphorescence; the covalently immobilized tryptamine is quantified by SS-RTP, obtaining a detection limit of 6 ng mL(-1) with short response times (15 min). The applicability of the sensor was demonstrated by analysing tryptamine in 10 different varieties of beers, obtaining recovery percentages close to 100%.

  11. Structure, dynamics and directions of changes on the world beer market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The report shows the results of analysis of a structure and dynamics of changes in the world beer market. In the article there are analysed production and sale of beer, the beer foreign trade, brands and consumption of beer in years 1999-2004. The research carried out shows that Europe plays the major role in the world beer production, it is the region of the biggest beer tradition in the world. However, the market leader position belongs to China, which in case of beer production has already overtaken position of longstanding beer market leader – United States. Geography and dynamics of beer sale have been changed as well. Distinct slowing down in beer sale on markets of the biggest beer traditions can be noticed, while on the area of Central East Europe, East Europe and Asia the strong dynamics of sale can be observed. The reasons of such a trend are various, mostly the changes are triggered by strongly differentiated level of beer consumption per capita and changes in costumers tastes, much more focused on consuming soft alcoholic drinks.

  12. Use of high-ethanol-resistant yeast isolates from Nigerian palm wine in lager beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, R C; Anyanwu, T U; Onwumelu, A H

    1993-11-01

    High-ethanol-resistant yeasts, characterized as Saccharomyces sp., were isolated from Nigerian palm wine with added sucrose for high gravity brewing. The yeast isolates that survived the highest ethanol production were used to ferment brewery wort and produced 8.2 to 8.5% (v/v) ethanol; values almost double that of the control yeast from a local brewery.

  13. An overview of ochratoxin A in beer and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Rufino; Medina, Angel; Mateo, Eva M; Mateo, Fernando; Jiménez, Misericordia

    2007-10-20

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by several fungal species of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. This mycotoxin has been shown to be nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic to animals and has been classified as a possible carcinogen to humans. OTA occurs in a variety of foods, including beer and wine. Reports on OTA occurrence in beer indicate that this is a worldwide problem due to the widespread consumption of this beverage. At present, the European Union (EU) has not set a maximum allowable limit (MAL) for this mycotoxin in beer, although there is a limit in barley and malt. Studies carried out in different countries agree in the high proportion of samples contaminated with OTA although levels are, usually, below 0.2 ng/ml. OTA occurrence has been related to the contamination of malt barley with ochratoxigenic species, particularly Penicillium verrucosum. OTA produced in grains is carried to wort and, although fermentation decreases the concentration, the toxin is not eliminated. Reducing the fungal contamination of malt barley is the most promising strategy for reducing OTA in beer. With regard to wine, surveys on the presence of OTA have been conducted worldwide. The proportion of wines in which OTA is detected is very high (above 50%) in some countries (especially in the Mediterranean basin) although only a few wines contained concentrations exceeding the MAL laid down by the EU (2.0 ng/ml). A gradient of concentration is usually recognized; OTA levels decrease in the order red, rose, and white wine but also with increasing latitude of the producing countries. OTA presence in wines is due to the black aspergilli, mainly A. carbonarius, which can grow on grapes in the vineyards and produce the toxin. At grape crushing, the juice can be contaminated with the toxin which is carried over into wine, where it persists due to its stability. Pre- and post-harvest treatments are being investigated to diminish contamination of wines

  14. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  15. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  16. The High Price of Excessive Alcohol Consumption

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-17

    This podcast is based on the October 2011 release of a report estimating the economic cost of excessive drinking. Excessive alcohol consumption cost the U. S. $223.5 billion in 2006, or about $1.90 per drink. Over three-quarters (76%) of these costs were due to binge drinking, defined as consuming 4 or more alcoholic beverages per occasion for women or 5 or more drinks per occasion for men.  Created: 10/17/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 10/17/2011.

  17. Beer and wort proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimure, Takashi; Kihara, Makoto; Sato, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Proteome analysis provides a way to identify proteins related to the quality traits of beer. A number of protein species in beer and wort have been identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with enzyme digestion such as trypsin, followed by mass spectrometry analyses and/or liquid chromatography mass/mass spectrometry. In addition, low molecular weight polypeptides in beer have been identified by the combination of non-enzyme digestion and mass analyses. These data sets of various molecular weight polypeptides (i.e., proteomes) provide a platform for analyzing protein functions in beer. Several novel proteins related to beer quality traits such as foam stability and haze formation have been identified by analyzing these proteomes. Some of the proteins have been applied to the development of efficient protein or DNA markers for trait selection in malting barley breeding. In this chapter, recent proteome studies of beer and wort are reviewed, and the methods and protocols of beer and wort proteome analysis are described.

  18. Fermentation performance of lager yeast in high gravity beer fermentations with different sugar supplementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hongjie; Xu, Huaide; Feng, Li; Yu, Zhimin; Zhao, Haifeng; Zhao, Mouming

    2016-11-01

    The effects of glucose, sucrose and maltose supplementations on the fermentation performance and stress tolerance of lager yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) during high gravity (18°P) and very high gravity (24°P) fermentations were studied. Results showed that throughout 18°P wort fermentation, fermentation performance of lager yeast was significantly improved by glucose or sucrose supplementation, compared with maltose supplementation, especially for sucrose supplementation increasing wort fermentability and ethanol production by 6% and 8%, respectively. However, in the later stage of 24°P wort fermentation, fermentation performance of lager yeast was dramatically improved by maltose supplementation, which increased wort fermentability and ethanol production by 14% and 10%, respectively, compared with sucrose supplementation. Furthermore, higher HSP12 expression level and more intracellular trehalose accumulation in yeast cells were observed by maltose supplementation with increase of the wort gravity from 18°P to 24°P, indicating higher stress response of yeast cells. The excretion of Gly and Ala, and the absorption of Pro in the later stage of fermentation were promoted by maltose supplementation. In addition, with increase of the wort gravity from 18°P to 24°P, higher alcohols level was decreased with maltose supplementation, while esters formation was increased significantly with glucose supplementation. This study suggested that the choice of optimal fermentable sugars maintaining better fermentation performance of lager yeast should be based on not only strain specificity, but also wort gravity. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 27 CFR 28.147 - Return of beer or beer concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Return of beer or beer... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Removal of Beer and Beer Concentrate...-Trade Zone § 28.147 Return of beer or beer concentrate. Beer or beer concentrate removed without...

  20. Breaking beer bottles with cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunny; Fontana, Jake; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter; Shelley, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Hitting the top of a beer bottle, nearly full of water, with an open hand can cause the bottle to break, with the bottom separating from upper section. We have studied this phenomenon using a high-speed camera, and observed the formation, coalescence and collapse of bubbles. The breaking of glass is due to cavitation, typically occurring near the bottom edge. We make numerical estimates of the relevant physical parameters, and compare these with experimental observations.

  1. High alcohol consumption causes high IgE levels but not high risk of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Frederikke K; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    disease. Genetically, we explored potential causal relationships between alcohol consumption and IgE levels and allergic disease. RESULTS: The multivariable adjusted odds ratio for IgE levels greater than versus less than 150 kU/L and compared with subjects without allergic disease was 2.3 (95% CI, 2......BACKGROUND: High alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels in observational studies; however, whether high alcohol consumption leads to high IgE levels and allergic disease is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that high alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels...... for the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH-1B; rs1229984) and alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH-1C; rs698). Observationally, we investigated associations between IgE levels and allergic disease (allergic asthma, rhinitis, and eczema) and between alcohol consumption and IgE levels and allergic...

  2. NMR methods for beer characterization and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, J E; Gil, A M

    2011-12-01

    The use of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy in the brewing industry is described; most studies having aimed at assessing the composition of beer and its raw materials and correlating it to a variety of quality parameters. First, the application of NMR to the qualitative characterization of beer is reviewed, addressing both targeted and untargeted methods and focusing on both beer extracts and direct beer analysis. A subsequent chapter addresses the NMR studies, which envisage the development of new rapid methods for beer analysis and quality control, such as site-specific natural fractionation-NMR and multivariate data analysis methods for marker search or rapid compound quantification. Finally, possible future perspectives toward a deeper and more complete understanding of beer and its brewing process are discussed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Beer as colon lavage preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnunen, J.; Linden, H.; Pietilae, J.; Juutilainen, T.

    1987-09-01

    Six patients received beer preparation prior to double contrast barium enema. The beer group scored slightly better (though not statistically significantly) both in the cleanliness and in the mucosal coating of the bowel than the control group with standard preparation. The fluid balance was unaltered. The patients in the beer group felt surprisingly well, likely due to the good fluid and energy balance provided by the beer. The beer preparation could be used in cases, when the patients are ready to intake beer and want to maintain a good nutritional status.

  4. Wine, beer, alcohol and polyphenols on cardiovascular disease and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, Sara; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Valderas-Martínez, Palmira; Medina-Remón, Alex; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramón

    2012-07-01

    Since ancient times, people have attributed a variety of health benefits to moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as wine and beer, often without any scientific basis. There is evidence that excessive or binge alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as with work related and traffic accidents. On the contrary, at the moment, several epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces overall mortality, mainly from coronary diseases. However, there are discrepancies regarding the specific effects of different types of beverages (wine, beer and spirits) on the cardiovascular system and cancer, and also whether the possible protective effects of alcoholic beverages are due to their alcoholic content (ethanol) or to their non-alcoholic components (mainly polyphenols). Epidemiological and clinical studies have pointed out that regular and moderate wine consumption (one to two glasses a day) is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, diabetes, and certain types of cancer, including colon, basal cell, ovarian, and prostate carcinoma. Moderate beer consumption has also been associated with these effects, but to a lesser degree, probably because of beer's lower phenolic content. These health benefits have mainly been attributed to an increase in antioxidant capacity, changes in lipid profiles, and the anti-inflammatory effects produced by these alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes the main protective effects on the cardiovascular system and cancer resulting from moderate wine and beer intake due mainly to their common components, alcohol and polyphenols.

  5. High speed diesel consumption and economic growth in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sajal [Management Development Institute (MDI), Gurgaon 122001 (India)

    2010-04-15

    This study probes the long-term equilibrium relationship among High Speed Diesel (HSD) consumption, real GDP and price of HSD in India using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration for the time span 1972-1973 to 2005-2006. Empirical results reveal that the series are cointegrated and long term income elasticity for HSD demand in India is 1.27 while that for short-run is 0.46. Both long-run and short-run price elasticities are found to be statistically insignificant. The study also establishes a short-run bi-directional causality between economic growth and HSD consumption and the existence of a long-run unidirectional causality running from economic growth to HSD consumption. Finally, a set of policy prescriptions have been suggested to reduce the consumption of HSD, which should have no adverse impact on economy in the long-run. (author)

  6. Occurrence of (Z)-3,4-Dideoxyglucoson-3-ene in Different Types of Beer and Malt Beer as a Result of 3-Deoxyhexosone Interconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Michael; Nobis, Arndt; Witte, Sophia; Henle, Thomas

    2016-04-06

    In beer, 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and 3-deoxygalactosone (3-DGal) are important sugar degradation products, but little is known about the relevance of the interconversion reaction between these compounds in different types of beer. In the present study, 3-DG was quantitated at concentrations of 12.9-52.7 mg/L and 3-DGal at concentrations of 6.0-26.4 mg/L in different types of beer (pilsner, wheat, bock, dark, and alcohol-free beers). The concentrations in malt beer tended to be higher. Largely overlapping concentration ranges precluded a classification of beers by their 3-deoxyglycosone contents. 3,4-Dideoxyglucoson-3-ene (3,4-DGE) was identified as an important intermediate and quantitated in beer and malt beer for the first time. The E and Z isomers of the corresponding quinoxaline were synthesized by a new synthetic approach and isolated by semipreparative HPLC. An assay was developed for quantitation of (E)- and (Z)-3,4-DGE by HPLC-MS/MS, and the Z isomer was determined at concentrations of 0.3-1.7 mg/L in beer and 0.5-4.8 mg/L in malt beer samples. The E isomer was shown to be of little importance. Concentrations of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were twice as high as those of (Z)-3,4-DGE in beer samples (0.4-3.7 mg/L) but much higher in malt beer samples (1.6-336 mg/L).

  7. From Monasteries to Multinationals (and Back): A Historical Review of the Beer Economy

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews beer production, consumption and the industrial organization of breweries throughout history. Monasteries were the centers of the beer economy in the early Middle Ages. Innovation and increased demand later induced the growth of commercial breweries. Globalization and scientific discoveries transfirmed the beer industry and increased competition from the 16th through the 19th century. The 20th century was characterized by dramatic (domestic and international) consolidatio...

  8. PERCEPTIONS OF BEER ADVERTISING AND RISKY DRINKING AMONG STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ślaski, Sławomir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The main purpose of the research was to determine whether individuals at risk of drinking are people particularly susceptible to the effects of alcohol and viewing ads can be an incentive for re–consumption of alcohol. Material and method. The study group (40 persons were selected from 30 0 students, who used alcohol in a risky manner, and the control group (40 persons was selected, where alcohol was used with a little risk, or not at all. To assess the subjects selected product – beer (in the form of advertising leaflets, which was recently introduced into the Polish market. The Attitudes Questionnaire to view the Product was used in the study and contained scales: cognitive, emotional and behavioral component. To study perception of advertising the Advertising Scale was applied. To identify groups of people who use alcohol in a risky way, AUDIT Test was used. Results and conclusions. People at risk of drinking, liked beer more than those not at risk of addiction, and more often drink beer, have a more positive attitude towards the advertising of beer in emotional sphere, the above estimate of beer advertising in terms of potency, better evaluate the advertising of beer in terms of positive mood caused by it, and better evaluate beer advertising and its effectiveness in term of impact.

  9. Shotgun proteome analysis of beer and the immunogenic potential of beer polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picariello, Gianluca; Mamone, Gianfranco; Nitride, Chiara; Addeo, Francesco; Camarca, Alessandra; Vocca, Immacolata; Gianfrani, Carmen; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2012-10-22

    The majority of beer proteins originate from barley (Hordeum vulgare) which is used for brewing. Barley is known to contain celiacogenic gliadin-like prolamins (hordeins) along with other immunogenic proteins which endure malt proteases and the harsh conditions of brewing. In addition, a multitude of peptides that may retain or even amplify the immune-stimulating potential is released in beer because of proteolysis. The comprehensive annotation of the beer proteome is challenged both by the high concentration range of the protein entities and by a severe degree of processing-induced modifications. Overcoming the pitfalls of the classical two-dimensional electrophoresis approach coupled to mass spectrometry (MS), the gel-free shotgun proteomic analysis expanded the current inventory of a popular Italian beer to 33 gene products, including traces of intact B- and D-hordeins and 10 proteins from Saccharomyces spp. The high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray MS/MS peptidomic analysis of the low-molecular weight beer components disclosed a panel of hordein-derived peptides that encrypt gluten-like sequence motifs, potentially harmful to celiacs. The presence of antigliadin IgA-immunoresponsive prolamins was assayed by Western and dot blot using sera of N=4 celiac patients. Gliadin-reactive T-cell lines isolated from the intestine of N=5 celiacs activated an IFN-γ response when challenged with deamidated beer polypeptides.

  10. The effect of consuming small volumes of beer on gastric motility and the involvement of gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Hiromi; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Jodai, Yasutaka; Omori, Takafumi; Sumi, Kazuya; Ichikawa, Yuichiro; Okubo, Masaaki; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Tahara, Tomomitsu; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Hirata, Ichiro; Ohmiya, Naoki; Nakao, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of consuming small amounts of beer or a nonalcoholic beer taste beverage (non-beer) on gastric emptying and the polymorphisms in alcohol metabolism-related enzyme-encoding genes. Twenty male healthy volunteers were questioned regarding their alcohol consumption status, and body measurement was performed. The genetic polymorphisms in ADH1B (rs1229984, Arg47His) and ALDH2 (rs671 Glu487Lys) were analyzed. The subjects consumed 150 mL of beer or non-beer once per week, followed by the ingestion of 200 kcal of the test nutrient containing (13)C-acetate 15 min later, after which the subjects' exhalations were collected up to 120 min. The concentration peak of (13)C was measured as Tmax. Diamine oxidase (DAO) activity for the marker of small intestinal function activity was also measured the day after the test. Gastric emptying was significantly slower in the group that consumed a small amount of beer, and in daily beer consumption group, and also in the ADH1B *2/*2, ALDH2 *1/*2 genotypes compared to non-beer drinking group. DAO values were not significantly changed between beer and non-beer group. The consumption of even a small amount of beer and the polymorphisms in ADH1B / ALDH2 affects gastric motility.

  11. Analysis of changes tendency on the polish beer market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the analysis of Polish beer market in progress. On the basis of the carried out research it can be stated that Polish beer industry can be rated as one of the most modern hi-tech in the world. It is caused by cooperation of foreign investors with the Polish market which has resulted in a strong consolidation and separating of three major breweries owning almost 90% of the national beer market. Very tough competition between huge producers has also brought benefits to consumers who have received better quality product at a lower price. Moreover, changes in consumers’ habits have occurred. This is described by reduction in consumption of hard liquors on behalf of soft alcohols with the major position of beer. Polish beer market is close to satisfying consumers’ demands. Beer consumption per one inhabitant in Poland is close to European mean but its development will not be so dynamic as before. The situation is caused by the risk arising from the law which is not clear. Moreover, increasing fiscal aggravations and costs of production which due to the increase of prices of raw materials are also critical.

  12. The impact of hop bitter acid and polyphenol profiles on the perceived bitterness of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladokun, Olayide; Tarrega, Amparo; James, Sue; Smart, Katherine; Hort, Joanne; Cook, David

    2016-08-15

    Thirty-four commercial lager beers were analysed for their hop bitter acid, phenolic acid and polyphenol contents. Based on analytical data, it was evident that the beers had been produced using a range of different raw materials and hopping practices. Principal Components Analysis was used to select a sub-set of 10 beers that contained diverse concentrations of the analysed bitter compounds. These beers were appraised sensorially to determine the impacts of varying hop acid and polyphenolic profiles on perceived bitterness character. Beers high in polyphenol and hop acid contents were perceived as having 'harsh' and 'progressive' bitterness, whilst beers that had evidently been conventionally hopped were 'sharp' and 'instant' in their bitterness. Beers containing light-stable hop products (tetrahydro-iso-α-acids) were perceived as 'diminishing', 'rounded' and 'acidic' in bitterness. The hopping strategy adopted by brewers impacts on the nature, temporal profile and intensity of bitterness perception in beer.

  13. Beer Potomania—An Unusual Cause of Hyponatremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujubu, Dean A; Khosraviani, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    The first case of severe hyponatremia, since referred to as beer potomania, in a heavy beer drinker patient was reported in 1972. Electrolyte abnormalities are common findings in patients with a history of heavy alcohol use. Excessive consumption of beer in particular, which has a low solute content (sodium concentration, 1.8 mEq/L and potassium concentration, 7.2 mEq/L), to the exclusion of other solute intake may result in severe hyponatremia. We report a case of severe hyponatremia that occurred in a patient who, owing to his underlying colon cancer, was drinking beer and ingesting little other food. His hyponatremia improved with increased solute intake and, upon correction of his serum sodium, he had no subsequent neurologic sequelae. PMID:26176571

  14. Tracing the origin of beer samples by NMR and chemometrics: Trappist beers as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Luisa; Marini, Federico; Antiochia, Riccarda; Cesa, Stefania; Magrì, Antonio; Capitani, Donatella; Sobolev, Anatoly P

    2016-10-01

    An NMR and chemometric analytical approach to classify beers according to their brand identity was developed within the European TRACE project (FP6-2003-FOOD-2-A, contract number: 0060942). Rochefort 8 Trappist beers (47 samples), other Trappist beers (76 samples) and non-Trappist beers (110 samples) were analyzed by (1) H NMR spectroscopy. Selected NMR signals were measured and used to build classification models. Three different classification problems were identified, namely Trappist versus non-Trappist, Rochefort versus Non-Rochefort, and Rochefort 8 versus non-Rochefort 8. In all the three cases, both a discriminant and a modeling approaches were followed, using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA), respectively, leading to very high classification accuracy as evaluated by external validation. Information regarding chemical composition was also obtained: Trappist beers contain a higher amount of formic and pyruvic acids and a lower amount of acetic acid and alanine with respect to non-Trappist ones. Rochefort beers turned out to have also a higher content of propanol and isopentanol with respect to non-Rochefort samples. Finally, Rochefort 8, shows the highest content of pyruvic acid and the lowest content of gallic, fumaric, acetic acids, adenosine, uridine, 2-phenylethanol, GABA, and alanine.

  15. Beer foam physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    The physical aspects of beer foam behavior were studied in terms of the four physical processes, mainly involved in the formation and breakdown of foam. These processes are, bubble formation, drainage, disproportionation and coalescence. In detail, the processes disproportionation and

  16. Beer foam physics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, L.

    1989-01-01

    The physical aspects of beer foam behavior were studied in terms of the four physical processes, mainly involved in the formation and breakdown of foam. These processes are, bubble formation, drainage, disproportionation and coalescence. In detail, the processes disproportionation and coalescence we

  17. 27 CFR 25.212 - Beer returned to brewery from which removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery from which removed. 25.212 Section 25.212 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... against the quantity of beer removed for consumption or sale from the brewery on that business day,...

  18. Consumer Demand for Wine and Beer in the Czech Republic, and Their Mutual Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Syrovátka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses consumer demand for wine and beer in the Czech Republic in the period of 1991–2013. The objective of this research was to evaluate the elasticity of consumption of wine and beer in reaction to a change of prices and further to a change in the level of a household income. Based on the dynamic models of the gross demand for wine and beer there were determined the coefficients of direct and cross price elasticity, and income elasticity coefficients. In accordance with the identified sizes, respectively, after evaluating their statistical significance, there was carried out the economic analysis of observed demand functions. Analysis of demand functions has shown that the consumptions of wine and beer by the Czech households were not linked on a statistically significant level, in the examined period. Dynamic model of the gross demand for wine showed a statistically insignificant sensitivity of wine consumption to a change of the household income. Wine consumption of Czech households was significantly formed only by its price. Dynamic model of the gross demand for beer has shown that beer consumption by the Czech households responded significantly only to change in household income. Whereas in the case of wine, there was identified an influence of previous consumption on the current one, this was not confirmed in the case of beer.

  19. Poly(N-vinylcarbazole-co-divinylbenzene) monolith microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography-high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry to analyse benzodiazepines in beer and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Weixuan; Fan, Zhefeng; Zhang, Suling

    2016-09-23

    A poly(N-vinylcarbazole-co-divinylbenzene) (NVC/DVB) monolithic column was successfully prepared in a silanized capillary for microextraction of six benzodiazepines (BZPs) in complex samples. The polymerization was optimized primarily by changing the ratio of porogen content. The optimized polymer monolith had a homogeneous and continuous column bed, good permeability and mechanical stability. Poly(NVC/DVB) had good affinity to BZPs because of its through-pore structure and strong π-π stacking interactions derived from the rich benzene functional groups in the polymer. Potential factors that affect the extraction efficiency were studied in detail. In the optimized method, 3mL of sample (pH 2) was extracted with the polymer monolithic column and eluted with 80μL of methanol, and the eluent was analysed with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-Orbitrap MS). Under these conditions, the developed method gave the linear range of 0.005-0.5ng/mL for most of the six BZPs, whereas 0.05-0.5ng/mL for nitrazepam, 0.01-0.5ng/mL for lorazepam, respectively, with coefficients of determination (R(2))≥0.9991. The detection limits (LODs) were 1.08-6.04ng/L, and the quantification limits (LOQs) were 3.60-20.1ng/L. The method repeatability was investigated in terms of intra- and inter-day precision, which were indicated by relative standard deviations (RSDs) of ≤8.3% and ≤9.9%, respectively. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to detect BZPs in beer and human urine samples. The percentages of extraction recovery were 80.4-94.2% for beer and 79.6-95.2% for urine.

  20. Transcriptome analysis of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 during growth in degassed and gassed beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Friesen, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2016-10-17

    Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 (Lb464) is a beer-spoilage-related (BSR) isolate of interest given its unique physiological attributes; specifically, it is highly hop-tolerant and exhibits very rapid growth in pressurized/gassed beer. RNA sequencing was performed on Lb464 grown in pressurized and non-pressurized beer to determine important genetic mechanisms for growth in these environments. The data generated were compared against data in a previous transcriptional study of another lactic acid bacterium (LAB) during growth in beer, namely, Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) (Pc344). Results revealed that the most important genetic elements for Lb464 growth in beer are related to biogenic amine metabolism, membrane transport and fortification, nutrient scavenging, and efficient transcriptional regulation. Comparison with the previous transcriptional study of Pc344 indicated that the total coding capacity (plasmid profile and genome size) of a LAB isolate allows for beer-spoilage virulence and adaptation to different beer environments, i.e., the ability to grow in degassed beer (during production) or gassed beer (packaged product). Further, differences in gene expression of Lb464 and Pc344 during mid-exponential growth in beer may dictate how rapidly each isolate exhausts particular carbon sources during. The presence of headspace pressure/dissolved CO2 was found to drive Lb464 transcription during mid-exponential growth in beer towards increasing cell wall and membrane modification, transport, osmoregulation, and DNA metabolism and transposition events. This transcriptional activity resembles transcriptional patterns or signatures observed in a viable, but non-culturable state established by non-related organisms, suggesting that Lb464 overall uses complex cellular regulation to maintain cell division and growth in the stressful beer environment. Additionally, increased expression of several hypothetical proteins, the hop-tolerance gene horC, and DNA repair and

  1. Wine, beer, alcohol and polyphenols on cardiovascular disease and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Arranz; Gemma Chiva-Blanch; Palmira Valderas-Martínez; Alex Medina-Remón; Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventós; Ramón Estruch

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Since ancient times, people have attributed a variety of health benefits to moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as wine and beer, often without any scientific basis. There is evidence that excessive or binge alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as with work related and traffic accidents. On the contrary, at the moment, several epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces overall mortalit...

  2. Trends and Social Differences in Alcohol Consumption during the Postcommunist Transition in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurate Klumbiene

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the trends and social differences in consumption of various types of alcoholic beverages in Lithuania over the postcommunist transition period (1994–2010. The data were obtained from nine nationally representative postal surveys of Lithuanian population aged 20–64 conducted every second year (n=17154. Prevalence of regular (at least once a week consumption of beer, wine, or strong alcoholic beverages and the amount of alcohol consumed per week were examined. Regular beer drinking as well as the amounts consumed increased considerably in both genders. The increase in regular consumption of strong alcohol was found among women. Sociodemographic patterning of regular alcohol drinking was more evident in women than in men. In women, young age and high education were associated with frequent regular drinking of wine and beer. Social differences in regular alcohol drinking should be considered in further development of national alcohol control policy in Lithuania.

  3. [Improvement of beer anti-staling capability by genetically modifying industrial brewing yeast with high glutathione content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Li, Qi; Gu, Guo-Xian

    2007-11-01

    Based on homologous recombination, recombinant plasmid pRKG was constructed by replacing the internal fragment of 18S rDNA of pRJ-5 with a copy of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene (GSH1) from the industrial brewing yeast strain G03 and a copy of G418 resistance gene (Kan) used as the dominant selection marker respectively. The fragment 18s rDNA::( Kan-GSH1) obtained through the PCR reaction was integrated to the chromosomal DNA of G03 strain, and recombinants were screened by G418 resistance. It was shown that the GSH content of beer fermented with the recombinant strain SG1 was 16.6% higher than that of G03, and no significant difference in routine fermentation parameters was found. To test the genetic stability, strains SG1 was inoculated into flasks and transfered continuously 5 times. The intracellular glutathione content of strain kept constant basically. It is an instructive attempt of genetically modifing industrial brewing yeast, as GSH1 was obtained from the host itself.

  4. Effect of pasteurization on the protein composition and oxidative stability of beer during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Marianne N; Hoff, Signe; Berner, Torben S; Lametsch, René; Andersen, Mogens L

    2012-12-19

    The impacts of pasteurization of a lager beer on protein composition and the oxidative stability were studied during storage at 22 °C for 426 days in the dark. Pasteurization clearly improved the oxidative stability of beer determined by ESR spectroscopy, whereas it had a minor negative effect on the volatile profile by increasing volatile compounds that is generally associated with heat treatment and a loss of fruity ester aroma. A faster rate of radical formation in unpasteurized beer was consistent with a faster consumption of sulfite. Beer proteins in the unpasteurized beer were more degraded, most likely due to proteolytic enzyme activity of yeast remnants and more precipitation of proteins was also observed. The differences in soluble protein content and composition are suggested to result in differences in the contents of prooxidative metals as a consequence of the proteins ability to bind metals. This also contributes to the differences in oxidative stabilities of the beers.

  5. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The purchasing...

  6. 27 CFR 27.60 - Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer. 27.60 Section 27.60... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.60 Beer. All imported beer is required to be released from customs...

  7. Quantitatively pouring draft beer dispenser; Teiryo chushutsu nama beer dispenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    Suppressing bubble generation and quantitatively pouring more stably were the large problem in draft beer or sparking liquor vending. Therefore, bubbling mechanism in draft beer was analyzed, and pouring valve and beer dispensing system were optimized to have developed a beer dispenser generating little bubbles when dispensing. Its major features are as follows: (1) a valve was developed that branches liquid and bubbles without disturbing the beer flow, thus realizing stable pouring; (2) a beer mug tray drive was developed that prevents after-drips of bubbles from entering into another mug, thus realizing stable pouring; (3) the button operated rinsing function and the pouring valve removing and attaching structure facilitate washing work; and (4) the additional pouring function and the copying function facilitate setting of the dispensing volume. (translated by NEDO)

  8. Wine, Beer, Alcohol and Polyphenols on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, Sara; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Valderas-Martínez, Palmira; Medina-Remón, Alex; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M.; Estruch, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Since ancient times, people have attributed a variety of health benefits to moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as wine and beer, often without any scientific basis. There is evidence that excessive or binge alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as with work related and traffic accidents. On the contrary, at the moment, several epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces overall mortality, mainly from coronary diseases. However, there are discrepancies regarding the specific effects of different types of beverages (wine, beer and spirits) on the cardiovascular system and cancer, and also whether the possible protective effects of alcoholic beverages are due to their alcoholic content (ethanol) or to their non-alcoholic components (mainly polyphenols). Epidemiological and clinical studies have pointed out that regular and moderate wine consumption (one to two glasses a day) is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, diabetes, and certain types of cancer, including colon, basal cell, ovarian, and prostate carcinoma. Moderate beer consumption has also been associated with these effects, but to a lesser degree, probably because of beer’s lower phenolic content. These health benefits have mainly been attributed to an increase in antioxidant capacity, changes in lipid profiles, and the anti-inflammatory effects produced by these alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes the main protective effects on the cardiovascular system and cancer resulting from moderate wine and beer intake due mainly to their common components, alcohol and polyphenols. PMID:22852062

  9. Wine, Beer, Alcohol and Polyphenols on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Arranz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times, people have attributed a variety of health benefits to moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as wine and beer, often without any scientific basis. There is evidence that excessive or binge alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as with work related and traffic accidents. On the contrary, at the moment, several epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces overall mortality, mainly from coronary diseases. However, there are discrepancies regarding the specific effects of different types of beverages (wine, beer and spirits on the cardiovascular system and cancer, and also whether the possible protective effects of alcoholic beverages are due to their alcoholic content (ethanol or to their non-alcoholic components (mainly polyphenols. Epidemiological and clinical studies have pointed out that regular and moderate wine consumption (one to two glasses a day is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD, hypertension, diabetes, and certain types of cancer, including colon, basal cell, ovarian, and prostate carcinoma. Moderate beer consumption has also been associated with these effects, but to a lesser degree, probably because of beer’s lower phenolic content. These health benefits have mainly been attributed to an increase in antioxidant capacity, changes in lipid profiles, and the anti-inflammatory effects produced by these alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes the main protective effects on the cardiovascular system and cancer resulting from moderate wine and beer intake due mainly to their common components, alcohol and polyphenols.

  10. 27 CFR 28.320 - Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loss of beer and beer... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Beer and Beer Concentrate § 28.320 Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit. (a) Losses not requiring inspection....

  11. Immobilized yeast bioreactor systems for continuous beer fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata; Bower; Bromberg; Duncombe; Fehring; Lau; Ryder; Stassi

    1999-01-01

    Two different types of immobilized yeast bioreactors were examined for continuous fermentation of high-gravity worts. One of these is a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) that employs porous glass beads for yeast immobilization. The second system is a loop reactor containing a porous silicon carbide cartridge (SCCR) for immobilizing the yeast cells. Although there was some residual fermentable sugar in the SCCR system product, nearly complete attenuation of the wort sugars was achieved in either of the systems when operated as a two-stage process. Fermentation could be completed in these systems in only half the time required for a conventional batch process. Both the systems showed similar kinetics of extract consumption, and therefore similar volumetric productivity. As compared to the batch fermentation, total fusel alcohols were lower; total esters, while variable, were generally higher. The yeast biomass production was similar to that in a conventional fermentation process. As would be expected in an accelerated fermentation system, the levels of vicinal diketones (VDKs) were higher. To remove the VDKs, the young beer was heat-treated to convert the VDK precursors and processed through a packed bed immobilized yeast bioreactor for VDK assimilation. The finished product from the FBR system was found to be quite acceptable from a flavor perspective, albeit different from the product from a conventional batch process. Significantly shortened fermentation times demonstrate the feasibility of this technology for beer production.

  12. Methyl mercury exposure in Swedish women with high fish consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoernberg, Karolin Ask [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77, Stockholm (Sweden); Vahter, Marie [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77, Stockholm (Sweden); Grawe, Kierstin Petersson [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Berglund, Marika [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77, Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: Marika.Berglund@imm.ki.se

    2005-04-01

    We studied the exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg) in 127 Swedish women of childbearing age with high consumption of various types of fish, using total mercury (T-Hg) in hair and MeHg in blood as biomarkers. Fish consumption was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), including detailed information about consumption of different fish species, reflecting average intake during 1 year. We also determined inorganic mercury (I-Hg) in blood, and selenium (Se) in serum. The average total fish consumption, as reported in the food frequency questionnaire, was approximately 4 times/week (range 1.6-19 times/week). Fish species potentially high in MeHg, included in the Swedish dietary advisories, was consumed by 79% of the women. About 10% consumed such species more than once a week, i.e., more than what is recommended. Other fish species potentially high in MeHg, not included in the Swedish dietary advisories, was consumed by 54% of the women. Eleven percent never consumed fish species potentially high in MeHg. T-Hg in hair (median 0.70 mg/kg; range 0.08-6.6 mg/kg) was associated with MeHg in blood (median 1.7 {mu}g/L; range 0.30-14 {mu}g/L; r {sub s}=0.78; p<0.001). Hair T-Hg, blood MeHg and serum Se (median 70 {mu}g/L; range 46-154 {mu}g/L) increased with increasing total fish consumption (r {sub s}=0.32; p<0.001, r {sub s}=0.37; p<0.001 and r {sub s}=0.35; p=0.002, respectively). I-Hg in blood (median 0.24 {mu}g/L; range 0.01-1.6 {mu}g/L) increased with increasing number of dental amalgam fillings. We found no statistical significant associations between the various mercury species measured and the Se concentration in serum. Hair mercury levels exceeded the levels corresponding to the EPA reference dose (RfD) of 0.1 {mu}g MeHg/kg b.w. per day in 20% of the women. Thus, there seems to be no margin of safety for neurodevelopmental effects in fetus, for women with high fish consumption unless they decrease their intake of certain fish species.

  13. Cardiovascular complications from consumption of high energy drinks: recent evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysant, S G; Chrysant, G S

    2015-02-01

    The energy drinks (ED) are caffeinated beverages that are popular among teenagers and young adults. They are aggressively marketed as providing alertness, energy and sex prowess. The EDs in addition to caffeine contain several plant stimulants and simple sugars, which increase their caloric content. The caffeine concentration in these drinks is high and their overconsumption could lead to insomnia, agitation, tremors and cardiovascular complications including sudden death. Alcohol is often mixed with EDs (AMEDs) in the wrong perception that the caffeine in the EDs will prevent the drowsiness and sleepiness from alcohol and allow the person to consume more alcohol. This false perception, could lead to alcohol intoxication and the taking of risky decisions, like driving under the influence of alcohol and the risk of serious physical harm to themselves and others. To prevent the problem of consumption of EDs and AMEDs, the caring physician could help by advising the parents and his young patients about the serious health risks from the consumption of these drinks. In order to grasp the extend of the problem of ED and AMED consumption, we did a Medline search of the English language literature from January 2010 to December 2013, using the terms EDs and alcohol-mixed EDs. All the findings from the recent studies regarding the cardiovascular complications from the consumption of EDs and AMEDs together with collateral literature will be discussed in this review.

  14. The role of lager beer yeast in oxidative stability of model beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, T S; Arneborg, N

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between the ability of lager brewing yeast strains to tolerate oxidative stress and their ability to produce oxidative stable model beer. Screening of 21 lager brewing yeast strains against diamide and paraquat showed that the oxidative stress resistance was strain dependent. Fermentation of model wort in European Brewing Convention tubes using three yeast strains with varying oxidative stress resistances resulted in three model beers with different rates of radical formation as measured by electron spin resonance in forced ageing experiments. Interestingly, the strain with the lowest oxidative stress resistance and lowest secretion of thioredoxin, as measured by Western blotting, resulted in the highest uptake of iron, as measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and the slowest formation of radicals in the model beers. A more oxidative stable beer is not obtained by a more-oxidative-stress-tolerant lager brewing yeast strain, exhibiting a higher secretion of thioredoxin, but rather by a less-oxidative-stress-tolerant strain, exhibiting a higher iron uptake. To obtain lager beers with enhanced oxidative stability, yeast strains should be screened for their low oxidative stress tolerance and/or high ability to take up iron rather than for their high oxidative stress tolerance and/or high ability to secrete thioredoxin. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Manipulations to the Alcohol and Sodium Content of Beer for Postexercise Rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbrow, Ben; Cecchin, Danielle; Jones, Ashleigh; Grant, Gary; Irwin, Chris; Leveritt, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The addition of 25 mmol·L(-1) sodium to low alcohol (2.3% ABV) beer has been shown to enhance post exercise fluid retention compared with full strength (4.8% ABV) beer with and without electrolyte modification. This investigation explored the effect of further manipulations to the alcohol and sodium content of beer on fluid restoration following exercise. Twelve male volunteers lost 2.03 ± 0.19% body mass (mean ± SD) using cycling-based exercise. Participants were then randomly allocated a different beer to consume on four separate occasions. Drinks included low alcohol beer with 25 mmol·L-1 of added sodium [LightBeer+25], low alcohol beer with 50 mmol·L(-1) of added sodium [LightBeer+50], midstrength beer (3.5% ABV) [Mid] or midstrength beer with 25 mmol·L(-1) of added sodium [Mid+25]. Total drink volumes in each trial were equivalent to 150% of body mass loss during exercise, consumed over a 1h period. Body mass, urine samples and regulatory hormones were obtained before and 4 hr after beverage consumption. Total urine output was significantly lower in the LightBeer+50 trial (1450 ± 183 ml) compared with the LightBeer+25 (1796 ± 284 ml), Mid+25 (1786 ± 373 ml) and Mid (1986 ± 304 ml) trials (all p drink treatments. The electrolyte concentration of low alcohol beer appears to have more significant impact on post exercise fluid retention than small changes in alcohol content.

  16. Determination of hydroxycinnamic acids and volatile phenols in wort and beer by isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography using electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbeneden, Nele; Delvaux, Filip; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2006-12-15

    The suitability of a simple and rapid isocratic RP-HPLC method with amperometric electrochemical detection for the simultaneous detection and quantification of hydroxycinnamic acids and their corresponding aroma-active volatile phenols in wort and beer is reported. The technique gives good specificity and sensitivity, and can therefore be used for routine monitoring of hydroxycinnamic acids in wort and the development of volatile phenolic flavour compounds during the beer production process and subsequent conservation.

  17. Analysis of taste qualities and ingredients of beer by taste sensing system; Mikaku sensor ni yoru beer no ajishitsu to seibun no bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezaki, S.; Yuki, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan); Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Tsuda, Y.; Nakatani, K. [Suntory Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-08-20

    The taste of beer was measured using a taste sensing system with eight kinds of lipid membrane. The output from the sensor has high discriminating power and high correlation with taste substances in beer and sensory test by human. The estimation of the concentration of taste substances by multiple regression analysis was fairly well. The taste sensor also well estimated the result of sensory test of many keywords concerning beer taste. 16 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Measuring Hordein (Gluten) in Beer – A Comparison of ELISA and Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Malcolm J.; Goswami, Hareshwar P.; Howitt, Crispin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Subjects suffering from coeliac disease, gluten allergy/intolerance must adopt a lifelong avoidance of gluten. Beer contains trace levels of hordeins (gluten) which are too high to be safely consumed by most coeliacs. Accurate measurement of trace hordeins by ELISA is problematic. Methods We have compared hordein levels in sixty beers, by sandwich ELISA, with the level determined using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS). Results Hordein levels measured by ELISA varied by four orders of magnitude, from zero (for known gluten-free beers) to 47,000 µg/mL (ppm; for a wheat-based beer). Half the commercial gluten-free beers were free of hordein by MS and ELISA. Two gluten-free and two low-gluten beers had zero ELISA readings, but contained significant hordein levels (pgluten in beverages such as beer and highlights the need for the development of new sensitive and selective quantitative assay such as MS. PMID:23509606

  19. Tune That Beer! Listening for the Pitch of Beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Reinoso Carvalho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We report two experiments designed to assess the key sensory drivers underlying people’s association of a specific auditory pitch with Belgian beer. In particular, we assessed if people would rely mostly on the differences between beers in terms of their relative alcohol strength, or on the contrast between the most salient taste attributes of the different beers. In Experiment 1, the participants rated three bitter beers (differing in alcohol content, using a narrow range of pitch choices (50–500 Hz. The results revealed that the beers were all rated around the same pitch (Mean = 232 Hz, SD = 136 Hz. In Experiment 2, a wider range of pitch choices (50–1500 Hz, along with the addition of a much sweeter beer, revealed that people mostly tend to match beers with bitter-range profiles at significantly lower pitch ranges when compared to the average pitch of a much sweeter beer. These results therefore demonstrate that clear differences in taste attributes lead to distinctly different matches in terms of pitch. Having demonstrated the robustness of the basic crossmodal matching, future research should aim to uncover the basis for such matches and better understand the perceptual effects of matching/non-matching tones on the multisensory drinking experience.

  20. The transformation of high palletizing machine in beer filling and packing line%啤酒灌装线高位码垛机的改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘伟健

    2012-01-01

    In high-speed filling and packing line of beer industry, stacking machine is one of the important equipment. Now high palletizing machine control system for filling line was transformed , the stack form of boxes and how to reduce the gap between the box and box in order to avoid the boxes dropping down when transferred were studied. Practice proved that compared with the original stack, after increased the total area of each layer, it narrowed the gap between the box and the box in the palletizing and improved the production efficiency of the stacker.%在啤酒高速包装线上,码垛机是其中的重要设备,本文就对高位码垛机控制系统进行改造。研究了箱物料的堆叠形式,如何减少箱与箱之间的间隙,以避免叉车转运时掉箱的现象。实践证明,改造后与原堆叠形式相比,每层箱的总面积增大,缩小了码垛过程中箱与箱间的间隙,大大提高了堆垛机生产效率。

  1. The Chemistry of Beer Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Graham G.

    2004-01-01

    Brewing of beer, one of the oldest biotechnology industries was one of the earliest processes to be undertaken on commercial basis. Biological instability involves contamination of bacteria, yeast, or mycelia fungi and there is always a risk in brewing that beer can become contaminated by micro-organisms.

  2. 啤酒高浓酿造对酵母代谢影响的研究进展%Research Development on Effection of Beer High Gravity Brewing on Metabolism of Saccharomyces cereviseae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞志敏; 赵谋明; 赵海锋; 陈文芬

    2009-01-01

    In the process of beer high gravity brewing, the increase of osmotic pressure, enhance of alcohol concentration and change of nutritional balance can bring adverse effect on metabolism of Saccharomyces cereviseae.This paper mainly summarized the effects of beer high gravity on metabolism of Saccharomyces cereviseae, specifically, the metabolism of carbon source material, nitrogen source material, flavor and energy material.%啤酒高浓酿造过程中,渗透压增加、乙醇含量升高及营养平衡改变都会给啤酒酵母胞内代谢带来不利的影响.文中综述了高浓酿造技术对啤酒酵母胞内代谢(碳源物质代谢、氮源物质代谢、风味物质代谢和能源物质代谢)的影响.

  3. Traditional sorghum beer "ikigage"

    OpenAIRE

    Lyumugabe Loshima, François

    2010-01-01

    Samples of traditional sorghum beer Ikigage was collected in the southern province of Rwanda and analyzed for microbiological and physico-chemical contents. Ikigage contained total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (33.55 x 106 cfu/ml), yeast (10.15 x 106 cfu/ml), lactic acid bacteria (35.35 x 104 cfu/ml), moulds (4.12 x 104 cfu/ml), E. coli (21.90 x 103 cfu/ml), fecal streptococci (22.50 x 103 cfu/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (16.02 x 103 cfu/ml), total coliform (32.30 x 103 cfu/ml), eth...

  4. Effects of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors among Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic…

  5. Beer is the cattle of women: sorghum beer commercialization and dietary intake of agropastoral families in Karamoja, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Akol, Helen A; Gray, Sandra J

    2010-04-01

    Karimojong agropastoralists of Uganda have employed a dual subsistence strategy of cattle herding and sorghum cultivation to survive in an unpredictable environment, one afflicted by a severe humanitarian crisis. Armed raiding since the 1970s has led to devastating cattle losses, high male mortality, and increased sedentarization of women and children in densely populated homesteads, where infectious diseases and malnutrition rates are prevalent. Fieldwork in 1998-1999 confirmed the detrimental effects of armed raiding on child growth and development. During this period, however, women maintained largely traditional subsistence patterns. Follow-up fieldwork in 2004 revealed surprising subsistence changes: sorghum beer, an important food and ritual item, was being brewed for sale, which had not been noted in previous literature on the Karimojong. We outline the role of beer in the diet by analyzing the nutritional profile of Karimojong women and children, nutrients supplied by beer, and those supplied by foodstuffs purchased with sales profits. Commercial beer supplied from 3 to 6% of energy intake, and grains leftover from brewing (dregs) supplied from 3 to 12%. Selling beer was women's preferred form of casual labor, with differing patterns of participation in brewing between rural and peri-urban areas. Women who were paid in currency relied on profits to purchase nutrient-rich supplemental foodstuffs important in an otherwise marginal diet, as well as beer. The households of women who worked for other brewers or purchased beer wholesale and sold it retail relied heavily on dregs for daily subsistence. Nutrient intake was highest among women with cattle and sorghum who brewed and sold beer from their homesteads, and lowest among women who lacked sorghum and worked for commercial brewers in urban centers. Because nutritional status remains marginal in Karamoja, beer commercialization as a consequence of subsistence changes could have dramatic health consequences

  6. Physics of beer tapping

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Fuster, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The popular bar prank known in colloquial English as {\\em beer tapping} consists in hitting the top of a beer bottle with a solid object, usually another bottle, to trigger the foaming over of the former within a few seconds. Despite the trick being known for long time, to the best of our knowledge, the phenomenon still lacks scientific explanation. Although it seems natural to think that shock-induced cavitation enhances the diffusion of CO$_2$ from the supersaturated bulk liquid into the bubbles by breaking them up, the subtle mechanism by which this happens remains unknown. Here we show that the overall foaming-over process can be divided into three stages where different physical phenomena take place in different time-scales, namely: bubble-collapse (or cavitation) stage, diffusion-driven stage and buoyancy-driven stage. In the bubble-collapse stage, the impact generates a train of expansion-compression waves in the liquid that leads to the fragmentation of pre-existing gas cavities. Upon bubble fragmenta...

  7. Driving Beer Sales Through Focused Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2011-01-01

    To mirror the success of wine in recent years draught and bottled beers have been strategically aligned with the meal experience. Bar owners can also host tasting and themed evenings, increase the variety of flavoured beers and ciders and incorporate a wider selection of appropriate beer glassware to stimulate consumer interest and drive beer sales in bars.

  8. Beer drinker's hyponatraemia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettema, M E; Halma, C

    1999-03-01

    Beer drinker's hyponatraemia, also called beer potomania, is a syndrome of hyponatraemia in patients who consume excessive amounts of beer and have a poor dietary intake. We describe a patient with chronic asymptomatic hyponatraemia due to beer potomania. The pathophysiology of this syndrome, the treatment and prevention are reviewed.

  9. Drinking beer reduces radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monobe, Manami [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Science and Technology; Ando, Koichi [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    We here investigated and reported the effects of beer drinking on radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Human blood that was collected either before or after drinking a 700 ml beer was in vitro irradiated with 200 kVp X rays or 50 keV/{mu}m carbon ions. The relation between the radiation dose and the aberration frequencies (fragments and dicentrics) was significantly (P<0.05) lower for lymphocytes collected 3 h after beer drinking than those before drinking. Fitting the dose response to a linear quadratic model showed that the alpha term of carbon ions was significantly (P<0.05) decreased by beer drinking. A decrease of dicentric formation was detected as early as 0.5 h after beer drinking, and lasted not shorter than 4.5 h. The mitotic index of lymphocytes was higher after beer drinking than before, indicating that a division delay would not be responsible for the low aberrations induced by beer drinking. An in vitro treatment of normal lymphocytes with 0.1 M ethanol, which corresponded to a concentration of 6-times higher than the maximum ethanol concentration in the blood after beer drinking, reduced the dicentric formation caused by X-ray irradiation, but not by carbon-ion irradiation. The beer-induced reduction of dicentric formation was not affected by serum. It is concluded that beer could contain non-ethanol elements that reduce the chromosome damage of lymphocytes induced by high-LET radiation. (author)

  10. Effects of beer, wine, and liquor intakes on bone mineral density in older men and women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Katherine L; Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Powell, Jonathan J; Qiao, Ning; Hannan, Marian T; Sripanyakorn, Supannee; Cupples, L Adrienne; Kiel, Douglas P

    2009-01-01

    Background: Moderate intake of alcohol has been reported to have beneficial effects on bone. However, different classes of alcoholic beverages have not been investigated. Objective: Our aim was to determine the association between intake of total alcohol or individual alcoholic beverages and bone mineral density (BMD). Design: Adjusting for potential confounding factors, we examined alcohol intakes and BMD at 3 hip sites and the lumbar spine in 1182 men and in 1289 postmenopausal and 248 premenopausal women in the population-based Framingham Offspring cohort (age: 29–86 y). Results: Men were predominantly beer drinkers, and women were predominantly wine drinkers. Compared with nondrinkers, hip BMD was greater (3.4–4.5%) in men consuming 1–2 drinks/d of total alcohol or beer, whereas hip and spine BMD were significantly greater (5.0–8.3%) in postmenopausal women consuming >2 drinks/d of total alcohol or wine. Intake of >2 drinks/d of liquor in men was associated with significantly lower (3.0–5.2%) hip and spine BMD than was intake of 1–2 drinks/d of liquor in men. After adjustment for silicon intake, all intergroup differences for beer were no longer significant; differences for other alcohol sources remained significant. Power was low for premenopausal women, and the associations were not significant. Conclusions: Moderate consumption of alcohol may be beneficial to bone in men and postmenopausal women. However, in men, high liquor intakes (>2 drinks/d) were associated with significantly lower BMD. The tendency toward stronger associations between BMD and beer or wine, relative to liquor, suggests that constituents other than ethanol may contribute to bone health. Silicon appears to mediate the association of beer, but not that of wine or liquor, with BMD. Other components need further investigation. PMID:19244365

  11. Physics of Beer Tapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Javier; Casado-Chacón, Almudena; Fuster, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The popular bar prank known in colloquial English as beer tapping consists in hitting the top of a beer bottle with a solid object, usually another bottle, to trigger the foaming over of the former within a few seconds. Despite the trick being known for a long time, to the best of our knowledge, the phenomenon still lacks scientific explanation. Although it seems natural to think that shock-induced cavitation enhances the diffusion of CO2 from the supersaturated bulk liquid into the bubbles by breaking them up, the subtle mechanism by which this happens remains unknown. Here, we show that the overall foaming-over process can be divided into three stages where different physical phenomena take place in different time scales: namely, the bubble-collapse (or cavitation) stage, the diffusion-driven stage, and the buoyancy-driven stage. In the bubble-collapse stage, the impact generates a train of expansion-compression waves in the liquid that leads to the fragmentation of preexisting gas cavities. Upon bubble fragmentation, the sudden increase of the interface-area-to-volume ratio enhances mass transfer significantly, which makes the bubble volume grow by a large factor until CO2 is locally depleted. At that point buoyancy takes over, making the bubble clouds rise and eventually form buoyant vortex rings whose volume grows fast due to the feedback between the buoyancy-induced rising speed and the advection-enhanced CO2 transport from the bulk liquid to the bubble. The physics behind this explosive process sheds insight into the dynamics of geological phenomena such as limnic eruptions.

  12. Genome Sequence of Megasphaera cerevisiae NSB1, a Bacterium Isolated from a Canning Line and Able To Grow in Beer with High Alcohol Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Thomson, Euan; Jacoby, Derek; Coady, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genome sequence of the brewery isolate Megasphaera cerevisiae NSB1 was determined. Strain NSB1 tolerates 5% (vol/vol) alcohol, which is higher than previously reported for M. cerevisiae. The NSB1 genome will help elucidate genetics required for alcohol tolerance and niche adaptation of this Gram-negative beer-spoilage bacterium. PMID:28232423

  13. Effects of High-molecular Protein and Proteinase A on the Foam Stability of Pure Draft Beer%高分子蛋白和蛋白酶A对纯生啤酒泡沫稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜珊; 张彦青; 杜金华; 李惠萍; 董倩倩; 房慧婧; 李琳

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the key factors influencing the foam stability of pure draft beer were investigated. The content of high-molecular protein and the activity of proteinase A were detected by Coomassie brilliant blue method and fluorescence-based assay in both beer brewing and beer storage process, respectively. The results showed that, different fermenting parameters in each fermenting vessels resulted in significant difference in the change of high-molecular protein content and proteinase A activity. During the fermenting stage, high-molecular protein content decreased slowly from 350~407.6 mg/L in wort to 180.1~243.1 mg/L in product beer, and proteinase A activity strengthened slowly prior to yeast harvest-ing and reached the highest levels of 18.27~30.13 U/mL, after yeast harvesting, proteinase A activity reduced and finally its activity in product beer was only 19.06%~36.4%of the previous highest value. Through the tracing of high-molecular protein content and proteinase A activity in product pure draft beer and the analysis of their effects on beer foam stability, it was found that there was significant positive relations between high-molecular protein content and foam stability (r=0.794, P<0.01), however, there was no significant relations between proteinase A activity and foam stability/high-molecular protein content.%利用考马斯亮蓝法、荧光底物法分别跟踪检测啤酒酿造和贮存过程中高分子蛋白含量及蛋白酶A活力变化,研究影响纯生啤酒泡沫稳定性的关键因素。结果表明,各发酵罐因发酵阶段工艺参数的不同,导致高分子蛋白含量及蛋白酶A活力变化趋势存在明显差异。发酵阶段高分子蛋白含量缓慢降低,由入罐麦汁时的350~407.6 mg/L降到成品酒时的180.1~243.1 mg/L;蛋白酶A活力在回收酵母前增加,后达到最高值,其范围是18.27~30.13 U/mL,回收酵母后蛋白酶A活力下降,最终在成品酒中的蛋白酶A活力检测值

  14. Chromatographic determination of amino acid enantiomers in beers and raw materials used for their manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, T; Brückner, H

    2000-06-09

    Using gas chromatography (GC) on a chiral stationary phase, accompanied by high-performance liquid chromatography, beers and raw materials used for manufacturing (hops, barley grains, malts) were investigated for the pattern and quantities of amino acid enantiomers. Although L-amino acids were most abundant, certain D-amino acids were detected in all beers and most of the raw materials. Highest amounts of D-amino acids were detected in special beers such as Berliner Weisse that underwent bottle-conditioning with lactic cultures, and Belgian fruit beers produced by spontaneous fermentation. It is demonstrated that GC on chiral stationary phases is highly suitable for the quantitative determination of amino acid enantiomers in beers and raw materials used for their manufacture. Quantities, relative amounts and pattern of amino acid enantiomers can serve in particular as chiral markers for the authenticity of special beers.

  15. Occurrence of biogenic amines in beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzon, Massimo; Boselli, Emanuele; Obiedziński, Mieczysław W; Frega, Natale G

    2015-01-01

    Because several groups of microorganisms are able to decarboxylate amino acids, the presence of biogenic amines (BA) can be seen as an index of the microbiological quality of the brewing process. BAs were quantified for the first time in the intermediate products and craft beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum) in a small size brewery in order to assess the possible presence of critical control points related to biological hazard in the brewing process. BA levels in beers produced exclusively from malted organic Emmer wheat were between 15.4 and 25.2 mg l(-1) in the samples of light beer (Lt) and between 8.9 and 15.3 mg l(-1) in double malt beers (DM) ready for consumption (the beers stored for 90 days at 1-2°C). Cadaverine and tyramine were the main BAs in the Lt and DM beers, respectively. Increased concentrations of BAs seemed to be more related to the heat treatment of the processing product during mashing and wort boiling, rather than to the fermentation process. Much lower concentrations were found in finished beers obtained from 50% malted organic Emmer wheat and 50% malted barley (up to 3.2 mg l(-1)) or from 30% malted Emmer wheat (up to 8.3 mg l(-1)). Thus, Emmer wheat malt can be a useful alternative to wheat and spelt for the production of beer with a limited content of BA, if the processing technology is kept under control.

  16. Consumers' perception of novel beers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide

    to many consumers. After a decade of growth, the Danish craft brewing segment is rapidly reaching maturity, and a higher degree of consumer orientation seems to be needed for continuing success. The aim of this PhD project was to investigate some of the key aspects of consumers’ perception of novel beers......As a result of the impressive resurgence of micro and craft breweries, the product diversity in the Danish beer market has remarkably increased. Craft breweries are traditionally characterized by innovativeness, unique sensory experiences, and a focus on novel beer styles not previously known......, and ways in which these can be considered to inform product development decisions. Sensory insights into how consumers perceive a new beer are paramount. As craft breweries rarely have access to traditional sensory analysis (in the form of a trained panel), the first part of the project has examined...

  17. Consumers' perception of novel beers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the impressive resurgence of micro and craft breweries, the product diversity in the Danish beer market has remarkably increased. Craft breweries are traditionally characterized by innovativeness, unique sensory experiences, and a focus on novel beer styles not previously known...... to many consumers. After a decade of growth, the Danish craft brewing segment is rapidly reaching maturity, and a higher degree of consumer orientation seems to be needed for continuing success. The aim of this PhD project was to investigate some of the key aspects of consumers’ perception of novel beers......, and ways in which these can be considered to inform product development decisions. Sensory insights into how consumers perceive a new beer are paramount. As craft breweries rarely have access to traditional sensory analysis (in the form of a trained panel), the first part of the project has examined...

  18. MODERN PROCESSES AND EQUIPMENT FOR BEER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Sidorov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern progress trends of processes of brewing and fermenters for their realization are considered. It is rotined that the today most widespread method of production are speed-up processes on the method of Nathan in one technological stage in one vehicle –cylinder-conical tank — CCT. The next stage of development must be passing to the continuous methods, however these, known enough methods, so far did not find realization. The second directions of development of brewing is distribution of minibrewerys, including restaurant complexes. The basic stimulus of development of this direction is possibility of receipt of the so-called «living» beer — the high-quality unfiltered product, however today large competition make mass productions which mastered the technique of production of «living» beer at industrial level.

  19. Hydrophobins, beer foaming and gushing

    OpenAIRE

    Shokribousjein, Zahra; Deckers, Sylvie; Gebruers, Kurt; Lorgouilloux, Yannick; Baggerman, Geert; Verachtert, Hubert; Delcour, Jan; Etienne, Pierre; Rock, Jean-Marie; Michiels, Chris; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophobins belong to the most important proteins produced by filamentous fungi. They are surface active and their foaming potential is due to the presence of particular spatial arrangements of hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids. However, their presence eventually leads to overfoaming of beers. In beers and other liquids hydrophobin molecules aggregate around hydrophobic carbon dioxide molecules and form nano-structures, containing entrapped carbon dioxide. By pressure relea...

  20. Involvement of flavanoids in beer color instability during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callemien, Delphine; Collin, Sonia

    2007-10-31

    Besides Maillard reactions, structural rearrangements of flavan-3-ol monomers cause color changes in beer during storage. Acetone/water-soluble fractions (70/30, v/v) of three lager beers of the same batch, differently stabilized before bottling in glass or poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles, were monitored by normal-phase HPLC-ESI(-)-MS/MS over a 1-year period of storage at 20 degrees C. In parallel, beer color was monitored by the European Brewery Convention assay. The evolution of color was similar in the silica gel-filtered beer to that in identically bottled and stored poly(vinylpolypyrrolidone)-treated samples, despite the high flavanoid dimers content of the former. On the other hand, color evolved more rapidly in the PET bottle, suggesting a key role of oxygen. The kinetics was still increased in model media containing (+)-catechin, while no color was detected when normal-phase HPLC-fractionated dimers or trimers were investigated. (+)-Catechin emerged as the precursor of less polar products, characterized by a yellow-brown color. MS/MS enabled us to identify these products as issued from the oxidation and intramolecular additions of dehydrodicatechin B4. Similar structures were found in aged beers spiked with (+)-catechin. Beer storage in the absence of oxygen and at low temperature is recommended so as to minimize the synthesis of such pigments.

  1. Enhanced biological carbon consumption in a high CO2 ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebesell, U; Schulz, K G; Bellerby, R G J; Botros, M; Fritsche, P; Meyerhöfer, M; Neill, C; Nondal, G; Oschlies, A; Wohlers, J; Zöllner, E

    2007-11-22

    The oceans have absorbed nearly half of the fossil-fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted into the atmosphere since pre-industrial times, causing a measurable reduction in seawater pH and carbonate saturation. If CO2 emissions continue to rise at current rates, upper-ocean pH will decrease to levels lower than have existed for tens of millions of years and, critically, at a rate of change 100 times greater than at any time over this period. Recent studies have shown effects of ocean acidification on a variety of marine life forms, in particular calcifying organisms. Consequences at the community to ecosystem level, in contrast, are largely unknown. Here we show that dissolved inorganic carbon consumption of a natural plankton community maintained in mesocosm enclosures at initial CO2 partial pressures of 350, 700 and 1,050 microatm increases with rising CO2. The community consumed up to 39% more dissolved inorganic carbon at increased CO2 partial pressures compared to present levels, whereas nutrient uptake remained the same. The stoichiometry of carbon to nitrogen drawdown increased from 6.0 at low CO2 to 8.0 at high CO2, thus exceeding the Redfield carbon:nitrogen ratio of 6.6 in today's ocean. This excess carbon consumption was associated with higher loss of organic carbon from the upper layer of the stratified mesocosms. If applicable to the natural environment, the observed responses have implications for a variety of marine biological and biogeochemical processes, and underscore the importance of biologically driven feedbacks in the ocean to global change.

  2. Intake of wine, beer and spirits and waiting time to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2003-01-01

    appear to have fewer strokes, lung and digestive tract cancers, and overall mortality than both abstainers and moderate drinkers of beer or spirits. We examined the association between different types of alcoholic beverages and waiting time to pregnancy. METHODS: Self-reported data were used for 29......,844 pregnant women, recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort in 1997-2000. Main outcome measures were odds ratios for a prolonged waiting time to pregnancy according to consumption of wine, beer and spirits. RESULTS: All levels of wine intake compared with non-wine drinking or with consumption of beer...... or spirits had subfecundity odds ratios between 0.7 and 0.9. No association was seen regarding beer drinking, while the association with spirits was J-shaped. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that wine drinkers have slightly shorter waiting times to pregnancy than both non-wine drinkers and consumers...

  3. Assessment of self-regulatory code violations in Brazilian television beer advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Alan; Pinsky, Ilana; e Silva, Rebeca Souza; Babor, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Research suggests that alcoholic beverage advertisements may have an adverse effect on teenagers and young adults, owing to their vulnerability to suggestive message content. This study was designed to evaluate perceived violations of the content guidelines of the Brazilian alcohol marketing self-regulation code, based on ratings of the five most popular beer advertisements broadcast on television in the summer of 2005-2006 and during the 2006 FIFA (Federation Internationale de Football Association) World Cup games. Five beer advertisements were selected from a previous study showing that they were perceived to be highly appealing to a sample of Brazilian teenagers. These advertisements were evaluated by a sample of Brazilian high school students using a rating procedure designed to measure the content of alcohol advertisements covered in industry self-regulation codes. All five advertisements were found to violate multiple guidelines of the Brazilian code of marketing self-regulation. The advertisement with the greatest number of violations was Antarctica's "Male Repellent," which was perceived to violate 11 of the 16 guidelines in the code. Two advertisements had nine violations, and one had eight. The guidelines most likely to be violated by these advertisements were Guideline 1, which is aimed at protecting children and teenagers, and Guideline 2, which prohibits content encouraging excessive and irresponsible alcoholic beverage consumption. The five beer advertisements rated as most appealing to Brazilian teenagers were perceived by a sample of the same population to have violated numerous principles of the Brazilian self-regulation code governing the marketing of alcoholic beverages. Because of these numerous perceived code violations, it now seems important for regulatory authorities to submit industry marketing content to more systematic evaluation by young people and public health experts and for researchers to focus more on the ways in which alcohol

  4. Quality Assessment of Some High Consumption Foods in Zanjan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hassanzad Azar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foods go through many changes from production to table and continuous control is necessary to maintain food safety and supply foods with good quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of some foods with high consumption in Zanjan city within 5 years from 2009 to 2013. Methods: In a case-control descriptive study with an annually- controlled program within 5 years from 2009 to 2014, some food samples including pasteurized milk, vegetable oils, flour, kebab, salt, confectionary products and a special cookie called nan-chay were collected and analyzed in food control laboratory of Zanjan university of medical sciences. Results: According to national standard of Iran, of Nan-chay, salt, vegetable oils, kebab, confectionary products, and pasteurized milk samples 68.4%, 46%, 24.3%, 10.4%, 9.3%, 5% were out of national standard limits and unacceptable, respectively. All flour samples had good standard quality. Mean± sd values of pH in Nan-chay samples were 7.5 and 1.19, respectively. Mean± sd values of the degree of purity in salt samples were 98.21 and 1.75, respectively. Conclusion: Results showed that among the 7 types of collected foods in Zanjan city, the most nonstandard cases were of Nan-chay samples and the best quality was seen in flour samples.

  5. Investigation of Pasteurization Conditions of Bottled Beer in Tunnel Pasteurizer

    OpenAIRE

    , N. Lajçi; , X. Lajçi; , B Baruti

    2012-01-01

    Pasteurization is the commonly method of food thermal treatment used in order to destroy the pathogenic agents. The main goals of pasteurization are to make the product safe for human consumption and to promote biological stability of the food and thereby improve its shelf life Without affecting the taste of the product. One of means how to achieve pasteurization of the product is tunnel pasteurizer. The Şlled and closed packages of beer are conveyed through different sections of a tunnel pas...

  6. THE ANALYSIS OF THE BEER SECTOR IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA DOBRE-BARON

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse a sector of the Romanian economy which is currently among the most sustainable. It is about production and marketing of beer, a product with a long and rich history around the world but also in Romania. The analysis covers a period of seven years and takes into account the dynamic evolution of those market-specific indicators such as: production, consumption, imports, exports, workforce involved, the contribution to the state budget, etc.

  7. Would Weaker Beer Help Reduce Alcohol's Harms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160387.html Would Weaker Beer Help Reduce Alcohol's Harms? Researchers say drinkers wouldn' ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Lowering the alcohol content in beer and other drinks may help reduce their harmful ...

  8. Detecting beer intake by unique metabolite patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern...... representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1) 18 participants were given one at a time four different test beverages: strong, regular and non-alcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were...... assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e. N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum...

  9. A Rare Etiology of Hyponatremia: Beer Potomania

    OpenAIRE

    Gökhan SARGIN; Hakan AKDAM; Akar, Harun; Yavuz YENİÇERİOĞLU

    2012-01-01

    Electrolyte abnormalities can be observed in chronic alcoholic patients. Hyponatremia is one of them. Beer potomania is an unusual cause of hyponatremia and was first described by Gwinup et all. in 1972. Patients usually have a history of binge beer drinking and poor solute intake. We present here a 48-year-old male patient who had hyponatremia secondary to binge beer drinking.

  10. 27 CFR 28.282 - Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer. 28.282 Section 28.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Beer. When beer has been laden on board the aircraft for use as supplies, the customs officer...

  11. Acute effects of beer on endothelial function and haemodynamics: a single-blind, cross-over study in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzi, Kalliopi; Rontoyanni, Victoria G.; Protogerou, Athanase D.; Georgoulia, Aggeliki; Xenos, Konstantinos; Chrysou, John; Sfikakis, Petros P.; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Moderate consumption of beer is associated with lower cardiovascular (CV) risk. To explore the underlying mechanisms we studied the acute effects of the constituents of beer (alcohol and antioxidants), on established predictors of CV risk: endothelial function, aortic stiffness, pressure wave reflections and aortic pressure. Research Methods & Proceedures In a randomized, single – blind, cross - over study 17 healthy, non-smoking, volunteers (28.5±5.2 years and 24.4±2.5 BMI) consumed in 3 separate days, at least one week apart: a) 400 ml of beer & 400 ml water, b) 800 ml of dealcoholized beer (same amount of polyphenols), and c) 67 ml of vodka & 733 ml water (same amount of alcohol). Each time aortic stiffness (pulse wave velocity, pressure wave reflections (Aix), aortic and brachial pressure (Sphygmocor device) and endothelial function (brachial flow mediated dilatation) were assessed at fast and 1 and 2 hours postprandial. Results Aortic stiffness was significantly and similarly reduced by all 3 interventions. However, endothelial function was significantly improved only after beer consumption (average of 1.33%, CI 0.15-2.53). Although wave reflections were significantly reduced by all 3 interventions (average of beer: 9.1%, dealcoholized beer: 2.8%, vodka 8.5%, all CI within limits of significance), the reduction was higher after beer consumption compared todealcoholized beer (p=0.018). Pulse pressure amplification (i.e. brachial/aortic) was increased by all 3 test drinks. Conclusions Beer improves acutely parameters of arterial function and structure, in healthy non-smokers. This benefit seems to be mediated by the additive or synergistic effects of alcohol and anti-oxidants and merits further investigation. PMID:23810643

  12. The physics of Beer Tapping

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The popular bar prank known in colloquial English as beer tapping consists in hitting the top of a beer bottle with a solid object, usually another bottle, to trigger the foaming over of the former within a few seconds. Despite the trick being nown for a long time, to the best of our knowledge, the phenomenon still lacked scientific explanation. Although it seems natural to think that shock-induced cavitation enhances the diffusion of CO2 from the supersaturated bulk liquid into the bub...

  13. The Effect of Entry into the European Union on the Slovak Beer Industry and Its Consequences for the Tax Taken from the Excise Duty on Beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. Juraj Válek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The following paper is concerned with the issue of increasing the excise duty on beer and its consequences for consumption of the studied product. The aim is to demonstrate the tax burden in relation to domestic producers and beer consumption in the domestic market. The time period considered is the 16 years from 1999 to 2014. Data on consumption and the evolution of excise duty rates were compared ex post and conclusions were drawn using an analysis of economic indicators. In general, it is the case that, by increasing the rates of the duty, governments expect to see an increase in the income side of the state budget, even though increases in tax lead to reductions in consumption. This is, however, only a short-term effect and, over a longer time frame, such measures have a negative effect not only on consumption, but also on domestic production and on the tax income in the state budget.

  14. Present status and amendable subjects of brewery CIM. Beer kojo ni okeru CIM no genjo to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, T.; Kimura, T. (Asahi Breweries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-12-10

    Though the beer consumption is being smoothly increased, there has been a considerable change in consumers prime taste of beer for these several years. The present report exhibits the computer integrated manufacturing system introduced in Ibaraki Brewery, Asahi Beer to be operated as per the target. The introduction of that system aimed at an execution of integrated administration, high particularly in quality control, to integrate the information and control of total production activities from the production planning to the product delivery. Together with the structuring of information system for the integrated production, aim was taken also at the heightening in quality control, heightening in administration level, labor saving and newly conceived distribution system. As for the structuring of hardware, the system was functionally classified into production planning level, administration level for the manufacturing and distribution, and control level for the processing and distribution. Each of those levels was accommodated with the most suitable machinery thereon. The future problems are about the quality control data measurement and widened application of database. 5 figs.

  15. New Trends of Development of Beer Industry in Lithuania – Diversification and Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislavas Petraškevičius

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to outline the current challenges of beer industry in Lithuania and provide suggestions for future development of organizations in this industry, by focusing on diversification strategy and social responsibility. The main challenges of Lithuanian beer industry are related to finding ways of future development in a constantly contracting market, as well as to find a competitive strategy of market penetration. In connection of these challenges, product differentiation creates new benefits for the consumers. However this strategy proves itself not being sufficient to reach the desired goals. Diversification of portfolio, being more risky, gives opportunity to target new customer groups and increase market presence. However, both strategies are less effective without changing the culture of drinking and consumer perceptions of beer. These issues will be addressed through the lenses of social responsibility, by emphasizing the promotion of responsible alcohol consumption and responsible behaviour of beer industry. As a result, the customers have to be ready to pay higher price for new products and develop a more responsible culture of beer consumption. To overcome outlined challenges, organizations in Lithuanian beer industry, must rethink their existing strategies and operations. Based on proposed future directions, the paper provides suggestions for business practices, how to implement differentiation strategy and actions in order to increase the level of social responsibility of various stakeholders.

  16. Terminal acidic shock inhibits sour beer bottle conditioning by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cody M; Veatch, Devon; Covey, Adam; Staton, Caleb; Bochman, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    During beer fermentation, the brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae experiences a variety of shifting growth conditions, culminating in a low-oxygen, low-nutrient, high-ethanol, acidic environment. In beers that are bottle conditioned (i.e., carbonated in the bottle by supplying yeast with a small amount of sugar to metabolize into CO2), the S. cerevisiae cells must overcome these stressors to perform the ultimate act in beer production. However, medium shock caused by any of these variables can slow, stall, or even kill the yeast, resulting in production delays and economic losses. Here, we describe a medium shock caused by high lactic acid levels in an American sour beer, which we refer to as "terminal acidic shock". Yeast exposed to this shock failed to bottle condition the beer, though they remained viable. The effects of low pH/high [lactic acid] conditions on the growth of six different brewing strains of S. cerevisiae were characterized, and we developed a method to adapt the yeast to growth in acidic beer, enabling proper bottle conditioning. Our findings will aid in the production of sour-style beers, a trending category in the American craft beer scene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantification of total and hexavalent chromium in lager beers: variability between styles and estimation of daily intake of chromium from beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Elsa; Soares, M Elisa; Kozior, Marta; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Bastos, M Lourdes

    2014-09-17

    A survey of the presence of total and hexavalent chromium in lager beers was conducted to understand the variability between different styles of lager beer packaged in glass or cans and to estimate daily intake of total Cr and hexavalent chromium from beer. Graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy using validated methodologies was applied. Selective extraction of hexavalent chromium was performed using a Chromabond NH2/500 mg column and elution with nitric acid. The detection limits were 0.26 and 0.68 μg L(-1) for total Cr and Cr(VI), respectively. The mean content of total Cr ranged between 1.13 μg L(-1) in canned pale lager and 4.32 μg L(-1) in low-alcohol beers, whereas the mean content of Cr(VI) was beer, beer consumption can contribute approximately 2.28-8.64 and 1.6-6.17% of the recommended daily intake of chromium for women and men, respectively.

  18. The effects of beer taxes on physical child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, S; Grossman, M

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of alcohol regulation on physical child abuse. Given the positive relationship between alcohol consumption and violence, and the negative relationship between consumption and price, the principal hypothesis to be tested is that an increase in the price of alcohol will lead to a reduction in the incidence of violence. We also examine the effects of illegal drug prices and alcohol availability on the incidence of child abuse. Equations are estimated separately for mothers and fathers, and include state fixed effects. Results indicate that increases in the beer tax may decrease the incidence of violence committed by females but not by males.

  19. Measuring hordein (gluten in beer--a comparison of ELISA and mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Tanner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Subjects suffering from coeliac disease, gluten allergy/intolerance must adopt a lifelong avoidance of gluten. Beer contains trace levels of hordeins (gluten which are too high to be safely consumed by most coeliacs. Accurate measurement of trace hordeins by ELISA is problematic. METHODS: We have compared hordein levels in sixty beers, by sandwich ELISA, with the level determined using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS. RESULTS: Hordein levels measured by ELISA varied by four orders of magnitude, from zero (for known gluten-free beers to 47,000 µg/mL (ppm; for a wheat-based beer. Half the commercial gluten-free beers were free of hordein by MS and ELISA. Two gluten-free and two low-gluten beers had zero ELISA readings, but contained significant hordein levels (p<0.05, or near average (60-140% hordein levels, by MS, respectively. Six beers gave false negatives, with zero ELISA readings but near average hordein content by MS. Approximately 20% of commercial beers had ELISA readings less than 1 ppm, but a near average hordein content by MS. Several barley beers also contained undeclared wheat proteins. CONCLUSIONS: ELISA results did not correlate with the relative content of hordein peptides determined by MS, with all barley based beers containing hordein. We suggest that mass spectrometry is more reliable than ELISA, as ELISA enumerates only the concentration of particular amino-acid epitopes; this may vary between different hordeins and may not be related to the absolute hordein concentration. MS quantification is undertaken using peptides that are specific and unique, enabling the quantification of individual hordein isoforms. This outlines the problem of relying solely on ELISA determination of gluten in beverages such as beer and highlights the need for the development of new sensitive and selective quantitative assay such as MS.

  20. Beer multinationals supporting Africa's development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen); H. Kwakkenbos (Herma)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper addresses the question how partnerships include smallholders into sorghum-beer supply chains. Introduction Restrictions on the import of barley malt by the Nigerian government in the 1980s have facilitated an import substitution strategy that is now widely adopted

  1. Beer multinationals supporting Africa's development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen); H. Kwakkenbos (Herma)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper addresses the question how partnerships include smallholders into sorghum-beer supply chains. Introduction Restrictions on the import of barley malt by the Nigerian government in the 1980s have facilitated an import substitution strategy that is now widely adopted by

  2. Beer multinationals supporting Africa's development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen); H. Kwakkenbos (Herma)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper addresses the question how partnerships include smallholders into sorghum-beer supply chains. Introduction Restrictions on the import of barley malt by the Nigerian government in the 1980s have facilitated an import substitution strategy that is now widely adopted by

  3. Special Beer obtained by Synchronous Alcoholic Fermentation of Two Different Origin Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena MUDURA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage worldwide. Both beer and wine are  recognized since ancient times for their health benefits. Nowadays, these beverages are consumed for its sensory, social interaction, and recently even in culinary dishes. In addition, studies showed the benefits of beer moderate consumption on health. Beer is a low-alcohol beverage and also presents many nutritional properties outlined by its nutritional content rich in vitamins, minerals and antioxidants that come from the raw material (malt and hop. Wishing to attract as many niches of consumers, brewers tend to produce every year new and innovative beers. The purpose of this study was to develop the technology for an innovative special beer. The synchronous alcoholic fermentation of two different origin substrates – wort and grape must - was monitored and their composition was assessed in order to obtain special beer with superior sensory properties. Technological process was developed in the Winery Pilot Station of the UASVM Cluj-Napoca. Special beer was obtained by alcoholic fermentation of hopped dark wort with grape must from the autochthonous Feteasca neagra grapes variety. Second fermentation process was followed by the maturation (3 weeks at 5oC in order to harmonize sensory qualities. The entire process was monitored considering fermentation and final products physicochemical parameters. The optimized ratio of the two fermentation substrates was of 2.5:3 on primary raw materials – beer wort and grapes must. The process was monitored on optimizing the fermentation process. The best fermentation yield was obtained when lower fermentation extracts were used. This study demonstrated that the simultaneous fermentation of the two substrates with different glucidic origin may proceed under controlled conditions and may be carried out so as to obtain the desired fermentation products with improved sensorial properties and increased health benefits.

  4. Determination of free fatty acids in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Marconi, Ombretta; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-15

    Free fatty acids (FFA) content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the presence of saturated FAs is related sometimes to gushing problems in beer. The aim of this research was to validate an analytical method for the determination of FFAs in beer. The extraction of FFAs in beer was achieved via Liquid-Liquid Cartridge Extraction (LLCE), the FFAs extract was purified by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE), methylated by boron trifluoride in methanol, and injected into GC-FID system. The performance criteria demonstrate that this method is suitable for the analysis of medium and long chain FFAs in beer. The proposed method was tested on four experimental beers.

  5. The effects of low alcohol beers on the blood alcohol concentration. [Die Wirkung von Bier mit geringem Alkoholgehalt auf die Blutalkoholkonzentration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuteboom, W. & Vis, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    During the last decade the consumption of low alcohol beers has increased considerably in the Netherlands. The improved taste and appearance of these beers, compared to those of previous years, combined with a more general trend for a healthier life-style might explain this increase. The permanent p

  6. Estudio preliminar sobre la determinación de elementos traza en cervezas venezolanas por ICP-OES Preliminary study on the determination of trace elements in venezuelan beers by ICP-OES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Marcano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of several chemical elements were determined simultaneously in ten different beers of the Venezuelan market by ICP-OES. With the exception of chromium, beer does not provide important amounts of nutritional oligoelements. The average chromium content found (33 µg/L is higher than one reported for USA's beer (10 µg/L but smaller than another reported for Brazilian beer (66 µg/L. The average percentage of chromium RDA by beer consumption found for Venezuela (6.3% is similar to that reported for Belgium (5%. Regarding toxic elements, one of the samples contained an elevated amount of aluminium, probably dissolved from the aluminium can.

  7. Metabolism of Zearalenone in the Course of Beer Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Kohei; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZON) is a mycotoxin with estrogenic activity, produced by members of Fusarium species, and is found worldwide in a number of cereal crops. It is known to have four active metabolites (α-zearalenol (α-ZOL), β-zearalenol (β-ZOL), α-zearalanol (α-ZAL), and β-zearalanol (β-ZAL)). A highly sensitive analytical method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has been established and validated in order to analyze ZON and its metabolites in beer and malt samples. The metabolism of ZON in the course of beer fermentation was further characterized using the artificially contaminated wort by this established method. In the fermented sample, 85.9% of ZON was converted to β-ZOL, which has lower estrogenic activity than that of ZON. These findings indicate that the health risk to humans due to ZON in beer is reduced during the fermentation process. PMID:22069701

  8. Trace determination of organophosphate esters in white wine, red wine, and beer samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Long; Yang, Huiqiang; Yang, Peijie; Zhang, Hongzhong; Zhao, Jihong

    2017-08-15

    In this study, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the analysis of five representative organophosphate esters (OPEs) in wine samples. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method resulted in good linearity (R(2)>0.9933) over the range of 0.1-100μgL(-1), with limits of detection (LODs, S/N =3) and quantification (LOQs, S/N =10) in the ranges of 0.48-18.8ngL(-1) and 1.58-62.5ngL(-1), respectively. Inter- and intra-assay precisions of RSD% ranged from 3.21% to 6.13% and from 1.69% to 7.63%, respectively. The spiked recoveries of target OPEs from white wine, red wine, and beer samples were in the ranges of 80-122%, 76-120%, and 76-110%, respectively, at two different concentration levels. The total concentrations of five OPEs found in white wine, red wine, and beer samples were in the ranges of 0.29-0.85μgL(-1), 1.00-3.05μgL(-1), and 0.86-1.47μgL(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of ecotype-specific marker genes for categorization of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Preissler, Patrick; Ehrenreich, Armin; Angelov, Angel; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-10-01

    The tolerance to hop compounds, which is mainly associated with inhibition of bacterial growth in beer, is a multi-factorial trait. Any approaches to predict the physiological differences between beer-spoiling and non-spoiling strains on the basis of a single marker gene are limited. We identified ecotype-specific genes related to the ability to grow in Pilsner beer via comparative genome sequencing. The genome sequences of four different strains of Lactobacillus brevis were compared, including newly established genomes of two highly hop tolerant beer isolates, one strain isolated from faeces and one published genome of a silage isolate. Gene fragments exclusively occurring in beer-spoiling strains as well as sequences only occurring in non-spoiling strains were identified. Comparative genomic arrays were established and hybridized with a set of L. brevis strains, which are characterized by their ability to spoil beer. As result, a set of 33 and 4 oligonucleotide probes could be established specifically detecting beer-spoilers and non-spoilers, respectively. The detection of more than one of these marker sequences according to a genetic barcode enables scoring of L. brevis for their beer-spoiling potential and can thus assist in risk evaluation in brewing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lowering the Risk of Rectal Cancer among Habitual Beer Drinkers by Dietary Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Kune

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole-life beer consumption and a quantitative measurement of several dietary micronutrients consumed in adult life were obtained from the dietary and alcohol data of the case-control arm of the population-based Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study. There was a statistically significant risk, adjusted for other established risk factors, among habitual beer drinkers (AOR 1.75, 95% CI 1.28–2.41 with a significant positive dose-response effect (AOR trend 1.34, 95% CI 1.16–1.55. Among beer consumers the data were interpreted as showing an attenuation of this risk with consumption of the four micronutrients involved in methylation: folate, methionine, vitamins B6 and B12, and the four micronutrients examined with antioxidant properties: selenium, vitamins E, C, and lycopene. The strongest effects were noted with vitamins E, C, and lycopene, and the weakest with methionine and selenium. Whilst not condoning excessive beer drinking, the regular consumption of foods rich in these micronutrients may provide a simple and harmless preventative strategy among persistent habitual beer drinkers and deserves further study with larger study numbers.

  11. High sucrose consumption promotes obesity whereas its low consumption induces oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovenko, Bohdana M; Kubrak, Olga I; Gospodaryov, Dmytro V; Perkhulyn, Natalia V; Yurkevych, Ihor S; Sanz, Alberto; Lushchak, Oleh V; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2015-08-01

    The effects of sucrose in varied concentrations (0.25-20%) with constant amount of yeasts in larval diet on development and metabolic parameters of adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were studied. Larvae consumed more food at low sucrose diet, overeating with yeast. On high sucrose diet, larvae ingested more carbohydrates, despite consuming less food and obtaining less protein derived from yeast. High sucrose diet slowed down pupation and increased pupa mortality, enhanced levels of lipids and glycogen, increased dry body mass, decreased water content, i.e. resulted in obese phenotype. Furthermore, it suppressed reactive oxygen species-induced oxidation of lipids and proteins as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase. The activity of catalase was gender-related. In males, at all sucrose concentrations used catalase activity was higher than at its concentration of 0.25%, whereas in females sucrose concentration virtually did not influence the activity. High sucrose diet increased content of protein thiols and the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The increase in sucrose concentration also enhanced uric acid level in females, but caused opposite effects in males. Development on high sucrose diets was accompanied by elevated steady-state insulin-like peptide 3 mRNA level. Finally, carbohydrate starvation at yeast overfeeding on low sucrose diets resulted in oxidative stress reflected by higher levels of oxidized lipids and proteins accompanied by increased superoxide dismutase activity. Potential mechanisms involved in regulation of redox processes by carbohydrates are discussed.

  12. [Coffee and tea consumption in a high cardiovascular risk Mediterranean population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, M; Carrasco, P; Sorlí, J V; Guillén, M; Guillém-Sáiz, P; Quiles, L; Corella, D

    2010-01-01

    Coffee and tea consumption recommendations for a healthy diet have been changing in recent years as it has increased the level of evidence on their benefits has increased. To know the frequency of coffee and tea consumption of in a high cardiovascular risk Mediterranean population (CVR) and to analyze whether there are differences between the consumption of these drinks by cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 945 people (340 males, 605 females) (67.4+/-6.2 years old) with high CVR recruited in primary care centres of Valencia, included in the PREDIMED study. Coffee and tea consumption has been determined through a validated questionnaire. We analyzed biochemical, clinical and anthropometric variables by standard methods. Tea consumption is very low in this Mediterranean population (0.4+/-1.6 cups/weeks). By contrast, coffee consumption averaged nearly one cup per day (6.5+/-5.2 cups/weeks). Hypertensive patients showed a lower overall consumption of coffee than in non-hypertensive patients (6.6+/-5.1 vs 7.3+/-5.9; P=0.023 respectively). These differences were greatest when caffeinated coffee consumption is analyzed (2.9+/-4.5 vs 4.3+/-5.3, Pcoffee and tea than non-diabetics (P=0.015 and P=0.022 respectively), these differences being greater for caffeinated coffee (Pcoffee consumption pattern, based on traditional recommendations, is observed, that as a result of new scientific evidence should be update.

  13. Free and Protein-Bound Maillard Reaction Products in Beer: Method Development and a Survey of Different Beer Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Michael; Witte, Sophia; Henle, Thomas

    2016-09-28

    The Maillard reaction is important for beer color and flavor, but little is known about the occurrence of individual glycated amino acids in beer. Therefore, seven Maillard reaction products (MRPs), namely, fructosyllysine, maltulosyllysine, pyrraline, formyline, maltosine, MG-H1, and argpyrimidine, were synthesized and quantitated in different types of beer (Pilsner, dark, bock, wheat, and nonalcoholic beers) by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode through application of the standard addition method. Free MRPs were analyzed directly. A high molecular weight fraction was isolated by dialysis and hydrolyzed enzymatically prior to analysis. Maltulosyllysine was quantitated for the first time in food. The most important free MRPs in beer are fructosyllysine (6.8-27.0 mg/L) and maltulosyllysine (3.7-21.8 mg/L). Beer contains comparatively high amounts of late-stage free MRPs such as pyrraline (0.2-1.6 mg/L) and MG-H1 (0.3-2.5 mg/L). Minor amounts of formyline (4-230 μg/L), maltosine (6-56 μg/L), and argpyrimidine (0.1-4.1 μg/L) were quantitated. Maltulosyllysine was the most significant protein-bound MRP, but both maltulosyllysine and fructosyllysine represent only 15-60% of the total protein-bound lysine-derived Amadori products. Differences in the patterns of protein-bound and free individual MRPs and the ratios between them were identified, which indicate differences in their chemical, biochemical, and microbiological stabilities during the brewing process.

  14. 27 CFR 25.211 - Beer returned to brewery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.211 Beer returned to brewery. (a) General. Beer, produced in the United States, on which the brewer has paid or determined the tax may...

  15. 27 CFR 25.206 - Removal of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removal of beer. 25.206... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Beer for Personal Or Family Use § 25.206 Removal of beer. Beer made under § 25.205 may be removed from the premises where made for personal...

  16. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial...

  17. 27 CFR 25.295 - Record of unsalable beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of unsalable beer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.295 Record of unsalable beer. A brewer having unsalable beer in packages or tanks in the brewery may destroy, recondition, or use the beer...

  18. Beer as a Teaching Aid in the Classroom and Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolija, Jasminka N.; Plavsic, Jovica V.; Marinkovic, Dragan; Mandic, Ljuba M.

    2012-01-01

    Beer was chosen as a teaching tool to maximize students' class participation and systemize and enhance their knowledge of chemistry. Viewing beer as a complex mixture allowed the students to learn how to directly apply their chemistry knowledge. Before the "Beer Unit" students were instructed to research beer and acquire data on beer composition…

  19. 27 CFR 25.24 - Storage of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage of beer. 25.24... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.24 Storage of beer. (a) Taxpaid beer. Beer of a brewer's own production on which the tax has been paid or determined may not be stored in...

  20. Student-Generated Protective Behaviors to Avert Severe Harm Due to High-Risk Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sandi W.; LaPlante, Carolyn; Wibert, Wilma Novales; Mayer, Alex; Atkin, Charles K.; Klein, Katherine; Glazer, Edward; Martell, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    High-risk alcohol consumption is a significant problem on college campuses that many students see as a rite of passage in their development into adulthood. Developing effective prevention campaigns designed to lessen or avert the risks associated with alcohol consumption entails understanding how students perceive harmful consequences as well as…

  1. Student-Generated Protective Behaviors to Avert Severe Harm Due to High-Risk Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sandi W.; LaPlante, Carolyn; Wibert, Wilma Novales; Mayer, Alex; Atkin, Charles K.; Klein, Katherine; Glazer, Edward; Martell, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    High-risk alcohol consumption is a significant problem on college campuses that many students see as a rite of passage in their development into adulthood. Developing effective prevention campaigns designed to lessen or avert the risks associated with alcohol consumption entails understanding how students perceive harmful consequences as well as…

  2. The use of chitooligosaccharide in beer brewing for protection against beer-spoilage bacteria and its influence on beer performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Yu, Zhimin; Wang, Ting; Guo, Xuan; Luan, Jing; Sun, Yumei; Li, Xianzhen

    2016-04-01

    To identify a biological preservative that can protect beer from microbial contamination, which often results in the production of turbidity and off-flavor. The antimicrobial activity of a chitooligosaccharide against beer-spoilage bacteria and its effect on the fermentation performance of brewer's yeast was studied. Chitooligosaccharide with an average 2 kDa molecular weight was the best at inhibiting all tested beer-spoilage bacteria. The application of chitooligosaccharide in the brewing process did not influence the fermentation of brewer's yeast. The change in beer performance induced by the contamination of Lactobacillus brevis could be effectively controlled by application of chitooligosaccharide in the beer brewing process. The experimental data suggested that chitooligosaccharide should be an excellent preservative to inhibit beer-spoilage bacteria in the brewing process and in the end product.

  3. Heritability of high sugar consumption through drinks and the genetic correlation with substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treur, Jorien L; Boomsma, Dorret I; Ligthart, Lannie; Willemsen, Gonneke; Vink, Jacqueline M

    2016-10-01

    High sugar consumption contributes to the rising prevalence of obesity. Sugar can have rewarding effects that are similar to, but less strong than, the effects of addictive substances. People who consume large amounts of sugar also tend to use more addictive substances, but it is unclear whether this is due to shared genetic or environmental risk factors. We examined whether there are genetic influences on the consumption of sugar-containing drinks and whether genetic factors can explain the association with substance use. The frequency of consumption of sugar-containing drinks (e.g., cola, soft drinks, and energy drinks) and addictive substances (nicotine, caffeine, alcohol, cannabis, and illicit drugs) was obtained for 8586 twins who were registered at the Netherlands Twin Register (women: 68.7%; mean ± SD age: 33.5 ± 15.3 y). Participants were categorized as high or low sugar consumers (>1 compared with ≤1 SD above daily consumption in grams) and as high or low substance users (≥2 compared with consumption, substance use, and their association were estimated. Genetic factors explained 48% of the variation in high sugar consumption, whereas unique environmental factors explained 52%. For high substance use, these values were 62% and 38%, respectively. There was a moderate phenotypic association between high sugar consumption and high substance use (r = 0.2), which was explained by genetic factors (59%) and unique environmental factors (41%). The positive association between high sugar consumption and high substance use was partly due to unique environmental factors (e.g., social situations). Genetic factors were also of influence, suggesting that neuronal circuits underlying the development of addiction and obesity are related. Further research is needed to identify genes that influence sugar consumption and those that overlap with substance use. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Survey of deoxynivalenol and its conjugates deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol in 374 beer samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Elisabeth; Malachova, Alexandra; Schwartz, Heidi; Krska, Rudolf; Berthiller, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Beer is one of the most popular beverages worldwide. Malted cereal grains are among the basic ingredients and hence mycotoxin contamination might occur. Previous studies reported the presence of the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON), as well as of the masked mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (D3G) in beer. In the present survey, 374 beer samples from 38 countries with a focus on Austrian (156) and German (64) beers were analysed for the presence of D3G, DON and 3ADON. Beers were assigned to the following six categories: pale (217), wheat (46), dark (47), bock (20), nonalcoholic beers (19) and shandies (25). In total, 348 and 289 beers (93 and 77%, respectively) contained D3G and DON at the levels above the limit of detection, whereas 3ADON was not detected in any of the samples. Average concentrations of all beers were 6.9 µg L(-1) for D3G and 8.4 µg L(-1) in the case of DON. Nonalcoholic beers and shandies showed the lowest contaminations, 1.5 and 3.2 µg L(-1) for D3G and 2.7 and 4.4 µg L(-1) for DON, respectively. In bock beers characterised by a higher gravity, a significant trichothecene load of 14.8 µg L(-1) D3G and 12.4 µg L(-1) DON was found. The highest contamination (81 µg L(-1) D3G, 89 µg L(-1) DON) was detected in a pale beer from Austria, underlining the importance of this study for food safety. The molar D3G to DON ratio ranged between 0.11 and 1.25 and was 0.56 on average. Concluding, the average contamination of beer is not of toxicological concern for moderate beer drinkers. However, in the case of heavy beer drinkers, beer consumption may considerably contribute to the overall intake of DON, which might even lead to exceeding the maximum tolerable limits established for this Fusarium toxin.

  5. Environmental awareness and the cooling of beer; Milieubewustzijn en bier koelen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govers, N. [Gamko Holding, Etten-Leur (Netherlands)

    2006-05-15

    The reduction of TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) for beer coolers focuses on minimising energy consumption. The energy consumption for cooling draught beer can be reduced by using a controller which will effectively result in low switching frequency whilst maintaining the ice bank. During rest periods the energy consumption decreases by 30%. Well considered ice bank dimensioning allows the application of smaller compressors which further decreases energy consumption. The natural refrigerant R290 proved to minimise energy consumption. [Dutch] Het verkleinen van TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) van bierkoelers concentreert zich rond het beperken van energieverbruik. Energieverbruik voor het koelen van tapbier in de Horeca kan worden beperkt door toepassing van een regelaar die tijdens het in stand houden van de ijsbank tot rustig schakelgedrag leidt. In rust is het energieverbruik 30% lager. Met een doordachte ijsbankdimensionering zijn kleinere compressors toepasbaar die energieverbruik verder kunnen beperken. Het natuurlijke koudemiddel R290 bleek nauwelijks invloed op TEWI te hebben.

  6. Nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, and economic growth: Evidence from highly industrialized countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chien-Chiang, E-mail: cclee@cm.nsysu.edu.tw; Chiu, Yi-Bin

    2011-03-15

    This study utilizes the Johansen cointegration technique, the Granger non-causality test of Toda and Yamamoto (1995), the generalized impulse response function, and the generalized forecast error variance decomposition to examine the dynamic interrelationship among nuclear energy consumption, real oil price, oil consumption, and real income in six highly industrialized countries for the period 1965-2008. Our empirical results indicate that the relationships between nuclear energy consumption and oil are as substitutes in the U.S. and Canada, while they are complementary in France, Japan, and the U.K. Second, the long-run income elasticity of nuclear energy is larger than one, indicating that nuclear energy is a luxury good. Third, the results of the Granger causality test find evidence of unidirectional causality running from real income to nuclear energy consumption in Japan. A bidirectional relationship appears in Canada, Germany and the U.K., while no causality exists in France and the U.S. We also find evidence of causality running from real oil price to nuclear energy consumption, except for the U.S., and causality running from oil consumption to nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Japan, and the U.K., suggesting that changes in price and consumption of oil influence nuclear energy consumption. Finally, the results observe transitory initial impacts of innovations in real income and oil consumption on nuclear energy consumption. In the long run the impact of real oil price is relatively larger compared with that of real income on nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Germany, Japan, and the U.S.

  7. Effect of selected types of beer on bacteria of the genus Arcobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šilha, David; Vytřasová, Jarmila; Beňová, Blanka; Moťková, Petra

    2013-04-01

    The genus Arcobacter is related to the well-known human pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni, and has been linked to human diseases. In this study, the survival of Arcobacter spp. in various concentrations of ethanol, in various samples of beers, and in a model stomach has been investigated. For most of these bacteria, a concentration of 10 % ethanol was determined to be the minimum inhibitory concentration. The fact that these organisms are able to survive under these conditions may have an impact in the food processing industry. We studied the activity of beer against arcobacters. These bacteria were killed in all samples of beer within 30 min. A model stomach, containing a food matrix and a synthetic gastric fluid, was used to deduce the effect of beer against Arcobacter spp. during food consumption. Complete inactivation of all monitored arcobacters was detected usually within 15 min. However, the presence of beer does not potentiate the effect of gastric fluid against these bacteria. This is apparently the first study focusing upon the effect of beer on Arcobacter spp.

  8. Beer improves copper metabolism and increases longevity in Cu-deficient rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.J.; Klevay, L.M. (Dept. of Agriculture, Grand Forks, ND (USA))

    1989-02-09

    Moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages decreases risk of death from ischemic heart disease (IHD). Evidence suggests that Cu-deficiency is important in the etiology and pathophysiology of IHD. The effect of beer (25 ng Cu/ml) drinking on the severity of Cu-deficiency was examined in weanling, male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a low Cu diet (0.84 {mu}g Cu/g). Beer drinking increased median longevity to 204 or 299 d from 62 or 42 d respectively in rats drinking water in two experiments (15 rats/group). In experiment 3, a single dose of {sup 67}Cu (3.3 {mu}Ci as chloride) was added to 1 g of feed and given to 12-h fasted rats 30 d after the start of the experiment. Whole body counting over 13 d showed apparent Cu absorption and t{sub {1/2}} (biological) were greater in Cu-deficient rats drinking beer than in similar rats drinking water. Plasma cholesterol was lower but hematocrit and liver Cu were higher in surviving rats drinking beer than in rats drinking water. Body weight was not affected by beer in any experiment. In experiment 4, a 4% aqueous ethanol solution had no effect on longevity of copper deficient rats. A non-alcohol component of beer alters Cu metabolism and mitigates the severity of nutritional Cu-deficiency in rats.

  9. New draft beer dispenser; Fominguresu valve tosai shingata teiryo chushutsu nama beer dispenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, T.; Ogawa, M.; Konosu, N. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-08-10

    Having analyzed the frothing mechanism of draft beer and optimized the pouring-out valve and the beer pouring system, Fuji Electric has developed a low-froth pouring beer dispenser. Its main advantage is stable pouring with low froth by using (1) a valve that has a shape not disturbing the beer flow and separates liquid and froth, (2) a driving system of the mug tray to prevent ending dribble from entering in the mug. (author)

  10. Beer, Cider, and Wine Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Rhea A; Tadros, Susan; Bansal, Amolak S

    2017-01-01

    Background. Allergy to beer is often due to specific proteins in barley and sometimes to lipid transfer protein. Allergy to wine is frequently due to a sensitivity to grape proteins. We present a rare case of allergy to beer, wine, and cider resulting from IgE reactivity to yeasts and moulds which also explained the patient's additional sensitivity to yeast extracts and blue cheese. Case Presentation. The patient's symptoms included throat and facial itching accompanied by mild wheeze and severe urticaria. Diagnosis of allergy to yeast was confirmed by specific IgE testing as well as that to relevant foods and beverages. The patient's ongoing management included advice to avoid beer, wine, and other food groups containing specific yeasts, in addition to carrying a short acting nonsedating antihistamine as well as an adrenaline autoinjector. Conclusions. Cases of yeast allergy are extremely rare in medical literature but may be underrecognised and should be considered in patients presenting with reactions to alcoholic beverages and other yeast-containing products.

  11. Beer, Cider, and Wine Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Background. Allergy to beer is often due to specific proteins in barley and sometimes to lipid transfer protein. Allergy to wine is frequently due to a sensitivity to grape proteins. We present a rare case of allergy to beer, wine, and cider resulting from IgE reactivity to yeasts and moulds which also explained the patient's additional sensitivity to yeast extracts and blue cheese. Case Presentation. The patient's symptoms included throat and facial itching accompanied by mild wheeze and severe urticaria. Diagnosis of allergy to yeast was confirmed by specific IgE testing as well as that to relevant foods and beverages. The patient's ongoing management included advice to avoid beer, wine, and other food groups containing specific yeasts, in addition to carrying a short acting nonsedating antihistamine as well as an adrenaline autoinjector. Conclusions. Cases of yeast allergy are extremely rare in medical literature but may be underrecognised and should be considered in patients presenting with reactions to alcoholic beverages and other yeast-containing products. PMID:28396809

  12. Beer, Cider, and Wine Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea A. Bansal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Allergy to beer is often due to specific proteins in barley and sometimes to lipid transfer protein. Allergy to wine is frequently due to a sensitivity to grape proteins. We present a rare case of allergy to beer, wine, and cider resulting from IgE reactivity to yeasts and moulds which also explained the patient’s additional sensitivity to yeast extracts and blue cheese. Case Presentation. The patient’s symptoms included throat and facial itching accompanied by mild wheeze and severe urticaria. Diagnosis of allergy to yeast was confirmed by specific IgE testing as well as that to relevant foods and beverages. The patient’s ongoing management included advice to avoid beer, wine, and other food groups containing specific yeasts, in addition to carrying a short acting nonsedating antihistamine as well as an adrenaline autoinjector. Conclusions. Cases of yeast allergy are extremely rare in medical literature but may be underrecognised and should be considered in patients presenting with reactions to alcoholic beverages and other yeast-containing products.

  13. Factors associated with irregular breakfast consumption among high school students in a Japanese community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Shino; Oogushi, Kazuhiro; Ogata, Hiromitsu; Nakai, Hiromitsu

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the associations between the characteristics of high school students and irregular breakfast consumption and explored the association with knowledge regarding diet and dietary education in a community in Japan. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted in 2007 among all the high school students in the second grade in Imari, Saga. Data for 318 male and 292 female students were analyzed. Irregular breakfast consumption was defined as consuming breakfast three times or less in a week. The associations between the characteristics of students and irregular breakfast consumption were assessed using logistic regression with adjustments for sex and school. Among male students, a strong association between the consumption of juice or pop and irregular breakfast consumption was observed (OR comparing ">=2 servings" vs "rarely"=8.97, 95% CI=2.99-26.9). The associations with wake times and bed times were strong among male students, and the association with regular bowel movements was strong among female students. Students who had knowledge of regional agricultural and livestock products were more likely to consume breakfast regularly, and this association was significant among female students (OR=2.89, 95% CI=1.23-6.82). Significant associations were also observed with the consumption of snacks, and traditional greeting before meals. Several characteristics, including specific knowledge, were associated with the irregular consumption of breakfast. The results are of interest to policy makers, nutrition specialists, and educators working to enhance regular breakfast consumption among students.

  14. A Rare Etiology of Hyponatremia: Beer Potomania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan SARGIN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrolyte abnormalities can be observed in chronic alcoholic patients. Hyponatremia is one of them. Beer potomania is an unusual cause of hyponatremia and was first described by Gwinup et all. in 1972. Patients usually have a history of binge beer drinking and poor solute intake. We present here a 48-year-old male patient who had hyponatremia secondary to binge beer drinking.

  15. Fundamentals of beer and hop chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Denis de Keukeleire

    2000-01-01

    Beer brewing is an intricate process encompassing mixing and further elaboration of four essential raw materials, including barley malt, brewing water, hops and yeast. Particularly hops determine to a great extent typical beer qualities such as bitter taste, hoppy flavour, and foam stability. Conversely, hop-derived bitter acids account for an offending lightstruck flavour, which is formed on exposure of beer to light. These various processes are presented in detail, while due emphasis is pla...

  16. Flavor evolution of top fermented beers

    OpenAIRE

    Neven, Hedwig; Delvaux, Freddy; Derdelinckx, Guy

    1997-01-01

    The distinctive flavours of many traditional top fermented beers include a significant estery component. It has been observed that when such beers are bottled and subsequently stored for a long period, they often suffer a significant loss of flavour active esters, especially isoamyl acetate. Two mechanisms of ester breakdown have been identified. One is chemical and can affect any beer, but the other involves the hydrolysis of the esters by yeast enzymes and only occurs in bottle conditioned ...

  17. Beer volatile compounds and their application to low-malt beer fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Shioya, Suteaki

    2008-10-01

    Low-malt beers, in which the amount of wort is adjusted to less than two-thirds of that in regular beer, are popular in the Japanese market because the flavor of low-malt beer is similar to that of regular beer but the price lesser than that of regular beer. There are few published articles about low-malt beer. However, in the production process, there are many similarities between low-malt and regular beer, e.g., the yeast used in low-malt beer fermentation is the same as that used for regular beer. Furthermore, many investigations into regular beer are applicable to low-malt beer production. In this review, we focus on production of volatile compounds, and various studies that are applicable to regular and low-malt beer. In particular, information about metabolism of volatile compounds in yeast cells during fermentation, volatile compound measurement and estimation methods, and control of volatile compound production are discussed in this review, which concentrates on studies published in the last 5-6 years.

  18. Fundamentals of beer and hop chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis De Keukeleire

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Beer brewing is an intricate process encompassing mixing and further elaboration of four essential raw materials, including barley malt, brewing water, hops and yeast. Particularly hops determine to a great extent typical beer qualities such as bitter taste, hoppy flavour, and foam stability. Conversely, hop-derived bitter acids account for an offending lightstruck flavour, which is formed on exposure of beer to light. These various processes are presented in detail, while due emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art hop technology, which provides brewers with efficient means to control bitterness, foam, and light-stability thereby allowing for the production of beers with consistent quality.

  19. New trends in beer flavour compound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Iglesias, Cristina; Montero, Olimpio; Sancho, Daniel; Blanco, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    As the beer market is steadily expanding, it is important for the brewing industry to offer consumers a product with the best organoleptic characteristics, flavour being one of the key characteristics of beer. New trends in instrumental methods of beer flavour analysis are described. In addition to successfully applied methods in beer analysis such as chromatography, spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry or electronic nose and tongue techniques, among others, sample extraction and preparation such as derivatization or microextraction methods are also reviewed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Work and High-Risk Alcohol Consumption in the Canadian Workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Ève Blanc

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the associations between occupational groups; work-organization conditions based on task design; demands, social relations, and gratifications; and weekly high-risk alcohol consumption among Canadian workers. A secondary data analysis was performed on Cycle 2.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey conducted by Statistics Canada in 2003. The sample consisted of 76,136 employees 15 years of age and older nested in 2,451 neighbourhoods. High-risk alcohol consumption is defined in accordance with Canadian guidelines for weekly low-risk alcohol consumption. The prevalence of weekly high-risk alcohol consumption is estimated to be 8.1% among workers. The results obtained using multilevel logistic regression analysis suggest that increased work hours and job insecurity are associated with elevated odds of high-risk alcohol consumption. Gender female, older age, being in couple and living with children associated with lower odds of high-risk drinking, while increased education, smoking, physical activities, and, and economic status were associated with higher odds. High-risk drinking varied between neighbourhoods, and gender moderates the contribution of physical demands. The results suggest that work made a limited contribution and non-work factors a greater contribution to weekly high-risk alcohol consumption. Limits and implications of these results are discussed.

  1. Determination of free fatty acids in beer wort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Benedetti, Paolo; Marconi, Ombretta; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2014-05-15

    The importance of free fatty acids (FFAs) in wort has been known for a long time because of their influence on beer quality and yeast metabolism. Lipids have a beneficial effect on yeast growth during fermentation as well as negative effects on beer quality. Lipids content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the ratio of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids seems to be related to gushing problems. A novel, simple, and reliable procedure for quantitative analysis of FFAs in wort was developed and validated. The determination of FFAs in wort was achieved via liquid-liquid cartridge extraction, purification of FFA fraction by solid phase extraction, boron trifluoride in methanol methylation, and injection into GC-FID system. The proposed method has high accuracy (<0.3%, expressed as the bias), high precision (<1.2%, RSD), and recoveries ranging from 74% to 98%. The method was tested on two different wort samples (9° and 12° Plato).

  2. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae- the main character in beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodolo, Elizabeth J; Kock, Johan L F; Axcell, Barry C; Brooks, Martin

    2008-11-01

    Historically, mankind and yeast developed a relationship that led to the discovery of fermented beverages. Numerous inventions have led to improved technologies and capabilities to optimize fermentation technology on an industrial scale. The role of brewing yeast in the beer-making process is reviewed and its importance as the main character is highlighted. On considering the various outcomes of functions in a brewery, it has been found that these functions are focused on supporting the supply of yeast requirements for fermentation and ultimately to maintain the integrity of the product. The functions/processes include: nutrient supply to the yeast (raw material supply for brewhouse wort production); utilities (supply of water, heat and cooling); quality assurance practices (hygiene practices, microbiological integrity measures and other specifications); plant automation (vessels, pipes, pumps, valves, sensors, stirrers and centrifuges); filtration and packaging (product preservation until consumption); distribution (consumer supply); and marketing (consumer awareness). Considering this value chain of beer production and the 'bottle neck' during production, the spotlight falls on fermentation, the age-old process where yeast transforms wort into beer.

  3. Amber ale beer enriched with goji berries - The effect on bioactive compound content and sensorial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducruet, Julien; Rébénaque, Pierrick; Diserens, Serge; Kosińska-Cagnazzo, Agnieszka; Héritier, Isabelle; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2017-07-01

    Goji berries, traditionally used in Chinese medicine, are nowadays gaining popularity in the Western world. Efforts are made to enlarge the offer of goji containing foods. In this study, goji berries were added to ale type beer at different stages of the production process in order to develop a beverage with desirable sensory characteristic and high antioxidant capacity. The obtained beers differed significantly in terms of appearance, taste and antioxidant activity. Consumers preferred beers to which goji berries were added at the beginning of the brewing process. These beers were also characterized by lower turbidity, high color intensity, caramel- and coffee-like taste, high antioxidant activity and high content of bioactives such as rutin and 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid. To conclude, an addition of goji berries to traditional brewing process creates a perspective to enlarge the range of goji containing foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol and its major conjugate, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, in beer and some brewing intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostelanska, Marta; Hajslova, Jana; Zachariasova, Milena; Malachova, Alexandra; Kalachova, Kamila; Poustka, Jan; Fiala, Jaromir; Scott, Peter M; Berthiller, Franz; Krska, Rudolf

    2009-04-22

    Since deoxynivalenol (DON), the main representative of Fusarium toxic secondary metabolites, is a relatively common natural contaminant in barley, its traces can be detected in many commercial beers. Our previous study reporting for the first time the occurrence of relatively high levels of DON-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc) in malt and beer prepared from relatively "clean" barley (semiscale experimental conditions) induced a follow-up investigation focused on this DON conjugate in commercial beers. The current survey involving in total 176 beers, representing different brands, and collected at various markets, has documented a ubiquitous occurrence of DON-3-Glc in this product. Its levels even exceeded that of free DON in some samples; the highest level found was 37 microg/L. In addition to glucosylated DON, its acetylated forms (ADONs) were also common contaminants in most of the beers. Generally, stronger beers (higher alcohol content) tended to contain higher levels of DON and its conjugates. No distinct relationship between the contamination of malt and beer was observed in samples collected from several breweries. Attention was also paid to comparison of data on malts obtained by LC-MS/MS and ELISA DON-dedicated kits. The latter provided apparently higher levels of DON, the most distinct difference being observed for malts processed at higher temperatures (caramel and roasted malts). The nature of this phenomenon has not yet been explained; in addition to cross-reacting species, other factors, such as the higher content of dark pigment, can also be the cause.

  5. Enhanced production of bioethanol from waste of beer fermentation broth at high temperature through consecutive batch strategy by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Waleed Ahmad; Khan, Taous; Ha, Jung Hwan; Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Kang, Min-Kyung; Park, Joong Kon

    2013-10-10

    Malt hydrolyzing enzymes and yeast glycolytic and fermentation enzymes in the waste from beer fermentation broth (WBFB) were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). A new 'one-pot consecutive batch strategy' was developed for efficient bio-ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using WBFB without additional enzymes, microbial cells, or carbohydrates. Bio-ethanol production was conducted in batches using WBFB supernatant in the first phase at 25-67°C and 50rpm, followed by the addition of 3% WBFB solid residue to the existing culture broth in the second phase at 67°C. The ethanol production increased from 50 to 102.5g/L when bare supernatant was used in the first phase, and then to 219g ethanol/L in the second phase. The amount of ethanol obtained using this strategy was almost equal to that obtained using the original WBFB containing 25% solid residue at 33°C, and more than double that obtained when bare supernatant was used. Microscopic and gel electrophoresis studies revealed yeast cell wall degradation and secretion of cellular material into the surrounding medium. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) supported the existence of enzymes in WBFB involved in bioethanol production at elevated temperatures. The results of this study will provide insight for the development of new strategies for biofuel production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Symbolic Meanings of High and Low Impact Daily Consumption Practices in Different Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ger, Güliz; Wilhite, Harold; Halkier, Bente

    1998-01-01

    Daily consumption practices are not only practical doings. They also express symbolic meanings; social signals by which we shape our identity, confirm or challenge cultural conventions and construct images of the good life. The symbolic meanings are collectively shared and negotiated....... They influence our choices and practices whether it is by motivating or impeding them. In this study we will look at the symbolic meanings of high and low environmental impact consumption practices. In order to create desirable social markers for environmentally-friendly practices and/or to change high impact...... practices, we need to understand emergent practices and their existing cultural meanings. Thus we have chosen three fields of daily consumption practices - food consumption, transport and hygiene - and sorted out the relatively environmentally friendly (low impact) and the relatively environmentally...

  7. Drink beer to save the planet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Barfield

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This student poster display example considers the ethics of the marketing of the “Cascade Green” beer inAustralia. Issues considered include the ethics of marketing beer, the environmental impacts of the beersmarketing and packaging and a reflection upon the societal impacts of the product.

  8. The use of enzymes for beer brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van Laura H.G.; Mostert, Joost; Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    The exergetic performance of beer produced by the conventional malting and brewing process is compared with that of beer produced using an enzyme-assisted process. The aim is to estimate if the use of an exogenous enzyme formulation reduces the environmental impact of the overall brewing process.

  9. The use of enzymes for beer brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van Laura H.G.; Mostert, Joost; Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    The exergetic performance of beer produced by the conventional malting and brewing process is compared with that of beer produced using an enzyme-assisted process. The aim is to estimate if the use of an exogenous enzyme formulation reduces the environmental impact of the overall brewing process. Th

  10. Nonlinear dynamic phenomena in the beer model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik; Laugesen, Jakob Lund

    2007-01-01

    The production-distribution system or "beer game" is one of the most well-known system dynamics models. Notorious for the complex dynamics it produces, the beer game has been used for nearly five decades to illustrate how structure generates behavior and to explore human decision making. Here we...

  11. Smokeless Tobacco Consumption by Mexican-American High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Linda C.; Hamlin, Penelope A.

    A survey of 208 female and 191 male students attending a public high school in southwestern New Mexico assessed the extent of student use of smokeless tobacco products. The sample included 179 Mexican-American and 26 Anglo-American females, as well as 152 Mexican-American and 26 Anglo-American males. The average age of both female and male…

  12. Influence of beer marinades on the reduction of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in charcoal-grilled pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Olga; Moreira, Patrícia S; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2015-01-01

    The effect of beer marinades on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) was examined in charcoal-grilled pork. Pilsner, non-alcoholic pilsner and black beers (coded respectively as PB, P0B and BB) were assayed and unmarinated samples cooked under similar conditions provided reference HAs levels. Two thermic (PhIP and 4,8-DiMeIQx) and three pyrolytic HAs (Trp-P-1, AαC, MeAαC) were quantified in unmarinated meat samples. Marinating meat in beer resulted in a significant decrease of PhIP, Trp-P-1 and AαC (p beers reduced total HA formation in charcoal-grilled pork, black beer being the most efficient with a level of 90% inhibition. A strong positive correlation was observed between the inhibitory effect of beer on total HA formation and their antioxidant activity. Beer marinades mitigate the impact of consumption of well-done grilled pork meat reducing the formation of cooking carcinogens.

  13. Immobilized cell technology in beer brewing: Current experience and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leskošek-Čukalov Ida J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized cell technology (ICT has been attracting continual attention in the brewing industry over the past 30 years. Some of the reasons are: faster fermentation rates and increased volumetric productivity, compared to those of traditional beer production based on freely suspended cells, as well as the possibility of continuous operation. Nowadays, ICT technology is well established in secondary fermentation and alcohol- free and low-alcohol beer production. In main fermentation, the situation is more complex and this process is still under scrutiny on both the lab and pilot levels. The paper outlines the most important ICT processes developed for beer brewing and provides an overview of carrier materials, bioreactor design and examples of their industrial applications, as well as some recent results obtained by our research group. We investigated the possible applications of polyvinyl alcohol in the form of LentiKats®, as a potential porous matrices carrier for beer fermentation. Given are the results of growth studies of immobilized brewer's yeast Saccharomyces uvarum and the kinetic parameters obtained by using alginate microbeads with immobilized yeast cells and suspension of yeast cells as controls. The results indicate that the immobilization procedure in LentiKat® carriers has a negligible effect on cell viability and growth. The apparent specific growth rate of cells released in medium was comparable to that of freely suspended cells, implying preserved cell vitality. A series of batch fermentations performed in shaken flasks and an air-lift bioreactor indicated that the immobilized cells retained high fermentation activity. The full attenuation in green beer was reached after 48 hours in shaken flasks and less than 24 hours of fermentation in gas-lift bioreactors.

  14. Continuous ethanol fermentation by beer yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kida, Kenji; Morimura, Shigeru; Shima, Noriyuki; Asano, Shinichi; Yamadaki, Motozumi; Miyazawa, Toshiki

    1987-01-25

    Cooked and uncooked continuous fermentation tests and a bench-scale continuous fermentation test were carried out using a flocculating yeast, beer yeast IFO-2018, and using molasses of various origin. Heat of fermentation was measured at the same time. High productivity was found in a non-cooking continuous fermentation, but lowering of a flocculating ability was a problem. A theoretical equation for calculating the heat of fermentation was introduced and its adaptability was examined. The continuous fermentation unit was a single tank type using a tower type fermentor. The fermentor had a capacity of 0.7 l actual volume, made of glass, and consisted of the two parts, a flowing part and a precipitation/separation part. The yeast used was Saccharomyces crevisiae IFO-2018 in comparison with such yeast as S. cerevisiae IFO-0224 and S. cervisiae EP-1. (7 figs,3 tabs,21 refs)

  15. Determinants of Fast Food Consumption among Iranian High School Students Based on Planned Behavior Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Sharifirad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was conducted to identify some factors (beliefs and norms which are related to fast food consumption among high school students in Isfahan, Iran. We used the framework of the theory planned behavior (TPB to predict this behavior. Subjects & Methods. Cross-sectional data were available from high school students who were recruited by cluster randomized sampling. All of the students completed a questionnaire assessing variables of standard TPB model including attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control (PBC, and the additional variables past behavior, actual behavior control (ABC. Results. The TPB variables explained 25.7% of the variance in intentions with positive attitude as the strongest (, and subjective norms as the weakest (, determinant. Concurrently, intentions accounted for 6% of the variance for fast food consumption. Past behavior and ABC accounted for an additional amount of 20.4% of the variance in fast food consumption. Conclusion. Overall, the present study suggests that the TPB model is useful in predicting related beliefs and norms to the fast food consumption among adolescents. Subjective norms in TPB model and past behavior in TPB model with additional variables (past behavior and actual behavior control were the most powerful predictors of fast food consumption. Therefore, TPB model may be a useful framework for planning intervention programs to reduce fast food consumption by students.

  16. Determinants of Fast Food Consumption among Iranian High School Students Based on Planned Behavior Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Yarmohammadi, Parastoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study was conducted to identify some factors (beliefs and norms) which are related to fast food consumption among high school students in Isfahan, Iran. We used the framework of the theory planned behavior (TPB) to predict this behavior. Subjects & Methods. Cross-sectional data were available from high school students (n = 521) who were recruited by cluster randomized sampling. All of the students completed a questionnaire assessing variables of standard TPB model including attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control (PBC), and the additional variables past behavior, actual behavior control (ABC). Results. The TPB variables explained 25.7% of the variance in intentions with positive attitude as the strongest (β = 0.31, P < 0.001) and subjective norms as the weakest (β = 0.29, P < 0.001) determinant. Concurrently, intentions accounted for 6% of the variance for fast food consumption. Past behavior and ABC accounted for an additional amount of 20.4% of the variance in fast food consumption. Conclusion. Overall, the present study suggests that the TPB model is useful in predicting related beliefs and norms to the fast food consumption among adolescents. Subjective norms in TPB model and past behavior in TPB model with additional variables (past behavior and actual behavior control) were the most powerful predictors of fast food consumption. Therefore, TPB model may be a useful framework for planning intervention programs to reduce fast food consumption by students. PMID:23936635

  17. Atrial fibrillation in healthy adolescents after highly caffeinated beverage consumption: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyden Marybeth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Energy drinks and highly caffeinated drinks comprise some of the fastest growing products of the beverage industry, often targeting teenagers and young adults. Cardiac arrhythmias in children related to high caffeine consumption have not been well described in the literature. This case series describes the possible association between the consumption of highly caffeinated drinks and the subsequent development of atrial fibrillation in the adolescent population. Case presentations We report the cases of two Caucasian adolescent boys of 14 and 16 years of age at the time of presentation, each without a significant cardiac history, who presented with palpitations or vague chest discomfort or both after a recent history of excessive caffeine consumption. Both were found to have atrial fibrillation on electrocardiogram; one patient required digoxin to restore a normal sinus rhythm, and the other self-converted after intravenous fluid administration. Conclusion With the increasing popularity of energy drinks in the pediatric and adolescent population, physicians should be aware of the arrhythmogenic potential associated with highly caffeinated beverage consumption. It is important for pediatricians to understand the lack of regulation in the caffeine content and other ingredients of these high-energy beverages and their complications so that parents and children can be educated about the risk of cardiac arrhythmias with excessive energy drink consumption.

  18. High consumption of coffee is associated with decreased multiple sclerosis risk; results from two independent studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedström, A K; Mowry, E M; Gianfrancesco, M A; Shao, X; Schaefer, C A; Shen, L; Olsson, T; Barcellos, L F; Alfredsson, L

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies on consumption of caffeine and risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) have yielded inconclusive results. We aimed to investigate whether consumption of coffee is associated with risk of MS. Using two population-representative case-control studies (a Swedish study comprising 1620 cases and 2788 controls, and a US study comprising 1159 cases and 1172 controls), participants with different habits of coffee consumption based on retrospective data collection were compared regarding risk of MS, by calculating ORs with 95% CIs. Logistic regression models were adjusted for a broad range of potential confounding factors. Compared with those who reported no coffee consumption, the risk of MS was substantially reduced among those who reported a high consumption of coffee exceeding 900 mL daily (OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.99) in the Swedish study, and OR 0.69 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.96) in the US study). Lower odds of MS with increasing consumption of coffee were observed, regardless of whether coffee consumption at disease onset or 5 or 10 years prior to disease onset was considered. In accordance with studies in animal models of MS, high consumption of coffee may decrease the risk of developing MS. Caffeine, one component of coffee, has neuroprotective properties, and has been shown to suppress the production of proinflammatory cytokines, which may be mechanisms underlying the observed association. However, further investigations are needed to determine whether exposure to caffeine underlies the observed association and, if so, to evaluate its mechanisms of action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. The Occurrence of Beer Spoilage Lactic Acid Bacteria in Craft Beer Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Cristiana; Osimani, Andrea; Milanović, Vesna; Taccari, Manuela; Aquilanti, Lucia; Clementi, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Beer is one of the world's most ancient and widely consumed fermented alcoholic beverages produced with water, malted cereal grains (generally barley and wheat), hops, and yeast. Beer is considered an unfavorable substrate of growth for many microorganisms, however, there are a limited number of bacteria and yeasts, which are capable of growth and may spoil beer especially if it is not pasteurized or sterile-filtered as craft beer. The aim of this research study was to track beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inside a brewery and during the craft beer production process. To that end, indoor air and work surface samples, collected in the brewery under study, together with commercial active dry yeasts, exhausted yeasts, yeast pellet (obtained after mature beer centrifugation), and spoiled beers were analyzed through culture-dependent methods and PCR-DGGE in order to identify the contaminant LAB species and the source of contamination. Lactobacillus brevis was detected in a spoiled beer and in a commercial active dry yeast. Other LAB species and bacteria ascribed to Staphylococcus sp., Enterobaceriaceae, and Acetobacter sp. were found in the brewery. In conclusion, the PCR-DGGE technique coupled with the culture-dependent method was found to be a useful tool for identifying the beer spoilage bacteria and the source of contamination. The analyses carried out on raw materials, by-products, final products, and the brewery were useful for implementing a sanitization plan to be adopted in the production plant.

  20. Combined high-fat diet and sustained high sucrose consumption promotes NAFLD in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Villalobos, Gonzalo; Hamdan-Pérez, Nashla; Tovar, Armando R; Ordaz-Nava, Guillermo; Martínez-Benítez, Braulio; Torre-Villalvazo, Iván; Morán-Ramos, Sofía; Díaz-Villaseñor, Andrea; Noriega, Lilia G; Hiriart, Marcia; Medina-Santillán, Roberto; Castillo-Hernandez, María del Carmen; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum; Uribe, Misael; Torres, Nimbe

    2015-01-01

    The study of NAFLD in humans has several limitations. Using murine models helps to understand disease pathogenesis. Evaluate the impact of 4 different diets in the production of NAFLD with emphasis on a combined high-fat plus sustained high sucrose consumption. Eight week-old male Wistar rats were divided in four groups and fed for 90 days with the following diets: 1) Control chow diet (C); 2) High-fat cholesterol diet (HFC) + 5% sucrose in drinking water. 3) High-fat cornstarch diet (HFCO) + 5% sucrose in drinking water. 4) Chow diet + 20% sucrose in drinking water (HSD). Metabolic changes, leptin levels, liver histology, hepatic and plasma lipid composition, fasting plasma glucose and insulin and liver gene expression of FAS, SREBP-1 and PPAR-α were evaluated. The HFC diet had the highest grade of steatosis (grade 2 of 3) and HSD showed also steatosis (grade 1). Liver weight TG and colesterol concentrations in liver were greater in the HFC diet. There were no increased levels of iron in the liver. Rats in HFC gained significantly more weight (P < 0.001). All experimental groups showed fasting hyperglycemia. HFC had the highest glucose level (158.5 ± 7 mg/dL) (P < 0.005). The HSD and the HFCO diets developed also hyperglycemia. HSD had significantly higher fasting hyperinsulinemia. Serum leptin was higher in the HFC diet (p = 0.001). In conclusion, the HFC diet with combination of high fat and high sucrose is more effective in producing NAFLD compared with a high sucrose diet only.

  1. [Obesity and high health risk due to beberages consumption and obesity among high school students in méxico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravalí-Meza, NurisYohana; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Gómez-Miranda, Luis Mario

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the consumption of beverages among high school Mexican students and to determine obesity (OB) and abdominal obesity (AB). Differences in range and calorie beverage consumption between gender and BMI categories were calculated with the Mann-Whitney test. We assessed 1,677 students 15 to 17 yo. The prevalence of OB and AO was 15% and 53% in men and 12% and 47% in women. The consumption of energy, sugary drinks, and alcohol in milliliters and kilocalories per week, was higher in men (p = 0.001). More than 70% of students consumed per day more than 25 g/day of sugar from beverages, and more than 38% consumed more than 50 g/day of sugar. This high risk food consumption warrants immediate intervention.

  2. Holistic and consumer-centric assessment of beer: A multi-measurement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Sara R; Cardello, Armand V; Chheang, Sok L; Beresford, Michelle K; Hedderley, Duncan I; Pineau, Benedicte

    2017-09-01

    Despite occupying a cornerstone position in consumer research and innovation, product liking/disliking provides only partial insight into consumer behaviour. By adopting a consumer-centric perspective and drawing on additional factors that underpin food-related consumer behaviour, a more complete product understanding is gained. The present research showcases this approach in a study with New Zealand beer (incl. pilsner, lager and ale categories). Implementation of a multi-variate approach with 128 regular beer drinkers provided assessments pertaining to liking and sensory novelty/complexity, situational appropriateness of consumption, as well as attitudes/perceptions and emotional associations. The 9 samples grouped into two clusters, where 4 of the beers were similar in being perceived as having less complex flavours, being appropriate for many uses and evoking stronger emotional associations of "relaxed/calm." The 4 beers were perceived as "easy to drink", and were, on average, most liked. One of the samples in this cluster was lighter in alcohol (2.5% ABV), but not inferior to beers with 4-5% ABV. The 5 beers in the second cluster were, on average, less liked and were associated with more negative emotions, e.g. "unhappy, "jittery", and "tense". Additional insights were gained from segmentation which identified two groups of consumers, named 'Lager Lovers' and 'Ale Aficionados'. Beers 1-4 were positively perceived by 'Lager Lovers' but less so by 'Ale Aficionados', and vice versa. The study was conducted under central location test conditions compatible with testing protocols often used in product research. The study protocol can be amended to include few/many consumer-centric measures and extended to product testing where packaging, brand, and other extrinsic information is available to consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 27 CFR 28.225 - Removals of beer by brewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by brewer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.225 Removals of beer by brewer. Where a brewer removes taxpaid beer from...

  4. 27 CFR 25.186 - Record of beer transferred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of beer transferred..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.186 Record of beer transferred. (a) Preparation of invoice. When beer is transferred...

  5. 27 CFR 25.296 - Record of beer concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of beer concentrate..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.296 Record of beer concentrate. (a) Daily records. A brewer who produces concentrate or reconstitutes beer shall maintain daily records...

  6. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  7. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S....

  8. 27 CFR 26.263 - Determination of tax on beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 26.263 Section 26.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.263 Determination of tax on beer. If the certificate prescribed in § 26.205 covers beer, the beer tax will be collected on the basis of the number of barrels...

  9. 27 CFR 25.1 - Production and removal of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.1 Section 25.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.1 Production and removal of beer. The regulations in this part relate to beer and cereal beverages and cover the location, construction,...

  10. Proteins influencing foam formation in wine and beer: the role of yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco, Lucía; Viñas, Miquel; Villa, Tomás G

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the role of proteins in the production and maintenance of foam in both sparkling wines and beer. The quality of the foam in beer but especially in sparkling wines depends, among other factors, on the presence of mannoproteins released from the yeast cell walls during autolysis. These proteins are hydrophobic, highly glycosylated, and their molecular masses range from 10 to 200 kDa characteristics that allow mannoproteins to surround and thus stabilize the gas bubbles o...

  11. The State Council:Strictly Enforce Access System in High Energy Consumption Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    The General Office of the State Council recently printed and distributed the"Action Plan for Implementing and Enforcing Quality Development Outline 2016"(The"Action Plan").The"Action Plan"clarified work highlights in 2016,including strengthening quality rectification to phase out outdated capacity and diffusing surplus capacity,in high energy consumption and high pollution

  12. Relevant shellfish consumption data for dietary exposure assessment among high shellfish consumers, Western Brittany, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Cyndie; Nguyen, Thuan Anh; Carpentier, François-Gilles; Roudot, Alain-Claude; Parent-Massin, Dominique

    2011-04-01

    Shellfish consumption can be a major pathway of exposure to pollutants for humans. It is fundamental to know if people eat enough shellfish to cause health problems, firstly in high consumers as recreational shellfish harvesters. The objectives of this study were to investigate the types of shellfish eaten, number of meals, portion size, sources of shellfish and shellfish consumption rates among French recreational shellfish harvesters; to determine factors affecting consumption patterns and to examine the reliability of the two methods used: a Food Frequency Questionnaire and a one-month food diary. The mean consumption rates were 11.63 and 26.21 g/person/day for shellfish derived from a self-harvested source only and from all sources, respectively. Harvester consumption rates were between 6- and 15-fold higher than the general French population. The comparison between the FFQ and the food diary showed that results were reliable. Thereby, our results are relevant to assess risk due to shellfish consumption.

  13. Relationship between raised BMI and sugar sweetened beverage and high fat food consumption among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Lynne; Rowland, Bosco; Nichols, Melanie; Swinburn, Boyd; Bennett, Catherine; Skouteris, Helen; Allender, Steven

    2014-05-01

    Longitudinal evidence of relationships between unhealthy diets and BMI in children is crucial for appropriately targeting obesity prevention activities. The objective was to determine the relationship between frequency of consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) and high fat foods (HFFs) and body weight in Australian children aged from 4 to 10 years. Data from 4,164 children participating in four waves (wave 1, 2004; wave 2, 2006; wave 3, 2008; and wave 4, 2010) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were analyzed. A multi-level growth model tested relationships between consumption of SSB and HFF and BMI z-scores. BMI z-scores were associated with daily consumption of HFF, SSB and maternal BMI independent of BMI z-scores at wave 1 (baseline); with each additional occurrence of SSB and HFF consumption intake per day, BMI z-score increased by 0.015 U (P consumption of SSBs and HFFs. Future efforts to prevent obesity should consider urgent action to address the impact of the consumption of SSBs and HFFs in childhood. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  14. Innovations in the brewing industry: light beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Carlos A; Caballero, Isabel; Barrios, Rosa; Rojas, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The demand for light beers has led brewers to innovate by developing light beer. However, these products are not widely accepted in Europe compared to North America and Australasia because of their lack of fullness in the taste and low bitterness compared with conventional beer. The lower levels of some important compounds, present in light beer, can explain these features since they are responsible for the characteristics of the beer. These include alcohol soluble proteins, oligosaccharides, glycerol, polyphenols, iso-α-acids, fusel alcohols and trihydroxy fatty acids. Light beer is produced by several methods, the most commonly used is the addition of glucoamylase to the wort before or during fermentation. This enzyme metabolizes residual carbohydrates (mainly dextrins) transforming them into fermentable sugars and reducing the caloric and alcohol content in this type of beer. Recently pilot studies have been carried out with genetically engineered yeast strains in which amylolytic genes are introduced into the yeast genome in order to metabolize carbohydrate residues. When introducing amylolytic genes, a better fermentability occurs although the fullness of flavor still becomes reduced.

  15. The building blocks of drinking experience across men and women: A case study with craft and industrial beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Corona, Carlos; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; Chollet, Sylvie; Valentin, Dominique

    2017-09-01

    In today's market, every product seems to be marked by the label of "experience". It is expected that successful products give the consumer "extraordinary experiences". The research in consumption experience is growing, but much work still needs to be done to understand the food and beverage experience. A qualitative study was conducted using contextual focus groups to explore the building blocks of consumers' drinking experience of industrial and craft beers. The results show that drinking experience is shaped by our cognitive, sensory or affective systems, especially during the core consumption experience. Elements such as attitudes, consumption habits, and individual versus social consumption, shopping experience and product benefits are also responsible for shaping the experience, but are more relevant during the pre-consumption or post-consumption experience. Gender differences occur more frequently in the affective experience, as women search more for relaxation while men for excitement and stimulation while drinking beer. When comparing industrial users versus craft, in the latter the cognitive and shopping experiences are more relevant. Overall, the results showed that the drinking experience of beers can be studied as a function of the salient human system used during product interaction, and this systems act as the building blocks of the drinking experience of beer. This information can be applied in consumer research studies to further study the experiential differences across products and consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Decrease of aged beer aroma by the reducing activity of brewing yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saison, Daan; De Schutter, David P; Vanbeneden, Nele; Daenen, Luk; Delvaux, Filip; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2010-03-10

    The flavor profile of beer is subject to changes during storage. Since, possibly, yeast has an influence on flavor stability, the aim of this study was to examine if there is a direct impact of brewing yeast on aged aroma. This was achieved by refermentation of aged beers. It was shown that several aged aroma notes, such as cardboard, ribes, Maillard and Madeira, were removed almost entirely by brewing yeast, independently of the yeast or the beer type. This was explained by the reduction of aldehydes, mainly (E)-2-nonenal, Strecker aldehydes, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and diacetyl, to their corresponding alcohols. Furthermore, it became evident that the reducing capacity of brewing yeast is high, but that yeast strain and compound specific residual concentrations remained in the refermented beer independently of the initial concentration. Finally, it appeared that aldehydes were not only reduced but also formed during refermentation.

  17. Determination of free medium-chain fatty acids in beer by stir bar sorptive extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horák, Tomás; Culík, Jirí; Jurková, Marie; Cejka, Pavel; Kellner, Vladimír

    2008-07-04

    Free medium-chain fatty acids in beer originate from raw materials, mainly from the fermentation activity of yeasts, and can influence beer taste, vitality of yeasts and also the foam stability of beer. This study presents the development of the method for the determination of free fatty medium-chain acids including caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid and lauric acid in beer or wort using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). The combination of this extraction technique with solvent back extraction of the extracted analytes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis with flame ionization detection was used for the determination of these compounds. The influences of different solvent back solutions, sampling time, solvent back extraction times and different contents of ethanol were studied. The method had high repeatability (RSD <6.7%), good linearity (the correlation coefficients were higher than 0.9963 for quadratic curves over the concentration range 0.5-8.0mg/l) and recoveries 57-89%.

  18. Impact of specific Beers Criteria medications on associations between drug exposure and unplanned hospitalisation in elderly patients taking high-risk drugs: a case-time-control study in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sylvie D; Holman, C D'Arcy J; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Emery, Jon D

    2014-04-01

    Certain broad medication classes have previously been associated with high rates of hospitalisation due to related adverse events in elderly Western Australians, based on clinical coding recorded on inpatient summaries. Similarly, some medications from the Beers Criteria, considered potentially inappropriate in older people, have been linked with an increased risk of unplanned hospitalisation in this population. Our objective was to determine whether risk estimates of drug-related hospitalisations are altered in elderly patients taking 'high-risk drugs' (HRDs) when specific Beers potentially inappropriate medications (PIMS) are taken into consideration. Using the pharmaceutical claims of 251,305 Western Australians aged ≥65 years (1993-2005) linked with other health data, we applied a case-time-control design to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for unplanned hospitalisations associated with anticoagulants, antirheumatics, opioids, corticosteroids and four major cardiovascular drug groups, from which attributable fractions (AFs), number and proportion of drug-related admissions were derived. The analysis was repeated, taking into account exposure to eight specific PIMs, and results were compared. A total of 1,899,699 index hospitalisations were involved. Of index subjects, 12-57 % were exposed to each HRD at the time of admission, although the proportions taking both an HRD and one of the selected PIMs were much lower (generally ≤2 %, but as high as 8 % for combinations involving temazepam and for most PIMs combined with hypertension drugs). Included PIMs (indomethacin, naproxen, temazepam, oxazepam, diazepam, digoxin, amiodarone and ferrous sulphate) all tended to increase ORs, AFs and drug-related hospitalisation estimates in HRD combinations, although this was less evident for opioids and corticosteroids. Indomethacin had the greatest overall impact on HRD ORs/AFs. Indomethacin (OR 1.40; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.27-1.54) and naproxen (OR 1.22; 1

  19. Selenium in commercial beer and losses in the brewing process from wheat to beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, S; Young, S D; Cook, D; Wilkinson, S; Clegg, S; Bailey, E H; Mathers, A W; Broadley, M R

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing interest in enhancing the micronutrient composition of cereals through fertilization. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the Se concentration of commercial beers retailing in the UK, and (2) to test if the transfer of Se, from biofortified grain to final beer product, is beers was measured, using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The selenium content of commercial beers varied 6.5-fold, with beers originating from America having higher Se concentrations than those from Europe. Laboratory-scale brewing trials with isotopically-enriched (77)Se wheat, sampled from UK field-sites, showed that most (77)Se losses in the brewing process occurred during mashing (54%), with fermented beer containing ∼ 10% of the (77)Se initially present in the wheat grain. Total N values in wort and malt were positively correlated with the (77)Se content of the wheat grain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between

  1. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theatres affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between

  2. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theatres affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption)

  3. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kanta; Konings, Wil N

    2003-12-31

    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and Megasphaera cerevisiae. They can spoil beer by turbidity, acidity and the production of unfavorable smell such as diacetyl or hydrogen sulfide. For the microbiological control, many advanced biotechnological techniques such as immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been applied in place of the conventional and time-consuming method of incubation on culture media. Subsequently, a method is needed to determine whether the detected bacterium is capable of growing in beer or not. In lactic acid bacteria, hop resistance is crucial for their ability to grow in beer. Hop compounds, mainly iso-alpha-acids in beer, have antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. They act as ionophores which dissipate the pH gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane and reduce the proton motive force (pmf). Consequently, the pmf-dependent nutrient uptake is hampered, resulting in cell death. The hop-resistance mechanisms in lactic acid bacteria have been investigated. HorA was found to excrete hop compounds in an ATP-dependent manner from the cell membrane to outer medium. Additionally, increased proton pumping by the membrane bound H(+)-ATPase contributes to hop resistance. To energize such ATP-dependent transporters hop-resistant cells contain larger ATP pools than hop-sensitive cells. Furthermore, a pmf-dependent hop transporter was recently presented. Understanding the hop-resistance mechanisms has enabled the development of rapid methods to discriminate beer spoilage strains from nonspoilers. The horA-PCR method has been applied for bacterial control in breweries. Also, a discrimination method was developed based on ATP pool measurement in lactobacillus cells. However

  4. Comparative energy consumption analyses of an ultra high frequency induction heating system for material processing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tastan, M.; Gokozan, H.; Taskin, S.; Cavdar, U.

    2015-07-01

    This study compares an energy consumption results of the TI-6Al-4V based material processing under the 900 kHz induction heating for different cases. By this means, total power consumption and energy consumptions per sample and amount have been analyzed. Experiments have been conducted with 900 kHz, 2.8 kW ultra-high frequency induction system. Two cases are considered in the study. In the first case, TI-6Al-4V samples have been heated up to 900 degree centigrade with classical heating method, which is used in industrial applications, and then they have been cooled down by water. Afterwards, the samples have been heated up to 600 degree centigrade, 650 degree centigrade and 700 degree centigrade respectively and stress relieving process has been applied through natural cooling. During these processes, energy consumptions for each defined process have been measured. In the second case, unlike the first study, can be used five different samples have been heated up to the various temperatures between 600 degree centigrade and 1120 degree centigrade and energy consumptions have been measured for these processes. Thereby, the effect of temperature increase on each sample on energy cost has been analyzed. It has been seen that as a result of heating the titanium bulk materials, which have been used in the experiment, with ultra high frequency induction, temperature increase also increases the energy consumption. But it has been revealed that the increase rate in the energy consumption is more than the increase rate of the temperature. (Author)

  5. Prediction of the ageing of commercial lager beer during storage based on the degradation of iso-α-acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Carlos A; Nimubona, Dieudonné; Caballero, Isabel

    2014-08-01

    Iso-α-acids and their chemically modified variants are responsible for the bitterness of beer and play a disproportionately large role in the final quality of beer. The current study was undertaken to predict the degradation of commercial lager beers related to changes in the concentration of trans-iso-α-acids during storage by using high-pressure liquid chromatography. In the analysed beers the concentration of isohumulone (average concentration 28 mg L(-1)) was greater than that of isocohumulone (20 mg L(-1)) and isoadhumulone (10 mg L(-1)). The kinetic parameters, activation energy and rate constant, of the trans-iso-α-acids were calculated. In the case of dark beers, the activation energy for the degradation of trans-isocohumulones was found to be higher than for trans-isohumulones and trans-isoadhumulones, whereas in pale and alcohol-free beers activation energies for the degradation of the three trans isomers were similar. The loss of iso-α-acids can be calculated using the activation energy of the degradation of trans-iso-α-acids and the temperature profile of the accelerated ageing. The results obtained in the investigation can be used in the beer industry to predict the alteration of the bitterness of beer during storage. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. A semi-automatic microextraction in packed sorbent, using a digitally controlled syringe, combined with ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography as a new and ultra-fast approach for the determination of prenylflavonoids in beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, João L; Alves, Vera L; Rodrigues, Fátima P; Figueira, José A; Câmara, José S

    2013-08-23

    In this work a highly selective and sensitive analytical procedure based on semi-automatic microextraction by packed sorbents (MEPS) technique, using a new digitally controlled syringe (eVol(®)) combined with ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC), is proposed to determine the prenylated chalcone derived from the hop (Humulus lupulus L.), xanthohumol (XN), and its isomeric flavonone isoxanthohumol (IXN) in beers. Extraction and UHPLC parameters were accurately optimized to achieve the highest recoveries and to enhance the analytical characteristics of the method. Important parameters affecting MEPS performance, namely the type of sorbent material (C2, C8, C18, SIL, and M1), elution solvent system, number of extraction cycles (extract-discard), sample volume, elution volume, and sample pH, were evaluated. The optimal experimental conditions involves the loading of 500μL of sample through a C18 sorbent in a MEPS syringe placed in the semi-automatic eVol(®) syringe followed by elution using 250μL of acetonitrile (ACN) in a 10 extractions cycle (about 5min for the entire sample preparation step). The obtained extract is directly analyzed in the UHPLC system using a binary mobile phase composed of aqueous 0.1% formic acid (eluent A) and ACN (eluent B) in the gradient elution mode (10min total analysis). Under optimized conditions good results were obtained in terms of linearity within the established concentration range with correlation coefficients (R) values higher than 0.986, with a residual deviation for each calibration point below 12%. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) obtained were 0.4ngmL(-1) and 1.0ngmL(-1) for IXN, and 0.9ngmL(-1) and 3.0ngmL(-1) for XN, respectively. Precision was lower than 4.6% for IXN and 8.4% for XN. Typical recoveries ranged between 67.1% and 99.3% for IXN and between 74.2% and 99.9% for XN, with relative standard deviations %RSD no larger than 8%. The applicability of the proposed analytical

  7. Instrumental analysis for differentiation of beers and evaluation of beer ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreve, Simina; Voica, Cezara; Dragan, Felicia; Georgiu, Monica

    2013-11-01

    A representative selection of 5 different beers commercially available were measured spectrophotometrically in UV-Vis spectral region and by fluorescence spectroscopy, in order to determine qualitative differentiation due to the mainly iso-R-acids (with a five member ring) originating from R-acids present in hops. Minerals and trace elements analysis were also performed by ICP-MS method. The determination of the bitter organic acids in beers and of the content in metallic ions can be used as indicators for differentiation of beers and evaluation of beer ageing.

  8. Market structure and its interactions in beer commodity chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Veselská

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to deeper knowledge of the economics of the beer commodity chain, focused on the formation of the market structure and its interactions with the price development within analysed commodity chain. The results of the economic analysis have proved, that czech brewery is high concentrated and that between concentration ratio and breweries’s margin exists a positive interdependence.

  9. Factors associated with high consumption of soft drinks among Australian secondary-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Morley, Belinda; Niven, Philippa; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-09-01

    To examine demographic and behavioural correlates of high consumption of soft drinks (non-alcoholic sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks excluding energy drinks) among Australian adolescents and to explore the associations between high consumption and soft drink perceptions and accessibility. Cross-sectional self-completion survey and height and weight measurements. Australian secondary schools. Students aged 12-17 years participating in the 2012-13 National Secondary Students' Diet and Activity (NaSSDA) survey (n 7835). Overall, 14 % of students reported consuming four or more cups (≥1 litres) of soft drinks each week ('high soft drink consumers'). Demographic factors associated with high soft drink consumption were being male and having at least $AU 40 in weekly spending money. Behavioural factors associated with high soft drink consumption were low fruit intake, consuming energy drinks on a weekly basis, eating fast foods at least once weekly, eating snack foods ≥14 times/week, watching television for >2 h/d and sleeping for soft drinks to be usually available in their home, convenient to buy and good value for money were more likely to be high soft drink consumers, as were students who reported usually buying these drinks when making a beverage purchase from the school canteen/vending machine. High soft drink consumption clusters with other unhealthy lifestyle behaviours among Australian secondary-school students. Interventions focused on reducing the availability of soft drinks (e.g. increased taxes, restricting their sale in schools) as well as improved education on their harms are needed to lower adolescents' soft drink intake.

  10. Preparation of activate carbon with high specific surface area from beer lees by chemical activation with KOH; Suisankakariumu wo mochiita yakuhin fukatsuho ni yoru birukasu karano kohihyoumenseki kasseitan no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, J.; Kubo, A.; Furukawa, A.; Muroyama, K. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-03-10

    Activated carbons with high specific surface area were prepared from beer lees by chemical activation with KOH. We examined the influence of the preparation conditions, such as temperature and impregnation ratio, on the pore structure of the prepared activated carbon. The specific surface area increased with an increase in carbonization temperature up to 800 degree C and decreased at 900 degree C because of excess activation. It reached a maximum value at the impregnation ratio of 2.0. The activated carbon, which was prepared at the carbonization temperature of 800 degree C and at the impregnation ratio of 2.0, had very high specific surface area of 2,440 m{sup 2}/g. It was found that KOH worked effectively as the activating reagent in two temperature ranges, below 500 degree C and above 600 degree C. The amount of benzene and acetone adsorbed on the prepared activated carbon were much larger than that on the commercial activated carbons. (author)

  11. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-09-13

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010-2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future.

  12. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Mohn Paulsen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787 in 2010–2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future.

  13. High intensity aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen consumption in patients with metabolic syndrome: CAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Espinoza Salinas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A number of cardiovascular risk factors characterizes the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance (IR, low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides. The aforementioned risk factors lead to elevated levels of abdominal adipose tissue, resulting in oxygen consumption deficiency. Purpose To verify the validity and applicability of using high intensity interval training (HIIT in subjects with metabolic syndrome and to answer the following question: Can HIIT improve peak oxygen consumption? Method The systematic review "Effects of aerobic interval training on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in individuals with cardiometabolic disorders" was analyzed. Results Data suggests high intensity aerobic interval training increases peak oxygen consumption by a standardized mean difference of 3.60 mL/kg-1/min-1 (95% confidence interval, 0.28-4.91. Conclusion In spite of the methodological shortcomings of the primary studies included in the systematic review, we reasonably conclude that implementation of high intensity aerobic interval training in subjects with metabolic syndrome, leads to increases in peak oxygen consumption.

  14. Heritability of high sugar consumption through drinks and the genetic correlation with substance use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.L.; Boomsma, D.I.; Ligthart, R.S.L.; Willemsen, G.; Vink, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: High sugar consumption contributes to the rising prevalence of obesity. Sugar can have rewarding effects that are similar to, but less strong than, the effects of addictive substances. People who consume large amounts of sugar also tend to use more addictive substances, but it is unclear

  15. Heritability of high sugar consumption through drinks and the genetic correlation with substance use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.L.; Boomsma, D.I.; Ligthart, R.S.L.; Willemsen, G.; Vink, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: High sugar consumption contributes to the rising prevalence of obesity. Sugar can have rewarding effects that are similar to, but less strong than, the effects of addictive substances. People who consume large amounts of sugar also tend to use more addictive substances, but it is unclear

  16. Guangxi Canceling Preferential Power Price for High Energy Consumption Including Aluminum Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Guangxi has carried out the policy of differen- tiated power price earnestly.At the end of 2007,the price bureau of the autonomous re- gion has unveiled the policy of the cancellation of preferential electricity price for high energy consumption enterprises.

  17. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, K; Konings, WN

    2003-01-01

    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and

  18. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, K; Konings, WN

    2003-01-01

    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and Mega

  19. Effects of the combination of hydrophobic polypeptides, iso-alpha acids, and malto-oligosaccharides on beer foam stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Jorge, Kátia; Nogueira, Luciana C; Silva, Filipe; Trugo, Luiz C

    2005-06-15

    The influence of hydrophobic polypeptides concentrated in beer foam, together with the composition of iso-alpha acids and the content of malto-oligosaccharides in beer on foam stability, has been investigated. The objective was to find out whether a shortage of one of these positive contributors to foam stability could be compensated for by an increased presence of another or whether optimum levels of each contributor is necessary. For that purpose, an image analysis method to evaluate beer foam quality was developed. The foam collapse time was the parameter chosen to group beers according to their foam stability. Profiles of hydrophobic polypeptides that concentrate in beer foam, iso-alpha acids, and malto-oligosaccharides of 14 beer brands were acquired by high-performance liquid chromatography. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to show the relationship between beer brands and its composition. Beers that contained propylene glycol alginate as a foam enhancer showed high foam stability except for one beer, which had a low content of hydrophobic polypeptides, thereby highlighting the requirement of threshold levels of hydrophobic polypeptides to obtain stable foam. The data of samples that were devoid of a foam additive were subjected to a discriminant statistical analysis. Foam stability declined in proportion to decreases in hydrophobic polypeptides and to a lesser extent to decreases in iso-alpha-acid contents. Apparently, the content of malto-oligosaccharides were found to have no major influence on foam stability. The model of discriminate analysis was found to explain 100% of the variance in data with 85.2% success in classifying all samples according to the model, suggesting that foam stability is mainly governed by the beer constituents evaluated in this study.

  20. Recognition of beer brand based on multivariate analysis of volatile fingerprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajka, Tomas; Riddellova, Katerina; Tomaniova, Monika; Hajslova, Jana

    2010-06-18

    Automated head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-based sampling procedure, coupled to gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS), was developed and employed for obtaining of fingerprints (GC profiles) of beer volatiles. In total, 265 speciality beer samples were collected over a 1-year period with the aim to distinguish, based on analytical (profiling) data, (i) the beers labelled as Rochefort 8; (ii) a group consisting of Rochefort 6, 8, 10 beers; and (iii) Trappist beers. For the chemometric evaluation of the data, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and artificial neural networks with multilayer perceptrons (ANN-MLP) were tested. The best prediction ability was obtained for the model that distinguished a group of Rochefort 6, 8, 10 beers from the rest of beers. In this case, all chemometric tools employed provided 100% correct classification. Slightly worse prediction abilities were achieved for the models "Trappist vs. non-Trappist beers" with the values of 93.9% (PLS-DA), 91.9% (LDA) and 97.0% (ANN-MLP) and "Rochefort 8 vs. the rest" with the values of 87.9% (PLS-DA) and 84.8% (LDA) and 93.9% (ANN-MLP). In addition to chromatographic profiling, also the potential of direct coupling of SPME (extraction/pre-concentration device) with high-resolution TOFMS employing a direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source has been demonstrated as a challenging profiling approach. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High tea and vegetable consumption is associated with low ADMA generation in older healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goralczyk, Tadeusz; Tisonczyk, Joanna; Fijorek, Kamil; Undas, Anetta

    2012-08-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has been recognized as a marker of cardiovascular risk. We sought to investigate whether consumption of tea, coffee, fruit or vegetables is associated with ADMA. In 148 consecutive apparently healthy subjects (104 men and 44 women aged 40 to 70), daily tea, coffee, fruit and vegetable consumption was ascertained by questionnaire. Plasma ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), and l-arginine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Median tea and coffee consumption was 2 cups/d, while vegetable and fruit intake was 152 (120-179)g/d and 120 (108-134)g/d, respectively. Median plasma ADMA, SDMA and arginine were 0.47 (0.43-0.53)μmol/L, 0.59 (0.54-0.66)μmol/L and 86 (68-101)μmol/L, respectively. ADMA correlated inversely with tea (r = -0.70, P vegetable consumption (r = -0.50, P fruit consumption was found. ADMA correlated positively with coffee intake (r = 0.37, P < .0001), although these associations were less potent after adjustment for dietary factors. Higher tea and vegetable intake is associated with lower plasma ADMA levels in healthy middle-aged subjects.

  2. Beers versus STOPP criteria in polyharmacy community-dwelling older patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    10.7399/fh.2016.40.3.9706

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP using Beers (2012 version and STOPP (2008 version criteria in polypharmacy, community-dwelling, older patients. Methods: From the information collected in the invoicing data of the prescriptions and the electronic medical records, a sample was selected of 223 ≥ 65-year-old patients who were taking simultaneously 10 or more drugs per day. Beers and STOPP criteria were separately applied, and the results obtained with the two methods were compared. Results: A total of 141 (63.2% patients presented at least one Beers criterion. The two most frequently observed Beers criteria independent of diagnosis were the use of benzodiazepines and the use of non-COX-2-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. With regard to Beers criteria considering diagnosis, the most frequent were the use of anticholinergic drugs in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms or benign prostatic hyperplasia, and the use of benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, zolpidem or H2-antihistamines, in patients with dementia or cognitive impairment. A total of 165 (73.9% patients had at least one PIP according to the STOPP criteria. Duplicate drug classes and long-term use of long-acting benzodiazepines were the two most frequent STOPP criteria. Discussion: Our study identified a high frequency of PIP in polymedicated community-dwelling older patients. Simultaneous application of Beers and STOPP criteria represents a useful tool to improve prescribing in this population group.

  3. Allergy to beer in LTP-sensitized patients: beers are not all the same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercia, O; Zoccatelli, G; Stefanini, G F; Mistrello, G; Amato, S; Bolla, M; Emiliani, F; Asero, R

    2012-09-01

    Most cases of beer allergy reported so far have been associated with hypersensitivity to the non-specific lipid transfer protein (LTP). In view of the marked differences in brewing processes we assessed IgE reactivity as well as tolerance to many different beers in an allergic patient. A 45 year-old man hypersensitive to grass pollen, cat dander and Alternaria tenuis with a history of urticaria and dyspnoea after drinking beer and a weak skin reactivity to commercial corn extract was studied. The patient underwent SPT with 36 different brands of beer and an open challenge with those scoring negative was performed. An immunoblot analysis was carried out using 2 SPT-positive beers, 2 SPT-negative beers, and barley, wheat, and maize extracts using both patient's serum and a maize LTP-specific in-house developed polyclonal antibody from rabbit. Further, the immune reactive LTP of one beer was separated by HPLC and the chromatogram was compared to that of purified maize LTP. Beer SPT scored positive in 30/36 cases. The immunoblot analysis showed IgE reactivity at about 10 kDa against the two SPT-positive beers and against maize with both patient's serum and the polyclonal anti-LTP rabbit serum, whereas the two SPT-negative beers, and barley extract scored negative. The immunodetected protein co-migrated with maize LTP. In beer-allergic patients the diagnostic workup may point to the detection of some tolerated products that can be consumed risk-free. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Storage and shipment system for beer and beverage; Beer inryo hokan shukka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-20

    This storage and shipment system for beer and beverage was delivered to Suita factory of Asahi Breweries, Ltd. for reducing the shipment lead time essential for the total fresh management activity promoted by the whole company. Main specifications: (1) Warehouse capacity: 26,880 pallets, (2) Stacker crane: 24 units (twin shuttle system), (3) Conveyer: 1 unit, (4) Truck loader: 3 units, (5) Handling capacity: 760 pallet/h for storage, 670 pallet/h for shipment. Features: (1) Storage system directly connected with a plant by immediate automatic storage after palletizing, (2) One-point loading by a package loading berth with an alignment function, (3) High-speed mass storage and shipment handling by distributing system, (4) High reliability by block distributing system. (translated by NEDO)

  5. Determinants of Fast Food Consumption among Iranian High School Students Based on Planned Behavior Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Sharifirad; Parastoo Yarmohammadi; Leila Azadbakht; Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad; Akbar Hassanzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study was conducted to identify some factors (beliefs and norms) which are related to fast food consumption among high school students in Isfahan, Iran. We used the framework of the theory planned behavior (TPB) to predict this behavior. Subjects & Methods. Cross-sectional data were available from high school students (n = 521) who were recruited by cluster randomized sampling. All of the students completed a questionnaire assessing variables of standard TPB model including at...

  6. High Efficiency, Low Power-Consumption DFB Quantum Cascade Lasers Without Lateral Regrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Jin-Chuan; Liu, Feng-Qi; Zhou, Yu-Hong; Wang, Dong-Bo; Jia, Xue-Feng; Zhuo, Ning; Liu, Jun-Qi; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2017-12-01

    Very low power-consumption distributed feedback (DFB) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) at the wavelength around 4.9 μm were fabricated by conventional process without lateral regrowth of InP:Fe or using sidewall grating. Benefitted from the optimized materials and low waveguide loss, very low threshold current density of 0.5 kA/cm(2) was obtained for a device with cavity length of 2 mm. Combined with the partial-high-reflection coating, the 1-mm-long DFB QCL achieved low power-consumption continuous wave (CW) operation up to 105 °C. The CW threshold power-consumptions were 0.72 and 0.78 W at 15 and 25 °C, respectively. The maximum CW output power was over 110 mW at 15 °C and still more than 35 mW at 105 °C. At 15 °C, wall-plug efficiency of 5.5% and slope efficiency of 1.8 W/A were deduced, which were very high for low power-consumption DFB QCLs.

  7. Frogs Sell Beer: The Effects of Beer Advertisements on Adolescent Drinking Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.

    This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…

  8. Proteomics, peptidomics, and immunogenic potential of wheat beer (Weissbier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picariello, Gianluca; Mamone, Gianfranco; Cutignano, Adele; Fontana, Angelo; Zurlo, Lucia; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2015-04-08

    Wheat beer is a traditional light-colored top-fermenting beer brewed with at least 50% malted (e.g., German Weissbier) or unmalted (e.g., Belgian Witbier) wheat (Triticum aestivum) as an adjunct to barley (Hordeum vulgare) malt. For the first time, we explored the proteome of three Weissbier samples, using both 2D electrophoresis (2DE)-based and 2DE-free strategies. Overall, 58 different gene products arising from barley, wheat, and yeast (Saccharomyces spp.) were identified in the protein fraction of a representative Weissbier sample analyzed in detail. Analogous to all-barley-malt beers (BMB), barley and wheat Z-type serpins and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins dominated the proteome of Weissbier. Several α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors also survived the harsh brewing conditions. During brewing, hundreds of peptides are released into beer. By liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS) analysis, we characterized 167 peptides belonging to 44 proteins, including gliadins, hordeins, and high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits. Because of the interference from the overabundant yeast-derived peptides, we identified only a limited number of epitopes potentially triggering celiac disease. However, Weissbier samples contained 374, 372, and 382 ppm gliadin-equivalent peptides, as determined with the competitive G12 ELISA, which is roughly 10-fold higher than a lager BMB (41 ppm), thereby confirming that Weissbier is unsuited for celiacs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that Weissbier also contained large-sized prolamins immunoresponsive to antigliadin IgA antibodies from the pooled sera of celiac patients (n = 4).

  9. Identification of beer spoilage microorganisms using the MALDI Biotyper platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Michelle Elizabeth; Weiland, Florian; Meneses, Jon; Sterenberg, Nick; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Beer spoilage microorganisms present a major risk for the brewing industry and can lead to cost-intensive recall of contaminated products and damage to brand reputation. The applicability of molecular profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in combination with Biotyper software was investigated for the identification of beer spoilage microorganisms from routine brewery quality control samples. Reference mass spectrum profiles for three of the most common bacterial beer spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus lindneri, Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus damnosus), four commercially available brewing yeast strains (top- and bottom-fermenting) and Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis wild yeast were established, incorporated into the Biotyper reference library and validated by successful identification after inoculation into beer. Each bacterial species could be accurately identified and distinguished from one another and from over 5600 other microorganisms present in the Biotyper database. In addition, wild yeast contaminations were rapidly detected and distinguished from top- and bottom-fermenting brewing strains. The applicability and integration of mass spectrometry profiling using the Biotyper platform into existing brewery quality assurance practices within industry were assessed by analysing routine microbiology control samples from a local brewery, where contaminating microorganisms could be reliably identified. Brewery-isolated microorganisms not present in the Biotyper database were further analysed for identification using LC-MS/MS methods. This renders the Biotyper platform a promising candidate for biological quality control testing within the brewing industry as a more rapid, high-throughput and cost-effective technology that can be tailored for the detection of brewery-specific spoilage organisms from the local environment.

  10. Metabolism of Zearalenone in the Course of Beer Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Mochizuki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZON is a mycotoxin with estrogenic activity, produced by members of Fusarium species, and is found worldwide in a number of cereal crops. It is known to have four active metabolites (a-zearalenol (a-ZOL, b-zearalenol (b-ZOL, a-zearalanol (a-ZAL, and b-zearalanol (b-ZAL. A highly sensitive analytical method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS/MS has been established and validated in order to analyze ZON and its metabolites in beer and malt samples. The metabolism of ZON in the course of beer fermentation was further characterized using the artificially contaminated wort by this established method. In the fermented sample, 85.9% of ZON was converted to b-ZOL, which has lower estrogenic activity than that of ZON. These findings indicate that the health risk to humans due to ZON in beer is reduced during the fermentation process.

  11. Absence of fks1p in lager brewing yeast results in aberrant cell wall composition and improved beer flavor stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-jing; Xu, Wei-na; Li, Xin'er; Li, Jia; Li, Qi

    2014-06-01

    The flavor stability during storage is very important to the freshness and shelf life of beer. However, beer fermented with a yeast strain which is prone to autolyze will significantly affect the flavor of product. In this study, the gene encoding β-1,3-glucan synthetase catalytic subunit (fks1) of the lager yeast was destroyed via self-clone strategy. β-1,3-glucan is the principle cell wall component, so fks1 disruption caused a decrease in β-1,3-glucan level and increase in chitin level in cell wall, resulting in the increased cell wall thickness. Comparing with wild-type strain, the mutant strain had 39.9 and 63.41 % less leakage of octanoic acid and decanoic acid which would significantly affect the flavor of beer during storage. Moreover, the results of European Brewery Convention tube fermentation test showed that the genetic manipulation to the industrial brewing yeast helped with the anti-staling ability, rather than affecting the fermentation ability. The thiobarbituric acid value reduced by 65.59 %, and the resistant staling value increased by 26.56 %. Moreover, the anti-staling index of the beer fermented with mutant strain increased by 2.64-fold than that from wild-type strain respectively. China has the most production and consumption of beer around the world, so the quality of beer has a significant impact on Chinese beer industry. The result of this study could help with the improvement of the quality of beer in China as well as around the world.

  12. Using high frequency consumption data to identify demand response potential for solar energy integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L.; Borgeson, S.; Fredman, D.; Hans, L.; Spurlock, A.; Todd, A.

    2015-12-01

    California's renewable portfolio standard (2012) requires the state to get 33% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2020. Increased share of variable renewable sources such as solar and wind in the California electricity system may require more grid flexibility to insure reliable power services. Such grid flexibility can be potentially provided by changes in end use electricity consumptions in response to grid conditions (demand-response). In the solar case, residential consumption in the late afternoon can be used as reserve capacity to balance the drop in solar generation. This study presents our initial attempt to identify, from a behavior perspective, residential demand response potentials in relation to solar ramp events using a data-driven approach. Based on hourly residential energy consumption data, we derive representative daily load shapes focusing on discretionary consumption with an innovative clustering analysis technique. We aggregate the representative load shapes into behavior groups in terms of the timing and rhythm of energy use in the context of solar ramp events. Households of different behavior groups that are active during hours with high solar ramp rates are identified for capturing demand response potential. Insights into the nature and predictability of response to demand-response programs are provided.

  13. Does consumption of high-fructose corn syrup beverages cause obesity in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R E

    2013-08-01

    The consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) beverages has increased since the 1970s. At the same time, childhood obesity is on the rise, causing children to be at risk of heart disease, diabetes and other diseases. Healthcare providers have attributed childhood obesity to the consumption of HFCS in the form of beverages. This article will look at the available research and determine if there is scientific evidence underlying the idea that sweetened soft drinks, especially those containing HFCS, could cause or contribute to childhood obesity. A thorough literature search was performed using the ISI Web of Sciences, PubMed and Scopus databases within the years 2006-2012. The search generated 19 results. The articles were screened, and six were deemed eligible: four systematic reviews and two meta-analyses. Two systematic reviews found that there is no relationship between consumption of HFCS beverages and obesity in children. The other two systematic reviews found possible links between HFCS and childhood obesity. The meta-analysis articles found that consumption of HFCS beverages can contribute to childhood obesity, and limitation of sweetened beverages may help decrease obesity in children. Available research studies demonstrate inconclusive scientific evidence definitively linking HFCS to obesity in children.

  14. A simple HPLC method for determining the purine content of beer and beer-like alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuuchi, Tomoko; Yasuda, Makoto; Inazawa, Katsunori; Ota, Tatsuhiro; Yamaoka, Noriko; Mawatari, Ken-ichi; Nakagomi, Kazuya; Kaneko, Kiyoko

    2013-01-01

    Several methods for quantifying the purine content in food and drink have been described using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We have developed an improved HPLC method that is based on a method reported by Kaneko et al. and that is more sensitive yet simple, and suitable for determining the purine content of beer and beer-like alcoholic beverages. Quantitative HPLC separation was performed on a Shodex Asahi Pak GS-320HQ column with an isocratic elution of 150 mmol/L sodium phosphate buffer (H(3)PO(4)/NaH(2)PO(4) = 20:100 (v/v)). The retention times for the four analytes, namely, adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine and xanthine, were 19.9, 25.0, 29.3 and 43.0 min, respectively. The resolution was good, and there was no excessive interference from the other compounds in the beverages at these retention times. Furthermore, the detection limit for all the analytes was improved to less than 0.0075 mg/L, and all the calibration curves showed good linearity (r(2) > 0.999) between 0.013 and 10 mg/L for adenine and guanine, and between 0.025 and 10 mg/L for hypoxanthine and xanthine. The pretreatment was simplified by removing some procedures and optimizing the perchloric acid hydrolysis and the enzymatic peak-shift assay. We reduced the sample dilution rate by almost 50%, and the time spent on pretreatment from 4 days to only 180 min. The recovery of the analytes from spiked samples was 94.8 - 103.8%. This method may be useful for evaluating quantitative and qualitative differences in the purine content of beer and beer-like alcoholic beverages.

  15. Occurrence and stability of inorganic and organic arsenic species in wines, rice wines and beers from Central European market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J-H; Hu, K-N; Ilgen, J; Ilgen, G

    2012-01-01

    We investigated in total 80 wine samples of different types and seven grape juice and 23 beer samples purchased from markets in Central Europe in order to understand the arsenic (As) speciation and help assess the potential As toxicity via intake of alcoholic beverages. Generally, total As concentrations in most samples investigated were below the drinking water limit 10 µg l(-1) published by the World Health Organization (WHO); ranging from 0.46 to 21.0 µg l(-1) As in red and white wines and from 0.75 to 13.4 µg l(-1) As in beers. In addition, concentrations of total As in rice wine and in rice beer were 0.63-6.07 and 3.69-8.23 µg l(-1) As, respectively. The total As concentrations in ice wine ranged from 7.94 to 18.8 µg l(-1) As, significantly higher than in white and red wine. Arsenite predominated as the As species in most of the wine samples, whereas arsenate was the dominant species in rice wine, beer and rice beer. Methyl As components were usually minor components in all wine and beer samples. Monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid and two additional unknown As species were frequently found in grape juice, late harvest and ice wine with higher sweetness. After air exposure, arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid were stable at 4°C for months, probably due to the acidic conditions of wine and beer samples. The presence of sulfite had little influence on As speciation in wine. Despite the predominance of more toxic arsenite and arsenate in wine and beer, the estimated weekly exposure to As (via consumption of beer, wine and rice wine) is low. The As intake per capita is 6.81 µg from beer, <1.93 µg from wine and 0.88 µg from rice wine, estimated using the median of total As concentration multiplied by the average consumption per capita of the corresponding beverage.

  16. High-CHO diet increases post-exercise oxygen consumption after a supramaximal exercise bout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, G A; Bertuzzi, R; De-Oliveira, F R; Pires, F O; Lima-Silva, A E

    2016-10-24

    We investigated if carbohydrate (CHO) availability could affect the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after a single supramaximal exercise bout. Five physically active men cycled at 115% of peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2 peak) until exhaustion with low or high pre-exercise CHO availability. The endogenous CHO stores were manipulated by performing a glycogen-depletion exercise protocol 48 h before the trial, followed by 48 h consuming either a low- (10% CHO) or a high-CHO (80% CHO) diet regime. Compared to the low-CHO diet, the high-CHO diet increased time to exhaustion (3.0±0.6 min vs 4.4±0.6, respectively, P=0.01) and the total O2 consumption during the exercise (6.9±0.9 L and 11.3±2.1, respectively, P=0.01). This was accompanied by a higher EPOC magnitude (4.6±1.8 L vs 6.2±2.8, respectively, P=0.03) and a greater total O2 consumption throughout the session (exercise+recovery: 11.5±2.5 L vs 17.5±4.2, respectively, P=0.01). These results suggest that a single bout of supramaximal exercise performed with high CHO availability increases both exercise and post-exercise energy expenditure.

  17. High-CHO diet increases post-exercise oxygen consumption after a supramaximal exercise bout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, G.A.; Bertuzzi, R.; De-Oliveira, F.R.; Pires, F.O.; Lima-Silva, A.E.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated if carbohydrate (CHO) availability could affect the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after a single supramaximal exercise bout. Five physically active men cycled at 115% of peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2 peak) until exhaustion with low or high pre-exercise CHO availability. The endogenous CHO stores were manipulated by performing a glycogen-depletion exercise protocol 48 h before the trial, followed by 48 h consuming either a low- (10% CHO) or a high-CHO (80% CHO) diet regime. Compared to the low-CHO diet, the high-CHO diet increased time to exhaustion (3.0±0.6 min vs 4.4±0.6, respectively, P=0.01) and the total O2 consumption during the exercise (6.9±0.9 L and 11.3±2.1, respectively, P=0.01). This was accompanied by a higher EPOC magnitude (4.6±1.8 L vs 6.2±2.8, respectively, P=0.03) and a greater total O2 consumption throughout the session (exercise+recovery: 11.5±2.5 L vs 17.5±4.2, respectively, P=0.01). These results suggest that a single bout of supramaximal exercise performed with high CHO availability increases both exercise and post-exercise energy expenditure. PMID:27783812

  18. Mycotoxin analysis of industrial beers from Brazil: The influence of fumonisin B1 and deoxynivalenol in beer quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, Karim C; Rocha, Liliana O; Fontes, Lívia C; Carnielli, Lorena; Reis, Tatiana A; Corrêa, Benedito

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide, barley is the main source of carbohydrate in the brewing process. However, corn is often used as an adjunct to improve and accelerate the fermentation process. Considering that, these two substrates are susceptible to fungal contamination as well as mycotoxins. The objective of the current study is to determine the incidence of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) in industrial beers. The method applied for mycotoxin analyses included high performance liquid chromatography. The mean levels for recovery experiments were 89.6% for DON and 93.3% for FB1. DON was not detected in any of the analyzed samples whereas FB1 was found in 49% of the 114 samples. The current survey demonstrated levels of FB1 contamination in industrial beer, possibly due to the addition of contaminated adjuncts. It is necessary to establish maximum levels of mycotoxins in beer in Brazil and other countries in order to reduce health risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in organically and conventionally produced beers sold on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselme, M; Tangni, E K; Pussemier, L; Motte, J-C; Van Hove, F; Schneider, Y-J; Van Peteghem, C; Larondelle, Y

    2006-09-01

    Beer was chosen as a cereal-derived and homogeneous product for a comparison of organic and conventional production methods in terms of mycotoxin contamination levels. Ochratoxin A (OTA, a storage mycotoxin) and deoxynivalenol (DON, a field mycotoxin) were assessed by HPLC in organically and conventionally produced beers sold in Belgium. Immunoaffinity column (OchraTest and DONPrep) purification was used prior to HPLC analysis. For in-house validation, recovery experiments, carried out with the spiked beers in the ranges of 50-200 ng OTA l-1 and 20-100 microg DON l-1, led to the overall averages of 91% (RSD = 10%, n = 9) and 93% (RSD = 5%, n = 27), respectively. Organic beers collected during 2003-2004 were more frequently OTA-contaminated (95%, n = 40) than their conventional counterparts (50%, n = 40). Conventional beers were OTA-contaminated at a mean concentration of 25 ng l-1 (range: 19-198 ng l-1), while organic beers contained a mean level of 182 ng l-1 (range: 18-1134 ng l-1). High OTA contamination above the limit of 200 ng l-1 (up to 1134 ng l-1) occasionally occurred in organically produced beers. A complementary survey performed with the same brands in 2005 did not confirm this accidental presence of excessive OTA loads (range: 3-67 ng l-1 for 10 conventional beers and 19-158 ng l-1 for 10 organic beers). Establishing a maximum of 3 microg OTA kg-1 in malt, the application of the regulation EC No. 466/2001 (entered in force before the last sampling) may be related to the observed improvement. The overall incidence of DON was 67 and 80% in conventional and organic beers, respectively. DON concentrations ranged from 2 to 22 microg DON l-1 (mean = 6 microg DON l-1) in conventional beers, while organic beers ranged from 2 to 14 microg DON l-1 (mean=4 microg DON l-1). Thus, DON in beers does not appear to be a major matter of concern. From the statistical tests, it was concluded that the variation between different batches was significant (P < 0.0001), in

  20. Excessive alcohol consumption favours high risk polyp or colorectal cancer occurrence among patients with adenomas: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Bardou, M; Montembault, S; Giraud, V.; Balian, A; Borotto, E; Houdayer, C.; Capron, F.; Chaput, J-C; Naveau, S

    2002-01-01

    Background and aims: Excessive alcohol consumption is a risk factor for developing colorectal adenomas. This study aimed to investigate the influence of excessive alcohol consumption on the occurrence of high risk polyps (adenoma ≥10 mm, villous component, high grade dysplasia) or colorectal cancer among patients with at least one colonic adenoma.

  1. Parental attachment insecurity predicts child and adult high-caloric food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Aida; Dubé, Laurette

    2015-05-01

    Eating habits are established early and are difficult to change once formed. This study investigated the role of caregiver-child attachment quality and its associations with high-caloric food consumption in a sample of middle socio-economic status children and adults, respectively. Survey data were collected from an online questionnaire administered separately to 213 (143 girls) children and 216 parents (adult sample; 180 women). Two studies showed that an insecure parental attachment, whether actual (Study 1; children) or recalled (Study 2; adults), significantly and positively predicted high-caloric food consumption in both samples. The present findings highlight the importance of parental attachment and its association with unhealthy eating patterns in children and adults.

  2. A single lithium-ion battery protection circuit with high reliability and low power consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Jinguang; Li Sen

    2014-01-01

    A single lithium-ion battery protection circuit with high reliability and low power consumption is proposed.The protection circuit has high reliability because the voltage and current of the battery are controlled in a safe range.The protection circuit can immediately activate a protective function when the voltage and current of the battery are beyond the safe range.In order to reduce the circuit's power consumption,a sleep state control circuit is developed.Additionally,the output frequency of the ring oscillation can be adjusted continuously and precisely by the charging capacitors and the constant-current source.The proposed protection circuit is fabricated in a 0.5 μm mixed-signal CMOS process.The measured reference voltage is 1.19 V,the overvoltage is 4.2 V and the undervoltage is 2.2 V.The total power is about 9μW.

  3. Sexual and reproductive health issues facing Southeast Asian beer promoters: a qualitative pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitzer Denise L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Southeast Asia, hundreds of thousands of young rural women migrate from their villages to the larger cities in search of work. Many find employment with beer companies or in the clubs where beer is sold, promoting the sale of beer. Previous research suggests these young migrants are in a highly vulnerable position. This paper will describe the findings of an October 2009 meeting to develop a research agenda on the sexual and reproductive health of beer promoters and a subsequent pilot study of focus groups with beer promoters to review this agenda. Methods Participants of the research meeting representing beer promoters, academics, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, government and the beer industry from Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam collaborated in the development of three key research themes. The themes were verified in focus group discussions with beer promoters organized by local research partners in all four countries. The focus group participants were asked what they felt were the key sexual and reproductive health issues facing them in a non-directive and unstructured manner, and then asked to comment more specifically on the research priorities developed at the meeting. The focus groups were recorded digitally, transcribed, and translated into English. The data were analyzed by coding for common themes and then developing matrices to compare themes between groups. Results The participants of the meeting identified three key research themes: occupational health (including harassment and violence, working conditions, and fair pay, gender and social norms (focusing on the impact of power relations between the genders on women's health, and reproductive health (knowledge and access to reproductive health care services. The participants in the focus groups in all four countries agreed that these were key priorities for them, though the emphasis on the most important issues varied between groups of women

  4. Energy efficiency innovative processes during beer production; Rationelle Energienutzung durch innovative Verfahren bei der Bierwuerzebereitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoni, D.; Stammel, V.; Meyer-Pitroff, R.

    2004-07-01

    The beverages industry is one of the most energy-intensive industries in the nutritional sector, and breweries are among the highest energy consumers. About 40 percent of the heat consumption of a brewery is used for beer heating. The contribution presents the example of thin film and vacuum evaporation in order to show how energy can be saved while maintaining or even improving the quality of the final product, saving resources and reducing CO2 emissions. (orig.)

  5. Determination of trace formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in beer by precolumn derivation high-performance liquid chromatography%DNPH柱前衍生高效液相色谱法测定啤酒中微量甲醛和乙醛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余涛; 陈秀杰; 谭倩

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨DNPH柱前衍生高效液相色谱法测定啤酒中微量甲醛和乙醛的方法.方法:采用蒸馏法处理样品,馏出液于60℃的水浴中衍生20 min,用环己烷提取,最后于液相色谱仪进行分析定量.结果:甲醛、乙醛在0 μg/ml ~ 8.0 μg/ml浓度范围内,标准曲线线性关系良好,相关系数r分别为0.9998、0.9995;甲醛的相对标准偏差为0.7% ~2.9%,乙醛的相对标准偏差为1.3%~3.5%;甲醛的加标回收率为93%~96%,乙醛的加标回收率为93% ~ 102%;甲醛检测结果与国标方法比较无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论:本方法不但可同时检测啤酒中微量的甲醛和乙醛,具有灵敏度高、选择性好、精密度和准确度好等优点,而且简便、快捷,适合分析大批量检测工作.%Objective: To develop the method for the determination of trace formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in beer by precolumn derivation high - performance liquid chromatography. Methods: The sample was treated by dis-tillation, and the distillate was derived in water - bath at 60℃ for 20 min, then extracted with cyclohexane, finally analyzed by high - performance liquid chromatography for quantification analysis. Results: The linear ranges of de-termination for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were 0 μg/ml ~8.0 μg/ml(r =0. 9998) , 0 μg/ml ~8.0 μg/ml(r = 0. 9995 ) , respectively. The relative standard derivations for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were 0. 7% ~ 2.9% , 1. 3% ~3. 5% respectively, and the recoveries of them were 93% ~96% , 93% ~ 102% ,respectively. The detec-tion result of formaldehyde had no significant difference with that of national standard method ( P > 0. 05 ) . Conclu-sion: The method has the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, high sensitivity, good selectivity, excellent precision and accuracy, which can be used for simultaneous analysis of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in beer.

  6. Applying the 2003 Beers Update to Elderly Medicare Enr...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Applying the 2003 Beers Update to Elderly Medicare Enrollees in the Part D Program Inappropriate prescribing of certain medications known as Beers drugs may be...

  7. Preliminary characterization of an Italian craft durum wheat beer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mascia, Ilaria; Fadda, Costantino; Dostálek, Pavel; Olšovská, Jana; Del Caro, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    ... (Germany and the Czech Republic). Standard beer chemical analyses, along with volatile and sensorial profiles, were used to characterize the Sardinian craft durum wheat beer. Copyright © 2014 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling

  8. Technological steps and yeast biomass as factors affecting the lipid content of beer during the brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Perretti, Giuseppe; Buzzini, Pietro; Della Sera, Rolando; Fantozzi, Paolo

    2009-07-22

    Knowledge of lipid content and composition in the brewing process enables the quality control of the final product. Lipids have a beneficial effect on yeast growth during fermentation as well as deleterious effects on end-product quality. The lipid content of a beer affects its ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Lipid oxidation during wort production is of great interest because of its effect on beer quality: both lipids and their oxidation products are known to have adverse effects on beer flavor, whereas interactions between lipids and protein films stabilizing the gas bubbles are thought to cause the collapse of foam. In this background, the aim of this research was the characterization of the lipid content during a brewing process for evaluating the influence of both technological steps and yeast biomass in the lipid composition of beer. Lipid contents and their fatty acid profile were evaluated in brewing raw materials, wort, and beer. A high-resolution gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (HRGC-FID) system was used for fatty acid determination in lipid extracts. The results of the present study highlighted that the main technological steps influencing the lipid content in brewing byproduct and beer were clarification in a whirlpool and filtration. Moreover, the presence of metabolically active yeast cells (used as starter culture) were found to have a great influence on the fatty acids composition of lipids.

  9. Impact of different wort boiling temperatures on the beer foam stabilizing properties of lipid transfer protein 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nierop, Sandra N E; Evans, David E; Axcell, Barry C; Cantrell, Ian C; Rautenbach, Marina

    2004-05-19

    Beer consumers demand satisfactory and consistent foam stability; thus, it is a high priority for brewers. Beer foam is stabilized by the interaction between certain beer proteins, including lipid transfer protein 1 (LTP1), and isomerized hop alpha-acids, but destabilized by lipids. In this study it was shown that the wort boiling temperature during the brewing process was critical in determining the final beer LTP1 content and conformation. LTP1 levels during brewing were measured by an LTP1 ELISA, using antinative barley LTP1 polyclonal antibodies. It was observed that the higher wort boiling temperatures ( approximately 102 degrees C), resulting from low altitude at sea level, reduced the final beer LTP1 level to 2-3 microg/mL, whereas the lower wort boiling temperatures ( approximately 96 degrees C), resulting from higher altitudes (1800 m), produced LTP1 levels between 17 and 35 microg/mL. Low levels of LTP1 in combination with elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFA) resulted in poor foam stability, whereas beer produced with low levels of LTP1 and FFA had satisfactory foam stability. Previous studies indicated the need for LTP1 denaturing to improve its foam stabilizing properties. However, the results presented here show that LTP1 denaturation reduces its ability to act as a binding protein for foam-damaging FFA. These investigations suggest that wort boiling temperature is an important factor in determining the level and conformation of LTP1, thereby favoring satisfactory beer foam stability.

  10. Solar radiation data for Beer Sheva, Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudish, A.I.; Machlav, Y.; Wolf, D.

    1983-01-01

    A number of years of data on the global irradiation incident on a horizontal surface in Beer Sheva Israel (lat. = 31/sup 0/15'N, long. = 34/sup 0/48'E, elevation about 240 m) have been correlated. It is apparent from these data that this locale possesses a relatively high abundance of sunshine. The average cumulative annual irradiation is 6722MJ/m/sup 2/ and the average daily irradiation is 18.43 MJ/m/sup 2/. The percentage frequency of days possessing irradiation rates greater than 20 MJ/m/sup 2/ is 46 percent, whereas that possessing less than 10 MJ/m/sup 2/d is 11.9 percent. The percentage frequency of cloudy days (K /SUB T/ less than or equal to0.34) is low, 7.5 percent, whereas that for clear days (K /SUB T/ greater than or equal to 0.65) is 29.2 percent.

  11. Becoming a beer expert: is simple exposure with feedback sufficient to learn beer categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelièvre-Desmas, Maud; Chollet, Sylvie; Abdi, Hervé; Valentin, Dominique

    2015-10-01

    Category learning is an important aspect of expertise development which had been little studied in the chemosensory field. The wine literature suggests that through repeated exposure to wines, sensory information is stored by experts as prototypes. The goal of this study was to further explore this issue using beers. We tested the ability of beer consumers to correctly categorize beers from two different categories (top- and bottom-fermented beers) before and after repeated exposure with feedback to beers from these categories. We found that participants learned to identify the category membership of beers to which they have been exposed but were unable to generalize their learning to other beers. A retrospective verbal protocol questionnaire administrated at the end of the experiment indicates that contrary to what was suggested in the wine literature, prototype extraction is probably not the only mechanism implicated in category learning of foods and beverages. Exemplar-similarity and feature-frequency models might provide a better account of the course of learning of the categorization task studied.

  12. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between-participant design was used, in which 184 young adults (age: 16-28 years) were exposed to a movie that was preceded by either alcohol commercials or nonalcohol commercials. Participants' actual alcohol consumption while watching the movie ("Watchmen") was examined. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of the commercial condition on alcohol consumption. An interaction effect was found between commercial condition and weekly alcohol consumption (p < .001). Alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol drinkers was higher in the alcohol commercial condition than in the nonalcohol commercial condition, whereas no differences were found in alcohol consumption between commercial conditions among low weekly alcohol drinkers. No gender differences were found in the association between exposure to alcohol commercials, weekly drinking, and alcohol use. Thus, exposure to alcohol commercials prior to a movie in a movie theater can directly influence alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol consumers.

  13. Expanding perceptions of subsistence fish consumption: evidence of high commercial fish consumption and dietary mercury exposure in an urban coastal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloman, Erica L; Newman, Michael C

    2012-02-01

    Through collaborative partnerships established between current researchers and The Moton Community House (a local community center), African American women (ages 16-49yrs) from the Southeast Community of Newport News, Virginia, USA were surveyed to assess the reproducibility and consistency of fish consumption patterns (ingestion rates, exposure frequencies, weight, and fish consumption rates) derived from a community-specific fish consumption survey. Women were also surveyed to assess the reliability of the survey responses, and to estimate daily mercury intake. Fish consumption patterns were reproducible and the survey responses were reliable. Comparison between years revealed that fish consumption patterns remained consistent over time. In addition, the high fish consumption rate estimated in 2008 (147.8g/day; 95% CI: 117.6-185.8g/day) was confirmed with a rate (134.9g/day; 95% CI: 88-207g/day) not materially different and still considerably higher than mean fish consumption rates reported for U.S. women. Daily mercury intake rates were estimated using consumption data from 2008 and three consumption scenarios (canned white, canned light, and no tuna) due to confirmed differences in mercury concentration between canned white and light tuna. Arithmetic mean daily mercury intake rates were 0.284μg/kg bw/day (95% CI: 0.229-0.340μg/kg bw/day) using canned white tuna, 0.212μg/kg bw/day (95% CI: 0.165-0.259μg/kg bw/day) using light tuna, and 0.197μg/kg bw/day (95% CI: 0.151-0.243μg/kg bw/day) using no tuna. Approximately 58%-73% of the daily mercury intake rates for African American women in the Southeast Community exceeded US EPA's oral reference dose (RfD) of 0.10μg/kg bw/day for mercury. In addition, 2% of the rates exceeded a level (1.00μg/kg bw/day) documented to produce adverse health effects. Past and current investigations confirmed that even though women in this community were not subsistence fishers, they are subsistence fish consumers.

  14. Beer thiol-containing compounds and redox stability: kinetic study of 1-hydroxyethyl radical scavenging ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Natália E C; Lund, Marianne N; Andersen, Mogens L; Cardoso, Daniel R

    2013-10-02

    The 1-hydroxyethyl radical is a central intermediate in oxidative reactions occurring in beer. The reactivity of thiol-containing compounds toward 1-hydroxyethyl radical was evaluated in beer model solutions using a competitive kinetic approach, employing the spin-trap 4-POBN as a probe and by using electron paramagnetic resonance to detect the generated 1-hydroxyethyl/4-POBN spin adduct. Thiol-containing compounds were highly reactive toward the 1-hydroxyethyl radical with apparent second-order rate constants close to the diffusion limit in water and ranging from 0.5 × 10⁹ L mol⁻¹ s⁻¹ for the His-Cys-Lys-Phe-Trp-Trp peptide to 6.1 × 10⁹ L mol⁻¹ s⁻¹ for the reduced lipid transfer protein 1 (LTP1) isolated from beer. The reactions gave rise to a moderate kinetic isotope effect (k(H)/k(D) = 2.3) suggesting that reduction of the 1-hydroxyethyl radical by thiol-containing compounds takes place by hydrogen atom abstraction from the RSH group rather than electron transfer. The content of reduced thiols in different beers was determined using a previously established method based on ThioGlo-1 as the thiol derivatization reagent and detection of the derivatized thiols by reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled to a fluorescence detector. The total level of thiol in beer (oxidized and reduced) was determined after a reduction step employing 3,3',3″-phosphanetriyltripropanoic acid (TCEP) as the disulfide reductant. A good correlation among total protein and total thiol content in different beers was observed. The results suggest a similar ratio between reduced thiols and disulfides in all of the tested beers, which indicates a similar redox state.

  15. Executive functions and consumption of fruits/ vegetables and high saturated fat foods in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbers, Christine A; Young, Danielle

    2015-05-01

    Executive functions play a critical role in regulating eating behaviors and have been shown to be associated with overeating which over time can result in overweight and obesity. There has been a paucity of research examining the associations among healthy dietary behaviors and executive functions utilizing behavioral rating scales of executive functioning. The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations among fruit and vegetable consumption, intake of foods high in saturated fat, and executive functions using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version. A total of 240 university students completed the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version, the 26-Item Eating Attitudes Test, and the Diet subscale of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted with two separate models in which fruit and vegetable consumption and saturated fat intake were the outcomes. Demographic variables, body mass index, and eating styles were controlled for in the analysis. Better initiation skills were associated with greater intake of fruits and vegetables in the last 7 days (standardized beta = -0.17; p fruit and vegetable consumption are distinct from those that predict avoidance of foods high in saturated fat. Future research should investigate whether continued skill enhancement in initiation and inhibition following standard behavioral interventions improves long-term maintenance of weight loss.

  16. Optimal Investment and Consumption for an Insurer with High-Watermark Performance Fee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal investment and consumption problem is investigated for an insurance company, which is subject to the payment of high-watermark fee from profit. The objective of insurance company is to maximize the expected cumulated discount utility up to ruin time. The consumption behavior considered in this paper can be viewed as dividend payment of the insurance company. It turns out that the value function of the proposed problem is the viscosity solution to the associated HJB equation. The regularity of the viscosity is discussed and some asymptotic results are provided. With the help of the smooth properties of viscosity solutions, we complete the verification theorem of the optimal control policies and the potential applications of the main result are discussed.

  17. Fate of pesticides during beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Suga, Keiko; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2011-04-27

    The fates of more than 300 pesticide residues were investigated in the course of beer brewing. Ground malt artificially contaminated with pesticides was brewed via steps such as mashing, boiling, and fermentation. Analytical samples were taken from wort, spent grain, and beer produced at certain key points in the brewing process. The samples were extracted and purified with the QuEChERS (Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe) method and were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a multiresidue method. In the results, a majority of pesticides showed a reduction in the unhopped wort and were adsorbed onto the spent grain after mashing. In addition, some pesticides diminished during the boiling and fermentation. This suggests that the reduction was caused mainly by adsorption, pyrolysis, and hydrolysis. After the entire process of brewing, the risks of contaminating beer with pesticides were reduced remarkably, and only a few pesticides remained without being removed or resolved.

  18. A Study of Food Consumption Patterns of and Obesity in Female Adolescents in Khorramshahr High Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadinasab

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background One consequence of an industrial age is overweight and obesity. The accelerating rate of obesity, especially in adolescent girls, has led to growing concern regarding the health of this generation. Objectives The objective of this study was to examine the food consumption patterns of and obesity in female adolescents in Khorramshahr high schools. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study involved 200 high school girls from Khorramshahr. The study sample was selected via multistage random sampling. Body weight and height were measured and the body mass index (BMI values were calculated. Underweight, overweight, and obesity were defined as the 5th, 85th, and 95th percentiles, respectively, using the centers for disease control and prevention (CDC BMI-for-age growth charts for girls. More data were collected by using the Food frequency questionnaire. Analysis was done using the SPSS software, Kruskal-Wallis test, and median measures. Results Findings showed that according to their BMI, 3% of the students were underweight, 82% had normal weight, 11% were overweight, and 4% were obese. There were significant relationships between the consumption of bread, dough, and sugar cubes and the BMI (P < 0.05. The highest bread consumption was among overweight students (min 90, max 360, mean 180 palms per month. In addition, students with normal weight had the highest consumption of rice and sugar cubes (160 plates and 360 cubes per month, respectively. Conclusions The findings of this study offer information regarding the current dietary patterns among adolescent girls that can be used to design educational programs to promote healthy eating in this group.

  19. Central and Metabolic Effects of High Fructose Consumption: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Stoianov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fructose consumption has increased dramatically in the last 40 years, and its role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome has been implicated by many studies. It is most often encountered in the diet as sucrose (glucose and fructose or high-fructose corn syrup (55% fructose. At high levels, dietary exposure to fructose triggers a series of metabolic changes originating in the liver, leading to hepatic steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and decreased leptin sensitivity. Fructose has been identified to alter biological pathways in other tissues including the central nervous system (CNS, adipose tissue, and the gastrointestinal system. Unlike glucose, consumption of fructose produces smaller increases in the circulating satiety hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, and does not attenuate levels of the appetite suppressing hormone ghrelin. In the brain, fructose contributes to increased food consumption by activating appetite and reward pathways, and stimulating hypothalamic AMPK activity, a nutrient-sensitive regulator of food intake. Recent studies investigating the neurophysiological factors linking fructose consumption and weight gain in humans have demonstrated differential activation of brain regions that govern appetite, motivation and reward processing. Compared to fructose, glucose ingestion produces a greater reduction of hypothalamic neuronal activity, and increases functional connectivity between the hypothalamus and other reward regions of the brain, indicating that these two sugars regulate feeding behavior through distinct neural circuits. This review article outlines the current findings in fructose-feeding studies in both human and animal models, and discusses the central effects on the CNS that may lead to increased appetite and food intake. Keywords: Fructose, Metabolic syndrome, Appetite, Central nervous system

  20. 27 CFR 28.295 - Exception for export of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 28.295 Section 28.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Alternate Procedures § 28.295 Exception for export of beer. The provisions of this subpart do not apply in the case of beer when the exporter or claimant obtains proof of exportation other than...

  1. 27 CFR 31.34 - Wholesale dealer in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in beer... Classified § 31.34 Wholesale dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines,...

  2. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  3. 27 CFR 26.68 - Bond, Form 2898-Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond, Form 2898-Beer. 26... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.68 Bond, Form 2898—Beer. Where a brewer intends to withdraw, for purpose of shipment to the United States, beer of Puerto Rican manufacture from bonded storage...

  4. Development beer technology with amaranth flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Danina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, the urgent problem is the development of product range of beer and the reduction of production costs. We used amaranth flour: "protein" and "carbohydrate", is designed and experimentally obtained from seeds of amaranth and made available for research "Agros" company (Kaliningrad region. The article discusses the effects of different concentrations of flour on the process of mashing, fermentation and the quality of beer. Prepared in the ratio of light barley malt:amaranth flour 90:10 and 80:20, respectively. Experimental were chosen of mashing barley malt with the addition of flour. The mashing process started with a temperature of 40 or 500C. Cytolytic pause was 30 min, protein-25 min, malt pause was increased up to 30 min. Using 20% of flour in the total grain charge leads to the increase of first wort extract content to 12.2%. By increasing the amount of flour in the grist of grain products increases the saccharification of the mash. The time of saccharification when you make 20% of the "protein" flour and the initial temperature of mashing 500C is 26 minutes, and "carbohydrate" flour -18min., therefore, when developing technology of new beer, from the point of view of reducing the cost of production, it is advisable to use "carbohydrate" amaranth flour in the amount of 20% in the total grain products. We estimated the impact of concentrations used flour on organoleptic indicators of finished beer on a 25 point scale. The aroma of the beer was felt citrus and malt undertones. Total score of beer with 10% amaranth flour is 18 points, and 20% amaranth flour is 20 points.

  5. Poor nutrition and alcohol consumption are related to high serum homocysteine level at post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hye; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Jong-Sung

    2015-10-01

    Increased serum homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been reported to be related to the occurrence of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. High serum Hcy levels are also related to the development of secondary stroke and all-cause mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of high serum homocysteine level and relating factors, and the change over the 10 month period post-stroke. Consecutive stroke patients who were admitted to the Asan Medical Center were enrolled. Ten months after the onset of stroke, an interview with a structured questionnaire was performed and blood samples were obtained for the biochemical parameters. Nutritional status was determined using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) score and dietary nutrient intakes were also obtained using a 24 hour recall method. Out of 203 patients, 84% were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, and 26% had high homocysteine levels at 10 months post-stroke. Using logistic regression, the factors related with high homocysteine levels at 10 months post-stroke included heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.020), low MNA scores (P = 0.026), low serum vitamin B12 (P = 0.021) and low serum folate levels (P = 0.003). Of the 156 patients who had normal homocysteine levels at admission, 36 patients developed hyperhomocysteinemia 10 months post-stroke, which was related to heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.013). Persistent hyperhomocysteinemia, observed in 22 patients (11%), was related to male sex (P = 0.031), old age (P = 0.042), low vitamin B6 intake (P = 0.029), and heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.013). Hyperhomocysteinemia is common in post-stroke, and is related to malnutrition, heavy alcohol drinking and low serum level of folate and vitamin B12. Strategies to prevent or manage high homocysteine levels should consider these factors.

  6. Child-targeted TV advertising and preschoolers' consumption of high-sugar breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Harris, Jennifer; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast cereals represent the most highly advertised packaged food on child-targeted television, and most ads are for cereals high in sugar. This study examined whether children's TV exposure to child-targeted, high-sugar breakfast cereal (SBC) ads was associated with their consumption of those SBC brands. Parents of 3- to 5-year-old children were recruited from pediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Southern New Hampshire, USA, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April-December 2013. Parents reported their child's consumption of SBC brands; whether their child had watched any of 11 kids' channels in the past week; their child's TV viewing time; and socio-demographics. Children's exposure to child-targeted SBC TV ads was calculated by combining TV channel and viewing time with advertising data for SBC ads aired on kids' TV channels during the same timeframe. Five hundred forty-eight parents completed surveys; 52.7% had an annual household income of $50,000 or less. Children's mean age was 4.4 years, 51.6% were female, and 72.5% were non-Hispanic white. In the past week, 56.9% (N = 312) of children ate SBCs advertised on kids' channels. Overall, 40.6% of children were exposed to child-targeted SBC TV ads in the past week. In fully adjusted analyses, the number of SBC brands children consumed was positively associated with their exposure to child-targeted SBC ads. Children consumed 14% (RR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.27) more SBC brands for every 10 SBC ads seen in the past 7 days. Exposure to child-targeted SBC TV advertising is positively associated with SBC brand consumption among preschool-aged children. These findings support recommendations to limit the marketing of high-sugar foods to young children.

  7. The role of lager beer yeast in oxidative stability of model beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berner, Torben Sune; Arneborg, Nils

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: In this study, we investigated the relationship between the ability of lager brewing yeast strains to tolerate oxidative stress and their ability to produce oxidative stable model beer. METHODS AND RESULTS: Screening of 21 lager brewing yeast strains against diamide and paraquat showed...... that the oxidative stress resistance was strain dependent. Fermentation of model wort in European Brewing Convention tubes using three yeast strains with varying oxidative stress resistances resulted in three model beers with different rates of radical formation as measured by electron spin resonance in forced...... in the model beers. CONCLUSIONS: A more oxidative stable beer is not obtained by a more-oxidative-stress-tolerant lager brewing yeast strain, exhibiting a higher secretion of thioredoxin, but rather by a less-oxidative-stress-tolerant strain, exhibiting a higher iron uptake. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT...

  8. Alcohol consumption and lung cancer risk in never smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio García-Lavandeira

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: No clear effect is observed for alcohol consumption. Due to the limited evidence, no conclusion can be drawn for beer or wine consumption. There is little research available on the effect of alcohol on lung cancer risk for people who have never smoked, and more studies are urgently needed on this topic.

  9. Transcriptome sequence and plasmid copy number analysis of the brewery isolate Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344 T during growth in beer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pittet

    Full Text Available Growth of specific lactic acid bacteria in beer leads to spoiled product and economic loss for the brewing industry. Microbial growth is typically inhibited by the combined stresses found in beer (e.g., ethanol, hops, low pH, minimal nutrients; however, certain bacteria have adapted to grow in this harsh environment. Considering little is known about the mechanisms used by bacteria to grow in and spoil beer, transcriptome sequencing was performed on a variant of the beer-spoilage organism Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T (Pc344-358. Illumina sequencing was used to compare the transcript levels in Pc344-358 growing mid-exponentially in beer to those in nutrient-rich MRS broth. Various operons demonstrated high gene expression in beer, several of which are involved in nutrient acquisition and overcoming the inhibitory effects of hop compounds. As well, genes functioning in cell membrane modification and biosynthesis demonstrated significantly higher transcript levels in Pc344-358 growing in beer. Three plasmids had the majority of their genes showing increased transcript levels in beer, whereas the two cryptic plasmids showed slightly decreased gene expression. Follow-up analysis of plasmid copy number in both growth environments revealed similar trends, where more copies of the three non-cryptic plasmids were found in Pc344-358 growing in beer. Transcriptome sequencing also enabled the addition of several genes to the P. claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T genome annotation, some of which are putatively transcribed as non-coding RNAs. The sequencing results not only provide the first transcriptome description of a beer-spoilage organism while growing in beer, but they also highlight several targets for future exploration, including genes that may have a role in the general stress response of lactic acid bacteria.

  10. Transcriptome sequence and plasmid copy number analysis of the brewery isolate Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344 T during growth in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Vanessa; Phister, Trevor G; Ziola, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Growth of specific lactic acid bacteria in beer leads to spoiled product and economic loss for the brewing industry. Microbial growth is typically inhibited by the combined stresses found in beer (e.g., ethanol, hops, low pH, minimal nutrients); however, certain bacteria have adapted to grow in this harsh environment. Considering little is known about the mechanisms used by bacteria to grow in and spoil beer, transcriptome sequencing was performed on a variant of the beer-spoilage organism Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) (Pc344-358). Illumina sequencing was used to compare the transcript levels in Pc344-358 growing mid-exponentially in beer to those in nutrient-rich MRS broth. Various operons demonstrated high gene expression in beer, several of which are involved in nutrient acquisition and overcoming the inhibitory effects of hop compounds. As well, genes functioning in cell membrane modification and biosynthesis demonstrated significantly higher transcript levels in Pc344-358 growing in beer. Three plasmids had the majority of their genes showing increased transcript levels in beer, whereas the two cryptic plasmids showed slightly decreased gene expression. Follow-up analysis of plasmid copy number in both growth environments revealed similar trends, where more copies of the three non-cryptic plasmids were found in Pc344-358 growing in beer. Transcriptome sequencing also enabled the addition of several genes to the P. claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) genome annotation, some of which are putatively transcribed as non-coding RNAs. The sequencing results not only provide the first transcriptome description of a beer-spoilage organism while growing in beer, but they also highlight several targets for future exploration, including genes that may have a role in the general stress response of lactic acid bacteria.

  11. [The evaluation of anti-nutritive components in beer on the example of oxalic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Agnieszka; Baca, Elzbieta; Baranowski, Krzysztof; Michałowska, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    Food in its composition contains anti-nutritional substances that reduces or prevents the use of valuable nutrients. The oxalic acid, as phytate and dietary fiber, occurs naturally in foods of plant origin, to which the beer is classified. The negative effect of oxalic acid is reducing the bioavailability of calcium and magnesium, and disorder of metabolism of the body's absorption of these elements from the diet. The excess of oxalic acid and its salt in the diet contributes to the formation of certain diseases, such as oxalate urolithiasis, osteoporosis, arthritis, etc. Due to the diuretic effect of beer, drinking moderate amounts of it is recommended as a preventive and support urinary tract disorders. The aim of this study was to determine and comparison the oxalic acid content in selected beers available on the Polish market. Fifty seven samples of beer were used for this study. These samples were divided into three groups depending on the alcohol concentration declared by the producers (1st group--below 5.5% vol., 2nd group--from 5.5 to 6.5% vol., 3rd group--above 6.5% vol.). The beer samples were incubated in the ultrasonic bath for 15 minutes following pH adjustments up to pH = 2 with the 1 mol/L hydrochloric acid to transform calcium oxalates into soluble form, then filtered. The oxalic acid concentration was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with conductivity detection. The concentration of oxalic acid in tested samples of beer ranged from 1.8 to 30.3 mg/L. No considerable differences between the concentration of oxalic acid in the three tested group of beer with the various content of the alcohol were found. Basing on the average concentrations of the oxalic acid in the different groups of the tested beers the positive trend in oxalic acid concentration related to the increase of alcohol could be observed. The very low concentration of oxalic acid allows to classify beer as food product safe for the human health in terms of low

  12. 啤酒高浓度发酵酵母的扩培方式%The method of yeast propagation for beer high gravity brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭玉; 孙玉梅; 曹方

    2013-01-01

    Yeast activity and fermentation performance were studied to obtain the best method of yeast propagation and yeasts culture with high vitality used for high gravity brewing. During 20 °P wort fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae propagated in various gravity of wort, cell density, cramino nitrogen concentration, reducing sugar concentration and attenuation degree were determined. The results demonstrated that the fermentation performances were different when yeasts were propagated in various gravity of wort. The yeast propagated in 12 °P wort at the first level and in 16 °P wort at the second level had stable fermentation performance, high vitality and attenuation degree, which was suitable for 20 °P wort fermentation.%为获得适合高浓度啤酒发酵的扩培方式和性能优良的酵母培养液,研究了种子扩培方式对酵母活力和发酵性能的影响.采用不同扩培的种子液进行20°P麦汁发酵,测定了发酵过程中细胞密度、a-氨基氮质量浓度、还原糖质量浓度、CO2失重量、酵母存活率及发酵度等指标.结果表明,扩培方式对酵母的发酵性能和存活率影响较大,其中经12°P麦汁进行一级种子扩培、16°P麦汁进行二级种子扩培的酵母在发酵过程中性能稳定,细胞存活率和发酵度高,这种扩培方式较适合20°P麦汁发酵.

  13. Mycotoxins and fermentation--beer production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Hall, Charlene E; Schwarz, Paul B

    2002-01-01

    Along with food safety issues due to mycotoxins, the effects of Fusarium infections on malt and beer quality can be disastrous. While some of the Fusarium head blight mycotoxins, such as DON, present in infected barley may be lost during steeping, the Fusarium mold is still capable of growth and mycotoxin production during steeping, germination and kilning. Therefore, detoxification of grain before malting may not be practical unless further growth of the mold is also prevented. Methods for reducing the amount of mold growth during malting are needed. Physical, chemical and biological methods exist for inhibiting mold growth in grain. Irradiation is a promising means for preventing Fusarium growth during malting, but its effects on malt quality and mycotoxin production in surviving mold need to be evaluated in more detail. Chemical treatments such as ozonation, which do not leave chemical residues in beer, also appear to be promising. Although biological control methods may be desirable, the effects of these inhibitors on malt and beer quality require further investigation. In addition, storage studies are needed to determine the effect of biological control on Fusarium viability and malt quality. It may also be possible to incorporate detoxifying genes into fermentation yeasts, which would result in detoxification of mycotoxins present in wort. Development of these types of technological interventions should help improve the safety of products, such as beer, made from Fusarium infected grain.

  14. Beer's law in semiconductor quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Adamashvili, G T

    2010-01-01

    The propagation of a coherent optical linear wave in an ensemble of semiconductor quantum dots is considered. It is shown that a distribution of transition dipole moments of the quantum dots changes significantly the polarization and Beer's absorption length of the ensemble of quantum dots. Explicit analytical expressions for these quantities are presented.

  15. Proteins influencing foam formation in wine and beer: the role of yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Lucía; Viñas, Miquel; Villa, Tomás G

    2011-06-01

    This review focuses on the role of proteins in the production and maintenance of foam in both sparkling wines and beer. The quality of the foam in beer but especially in sparkling wines depends, among other factors, on the presence of mannoproteins released from the yeast cell walls during autolysis. These proteins are hydrophobic, highly glycosylated, and their molecular masses range from 10 to 200 kDa--characteristics that allow mannoproteins to surround and thus stabilize the gas bubbles of the foam. Both the production and stabilization of foam also depend on other proteins. In wine, these include grape-derived proteins such as vacuolar invertase; in beer, barley-derived proteins, such as LTP1, protein Z, and hordein-derived polypeptides, are even more important in this respect than mannoproteins.

  16. Improved quantification of important beer quality parameters based on nonlinear calibration methods applied to FT-MIR spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernuda, Carlos; Lughofer, Edwin; Klein, Helmut; Forster, Clemens; Pawliczek, Marcin; Brandstetter, Markus

    2017-01-01

    During the production process of beer, it is of utmost importance to guarantee a high consistency of the beer quality. For instance, the bitterness is an essential quality parameter which has to be controlled within the specifications at the beginning of the production process in the unfermented beer (wort) as well as in final products such as beer and beer mix beverages. Nowadays, analytical techniques for quality control in beer production are mainly based on manual supervision, i.e., samples are taken from the process and analyzed in the laboratory. This typically requires significant lab technicians efforts for only a small fraction of samples to be analyzed, which leads to significant costs for beer breweries and companies. Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy was used in combination with nonlinear multivariate calibration techniques to overcome (i) the time consuming off-line analyses in beer production and (ii) already known limitations of standard linear chemometric methods, like partial least squares (PLS), for important quality parameters Speers et al. (J I Brewing. 2003;109(3):229-235), Zhang et al. (J I Brewing. 2012;118(4):361-367) such as bitterness, citric acid, total acids, free amino nitrogen, final attenuation, or foam stability. The calibration models are established with enhanced nonlinear techniques based (i) on a new piece-wise linear version of PLS by employing fuzzy rules for local partitioning the latent variable space and (ii) on extensions of support vector regression variants (-PLSSVR and ν-PLSSVR), for overcoming high computation times in high-dimensional problems and time-intensive and inappropriate settings of the kernel parameters. Furthermore, we introduce a new model selection scheme based on bagged ensembles in order to improve robustness and thus predictive quality of the final models. The approaches are tested on real-world calibration data sets for wort and beer mix beverages, and successfully compared to

  17. Alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    Since the 1960s wine consumption has decreased dramatically in especially the Southern European countries whereas the countries in the northern parts of Europe have experienced a substitution from beer and spirits toward wines. In this sense there has been a process of convergence taking place re...... with strong evidence of a significantly positive relationship between alcohol consumption and the development in liver diseases; this is in accordance with many other micro studies.......Since the 1960s wine consumption has decreased dramatically in especially the Southern European countries whereas the countries in the northern parts of Europe have experienced a substitution from beer and spirits toward wines. In this sense there has been a process of convergence taking place...... regarding per capita consumption of wine among the European countries. Also for the total consumption of alcohol, i.e. the per capita consumption of beer, wine and spirits, the hypothesis of convergence seems to hold. In the same time span the number of alcohol related diseases as e.g. liver diseases, have...

  18. Alcohol consumption in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Plevová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the level of alcohol consumption in a selected group of adolescents. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: The data were obtained using a part of the standardized ESPAD questionnaire for assessing consumption of alcoholic beverages. The sample comprised 422 students from seven secondary schools of different types in the city of Ostrava. For statistical analysis, the chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test (for n ≤ 5 were used. The data were processed using Stata v. 10. Results: More than half of respondents first tried alcohol before the age of 15. The most frequent alcohol-related problems were unprotected sex, decreased school performance and problems with parents or friends. Incomplete families were found to be an important factor in adolescents preferring and more frequently drinking beer. Conclusion: The study confirmed results reported by the Europe-wide survey ESPAD, namely that adolescents start to drink alcohol as early as before they turn fifteen.

  19. A Chemoprevention Trial to Study the Effects of High Tea Consumption on Smoking-Related Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    each subject’s baseline history of smoking, diet and tea intake, plasma catechins , and levels biomarkers of oxidative stress at baseline. All...Effects of High Tea Consumption on Smoking-Related Oxidative Stress PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Iman A. Hakim, MD, Ph., MPH...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 13 Jul 06 – 12 Jan 07 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Chemoprevention Trial to Study the Effects of High Tea Consumption on 5a

  20. The association between polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption and the transition to psychosis in ultra-high risk individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełczyk, T; Trafalska, E; Kotlicka-Antczak, M; Pawełczyk, A

    2016-05-01

    PUFA deficiencies in cellular membranes have been observed in ultra-high risk (HR) individuals and in early schizophrenia. It is uncertain whether dietary PUFA consumption can be associated with the risk of transition to psychosis in HR individuals. The aim of the study was to assess PUFA consumption and confirm whether dietary habits are related to the risk of transition to full-threshold psychosis in HR individuals during a 12-month follow-up. PUFA consumption during the previous year was analyzed in 62 h individuals and 33 healthy controls (HC) at the beginning of the follow-up period using a validated Food-Frequency Questionnaire and the Polish Food Composition Tables. Fifteen HR individuals converted into psychosis (C-HR) during the 12-month follow-up. C-HR individuals reported significantly higher consumption of n-6 fatty acids (linoleic acid, LA and arachidonic acid, AA) in comparison with individuals who did not develop psychosis (NC-HR). The C-HR group reported a significantly higher AA/(EPA+DHA) consumption ratio than the NC-HR group. HC reported significantly higher consumption of most n-3 PUFA and lower consumption of all n-6 PUFA than both groups of HR individuals. The results suggest that dietary patterns of PUFA consumption may play a role in the conversion to psychosis of HR individuals.

  1. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks: prevalence and key correlates among Canadian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Langille, Don; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research has reported high consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young adults, particularly college students. However, little is known about adolescents' consumption of these drinks. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks and to examine its correlates among Canadian high school students. We used a nationally representative sample of 36 155 Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2010/2011 Youth Smoking Survey. About 20% of Canadian high school students reported consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks in the last year, with considerable variation across provinces. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of consumption of these drinks were higher among students in lower grades (grades 7 and 8) and among students who identified their ethnicity as black or "other." Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks was positively associated with substance use (current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.95], past-year heavy drinking [adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.84-4.09] and marijuana use [adjusted OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.90-2.76]), absence from school, participation in school team sports and having more weekly spending money. Students who felt more connected to school and had an academic average of 70% or higher were less likely to consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks is an emerging public health concern. Consumption of these drinks is substantial among Canadian high school students and can lead to many potential harms, both acute (e.g., injury) and long term (e.g., increased alcohol dependence). Our findings highlight the need for further research into the long-term effects of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young people, as well as the development of interventions aimed at reducing consumption of these drinks.

  2. High oxygen consumption rates in the deep layers of the North Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. SOUVERMEZOGLOU

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Severe winter meteorological conditions promote dense water formation over the shelves of the North Aegean Sea. The newly formed dense water fills the deep basins of the North Aegean Sea, contributing to their ventilation and the downward transport of organic and inorganic material. The great bathymetric variability imposes limitations on the deep circulation and the communication between the various basins and makes the North Aegean Sea an appropriate area for the monitoring of oxygen consumption in the deep layers. Historical hydrographic data suggest that there was extensive production of dense water in the North Aegean Sea on two occasions during the last decade, the winters of 1987 and 1992-1993. Our data series from August 1986 to September 1989 and from March 1997 to February 1999, permitted us to follow, step by step, the oxygen consumption and the nutrient regeneration in the deep basins of the northern Aegean Sea during these periods of isolation. The organic matter reaching the bottom layer just after the deep water formation event is rich in labile and easily oxidizable material and its decomposition leads to a significant oxygen uptake during the first year of stagnation. The further decomposition of the remaining semi-labile and refractory material turns over on greater time scales, by consuming lesser amounts of oxygen. A more significant oxygen decrease is recorded in the eastern basin (Lemnos Basin of the North Aegean Trough, than in the central (Athos Basin and the western (North Sporades Basin ones and is attributed to the irregular contribution of the Black Sea Water (BSW to the water masses formed on the different shelves of the North Aegean Sea. Our results and the existing data on the Turkish straits showed that dissolved organic matter is the major constituent responsible for this high oxygen consumption. The slightly different particulate organic carbon fluxes to these depressions play a secondary role.

  3. High oxygen consumption rates in the deep layers of the North Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. SOUVERMEZOGLOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe winter meteorological conditions promote dense water formation over the shelves of the North Aegean Sea. The newly formed dense water fills the deep basins of the North Aegean Sea, contributing to their ventilation and the downward transport of organic and inorganic material. The great bathymetric variability imposes limitations on the deep circulation and the communication between the various basins and makes the North Aegean Sea an appropriate area for the monitoring of oxygen consumption in the deep layers. Historical hydrographic data suggest that there was extensive production of dense water in the North Aegean Sea on two occasions during the last decade, the winters of 1987 and 1992-1993. Our data series from August 1986 to September 1989 and from March 1997 to February 1999, permitted us to follow, step by step, the oxygen consumption and the nutrient regeneration in the deep basins of the northern Aegean Sea during these periods of isolation. The organic matter reaching the bottom layer just after the deep water formation event is rich in labile and easily oxidizable material and its decomposition leads to a significant oxygen uptake during the first year of stagnation. The further decomposition of the remaining semi-labile and refractory material turns over on greater time scales, by consuming lesser amounts of oxygen. A more significant oxygen decrease is recorded in the eastern basin (Lemnos Basin of the North Aegean Trough, than in the central (Athos Basin and the western (North Sporades Basin ones and is attributed to the irregular contribution of the Black Sea Water (BSW to the water masses formed on the different shelves of the North Aegean Sea. Our results and the existing data on the Turkish straits showed that dissolved organic matter is the major constituent responsible for this high oxygen consumption. The slightly different particulate organic carbon fluxes to these depressions play a secondary role.

  4. Vitamin D status in a rural population of northern Norway with high fish liver consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustad, M; Sandanger, T; Aksnes, L; Lund, E

    2004-09-01

    To assess vitamin D status and the impact of three fish meals consisting of cod liver and fresh cod-liver oil on the plasma level of vitamin D metabolites in an area with high consumption of cod liver and cod-liver oil. Experimental field study. Thirty-two volunteers from the Skjervøy (70 degrees N) municipality in northern Norway were recruited to consume three traditional mølje meals, consisting of cod, cod liver, fresh cod-liver oil and hard roe, in one week. The liver and fresh cod-liver oil consumed by the participants were weighed and recorded. Blood samples were collected before the first meal, and subsequently 12 h and 4 days after the last meal. The blood samples were analysed for the vitamin D metabolites 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). All participants answered a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire, which was used to estimate usual daily nutrient intake. The study was carried out in the last part of March 2001. The median daily vitamin D intake estimated from the questionnaire was 9.9 microg. The proportion of subjects with baseline 25(OH)D level below 50 nmol l(-1) was 15.4% and none were below 37.5 nmol l(-1). Only "mølje consumption" and "time spent in daylight" were significantly associated with baseline log 25(OH)D. The mean total intake of vitamin D in the three servings was 272 microg (standard deviation 94 microg), ranging from 142 to 434 microg. Relative to baseline plasma concentration, the mean level of 25(OH)D decreased slightly in both post-consumption samples (Pmeal (P=0.03). Three mølje meals provided, on average, an amount of vitamin D equal to 54 times the recommended daily dose. Subjects with food consumption habits that included frequent mølje meals during the winter sustained satisfactory vitamin D levels in their blood, in spite of the long "vitamin D winter" (i.e. absence of ultraviolet-induced vitamin D production in the skin).

  5. 27 CFR 25.15 - Materials for the production of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... production of beer. 25.15 Section 25.15 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Definitions Standards for Beer § 25.15 Materials for the production of beer. (a) Beer must be brewed from malt or from substitutes for malt. Only rice...

  6. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed...

  7. 27 CFR 25.156 - Determination of tax on keg beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... keg beer. 25.156 Section 25.156 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.156 Determination of tax on keg beer. (a) In determining the tax on beer removed in kegs, a barrel is regarded as...

  8. Study on heating technique for high productivity, superior quality and lower consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENYong; ZHOUJiacong; MEIDongsheng

    2003-01-01

    The existing thermal characteristics of reheating fumace and heavy rail bloom heating technique was evaluated based on temperature measurement with thermal couples and energy balance. Then, the heating technique was optimized. The modified operation shows the annual production of steel for heavy rail is increased from 400 000 t to 500 000 t, the fluctuation of heating temperature is lowered from ±40℃ to ±20℃, while, temperature difference in bloom section is lessened from 65℃ to less than 45℃, specific fuel consumption is decreased from 2.147GJ/t to 2.014GJ/t of steel. Furthermore, metal loss due to oxidation is signifioantly reduced from 1.75 % to 0.72 % to 0.92 %, decarburization depth is lowered from 0.35—0.82 mm to 0.20—0.50 mm, and the rate of overbuming is decreased 45 %. The purpose for realizing high productivity, superior quality and lower consumption has been achieved.

  9. Modelling geochemical and microbial consumption of dissolved oxygen after backfilling a high level radiactive waste repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changbing; Samper, Javier; Molinero, Jorge; Bonilla, Mercedes

    2007-08-15

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) left in the voids of buffer and backfill materials of a deep geological high level radioactive waste (HLW) repository could cause canister corrosion. Available data from laboratory and in situ experiments indicate that microbes play a substantial role in controlling redox conditions near a HLW repository. This paper presents the application of a coupled hydro-bio-geochemical model to evaluate geochemical and microbial consumption of DO in bentonite porewater after backfilling of a HLW repository designed according to the Swedish reference concept. In addition to geochemical reactions, the model accounts for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) respiration and methane oxidation. Parameters for microbial processes were derived from calibration of the REX in situ experiment carried out at the Aspö underground laboratory. The role of geochemical and microbial processes in consuming DO is evaluated for several scenarios. Numerical results show that both geochemical and microbial processes are relevant for DO consumption. However, the time needed to consume the DO trapped in the bentonite buffer decreases dramatically from several hundreds of years when only geochemical processes are considered to a few weeks when both geochemical reactions and microbially-mediated DOC respiration and methane oxidation are taken into account simultaneously.

  10. Drinking water contributes to high salt consumption in young adults in coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Mohammad Radwanur Rahman; Rutherford, Shannon; Phung, Dung; Malek, Abdul; Khan, Sheela; Chu, Cordia

    2016-04-01

    Increasing salinity of freshwater from environmental and anthropogenic influences is threatening the health of 35 million inhabitants in coastal Bangladesh. Yet little is known about the characteristics of their exposure to salt (sodium), a major risk factor for hypertension and related chronic diseases. This research examined sodium consumption levels and associated factors in young adults. We assessed spot urine samples for 282 participants (19-25 years) during May-June 2014 in a rural sub-district in southwestern coastal Bangladesh and measured sodium levels of their potable water sources. The significant factors associated with high sodium consumption were determined from logistic regression analyses. Mean sodium content in tube-well water (885 mg/L) was significantly higher than pond water (738 mg/L) (P = 0.01). Fifty three percent of subjects were consuming sodium at levels above the WHO recommended level (≥2 g/day). The users of tube-well water were more likely to consume sodium above this recommended level than pond water users. Salinity problems are projected to increase with climate change, and with large populations potentially at risk, appropriate public health and behavior-change interventions are an urgent priority for this vulnerable coastal region along with targeted research to better understand sodium exposure pathways and health benefits of alternative water supplies.

  11. Investigation on the Isolation of Beer Gushing Hydrophobins%啤酒喷涌多肽分离的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾娟; 王林山

    2012-01-01

    通过对喷涌啤酒蛋白和正常啤酒蛋白进行对比分析,研究了喷涌啤酒中疏水多肽的提取分离。结果表明,在高饱和度80%盐析的条件下,喷涌啤酒中分子量20 kDa以下蛋白较显著,确定了啤酒喷涌的疏水多肽片段的初步分离条件,并讨论了啤酒喷涌的预防措施,为深入了解和有效控制啤酒喷涌现象提供了理论依据。%Through the comparison and the analysis of gushing beer protein and normal beer protein,the separation of hydrophobins from gushing beer was investigated.The results showed that protein with its molecular weight below 20 kDa was prevailing in gushing beer in the conditions of 80 % high saturation of salting-out,which was considered as the initial separation condition and provided theoretical evidences for effective control and deep understanding of beer gushing.Moreover,the prevention measures against beer gushing were discussed.

  12. General characteristics of psychoactive substances consumption and abuse among high school population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Snežana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Consumption of psychoactive substances among the youth is suggestive of a trend indicating an accelerated and continual growth of the tendency in question. This research was aimed at investigating the frequency of psychoactive substance consumption among high school students on the territory of the town of Kragujevac so that the adequate measures on prevention should be taken. Material and methods. Data from the questionnaire answered by high school student attending the 1st and 4th grade of the medical, technical and economic high schools in Kragujevac were thereby used. The survey included the overall number of 1280 students: there were 793 (62% male participants and 487 (38% female. The research was conducted from October 2007 until January 2008. The questionnaire from the project 'Health Status, Health Needs and Utilization of Health Care of the Population of Serbia' conducted by the Institute of Public Health of Serbia 'Dr Milan Jovanović Batut' in 2000 was used in the survey. Results and Discussion According to the answers, alcohol was used by 45.5%, cigarettes by 20.% and drugs by 3.1% of the examined subjects. Following the use of alcohol and cigarettes, the most often used psychoactive substance was cannabis, which was consumed by 7.8% of the examined subjects out of who 9.8% were boys and 4.8% were girls. Since the risky behavior seems not to be isolated and individual, but rather as a combination of several forms of it, school programmes should treat young people before certain forms of behavior are established. Family, school, health service and society should work on an organized basis as well as methodically on prevention and on fighting against these inadequate habits.

  13. Supply Chain Collaboration under Uncertainty in the Albanian Beer Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa MAMILLO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Today supply chain uncertainty is higher due to the global crisis, the fast changing technology and the increasing vulnerability of supply chains. Companies use different strategies to reduce uncertainty, like building agile supply chains, increasing resilience, postponement, etc. All these strategies require strong supply chain collaboration. Although research interest in supply chain collaboration is growing, no research has been done in Albania. This paper is one of the first to investigate supply chain management practices and the extent of supply chain collaboration in the Albanian beer industry. The aim of this research is twofold: first, to investigate how supply chain uncertainty influences the extent of collaboration with the supply chain members, and second, to analyze how organizational culture facilitates the collaboration process. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the managers of the main beer companies. A guide questionnaire was prepared. It consisted of open and rate-scale questions about supply chain collaboration, supply chain uncertainty, supply chain management practices and organizational culture. The research will show that a high level of supply chain uncertainty does not always lead to a high degree of collaboration with the supply chain members. Organizational culture is the key driver of a successful collaboration. Not all types of culture can facilitate collaboration but only the ones with an external orientation.

  14. Beer consumers' perceptions of the health aspects of alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C A; Bruhn, C M; Heymann, H; Bamforth, C W

    2008-01-01

    Consumers' perceptions about alcohol are shaped by numerous factors. This environment includes advertisements, public service announcements, product labels, various health claims, and warnings about the dangers of alcohol consumption. This study used focus groups and questionnaires to examine consumers' perceptions of alcoholic beverages based on their nutritional value and health benefits. The overall purpose of this study was to examine beer consumers' perceptions of the health attributes and content of alcoholic beverages. Volunteers were surveyed at large commercial breweries in California, Missouri, and New Hampshire. The anonymous, written survey was presented in a self-explanatory format and was completed in 5 to 10 min. The content and style of the survey were derived from focus groups conducted in California. The data are separated by location, gender, and over or under the age of 30. Parametric data on beverage rating were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) while the nonparametric data from True/False or Yes/No questions were analyzed using chi-square. Although statistically significant variances did exist between survey location, gender, and age, general trends emerged in areas of inquiry. The findings indicate that a great opportunity exists to inform consumers about the health benefits derived from the moderate consumption of all alcoholic beverages.

  15. Teaching Beer's Law and Absorption Spectrophotometry with a Smart Phone: A Substantially Simplified Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Jacobson, Erik C.

    2016-01-01

    A very simple protocol for teaching Beer's Law and absorption spectrophotometry using a smart phone is described. Materials commonly found in high school chemistry laboratories or even around the house may be used. Data collection and analysis is quick and easy. Despite the simple nature of the experiment, excellent results can be achieved.

  16. Novel Centromeric Loci of the Wine and Beer Yeast Dekkera bruxellensis CEN1 and CEN2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishchuk, Olena P.; Vojvoda Zeljko, Tanja; Schifferdecker, Anna J.

    2016-01-01

    The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis thrives in environments that are harsh and limiting, especially in concentrations with low oxygen and high ethanol. Its different strains' chromosomes greatly vary in number (karyotype). This study isolates two novel centromeric loci (CEN1 and CEN2...

  17. Teaching Beer's Law and Absorption Spectrophotometry with a Smart Phone: A Substantially Simplified Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Jacobson, Erik C.

    2016-01-01

    A very simple protocol for teaching Beer's Law and absorption spectrophotometry using a smart phone is described. Materials commonly found in high school chemistry laboratories or even around the house may be used. Data collection and analysis is quick and easy. Despite the simple nature of the experiment, excellent results can be achieved.

  18. Associations of Caffeinated Beverage Consumption and Screen Time with Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Korean High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Nuri; Lee, Aeri; Baik, Inkyung

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated caffeinated beverage consumption and screen time in the association with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and sleep duration. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 249 Korean male high school students. These participants responded to a questionnaire inquiring the information on lifestyle factors, consumption of caffeinated beverages, time spent for screen media, and sleep duration as well as to the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire. EDS was...

  19. Saccharomyces species in the Production of Beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham G. Stewart

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic flavour and aroma of any beer is, in large part, determined by the yeast strain employed and the wort composition. In addition, properties such as flocculation, wort fermentation ability (including the uptake of wort sugars, amino acids, and peptides, ethanol and osmotic pressure tolerance together with oxygen requirements have a critical impact on fermentation performance. Yeast management between fermentations is also a critical brewing parameter. Brewer’s yeasts are mostly part of the genus Saccharomyces. Ale yeasts belong to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lager yeasts to the species Saccharomyces pastorianus. The latter is an interspecies hybrid between S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces eubayanus. Brewer’s yeast strains are facultative anaerobes—they are able to grow in the presence or absence of oxygen and this ability supports their property as an important industrial microorganism. This article covers important aspects of Saccharomyces molecular biology, physiology, and metabolism that is involved in wort fermentation and beer production.

  20. Making a frothy shampoo or beer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durian, Douglas

    2011-03-01

    The terms ``foam'' and ``froth'' refer to a dispersion of gas bubbles in a liquid. Why do certain liquids show a tendency to foam while others do not? For example, bubbles can be produced in pure water by vigorous agitation, but then they rapidly coalesce and disappear. While foams cannot be produced with pure water, foams associated with beer or shampoo can persist for several minutes or even hours. What ingredient(s) in shampoo and beer make their foams stable, and what physical concepts control their stability? In this talk I'll review three basic mechanisms underlying foam stability, and I'll make connection with current research on coarsening by the diffusion of gas from smaller to larger bubbles. With thanks to Srinivasa Raghavan, Adam Roth, and NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Grant NNX07AP20G.

  1. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, F.S. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (USA) Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    In the hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO{sub 2}) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO{sub 2} so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer '' is answered experimentally.

  2. The Association between Socio-Demographic Charactristics and Fast Food Consumption withinHigh School Students in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parastoo Yarmohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Fast food consumption has greatly increased with in adolescents in recent years, which is linked with weight gain, poor dietary indexes and insulin resistance. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between demographic characteristics and fast food consumption with in high school students. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, a sample of 521 high school students  aged 15-18 years were examined in Isfahan city, who were selected via multistage sampling method. The study data were collected using a questionnaire completed by the students. The present study probed to assess such items as frequency of fast food consumption, demographic characteristics, hours of television viewing, as well as high school students' knowledge and attitude. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Result: Frequent intake of fast food (&ge1 time/week was reported 15.5% within females and 15.3% within males. A significant relationship was detected between parents’ high level of education and high income of the family with the fast food consumption. The predominate reasons for fast food consumption were stated as “enjoying tastes”, “eating at any place”,” inexpensive and economic”. Conclusion: The findings revealed that fast food consumption increased in families with high income and high education level, though these families needed to be educated on the harmful effects of fast food and how to choose the healthy foods. Therefore, some interventions may be regarded beneficial in order to reduce the exposure to the fast food and promote knowledge, attitude, and behavior change in regard with reducing consumption of fast food.

  3. Molecular mechanisms regulating oxygen transport and consumption in high altitude and hibernating mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Inge Grønvall

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to broaden the knowledge of molecular mechanisms of adjustment in oxygen (O2) uptake, conduction, delivery and consumption in mammals adapted to extreme conditions. For this end, I have worked with animals living at high altitude as an example of environmental hypoxia......, and hibernating mammals, as an example of closely balanced internal low O2. Studies have had two main focus points. Firstly, I have investigated variations in hemolysate and hemoglobin (Hb) O2 affinity, working to pinpoint whether and how functional changes in intrinsic affinity or cofactor sensitivity of the Hb...... molecule compares to amino acid substitutions in the molecule, i.e., can be characterized as evolved genetic adaptation. Phenotypic acclimatization in Hb- O2 affinity responses involves changes in cofactor to Hb tetramer ratio. Secondly, I have worked with (in a cardiovascular perspective) fine...

  4. Training Load Monitoring Algorithms on Highly Sub-Metered Home Electricity Consumption Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mario Berges; Ethan Goldman; H. Scott Matthews; Lucio Soibelman

    2008-01-01

    The growing interest in energy-efficient buildings is driving changes in investment, design, and occupant behavior. To better focus cost and resource conservation efforts, electricity consumption feedback can be used to provide motivation, guidance, and verification. Disaggregating by end-use helps both con-sumers and producers to identify targets for conservation. While hardware-based sub-metering is costly and labor-intensive, non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) is capable of gathering detailed energy-use data with minimal equipment cost and installation time. However, variations in measurements between metering de-vices complicate the process of compiling the necessary appliance profiles. Future work involves the devel-opment of NILM algorithms using sensor fusion and detailed appliance-level data gathered from a highly-sensed house currently being constructed near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  5. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis

    OpenAIRE

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P.; Piškur, Jure

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beer...

  6. Beer potomania: two cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenves, A Z; Thomas, S; Knochel, J P

    1996-01-01

    The association of severe hyponatremia and the ingestion of large quantities of beer, termed beer potomania, has been known for several years. We report two new cases, and review 20 others from the medical literature. These patients usually have a history of binge beer drinking, poor dietary intake, and then present with severe hyponatremia and various mental status changes or seizures. Typical laboratory findings include hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and a very dilute urine. The patients respond quickly to the administration of sodium chloride containing i.v. fluids. We propose that the pivotal pathophysiologic mechanism in beer potomania syndrome is the minimal intake of solute and the hypoosmolality of the beer ingested. This will lead to the inability to excrete sufficient amounts of free water to keep up with the ingestion of large quantities of the hyposmolar beer. Treatment with isotonic sodium chloride results in the rapid clearance of the accumulated excess free water.

  7. Revaluation of Waste Yeast from Beer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Suruceanu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brewing yeast is an important waste product from beer production. The valorification of slurry yeast mainly consists of separation of vitamins and important nitrogen compounds. The hops compounds, one of the most important raw materials in beer technology are removed beforehand valorification. The prenylflavonoids compounds from hops are important bioactive compounds that can be revaluation with proper technology. Revaluation of prenylflavonoids from waste yeast into dietary supplement, identification and quantification of xanthohumol by HPLC method. Waste yeast from brewery pilot plant of USAMV Cluj Napoca it was dried by atomization and the powder was analyzed on xanthohumol content by HPLC method. For quantification a calibration curve it was used. The process of drying by atomisation lead to a powder product. It was used malt dextrin powder for stabilisation. The final product it was encapsulated. The xanthohumol content of powdered yeast it was 1.94 µg/ml. In conclusion the slurry yeast from beer production it is an important source of prenylflavonoids compounds.

  8. Immunochemical determination of gluten in malts and beers

    OpenAIRE

    Dostálek, Pavel; Hochel, Igor; Méndez, Enrique; Hernando, Alberto; Gabrovská, Dana

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The glutent content in the different varieties of barley, malts, and different types of beers were determined by means of "sandwich" enzyme immunoassay. The commercial RIDASCREEN? Gliadin kit has been used. The gluten level ranges in barley wheat, rye and spelt malts are 18.8-45.0, 44.0-68.0, 41.6, and 21.2 g kg-1, respectively. When various types of beer are compared the gluten concentration rise in the following order: alcohol free beer (

  9. Determination and fractionation of metals in beer ? a review

    OpenAIRE

    Pohl, Pawel

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Major, minor and trace metals are important in beer fermentation since they supply the appropriate environment for yeast growth and have the influence on yeast metabolism. A real concern is the content of Cu and Fe, which are involved in beer conditioning and ageing through reactions resulting in formation of reactive oxygen species. The reactive oxygen species readily oxidize organic compounds present in beer, changing the quality of foaming and the flavor stability of be...

  10. Excise Tax Overshifting in the Hungarian Beer Market

    OpenAIRE

    Bakó, Barna; Berezvai, Zombor

    2013-01-01

    We conduct this paper on excise tax shifting in the Hungarian beer market. Using a regression model we show that tax overshifting occurs in this market. We present a model with oligopolistic competition to explain how tax overshifting can occur because of the separated vertical structure. Our results suggests that Hungarian beer producers compete in Bertrand fashion and the hypothesis of collusion between beer producers can be rejected.

  11. Demonstration of the exponential decay law using beer froth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leike, A. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Sektion Physik, Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: leike@theorie.physik.uni-muenchen.de

    2002-01-01

    The volume of beer froth decays exponentially with time. This property is used to demonstrate the exponential decay law in the classroom. The decay constant depends on the type of beer and can be used to differentiate between different beers. The analysis shows in a transparent way the techniques of data analysis commonly used in science - consistency checks of theoretical models with the data, parameter estimation and determination of confidence intervals. (author)

  12. "Beer potomania" in non-beer drinkers: effect of low dietary solute intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, S M; Teitelbaum, I; Berl, T

    1998-06-01

    A ovolactovegetarian patient presented with hyponatremia. She had maximally dilute urine and undetectable vasopressin levels. Dietary history revealed very low protein intake but no beer intake. We postulated that the very low intake of solute limited her water excretion and caused the hyponatremia despite only a modest increase in fluid intake. When protein intake was increased in a clinical research center setting, free water excretion increased and serum sodium normalized despite maintaining the water intake at 4 to 5 L daily. We discuss the role of dietary solute in water excretion. Previously described in beer drinkers, the phenomenon can occur in the absence of beer drinking. In this era of weight consciousness, hyponatremia because of low solute intake may be seen with increased frequency.

  13. High tobacco consumption is causally associated with increased all-cause mortality in a general population sample of 55 568 individuals, but not with short telomeres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Bojesen, Stig E; Weischer, Maren

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High cumulative tobacco consumption is associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality. METHODS: We studied 55,568 individu......BACKGROUND: High cumulative tobacco consumption is associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality. METHODS: We studied 55...... short telomeres explained only +0.4% (-3.5%, +4.3%) of the association between high tobacco consumption and increased all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: High tobacco consumption is causally associated with increased all-cause mortality. High cumulative tobacco consumption is associated with short...

  14. Fate of Mycotoxins during Beer Brewing and Fermentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    INOUE, Tomonori; NAGATOMI, Yasushi; UYAMA, Atsuo; MOCHIZUKI, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    ...) during beer brewing was investigated in this study. Malt artificially spiked with each mycotoxin was put through the mashing, filtration, boiling and fermentation processes involved in brewing...

  15. High consumption of primates by pumas and ocelots in a remnant of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Santos

    Full Text Available We studied the diet of the ocelot and puma during the years 2007 and 2008 at the Feliciano Miguel Abdala Reserve, in Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil. We collected 49 faecal samples (scats from cats, and identified the species of cat from 23 of them by the analysis of the microstructure patterns of hairs found in their faeces: 17 scats of the puma (Puma concolor and six of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis. In the puma scats, we identified three species of primates (Brachyteles hypoxanthus, Alouatta guariba and Sapajus nigritus, the remains of which were found in eight of 17 collected (47.1%, representing 26.7% of items consumed. For the ocelot, we detected capuchin monkey (S. nigritus remains in three of the six scats (50%, accounting for 18.7% of items consumed by ocelot. We were unable to identify the cat species in the remaining 26 faecal samples, but we were able to analyse the food items present. Primates were found in five of these 26 faeces (19.2% and represented 10.2% of the items found. Although the sample size is limited, our results indicate a relatively high consumption of primates by felines. We believe that this high predation may be the result of the high local density of primates as well as the greater exposure to the risks of predation in fragmented landscapes, which tends to increase the incidence of the primates using the ground.

  16. Consumption of Japanese Yam Improves Lipid Metabolism in High-Cholesterol Diet-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Yuri; Tsujihara, Nobuko; Masui, Hironori; Kozai, Hana; Takeuchi, Wakako

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary Japanese yam (Dioscorea japonica Thunb.) on lipid metabolism. Male Wistar rats (6 wk old) were fed a high-cholesterol diet for 6 wk and then supplemented with 26% of Japanese yam or 0.5% of its constituent diosgenin for a further 4 wk of high-cholesterol feeding (C6-J4 and C6-D4 groups, respectively). In the C6-J4 group, body weight gains significantly decreased, but skeletal muscle fiber sizes in quadriceps significantly increased compared with the other groups. Furthermore, Japanese yam supplementation resulted in the reduction of triglyceride contents in their liver, quadriceps, and intra-abdominal visceral fat. Diosgenin supplementation resulted in an increase in the numbers of skeletal muscle fibers and decrease in the fat accumulations in liver and of the lipid contents in quadriceps. Although quadriceps cholesterol contents decreased concomitantly with increased serum HDL-cholesterol in both the groups, fecal bile acid, fecal cholesterol contents, and fecal weight were higher in the C6-J4 group than in the C6-D4 group. Meanwhile, we demonstrated that Japanese yam inhibited micellar cholesterol solubility in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that Japanese yam is more effective than diosgenin in reducing fat accumulation and improving cholesterol metabolism during chronic consumption of a high-cholesterol diet.

  17. Identification of two key genes controlling chill haze stability of beer in barley (Hordeum vulgare L)

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Lingzhen; Huang, Yuqing; Dai, Fei; Ning, Huajiang; Li, Chengdao; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2015-01-01

    Background In bright beer, haze formation is a serious quality problem, degrading beer quality and reducing its shelf life. The quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt, as the main raw material for beer brewing, largely affects the colloidal stability of beer. Results In this study, the genetic mechanism of the factors affecting beer haze stability in barley was studied. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of alcohol chill haze (ACH) in beer was carried out using a Franklin/Yerong doubl...

  18. The impact of different ale brewer’s yeast strains on the proteome of immature beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berner, Torben Sune; Jacobsen, Susanne; Arneborg, Nils

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that brewer’s yeast affects the taste and aroma of beer. However, the influence of brewer’s yeast on the protein composition of beer is currently unknown. In this study, changes of the proteome of immature beer, i.e. beer that has not been matured after fermentation, ...... was present in beer brewed with KVL011, while lacking in WLP001 beer....

  19. Antioxidative Mechanisms of Sulfite and Protein-Derived Thiols during Early Stages of Metal Induced Oxidative Reactions in Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Marianne N; Krämer, Anna C; Andersen, Mogens L

    2015-09-23

    The radical-mediated reactions occurring during the early stages of beer storage were studied by following the rate of oxygen consumption, radical formation as detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, and concentrations of the antioxidant compounds sulfite and thiols. Addition of either Fe(III) or Fe(II) had similar effects, indicating that a fast redox equilibrium is obtained between the two species in beer. Addition of iron in combination with hydrogen peroxide gave the most pronounced levels of oxidation due to a direct initiation of ethanol oxidation through generation of hydroxyl radicals by the Fenton reaction. The concentration of sulfite decreased more than the thiol concentration, suggesting that thiols play a secondary role as antioxidants by mainly quenching 1-hydroxyethyl radicals that are intermediates in the oxidation of ethanol. Increasing the temperature had a minor effect on the rate of oxygen consumption.

  20. Moderate alcohol consumption aggravates high fat-diet induced steatohepatitis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) develops in the absence of chronic and excessive alcohol consumption. However, it remains unknown whether moderate alcohol consumption aggravates liver inflammation in pre-existing NASH condition. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were first fed ad libitum...

  1. Xanthohumol and related prenylflavonoids from hops and beer: to your good health!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jan F; Page, Jonathan E

    2004-05-01

    Xanthohumol (3'-[3,3-dimethyl allyl]-2',4',4-trihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone) is the principal prenylated flavonoid of the female inflorescences of the hop plant ('hops'), an ingredient of beer. Human exposure to xanthohumol and related prenylflavonoids, such as 8-prenylnaringenin and isoxanthohumol, is primarily through beer consumption. Xanthohumol has been characterized a 'broad-spectrum' cancer chemopreventive agent in in vitro studies, while 8-prenylnaringenin enjoys fame as the most potent phytoestrogen known to date. These biological activities suggest that prenylflavonoids from hops have potential for application in cancer prevention programs and in prevention or treatment of (post-)menopausal 'hot flashes' and osteoporosis. Xanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin are metabolized into many flavonoid derivatives with modified 3,3-dimethyl allyl (prenyl) moieties. Xanthohumol is formed in lupulin glands by a specialized branch of flavonoid biosynthesis that involves prenylation and O-methylation of the polyketide intermediate chalconaringenin. Although a lupulin gland-specific chalcone synthase is known, the aromatic prenyltransferase and O-methyltransferase participating in xanthohumol have not been identified. The prenylflavonoid pathway is a possible target for breeding or biotechnological modification of hops with the aim of increasing xanthohumol levels for beer brewing and 8-prenylnaringenin levels for pharmaceutical production.

  2. Price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer: findings from a US pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael Thomas; Browntaylor, Didra; Bluthenthal, Ricky Neville

    2006-05-01

    Our objective is to estimate the relative price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer (MLB), regular beer, hard liquor, and a combined group of all other alcoholic beverages. Three hundred and twenty-nine alcohol consumers (mostly male) in South-Central Los Angeles answered a series of questions pertaining to expected consumption responses to hypothetical price increases. We found that based on a 10% price increase, the mean price elasticity of demand (% change in quantity demanded / % change in price) was -0.79 for MLB drinkers, -1.14 for regular beer drinkers, -1.11 for hard liquor drinkers, and -1.69 for the combined group of all other drinkers. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the personal characteristics significantly related to being a MLB drinker were older age, not working, being homeless, and a daily drinker. Daily (or nearly daily) drinkers were more likely to be married, earning lower incomes, and hard liquor drinkers. This study is the first to investigate the price elasticity of demand for MLB drinkers and other heavy alcohol consumers in poor urban neighborhoods of the US. Future research can use the methods from this pilot study to more rigorously examine and compare the price sensitivity among heavy drinking groups.

  3. Changes in Children's Consumption of Tomatoes through a School Lunch Programme Developed by Agricultural High-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Midori; Kubota, Nozomi; Kudo, Keita; Meadows, Martin; Umezawa, Atsuko; Ota, Toru

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to discover whether tomato consumption in elementary- and middle-school students could be increased through a school lunch programme developed by agricultural high-school students acting as peer educators. Design: The high-school lunch programme included the process of growing tomatoes and providing a…

  4. The relationship between stressful working conditions and high alcohol consumption and severe alcohol problems in an urban general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romelsjö, A; Hasin, D; Hilton, M

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between 15 measures of stressful working conditions and high alcohol consumption (35 g 100% ethanol per day or more for men and 25 g or more for women) was studied, using cross-sectional data from a general population survey of 1344 males and 1494 females; the ages 25-64 years...... in metropolitan Stockholm in 1984. In a longitudinal component of the study, hospitalization and mortality with alcohol-related diagnosis was assessed during 1984-90, and also the association between previous experience of unemployment and high alcohol consumption. Some of the associations, expressed as age......-adjusted odds ratios, were positive and some were negative when high alcohol consumption was the endpoint, but there was a clear variation by sex and social class. Generally the positive associations were stronger among male non-manual employees. Among males, there was a clear association between stressful...

  5. A Model for Sustainable Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit (BEER) Using Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) Mechanism for Hotel Buildings in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengpeng

    Hotel building is one of the high-energy-consuming building types, and retrofitting hotel buildings is an untapped solution to help cut carbon emissions contributing towards sustainable development. Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) has been promulgated as a market mechanism for the delivery of energy efficiency projects. EPC mechanism has been introduced into China relatively recently, and it has not been implemented successfully in building energy efficiency retrofit projects. The aim of this research is to develop a model for achieving the sustainability of Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit (BEER) in hotel buildings under the Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) mechanism. The objectives include: • To identify a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for measuring the sustainability of BEER in hotel buildings; • To identify Critical Success Factors (CSFs) under EPC mechanism that have a strong correlation with sustainable BEER project; • To develop a model explaining the relationships between the CSFs and the sustainability performance of BEER in hotel building. Literature reviews revealed the essence of sustainable BEER and EPC, which help to develop a conceptual framework for analyzing sustainable BEER under EPC mechanism in hotel buildings. 11 potential KPIs for sustainable BEER and 28 success factors of EPC were selected based on the developed framework. A questionnaire survey was conducted to ascertain the importance of selected performance indicators and success factors. Fuzzy set theory was adopted in identifying the KPIs. Six KPIs were identified from the 11 selected performance indicators. Through a questionnaire survey, out of the 28 success factors, 21 Critical Success Factors (CSFs) were also indentified. Using the factor analysis technique, the 21 identified CSFs in this study were grouped into six clusters to help explain project success of sustainable BEER. Finally, AHP/ANP approach was used in this research to develop a model to

  6. Alcohol consumption among University students in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Producción Científica Alcohol consumption in 1984 among 2921 students of nine Faculties in the University of Valladolid (Spain) is reported. Alcoholic drinks were frequently consumed, especially by males and during weekends. Per capita consumption was 9.85 l of absolute alcohol/year for males and 4.971 for females. Beer, wine and gin were the favourite drinks. Alcohol consumption was similar in the different faculties and age groups but was to some extent related to age and place of reside...

  7. Reducing nitrogen loss and phytotoxicity during beer vinasse composting with biochar addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueqin; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Huan; Zhao, Xinyu; Cui, Hongyang; Wei, Zimin

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of composting of beer vinasse generated from brewing industry, the effect of biochar amendment on beer vinasse composting was also evaluated based on the changes of different physicochemical parameters, phytotoxicity and final compost quality. Four different treatments were performed of beer vinasse with biochar addition at 0, 5%, 10%, 15% (w/w dry basis). The final product obtained from beer vinasse composting was phytotoxicity-free (GI: 120.8%), mature (C/N: 19.88, NH4(+)-N: 295.0mg/kg, DOC: 9.76g/kg) and nutrient-rich (especially for P: 1.92%) compost except high N loss (60.76%), which had the potential to be as soil amendment or fertilizer. Biochar addition contributed to decomposition of DOC indicating higher microbial activity and attain phytotoxicity-free standard rapidly. N loss significantly reduced by 27% with biochar at 15% addition. And 15% biochar addition ensured all parameters, which was involved in composts quality, to attain the mature standard. Therefore, it was suggested that biochar addition at 15% was optimal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of pitching rate on yeast fermentation performance and beer flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbelen, P J; Dekoninck, T M L; Saerens, S M G; Van Mulders, S E; Thevelein, J M; Delvaux, F R

    2009-02-01

    The volumetric productivity of the beer fermentation process can be increased by using a higher pitching rate (i.e. higher inoculum size). However, the impact of the pitching rate on crucial fermentation and beer quality parameters has never been assessed systematically. In this study, five pitching rates were applied to lab-scale fermentations to investigate its impact on the yeast physiology and beer quality. The fermentation rate increased significantly and the net yeast growth was lowered with increasing pitching rate, without affecting significantly the viability and the vitality of the yeast population. The build-up of unsaturated fatty acids in the initial phase of the fermentation was repressed when higher yeast concentrations were pitched. The expression levels of the genes HSP104 and HSP12 and the concentration of trehalose were higher with increased pitching rates, suggesting a moderate exposure to stress in case of higher cell concentrations. The influence of pitching rate on aroma compound production was rather limited, with the exception of total diacetyl levels, which strongly increased with the pitching rate. These results demonstrate that most aspects of the yeast physiology and flavour balance are not significantly or negatively affected when the pitching rate is changed. However, further research is needed to fully optimise the conditions for brewing beer with high cell density populations.

  9. Medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in the production of special beer types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leskošek-Čukalović Ida I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms like Ganoderma lucidum have been used for thousands of years as a traditional medicine in the Far East. Ganoderma received wide popularity as an eating mushroom with high nutritive value, but even more as medical fungi. It has been used for the treatment of various diseases: hepatitis, hypertension, insomnia, and even cancer. Due to its extraordinary action, it is often called 'Elixir of life', 'Food of gods' and 'Mushroom of universe'. The intracellular and extracellular polysaccharides (b-glucane inhibit the growth of several types of cancer. Mushroom produces triterpenes of which especially ganoderic acid showed cytotoxicity on primary tumor liver cells, inhibition of histamine release, hepatoprotective effect, stimulation of the immune system functions, inhibition of the aggregation of blood plates, etc. On the other hand, beer as a purely natural beverage obtained in the process of fermentation, contains a number of ingredients which are important for human organism, and in moderate usage has favorable reaction on the general health condition of the body. As such, beer is a very good basis for the development of a number of new products with defined pharmacodynamics influence. In this work, we have investigated the possibilities of using extracts of mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in the production of special beer types. The composition of mushroom, properties of the most important active ingredients, extraction procedures, and sensory characteristics of the beers on the basis of such extracts were determined. The most important parameters of quality and possibility of adjustments using extracts of different medicinal herbs were investigated.

  10. A Chemopreventive Trial to Study the Effects of High Tea Consumption on Smoking-Related Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    479.76 583.65 425.47 448.57 n 127 43 42 42 f) Determination of each subiect’s baseline history of smoking, diet and tea intake, plasma catechins ...AD Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0053 TITLE: A Chemopreventive Trial to Study the Effects of High Tea Consumption on Smoking-Related Oxidative Stress...2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Chemopreventive Trial to Study the Effects of High Tea Consumption on Smoking- 5b. GRANT NUMBER Related

  11. Appetite regulation via exercise prior or subsequent to high-fat meal consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mary Huey-Yu; Bushnell, Darcy; Cannon, Daniel T; Kern, Mark

    2009-02-01

    This study assessed the effect of exercise timing relative to meal consumption on appetite and its hormonal regulators (i.e., PYY(3-36), ghrelin and leptin) in moderately active young men. Twelve men performed three trials in a random order: (1) meal consumption, (2) exercise 2h after a meal, (3) exercise 1h before a meal. The test meal provided 16.5 kcal kg(-1) with 70% fat, 26% carbohydrate and 4% protein. Exercise was performed at a work rate eliciting 60% of VO(2max) for 50 min. Hunger ratings and plasma leptin concentrations were measured at baseline and hours 1, 3, 5, and 7 post-meal, and plasma concentrations of ghrelin and PYY(3-36) were measured at baseline and 1, 3, and 7h after meal consumption. Exercise performed 2h after meal consumption extended the appetite suppressing effect of food intake. Furthermore, plasma PYY(3-36) concentration tended to be elevated by exercise after meal consumption. Exercise prior to food intake decreased appetite and increased plasma ghrelin concentrations. No response to timing of exercise relative to food intake on plasma leptin concentration was detected. These data indicated the timing of exercise to meal consumption may influence appetite and its hormonal regulators. Post-meal exercise may extend the suppressive effects of meal consumption on appetite.

  12. Beer, wood, and welfare - The impact of improved stove use among dolo-beer breweries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Grimm (Michael); J. Peters (Jörg)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractLocal beer breweries in Burkina Faso absorb a considerable amount of urban woodfuel demand. We assess the woodfuel savings caused by the adoption of improved brewing stoves by these micro-breweries and estimate the implied welfare effects through the woodfuel market on private households

  13. Towards a sensory congruent beer bottle: Consumer associations between beer brands, flavours, and bottle designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Heiltjes, Sanne; van den Berg-Weitzel, Lianne; Lloyd, Peter; Bohemia, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Sensory packaging design congruent with product and brand characteristics may be used as an innovative tool to communicate product and brand values to consumers and to enhance taste experience. This study investigated whether consumers associate sensory properties of beer bottles with certain brand

  14. Measures taken for recycling at beer breweries; Beer kojo ni okeru saishigenka eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, M. [Kirin Breweri Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-08-05

    Full recycling of waste was achieved in our all breweries in 1998. This paper introduces the history to solve the problems relating to waste in our beer brewerise, our basic consideration for recycling, the status of waste generation and recycling activities, our measures taken for recycling and its relating cost, and in addition, the general measures taken by our industry as a whole. (author)

  15. Alcohol consumption patterns among American Indian and white college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S P; Dodder, R A

    1984-09-01

    College students in Oklahoma completed a self-administered questionnaire to compare the drinking behaviors of culturally active American Indians (N = 34 men and 24 women) an Whites (N = 181 men and 250 women). Significantly more Indians were classified as drinkers, but they had begun drinking at a somewhat later age. Both groups indicated a preference for beer, and they were quite similar in quantity and frequency of beer consumption. White students reported drinking significantly more wine and distilled spirits, and drinking more often in public places, such as bars, pubs, restaurants and parked cars; Indians drank more in their own homes and in the homes of friends. White students tended to cite hedonistic reasons for drinking whereas Indians reported escapist or social reasons and drinking to "get high." Drinking-related problems were reported somewhat more often by Indian students, notably so by Indian women. Indians were more inclined to report the more serious drinking problems of being arrested, blacking out, interference with school or work, an difficulties in human relationships. White students more often cited problems of nausea or vomiting, drinking and driving, doing something that was later regretted and damaging property. It was suggested that the higher Indian arrest rate could be indicative of police bias and that the reports of problem drinking among Indian women be investigated further.

  16. Power consumption of circulation pumps - Much too high; Viel zu gross

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nipkow, J.

    2010-07-01

    This short article takes a look at the European Union 'Ecodesign' directive and, in particular, the situation with respect to circulation pumps as used in heating systems. These pumps account for around three per cent of Swiss electricity consumption, or as the author quotes, is equivalent to the power consumption of all domestic refrigerators. The very low efficiency of older pumps is commented on and improvements in newer models are noted. The European guidelines on the energy-efficiency of these circulation pumps are looked at and the future effects on pump power consumption are discussed.

  17. High hair selenium mother to fetus transfer after the Brazil nuts consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momčilović, B; Prejac, J; Višnjević, V; Brundić, S; Skalny, A A; Mimica, N

    2016-01-01

    Lactating mother and her two month old healthy daughter (APGAR 10) gave their scalp hair for a multielement profile analysis; 25 elements were analyzed with the ICP MS. Mother's hair was divided into 5cm long segment proximal to the scull (Young), and the distal segment further up to the hair tip (Old). One centimeter of hair records one month of the metabolic activity of the bioelements in the body. Mother's Young hair and daughters hair have 2.70 and 9.74μgg(-1)Se, a distinctly higher Se concentrations than the Old hair of 0.87μgg(-1). The adequate hair Se concentrations in Croatia women population vary from 0.08 to 0.63μgg(-1); values below or above that range indicate deficiency or excess, respectively. Dietary recall revealed that during the last trimester of pregnancy and over a period of a week, the mother has consumed 135g of Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) (BN); BN is an exceptionally rich Se dietary source. The amount of Se in BN varies and one week consumption of 135g of BN may result in Se daily intake of 367 to 492μgg(-1)day(-1) over a period of seven consecutive days, and what is about or exceeds the Upper Limit of daily selenium intake of 400μg(-1)g(-1). The excessively high infant hair Se mirrored a natural high mother to fetus transplacental transfer of bio elements in the last trimester of pregnancy. The potential toxicological risks of such a high Se transfer remains to be elucidated.

  18. Extracts of medicinal plants as functional beer additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Sofija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on determining the level of the antioxidant activity of beer, to which sensory acceptable amounts of selected extracts of medicinal plants were added, with the aim of obtaining a beer with increased functional and new sensory features. For purposes of this study a commercial lager beer type Pils and extracts of herbal drugs: Melissae folium, Thymi herba, Juniperi fructus, Urticae radix and Lupuli strobuli, were used. Total phenols were analyzed by the method of Folin-Ciocalteu, and the antioxidant activity of samples using FRAP and DPPH test. Sensory evaluation of beer was conducted on 80 subjects, using a nine levels hedonic scale. The results showed that the content of total phenols was the highest in the beer which thyme, juniper and lemon balm were added to (384.22, 365.38 and 363.08 mg GAE/L, respectively, representing the increase of 37.09, 30.36 and 29.55% (respectively compared to the commercial lager beer. Values of antioxidant activity were correlated with the content of total phenols. The extract of lemon balm blended in the best manner with the baseline, commercial lager beer in terms of sensory acceptability. New beer, enriched with lemon balm, had a pleasant, appealing and harmonious flavor and aroma.

  19. Review of hypotheses for fouling during beer clarification using membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mepschen, A.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Vollebregt, H.M.; Noordman, T.R.

    2012-01-01

    Hypotheses concerning the fouling of membranes during beer clarification via crossflow microfiltration are reviewed. Beer has been classified into three groups of components, each having a different kind of fouling mechanisms – but also having interactions with other modes of fouling. The membrane f

  20. Music Influences Hedonic and Taste Ratings in Beer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Velasco, Carlos; van Ee, Raymond; Leboeuf, Yves; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The research presented here focuses on the influence of background music on the beer-tasting experience. An experiment is reported in which different groups of customers tasted a beer under three different conditions (N = 231). The control group was presented with an unlabeled beer, the second group with a labeled beer, and the third group with a labeled beer together with a customized sonic cue (a short clip from an existing song). In general, the beer-tasting experience was rated as more enjoyable with music than when the tasting was conducted in silence. In particular, those who were familiar with the band that had composed the song, liked the beer more after having tasted it while listening to the song, than those who knew the band, but only saw the label while tasting. These results support the idea that customized sound-tasting experiences can complement the process of developing novel beverage (and presumably also food) events. We suggest that involving musicians and researchers alongside brewers in the process of beer development, offers an interesting model for future development. Finally, we discuss the role of attention in sound-tasting experiences, and the importance that a positive hedonic reaction toward a song can have for the ensuing tasting experience. PMID:27199862

  1. Preference shifts in the demand for wine and beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butter, F.A.G. den; Delifotis, A.; Koning, Ruud H.

    1997-01-01

    Preference shifts in the demand for wine and beer are empirically investigated for Germany, the Netherlands, France, and Italy. With the rise in disposable income we see a shift from the demand for beer to the demand for wine notably in the Netherlands and somewhat less clearly in Germany, and a

  2. Analysis of changes tendency on the polish beer market

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zbigniew Gołaś; Mariusz Ścibek

    2010-01-01

    The article shows the analysis of Polish beer market in progress. On the basis of the carried out research it can be stated that Polish beer industry can be rated as one of the most modern hi-tech in the world...

  3. High Frequency Electrical Stimulation of Lateral Habenula Reduces Voluntary Ethanol Consumption in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zuo, Wanhong; Fu, Rao; Xie, Guiqin; Kaur, Amandeep; Bekker, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Background: Development of new strategies that can effectively prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders is of paramount importance, because the currently available treatments are inadequate. Increasing evidence indicates that the lateral habenula (LHb) plays an important role in aversion, drug abuse, and depression. In light of the success of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the LHb in improving helplessness behavior in rodents, we assessed the effects of LHb HFS on ethanol-drinking behavior in rats. Methods: We trained rats to drink ethanol under an intermittent access two-bottle choice procedure. We used c-Fos immunohistochemistry and electrophysiological approaches to examine LHb activity. We applied a HFS protocol that has proven effective for reducing helplessness behavior in rats via a bipolar electrode implanted into the LHb. Results: c-Fos protein expression and the frequency of both spontaneous action potential firings and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents were higher in LHb neurons of ethanol-withdrawn rats compared to their ethanol-naïve counterparts. HFS to the LHb produced long-term reduction of intake and preference for ethanol, without altering locomotor activity. Conversely, low-frequency electrical stimulation to the LHb or HFS applied to the nearby nucleus did not affect drinking behavior. Conclusions: Our results suggest that withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure increases glutamate release and the activity of LHb neurons, and that functional inhibition of the LHb via HFS reduces ethanol consumption. Thus, LHb HFS could be a potential new therapeutic option for alcoholics. PMID:27234303

  4. High-fructose corn syrup-55 consumption alters hepatic lipid metabolism and promotes triglyceride accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Kaitlin; Lateef, Sundus; Benedito, Vagner A; Tou, Janet C

    2017-01-01

    High-fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) has been suggested to be more lipogenic than sucrose, which increases the risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidemia. The study objectives were to determine the effects of drinking different sugar-sweetened solutions on hepatic gene expression in relation to liver fatty acid composition and risk of NAFLD. Female rats were randomly assigned (n=7 rats/group) to drink water or water sweetened with 13% (w/v) HFCS-55, sucrose or fructose for 8 weeks. Rats drinking HFCS-55 solution had the highest (P=.03) hepatic total lipid and triglyceride content and histological evidence of fat infiltration. Rats drinking HFCS-55 solution had the highest hepatic de novo lipogenesis indicated by the up-regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and the highest (P55 solution. The observed lipogenic effects were attributed to the slightly higher fructose content of HFCS-55 solution in the absence of differences in macronutrient and total caloric intake between rats drinking HFCS-55 and sucrose solution. Results from gene expression and fatty acid composition analysis showed that, in a hypercaloric state, some types of sugars are more detrimental to the liver. Based on these preclinical study results, excess consumption of caloric sweetened beverage, particularly HFCS-sweetened beverages, should be limited. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Review of Millimeter-Wave Integrated Circuits With Low Power Consumption for High Speed Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, Frank; Fritsche, David; Tretter, Gregor; Leufker, Jan Dirk; Yodprasit, Uroschanit; Carta, C.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we review high-speed radio-frequency integrated circuits operating up to 210 GHz and present selected state-of-the-art circuits with leading-edge performance, which we have designed at our chair. The following components are discussed employing bipolar complementary metal oxide semiconductors (BiCMOS) technologies: a 200 GHz amplifier with 17 dB gain and around 9 dB noise figure consuming only 18 mW, a 200 GHz down mixer with 5.5 dB conversion gain and 40 mW power consumption, a 190 GHz receiver with 47 dB conversion gain and 11 dB noise figure and a 60 GHz power amplifier with 24.5 dBm output power and 12.9 % power added efficiency (PAE). Moreover, we report on a single-core flash CMOS analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) with 3 bit resolution and a speed of 24 GS/s. Finally, we discuss a 60 GHz on-off keying (OOK) BiCMOS transceiver chip set. The wireless transmission of data with 5 Gb/s at 42 cm distance between transmitter and receiver was verified by experiments. The complete transceiver consumes 396 mW.

  6. Selection for high and low oxygen consumption-induced differences in maintenance energy requirements of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darhan, Hongyu; Kikusato, Motoi; Toyomizu, Masaaki; Roh, Sang-Gun; Katoh, Kazuo; Sato, Masahiro; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2017-07-01

    Maintenance energy requirements (MER) of mice selected for high (H) or low (L) oxygen consumption (OC) were compared. Forty-four mice from H and L OC lines were weaned at 3 weeks and divided into four experimental groups: group A were sacrificed at 4 weeks; group B were fed ad libitum, and groups C and D were fed 2.8 and 2.4 g/day, respectively, from 4 to 8 weeks of age. Groups B-D were sacrificed at 8 weeks. Chemical components were estimated for all groups. MER was estimated using a model that partitioned metabolizable energy intake into that used for maintenance, and protein and fat deposition. The feed conversion ratio for the B group was significantly higher in the H than in the L line. Feed intake for metabolic energy content per metabolic body size was significantly also higher in the H line, whereas accumulated energy content per metabolic body size was significantly higher in the L line. MER of the H line was greater than that of the L line (P < 0.10). These results suggest that selection for H or L OC produced differences in chemical components, feed efficiency, and MER between the H and L lines. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. [High prevalence of drug consumption and sexual risk behaviors in men who have sex with men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Cinta; Fernández-Dávila, Percy; Ferrer, Laia; Soriano, Raúl; Díez, Mercedes; Casabona, Jordi

    2015-08-07

    To describe the pattern of drug use among men who have sex with men (MSM) living in Spain and its association with sexual risk practices. The European MSM Internet Survey was implemented in 2010 in 38 European countries on websites for MSM and collected data on sociodemographics, sexual behavior, and other sexual health variables. The association between unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with casual partners and drug consumption was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models. Among the 13,111 participants, most consumed drugs were cannabis (30.1%), popper (28.4%) and cocaine (18.7%). The risk of UAI with casual partners was 1.5 among those who had used drugs in relation to the other participants. The proportion of MSM who had injected drugs at least once in life was 2.5%, and 1.4% in the last 12 months. The prevalence of UAI with casual partners (53.4%), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (23%), hepatitis C (8.2%) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) (15.8%) was higher in MSM injectors related to those who had not used injected drugs (P<.05). The results of this study confirm a high prevalence of drug use in MSM and their relationship to sexual risk behavior. Although the use of injected drugs in MSM is a minority, this group reported a higher level of sexual risk behaviors, self-reported HIV, hepatitis C and other STI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    regarding per capita consumption of wine among the European countries. Also for the total consumption of alcohol, i.e. the per capita consumption of beer, wine and spirits, the hypothesis of convergence seems to hold. In the same time span the number of alcohol related diseases as e.g. liver diseases, have...... changed significantly in the same direction as the developments in alcohol consumption. The changes in the consumption levels of alcohol in general -- and wine in particular -- are influenced by many factors of which health arguments may have played a crucial role. The alcohol policies of the European...... countries have become more restrictive during the last decades. Using data on alcohol consumption, alcohol related diseases and alcohol policies of 16 European countries we discuss the questions of whether the intake of alcohol is associated with (liver) diseases. Our empirical analysis provides us...

  9. Sulfites in beer: reviewing regulation, analysis and role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Guido

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Beer is an extremely complex mixture of more than 3,000 different compounds in an aqueous environment. Thus, it is perhaps not surprising that the maintenance of beer quality throughout its lifetime has been a considerable challenge for brewers. Whilst it is inevitable that chemical changes will occur in beer with the passage of time, it is the formation of flavor-active components which is of immediate concern to an overview of beer shelf life stability. Sulfur dioxide has long been recognized by brewers as the most important factor in delaying flavor staling, and prolonging the shelf life of beer. However, nowadays, sulfur dioxide and sulfites are considered allergens and concerns about the safety of their use as food additives have been on the increase. The present review is structured into three main parts. Firstly, the chemical properties of sulfur dioxide are presented, along with the toxic effects and maximum legal levels permitted according to U.S. and EU legislation. As the accurate determination of the free, bound and total sulfur dioxide in beer is essential to ensuring regulatory compliance, several methods have been developed for analyzing sulfur dioxide in beer. Thus, secondly, various types of methods are reported and compared with the officially recommended ones. Finally, the crucial role of sulfite in the control of flavor instability of beer is discussed in light of the current data. Two courses of action have been proposed, which are elucidated in detail relating firstly to the fact that sulfite inhibits beer oxidation during storage by acting as an antioxidant and, secondly, sulfite reacts with the carbonyl staling compounds in beer, and thereby masks stale flavors.

  10. Alterations in total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin after 3 weeks of moderate alcohol consumption in premenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with increased concentrations of adiponectin. Whether this is the case for both total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin is uncertain. Furthermore, the rate at which this increase occurs is unclear. Therefore, we examined the effect of moderate

  11. Modifying Alcohol Consumption among High School Students: An Efficacy Trial of an Alcohol Risk Reduction Program (PRIME for Life)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Mats A.; Sjolund, Torbjorn; Kallmen, Hakan; Andreasson, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: PRIME for Life is an alcohol risk reduction program that has been used and refined in the USA for over 20 years. A Swedish version of the program has recently been adapted for use among Swedish high-school students (age 18-19). The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of the program on youth alcohol consumption (including…

  12. [Alcohol consumption, alcohol abuse, and subjective feeling: a representative inquiry in the Federal Republic of Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerlein, W; Küfner, H

    1977-10-11

    The investigation was carried out in a representative sample of subjects of the Federal Republic of Germany, including West Berlin (n = 1952). The subjects were 20--64 years old. The following were investigated: 1. Social and abusive drinking patterns 2. Relations between drinking behavior and sociodemographic data 3. Relations between drinking behavior and subjective feeling. Of the subjects, 47% consumed alcohol daily or several times a week, 6% called themselves teetotallers. Beer was the preferred beverage. The drinking behavior varied among income classes and vocational groups. Of the whole sample, 8% drank regularly whilst working; 25% of the skilled workers did so. Comparing alcohol consumption and subjective feeling, there was a slight association between elevated mood and frequent alcohol consumption. Of the subjects, 4% were identified as alcohol misusers (7% of the males, 1% of the females). Persons at high risk were men living alone (especially widowed and divorced subjects) and persons of medium income. Regular consumers of hard liquor were at higher risk than consumers of beer or wine. The highest percentage of misuse was found among unskilled and skilled workers and among inhabitants of large cities. There was a slight association between high alcohol misuse index and depressive states, subjective complaints, and paranoid attitudes.

  13. Beer brewing using a fusant between a sake yeast and a brewer's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, N; Nishimori, C; Fujishige, I W; Mizuno, A; Takahashi, T; Sato, K

    2001-01-01

    Beer brewing using a fusant between a sake yeast (a lysine auxotrophic mutant of sake yeast K-14) and a brewer's yeast (a respiratory-deficient mutant of the top fermentation yeast NCYC1333) was performed to take advantage of the beneficial characteristics of sake yeasts, i.e., the high productivity of esters, high tolerance to ethanol, and high osmotolerance. The fusant (F-32) obtained was different from the parental yeasts regarding, for example, the assimilation of carbon sources and tolerance to ethanol. A brewing trial with the fusant was carried out using a 100-l pilot-scale plant. The fusant fermented wort more rapidly than the parental brewer's yeast. However, the sedimentation capacity of the fusant was relatively low. The beer brewed using the fusant contained more ethanol and esters compared to that brewed using the parental brewer's yeast. The fusant also obtained osmotolerance in the fermentation of maltose and fermented high-gravity wort well.

  14. About the Bidimensional Beer-Lambert Law

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    In acoustics, ultrasonics and in electromagnetic wave propagation, the crossed medium can be often modelled by a linear invariant filter (LIF) which acts on a wide-sense stationary process. Its complex gain follows the Beer-Lambert law i.e is in the form exp [-\\alphaz] where z is the thickness of the medium and \\alpha depends on the frequency and on the medium properties. This paper addresses a generalization for electromagnetic waves when the beam polarization has to be taken into account. In this case, we have to study the evolution of both components of the electric field (assumed orthogonal to the trajectory). We assume that each component at z is a linear function of both components at 0. New results are obtained modelling each piece of medium by four LIF. They lead to a great choice of possibilities in the medium modelling. Particular cases can be deduced from works of R. C. Jones on deterministic monochromatic light. keywords: linear filtering, polarization, Beer-Lambert law, random processes.

  15. Fermentation Process Simulation of Homebrewing Beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garduño-García A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the current research was to study the behavior of the fermentation process of home-made beer using a mathematical dynamic model. The model contains the rates of change of the concentration state variables of glucose, maltose and maltotriose. An output variable is the ethanol concentration and an auxiliary variable is the biomass (yeast concentration. The model was programmed in the Matlab-Simulink environment, and for its numerical integration Dormand-Prince method of fourth order with a variable integration step size and a relative tolerance of was used. In order to know which model parameters are more important, a local sensitivity analysis was carried out. Furthermore, an experiment was performed to produce home-made beer at constant temperature (21°C. Fourteen experimental units (fermenters with the same initial conditions were implemented. Using the experimental results the model was calibrated by nonlinear least squares and differential evolution algorithms. According to the statistics bias (BIAS, correlation coefficient (r, squared root of mean squared error (RMSE, mean absolute error (MAE and the efficiency of modeling (EF, a good fit between the model predictions and measurements were found after the model parameters estimation.

  16. Fast Food Consumption Behaviors in High-School Students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mirkarimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies report inappropriate snack and junk food consumption patterns in children and young adults in Iran. The current survey was aimed to explore fast food consumption behaviors in high-school students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among 500 high-school students. Samples were selected based on cluster sampling method at first and simple random at second. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire. To analyze, SPSS-16 and tests, including t-test, Chi-square, correlation coefficient and multiple regressions were used. Results: The monthly frequency of fast food consumption was 4.01. The TPB explained fast food use behaviors with R2 of 0.6, effectively. Results also represented that frequency of fast food consumption was meaningfully in line with behavioral intention (β = 0.60, P < 0.05 and subjective norms (β = 0.17, P < 0.05. Conclusion: It seems likely beneficial to consider important subjective norms (especially friends that may strongly effect on high-school student intention to use fast food. Also students perceived behavioral control must be increased.

  17. Cloning and expression of a novel prolyl endopeptidase from Aspergillus oryzae and its application in beer stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chao; Yu, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Yan

    2015-02-01

    A novel prolyl endopeptidase gene from Aspergillus oryzae was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. Amino acid sequence analysis of the prolyl endopeptidase from Aspergillus oryzae (AO-PEP) showed that this enzyme belongs to a class serine peptide S28 family. Expression, purification and characterization of AO-PEP were analyzed. The optimum pH and temperature were pH 5.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The enzyme was activated and stabilized by metal ion Ca(2+) and inhibited by Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Al(3+), and Cu(2+). The K m and k cat values of the purified enzyme for different substrates were evaluated. The results implied that the recombinant AO-PEP possessed higher affinity for the larger substrate. A fed-batch strategy was developed for the high-cell-density fermentation and the enzyme activity reached 1,130 U/l after cultivation in 7 l fermentor. After addition of AO-PEP during the fermentation phase of beer brewing, demonstrated the potential application of AO-PEP in the non-biological stability of beer, which favor further industrial development of this new enzyme in beer stabilization, due to its reducing operational costs, as well as no beer losses unlike regeneration process and beer lost with regenerated polyvinylpolypyrrolidone system.

  18. Selenium speciation in malt, wort, and beer made from selenium-biofortified two-rowed barley grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Sara; Santamaria, Oscar; Chen, Yi; McGrath, Steve P; Poblaciones, Maria J

    2014-06-25

    Selenium (Se) biofortification of barley is a suitable strategy to increase the Se concentration in grain. In the present paper, the suitability of this Se-biofortified grain for making Se-enriched beer is analyzed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different Se fertilizer doses (0, 10, and 20 g of Se ha(-1)) and forms (sodium selenate or sodium selenite) on the Se loss during the malting and brewing processes and Se speciation in grain, malt, wort, and beer. Samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS for total Se and speciation. Mashing-lautering was the process with the greatest Se loss (83.8%). After malting and brewing, only 7.3% of the initial Se was retained in beer, mainly in selenite form. Even so, the fertilizer application of sodium selenate at 20 g ha(-1) increased the total Se concentration almost 6-fold in the final beer in comparison to the use of grain derived from unfertilized barley. The present paper provides evidence that the use of Se-biofortified barley grain as a raw material to produce Se-enriched beer is possible, and the results are comparable to other methods in terms of efficiency.

  19. Barcoded pyrosequencing reveals that consumption of galactooligosaccharides results in a highly specific bifidogenic response in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M G Davis

    Full Text Available Prebiotics are selectively fermented ingredients that allow specific changes in the gastrointestinal microbiota that confer health benefits to the host. However, the effects of prebiotics on the human gut microbiota are incomplete as most studies have relied on methods that fail to cover the breadth of the bacterial community. The goal of this research was to use high throughput multiplex community sequencing of 16S rDNA tags to gain a community wide perspective of the impact of prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (GOS on the fecal microbiota of healthy human subjects. Fecal samples from eighteen healthy adults were previously obtained during a feeding trial in which each subject consumed a GOS-containing product for twelve weeks, with four increasing dosages (0, 2.5, 5, and 10 gram of GOS. Multiplex sequencing of the 16S rDNA tags revealed that GOS induced significant compositional alterations in the fecal microbiota, principally by increasing the abundance of organisms within the Actinobacteria. Specifically, several distinct lineages of Bifidobacterium were enriched. Consumption of GOS led to five- to ten-fold increases in bifidobacteria in half of the subjects. Increases in Firmicutes were also observed, however, these changes were detectable in only a few individuals. The enrichment of bifidobacteria was generally at the expense of one group of bacteria, the Bacteroides. The responses to GOS and the magnitude of the response varied between individuals, were reversible, and were in accordance with dosage. The bifidobacteria were the only bacteria that were consistently and significantly enriched by GOS, although this substrate supported the growth of diverse colonic bacteria in mono-culture experiments. These results suggest that GOS can be used to enrich bifidobacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract with remarkable specificity, and that the bifidogenic properties of GOS that occur in vivo are caused by selective fermentation as well as by

  20. Uncovering patterns of consumers' interest for beer: A case study with craft beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadini, Gianluca; Porretta, Sebastiano

    2017-01-01

    To uncover patterns of consumer interest in craft beers, the authors explored the quality perception of craft beers in a panel of industrial mass-marketed beer drinkers (n=150) and examined the differences in interest for this beer segment between men and women. The authors adopted a conjoint rating experiment in which the respondents were given forty-nine beer profiles to evaluate and were asked to score the degree of interest in each profile on a 9-point scale. Each profile was described on eight attributes (type of brewery, brewing technology, characterizing raw materials, brewhouse equipment, location of the brewery, type of container, retail price, where to buy) varied at different levels. Results showed that Italian consumers placed greatest importance on type of container (30.49%) and on brewing technology (17.64%). Characterizing raw materials (13.44%) and type of brewery (12.64) rank 3 and 4 and were placed in the same band some way below brewing technology. Retail price (9.87%) and where to buy (8.73%) were of far less importance. The least importance of all was attached to brewhouse equipment (4.44%) and to location of the brewery (2.75%). As far as utility values are concerned, the factor level glass bottle+crown cap and the factor level microfiltration are the utilities that most increased the interest of consumers. They were followed by the factor level local grains, stainless steel keg and monastery. In contrast, the factor level PET Keg, aluminum can and large scale corporate brewery showed the greatest negative impact on interest. Men and women shared similar patterns of interest. However, men placed more importance than women on retail price, location of the brewery and where to buy. Women attached more importance than men on type of container, brewing technology and type of brewer. These findings are relevant to understanding consumers'behavior in the beer market and to translating consumer needs, wants and expectations into manufacturing

  1. 77 FR 10547 - Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas-First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... among other things, beer, ale, stout, lager beer, porter and other malt or brewed liquors. (8) ``Liquor... Bureau of Indian Affairs Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas--First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance... to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance. The Ordinance regulates...

  2. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  3. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  4. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  5. 27 CFR 31.152 - Requirements as to wines and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and beer. 31.152 Section 31.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Dealers' Records and Reports § 31.152 Requirements as to wines and beer. Every wholesale dealer in liquors who receives wines, or wines and beer, and every wholesale dealer in beer must keep at the...

  6. 27 CFR 26.105 - Prepayment of tax-release of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of beer. 26.105 Section 26.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.105 Prepayment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the beer is to be withdrawn from bonded storage after payment of...

  7. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  8. 27 CFR 25.263 - Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and reconstitution of beer. 25.263 Section 25.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Concentrate § 25.263 Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer. (a) Operations at brewery. A brewer may concentrate...

  9. 27 CFR 25.213 - Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.213 Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed. (a) Refund or adjustment of...

  10. The impact of different ale brewer’s yeast strains on the proteome of immature beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berner, Torben Sune; Jacobsen, Susanne; Arneborg, Nils

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that brewer’s yeast affects the taste and aroma of beer. However, the influence of brewer’s yeast on the protein composition of beer is currently unknown. In this study, changes of the proteome of immature beer, i.e. beer that has not been matured after fermentation...

  11. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  12. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  13. Potentially clinically toxic concentrations of whole blood manganese in a patient fed enterally with a high tea consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colleen; O'Reilly, Dennis St J; McKee, Ruth

    2006-05-01

    This report describes a 37-year-old female patient who after seven years on intermittent overnight enteral feeding supplementation was noted to have an increased whole blood manganese concentration. Manganese toxicity is well documented after pathological absorption through inhalation via the lungs, or after intravenous administration to patients on long-term total parenteral nutrition. A dietary history revealed high tea consumption. The association between high blood manganese concentrations and enteral/oral nutrition does not appear to have previously been described.

  14. Meat Consumption and Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes in the SUN Project: A Highly Educated Middle-Class Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari-Sanchis, A; Gea, A; Basterra-Gortari, F J; Martinez-Gonzalez, M A; Beunza, J J; Bes-Rastrollo, M

    2016-01-01

    Meat consumption has been consistently associated with the risk of diabetes in different populations. The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence of type 2 diabetes according to baseline total meat consumption in a longitudinal assessment of a middle-aged Mediterranean population. We followed 18,527 participants (mean age: 38 years, 61% women) in the SUN Project, an open-enrolment cohort of a highly educated population of middle-class Spanish graduate students. All participants were initially free of diabetes. Diet was assessed at baseline using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 136-items previously validated. Incident diabetes was defined according to the American Diabetes Association's criteria. We identified 146 incident cases of diabetes after a maximum of 14 years of follow-up period (mean: 8.7 years). In the fully adjusted model, the consumption of ≥3 servings/day of all types of meat was significantly associated with a higher risk of diabetes (HR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.03-3.31; p for trend = 0.031) in comparison with the reference category (<2 servings/day). When we separated processed from non-processed meat, we observed a non-significant higher risk associated with greater consumption of processed meat and a non-significant lower risk associated with non-processed meat consumption (p for trend = 0.123 and 0.487, respectively). No significant difference was found between the two types of meat (p = 0.594). Our results suggest that meat consumption, especially processed meat, was associated with a higher risk of developing diabetes in our young Mediterranean cohort.

  15. Meat Consumption and Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes in the SUN Project: A Highly Educated Middle-Class Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mari-Sanchis

    Full Text Available Meat consumption has been consistently associated with the risk of diabetes in different populations. The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence of type 2 diabetes according to baseline total meat consumption in a longitudinal assessment of a middle-aged Mediterranean population.We followed 18,527 participants (mean age: 38 years, 61% women in the SUN Project, an open-enrolment cohort of a highly educated population of middle-class Spanish graduate students. All participants were initially free of diabetes. Diet was assessed at baseline using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 136-items previously validated. Incident diabetes was defined according to the American Diabetes Association's criteria.We identified 146 incident cases of diabetes after a maximum of 14 years of follow-up period (mean: 8.7 years. In the fully adjusted model, the consumption of ≥3 servings/day of all types of meat was significantly associated with a higher risk of diabetes (HR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.03-3.31; p for trend = 0.031 in comparison with the reference category (<2 servings/day. When we separated processed from non-processed meat, we observed a non-significant higher risk associated with greater consumption of processed meat and a non-significant lower risk associated with non-processed meat consumption (p for trend = 0.123 and 0.487, respectively. No significant difference was found between the two types of meat (p = 0.594.Our results suggest that meat consumption, especially processed meat, was associated with a higher risk of developing diabetes in our young Mediterranean cohort.

  16. Consumption of Sports and Energy Drinks by High School Athletes in the United States: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Fields

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sports and energy (S/E drinks are commonly used by high school (HS athletes, yet little is known about this population’s consumption patterns or the drinks’ side-effects. The objectives of this pilot study were to survey HS athletes about their use of S/E drinks and assess potential side-effects. One hundred American HS athletes (72 were female; 27 were male; one did not identify gender were part of a cross-sectional internet-based survey. The mean age of the athletes was 16.0 ± 1.1 years. The athletes self-reported S/E consumption patterns, motivations for consumption, and drink side-effects. Nearly two-thirds (59.5% of athletes surveyed were at least occasional users of sports drinks, and more than one-third (37.3% were at least occasional users of energy drinks. Of the athletes who had ever drunk an S/E drink, 49.5% drank their first sport drink at ≤ 8 years and 41.3% consumed their first energy drink ≤ 11–12 years of age. The most common motivation for consumption of sports drinks was to rehydrate (84.1% and of energy drinks was to gain energy (61.8%. Side effects of S/E drinks were frequently reported; 25.3% of energy drink users reporting being nervous/jittery after consumption. Thus HS athletes should be cautioned about consumption of S/E drinks until more is understood about their short- and long-term side-effects.

  17. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa, E-mail: alisa.rudnitskaya@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Polshin, Evgeny [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kirsanov, Dmitry [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart [BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip [Centre for Malting and Brewing Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverelee (Belgium); Legin, Andrey [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-30

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  18. Effects of a Proline Endopeptidase on the Detection and Quantitation of Gluten by Antibody-Based Methods during the Fermentation of a Model Sorghum Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rakhi; Fiedler, Katherine L; Cho, Chung Y; Cheng, Raymond; Stutts, Whitney L; Jackson, Lauren S; Garber, Eric A E

    2015-12-09

    The effectiveness of a proline endopeptidase (PEP) in hydrolyzing gluten and its putative immunopathogenic sequences was examined using antibody-based methods and mass spectrometry (MS). Based on the results of the antibody-based methods, fermentation of wheat gluten containing sorghum beer resulted in a reduction in the detectable gluten concentration. The addition of PEP further reduced the gluten concentration. Only one sandwich ELISA was able to detect the apparent low levels of gluten present in the beers. A competitive ELISA using a pepsin-trypsin hydrolysate calibrant was unreliable because the peptide profiles of the beers were inconsistent with that of the hydrolysate calibrant. Analysis by MS indicated that PEP enhanced the loss of a fragment of an immunopathogenic 33-mer peptide in the beer. However, Western blot results indicated partial resistance of the high molecular weight (HMW) glutenins to the action of PEP, questioning the ability of PEP in digesting all immunopathogenic sequences present in gluten.

  19. Conventional and alternative principles for stabilization of protein and polyphenol fractions in beer

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Romeo S.; Grujić Olgica S.; Pejin Jelena D.

    2003-01-01

    Beer haze is primarily formed through complexation of protein and polyphenolic beer ingredients. The problem of reducing susceptibility of beer haze formation can be done either by lowering protein and/or polyphenol levels, or by minimizing the molecular size of protein/polyphenols. In experimental part of this work the shelf life of unstabilized beer is being compared with beer stabilized with various standard products, such as PVPP and silica gel. Furthermore, the trials have been made to p...

  20. Analysis of changes tendency on the polish beer market

    OpenAIRE

    Zbigniew Gołaś; Mariusz Ścibek

    2010-01-01

    The article shows the analysis of Polish beer market in progress. On the basis of the carried out research it can be stated that Polish beer industry can be rated as one of the most modern hi-tech in the world. It is caused by cooperation of foreign investors with the Polish market which has resulted in a strong consolidation and separating of three major breweries owning almost 90% of the national beer market. Very tough competition between huge producers has also brought benefits to consume...

  1. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from barley to beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proehl, G.; Mueller, H.; Voigt, G. [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleibheim (Germany)] [and others

    1997-01-01

    Beer has been brewed from barley contaminated with {sup 137}Cs as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The {sup 137}Cs activity has been measured in all intermediate steps and in the by-products of the production process. About 35 % of the {sup 137}Cs in barley were recovered in beer. Processing factors defined as the concentration ratio of processed and raw products were determined to be 0.61, 3.3, 0.1 and 0.11 for malt, malt germs, spent grains and beer, respectively. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Comparison of beer quality attributes between beers brewed with 100% barley malt and 100% barley raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Elisabeth; Auer, Andrea; Becker, Thomas; Gastl, Martina

    2012-03-15

    Brewing with 100% barley using the Ondea® Pro exogenous brewing enzyme product was compared to brewing with 100% barley. The use of barley, rather than malt, in the brewing process and the consequences for selected beer quality attributes (foam formation, colloidal stability and filterability, sensory differences, protein content and composition) was considered. The quality attributes of barley, malt, kettle-full-wort, cold wort, unfiltered beer and filtered beer were assessed. A particular focus was given to monitoring changes in the barley protein composition during the brewing process and how the exogenous OndeaPro® enzymes influenced wort protein composition. All analyses were based on standard brewing methods described in ASBC, EBC or MEBAK. To monitor the protein changes two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used. It was shown that by brewing beer with 100% barley and an appropriate addition of exogenous Ondea® Pro enzymes it was possible to efficiently brew beer of a satisfactory quality. The production of beers brewed with 100% barley resulted in good process efficiency (lautering and filtration) and to a final product whose sensory quality was described as light, with little body and mouthfeel, very good foam stability and similar organoleptic qualities compared to conventional malt beer. In spite of the sensory evaluation differences could still be seen in protein content and composition. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Evaluation of beer deterioration by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/multivariate analysis: a rapid tool for assessing beer composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, João A; Barros, António S; Carvalho, Beatriz; Brandão, Tiago; Gil, Ana M; Ferreira, António C Silva

    2011-02-18

    Beer stability is a major concern for the brewing industry, as beer characteristics may be subject to significant changes during storage. This paper describes a novel non-targeted methodology for monitoring the chemical changes occurring in a lager beer exposed to accelerated aging (induced by thermal treatment: 18 days at 45 °C), using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in tandem with multivariate analysis (GC-MS/MVA). Optimization of the chromatographic run was performed, achieving a threefold reduction of the chromatographic time. Although losing optimum resolution, rapid GC runs showed similar chromatographic profiles and semi-quantitative ability to characterize volatile compounds. To evaluate the variations on the global volatile signature (chromatographic profile and m/z pattern of fragmentation in each scan) of beer during thermal deterioration, a non-supervised multivariate analysis method, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), was applied to the GC-MS data. This methodology allowed not only the rapid identification of the degree of deterioration affecting beer, but also the identification of specific compounds of relevance to the thermal deterioration process of beer, both well established markers such as 5-hydroxymethylfufural (5-HMF), furfural and diethyl succinate, as well as other compounds, to our knowledge, newly correlated to beer aging.

  4. Acute High-Dose and Chronic Lifetime Exposure to Alcohol Consumption and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: T-CALOS Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunji Hwang

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of acute high-dose and chronic lifetime exposure to alcohol and exposure patterns on the development of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC.The Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS included 2,258 DTC patients (449 men and 1,809 women and 22,580 healthy participants (4,490 men and 18,090 women who were individually matched by age, gender, and enrollment year. In-person interviews were conducted with a structured questionnaire to obtain epidemiologic data. Clinicopathologic features of the patients were obtained by chart reviews. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were estimated using conditional regression models.While light or moderate drinking behavior was related to a reduced risk of DTC, acute heavy alcohol consumption (151 g or more per event or on a single occasion was associated with increased risks in men (OR = 2.22, 95%CI = 1.27-3.87 and women (OR = 3.61, 95%CI = 1.52-8.58 compared with never-drinkers. The consumption of alcohol for 31 or more years was a significant risk factor for DTC for both men (31-40 years: OR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.10-2.28; 41+ years: OR = 3.46, 95%CI = 2.06-5.80 and women (31-40 years: OR = 2.18, 95%CI = 1.62-2.92; 41+ years: OR = 2.71, 95%CI = 1.36-5.05 compared with never-drinkers. The consumption of a large amount of alcohol on a single occasion was also a significant risk factor, even after restricting DTC outcomes to tumor size, lymph node metastasis, extrathyroidal extension and TNM stage.The findings of this study suggest that the threshold effects of acute high-dose alcohol consumption and long-term alcohol consumption are linked to an increased risk of DTC.

  5. MALDI-TOF MS typing enables the classification of brewing yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces to major beer styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Alexander; Usbeck, Julia C; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2017-01-01

    Brewing yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces are either available from yeast distributor centers or from breweries employing their own "in-house strains". During the last years, the classification and characterization of yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces was achieved by using biochemical and DNA-based methods. The current lack of fast, cost-effective and simple methods to classify brewing yeasts to a beer type, may be closed by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) upon establishment of a database based on sub-proteome spectra from reference strains of brewing yeasts. In this study an extendable "brewing yeast" spectra database was established including 52 brewing yeast strains of the most important types of bottom- and top-fermenting strains as well as beer-spoiling S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus strains. 1560 single spectra, prepared with a standardized sample preparation method, were finally compared against the established database and investigated by bioinformatic analyses for similarities and distinctions. A 100% separation between bottom-, top-fermenting and S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus strains was achieved. Differentiation between Alt and Kölsch strains was not achieved because of the high similarity of their protein patterns. Whereas the Ale strains show a high degree of dissimilarity with regard to their sub-proteome. These results were supported by MDS and DAPC analysis of all recorded spectra. Within five clusters of beer types that were distinguished, and the wheat beer (WB) cluster has a clear separation from other groups. With the establishment of this MALDI-TOF MS spectra database proof of concept is provided of the discriminatory power of this technique to classify brewing yeasts into different major beer types in a rapid, easy way, and focus brewing trails accordingly. It can be extended to yeasts for specialty beer types and other applications including wine making or baking.

  6. Beer potomania syndrome in an alcoholic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrow, A S

    1989-06-01

    To summarize, patients with the "beer potomania" syndrome are characterized by 1) a history of chronic alcohol ingestion (in a hypotonic form); 2) protein malnutrition; 3) signs, symptoms and laboratory values consistent with water intoxication, including hyponatraemia, hypochloraemia and, usually, hypokalaemia; 4) no evidence of another cause of hyponatraemia such as steroid use, diuretic use, hyperlipidaemia, etc. The pathophysiology involves the inability to excrete sufficient free water, based on a loss of normal renal urea gradients. Patients may actually be total-body sodium depleted, yet have elevated urinary sodium and fractional sodium excretion due to this disorder of water metabolism. Attention to proper nutrition during the acute illness may obviate the need for potentially hazardous administration of hypertonic saline.

  7. [Liver cirrhosis mortality in Mexico. II. Excess mortality and pulque consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narro-Robles, J; Gutiérrez-Avila, J H; López-Cervantes, M; Borges, G; Rosovsky, H

    1992-01-01

    Over the years high cirrhosis mortality rates have been reported in Mexico City and in the surrounding states (Hidalgo, Tlaxcala, Puebla and the State of Mexico); on the contrary, well defined areas, such as the northern states, have shown a considerably lower mortality rate. This situation may indicate that some factors such as the pattern of alcoholic intake and other environmental characteristics could explain this striking difference. To determine the role of alcohol, the availability and consumption of alcohol at regional and state level were compared with cirrhosis mortality rates. A high and statistically significant correlation was found with pulque availability and consumption (r = 72-92%, p less than 0.01) in all periods of time under examination. On the contrary, a statistically significant negative association was observed with beer consumption and a positive, but not significant correlation, with distilled alcoholic beverages. Infectious hepatitis incidence, prevalence of exclusive use of native languages (as an indirect index of ethnic background) and nutritional deficiencies were also studied as possible risk factors. Nutritional deficiencies and the prevalence of exclusive use of náhuatl and otomí languages were positively correlated. These results can be useful to conduct further epidemiological studies still needed to determine the etiologic role of pulque consumption as well as of the other risk factors. Nonetheless, the current data stress the need to implement public health programs to reduce alcohol consumption, especially pulque, and to minimize the impact of these risk factors in high mortality areas.

  8. Associations of Caffeinated Beverage Consumption and Screen Time with Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Korean High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Nuri; Lee, Aeri; Baik, Inkyung

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated caffeinated beverage consumption and screen time in the association with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and sleep duration. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 249 Korean male high school students. These participants responded to a questionnaire inquiring the information on lifestyle factors, consumption of caffeinated beverages, time spent for screen media, and sleep duration as well as to the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire. EDS was defined as ESS scores of 9 or greater. Students with EDS consumed greater amount of chocolate/cocoa drinks and spent longer time for a TV and a mobile phone than those without EDS (p students with short sleep (≤ 6 hours) consumed greater amount of coffee than others whereas students with long sleep (> 8 hours) consumed greater amount of chocolate/cocoa drinks than others (p consumption of certain types of caffeinated beverages is associated with EDS and sleep duration. Adolescents may need to reduce screen time and caffeine consumption to improve sleep quality and avoid daytime sleepiness.

  9. Associations of Caffeinated Beverage Consumption and Screen Time with Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Korean High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated caffeinated beverage consumption and screen time in the association with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and sleep duration. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 249 Korean male high school students. These participants responded to a questionnaire inquiring the information on lifestyle factors, consumption of caffeinated beverages, time spent for screen media, and sleep duration as well as to the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire. EDS was defined as ESS scores of 9 or greater. Students with EDS consumed greater amount of chocolate/cocoa drinks and spent longer time for a TV and a mobile phone than those without EDS (p sleep (≤ 6 hours) consumed greater amount of coffee than others whereas students with long sleep (> 8 hours) consumed greater amount of chocolate/cocoa drinks than others (p sleep duration. Although these findings do not support causal relationships, they suggest that screen time is associated with EDS, but not with sleep duration, and that consumption of certain types of caffeinated beverages is associated with EDS and sleep duration. Adolescents may need to reduce screen time and caffeine consumption to improve sleep quality and avoid daytime sleepiness. PMID:28168182

  10. Alcohol consumption in Polish middle and high school pupils – has this rapidly increased during 2009–11?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojtyła-Buciora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction.[/b] The dynamic rise of alcohol consumption in adolescents is a matter of serious concern, requiring frequently updated monitoring. By such means, it is possible to optimise preventative measures for dealing with this problem. [b]Objective[/b]. To estimate the magnitude/amount and frequency of alcohol consumed by middle and high school pupils in Poland, including the circumstances when alcohol was first drunk. [b]Materials and Methods[/b]. A randomised survey was performed throughout Poland on middle school (junior high school pupils, (n=9360 in 2009, followed by both middle and high school pupils in 2011 (n=7971. The questionnaire was devised by the Polish Chief Sanitary Inspectorate (GIS. [b]Results[/b]. A strikingly sharp increase in alcohol consumption (29% was observed in subjects between 2009 – 2011. In the latter year, 1 month prior to survey, respectively, 50% and 71% of middle school and high school pupils drank alcohol, and correspondingly, 36% and 63% of these pupils ever became intoxicated/drunk. [b]Conclusions[/b]. 1 Adolescent alcohol consumption increases with age and is highest in girls. Monitoring as well as in-depth analysis thus becomes necessary. 2 Systematic monitoring and analysis of changing healthy lifestyle behaviour should be used for taking the necessary corrective action. This should happen concurrently and consist of planned health education programmes, including health promotion.

  11. Beer tapping: dynamics of bubbles after impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantič-Lugo, V.; Cayron, A.; Brun, P.-T.; Gallaire, F.

    2015-12-01

    Beer tapping is a well known prank where a bottle of beer is impacted from the top by a solid object, usually another bottle, leading to a sudden foam overflow. A description of the shock-driven bubble dynamics leading to foaming is presented based on an experimental and numerical study evoking the following physical picture. First, the solid impact produces a sudden downwards acceleration of the bottle creating a strong depression in the liquid bulk. The existing bubbles undergo a strong expansion and a sudden contraction ending in their collapse and fragmentation into a large amount of small bubbles. Second, the bubble clouds present a large surface area to volume ratio, enhancing the CO2 diffusion from the supersaturated liquid, hence growing rapidly and depleting the CO2. The clouds of bubbles migrate upwards in the form of plumes pulling the surrounding liquid with them and eventually resulting in the foam overflow. The sudden pressure drop that triggers the bubble dynamics with a collapse and oscillations is modelled by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The bubble dynamics from impact to collapse occurs over a time (tb ≃ 800 μs) much larger than the acoustic time scale of the liquid bulk (tac = 2H/c ≃ 80 μs), for the experimental container of height H = 6 cm and a speed of sound around c ≃ 1500 m/s. This scale separation, together with the comparison of numerical and experimental results, suggests that the pressure drop is controlled by two parameters: the acceleration of the container and the distance from the bubble to the free surface.

  12. 反相离子对高效液相色谱法测定啤酒中的B族维生素%Determination of B Vitamins in Beer by Ion-pair Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新; 张风; 李健

    2015-01-01

    A method had been developed by Ion-pair RP-HPLC for simultaneous determination of eight water-soluble B vitamins (thiamine, ri-boflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, biotin, folic acid and cobalamin) in beer. The method had excellent linearity with the correlation coefficients over 0.9993. And its average spike recovery varied from 98.04%to 103.27%with RSD within the range of 0.32%~1.26%.%建立反相离子高效液相色谱同时分离检测硫胺素VB1,核黄素VB2,烟酸VB3,泛酸VB5,吡哆素VB6,生物素VB7,叶酸VB9,钴胺素VB12的分析方法。结果表明,B族维生素各组分线性良好,各线性相关系数都在0.9993以上;并用此方法测定啤酒中B族维生素。平均回收率为98.04%~103.27%,其RSD为0.32%~1.26%。

  13. Consumption of Wine with Meals and Subjective Well-being: A Finnish Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Atte; Kokkonen, Hanna

    2016-11-01

    To examine in the general population the association of regular consumption of wine with meals, subjective well-being and risky drinking. A random sample of Finnish people aged 18-69 ('Finnish Drinking Habits Survey 2008', n = 2591, response rate 74%) were interviewed regarding psychological distress, self-efficacy, self-perceived health, uncontrolled drinking, negative events during drinking, hazardous drinking and consumption of alcohol. The analysis focused on comparison of those who drank wine at least once a week versus more seldom. Regression models adjusted for social determinants, smoking and chronic illness. Twelve percent of Finnish adults drank wine with meals at least once a week. Drinking wine with meals was an urban phenomenon and associated with higher socioeconomic status. Regular wine with meal drinkers reported better health, higher self-efficacy and less psychological distress than others even when various confounders were adjusted for. They also reported more risky drinking and higher yearly consumption than other alcohol consumers. Especially those who drank both wine and beer during meals had higher rates of risky drinking. Those restricting themselves to only wine with meals reported less hazardous drinking than the general population. Consumption of wine with meals was associated with high socioeconomic status and high subjective well-being. Risky drinking was prevalent among wine with meal drinkers, but only among those who drank both wine and beer with meals. Potential unknown confounders may exist, but the results underline a link between subjective well-being and drinking wine with meals. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  14. Capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection for studying amino acid uptake by yeast during beer fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkia, Heidi; Sirén, Heli; Penttilä, Merja; Pitkänen, Juha-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    The amino acid composition of cultivation broth is known to affect the biomass accumulation, productivity, and vitality of yeast during cultivation. A separation method based on capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection was developed for the determination of amino acid consumption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during beer fermentation. Intraday relative standard deviations were less than 2.1% for migration times and between 2.9% and 9.9% for peak areas. Interday relative standard deviations were less than 2.5% for migration times and between 4.4% and 18.9% for peak areas. The quantification limit was even as low as 62.5 pM which equals to below attomole level detection. The method was applied to study the rate of amino acid utilization during beer fermentation.

  15. Intake of wine, beer and spirits and waiting time to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2003-01-01

    A high intake of alcohol may prolong waiting time to pregnancy, whereas a moderate intake may have no or perhaps even a positive effect on fecundity. In previous studies on fecundity, different types of beverages have not been taken into consideration, although moderate wine drinkers appear to ha...... fewer strokes, lung and digestive tract cancers, and overall mortality than both abstainers and moderate drinkers of beer or spirits. We examined the association between different types of alcoholic beverages and waiting time to pregnancy....

  16. Purification of barley dimeric α-amylase inhibitor-1 (BDAI-1) and avenin-like protein-a (ALP) from beer and their impact on beer foam stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimure, Takashi; Kihara, Makoto; Sato, Kazuhiro; Ogushi, Kensuke

    2015-04-01

    Foam stability is a key factor of beer quality for consumers and brewers. Recent beer proteome analyses have suggested that barley dimeric α-amylase inhibitor-1 (BDAI-1) and avenin-like protein-a (ALP) derived from barley are important for beer foam stability. In this study, BDAI-1 and ALP were purified from a Japanese commercial beer sample using salt precipitation and column chromatography. The purification level was verified using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and database searches. Purified BDAI-1 and ALP were added to a beer sample to compare the foam stability to that of a control beer sample. As a result, beer foam stability was significantly improved by BDAI-1 but not by ALP, thereby suggesting that BDAI-1 affects beer foam stability whereas ALP does not.

  17. The relationship between stressful working conditions and high alcohol consumption and severe alcohol problems in an urban general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romelsjö, A; Hasin, D; Hilton, M

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between 15 measures of stressful working conditions and high alcohol consumption (35 g 100% ethanol per day or more for men and 25 g or more for women) was studied, using cross-sectional data from a general population survey of 1344 males and 1494 females; the ages 25-64 years...... increased odds ratios were lower when subjects with an alcohol diagnosis at inpatient care during 1980-84 were excluded in the analyses. On the whole, our findings are not conclusive. The strong, but imprecise associations between stressful working conditions and severe alcohol problems, are however......-adjusted odds ratios, were positive and some were negative when high alcohol consumption was the endpoint, but there was a clear variation by sex and social class. Generally the positive associations were stronger among male non-manual employees. Among males, there was a clear association between stressful...

  18. [Hypoglycaemia and hypocalcaemia in a gastric bypass-operated patient with high alcohol consumption and colectomia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Dorte; Naver, Lars S; Hansen, Dorte L

    2015-04-13

    The combination of gastric bypass, colectomia, lack of substitution with minerals and vitamins, and alcohol consumption led to severe complications in a 57-year-old man. He was submitted to different hospitals 25 times and seen in polyclinics 39 times with no improvement in symptoms of postprandial neurohypoglycaemia, ortostatic hypotension and pronounced hypocalcaemia. The importance of frequent controls after gastric bypass in centres with specialists knowing the common complications after the operation and the need for nutritionel supplements is hereby emphasised.

  19. Does high sugar consumption exacerbate cardiometabolic risk factors and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Sonestedt, Emily; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; David E Laaksonen; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of sugar has been relatively high in the Nordic countries; the impact of sugar intake onmetabolic risk factors and related diseases has been debated. The objectives were to assess the effect of sugarintake (sugar-sweetened beverages, sucrose and fructose) on association with type 2 diabetes, cardiovasculardisease and related metabolic risk factors (impaired glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, bloodpressure, uric acid, inflammation markers), and on all-cause morta...

  20. Consumer’s Evaluation and Choice of Beer in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Yang, Yingkui

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the consumer’s evaluation and choice for beer characteristics is critical for marketers, nutritionist and health educators. We used multi-profile best-worst scaling to understand how consumers evaluate beer attributes in Vietnam context. We found that beer brand, price and packaging...... method are significant determinants of consumer choice across four segments while alcohol percent had a bit effects. We also calculate consumers’ willingness to pay for the preferable packaging method (glass bottle vs. aluminum cans) of each beer brand. Further, we examine how consumers’ involvement...... in sensory attributes and marketing mix impact on the brand values estimated via choice models. We found that consumers who concerned more on flavor, alcohol percent and sale promotion are more likely to favor Heineken brand and less likely to favor Tiger. Consumers who rated more importance to the packaging...

  1. Environmental evaluation of global impacts caused by industrial activities. LCA of returnable beer bottle; Sangyo katsudo ni yotte shojiru chikyu kankyo impact no teiryoteki hyokaho. Reitoshite, beer bin no LCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamura, H.; Utsuno, F.; Yasui, I. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1995-04-01

    An application is reported of the LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) concerning reusable beer bottles (volume: 633cc). Data were collected for examination covering the four stages of natural resource acquisition, bottle production, beer filling and packaging, and distribution and consumption (with the stage of waste management being excluded because of inadequate data). Examination was made of changes brought about in the total energy consumption by varying the five parameters, that is, the number of usage of bottles, transportation distance for empty bottles, cullet ratio in glass manufacturing, transportation distance for cullet, and the bottle weight. It was found that the total energy consumption decreases with an increase in the number of usage of bottles, that an increase in the cullet ratio and a decrease in the bottle weight are effective in decreasing the total energy consumption, and that there is an energy-wise disadvantage when empty bottles are transported over a longer distance without an increase in the number of usage of bottles. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Cloning and characterization of the beer foaming gene CFG1 from Saccharomyces pastorianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Lucía; Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; Sánchez-Pérez, Angeles; Villa, Tomás G

    2012-10-31

    Foam production is an essential characteristic of beer, generated mainly from the proteins present in the malt and, to a minor extent, from the mannoproteins in brewer's yeast cell walls. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the novel fermentation gene CFG1 (Carlsbergensis foaming gene) from Saccharomyces pastorianus. CFG1 encodes the cell wall protein Cfg1p, a 105 kDa protein highly homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall mannoproteins, particularly those involved in foam formation, such as Awa1p and Fpg1p. Further characterization of Cfg1p revealed that this novel protein is responsible for beer foam stabilization. This report represents the first time that a brewing yeast foaming gene has been cloned and its action fully characterized.

  3. Data-fusion for multiplatform characterization of an italian craft beer aimed at its authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biancolillo, Alessandra; Bucci, Remo; Magrì, Antonio L.; Magrì, Andrea D.; Marini, Federico, E-mail: fmmonet@hotmail.com

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Characterization of beer samples by five different fingerprinting techniques. • Chemometric discriminant and class-modeling techniques used for their authentication. • Mid-level data fusion allowed correct classification of all samples. - Abstract: Five different instrumental techniques: thermogravimetry, mid-infrared, near-infrared, ultra-violet and visible spectroscopies, have been used to characterize a high quality beer (Reale) from an Italian craft brewery (Birra del Borgo) and to differentiate it from other competing and lower quality products. Chemometric classification models were built on the separate blocks using soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) obtaining good predictive ability on an external test set (75% or higher depending on the technique). The use of data fusion strategies – in particular, the mid-level one – to integrate the data from the different platforms allowed the correct classification of all the training and validation samples.

  4. Slow-light enhancement of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Xiao, Sanshui

    2007-01-01

    We theoretically show how slow light in an optofluidic environment facilitates enhanced light-matter interactions, by orders of magnitude. The proposed concept provides strong opportunities for improving existing miniaturized chemical absorbance cells for Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption measureme......We theoretically show how slow light in an optofluidic environment facilitates enhanced light-matter interactions, by orders of magnitude. The proposed concept provides strong opportunities for improving existing miniaturized chemical absorbance cells for Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption...

  5. [Prevention of beer dependence in adolescents in educational institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solov'ev, A G; Novikova, G A

    2013-01-01

    The authors have systematized approaches to the prevention of beer dependence in adolescents and presented the inner structure of prevention in educational institutions in terms of consecutive steps. The author's methods for adolescence beer dependence diagnosis are described. Different forms of preventive work with adolescences and their parents allowing to combine flexibly the preventive methods with the participation of cross-functional specialists are presented.

  6. Experimental effects of chocolate deprivation on cravings, mood, and consumption in high and low chocolate-cravers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Dominguez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Martín, María; Warren, Cortney S

    2012-02-01

    This study examined how deprivation of chocolate affects state-level chocolate cravings, mood, and chocolate consumption in high and low trait-level chocolate-cravers. After identifying high and low chocolate cravers (N=58), half of the participants were instructed not to eat any chocolate for 2weeks. This created four experimental groups: deprived high-cravers (n=14), deprived low-cravers (n=14), non-deprived high-cravers (n=15), and non-deprived low-cravers (n=15). Following 2-week deprivation, state-level food cravings, mood, and chocolate intake were measured in a laboratory setting and compared across groups. Analyses revealed that anxiety increased over time for high-cravers (both deprived and non-deprived); state-level chocolate- and food-craving increased over time for both deprived groups and non-deprived high-cravers; non-deprived high-cravers ate the most chocolate; and, high-cravers were more joyful and guilty than low-cravers after eating chocolate in the laboratory. Theoretically, these results suggest that chocolate consumption may be better explained by trait-level of chocolate craving than by deprivation and highlighted significant differences in mood, state-level cravings, and chocolate intake between cravers and non-cravers following deprivation.

  7. Differentiation of Lactobacillus brevis strains using Matrix-Assisted-Laser-Desorption-Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry with respect to their beer spoilage potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Carola C; Vogel, Rudi F; Behr, Jürgen

    2014-06-01

    Lactobacillus (L.) brevis is one of the most frequently encountered bacteria in beer-spoilage incidents. As the species Lactobacillus brevis comprises strains showing varying ability to grow in beer, ranging from growth in low hopped wheat to highly hopped pilsner beer, differentiation and classification of L. brevis with regard to their beer-spoiling ability is of vital interest for the brewing industry. Matrix-Assisted-Laser-Desorption-Ionization-Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been shown as a powerful tool for species and sub-species differentiation of bacterial isolates and is increasingly used for strain-level differentiation. Seventeen L. brevis strains, representative of different spoilage types, were characterized according to their tolerance to iso-alpha-acids and their growth in wheat-, lager- and pilsner beer. MALDI-TOF MS spectra were acquired to perform strain-level identification, cluster analysis and biomarker detection. Strain-level identification was achieved in 90% out of 204 spectra. Misidentification occurred nearly exclusively among strains belonging to the same spoilage type. Though spectra of strongly beer-spoiling strains showed remarkable similarity, no decisive single markers were detected to be present in all strains of one group. However, MALDI-TOF MS spectra can be reliably assigned to the corresponding strain and thus allow to track single strains and connect them to their physiological properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of Freeze-Dried Yeast Starter Cultures on Volatile Compounds of Tchapalo, a Traditional Sorghum Beer from Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahauwouélé Hermann Coulibaly

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of the Ivorian sorghum beer known as tchapalo remains more or less an empirical process. The use of starter cultures was therefore suggested as the appropriate approach to alleviate the problems of variations in organoleptic quality and microbiological stability. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of S. cerevisiae and C. tropicalis to produce sorghum beer as freeze-dried starter in mixed or pure cultures. Beers produced with mixed freeze-dried cultures of S. cerevisiae F12-7 and C. tropicalis C0-7 showed residual sugars and ethanol contents similar to beers obtained with S. cerevisiae F12-7 pure culture, but the total sum of organic acids analyzed was the highest with the mixed culture (15.71 g/L. Higher alcohols were quantitatively the largest group of volatile compounds detected in beers. Among these compounds, 2-phenyl ethanol, a higher alcohol that  plays an important role in beer flavor, was highly produced with the mixed culture (10,174.8 µg/L than with the pure culture (8749.9 µg/L.

  9. Synergistic effect of viral load and alcohol consumption on the risk of persistent high-risk human papillomavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hea Young Oh

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This prospective study aimed to examine the combined effect of viral load and alcohol consumption on the risk of persistent high-risk (HR human papillomavirus (HPV infection. METHODS: Among women undergoing health screening between 2002 and 2011 at the National Cancer Center, 284 and 122 women with HR-HPV infection and cytological findings of low-grade squamous intraepithelial or lower-grade lesions were followed up for 1 and 2 years, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, and the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI and synergy index (S were calculated. RESULTS: Among drinkers, the risks of 1-year (odds ratio [OR] 4.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.05-8.18 and 2-year persistence (OR 8.08, CI 2.36-27.6 were significantly higher for high HPV loads than for low HPV loads; this association was not seen for non-drinkers. The risks for 1-year (OR 4.14, CI 1.89-9.05 and 2-year persistence (OR 6.61, CI 2.09-20.9 were significantly higher in subjects with a high HPV load who were also drinkers than in those who were non-drinkers. A high HPV load together with a longer drinking duration or higher alcohol consumption was associated with increased risks of 1-year (OR 3.07, CI 1.40-6.75 or OR 2.05, CI 0.87-4.83 and 2-year persistence (OR 6.40, CI 1.72-23.8 or OR 4.14, CI 1.18-14.6. The synergistic effect of alcohol consumption and HR-HPV load was stronger on the risk of 2-year persistence (RERI = 3.26, S = 2.38 than on the risk of 1-year persistence (RERI = 1.21, S = 1.63. CONCLUSIONS: The synergistic effect of HR-HPV load and alcohol consumption was associated with the risk of HR-HPV persistence and was stronger for longer-term HR-HPV infection. Limiting alcohol consumption might be an important measure to prevent the development of cervical cancer in women with a high HR-HPV load.

  10. Analysis of the solar radiation data for Beer Sheva, Israel, and its environs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudish, A.I. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)); Ianetz, A. (Israel Meteorological Service, Bet-Dagan (Israel))

    1992-01-01

    The solar radiation climate of Beer Sheva, Israel, is reported upon in detail. The database utilized in this analysis consisted of global radiation on a horizontal surface, normal incidence beam radiation, and global radiation on a south-facing surface tilted at 40{degree}. Monthly-average hourly and daily values are reported for each of these three types of measured radiations, together with the calculated monthly-average daily values for the components of the global radiation, viz. the horizontal beam and diffuse radiations. The monthly-average hourly and daily clearness index values have also been calculated and analyzed. Monthly-average daily frequency distributions of the clearness index values are reported for each month. The solar radiation climate of Beer Sheva has also been compared to those reported for a number of countries in this region. The annual-average daily global radiation incident on a horizontal surface is 18.91 MG/m{sup 2} and that for normal incidence beam radiation is 21.17 MG/m{sup 2}. The annual-average daily fraction of the horizontal global radiation that is beam is 0.72. The annual-average daily value for the clearness index is 0.587 and the average frequency of clear days annually is 58.6%. The authors conclude, based upon the above analysis, that Beer Sheva and its environs are characterized by relatively high, average-daily irradiation rates, both global and beam, and a relatively high frequency of clear days.

  11. β-d-Glucosidase as "key enzyme" for sorghum cyanogenic glucoside (dhurrin) removal and beer bioflavouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokpohozin, Sedjro Emile; Fischer, Susann; Sacher, Bertram; Becker, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Sorghum malt used during African beer processing contains a high level of cyanogenic glucoside (dhurrin), up to 1375 ppm. In traditional sorghum malting and mashing, dhurrin is not sufficiently hydrolyzed due to uncontrolled germination and a high gelatinization temperature. The cyanide content of traditional African beers (11 ppm) is higher than the minimum dose (1 ppm) required to form carcinogenic ethyl carbamate during alcoholic fermentation. In the detoxification process, aryl-β-d-glucosidase (dhurrinase) is the "key component". For significant dhurrin hydrolysis during mashing, optimizing dhurrinase synthesis during malting is a good solution to reduce dhurrin completely to below the harmful dose in the sorghum wort. Lactic acid bacteria which exhibit aryl-β-d-glucosidase prior to alcoholic fermentation may help to reduce ethyl carbamate content in alcoholic beverages. Moreover, some specific β-d-glucosidases have a dual property, being able to cleave and synthesize glucosides bonds and thereby generating good precursors for beer bioflavouring.

  12. Characteristics of African traditional beers brewed with sorghum malt: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyumugabe, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sorghum beers are produced in several countries of Africa, but variations in the manufacturing process may occur depending on the geographic localization. These beers are very rich in calories, B-group vitamins including thiamine, folic acid, riboflavin and nicotinic acid, and essential amino acids such as lysine. However, the traditional sorghum beer is less attractive than Western beers because of its poorer hygienic quality, organoleptic variations and shorter shelf life. Research into the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of traditional sorghum beers as well as their technologies have been performed and documented in several African countries. This review aims to summarize the production processes and compositional characteristics of African traditional sorghum beers (ikigage, merissa, doro, dolo, pito, amgba and tchoukoutou. It also highlights the major differences between these traditional beers and barley malt beer, consumed worldwide, and suggests adaptations that could be made to improve the production process of traditional sorghum beer.

  13. Influence of yeast immobilization on fermentation and aldehyde reduction during the production of alcohol-free beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, van M.F.M.; Brouwer-Post, E.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2000-01-01

    Production of alcohol-free beer by limited fermentation is optimally performed in a packed-bed reactor. This highly controllable system combines short contact times between yeast and wort with the reduction of off-flavors to concentrations below threshold values. In the present study, the influence

  14. Chronic consumption of a high-fat/high-fructose diet renders the liver incapable of net hepatic glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coate, Katie Colbert; Scott, Melanie; Farmer, Ben; Moore, Mary Courtney; Smith, Marta; Roop, Joshua; Neal, Doss W; Williams, Phil; Cherrington, Alan D

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the response of a large animal model to high dietary fat and fructose (HFFD). Three different metabolic assessments were performed during 13 wk of feeding an HFFD (n = 10) or chow control (CTR, n = 4) diet: oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs; baseline, 4 and 8 wk), hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps (HIEGs; baseline and 10 wk) and hyperinsulinemic-hyperglycemic clamps (HIHGs, 13 wk). The ΔAUC for glucose during the OGTTs more than doubled after 4 and 8 wk of HFFD feeding, and the average glucose infusion rate required to maintain euglycemia during the HIEG clamps decreased by ≈30% after 10 wk of HFFD feeding. These changes did not occur in the CTR group. The HIHG clamps included experimental periods 1 (P1, 0-90 min) and 2 (P2, 90-180 min). During P1, somatostatin, basal intraportal glucagon, 4 × basal intraportal insulin, and peripheral glucose (to double the hepatic glucose load) were infused; during P2, glucose was also infused intraportally (4.0 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Net hepatic glucose uptake during P1 and P2 was -0.4 ± 0.1 [output] and 0.2 ± 0.8 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1) in the HFFD group, respectively, and 1.8 ± 0.8 and 3.5 ± 1.0 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1) in the CTR group, respectively (P vs. HFFD during P1 and P2). Glycogen synthesis through the direct pathway was 0.5 ± 0.2 and 1.5 ± 0.4 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1) in the HFFD and CTR groups, respectively (P vs. HFFD). In conclusion, chronic consumption of an HFFD diminished the sensitivity of the liver to hormonal and glycemic cues and resulted in a marked impairment in NHGU and glycogen synthesis.

  15. Excess Postexercise Oxygen Consumption After High-Intensity and Sprint Interval Exercise, and Continuous Steady-State Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Wesley J; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2016-11-01

    Tucker, WJ, Angadi, SS, and Gaesser, GA. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption after high-intensity and sprint interval exercise, and continuous steady-state exercise. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3090-3097, 2016-Higher excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after high-intensity interval exercise (HIE) and sprint interval exercise (SIE) may contribute to greater fat loss sometimes reported after interval training compared with continuous steady-state exercise (SSE) training. We compared EPOC after HIE, SIE, and SSE. Ten recreationally active men (age 24 ± 4 years) participated in this randomized crossover study. On separate days, subjects completed a resting control trial and 3 exercise conditions on a cycle ergometer: HIE (four 4-minute intervals at 95% peak heart rate (HRpeak), separated by 3 minutes of active recovery), SIE (six 30-second Wingate sprints, separated by 4 minutes of active recovery), and SSE (30 minutes at 80% of HRpeak). Oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) was measured continuously during and for 3 hours after exercise. For all conditions, V[Combining Dot Above]O2 was higher than resting control only during the first hour postexercise. Although 3-hour EPOC and total net exercise energy expenditure (EE) after exercise were higher (p = 0.01) for SIE (22.0 ± 9.3 L; 110 ± 47 kcal) compared with SSE (12.8 ± 8.5 L; 64 ± 43 kcal), total (exercise + postexercise) net O2 consumed and net EE were greater (p = 0.03) for SSE (69.5 ± 18.4 L; 348 ± 92 kcal) than those for SIE (54.2 ± 12.0 L; 271 ± 60 kcal). Corresponding values for HIE were not significantly different from SSE or SIE. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption after SIE and HIE is unlikely to account for the greater fat loss per unit EE associated with SIE and HIE training reported in the literature.

  16. High-fructose corn syrup and sucrose have equivalent effects on energy-regulating hormones at normal human consumption levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiping; Lowndes, Joshua; Rippe, James

    2013-12-01

    Intake of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been suggested to contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity, whereas a number of studies and organizations have reported metabolic equivalence between HFCS and sucrose. We hypothesized that HFCS and sucrose would have similar effects on energy-regulating hormones and metabolic substrates at normal levels of human consumption and that these values would not change over a 10-week, free-living period at these consumption levels. This was a randomized, prospective, double-blind, parallel group study in which 138 adult men and women consumed 10 weeks of low-fat milk sweetened with either HFCS or sucrose at levels of the 25th, 50th, and 90th percentile population consumption of fructose (the equivalent of 40, 90, or 150 g of sugar per day in a 2000-kcal diet). Before and after the 10-week intervention, 24-hour blood samples were collected. The area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, insulin, leptin, active ghrelin, triglyceride, and uric acid was measured. There were no group differences at baseline or posttesting for all outcomes (interaction, P > .05). The AUC response of glucose, active ghrelin, and uric acid did not change between baseline and posttesting (P > .05), whereas the AUC response of insulin (P < .05), leptin (P < .001), and triglyceride (P < .01) increased over the course of the intervention when the 6 groups were averaged. We conclude that there are no differences in the metabolic effects of HFCS and sucrose when compared at low, medium, and high levels of consumption.

  17. Wastes from bioethanol and beer productions as substrates for l(+) lactic acid production - A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Pejin, Jelena; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2016-02-01

    Waste substrates from bioethanol and beer productions are cheap, abundant and renewable substrates for biorefinery production of lactic acid (LA) and variability in their chemical composition presents a challenge in their valorisation. Three types of waste substrates, wasted bread and wasted potato stillage from bioethanol production and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate from beer production were studied as substrates for the production of l(+) LA and probiotic biomass by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The correlation of the content of free alpha amino nitrogen and the production of LA was determined as a critical characteristic of the waste media for efficient LA production by L. rhamnosus on the substrates which contained equal amount of fermentable sugars. A maximal LA productivity of 1.54gL(-1)h(-1) was obtained on wasted bread stillage media, whilst maximal productivities achieved on the potato stillage and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media were 1.28gL(-1)h(-1)and 0.48gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. A highest LA yield of 0.91gg(-1) was achieved on wasted bread stillage media, followed by the yield of 0.81gg(-1) on wasted potato stillage and 0.34gg(-1) on brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media. The kinetics of sugar consumption in the two stillage substrates were similar while the sugar conversion in brewers' spent grain hydrolysate was slower and less efficient due to significantly lower content of free alpha amino nitrogen. The lignocellulosic hydrolysate from beer production required additional supplementation with nitrogen.

  18. Consumptive water use in cropland and its partitioning:A high-resolution assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Spatially explicit assessments of consumptive water use (CWU) are still at an early stage, and parti-tioning of CWU has rarely been studied on large scales. In this article, CWU is assessed for China’s cropland with a spatial resolution of 30 arc-minutes. The partitioning of CWU is discussed through the simulation of transpiration ratios. The total CWU for Chinese cropland was 839 km3/a during 1998―2002. Spatial distribution of CWU is closely related to cropland area and crop production with the highest CWU in the North China Plain. Transpiration accounts for two-thirds of CWU. The transpiration ratio is affected by precipitation and irrigation. Transpiration ratios are higher in irrigated systems than in rainfed systems when precipitation is low. Competition of water use will impose pressure on China’s irrigation systems in the near future, and it will have a far-reaching effect on the partitioning of consumptive water use. Attention should be paid to green water management and technological improvements to guarantee China’s water and food security.

  19. Furfural Determination with Disposable Polymer Films and Smartphone-Based Colorimetry for Beer Freshness Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Yuste, Alberto; González-Vallejo, Victoria; Benito-Peña, Elena; de Las Casas Engel, Tomás; Orellana, Guillermo; Moreno-Bondi, María Cruz

    2016-04-05

    We have developed disposable color-changing polymeric films for quantification of furfural-a freshness indicator-in beer using a smartphone-based reader. The films are prepared by radical polymerization of 4-vinylaniline, as a furfural-sensitive indicator monomer, 2-hydroxymethyl methacrylate as a comonomer, and ethylene dimethyl methacrylate (EDMA) as a cross-linker. The sensing mechanism is based on the Stenhouse reaction in which aniline and furfural react in acidic media with the generation of a deep red cyanine derivative, absorbing at 537 nm, which is visible to the naked eye. The colorimetric response has been monitored using either a portable fiber-optic spectrophotometer or the built-in camera of a smartphone. Under the optimized conditions, a linear response to furfural in beer was obtained in the 39 to 500 μg L(-1) range, with a detection limit of 12 μg L(-1), thus improving the performance of other well-established colorimetric or chromatographic methods. The novel films are highly selective to furfural, and no cross-reactivity has been observed from other volatile compounds generated during beer aging. A smartphone application (app), developed for Android platforms, measures the RGB color coordinates of the sensing membranes after exposure to the analyte. Following data processing, the signals are converted into concentration values by preloaded calibration curves. The method has been applied to determination of furfural in pale lager beers with different storage times at room temperature. A linear correlation (r > 0.995) between the storage time and the furfural concentration in the samples has been confirmed; our results have been validated by HPLC with diode-array detection.

  20. Quantification of organic and amino acids in beer by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Lars I; Vaag, Pia; Duus, Jens Ø

    2004-08-15

    The quantification of organic and amino acids in beer using 1H NMR spectroscopy is demonstrated. Quantification was made both by integration of signals in the spectra together with use of calibration references and by use of partial least-squares (PLS) regression. Results from the NMR quantifications were compared with those obtained from determinations by amino acid analysis on HPLC and organic acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis. The described NMR-based methods could satisfactorily be used for quantification of several of the investigated metabolites in beer down to approximately 10 mg/L and for most with a good to high accuracy compared to results obtained by HPLC and capillary electrophoresis (R2 0.90-0.99). This was achieved with a simple sample preparation and one-dimensional 1H NMR spectra obtained in a few minutes. The use of PLS clearly improves the accuracy of the quantifications, based on comparison to results obtained by HPLC and capillary electrophoresis, and furthermore permits the determination of components with partially overlapped signals in the spectrum. NMR spectroscopy in combination with PLS will be a useful tool for the quantification of metabolites, not only in beer but also in other beverages and biofluids.