WorldWideScience

Sample records for high baseline seropositive

  1. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease) related to highly active antiretroviral therapy in an HIV-seropositive child. A report of a case, and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Wood, N H; Malema, V; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

    2010-05-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is increasingly frequently observed in rural South African communities. HIV-seropositive subjects have a higher prevalence of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infections than immunocompetent subjects; and paradoxically, the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy for treatment of HIV-seropositive subjects is associated with increased frequency of focal epithelial hyperplasia. We describe a case of focal epithelial hyperplasia in an HIV-seropositive child receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy, who was successfully treated by using diode laser ablation.

  2. Characterizing wild bird contact and seropositivity to highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in Alaskan residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Carrie; Bruden, Dana; Byrd, Kathy K; Veguilla, Vic; Bruce, Michael; Hurlburt, Debby; Wang, David; Holiday, Crystal; Hancock, Kathy; Ortiz, Justin R; Klejka, Joe; Katz, Jacqueline M; Uyeki, Timothy M

    2014-09-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have infected poultry and wild birds on three continents with more than 600 reported human cases (59% mortality) since 2003. Wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza A viruses, and migratory birds have been documented with HPAI H5N1 virus infection. Since 2005, clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 viruses have spread from Asia to many countries. We conducted a cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey in Anchorage and western Alaska to identify possible behaviors associated with migratory bird exposure and measure seropositivity to HPAI H5N1. We enrolled rural subsistence bird hunters and their families, urban sport hunters, wildlife biologists, and a comparison group without bird contact. We interviewed participants regarding their exposures to wild birds and collected blood to perform serologic testing for antibodies against a clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 virus strain. Hunters and wildlife biologists reported exposures to wild migratory birds that may confer risk of infection with avian influenza A viruses, although none of the 916 participants had evidence of seropositivity to HPAI H5N1. We characterized wild bird contact among Alaskans and behaviors that may influence risk of infection with avian influenza A viruses. Such knowledge can inform surveillance and risk communication surrounding HPAI H5N1 and other influenza viruses in a population with exposure to wild birds at a crossroads of intercontinental migratory flyways. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Combined Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and high blood kynurenine--Linked with nonfatal suicidal self-directed violence in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Duncan, Erica; Langenberg, Patricia; Brundin, Lena; Fuchs, Dietmar; Groer, Maureen W; Giegling, Ina; Stearns-Yoder, Kelly A; Hartmann, Annette M; Konte, Bettina; Friedl, Marion; Brenner, Lisa A; Lowry, Christopher A; Rujescu, Dan; Postolache, Teodor T

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) chronic infection and elevated kynurenine (KYN) levels have been individually associated with non-fatal suicidal self-directed violence (NF-SSDV). We aimed to test the hypothesis that the association between T. gondii seropositivity and history of NF-SSDV would be stronger in schizophrenia patients with high plasma KYN levels than in those with lower KYN levels. We measured anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies and plasma KYN in 950 patients with schizophrenia, and used logistic regression to evaluate the relationship between NF-SSDV and KYN in patients who were either seropositive or seronegative for T. gondii. For those with KYN levels in the upper 25th percentile, the unadjusted odds ratio for the association between NF-SSDV history and KYN in T. gondii seropositive patients was 1.63 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.66), p = 0.048; the adjusted odds ratio was 1.95 (95% CI 1.15 to 3.30), p = 0.014. Plasma KYN was not associated with a history of NF-SSDV in T. gondii seronegative patients. The results suggest that T. gondii and KYN may have a nonlinear cumulative effect on the risk of NF-SSDV among those with schizophrenia. If confirmed by future longitudinal studies, this result is expected to have both theoretical and clinical implications for the prevention and treatment of suicidal behavior. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The technologies being tested for concrete decontamination are targeted for alpha contamination. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  5. High prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus-capsid antibodies in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive men: a serological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarcletti Mario

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serological study of human papillomavirus (HPV-antibodies in order to estimate the HPV-prevalence as risk factor for the development of HPV-associated malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive men. Methods Sera from 168 HIV-positive men and 330 HIV-negative individuals (including 198 controls were tested using a direct HPV-ELISA specific to HPV-6, -11, -16, -18, -31 and bovine PV-1 L1-virus-like particles. Serological results were correlated with the presence of HPV-associated lesions, the history of other sexually transmitted diseases (STD and HIV classification groups. Results In HIV-negative men low risk HPV-antibodies were prevailing and associated with condylomatous warts (25.4%. Strikingly, HIV-positive men were more likely to have antibodies to the high-risk HPV types -16, -18, -31, and low risk antibodies were not increased in a comparable range. Even those HIV-positive heterosexual individuals without any HPV-associated lesions exhibited preferentially antibody responses to the oncogenic HPV-types (cumulative 31.1%. The highest antibody detection rate (88,8% was observed within the subgroup of nine HIV-positive homosexual men with anogenital warts. Three HIV-positive patients had HPV-associated carcinomas, in all of them HPV-16 antibodies were detected. Drug use and mean CD4-cell counts on the day of serologic testing had no influence on HPV-IgG antibody prevalence, as had prior antiretroviral therapy or clinical category of HIV-disease. Conclusion High risk HPV-antibodies in HIV-infected and homosexual men suggest a continuous exposure to HPV-proteins throughout the course of their HIV infection, reflecting the known increased risk for anogenital malignancies in these populations. The extensive increase of high risk antibodies (compared to low risk antibodies in HIV-positive patients cannot be explained by differences in exposure history alone, but suggests defects of the immunological control of

  6. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure. These were dust and noise. The dust exposure was found to be minimal, which would be expected due to the wet environment inherent in the technology, but noise exposure was at a significant level. Further testing for noise is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, fall hazards, slipping hazards, hazards associated with the high pressure water, and hazards associated with air pressure systems.

  7. Antibody response and risk factors for seropositivity in backyard poultry following mass vaccination against highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLAWS, M; Priyono, W; Bett, B; Al-Qamar, S; Claassen, I; Widiastuti, T; Poole, J; Schoonman, L; Jost, C; Mariner, J

    2015-06-01

    A large-scale mass vaccination campaign was carried out in Java, Indonesia in an attempt to control outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in backyard flocks and commercial smallholder poultry. Sero-monitoring was conducted in mass vaccination and control areas to assess the proportion of the target population with antibodies against HPAI and Newcastle disease (ND). There were four rounds of vaccination, and samples were collected after each round resulting in a total of 27 293 samples. Sampling was performed irrespective of vaccination status. In the mass vaccination areas, 20-45% of poultry sampled had a positive titre to H5 after each round of vaccination, compared to 2-3% in the control group. In the HPAI + ND vaccination group, 12-25% of the population had positive ND titres, compared to 5-13% in the areas without ND vaccination. The level of seropositivity varied by district, age of the bird, and species (ducks vs. chickens).

  8. Prevalence of Treponema pallidum seropositivity and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in a cohort of men who have sex with men, Bangkok, Thailand, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, T H; Thienkrua, W; McNicholl, J M; Wimonsate, W; Chaikummao, S; Chonwattana, W; Wasinrapee, P; Varangrat, A; Mock, P A; Sirivongrangson, P; van Griensven, F

    2012-06-01

    We report prevalence of Treponema pallidum (TP) seropositivity and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection and risk factors associated with their prevalence in a cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bangkok, Thailand. Between April 2006 and March 2010 we enrolled Thai MSM into a cohort study based at the Silom Community Clinic, with baseline behavioural data and laboratory testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Logistic regression was used to analyse risk factors associated with the prevalence of TP seropositivity and HSV-2 infection. From a total of 1544 enrolled men (mean age 26 years) TP, HSV-2 and HIV seropositive rates were 4.4%, 20.7% and 21.6%, respectively. After multivariable analysis, participating in group sex, reporting paying for sex, reporting sex with a casual partner in a park and being HSV-2 seropositive were associated with TP prevalence. Age ≥30 years, having less than a high school education, past use of recreational drugs, meeting casual sexual partners at a public venue (sauna) and TP seropositivity were associated with HSV-2 infection. The significant baseline prevalence of TP seropositivity and HSV-2 infection in this cohort demonstrates the need for screening and treatment of these STIs and targeted prevention interventions in Thai MSM in Bangkok.

  9. Scanner baseliner monitoring and control in high volume manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudrala, Pavan; Chung, Woong Jae; Aung, Nyan; Subramany, Lokesh; Gao, Haiyong; Gomez, Juan-Manuel

    2016-03-01

    We analyze performance of different customized models on baseliner overlay data and demonstrate the reduction in overlay residuals by ~10%. Smart Sampling sets were assessed and compared with the full wafer measurements. We found that performance of the grid can still be maintained by going to one-third of total sampling points, while reducing metrology time by 60%. We also demonstrate the feasibility of achieving time to time matching using scanner fleet manager and thus identify the tool drifts even when the tool monitoring controls are within spec limits. We also explore the scanner feedback constant variation with illumination sources.

  10. Baseline high heat flux and plasma facing materials for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Y.; Schmid, K.; Balden, M.; Coenen, J. W.; Loewenhoff, Th.; Ito, A.; Hasegawa, A.; Hardie, C.; Porton, M.; Gilbert, M.

    2017-09-01

    In fusion reactors, surfaces of plasma facing components (PFCs) are exposed to high heat and particle flux. Tungsten and Copper alloys are primary candidates for plasma facing materials (PFMs) and coolant tube materials, respectively, mainly due to high thermal conductivity and, in the case of tungsten, its high melting point. In this paper, recent understandings and future issues on responses of tungsten and Cu alloys to fusion environments (high particle flux (including T and He), high heat flux, and high neutron doses) are reviewed. This review paper includes; Tritium retention in tungsten (K. Schmid and M. Balden), Impact of stationary and transient heat loads on tungsten (J.W. Coenen and Th. Loewenhoff), Helium effects on surface morphology of tungsten (Y. Ueda and A. Ito), Neutron radiation effects in tungsten (A. Hasegawa), and Copper and copper alloys development for high heat flux components (C. Hardie, M. Porton, and M. Gilbert).

  11. Baseline Concept Description of a Small Modular High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gougar, Hans D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a description of generic small modular high temperature reactors (herein denoted as an smHTR), summarize their distinguishing attributes, and lay out the research and development (R&D) required for commercialization. The generic concepts rely heavily on the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor designs developed in the 1980s which were never built but for which pre-licensing or certification activities were conducted. The concept matured more recently under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, specifically in the areas of fuel and material qualification, methods development, and licensing. As all vendor-specific designs proposed under NGNP were all both ‘small’ or medium-sized and ‘modular’ by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Department of Energy (DOE) standards, the technical attributes, challenges, and R&D needs identified, addressed, and documented under NGNP are valid and appropriate in the context of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) applications. Although the term High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is commonly used to denote graphite-moderated, thermal spectrum reactors with coolant temperatures in excess of 650oC at the core outlet, in this report the historical term High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) will be used to distinguish the gas-cooled technology described herein from its liquid salt-cooled cousin. Moreover, in this report it is to be understood that the outlet temperature of the helium in an HTGR has an upper limit of 950 degrees C which corresponds to the temperature to which certain alloys are currently being qualified under DOE’s ARC program. Although similar to the HTGR in just about every respect, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) may have an outlet temperature in excess of 950 degrees C and is therefore farther from commercialization because of the challenges posed to materials exposed to these temperatures. The VHTR is the focus of R&D under the

  12. Baseline Concept Description of a Small Modular High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Gougar

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a description of generic small modular high temperature reactors (herein denoted as an smHTR), summarize their distinguishing attributes, and lay out the research and development (R&D) required for commercialization. The generic concepts rely heavily on the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor designs developed in the 1980s which were never built but for which pre-licensing or certification activities were conducted. The concept matured more recently under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, specifically in the areas of fuel and material qualification, methods development, and licensing. As all vendor-specific designs proposed under NGNP were all both ‘small’ or medium-sized and ‘modular’ by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Department of Energy (DOE) standards, the technical attributes, challenges, and R&D needs identified, addressed, and documented under NGNP are valid and appropriate in the context of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) applications. Although the term High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is commonly used to denote graphite-moderated, thermal spectrum reactors with coolant temperatures in excess of 650oC at the core outlet, in this report the historical term High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) will be used to distinguish the gas-cooled technology described herein from its liquid salt-cooled cousin. Moreover, in this report it is to be understood that the outlet temperature of the helium in an HTGR has an upper limit of 950 degrees C which corresponds to the temperature to which certain alloys are currently being qualified under DOE’s ARC program. Although similar to the HTGR in just about every respect, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) may have an outlet temperature in excess of 950 degrees C and is therefore farther from commercialization because of the challenges posed to materials exposed to these temperatures. The VHTR is the focus of R&D under the

  13. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and risk of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Koshiol

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a risk factor for distal stomach cancer, and a few small studies have suggested that H. pylori may be a potential risk factor for lung cancer. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study of 350 lung adenocarcinoma cases, 350 squamous cell carcinoma cases, and 700 controls nested within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC cohort of male Finnish smokers. Controls were one-to-one matched by age and date of baseline serum draw. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies against H. pylori whole-cell and cytotoxin-associated gene (CagA antigens, we calculated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs for associations between H. pylori seropositivity and lung cancer risk using conditional logistic regression. H. pylori seropositivity was detected in 79.7% of cases and 78.5% of controls. After adjusting for pack-years and cigarettes smoked per day, H. pylori seropositivity was not associated with either adenocarcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.75-1.6 or squamous cell carcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.77-1.7. Results were similar for CagA-negative and CagA-positive H. pylori seropositivity. Despite earlier small studies suggesting that H. pylori may contribute to lung carcinogenesis, H. pylori seropositivity does not appear to be associated with lung cancer.

  14. Omega 3 Fatty Acids Supplementation and Oxidative Stress in HIV-Seropositive Patients. A Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Licona, Norma; Díaz-Murillo, Teresa A.; Pereyra-Nobara, Texar A.; Guízar-Mendoza, Juan M.; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria; Orozco-Aviña, Gustavo; Moreno-Martínez, Sandra C.; Luna-Montalbán, Rafael; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    HIV-seropositive patients show high incidence of coronary heart disease and oxidative stress has been described as relevant key in atherosclerosis development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of omega 3 fatty acids on different markers of oxidative stress in HIV-seropositive patients. We performed a randomized parallel controlled clinical trial in The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, a public health hospital. 70 HIV-seropositive patients aged 20 to 55 on clinical score A1, A2, B1 or B2 receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were studied. They were randomly assigned to receive omega 3 fatty acids 2.4 g (Zonelabs, Marblehead MA) or placebo for 6 months. At baseline and at the end of the study, anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, glucose and stress oxidative levels [nitric oxide catabolites, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde plus 4-hydroxialkenals), and glutathione] were evaluated. Principal HAART therapy was EFV/TDF/FTC (55%) and AZT/3TC/EFV (15%) without difference between groups. Treatment with omega 3 fatty acids as compared with placebo decreased triglycerides (-0.32 vs. 0.54 mmol/L; p = 0.04), but oxidative stress markers were not different between groups. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02041520 PMID:27015634

  15. Omega 3 Fatty Acids Supplementation and Oxidative Stress in HIV-Seropositive Patients. A Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Amador-Licona

    Full Text Available HIV-seropositive patients show high incidence of coronary heart disease and oxidative stress has been described as relevant key in atherosclerosis development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of omega 3 fatty acids on different markers of oxidative stress in HIV-seropositive patients. We performed a randomized parallel controlled clinical trial in The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, a public health hospital. 70 HIV-seropositive patients aged 20 to 55 on clinical score A1, A2, B1 or B2 receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART were studied. They were randomly assigned to receive omega 3 fatty acids 2.4 g (Zonelabs, Marblehead MA or placebo for 6 months. At baseline and at the end of the study, anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, glucose and stress oxidative levels [nitric oxide catabolites, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde plus 4-hydroxialkenals, and glutathione] were evaluated. Principal HAART therapy was EFV/TDF/FTC (55% and AZT/3TC/EFV (15% without difference between groups. Treatment with omega 3 fatty acids as compared with placebo decreased triglycerides (-0.32 vs. 0.54 mmol/L; p = 0.04, but oxidative stress markers were not different between groups.

  16. Omega 3 Fatty Acids Supplementation and Oxidative Stress in HIV-Seropositive Patients. A Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Licona, Norma; Díaz-Murillo, Teresa A; Gabriel-Ortiz, Genaro; Pacheco-Moises, Fermín P; Pereyra-Nobara, Texar A; Guízar-Mendoza, Juan M; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria; Orozco-Aviña, Gustavo; Moreno-Martínez, Sandra C; Luna-Montalbán, Rafael; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    HIV-seropositive patients show high incidence of coronary heart disease and oxidative stress has been described as relevant key in atherosclerosis development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of omega 3 fatty acids on different markers of oxidative stress in HIV-seropositive patients. We performed a randomized parallel controlled clinical trial in The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, a public health hospital. 70 HIV-seropositive patients aged 20 to 55 on clinical score A1, A2, B1 or B2 receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were studied. They were randomly assigned to receive omega 3 fatty acids 2.4 g (Zonelabs, Marblehead MA) or placebo for 6 months. At baseline and at the end of the study, anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, glucose and stress oxidative levels [nitric oxide catabolites, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde plus 4-hydroxialkenals), and glutathione] were evaluated. Principal HAART therapy was EFV/TDF/FTC (55%) and AZT/3TC/EFV (15%) without difference between groups. Treatment with omega 3 fatty acids as compared with placebo decreased triglycerides (-0.32 vs. 0.54 mmol/L; p = 0.04), but oxidative stress markers were not different between groups.

  17. Dental caries in HIV-seropositive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, J A; Mulligan, R; Nelson, E; Brunelle, J; Alves, M E A F; Navazesh, M; Greenspan, D

    2004-11-01

    Reports that compare dental caries indices in HIV-seropositive (HIV+) subjects with HIV-seronegative (HIV-) subjects are rare. The objective of this study was to determine if there was an association between HIV infection and dental caries among women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Subjects included 538 HIV+ and 141 HIV- women at baseline and 242 HIV+ and 66 HIV- women at year 5. Caries indices included DMFS and DFS (coronal caries) and DFSrc (root caries). Cross-sectional analysis of coronal caries data revealed a 1.2-fold-higher caries prevalence among HIV+ women compared with HIV- women. Longitudinally, DMFS increased with increasing age and lower average stimulated salivary volume. Root caries results were not significant except for an overall increased DFSrc associated with smoking. Anti-retroviral therapy was not identified as a risk factor for dental caries.

  18. Spectral analysis of HIV seropositivity among migrant workers entering Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hameed GHH

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is paucity of published data on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seroprevalence among migrant workers entering Middle-East particularly Kuwait. We took advantage of the routine screening of migrants for HIV infection, upon arrival in Kuwait from the areas with high HIV prevalence, to 1 estimate the HIV seroprevalence among migrant workers entering Kuwait and to 2 ascertain if any significant time trend or changes had occurred in HIV seroprevalence among these migrants over the study period. Methods The monthly aggregates of daily number of migrant workers tested and number of HIV seropositive were used to generate the monthly series of proportions of HIV seropositive (per 100,000 migrants over a period of 120 months from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2006. We carried out spectral analysis of these time series data on monthly proportions (per 100,000 of HIV seropositive migrants. Results Overall HIV seroprevalence (per 100,000 among the migrants was 21 (494/2328582 (95% CI: 19 -23, ranging from 11 (95% CI: 8 – 16 in 2003 to 31 (95% CI: 24 -41 in 1998. There was no discernable pattern in the year-specific proportions of HIV seropositive migrants up to 2003; in subsequent years there was a slight but consistent increase in the proportions of HIV seropositive migrants. However, the Mann-Kendall test showed non-significant (P = 0.741 trend in de-seasonalized data series of proportions of HIV seropositive migrants. The spectral density had a statistically significant (P = 0.03 peak located at a frequency (radians 2.4, which corresponds to a regular cycle of three-month duration in this study. Auto-correlation function did not show any significant seasonality (correlation coefficient at lag 12 = – 0.025, P = 0.575. Conclusion During the study period, overall a low HIV seroprevalence (0.021% was recorded. Towards the end of the study, a slight but non-significant upward trend in the proportions of HIV seropositive

  19. Acceptability and use of sexual barrier products and lubricants among HIV-seropositive Zambian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D L; Weiss, S M; Chitalu, N; Mumbi, M; Shine, A; Vamos, S; Villar, O

    2008-12-01

    This study assessed the acceptability and preference for sexual barrier and lubricant products among men in Zambia following trial and long-term use. It also examined the role of men's preferences as facilitators or impediments to product use for HIV transmission reduction within the Zambian context. HIV-seropositive and -serodiscordant couples were recruited from HIV voluntary counseling and testing centers in Lusaka between 2003 and 2006; 66% of those approached agreed to participate. HIV seropositive male participants participated in a product exposure group intervention (n = 155). Participants were provided with male and female condoms and vaginal lubricants (Astroglide [BioFilm, Inc., Vista, CA] & KY gels [Johnson & Johnson, Langhorne, PA], Lubrin suppositories [Kendwood Therapuetics, Fairfield, NJ]) over three sessions; assessments were conducted at baseline, monthly over 6 months and at 12 months. At baseline, the majority of men reported no previous exposure to lubricant products or female condoms and high (79%) levels of consistent male condom use in the last 7 days. Female condom use increased during the intervention, and male condom use increased at 6 months and was maintained over 12 months. The basis for decisions regarding lubricant use following product exposure was most influenced by a preference for communicating with partners; participant preference for lubricant products was distributed between all three products. Results illustrate the importance of development of a variety of products for prevention of HIV transmission and of inclusion of male partners in interventions to increase sexual barrier product use to facilitate barrier acceptability and use in Zambia.

  20. A High-Speed Baseline Restorer for Neutron Flux Detection in ITER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宏睿; 李世平; 徐修峰; 袁国梁; 杨青巍; 阴泽杰

    2012-01-01

    A neutron flux monitor .(NFM) is a key diagnostic system in the International Ther- monuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), and may provide readings of a series of important parameters in fusion reaction processes. As a valuable part of the main electronics system of the NFM, the high-speed baseline restorer we designed is an important signal conversion plug-in which can restore the input signal baseline offset to a zero level, while keeping the output pulse signal waveform from the preamplifier basically unchanged.

  1. Comparison between summing-up algorithms to determine areas of small peaks on high baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Quanlin; Zhang, Jiamei; Chang, Yongfu; Qian, Shaojun

    2005-12-01

    It is found that the minimum detectable activity (MDA) has a same tendency as the relative standard deviation (RSD) and a particular application is characteristic of the ratio of the peak area to the baseline height. Different applications need different algorithms to reduce the RSD of peak areas or the MDA of potential peaks. A model of Gaussian peaks superposed on linear baselines is established to simulate the multichannel spectrum and summing-up algorithms such as total peak area (TPA), and Covell and Sterlinski are compared to find the most appropriate algorithm for different applications. The results show that optimal Covell and Sterlinski algorithms will yield MDA or RSD half lower than TPA when the areas of small peaks on high baselines are to be determined. The conclusion is proved by experiment.

  2. Restoring ecological integrity in highly regulated rivers: the role of baseline data and analytical references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Peter W; Singer, Maia S; Orr, Bruce K; Diggory, Zooey E; Church, Tamara C; Stella, J C

    2011-10-01

    The goal of restoring ecological integrity in rivers is frequently accompanied by an assumption that a comparative reference reach can be identified to represent minimally impaired conditions. However, in many regulated rivers, no credible historical, morphological or process-based reference reach exists. Resilient restoration designs should instead be framed around naturalization, using multiple analytical references derived from empirically-calibrated field- and model-based techniques to develop an integrated ecological reference condition. This requires baseline data which are rarely collected despite increasing evidence for systematic deficiencies in restoration practice. We illustrate the utility of baseline data collection in restoration planning for the highly fragmented and regulated lower Merced River, California, USA. The restoration design was developed using various baseline data surveys, monitoring, and modeling within an adaptive management framework. Baseline data assisted in transforming conceptual models of ecosystem function into specific restoration challenges, defining analytical references of the expected relationships among ecological parameters required for restoration, and specifying performance criteria for post-project monitoring and evaluation. In this way the study is an example of process-based morphological restoration designed to prompt recovery of ecosystem processes and resilience. For the Merced River, we illustrate that project-specific baseline data collection is a necessary precursor in developing performance-based restoration designs and addressing scale-related uncertainties, such as whether periodic gravel augmentation will sustain bed recovery and whether piecemeal efforts will improve ecological integrity. Given the numerous impediments to full, historical, restoration in many river systems, it seems apparent that projects of naturalization are a critical step in reducing the deleterious impacts of fragmented rivers

  3. Risk factors for brucellosis seropositivity of goat herds in the Mexicali Valley of Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolon, A B; Gardner, I A; Hernandez De Anda, J; Hietala, S K

    1998-12-01

    A case-control study was conducted in the Mexicali Valley to identify risk factors for goat-herd seropositivity for Brucella melitensis. Nineteen case herds (> or = 2 positive results with the 8% rose bengal plate test (RBT)) and 55 control herds (zero positive results in RBT), matched for herdsize and geographic location, were enrolled. Conditional logistic regression was used to construct a multivariable model of the odds of seropositivity using variables assessed in a questionnaire administered to goat ranchers. The final model for herd seropositivity included increased risk from importation of goats from other Mexican states, the presence of La Mancha breed does, and the presence of does born outside the herd. Increasing herdsize was also highly significant (p < 0.01). In addition, a significant (p < 0.05) positive association was found between the presence of seropositive dogs (as assessed by RBT) and seropositive goats on the same ranch.

  4. Human herpesvirus 8 seropositivity among sexually active adults in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma M Shebl

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sexual transmission of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8 has been implicated among homosexual men, but the evidence for sexual transmission among heterosexual individuals is controversial. We investigated the role of sexual transmission of HHV8 in a nationally representative sample in Uganda, where HHV8 infection is endemic and transmitted mostly during childhood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population was a subset of participants (n = 2681 from a population-based HIV/AIDS serobehavioral survey of adults aged 15-59 years conducted in 2004/2005. High risk for sexual transmission was assessed by questionnaire and serological testing for HIV and herpes simplex virus 2. Anti-HHV8 antibodies were measured using two enzyme immunoassays targeting synthetic peptides from the K8.1 and orf65 viral genes. The current study was restricted to 2288 sexually active adults. ORs and 95% CIs for HHV8 seropositivity were estimated by fitting logistic regression models with a random intercept using MPLUS and SAS software. RESULTS: The weighted prevalence of HHV8 seropositivity was 56.2%, based on 1302 seropositive individuals, and it increased significantly with age (P(trend<0.0001. In analyses adjusting for age, sex, geography, education, and HIV status, HHV8 seropositivity was positively associated with reporting two versus one marital union (OR:1.52, 95% CI: 1.17-1.97 and each unit increase in the number of children born (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00-1.08, and was inversely associated with ever having used a condom (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.45-0.89. HHV8 seropositivity was not associated with HIV (P = 0.660 or with herpes simplex virus 2 (P = 0.732 seropositivity. Other sexual variables, including lifetime number of sexual partners or having had at least one sexually transmitted disease, and socioeconomic variables were unrelated to HHV8 seropositivity. CONCLUSION: Our findings are compatible with the conclusion that sexual transmission of HHV8 in

  5. Incidence of cervical precancers among HIV seropositive women

    Science.gov (United States)

    MASSAD, L. Stewart; XIE, Xianhong; D’SOUZA, Gypsyamber; DARRAGH, Teresa M.; MINKOFF, Howard; WRIGHT, Rodney; COLIE, Christine; SANCHEZ-KEELAND, Lorraine; STRICKLER, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the impact of HIV infection on the incidence of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Study Design HIV seropositive and comparison seronegative women enrolled in a prospective U.S. cohort study were followed with semiannual Pap testing, with colposcopy for any abnormality. Histology results were retrieved to identify CIN3+ (CIN3, adenocarcinoma in situ, and cancer and CIN2+ (CIN2 and CIN3+). Annual detection rates were calculated and risks compared using Cox analysis. Median follow-up (IQR) was 11.0 (5.4–17.2) years for HIV seronegative and 9.9 (2.5–16.0) for HIV seropositive women. Results CIN3+ was diagnosed in 139 (5%) HIV seropositive and 19 (2%) seronegative women (P < 0.0001), with CIN2+ in 316 (12%) and 34 (4%) (P < 0.0001). The annual CIN3+ detection rate was 0.6/100 person-years in HIV seropositive women and 0.2/100 person years in seronegative women (P < 0.0001). The CIN3+ detection rate fell after the first two years of study, from 0.9/100 person-years among HIV seropositive women to 0.4/100 person-years during subsequent follow-up (P < 0.0001). CIN2+ incidence among these women fell similarly with time, from 2.5/100 person-years during the first two years after enrollment to 0.9/100 person-years subsequently (p < 0.0001). In Cox analyses controlling for age, the hazard ratio for HIV seropositive women with CD4 counts <200/cmm compared to HIV seronegative women was 8.1 (95% C.I. 4.8, 13.8) for CIN3+ and 9.3 (95% C.I. 6.3, 13.7) for CIN2+ (P < 0.0001). Conclusion Although HIV seropositive women have more CIN3+ than seronegative women, CIN3+ is uncommon and becomes even less frequent after initiation of regular cervical screening. PMID:25499260

  6. Immunogenicity of three Haemophilus influenzae type b protein conjugate vaccines in HIV seropositive adults and analysis of predictors of vaccine response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockrell, D H; Poland, G A; Steckelberg, J M; Wollan, P C; Strickland, S R; Pomeroy, C

    1999-07-16

    HIV-seropositive adults may be at increased risk of infection due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) as compared with HIV-seronegative adults. Protein conjugate vaccines have been demonstrated to induce protective levels of antibodies against Hib in immunocompetent infants and also in HIV-seropositive infants. In this study we determined the immunogenicity of three protein conjugate Hib vaccines (PRP-D, HbOC, HbNOMP) in 135 HIV-seropositive adults who received one dose of Hib vaccine. Anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) antibodies were measured at 0, 1, 3 and 12 months postimmunization by the Farr method. We demonstrate that all three vaccines are highly immunogenic and result in protective (> 1.0 microg/ml) levels of antibody. Overall the anti-PRP antibody level was > 1.0 microg/ml in 26% of patients preimmunization, 91% at both 1 and 3 months, and 79% at 12 months postvaccination. Comparison of responses to the three vaccines over time demonstrated differences in the mean geometric anti-PRP antibody level at 1 month (p=0.03) and the 12 month time points (p=0.03) with lower geometric mean levels in the HbNOMP group, though baseline differences in groups limit the interpretation of these findings. In a univariate analysis of baseline characteristics which predicted poor vaccine response, low total IgG2 levels preimmunization predicted a poor antibody response at 1 month (p < 0.01) and at 12 months (p=0.05), while low CD4 T-cell count predicted poor response at 12 months (p < 0.01). We conclude that all three US licensed protein conjugate Hib vaccines are immunogenic in HIV-seropositive adults, and that baseline CD4 T-cell count and IgG2 levels predict the likelihood of antibody response to vaccine.

  7. The High Energy Neutrino Nuisance at a Medium Baseline Reactor Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ciuffoli, Emilio; Zhang, Xinmin

    2012-01-01

    10 years from now medium baseline reactor experiments will attempt to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy from the differences (RL+PV) between the extrema of the Fourier transformed neutrino spectra. Recently Qian et al. have claimed that this goal may be impeded by the strong dependence of the difference parameter RL+PV on the reactor neutrino flux and on slight variations of Delta M^2_32. We demonstrate that this effect results from a spurious dependence of the difference parameter on the very high energy (8+ MeV) tail of the reactor neutrino spectrum. This dependence is spurious because the high energy tail depends upon decays of exotic isotopes and is insensitive to the mass hierarchy. An energy-dependent weight in the Fourier transform not only eliminates this spurious dependence but in fact increases the chance of correctly determining the hierarchy.

  8. Biomarkers of good EULAR response to the B cell depletion therapy in all seropositive rheumatoid arthritis patients: clues for the pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Tolusso, Barbara; Bobbio-Pallavicini, Francesca; Gremese, Elisa; Ravagnani, Viviana; Benucci, Maurizio; Podestà, Edoardo; Atzeni, Fabiola; Mannocci, Alice; Biasi, Domenico; Manfredi, Mariangela; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Laganà, Bruno; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio

    2012-01-01

    To find out whether a high number of auto-antibodies can increase the probability of a "good-EULAR response" and to identify the possible biomarkers of response in seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients undergoing the B cell depletion therapy (BCDT). One hundred and thirty-eight patients with long standing RA (LSRA), 75% non or poorly responsive to one or more TNFα blockers, all seropositive for at least one autoantibody (AAB) (RF-IgM, RF-IgA, RF-IgG, anti-MCV, ACPA-IgG, ACPA-IgA, ACPA-IgM) received one full course of BCDT. The major outcomes (moderate or good-EULAR response) were assessed after 6 months of therapy. The IL6 and BAFF levels were also determined. At a 6-month follow-up, 33 (23.9%) of the RA patients achieved a good EULAR response. Having up to 5-AABs positivity increased the chances for treatment response. After a logistic regression analysis, however, only 4 baseline factors arose as associated with a good-EULAR response: no steroid therapy (OR = 6.25), a lymphocyte count 52.1 IU/ml (OR = 8.37) and BAFF levels EULAR" responder. The only predictors, however, at the baseline of a good response in this seropositive cohort of RA patients were 2 simple variables--no steroids and lymphocyte count--and two laboratory assays--IgG-RF and BAFF.

  9. High baseline activity in inferior temporal cortex improves neural and behavioral discriminability during visual categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazli eEmadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous firing is a ubiquitous property of neural activity in the brain. Recent literature suggests that this baseline activity plays a key role in perception. However, it is not known how the baseline activity contributes to neural coding and behavior. Here, by recording from the single neurons in the inferior temporal cortex of monkeys performing a visual categorization task, we thoroughly explored the relationship between baseline activity, the evoked response, and behavior. Specifically we found that a low-frequency (< 8 Hz oscillation in the spike train, prior and phase-locked to the stimulus onset, was correlated with increased gamma power and neuronal baseline activity. This enhancement of the baseline activity was then followed by an increase in the neural selectivity and the response reliability and eventually a higher behavioral performance.

  10. A high-capacity steganography scheme for JPEG2000 baseline system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Haili; Wu, Renbiao

    2009-08-01

    Hiding capacity is very important for efficient covert communications. For JPEG2000 compressed images, it is necessary to enlarge the hiding capacity because the available redundancy is very limited. In addition, the bitstream truncation makes it difficult to hide information. In this paper, a high-capacity steganography scheme is proposed for the JPEG2000 baseline system, which uses bit-plane encoding procedure twice to solve the problem due to bitstream truncation. Moreover, embedding points and their intensity are determined in a well defined quantitative manner via redundancy evaluation to increase hiding capacity. The redundancy is measured by bit, which is different from conventional methods which adjust the embedding intensity by multiplying a visual masking factor. High volumetric data is embedded into bit-planes as low as possible to keep message integrality, but at the cost of an extra bit-plane encoding procedure and slightly changed compression ratio. The proposed method can be easily integrated into the JPEG2000 image coder, and the produced stego-bitstream can be decoded normally. Simulation shows that the proposed method is feasible, effective, and secure.

  11. Baseline measures for net-proton distributions in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netrakanti, P. K.; Luo, X. F.; Mishra, D. K.; Mohanty, B.; Mohanty, A.; Xu, N.

    2016-03-01

    We report a systematic comparison of the recently measured cumulants of the net-proton distributions for 0-5% central Au + Au collisions in the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Collider facility to various kinds of possible baseline measures. These baseline measures correspond to an assumption that the proton and anti-proton distributions follow Poisson statistics, Binomial statistics, obtained from a transport model calculation and from a hadron resonance gas model. The higher order cumulant net-proton data for the center of mass energies (√{sNN}) of 19.6 and 27 GeV are observed to deviate from most of the baseline measures studied. The deviations are predominantly due to the difference in shape of the proton distributions between data and those obtained in the baseline measures. We also present a detailed study on the relevance of the independent production approach as a baseline for comparison with the measurements at various beam energies. Our studies point to the need of either more detailed baseline models for the experimental measurements or a description via QCD calculations in order to extract the exact physics process that leads to deviation of the data from the baselines presented.

  12. Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Children With Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Yousefichaijan; Mosayebi; Sharafkhah; Kahbazi; Heydarbagi; Rafiei

    2016-01-01

    Background Some studies have reported an association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization and the occurrence of asthma or other allergies. However, data are inconsistent, and few studies have been performed in children. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate H. pylori seropositivity in children with and without asthma. Patients and Methods This cross-sect...

  13. Emotional And Behavioural Disorders In HIV Seropositive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emotional And Behavioural Disorders In HIV Seropositive Adolescents In Urban Uganda. ... East African Medical Journal ... ICD-10 criteria, were: Anxiety 45.6%, depression 40.8%, somatisation 18.0%, seizures 8.4%, mania 1.2% and ...

  14. A First Baseline for the Magnets in the High Luminosity LHC Insertion Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Todesco, E; Ambrosio, G; Arduini, G; Cerutti, F; De Maria, R; Esposito, L; Fartoukh, S; Ferracin, P; Felice, H; Gupta, R; Kersevan, R; Mokhov, N; Nakamoto, T; Rakno, I; Rifflet, J M; Rossi, L; Sabbi, G L; Segreti, M; Toral, F; Xu, Q; Wanderer, P; van Weelderen, R

    2014-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project aims at accumulating 3000 fb-1 in the years 2023-2035, i.e. ten times more w.r.t. the nominal LHC performance expected for 2010- 2021. One key element to reach this challenging performance is a new insertion region to reduce the beam size in the interaction point by approximately a factor two. This requires larger aperture magnets in the region spanning from the interaction point to the matching section quadrupoles. This aperture has been fixed to 150 mm for the inner triplet quadrupoles in 2012. In this paper we give a first baseline of the interaction region. We discuss the main motivations that lead us to choose the technology, the combination of fields/gradients and lengths, the apertures, the quantity of superconductor, and the operational margin. Key elements are also the constraints given by the energy deposition in terms of heat load and radiation damage; we present the main features related to shielding and heat removal.

  15. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Status and Baseline Neurocognitive Performance in High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Christine M; Dean, Preston; LoGalbo, Anthony; Dougherty, Michael; Field, Melvin; Webbe, Frank M

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 136,000 concussions occur annually in American high school sports. Neuropsychological data indicate that children with preexisting cognitive difficulties, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), may have protracted recovery from concussion. ADHD, with an estimated prevalence of 11% in youth, may increase an athlete's vulnerability to sustaining sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI). The preponderance of evidence focusing on TBI and ADHD has derived from motor vehicle accidents rather than sports-related incidents. Thus, it is paramount to explore how ADHD may relate to injury in the sports concussion context, as well as to assess how ADHD may affect baseline neurocognitive testing. Adolescent athletes with ADHD (n = 256) demonstrated significantly reduced Verbal Memory, Visual Motor, and Impulse Control index scores compared with their peers without ADHD (n = 256). Athletes with ADHD were nearly twice as likely to have sustained a prior concussion (ADHD, 14.1%; non-ADHD, 7.8%). Knowledge regarding the unique neurocognitive profile of athletes with ADHD may enhance clinical management decisions.

  16. High Frequency Very Long Baseline Interferometry Observations of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Geoffrey Copeland

    Millimeter wavelength very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) provides an excellent tool for the investigation of compact synchrotron sources. The high angular resolution and the decline in synchrotron opacity and lifetime with decreasing wavelength give unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution in active galactic nuclei. We present here a description of the implementation of millimeter VLBI with the 9-element millimeter array at Hat Creek Radio Observatory. We emphasize the technical details of array phasing, calibration and observation. The Hat Creek array was used successfully in 5 VLBI experiments between 1995 and 1997. We tested the technique of total power correction for atmospheric phase fluctuations due to water vapor with two epochs of 3mm λ VLBI observations with the Hat Creek array and with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) Kitt Peak 12m antenna. We reduced the root-mean-square phase by as much as a factor of two and to as low as one radian. The limiting factor was the gain stability of the receivers. We present 7mm λ VLBI observations made with the NRAO Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of the compact, nonthermal radio source Sgr A*. We find that the image of Sgr A* is fully consistent with the hypothesis that it is a cyclo-synchrotron source powered by accretion onto a 106Msolar black hole and obscured by a screen of thermal electrons. We find no evidence for any asymmetric structure. We also present a two year study of the gamma-ray blazar 530 with multiple epochs of VLBI imaging at 3 mm, 7 mm, 1.3 cm and 3.6 cm λ. We incorporate flux density monitoring ranging from the radio band to positive correlation over 4 years between the millimeter and gamma-ray flux densities. We also find that a bright millimeter wavelength flare in early 1995 corresponded to the creation of a new parsec-scale jet component. We study the spectra and dynamical evolution of the jet. The jet component appears to decelerate from 7.6 ± 2.2c to 0.95 ± 0.16c

  17. High-temperature single-layer SQUID gradiometers with long baseline and parasitic effective area compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegrum, C.M.; Eulenburg, A.; Romans, E.J.; Carr, C.; Millar, A.J.; Donaldson, G.B. [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    First-order HTS SQUID gradiometers were fabricated on 30x10 mm{sup 2} bicrystal substrates. These devices have a baseline of 13 mm, intrinsic balance levels of {approx}1/700 and a typical gradient sensitivity at 1 kHz of 79 fT cm{sup -1}Hz{sup -1/2}. A two-SQUID coupling scheme is discussed that further enhances the device's ability to reject uniform fields. (author)

  18. Epidemiology Of Genital Ulcers And Prevalence Of Seropositivity For Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazra B. R

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses the prevalence of seropositivity for syphilis amongst cases presenting with genital ulcer to STD Clinic, Medical College, Calcutta during July 1994 to January 1995, and their epidemiological characteristics. Of the 157 cases studied, 142 (90.9% were males and 15 (9.1% were females. Prevalence of seropositivity for syphilis was in 22.93% cases of genital ulcers. In the age distribution of males, 9% were below 21 years, 33.8% between 21-25 years and 23.9% between 26-30 years. In females, the highest proportion (33.3% was in the age range 16-20 years. While all the female patients were Hindus, 87.3% of males were Hindus and 12.7% were Muslims. Large Majority (70% of the cases were literate. Amongst male patients, unskilled labourers constituted the highest proportion (35.2%, and majority in females (53.3% were from middle income group and 16.6% from high income group. 90.1% of males were unmarried single against 87.9% in females. The type of family for both male and female patients was overwhelmingly nuclear (86.6% to 87.3% and 2.8% of the males and 13.3% of the females were orphans. Amongst the seropositive patients, primary syphilis was present in 71.4% males and 62.5% females and the figures for secondary syphilis were 28.6% in males and 30.6% in females, 42% males and 26.7% females had knowledge about source of infection. While 85.9% males got infection from prostitutes, 66.7% females got it from clients. In females, 20% had been infected by friends and neighbours and 13.3% by casual contact.

  19. Scheme for generation of highly monochromatic X-rays from a baseline XFEL undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-01-01

    One goal of XFEL facilities is the production of narrow bandwidth X-ray radiation. The self-seeding scheme was proposed to obtain a bandwidth narrower than that achievable with conventional X-ray SASE FELs. A self-seeded FEL is composed of two undulators separated by a monochromator and an electron beam bypass that must compensate for the path delay of X-rays in the monochromator. This leads to a long bypass, with a length in the order of 40-60 m, which requires modifications of the baseline undulator configuration. As an attempt to get around this obstacle, together with a study of the self-seeding scheme for the European XFEL, here we propose a novel technique based on a pulse doubler concept. Using a crystal monochromator installed within a short magnetic chicane in the baseline undulator, it is possible to decrease the bandwidth of the radiation well beyond the XFEL design down to 10^(-5). The magnetic chicane can be installed without any perturbation of the XFEL focusing structure, and does not interfere...

  20. Adenovirus-36 Seropositivity and Its Relation with Obesity and Metabolic Profile in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Parra-Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The human adenovirus 36 (Ad-36 is causally and correlatively associated in animals and humans, respectively, with increased adiposity and altered metabolic profile. In previous studies, the relationship between Ad-36 seropositivity with obesity was established in adults and children. We evaluated the association of positive antibodies to Ad-36 with obesity and metabolic profile in Mexican children. Seventy-five children with normal-weight and 82 with obesity were studied in this research. All children had a clinic assessment which included weight, height, body circumferences, and skinfold thickness. Laboratory analyzes included triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and glucose and insulin levels. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to determine the antibodies to Ad-36 in the serum samples. The overall Ad-36 seroprevalence was 73.9%. Ad-36 seropositivity had a higher prevalence in obese children than in normal weight group (58.6 versus 41.4%, P=0.007. Ad-36 seropositivity was associated with obesity (OR=2.66, P=0.01 and high-density lipoprotein <40 mg/dL (OR=2.85, P=0.03. The Ad-36 seropositive group had greater risk of 4 metabolic abnormalities compared with those children without none alteration. In summary, Ad-36 seropositivity was associated with obesity and low HDL-c levels in the sample of children studied.

  1. Adenovirus-36 Seropositivity and Its Relation with Obesity and Metabolic Profile in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Moral-Hernández, Oscar; Salgado-Bernabé, Aralia B.; Guzmán-Guzmán, Iris P.; Salgado-Goytia, Lorenzo; Muñoz-Valle, José F.

    2013-01-01

    The human adenovirus 36 (Ad-36) is causally and correlatively associated in animals and humans, respectively, with increased adiposity and altered metabolic profile. In previous studies, the relationship between Ad-36 seropositivity with obesity was established in adults and children. We evaluated the association of positive antibodies to Ad-36 with obesity and metabolic profile in Mexican children. Seventy-five children with normal-weight and 82 with obesity were studied in this research. All children had a clinic assessment which included weight, height, body circumferences, and skinfold thickness. Laboratory analyzes included triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and glucose and insulin levels. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the antibodies to Ad-36 in the serum samples. The overall Ad-36 seroprevalence was 73.9%. Ad-36 seropositivity had a higher prevalence in obese children than in normal weight group (58.6 versus 41.4%, P = 0.007). Ad-36 seropositivity was associated with obesity (OR = 2.66, P = 0.01) and high-density lipoprotein <40 mg/dL (OR = 2.85, P = 0.03). The Ad-36 seropositive group had greater risk of 4 metabolic abnormalities compared with those children without none alteration. In summary, Ad-36 seropositivity was associated with obesity and low HDL-c levels in the sample of children studied. PMID:24324491

  2. Detecting Subsidence Along a High Speed Railway by Ultrashort Baseline TCP-InSAR with High Resolution Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, K. R.; Liu, G. X.; Yu, B.; Jia, H. G.; Ma, D. Y.; Wang, X. W.

    2013-10-01

    A High Speed Railway goes across Wuqing district of Tianjin, China. Historical studies showed that the land subsidence of this area was very serious, which would give rise to huge security risk to the high speed railway. For detecting the detailed subsidence related to the high speed railway, we use the multi-temporal InSAR (MT-InSAR) technique to extract regional scale subsidence of Wuqing district. Take it into consideration that Wuqing district is a suburban region with large area of low coherence farmland, we select the temporarily coherent point InSAR (TCP-InSAR) approach for MT-InSAR analysis. The TCP-InSAR is a potential approach for detecting land subsidence in low coherence areas as it can identify and analysis coherent points between just two images and can acquire a reliable solution without conventional phase unwrapping. This paper extended the TCP-InSAR with use of ultrashort spatial baseline (USB) interferograms. As thetopographic effects are negligible in the USB interferograms, an external digital elevation model (DEM) is no longer needed in interferometric processing, and the parameters needed to be estimated were simplified at the same time. With use of 17 TerraSAR-X (TSX) images acquired from 2009 to 2010 over Wuqing district, the annual subsidence rates along the high speed railway were derived by the USB-TCPInSAR approach. Two subsidence funnels were found at ShuangJie town and around Wuqing Station with subsidence rate of -17 ∼ -27 mm/year and -7 ∼ -17 mm/year, respectively. The subsidence rates derived by USB-TCPInSAR were compared with those derived by the conventional TCP-InSAR that uses an external DEM for differential interferometry. The mean and the standard deviation of the differences between two types of results at 370697 TCPs are -4.43 × 10-6 mm/year and ±1.4673 mm/year, respectively. Further comparison with the subsidence results mentioned in several other studies were made, which shows good consistencies. The results verify

  3. The Psychosocial Integration of Seropositive Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Raluca

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We can assume without fail that the psychosocial implications in case of HIV/AIDS are as overwhelming as the medical aspects. For the positive person as well as for those who assist the seropositive people, the uncertainty frames the medical prognosis. All the effects that occur are entirely funded: the loss of self-trust as well as mistrusting others, stigmatization, isolation, getting abandoned by the family, friends, neighbors and school mates or coworkers. The current study aims to evaluate this aspect, the fact that the living environment of the seropositive person does not lead to significant differences as far as adjusting to HIV/AIDS diagnosis is concerned, but the adjusting differences are more related to the personality structure of the infected person, to the way this person identifies strategies of coping with the new situations he / she has to deal with (cognitive, emotional and behavioral strategies. In the applicative part of the study, we analyze the adjustment to the diagnosis, as well as the adherence to the treatment, by applying certain specific work instruments.

  4. Vaccine Induced Antibody Response to Foot and Mouth Disease in Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Seropositive Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Şevik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foot and mouth disease (FMD and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR are two important infectious diseases of cattle. Inactivated FMD vaccines are the most powerful tools to protect animals against FMD. Previous studies showed that recombinant IBR-FMD viruses protected cattle from virulent BHV-1 challenge and induced protective levels of anti-FMDV antibodies. FMD is considered to be endemic in Turkey and inactivated oil adjuvanted vaccines are used for the immunization of cattle. Previous studies showed that seroprevalence of IBR in the Turkey’s dairy herd more than 50%. In this study, antibody response in IBR seropositive cattle following vaccination against FMD was investigated. IBR seropositive (n=208 and IBR seronegative (n=212 cattle were vaccinated with oil-adjuvanted bivalent vaccine (containing O1 Manisa, A22 Iraq FMDV strains. Solid-phase competitive ELISA (SPCE was used to measure antibodies produced in cattle. Protective level of antibody against serotype O was detected in 77.4% and serotypes A in 83.6% of IBR seropositive cattle. Protective level of antibody against serotype O antibody was detected in 49% and serotypes A in 66.9% of IBR seronegative cattle. The differences between the protection rates against both serotype O (P=0.0001 and serotype A (P=0.0001 in IBR seropositive and seronegative animals were statistically important (Fisher’s exact test, P<0.01. Results showed that after FMD vaccination, IBR seropositive animals produced high titres of antibodies than seronegative animals.

  5. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NikNadia, Nmn; Sam, I-Ching; Khaidir, Nasibah; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Goh, Xiang Ting; Choy, Seow Huey; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli) has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in rural Orang Asli. Seropositive rates were determined by neutralization assay. EV-A71 seropositivity was strongly associated with increasing age in both populations. Rural Orang Asli children ≤12 years had significantly higher EV-A71 seropositivity rates than urban Kuala Lumpur children (95.5% vs 57.6%, P population. Supply of clean drinking water may reduce the risk of EV-A71 infection. With significantly higher EV-A71 seropositive rates, younger rural children should be a priority target for future vaccination programs in Malaysia.

  6. The dynamics of bacteria population on the skin, throat, and gastrointestinal tract of HIV-seropositive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwashie Ajibade Ako-Nai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study determined bacteria population on the skin, throat, and gastrointestinal tract of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-seropositive patients and HIV seronegative controls at the baseline, 3 months, and 6 months, respectively, at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC, Ilé-Ifè, Osun State, Nigeria and State Specialist Hospital, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria between May and November, 2012. Materials and Methods: Seventy HIV-seropositive subjects and 51 HIV seronegative controls who attended the HIV clinics were recruited. Skin, throat, and rectal swabs were obtained from the participants using sterile cotton-tipped applicators introduced into thioglycollate broth and incubated at 37°C overnight. When growth was noticed, the broth culture was streaked on different bacteriologic media and the isolates were characterized by the standard methods and disc diffusion for antibiotic sensitivity. Results: The number of isolates cultured from the HIV-seropositive subjects was 934, with the distribution being 397, 326, and 211 at the baseline, 3 months, and 6 months, respectively. The distribution of 1,138 isolates cultured from 51 HIV-seronegative controls was 433, 354, and 351 at the baseline, 3 months, and 6 months, respectively. At the baseline among HIV-seropositive patients, the predominant isolates were Arcanobacterium haemolyticum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus (B. cereus. However, Corynebacterium haemolyticum, Enterococcus faecalis, and Escherichia coli (E. coli were predominant at 3 months while at 6 months, Corynebacterium haemolyticum and Corynebacterium diphtheriae had the highest frequency followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens. In the controls, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus xylosus (S. xylosus predominated at the baseline and at 3 months while at 6 months, B. cereus, S. xylosus, and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus were

  7. Baseline rationing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims......, there exist baselines (to be interpreted as objective entitlements, ideal targets, or past consumption) that might play an important role in the allocation process. The model we present is able to accommodate real-life rationing situations, ranging from resource allocation in the public health care sector...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...

  8. Determinants of seropositivity among HPV-16/18 DNA positive young women

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    Porras Carolina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Not all women infected with HPV-16/18 have detectable levels of HPV-16/18 antibodies, those who seroconvert develop low antibody levels, and seroconversion occurs typically several months post-infection. We evaluated determinants of seropositivity among 646 women infected with HPV-16 and/or HPV-18. Methods Data are from the enrollment visit of the NCI-sponsored Costa Rica HPV Vaccine Trial. Sera were tested for HPV-16/18 antibodies by ELISA; cervical specimens were tested for HPV DNA using HC2 and SPF10/LiPA25. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were computed. Results Among HPV-16/18 DNA positives, seropositivity was 63.0% and 57.5%, respectively. Among HPV-16 DNA positives, seropositivity increased with lifetime number of sexual partners (p-trend = 0.01. Women with abnormal cytology and/or high viral load had a 1.63-2.79-fold increase in the detection of antibodies compared to women with normal cytology/low viral load. Current users of oral contraceptives had a 1.88-fold (95%CI, 1.14-3.09 increased detection of antibodies and current users of injectables had a 3.38-fold (95%CI, 1.39-8.23 increased detection compared to never users. Among HPV-18 DNA positive women, seropositivity was associated with current oral contraceptive use (OR 2.47; 95%CI 1.08-5.65. Conclusions Factors associated with sustained HPV exposure (abnormal cytology, elevated HPV viral load, increasing lifetime partners were predictive of HPV-16 seropositivity. Hormonal contraceptive use was associated with seropositivity suggesting an effect of hormones on immune responses to HPV. Patterns were less consistent for HPV-18. Follow up of incident HPV infections to evaluate seroconversion and their determinants is needed.

  9. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia.

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    Nmn NikNadia

    Full Text Available Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71, which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in rural Orang Asli. Seropositive rates were determined by neutralization assay. EV-A71 seropositivity was strongly associated with increasing age in both populations. Rural Orang Asli children ≤12 years had significantly higher EV-A71 seropositivity rates than urban Kuala Lumpur children (95.5% vs 57.6%, P < 0.001, and also higher rates in the age groups of 1-3, 4-6 and 7-12 years. Multivariate analysis confirmed that age ≤12 years (adjusted OR 8.1, 95% CI 3.2-20.7, P < 0.001 and using untreated water (adjusted OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.3-16.6, P < 0.001 were independently associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in the Orang Asli population. Supply of clean drinking water may reduce the risk of EV-A71 infection. With significantly higher EV-A71 seropositive rates, younger rural children should be a priority target for future vaccination programs in Malaysia.

  10. Periodontal status and dental care in HIV seropositive patients

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    Maria Sueli Marques Soares

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between CD4+ cell count and viral load with periodontal and dental status in HIV seropositive patient. Methods: Forty HIV seropositive patients were selected from the dental clinic of the Clementino Fraga Hospital in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The Community Periodontal Index, Simplified Oral Hygiene Index and Decayed, Missing or Filled Teeth Index were determined. The values of CD4+ lymphocyte count and viral load were collected from the medical records. Descriptive analysis was made and Spearman’s correlation test was applied, with values of p<0.05 being significant. Results: HIV seropositive patients were aged 33 to 47 years (mean = 40 years, 26 were men and 14 women. The mean CD4+ lymphocyte count was 507.82±306.4 cells/mm3, with 41% being a high, 38.5% a medium and 20.5% a low level. Sixty-five percent of the patients had undetectable viral load, 12.5% had a high, 5% a low and 5% a medium viral load. Most patients (87.5% presented with periodontal disease, calculus was the most frequent condition (40%. The mean Decayed, Missing or Filled Tooth Index was 19.7±6.8, with prevalence of the missing component. There was significant statistical correlation between the CD4+ count and the periodontal condition, p=0.046. There was no significant correlation between the CD4+ count and the Decayed, Missing or Filled Teeth Index (p=0.469 and the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (p=0.189 indexes, and between viral load and Decayed, Missing or Filled Teeth Index (p=0.452, the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (p=0.158 and Community Periodontal Index (p=0.216. Conclusion: The periodontal condition was influenced to a greater by the CD4+ cell count than the viral load, while there was no correlation between the decayed condition and the CD4+ cell count or the viral load condition.

  11. Thoughts of Death and Suicidal Ideation in Nonpsychiatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seropositive Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kevin; Parsons, Thomas D.; van der Horst, Charles; Hall, Colin

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the prevalence of death thoughts and suicidality in HIV infection. Subjects (n=246) were examined for psychiatric morbidity and suicidality. Compared to high risk HIV seronegatives, HIV seropositives (HIV+) had significantly increased frequency and severity of both suicidal ideation and death thoughts. Two-thirds of…

  12. Seropositivity of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women by ELISA at Minia University Hospital, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Amany M.; Ahmed, Azza K.; Abdellatif, Manal Z. M.; Tawfik, Mohamed; Hassan, Ebtesam E.

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is considered as an important risk factor for bad obstetric history (BOH) and one of the major causes of congenitally acquired infections. The present study aimed to estimate the seropositivity of T. gondii infection and associated risk factors among the attendees of high risk pregnancy and low risk antenatal care clinic of Minia Maternity and Pediatric University Hospital, Minia, Egypt. The study was carried out from April 2013 to April 2014 through 2 phases, the first phase was case-control study, and the second phase was follow-up with intervention. A total of 120 high risk pregnant and 120 normal pregnant females were submitted to clinical examinations, serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA, and an interview questionnaire. Seropositive cases were subjected to spiramycin course treatment. The results showed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in high-risk pregnancy group was 50.8%, which was significantly different from that of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05). Analysis of seropositive women in relation to BOH showed that abortion was the commonest form of the pregnancy wastage (56.5%). The high prevalence of T. gondii seropositive cases was observed in the age group of 21-30 years. Post-delivery adverse outcome was observed in 80.3% of high-risk pregnancy group compared to 20% of normal pregnancy group. There was a statistically significant relationship between seropositivity and living in rural area, low socioeconomic level, and undercooked meat consumption (P<0.05). Serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies should be routine tests especially among high-risk pregnant women. PMID:26537040

  13. Seropositivity of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women by ELISA at Minia University Hospital, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Amany M; Ahmed, Azza K; Abdellatif, Manal Z M; Tawfik, Mohamed; Hassan, Ebtesam E

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is considered as an important risk factor for bad obstetric history (BOH) and one of the major causes of congenitally acquired infections. The present study aimed to estimate the seropositivity of T. gondii infection and associated risk factors among the attendees of high risk pregnancy and low risk antenatal care clinic of Minia Maternity and Pediatric University Hospital, Minia, Egypt. The study was carried out from April 2013 to April 2014 through 2 phases, the first phase was case-control study, and the second phase was follow-up with intervention. A total of 120 high risk pregnant and 120 normal pregnant females were submitted to clinical examinations, serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA, and an interview questionnaire. Seropositive cases were subjected to spiramycin course treatment. The results showed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in high-risk pregnancy group was 50.8%, which was significantly different from that of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05). Analysis of seropositive women in relation to BOH showed that abortion was the commonest form of the pregnancy wastage (56.5%). The high prevalence of T. gondii seropositive cases was observed in the age group of 21-30 years. Post-delivery adverse outcome was observed in 80.3% of high-risk pregnancy group compared to 20% of normal pregnancy group. There was a statistically significant relationship between seropositivity and living in rural area, low socioeconomic level, and undercooked meat consumption (P<0.05). Serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies should be routine tests especially among high-risk pregnant women.

  14. Baseline correlates of insulin resistance in inner city high-BMI African-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Aarthi; Fitch, Mark D; Hudes, Mark L; Lustig, Robert H; Murray, Carolyn B; Ikeda, Joanne P; Fleming, Sharon E

    2008-09-01

    To characterize the influence of diet-, physical activity-, and self-esteem-related factors on insulin resistance in 8- 10-year-old African-American (AA) children with BMI greater than the 85th percentile who were screened to participate in a community-based type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevention trial. In 165 subjects, fasting glucose- and insulin-derived values for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) assessed insulin resistance. Body fatness was calculated following bioelectrical impedance analysis, and fitness was measured using laps from a 20-m shuttle run. Child questionnaires assessed physical activity, dietary habits, and self-esteem. Pubertal staging was assessed using serum levels of sex hormones. Parent questionnaires assessed family demographics, family health, and family food and physical activity habits. Girls had significantly higher percent body fat but similar anthropometric measures compared with boys, whereas boys spent more time in high-intensity activities than girls. Scores for self-perceived behavior were higher for girls than for boys; and girls desired a more slender body. Girls had significantly higher insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), compared with boys (P < 0.01). Adjusting for age, sex, pubertal stage, socioeconomic index (SE index), and family history of diabetes, multivariate regression analysis showed that children with higher waist circumference (WC) (P < 0.001) and lower Harter's scholastic competence (SC) scale (P = 0.044) had higher insulin resistance. WC and selected self-esteem parameters predicted insulin resistance in high-BMI AA children. The risk of T2DM may be reduced in these children by targeting these factors.

  15. Factors associated with seropositivity for APGL-Iamong household contacts of leprosy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambier, Carlos Gustavo; Wambier, Sarah Perillo de Farias; Furini, Renata Bazan; Simão, João Carlos Lopes; Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi

    2016-02-01

    Leprosy is mainly transmitted among family members who share genetic and ambient factors. The clinical form of leprosy in the index case and kinship could be risk factors for leprosy transmission. High antibody levels in household contacts (HC) in the absence of neural or skin lesions may characterize latent infection. This study aimed to evaluate the association between seropositivity for anti-phenolic glycolipid-I immunoglobulin M antibodies (APGL-I) in HC and the clinical classification of the index case and to analyze the association between APGL-I positivity with other factors such as age, kinship, and gender. We performed a survey among 320 HC of 120 leprosy patients who were evaluated and followed-up in a leprosy outpatient clinic of a university hospital. All HC underwent complete skin examination, peripheral nerve palpation, skin sensory tests, and serologic tests for the detection and quantification of APGL-I. The overall seropositivity rate was 20%, and was greatly affected by kinship. APGL-I seropositivity was higher in siblings (41%), followed by parents (28%), spouses (26%), other (19%), and offspring (14%). Independent risk factors for seropositivity were being siblings (OR 3.3) and being a HC of an index case with indeterminate leprosy (OR 5.3). APGL-I seropositivity was associated with index cases with a bacillary index of 4 (88%; pleprosy. Strict evaluation and follow-up of HC with positive results for APGL-I is recommended. Special attention should be paid during the screening of siblings of the index cases, HC of patients with a high bacillary index, and HC of patients with indeterminate leprosy.

  16. Neospora caninum seropositivity and reproductive risk factors in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbe, Domenico; Passarelli, Alessandra; Gloria, Alessia; Di Cesare, Angela; Capelli, Gioia; Iorio, Raffaella; Traversa, Donato

    2016-05-01

    Despite the importance of Neospora caninum in veterinary medicine, knowledge of distribution of neosporosis in dog populations in some countries is still poor. The aims of the present study were to determine the occurrence of anti-N. caninum antibodies in one-hundred dogs living in cattle farms or dog breedings in central Italy and to evaluate the risk factors associated with seropositivity. The incidence of reproductive system disorders (e.g. infertility after first pregnancy) was also evaluated. Serum from breeding and farm dogs was tested to an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) to assess the occurrence of seropositivity. Management and individual data were collected and analysed both by linear and logistic multiple-regression models to find reliable predictors of seroprevalence and anti-N. caninum antibody level. The seropositivity for N. caninum was 32%. Dogs reared for breeding and presence of cattle on the farm were associated with seropositivity for N. caninum. Dogs living in the cattle farms showed a higher seropositivity for N. caninum (46%) compared with those living in dogs breeding (18%) (P Neospora seropositivity in dog breedings may appear relatively low if compared with that found in dogs living with livestock, this infection, apparently underestimated, should be considered as a potential serious problem in canine medicine.

  17. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Leptospira Seropositivity in Beef Cattle, Sheep and Deer Farmers in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, J M; Heuer, C; Wilson, P R; Benschop, J; Collins-Emerson, J M

    2016-12-05

    Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis that in New Zealand affects primarily people occupationally exposed to livestock. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of five Leptospira serovars in farmers working on cattle, sheep and deer farms that had the serological status of animals previously assessed and to identify risk factors for farmer seropositivity. A total of 178 farmers from 127 properties participated in the study. Blood samples were tested using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies to Leptospira. Samples with a MAT titre ≥48 were considered seropositive. Using Bayesian statistical analysis, the median seroprevalence of Leptospira, all serovars combined, was estimated to be 6.6% (95% probability interval (PI) 3.6-10.9%). Risk factors associated with seropositivity were assisting deer or cattle calving, farming deer, having ≥25% of flat terrain and high abundance of wild deer on farm, while high possum abundance on farm was negatively associated with seropositivity. No association was observed between farmer serostatus and previously recorded livestock serology. Leptospira seropositivity was associated with influenza-like illness of farmers (RR = 1.7; 95% PI 1.0-2.5). Assuming a causal relationship, this suggested an annual risk of 1.3% (95% PI 0.0-3.0%) of influenza-like illnesses due to Leptospira infection in the population of farmers. The association between seropositivity and disease can be used to estimate the public health burden of leptospirosis in New Zealand. Identifying and understanding risk factors for Leptospira seropositivity can inform preventive measures, hence contributing to the reduction of leptospirosis incidence in farmers.

  18. SEROPOSITIVITY FOR ASCARIOSIS AND TOXOCARIOSIS AND CYTOKINE EXPRESSION AMONG THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN THE VENEZUELAN DELTA REGION

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    Zaida Araujo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at measuring seropositivities for infection by Ascaris suum and Toxocara canis using the excretory/secretory (E/S antigens from Ascaris suum (AES and Toxocara canis (TES within an indigenous population. In addition, quantification of cytokine expressions in peripheral blood cells was determined. A total of 50 Warao indigenous were included; of which 43 were adults and seven children. In adults, 44.1% were seropositive for both parasites; whereas children had only seropositivity to one or the other helminth. For ascariosis, the percentage of AES seropositivity in adults and children was high; 23.3% and 57.1%, respectively. While that for toxocariosis, the percentage of TES seropositivity in adults and children was low; 9.3% and 14.3%, respectively. The percentage of seronegativity was comparable for AES and TES antigens in adults (27.9% and children (28.6%. When positive sera were analyzed by Western blotting technique using AES antigens; three bands of 97.2, 193.6 and 200.2 kDas were mostly recognized. When the TES antigens were used, nine major bands were mostly identified; 47.4, 52.2, 84.9, 98.2, 119.1, 131.3, 175.6, 184.4 and 193.6 kDas. Stool examinations showed that Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Entamoeba coli were the most commonly observed intestinal parasites. Quantification of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, TGF-β, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-4 expressions showed that there was only a significant increased expression of IL-4 in indigenous with TES seropositivity (p < 0.002. Ascaris and Toxocara seropositivity was prevalent among Warao indigenous.

  19. H pylori seropositivity and cytokine gene polymorphisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuaki Saijo; Eiji Yoshioka; Tomonori Fukui; Mariko Kawaharada; Fumihiro Sata; Hirokazu Sato; Reiko Kishi

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether the pro- and antiinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms, IL1B-511C/T,IL1B-31C/T, IL6-634C/G, TNF-1031T/C, TNF-857C/T, and IL10-1082A/G, interact with smoking and drinking habits to influence infection with H pylori.METHODS: The subjects were 410 Japanese transit company employees. C-reactive protein and conventional cardiovascular risk factors were evaluated. Serum anti-H pylori antibodies were measured. The genotypes of IL1B-511C/T, IL1B-31C/T, IL6-634C/G, TNF-1031T/C,TNF-857C/T, and IL10-1082A/G polymorphisms were determined by allelic discrimination using fluorogenic probes and a 5'nuclease assay.RESULTS: In gender- and age-adjusted logistic analyses,the subjects with TNF-857T/T had a significantly lower odds ratio (OR) for H pylori seropositivity (reference -857C/C; OR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03-0.59, P = 0.007).After stratification according to smoking and drinking status, among never-smokers, the subjects with IL1B-511C/T had a significantly lower OR (reference -511C/C;OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.10-0.90, P = 0.032). Among drinkers in the 1-5 times/wk category, the subjects with IL1B-511T/T had a significantly lower OR (reference C/C; OR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.16-0.95, P = 0.039), and the subjects with IL1B-31C/T and T/T had a significantly higher OR (reference C/C; C/T: OR = 2.59, 95% CI, P =0.042: 1.04-6.47; C/C: OR = 3.17, 95% CI: 1.23-8.14,P = 0.017). Among current smokers, the subjects with IL6-634C/G had a significantly higher OR (reference C/C;OR = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.13-4.58, P = 0.021). However,the interactions terms between the aforementioned genotypes and lifestyles were not statistically significant.CONCLUSION: Contrary to previous findings, the results herein suggest that the TNF-857T/T genotype may be protective against chronic infection with H pylori. Drinking and smoking habits may influence the effect of cytokine gene polymorphisms. Further studies are required to clarify the effects of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine

  20. Correlation of low levels of nitrite and high levels of fetal hemoglobin in patients with sickle cell disease at baseline

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    Darcielle Bruna Dias Elias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is a hemoglobinopathy characterized by hemolytic anemia, increased susceptibility to infections and recurrent vaso-occlusive crises that reduces the quality of life of sufferers. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation of the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, malonaldehyde and nitrite to fetal hemoglobin in patients with sickle cell disease not under treatment with hydroxyurea in outpatients at a university hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: Forty-four patients diagnosed with sickle cell disease were enrolled at baseline. Diagnosis was confirmed by evaluating the beta globin gene using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The concentration of fetal hemoglobin was obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum levels of nitrite, malonaldehyde and lactate dehydrogenase were measured by biochemical methods. RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase, nitrite and malonaldehyde were observed in patients with sickle cell disease compared to a control group. The study of the correlation between fetal hemoglobin levels and these variables showed a negative correlation with nitrite levels. No correlation was found between fetal hemoglobin and malonaldehyde or lactate dehydrogenase. When the study population was stratified according to fetal hemoglobin levels, a decrease in the levels of nitrite was observed with higher levels of fetal hemoglobin (p-value = 0.0415. CONCLUSION: The results show that, similar to fetal hemoglobin levels, the concentration of nitrite can predict the clinical course of the disease, but should not be used alone as a modulator of prognosis in patients with sickle cell disease.

  1. Course and prognosis in seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Kukeli, Anton; Manxhuka-Kërliu, Suzana; Pallaskas, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2013-01-01

    Long since it have been suggested that a subpopulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), diagnosed with negative rheumatoid factor (RF) tests, represents a clinical entity quite distinct from that of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of the study was to establish a scientific comparative analysis between RA seronegative and seropositive, regarding course and prognoses of the disease. Two hundred fifty patients with rheumatoid arthritis according to the (American College of Rheumatology) criteria were retrospectively studied by analysis the course and prognoses of disease. All examinees were between 25-60 years of age (Xb=49.9, SD=10.3) with disease duration between 1-27 years (Xbox=6.41, SD=6.47). Course of the disease with "remissions and exacerbations", progressive continual course and bad prognoses, were more presented in seropositive group ofpatients. Partial remission was more common in seronegative patients but according to serostatus and gender has not shown statistically significant difference. Duration of the disease was a specific prognostic sign for both subsets [(r=0.32, p0.05) seronegative, (r=0.18, p<0.05) seropositive]. Seropositive and seronegative RA distinguish in course and prognostic feature, but not enough to differentiate them in two different forms of the disease. Regarding the sero-status, differences within sex, with some exceptions, are not relevant.

  2. Crusted Scabies: Presenting as erythroderma in a human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patient

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    Shruti Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crusted scabies is a rare manifestation of scabies characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of mites in the skin. It is common in patients with sensory neuropathy, mentally retarded persons and in patients who are immunosuppressed. Further, crusted scabies can rarely present as erythroderma (<0.5% cases necessitating a high index of suspicion for its diagnosis. Because of its rare occurrence, we are reporting a case of crusted scabies presenting as erythroderma, in a human immunodeficiency virus seropositive patient.

  3. SLE ASSOCIATED HEMOPHAGOCYTIC LYMPHOHISTIOCYTOSIS WITH DISSEMINATED HISTOPLASMOSIS IN A HIV SEROPOSITIVE PATIENT

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    Pranati Mohanty

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH is an uncommon, life-threatening and likely underdiagnosed disease of diverse aetiologies caused by a defective NK/T - cell cytotoxic pathway resulting in uncontrolled hypercytokinaemia leading to end organ damage carrying a high mortality rate. Here, we report HLH complicating SLE in a 42 years old female associated with disseminated histoplasmosis and accidentally detected as seropositive for HIV. This is extremely rare in the world literature.

  4. Strong Association between Human and Animal Brucella Seropositivity in a Linked Study in Kenya, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osoro, Eric Mogaka; Munyua, Peninah; Omulo, Sylvia; Ogola, Eric; Ade, Fredrick; Mbatha, Peter; Mbabu, Murithi; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Kairu, Salome; Maritim, Marybeth; Thumbi, Samuel M.; Bitek, Austine; Gaichugi, Stella; Rubin, Carol; Njenga, Kariuki; Guerra, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a common bacterial zoonotic infection but data on the prevalence among humans and animals is limited in Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three counties practicing different livestock production systems to simultaneously assess the seroprevalence of, and risk factors for brucellosis among humans and their livestock (cattle, sheep, camels, and goats). A two-stage cluster sampling method with random selection of sublocations and households was conducted. Blood samples were collected from humans and animals and tested for Brucella immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Human and animal individual seroprevalence was 16% and 8%, respectively. Household and herd seroprevalence ranged from 5% to 73% and 6% to 68%, respectively. There was a 6-fold odds of human seropositivity in households with a seropositive animal compared with those without. Risk factors for human seropositivity included regular ingestion of raw milk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.8–4.4), exposure to goats (herding, milking, and feeding) (aOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.5–3.8), and handling of animal hides (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.5–2.2). Attaining at least high school education and above was a protective factor for human seropositivity (aOR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.3–0.4). This linked study provides evidence of a strong association between human and animal seropositivity at the household level. PMID:26101275

  5. Strong Association Between Human and Animal Brucella Seropositivity in a Linked Study in Kenya, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osoro, Eric Mogaka; Munyua, Peninah; Omulo, Sylvia; Ogola, Eric; Ade, Fredrick; Mbatha, Peter; Mbabu, Murithi; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Kairu, Salome; Maritim, Marybeth; Thumbi, Samuel M; Bitek, Austine; Gaichugi, Stella; Rubin, Carol; Njenga, Kariuki; Guerra, Marta

    2015-08-01

    Brucellosis is a common bacterial zoonotic infection but data on the prevalence among humans and animals is limited in Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three counties practicing different livestock production systems to simultaneously assess the seroprevalence of, and risk factors for brucellosis among humans and their livestock (cattle, sheep, camels, and goats). A two-stage cluster sampling method with random selection of sublocations and households was conducted. Blood samples were collected from humans and animals and tested for Brucella immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Human and animal individual seroprevalence was 16% and 8%, respectively. Household and herd seroprevalence ranged from 5% to 73% and 6% to 68%, respectively. There was a 6-fold odds of human seropositivity in households with a seropositive animal compared with those without. Risk factors for human seropositivity included regular ingestion of raw milk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.8-4.4), exposure to goats (herding, milking, and feeding) (aOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.5-3.8), and handling of animal hides (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.5-2.2). Attaining at least high school education and above was a protective factor for human seropositivity (aOR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.3-0.4). This linked study provides evidence of a strong association between human and animal seropositivity at the household level.

  6. Short-term declines in CD4 levels associated with cocaine use in HIV-1 seropositive, minority injecting drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, N. S.; Brown, L. S.; Makuch, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluates the association of cocaine use with short-term change in CD4 counts among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositive, minority injecting drug users prior to the introduction of zidovudine (AZT). Ninety-eight HIV-1 seropositive subjects were recruited from six inner-city, methadone maintenance clinics. A baseline assessment included a short questionnaire regarding drug behavior and quantitation of CD4 cell counts. These measures were repeated on all subjects 3 to 4 months later. Thirty-eight subjects reported using cocaine between baseline and 4-month follow-up evaluations. Males and African Americans were more likely to be cocaine users (P < .01). Cocaine users were more likely to engage in heroin and needle use (P < .001). Cocaine users experienced a significant decline in CD4 cells compared with nonusers (P = .013); no marked difference in CD4 decline was noted between heroin users and nonusers (P = .19). Multivariate analysis showed that a decline in CD4 counts was 2.82 times more likely to occur in cocaine users than in cocaine nonusers (90% two-sided confidence interval of 1.08, 7.37). These findings support the hypothesis of a possible link between cocaine use and short-term CD4 decline in HIV-1 seropositive injecting drug users. PMID:8478971

  7. Household Socioeconomic and Demographic Correlates of Cryptosporidium Seropositivity in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Becker

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium are parasitic protozoa that infect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife globally. In the United States, cryptosporidiosis occurs in an estimated 750,000 persons annually, and is primarily caused by either of the Cryptosporidium parvum genotypes 1 and 2, exposure to which occurs through ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocytes shed from infected hosts. Although most cryptosporidiosis cases are caused by genotype 1 and are of human origin, the zoonotic sources of genotype 2, such as livestock, are increasingly recognized as important for understanding human disease patterns. Social inequality could mediate patterns of human exposure and infection by placing individuals in environments where food or water contamination and livestock contact is high or through reducing the availability of educational and sanitary resources required to avoid exposure.We here analyzed data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES between 1999 and 2000, and related seropositivity to Cryptosporidium parvum to correlates of social inequality at the household and individual scale. After accounting for the complex sampling design of NHANES and confounding by individual demographics and household conditions, we found impaired household food adequacy was associated with greater odds of Cryptosporidium seropositivity. Additionally, we identified individuals of non-white race and ethnicity and those born outside the United States as having significantly greater risk than white, domestic-born counterparts. Furthermore, we provide suggestive evidence for direct effects of family wealth on Cryptosporidium seropositivity, in that persons from low-income households and from families close to the poverty threshold had elevated odds of seropositivity relative to those in high-income families and in households far above the poverty line.These results refute assertions that cryptosporidiosis in the United States is independent of

  8. Microstructural visual system changes in AQP4-antibody-seropositive NMOSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, Frederike C; Kuchling, Joseph; Zimmermann, Hanna; Chien, Claudia; Schmidt, Felix; Knier, Benjamin; Bellmann-Strobl, Judith; Korn, Thomas; Scheel, Michael; Klistorner, Alexander; Ruprecht, Klemens; Paul, Friedemann; Brandt, Alexander U

    2017-05-01

    To trace microstructural changes in patients with aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-ab)-seropositive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) by investigating the afferent visual system in patients without clinically overt visual symptoms or visual pathway lesions. Of 51 screened patients with NMOSD from a longitudinal observational cohort study, we compared 6 AQP4-ab-seropositive NMOSD patients with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) but no history of optic neuritis (ON) or other bout (NMOSD-LETM) to 19 AQP4-ab-seropositive NMOSD patients with previous ON (NMOSD-ON) and 26 healthy controls (HCs). Foveal thickness (FT), peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness, and ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness were measured with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Microstructural changes in the optic radiation (OR) were investigated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Visual function was determined by high-contrast visual acuity (VA). OCT results were confirmed in a second independent cohort. FT was reduced in both patients with NMOSD-LETM (p = 3.52e(-14)) and NMOSD-ON (p = 1.24e(-16)) in comparison with HC. Probabilistic tractography showed fractional anisotropy reduction in the OR in patients with NMOSD-LETM (p = 0.046) and NMOSD-ON (p = 1.50e(-5)) compared with HC. Only patients with NMOSD-ON but not NMOSD-LETM showed neuroaxonal damage in the form of pRNFL and GCIPL thinning. VA was normal in patients with NMOSD-LETM and was not associated with OCT or DTI parameters. Patients with AQP4-ab-seropositive NMOSD without a history of ON have microstructural changes in the afferent visual system. The localization of retinal changes around the Müller-cell rich fovea supports a retinal astrocytopathy.

  9. Microstructural visual system changes in AQP4-antibody–seropositive NMOSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, Frederike C.; Kuchling, Joseph; Zimmermann, Hanna; Chien, Claudia; Schmidt, Felix; Knier, Benjamin; Bellmann-Strobl, Judith; Korn, Thomas; Scheel, Michael; Klistorner, Alexander; Ruprecht, Klemens; Paul, Friedemann

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To trace microstructural changes in patients with aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-ab)-seropositive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) by investigating the afferent visual system in patients without clinically overt visual symptoms or visual pathway lesions. Methods: Of 51 screened patients with NMOSD from a longitudinal observational cohort study, we compared 6 AQP4-ab–seropositive NMOSD patients with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) but no history of optic neuritis (ON) or other bout (NMOSD-LETM) to 19 AQP4-ab–seropositive NMOSD patients with previous ON (NMOSD-ON) and 26 healthy controls (HCs). Foveal thickness (FT), peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness, and ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness were measured with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Microstructural changes in the optic radiation (OR) were investigated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Visual function was determined by high-contrast visual acuity (VA). OCT results were confirmed in a second independent cohort. Results: FT was reduced in both patients with NMOSD-LETM (p = 3.52e−14) and NMOSD-ON (p = 1.24e−16) in comparison with HC. Probabilistic tractography showed fractional anisotropy reduction in the OR in patients with NMOSD-LETM (p = 0.046) and NMOSD-ON (p = 1.50e−5) compared with HC. Only patients with NMOSD-ON but not NMOSD-LETM showed neuroaxonal damage in the form of pRNFL and GCIPL thinning. VA was normal in patients with NMOSD-LETM and was not associated with OCT or DTI parameters. Conclusions: Patients with AQP4-ab–seropositive NMOSD without a history of ON have microstructural changes in the afferent visual system. The localization of retinal changes around the Müller-cell rich fovea supports a retinal astrocytopathy. PMID:28255575

  10. Association between malaria exposure and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus seropositivity in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalwoga, Angela; Cose, Stephen; Wakeham, Katie; Miley, Wendell; Ndibazza, Juliet; Drakeley, Christopher; Elliott, Alison; Whitby, Denise; Newton, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective Unlike other herpes viruses, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is not ubiquitous worldwide and is most prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. The reasons for this are unclear. As part of a wider investigation of factors that facilitate transmission in Uganda, a high prevalence country, we examined the association between antimalaria antibodies and seropositivity against KSHV. Methods Antibodies against P. falciparum merozoite surface protein (PfMSP)-1, P. falciparum apical membrane antigen (PfAMA)-1 and KSHV antigens (ORF73 and K8.1) were measured in samples from 1164 mothers and 1227 children. Results Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus seroprevalence was 69% among mothers and 15% children. Among mothers, KSHV seroprevalence increased with malaria antibody titres: from 60% to 82% and from 54% to 77%, comparing those with the lowest and highest titres for PfMSP-1 and PfAMA-1, respectively (P < 0.0001). Among children, only antibodies to PfAMA-1 were significantly associated with KSHV seropositivity, (P < 0.0001). In both mothers and children, anti-ORF73 antibodies were more strongly associated with malaria antibodies than anti-K8.1 antibodies. Conclusion The association between malaria exposure and KSHV seropositivity suggests that malaria is a cofactor for KSHV infection or reactivation. PMID:25611008

  11. Comparison of Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faezeh Hamidi; Jalal Etemadi; Nader Ghabouli Mehrabani; Mahmoud Mahami Oskouei; Roza Motavalli; Mohammad RezaArdalan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the seropositivity of Toxoplasma gondii in a group of peritoneal dialysis patients with hemodialysis patients and a general local population as a control group in Tabriz, Northwest Iran. Methods: A total of 176 individuals were participated in the present study. Among them, 42 were peritoneal dialysis patients, 84 were hemodialysis patients and 50 were healthy volunteers. Anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M serologic study was administered on the collected serums and then the obtained data were analyzed using statistical methods. Results: In the present research, 70.2% of hemodialysis patients, 66.6% of peritoneal dialysis patients and 68% of control group had positive results for anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G antibody. All individuals of the groups had negative serologic results for anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin M antibody. There was no significant difference between Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in hemodialysis patients and peritoneal dialysis patients and general population (P> 0.05). Conclusions: The findings showed that either peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis doesn’t increase the risk of Toxoplasma seropositivity in our region (Northwest Iran). It could be explained by the fact that the present research is carried out in a high seroprevalent area scale in which the majority of normal population had previous exposure to this parasitical infection.

  12. Comparison of seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis with regard to some clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Izairi, Remzi; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana

    2009-01-01

    = 6.52, p < 0.05) of the MCP level. The mentioned parameters did not show a significant statistical difference with regard to sero-status and sex. Majority of patients had 1-4 deformities. Seropositive group had prevalent knee contractures, e.g. the eversion of the foot, while seronegative group had more "swan neck" deformities. The mentioned parameters did not show a significant statistical difference with regard to sero-status and sex. Longer duration of the disease resulted in an increased number of deformities, and this difference was statistically significant (t = 5.92, p < 0.01). Linear correlation between these two parameters resulted as high positive in general (r = 0.49, p < 0.01) and for groups separately, but without significant statistical difference with regard to sero-status. Duration of the disease with regard to the type of deformities was different in both subsets: in case of the longer duration of the disease "buttonhole" was prevalent with statistically significant difference in seropositive patients (t = 2.10, p < 0.05), whereas "fibular deviation" was prevalent in seronegative patients (t = 2.64, p < 0.01).

  13. Bartonella seropositivity in children with Henoch-Schonlein purpura

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    McColl Dorothy

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An association between Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP and seropositivity for Bartonella henselae (BH has been described. The objective of this study was to see if such an association exists in northern Alberta. Methods Immunofluorescent antibody testing utilizing an antigen prepared from B. henselae was undertaken on sera from six children with current HSP, 22 children with remote HSP, and 28 controls that were matched for age. Blood from the six children with current HSP was analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay with primers derived from the citrate synthase (gltA gene for the detection of Bartonella DNA. Results The seropositivity rate for BH was 61% in cases versus 21% in controls (p Conclusion There is an increased seropositivity rate for BH in children with HSP. However, it is not clear if infection with B. henselae or a related Bartonella species can result in HSP, or if the increased seropositivity is from non-specific or cross-reacting antibodies.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of hepatitis B and C seropositivity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and correlates of hepatitis B and C seropositivity among health care workers in ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Background: Health care workers are at risk of acquiring hepatitis B and C infections ... Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3) ...

  15. Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients Commencing Biologic Therapy Have High Baseline Levels of Comorbidity: A Report from the Australian Rheumatology Association Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, John; Schachna, Lionel; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Staples, Margaret; Murphy, Bridie; Bond, Molly; Briggs, Andrew; Lassere, Marissa; March, Lyn

    2009-01-01

    Aims. To compare the baseline characteristics of a population-based cohort of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) commencing biological therapy to the reported characteristics of bDMARD randomised controlled trials (RCTs) participants. Methods. Descriptive analysis of AS participants in the Australian Rheumatology Association Database (ARAD) who were commencing bDMARD therapy. Results. Up to December 2008, 389 patients with AS were enrolled in ARAD. 354 (91.0%) had taken bDMARDs at some time, and 198 (55.9%) completed their entry questionnaire prior to or within 6 months of commencing bDMARDs. 131 (66.1%) had at least one comorbid condition, and 24 (6.8%) had a previous malignancy (15 nonmelanoma skin, 4 melanoma, 2 prostate, 1 breast, cervix, and bowel). Compared with RCT participants, ARAD participants were older, had longer disease duration and higher baseline disease activity. Conclusions. AS patients commencing bDMARDs in routine care are significantly different to RCT participants and have significant baseline comorbidities. PMID:20107564

  16. The upgraded PTB 600 m baseline: a high-accuracy reference for the calibration and the development of long distance measurement devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollinger, Florian; Meyer, Tobias; Beyer, Jens; Doloca, Nicolae R.; Schellin, Wolfgang; Niemeier, Wolfgang; Jokela, Jorma; Häkli, Pasi; Abou-Zeid, Ahmed; Meiners-Hagen, Karl

    2012-09-01

    The calibration and verification of high-precision electronic distance meters (EDMs) requires well-characterized and calibrated geodetic baselines. As the length measurements are performed typically over several hundred metres in air, a thorough understanding of the environmental conditions is necessary. In the course of a major refurbishment, the 600 m baseline of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at Braunschweig, Germany, was equipped with a dense environmental sensor network. This paper presents the characterization of this novel reference baseline, including the calibration of the inter-pillar distances, and identifies the major sources of uncertainty for such a length standard. A preliminary expanded standard uncertainty (k = 2) of U ( l ) _{k=2}=\\sqrt{( 6.2 \\times 10^{-4} \\: m )^2 + ( 7.6 \\times 10^{-7} \\, l )^2} is deduced for single-slope distance comparisons on the baseline. In the course of a full calibration, the additive constant cEDM of an EDM can currently be determined with an expanded uncertainty of U(cEDM)k = 2 = 6.1 × 10-5 m, and its scale correction sEDM with an expanded uncertainty of U(sEDM)k = 2 = 8.2 × 10-7. As an example, a femtosecond laser-based distance measurement over 600 m on this baseline is presented.

  17. Increased Risk of Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Male Subjects with High Baseline Waist-to-Height Ratio: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyung Geun; Nallamshetty, Shriram; Rhee, Eun Jung

    2016-02-01

    The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is an easy and inexpensive adiposity index that reflects central obesity. In this study, we examined the association of baseline WHtR and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) over 4 years of follow-up in apparently healthy Korean men. A total of 1,048 male participants (mean age, 40.9 years) in a health-screening program in Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea who repeated a medical check-up in 2010 and 2014 were recruited. Baseline WHtR was calculated using the value for the waist in 2010 divided by the value for height in 2010. The CAC score (CACS) of each subject was measured by multi-detector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years greater than 0. During the follow-up period, progression of CAC occurred in 278 subjects (26.5%). The subjects with CAC progression had slightly higher but significant baseline WHtR compared to those who did not show CAC progression (0.51±0.04 vs. 0.50±0.04, P<0.01). The proportion of subjects with CAC progression significantly increased as the baseline WHtR increased from the 1st quartile to 4th quartile groups (18.3%, 18.7%, 28.8%, and 34.2%; P<0.01). The risk for CAC progression was elevated with an odds ratio of 1.602 in the 4th quartile group of baseline WHtR even after adjustment for confounding variables (95% confidence interval, 1.040 to 2.466). Increased baseline WHtR was associated with increased risk for CAC progression. WHtR might be a useful screening tool to identify individuals at high risk for subclinical atherosclerosis.

  18. Risk of newly detected infections and cervical abnormalities in women seropositive for naturally acquired human papillomavirus type 16/18 antibodies: analysis of the control arm of PATRICIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellsagué, Xavier; Naud, Paulo; Chow, Song-Nan; Wheeler, Cosette M; Germar, Maria Julieta V; Lehtinen, Matti; Paavonen, Jorma; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Garland, Suzanne M; Salmerón, Jorge; Apter, Dan; Kitchener, Henry; Teixeira, Julio C; Skinner, S Rachel; Limson, Genara; Szarewski, Anne; Romanowski, Barbara; Aoki, Fred Y; Schwarz, Tino F; Poppe, Willy A J; Bosch, F Xavier; de Carvalho, Newton S; Peters, Klaus; Tjalma, Wiebren A A; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Raillard, Alice; Descamps, Dominique; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary; Rosillon, Dominique; Baril, Laurence

    2014-08-15

    We examined risk of newly detected human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical abnormalities in relation to HPV type 16/18 antibody levels at enrollment in PATRICIA (Papilloma Trial Against Cancer in Young Adults; NCT00122681). Using Poisson regression, we compared risk of newly detected infection and cervical abnormalities associated with HPV-16/18 between seronegative vs seropositive women (15-25 years) in the control arm (DNA negative at baseline for the corresponding HPV type [HPV-16: n = 8193; HPV-18: n = 8463]). High titers of naturally acquired HPV-16 antibodies and/or linear trend for increasing antibody levels were significantly associated with lower risk of incident and persistent infection, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or greater (ASCUS+), and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 1/2 or greater (CIN1+, CIN2+). For HPV-18, although seropositivity was associated with lower risk of ASCUS+ and CIN1+, no association between naturally acquired antibodies and infection was demonstrated. Naturally acquired HPV-16 antibody levels of 371 (95% confidence interval [CI], 242-794), 204 (95% CI, 129-480), and 480 (95% CI, 250-5756) EU/mL were associated with 90% reduction of incident infection, 6-month persistent infection, and ASCUS+, respectively. Naturally acquired antibodies to HPV-16, and to a lesser extent HPV-18, are associated with some reduced risk of subsequent infection and cervical abnormalities associated with the same HPV type. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  19. Molecular genotyping of HCV infection in seropositive blood donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarin, Siti Noraziah Abu; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    This study is to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in seropositive blood donor. RNA was extracted from 32 positive samples in National Blood Centre and Melaka Hospital. The core and NS5B sequences were obtained from 23 samples. Genotype 3a is most prevalent in this study followed by genotype 1a. Evidence of mixed-genotypes (3a and 1b) infections was found in 5 subjects.

  20. A lower baseline glomerular filtration rate predicts high mortality and newly cerebrovascular accidents in acute ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kai; Huang, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Zhipeng; Ding, Jianping; Song, Haiqing

    2017-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is gradually recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and cardio-/cerebrovascular disease. This study aimed to examine the association of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and clinical outcomes at 3 months after the onset of ischemic stroke in a hospitalized Chinese population.Totally, 972 patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled into this study. Modified of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations were used to calculate eGFR and define CKD. The site and degree of the stenosis were examined. Patients were followed-up for 3 months. Endpoint events included all-cause death and newly ischemic events. The multivariate logistic model was used to determine the association between renal dysfunction and patients' outcomes.Of all patients, 130 patients (13.4%) had reduced eGFR (stroke patients. A low baseline eGFR was also a strong independent predictor for newly ischemic events in ICAS patients.

  1. Seropositivity for Chlamydia Pneumoniae and Mycoplasma Pneumoniae in Asthmatic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tutanc

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory tract infections may trigger acute asthma attacks and may be held responsible for etiopathogenesis in children with asthma. Although bacterial infections attract a limited amount of attention, recently Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP, in particular, are reported to be the possible factors. IgM and IgG seroprevalence was investigated in 66 children patients with bronchial asthma (between the ages of 3 and 14 for CP and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In a total of 66 cases, 18 (27.2% patients were detected with IgG positivity for CP whereas 27 of them (40.9% were detected with IgG positivity for MP. IgG positivity was determined in 6 patients (13.0% in the control group for CP, and in 6 patients (10.8% in the control group for MP. The rate of the asthma patients with IgG seropositivity for MP was 4 times higher than that of the control group. It was seen that IgG antibody seropositivity for CP was higher in those with more frequent attacks. No such difference was observed in terms of IgG antibody seropositivity for M. pneumoniae. There are many studies indicating that CP and MP infections take an importance place in the etiology of bronchial asthma and asthma attacks in children. The results obtained reveal the effect of both microorganisms on the etiopathogenesis of the bronchial asthma and the increased number of asthma attacks.

  2. Patterns of human herpesvirus-8 oral shedding among diverse cohorts of human herpesvirus-8 seropositive persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender Ignacio, Rachel A; Goldman, Jason D; Magaret, Amalia S; Selke, Stacy; Huang, Meei-Li; Gantt, Soren; Johnston, Christine; Phipps, Warren T; Schiffer, Joshua T; Zuckerman, Richard A; McClelland, R Scott; Celum, Connie; Corey, Larry; Wald, Anna; Casper, Corey

    2016-01-01

    Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), the etiologic agent of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), establishes lifelong latent infection with periodic lytic replication ("shedding") at mucosal sites, especially the oropharynx. Patterns of HHV-8 shedding are not well understood, and require elucidation to better predict risk of HHV-8 related malignancies in those infected. We sought to characterize patterns of HHV-8 oropharyngeal shedding among diverse cohorts that enrolled HHV-8 seropositive persons. We quantified HHV-8 oral shedding using PCR among HHV-8 seropositive persons who collected at least 14 days of oral swabs in 22 studies on 3 continents. We excluded persons taking antivirals during sampling or any prior use of antiretrovirals in those who were HIV-infected. 248 participants were enrolled from the US, Peru, Cameroon, Uganda, and Kenya; 61 % were men, 58 % were HIV seropositive, and 16 % had KS. Overall, 3,123 of 10,557 samples (29.6 %) had HHV-8 detected. Quantity of virus shed was highly correlated with shedding rate, (ρ = 0.72, p < 0.0001). HHV-8 was detected in ≥1 sample in 55 % of participants with a median of 7 % of days in the US and Kenya, 0 % in Uganda and Peru, and 18 % in Cameroon. Median episode duration was three days, and episodes with high median quantity lasted longer (42 vs 3 days, p < 0.0001). In persons with multiple observations over time, 66 % of shedding rate variance was attributable to differences between individuals. In HHV-8 infected individuals from diverse settings, oral mucosal shedding rate, quantity, and duration were correlated; individual shedding was highly variable. Studies are needed to determine factors accounting for between-person variation and the relationship of HHV-8 shedding to development of associated diseases.

  3. Anti-HIV seropositivity was related to HBsAg seropositivity among injecting drug users in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Hsieh, Ming-Yen; Huang, Chung-Feng; Yeh, Ming-Lun; Wang, Shu-Chi; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chang, Ko; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Tun-Chieh; Huang, Jee-Fu; Dai, Chia-Yen; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung

    2016-02-01

    In Taiwan, the number of new cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection via drug injection has been increasing since 2003. Due to HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) having similar transmission routes, HBV and HIV infections among injecting drug users (IDUs) has become an important public health issue. The aim of this study was explore the prevalence of HBV infection among IDUs with and without HIV infection, and examine whether HIV infection is associated with HBV infection among IDUs in Southern Taiwan. We enrolled 566 IDUs, including 87 anti-HBV positive IDUs and 479 anti-HBV negative IDUs, and also analyzed the results of liver function tests, HBV DNA, anti-HIV, HIV RNA, and CD4 cell count. The results showed that the prevalence of HBV infection among IDUs was 15.4%. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was higher among individuals born before 1985 (15.9% vs. 4.0%), but this was not significant. Anti-HIV seropositivity was related to HBsAg seropositivity [odds ratio (OR) = 2.47, 95% confidence interval = 1.26-4.82, p = 0.008). Anti-HCV and anti-HIV were risk factors for abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT; OR = 2.11, 95% confidence interval = 1.005-4.42, p = 0.048 and OR = 1.47, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-2.10, p = 0.04, respectively), and HBsAg was not a factor related to abnormal ALT. In conclusion, the prevalence of HBV infection was similar in the general population and in IDUs, and due to anti-HIV seropositivity being significantly related to HBsAg seropositivity, HBV infection among IDUs is still important. We suggest that for IDUs, HBsAg should be monitored closely.

  4. Baseline HbA1c to Identify High-Risk Gestational Diabetes: Utility in Early vs Standard Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Arianne N; Ross, Glynis P; Hyett, Jon; Molyneaux, Lynda; Tan, Kris; Constantino, Maria; Harding, Anna Jane; Wong, Jencia

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) necessitates risk stratification directing limited antenatal resources to those at greatest risk. Recent evidence demonstrates that an early pregnancy glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ≥5.9% (41 mmol/mol) predicts adverse pregnancy outcomes. To determine the optimal HbA1c threshold for adverse pregnancy outcomes in GDM in a treated multiethnic cohort and whether this differs in women diagnosed 5.9% (41 mmol/mol) was associated with the greatest risk of large-for-gestational-age (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 2.7 [1.5-4.9]), macrosomia (3.5 [1.4-8.6]), cesarean section (3.6 [2.1-6.2]), and hypertensive disorders (2.6 [1.1-5.8]). In early GDM, similar HbA1c associations were seen; however, lower HbA1c correlated with the greatest risk of small-for-gestational-age (P trend = 0.004) and prevalence of neonatal hypoglycemia. Baseline HbA1c >5.9% (41 mmol/mol) identifies an increased risk of large-for-gestational-age, macrosomia, cesarean section, and hypertensive disorders in standard GDM. Although similar associations are seen in early GDM, higher HbA1c levels do not adequately capture risk-limiting utility as a triage tool in this cohort.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for Brucella seropositivity among sheep and goats in a peri-urban region of Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Elisabeth Lindahl; Grahn, Cecilia; Ljung, Isabel; Sattorov, Nosirjon; Boqvist, Sofia; Magnusson, Ulf

    2016-03-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of Brucella infection among sheep and goats on small-scale farms in a peri-urban area of Tajikistan and identify factors associated with seropositivity. The study population was 667 female sheep and goats >6 months of age from 21 villages in four districts surrounding the capital city, Dushanbe. Individual blood samples were collected during October and November 2012 and analysed with indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive samples were confirmed with competitive ELISA. To identify factors associated with seropositivity at an individual level, a generalised linear mixed model was applied to account for clustering of individuals within villages and districts. The true individual seroprevalence was 6.7 % and ranged from 1.0 to 15.6 % between the four districts. Fourteen villages had at least one seropositive sheep or goat, resulting in apparent prevalence of 67 % at village level. The seroprevalence at individual level was significantly lower in Rudaki district (odds ratio (OR) = 0.1; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.03-0.4) and Varzob district (OR = 0.3; 95 % CI 0.09-0.8) than in Vahdat district. Sheep were more likely than goats to be seropositive (OR = 2.7; 95 % CI 1.3-5.5). Increasing age was significantly associated with seropositivity (OR = 1.4; 95 % CI 1.2-1.6). These results indicate high prevalence of Brucella infection among sheep and goats in the peri-urban area of the capital city in Tajikistan. Given the dense human population in such areas, this could constitute a threat to public health, besides causing significant production losses.

  6. Increased risk of coronary artery calcification progression in subjects with high baseline Lp(a) levels: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung Hwan; Lee, Da Young; Lee, Eun Seo; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-11-01

    Results from previous studies support the association of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels and coronary artery disease risk. In this study, we analyzed the association between baseline Lp(a) levels and future progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. A total of 2611 participants (mean age: 41years, 92% mend) who underwent a routine health check-up in 2010 and 2014 were enrolled. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) were measured by multi-detector computed tomography. Baseline Lp(a) was measured by high-sensitivity immunoturbidimetric assay. Progression of CAC was defined as a change in CACS >0 over four years. Bivariate correlation analyses with baseline Lp(a) and other metabolic parameters revealed age, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C and CACS to have a significant positive correlation, while body weight, fasting glucose level, blood pressure and triglyceride level were negatively correlated with baseline Lp(a) level. After four years of follow-up, 635 subjects (24.3%) had CAC progression. The participants who had CAC progression were older, composed of more men, more obese, and had higher fasting glucose levels and worse baseline lipid profiles compared to those who did not have CAC progression. The mean serum Lp(a) level was significantly higher in subjects who had CAC progression compared to those who did not (32.5 vs. 28.9mg/dL, p<0.01). When the risk for CAC progression according to baseline Lp(a) was calculated, those with Lp(a) level≥50mg/dL had an odds ratio of 1.333 (95% CI 1.027-1.730) for CAC progression compared to those with Lp(a)<50mg/dL after adjusting for confounding factors. In this study, the subjects who had higher Lp(a) were at significantly higher risk for CAC progression after four years of follow-up, suggesting the role of high Lp(a) in CAC progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of baseline HIV-1 DNA level in highly-experienced patients receiving raltegravir, etravirine and darunavir/ritonavir regimen (ANRS139 TRIO trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Charpentier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the ANRS 139 TRIO trial, the use of 3 new active drugs (raltegravir, etravirine, and darunavir/ritonavir, resulted in a potent and sustained inhibition of viral replication in multidrug-resistant treatment-experienced patients. The aim of this virological sub-study of the ANRS 139 TRIO trial was to assess: (i the evolution of HIV-1 DNA over the first year; and (ii the association between baseline HIV-1 DNA and virological outcome. METHODS: Among the 103 HIV-1-infected patients included in the ANRS-139 TRIO trial, HIV-1 DNA specimens were available for 92, 84, 88, and 83 patients at Week (W0, W12, W24, and W48, respectively. Quantification of total HIV-1 DNA was performed by using the commercial kit "Generic HIV DNA Cell" (Biocentric, Bandol, France. RESULTS: Baseline median HIV-1 DNA of patients displaying virological success (n= 61, viral blip (n= 20, and virological failure (n = 11 were 2.34 log(10 copies/10(6 PBMC (IQR= 2.15-2.66, 2.42 (IQR = 2.12-2.48, and 2.68 (IQR= 2.46-2.83, respectively. Although not statistically significant, patients exhibiting virological success or viral blip had a tendency to display lower baseline HIV-1 DNA than patients experiencing virological failure (P = 0.06. Median decrease of HIV-1 DNA between baseline and W48 was -0.13 log(10 copies/10(6 PBMC (IQR = -0.34 to +0.10, mainly explained by the evolution from W0 to W4. No more changes were observed in the W4-W48 period. CONCLUSIONS: In highly-experienced multidrug-resistant patients, HIV-1 DNA slightly decreased during the first month and then remained stable during the first year of highly potent antiretroviral regimen. In this population, baseline HIV-1 DNA might help to better predict the virological response and to tailor clinical therapeutic management as more aggressive therapeutic choices in patients with higher baseline HIV-1 DNA.

  8. Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Molina-López, Rafael; Marco, Ignasi; Blanco, Juan M; Höfle, Ursula; Margalida, Antoni; Bach-Raich, Esther; Darwich, Laila; Echeverría, Israel; Obón, Elena; Hernández, Mauro; Lavín, Santiago; Dubey, Jitender P; Almería, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610), Strigiformes (n=260), Ciconiiformes (n=156), Gruiformes (n=21), and other orders (n=32), from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1:25) were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:)23.5-28.7) of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus), Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), long-eared owl (Asio otus), common scops owl (Otus scops), Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), white stork (Ciconia ciconia), grey heron (Ardea cinerea), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus); in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and great bustard (Otis tarda); and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus). The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) (68.1%, 98 of 144). The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in

  9. Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Cabezón

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610, Strigiformes (n=260, Ciconiiformes (n=156, Gruiformes (n=21, and other orders (n=32, from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1:25 were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:23.5-28.7 of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus, short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata, golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus, osprey (Pandion haliaetus, Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus, Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus, peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus, long-eared owl (Asio otus, common scops owl (Otus scops, Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia, white stork (Ciconia ciconia, grey heron (Ardea cinerea, common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus; in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti, lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni and great bustard (Otis tarda; and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus. The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo (68.1%, 98 of 144. The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in many wild

  10. High (≥6.5 Spontaneous and Persistent Urinary pH Is Protective of Renal Function at Baseline and during Disease Course in Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Bazzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic acidosis correction in advanced renal failure slows renal function decline attributed to tubulointerstitial damage (TID reduction. No study evaluated if spontaneous baseline high urinary pH (UpH is renoprotective in patients with normal renal function and without metabolic acidosis. The study tested this hypothesis in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN. Eighty-five patients (follow-up 81 ± 54 months measured UpH, serum creatinine, eGFR, protein/creatinine ratio, fractional excretion of albumin, IgG, α1-microglobulin, and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (β-NAG/creatinine ratio. Twenty-eight patients (33% had UpH ≥ 6.5 and 57 (67% pH < 6.5; high versus low UpH patients had significantly lower values of the tubulointerstitial damage (TID markers FE α1m and β-NAG and significantly better baseline renal function. These differences persisted over time in a subset of 38 patients with 5 measurements along 53 ± 26 months. In 29 patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS treated with supportive therapy (follow-up: 80 ± 52 months renal function was stable in 10 high and significantly worse in 19 low UpH patients. Steroids + cyclophosphamide treatment in 35 NS patients masks the renoprotection of high UpH. Conclusions. In IMN high and persistent UpH is associated with reduction of the proteinuric markers of tubulointerstitial damage and baseline better renal function in all patients and in NS patients treated only with supportive therapy during disease course. The factors associated with high pH-dependent renoprotection were lower values of TID markers, eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min, BP < 140/90 mmHg, and age < 55 years.

  11. Peru-15 (Choleragarde(®)), a live attenuated oral cholera vaccine, is safe and immunogenic in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive adults in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasuwan, W; Kim, Y H; Sah, B K; Suwanagool, S; Kim, D R; Anekthananon, A; Lopez, A L; Techasathit, W; Grahek, S L; Clemens, J D; Wierzba, T F

    2015-09-11

    Many areas with endemic and epidemic cholera report significant levels of HIV transmission. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), over 95% of reported cholera cases occur in Africa, which also accounts for nearly 70% of people living with HIV/AIDS globally. Peru-15, a promising single dose live attenuated oral cholera vaccine (LA-OCV), was previously found to be safe and immunogenic in cholera endemic areas. However, no data on the vaccine's safety among HIV-seropositive adults had been collected. This study was a double-blinded, individually randomized, placebo-controlled trial enrolling HIV-seropositive adults, 18-45 years of age, conducted in Bangkok, Thailand, to assess the safety of Peru-15 in a HIV-seropositive cohort. 32 HIV infected subjects were randomized to receive either a single oral dose of the Peru-15 vaccine with a buffer or a placebo (buffer only). No serious adverse events were reported during the follow-up period in either group. The geometric mean fold (GMF) rise in V. cholerae O1 El Tor specific antibody titers between baseline and 7 days after dosing was 32.0 (pvaccine group compared to 1.6 (pvaccine strain. There were no significant changes in HIV viral load or CD4 T-cell counts between vaccine and placebo groups. Peru-15 was shown to be safe and immunogenic in HIV-seropositive Thai adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High (≥6.5) Spontaneous and Persistent Urinary pH Is Protective of Renal Function at Baseline and during Disease Course in Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Claudio; Tagliabue, Elena; Raimondi, Sara; Rizza, Virginia; Casellato, Daniela; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis correction in advanced renal failure slows renal function decline attributed to tubulointerstitial damage (TID) reduction. No study evaluated if spontaneous baseline high urinary pH (UpH) is renoprotective in patients with normal renal function and without metabolic acidosis. The study tested this hypothesis in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). Eighty-five patients (follow-up 81 ± 54 months) measured UpH, serum creatinine, eGFR, protein/creatinine ratio, fractional excretion of albumin, IgG, α1-microglobulin, and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (β-NAG)/creatinine ratio. Twenty-eight patients (33%) had UpH ≥ 6.5 and 57 (67%) pH UpH patients had significantly lower values of the tubulointerstitial damage (TID) markers FE α1m and β-NAG and significantly better baseline renal function. These differences persisted over time in a subset of 38 patients with 5 measurements along 53 ± 26 months. In 29 patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS) treated with supportive therapy (follow-up: 80 ± 52 months) renal function was stable in 10 high and significantly worse in 19 low UpH patients. Steroids + cyclophosphamide treatment in 35 NS patients masks the renoprotection of high UpH. Conclusions. In IMN high and persistent UpH is associated with reduction of the proteinuric markers of tubulointerstitial damage and baseline better renal function in all patients and in NS patients treated only with supportive therapy during disease course. The factors associated with high pH-dependent renoprotection were lower values of TID markers, eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min, BP < 140/90 mmHg, and age < 55 years.

  13. Toxocara seropositivity, atopy and wheezing in children living in poor neighbourhoods in urban Latin American.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Ribeiro Mendonça

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Toxocara canis and T. cati are parasites of dogs and cats, respectively, that infect humans and cause human toxocariasis. Infection may cause asthma-like symptoms but is often asymptomatic and is associated with a marked eosinophilia. Previous epidemiological studies indicate that T. canis infection may be associated with the development of atopy and asthma. OBJECTIVES: To investigate possible associations between Toxocara spp. seropositivity and atopy and childhood wheezing in a population of children living in non-affluent areas of a large Latin American city. METHODS: The study was conducted in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Data on wheezing symptoms were collected by questionnaire, and atopy was measured by the presence of aeroallergen-specific IgE (sIgE. Skin prick test (SPT, total IgE and peripheral eosinophilia were measured. Toxocara seropositivity was determined by the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies, and intestinal helminth infections were determined by stool microscopy. FINDINGS: Children aged 4 to 11 years were studied, of whom 47% were seropositive for anti-Toxocara IgG; eosinophilia >4% occurred in 74.2% and >10% in 25.4%; 59.6% had elevated levels of total IgE; 36.8% had sIgE≥0.70 kU/L and 30.4% had SPT for at least one aeroallergen; 22.4% had current wheezing symptoms. Anti-Toxocara IgG was positively associated with elevated eosinophils counts, total IgE and the presence of specific IgE to aeroallergens but was inversely associated with skin prick test reactivity. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of Toxocara seropositivity was high in the studied population of children living in conditions of poverty in urban Brazil. Toxocara infection, although associated with total IgE, sIgE and eosinophilia, may prevent the development of skin hypersensitivity to aeroallergens, possibly through increased polyclonal IgE and the induction of a modified Th2 immune reaction.

  14. Acquired severe pneumonia in the community in seropositive HIV patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Cruz de los Santos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection due to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIVhas become a principal health problem worldwide mainly in underdeveloped countries. In these patients, respiratory infections constitute the greatest cause of morbimortality rate in which Pneumocystis Carinii is the most frequently found pathogen. However, this article describes the case of a woman who is seropositive to HIV and who developed a severe and rapidly fatal community acquired pneumonia dur to Sthaphylococcus aureus, a very rare and less common infection in this kind of patients.

  15. Passive tick surveillance, dog seropositivity, and incidence of human Lyme disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.L.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Zhioua, E.; Whitworth, U.G.; Markowski, D.; Hyland, K.E.; Hu, R.

    2004-01-01

    Data on nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks submitted by the public to the University of Rhode Island Tick Research Laboratory for testing from 1991 to 2000 were compared with human case data from the Rhode Island Department of Health to determine the efficacy of passive tick surveillance at assessing human risk of Lyme disease. Numbers of ticks submitted were highly correlated with human cases by county (r = 0.998, n = 5 counties) and by town (r = 0.916, n = 37 towns), as were the numbers of positive ticks submitted (r = 0.989 by county, r = 0.787 by town). Human cases were correlated with ticks submitted by town each year, and with positive ticks in all but 2 years. Thus, passive tick surveillance effectively assessed geographical risk of human Lyme disease. In contrast, tick submissions through time were not correlated with human cases from year to year. Dog seropositivity was significantly correlated with human cases by county in both years tested, but by town in only one of two years. Numbers of ticks submitted were correlated with dog seropositivity by county but not by town, apparently because of high variability among towns with small sample sizes. Our results suggest that passive tick surveillance, using ticks submitted by the public for Lyme spirochete testing, can be used to assess the geographical distribution of Lyme disease risk, but cannot reliably predict Lyme incidence from year to year.

  16. School-Based Exercise to Lower Blood Pressure in High-Risk African American Girls: Project Design and Baseline Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, Craig K.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes effective methods for identifying and recruiting high risk African American ninth-grade girls to measure their fitness and assess the impact of fitness training on blood pressure. A multistage step test for fitness assessment in such girls is presented. The "Project Heart" aerobics class and control groups are described. (SM)

  17. High effort, low reward, and cardiovascular risk factors in employed Swedish men and women: baseline results from the WOLF Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, R; Alfredsson, L; Hammar, N; Siegrist, J; Theorell, T; Westerholm, P

    1998-09-01

    To examine associations between measures of work stress (that is, the combination of high effort and low reward) and cardiovascular risk factors. Cross sectional first screening of a prospective cohort study. The study was conducted among 5720 healthy employed men and women living in the greater Stockholm area aged 19-70 years. All analyses were restricted to subjects with complete data (n = 4958). The investigation of associations between indicators of effort-reward imbalance and cardiovascular risk factors was restricted to the age group 30-55 years (n = 3427). Subjects reporting high effort and low reward at work had a higher prevalence of well known risk factors for coronary heart disease. After adjustment for relevant confounders, associations between a measure of extrinsic effort and reward (the effort-reward ratio) and hypertension (multivariate prevalence odds ratio (POR) 1.62-1.68), increased total cholesterol (upper tertile 220 mg/dl)(POR = 1.24) and the total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein(HDL)-cholesterol ratio (upper tertile 4.61)(POR 1.26-1.30) were found among men. Among women a measure of high intrinsic effort (immersion) was related to increased low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (upper tertile 130 mg/dl)(POR 1.37-1.39). Analyses of variance showed increasing mean values of LDL cholesterol with an increasing degree of the effort-reward ratio among men and increased LDL-cholesterol among women with high levels of intrinsic effort (upper tertile of immersion). Findings lend support to the hypothesis that effort-reward imbalance represents a specific constellation of stressful experience at work related to cardiovascular risk. The relation was not explained by relevant confounders (for example, lack of physical exercise, body weight, cigarette smoking).

  18. The NOvA Data Acquistion System: A highly distributed, synchronized, continuous readout system for a long baseline neutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The NOvA experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Lab, has been designed and optimized to perform a suite of measurements critical to our understanding of the neutrino’s properties, their oscillations and their interactions. NOvA presents a unique set of data acquisition and computing challenges due to the immense size of the detectors, the data volumes that are generated through the continuous digitization of the frontend systems, and the need to buffer the full data stream to allow for highly asynchronous triggering and extraction of physics events. These challenges are compounded by the stringent timing and synchronization requirements that are placed on the acquisition systems by the need to precisely correlate information between the accelerator complex and the remote detector locations. The NOvA Data Acquisition system has been designed and built to meets these challenges. The system utilizes a highly modular, novel acquisition and event building scheme, which has been deployed on a large hierarch...

  19. HIV seropositive gay men: understanding adoption of safe sexual practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, G; Savard, J; Kok, G; Fortin, C; Boyer, R

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best predictors of safe sex practices among HIV seropositive gay men. A group of 96 homosexual men living with HIV completed a questionnaire that investigated theoretical constructs of the Ajzen's (1988) theory of planned behavior with respect to condom use for anal intercourse and sexual practices without anal intercourse. Other variables such as Triandis's (1977) construct of personal normative belief, psychological distress, and alcohol and drug use before sexual encounters were also investigated. Results indicated that the best predictor of intention to use condoms was perceived behavioral control. Personal normative belief was another important predictor of this intention. Although the best predictor of intention to have only sex without anal intercourse was perceived subjective norm, this intention was also significantly explained by perceived behavioral control. Moreover, perceived behavioral control was a significant predictor of having only sex without anal intercourse. Public health interventions among HIV seropositive gay men should aim mainly at increasing perception of behavioral control.

  20. Legionella pneumophila Seropositivity-Associated Factors in Latvian Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valciņa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous environmental exposure of humans to Legionella may induce immune responses and generation of antibodies. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Legionella pneumophila serogroups (SG 1–6 in the general healthy population and identify the associated host-related and environmental risk factors. L. pneumophila SG 1–6 seroprevalence among a total of 2007 blood samples collected from healthy donors was 4.8%. Seroprevalence was higher in women (5.9% than men (3.3% and in areas with a larger number of inhabitants, ranging from 3.5% in rural regions to 6.8% in the capital, Riga. Blood samples from inhabitants of apartment buildings tested positive for L. pneumophila in more cases (5.8% compared to those from inhabitants of single-family homes (2.7%. Residents of buildings with a municipal hot water supply system were more likely to be seropositive for L. pneumophila (OR = 3.16, 95% CI 1.26–7.91. Previous episodes of fever were additionally identified as a risk factor (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.43–4.1. In conclusion, centralized hot water supply, female gender and previous episodes of fever were determined as the main factors associated with L. pneumophila seropositivity in our study population.

  1. Long-term survival of an urban fruit bat seropositive for Ebola and Lagos bat viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T S Hayman

    Full Text Available Ebolaviruses (EBOV (family Filoviridae cause viral hemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates when they spill over from their wildlife reservoir hosts with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Fruit bats may act as reservoirs of the Filoviridae. The migratory fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, is common across sub-Saharan Africa and lives in large colonies, often situated in cities. We screened sera from 262 E. helvum using indirect fluorescent tests for antibodies against EBOV subtype Zaire. We detected a seropositive bat from Accra, Ghana, and confirmed this using western blot analysis. The bat was also seropositive for Lagos bat virus, a Lyssavirus, by virus neutralization test. The bat was fitted with a radio transmitter and was last detected in Accra 13 months after release post-sampling, demonstrating long-term survival. Antibodies to filoviruses have not been previously demonstrated in E. helvum. Radio-telemetry data demonstrates long-term survival of an individual bat following exposure to viruses of families that can be highly pathogenic to other mammal species. Because E. helvum typically lives in large urban colonies and is a source of bushmeat in some regions, further studies should determine if this species forms a reservoir for EBOV from which spillover infections into the human population may occur.

  2. LEADER-4: blood pressure control in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk: baseline data from the LEADER randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, John R; Marso, Steven P; Bain, Stephen C; Franek, Edward; Jacob, Stephan; Masmiquel, Luis; Leiter, Lawrence A; Haluzik, Martin; Satman, Ilhan; Omar, Mohamed; Shestakova, Marina; Van Gaal, Luc; Mann, Johannes F; Baeres, Florian M M; Zinman, Bernard; Poulter, Neil R

    2016-06-01

    As glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists lower blood pressure (BP) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we examined BP control in relation to targets set by international bodies prior to randomization in the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of cardiovascular outcome Results (LEADER) trial. We analyzed baseline data from LEADER (NCT01179048), an ongoing phase 3B, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cardiovascular outcomes trial examining the cardiovascular safety of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in 9340 people with T2DM from 32 countries [age (all mean ± SD) 64 ± 7.2 years, BMI 32.5 ± 6.3 kg/m, duration of diabetes 12.7 ± 8.0 years], all of whom were at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). A total of 81% (n = 7592) of participants had prior CVD and 90% (n = 8408) had a prior history of hypertension. Despite prescription of multiple antihypertensive agents at baseline, only 51% were treated to a target BP of less than 140/85 mmHg and only 26% to the recommended baseline BP target of less than 130/80 mmHg. In univariate analyses, those with prior CVD were prescribed more agents (P high cardiovascular risk, particularly outside North America. Longitudinal data from the LEADER trial may provide further insights into BP control in relation to cardiovascular outcomes in this condition.

  3. Baseline climatology of extremely high vertical wind shears' values over Europe based on ERA-Interim reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palarz, Angelika; Celiński-Mysław, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    The dominant role in the development of deep convection is played by kinematic and thermodynamic conditions, as well as atmospheric circulation, land cover and local relief. Severe thunderstorms are considerably more likely to form in environments with large values of convective available potential energy (CAPE) and significant magnitude of vertical wind shears (VWSs). According to the most recent research, the tropospheric wind shears have an important influence on intensity, longevity and organisation of the primary convective systems - bow echoes, squall lines and supercell thunderstorms. This study, in turn, examines the role of wind structure in controlling the spatial and temporal variability of VWSs over Europe. Considering the importance of the kinematic conditions for the convective systems formation, research is limited exclusively to 0-1 km, 0-3 km and 0-6 km wind shears. In order to compute the VWS' values, the data derived from ERA-Interim reanalysis for the period 1981-2015 was applied. It consisted of U and V wind components with 12-hourly sampling and horizontal resolution of 0.75×0.75°. The VWS' values were calculated as wind difference between two levels - this entails that the hodograph's shape was not considered (e.g. Clark 2013, Pucik et. al 2015). We have analysed both VWS' mean values (MN) and frequency of VWSs exceeding assumed thresholds (FQ). Taking into account previous studies (e.g. Rasmussen & Blanchard 1998, Schneider et al. 2006, Schaumann & Przybylinski 2012), the thresholds for extremely high values of vertical wind shears were set at 10 m/s for 0-1 km shear, 15 m/s for 0-3 km shear and 18 m/s for 0-6 km shear. Both MN and FQ values were characterised by strong temporal variability, as well as significant spatial differentiation over the research area. A clear diurnal cycle was identified in the case of 0-1 km shear, while seasonal variability was typical for 0-3 km and 0-6 km shears. Regardless of the season, 0-1 km shear reached

  4. Implementation of high precision optical and radiometric LRO tracking data in the orbit determination to supplement the baseline S-band tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, D.; Torrence, M. H.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2016-12-01

    LRO has been in a polar lunar orbit for 7 year since it was launched in June 2009. Seven instruments are onboard LRO to perform a global and detailed geophysical, geological and geochemical mapping of the Moon, some of which have very high spatial resolution. To take full advantage of the high resolution LRO datasets from these instruments, the spacecraft orbit must be reconstructed precisely. The baseline LRO tracking was the NASA's White Sands station in New Mexico and a commercial network, the Universal Space Network (USN), providing up to 20 hours per day of almost continuous S-band radio frequency link to LRO. The USN stations produce S-band range data with a 0.4 m precision and Doppler data with a 0.8 mm/s precision. Using the S-band tracking data together with the high-resolution gravity field model from the GRAIL mission, definitive LRO orbit solutions are obtained with an accuracy of 10 m in total position and 0.5 m radially. Confirmed by the 0.50-m high-resolution NAC images from the LROC team, these orbits well represent the LRO orbit "truth". In addition to the S-band data, one-way Laser Ranging (LR) to LRO provides a unique LRO optical tracking dataset over 5 years, from June 2009 to September 2014. Ten international satellite laser ranging stations contributed over 4000 hours LR data with the 0.05 - 0.10 m normal point precision. Another set of high precision LRO tracking data is provided by the Deep Space Network (DSN), which produces radiometric tracking data more precise than the USN S-band data. In the last two years of the LRO mission, the temporal coverage of the USN data has decreased significantly. We show that LR and DSN data can be a good supplement to the baseline tracking data for the orbit reconstruction.

  5. Fusion of space-borne multi-baseline and multi-frequency interferometric results based on extended Kalman filter to generate high quality DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Zeng, Qiming; Jiao, Jian; Zhang, Jingfa

    2016-01-01

    Repeat-pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a technique that can be used to generate DEMs. But the accuracy of InSAR is greatly limited by geometrical distortions, atmospheric effect, and decorrelations, particularly in mountainous areas, such as western China where no high quality DEM has so far been accomplished. Since each of InSAR DEMs generated using data of different frequencies and baselines has their own advantages and disadvantages, it is therefore very potential to overcome some of the limitations of InSAR by fusing Multi-baseline and Multi-frequency Interferometric Results (MMIRs). This paper proposed a fusion method based on Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), which takes the InSAR-derived DEMs as states in prediction step and the flattened interferograms as observations in control step to generate the final fused DEM. Before the fusion, detection of layover and shadow regions, low-coherence regions and regions with large height error is carried out because MMIRs in these regions are believed to be unreliable and thereafter are excluded. The whole processing flow is tested with TerraSAR-X and Envisat ASAR datasets. Finally, the fused DEM is validated with ASTER GDEM and national standard DEM of China. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective even in low coherence areas.

  6. Seropositivity for hepatitis B virus, vaccination coverage, and vaccine response in dentists from Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia MF Batista

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the seropositivity for hepatitis B virus (HBV, the vaccination index, and the vaccine response index in dentists from Campo Grande, MS. Blood samples from 474 dentists (63.7% women and 36.3% men, with a mean age of 38.5 ± 10.5 years were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect the serological markers: HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc. The HBsAg positive samples were tested for anti-HBc IgM, HBeAg, and anti-HBe. A total of 51 (10.8% dentists showed seropositivity for HBV. Three (0.6% were HBsAg/anti-HBc/anti-HBe positive, 43 (9.1% were anti-HBc/anti-HBs positive, and 5 (1.1% had only anti-HBc. Viral DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 9 (17.6% out of 51 HBV seropositive samples. A vaccination index of 96.6% (458/474 was observed, although 73.1% (335/458completed the three-dose schedule. Excluding 46 HBV seropositive individuals from 458 that reported vaccination, 412 were analyzed for vaccine response index. It was observed that 74.5% (307/412 were anti-HBs positive; this percentage increased to 79.1% when three doses were administered. The results showed a high vaccination index and a good rate of vaccine response; however, the failure in completing the three-dose schedule and the occurrence of HBV infection reinforce the need for more effective prevention strategies.

  7. Factors associated with seropositivity for anti-Toxoplasma gondiiantibodies in pregnant women of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FMR Lopes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between seropositivity for IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and socio-economic and environmental variables in pregnant women of Londrina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We interviewed 492 pregnant women, each of whom answered an epidemiological questionnaire, and collected blood samples for measurement of IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies by chemiluminescence. A confirmatory diagnosis of acute infection was made by an IgG avidity test. Titres of specific IgG anti-T. gondii were obtained by IFAT. Seropositivity for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies was observed in 242 women (49.2% and, of these, six pregnant women (1.2% showed seropositivity for IgM. Age group, level of education, per capita income, presence of a cat in the house and a habit of eating green vegetables were all factors associated with a greater chance of infection with T. gondii. This study showed that 250 (50.8% pregnant women were susceptible to T. gondii and considered to be at high risk for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Based on the results obtained, is critical to establish a program of health surveillance for toxoplasmosis, in order to contribute to diagnosis and early treatment during the prenatal period. It is also necessary to introduce measures to prevent the Toxoplasma infection in seronegative pregnant women.

  8. Comparison of three methods of surveillance with application to the detection of Johne's disease seropositivity in Texas cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Brielle H; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Ward, Michael P; Roussel, Allen J; Norby, Bo; Tavornpanich, Saraya; Ellis, Dee

    2008-08-15

    Surveillance and monitoring are important for measuring the level of disease in a population, documenting changes in prevalence over time, determining high-risk areas for implementation of control measures, eradicating disease, and documenting freedom from disease. The documentation of freedom from disease has importance for international trade and the resumption of production after an outbreak. Johne's disease (JD) is an example of an endemic disease of cattle that has variable prevalence related to environmental and animal-level factors. Three methods of sample collection were used to describe the prevalence and distribution of JD seropositivity in Texas. Sampled cattle were: (1) extensively managed herds, (2) market cattle, and (3) clinically ill cattle examined by practicing veterinarians throughout Texas. Samples were evaluated for JD using a commercially available serum ELISA. Proportion of seropositive samples was compared and spatial distributions were evaluated for clustering. Difference of JD seropositivity was observed among the three sample populations suggesting that estimation of disease prevalence is dependant upon the source of samples.

  9. The combination of amlodipine and angiotensin receptor blocker or diuretics in high-risk hypertensive patients: rationale, design and baseline characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Ma, L; Zhang, Y; Deng, Q; Liu, M; Liu, L

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese Hypertension Intervention Efficacy Study (CHIEF) is a multi-centre randomized controlled clinical trial comparing the effects of amlodipine+angiotensin II receptor blocker and amlodipine+diuretics on the incidence of cardiovascular events, represented as a composite of non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death events in high-risk Chinese hypertensive patients. The study also evaluates the long-term effects of lipid-lowering treatment and lifestyle modification. From October 2007 to October 2008, 13 542 patients were enrolled into the study in 180 centres in China. Patients will be followed up for 4 years. There was no difference in baseline characteristics between the two blood pressure arms. PMID:20445570

  10. Correlation of Demographic and Clinical Characteristics with Rheumatoid Factor Seropositivity in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Maizatul Akmal; Ghazali, Wan Syamimee Wan; Yahya, Nurul Khaiza; Wong, Kah Keng

    2016-11-01

    The rheumatoid factor (RF) blood test is the most commonly adopted test for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA patients who are seropositive for RF might face a greater likelihood of developing more aggressive symptoms. Our goal was to study the demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as their correlation with RF seropositivity, among a series of 80 RA patients aged ≥ 18 years who attend Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). Of the 80 RA patients included in this study, 66 (82.5%) were female and 14 (17.5%) were male. No significant associations between RF seropositivity and demographic and/or clinical characteristics or other laboratory investigations were observed, including gender, morning stiffness, individual joint involvement (from multiple sites of the body), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) measurement. However, a significant association between RF seropositivity and patients aged ≥ 50 was found (P = 0.032). RF seropositivity was found to be more common in much older RA patients.

  11. Seropositivity and Risk Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Wild Birds from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Molina-López, Rafael; Marco, Ignasi; Blanco, Juan M.; Höfle, Ursula; Margalida, Antoni; Bach-Raich, Esther; Darwich, Laila; Echeverría, Israel; Obón, Elena; Hernández, Mauro; Lavín, Santiago; Dubey, Jitender P.; Almería, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n = 610), Strigiformes (n = 260), Ciconiiformes (n = 156), Gruiformes (n = 21), and other orders (n = 32), from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1∶25) were found in 282 (26.1%, IC95%:23.5–28.7) of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus), Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), long-eared owl (Asio otus), common scops owl (Otus scops), Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), white stork (Ciconia ciconia), grey heron (Ardea cinerea), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus); in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) “vulnerable” Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and great bustard (Otis tarda); and in the IUCN “near threatened” red kite (Milvus milvus). The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) (68.1%, 98 of 144). The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is

  12. The Effect of Prophylactic Lamivudine plus Adefovir Therapy Compared with Lamivudine Alone in Preventing Hepatitis B Reactivation in Lymphoma Patients with High Baseline HBV DNA during Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qingqing; Chen, Kailin; Chen, Jie; Wu, Shaoxu; Geng, Qirong; Huang, Huiqiang; Lin, Tongyu; Jiang, Wenqi; Xia, Zhongjun; Duan, Huaxin; Rao, Huilan; Yao, Mengfei; Hu, Liyang

    2016-01-01

    Prophylactic antiviral therapy is essential for lymphoma patients with high baseline HBV DNA who undergo cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, there are limited data on the optimal options. The present study was designed to compare the efficacy of prophylactic lamivudine (LAM) with lamivudine plus adefovir dipivoxil (LAM+ADV) in preventing hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in lymphoma with, pre-chemotherapy HBV DNA load ≥2000 IU/ml. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 86 lymphoma patients with baseline HBV DNA load ≥2000 IU/ml during chemotherapy and received LAM or LAM+ADV as prophylaxis between January 1, 2008 and November 30, 2014 at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, China. Sixty-five patients received LAM and 21 received LAM+ADV. The rate was significantly lower in the LAM+ADV group compared with the LAM group for HBV reactivation (23.8% vs 55.4%; p = 0.012), while no difference was observed between the two groups in patients for HBV-related hepatitis (21.3% vs 33.3%; p   =  0.349), and chemotherapy disruption (10.9% vs 19.0%; p = 0.337). In a multivariate analysis of factors associated with HBV reactivation in these patients, LAM+ADV treatment and HBeAg negative were the independent protective factors. Therefore, LAM+ADV should be considered for antiviral prophylaxis in lymphoma patients with pre-chemotherapy HBV DNA load ≥2000 IU/ml. Further study is warranted to confirm these findings.

  13. Epidemiological factors associated with seropositivity for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women from Gurupi, State of Tocantins, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gontijo da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Knowledge of the prevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii dissemination among pregnant women is relevant because the parasite can be spread from mother to infant. The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women from Gurupi, State of Tocantins, Brazil, from February 2012 to June 2013. Methods The study population included 487 pregnant women. Sociodemographic, dietary and cultural data were collected using a standardized and validated form. Peripheral blood was collected for serologic testing using the ELISA test (IgM/IgG antibodies. The data were analyzed by comparing seropositivity with risk factors using crude and adjusted odds ratios. Results The prevalence rate for IgG and IgM antibodies was 68.7% and 5.7%, respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics associated with toxoplasmosis risk included the following: education level ≤ 8 years (OR: 6.612; CI: 1.450-30.144, age ≥ 30 years (OR: 5.273; CI: 1.166-23.844, working outside the home (OR: 1.604; CI: 1.015-2.536, and family income of two minimum wages or lower (OR: 2.700; CI: 1.891-8.182. Regarding dietary habits, there was a significant association of seropositivity with meat intake (OR: 1.78; CI: 1.149-4.080, cutting vegetables without washing the cutting board beforehand (OR: 2.051; CI: 1.165-3.614, frequent intake of vegetables (OR: 2.051; CI: 1.368-3.006 and in natura milk intake (OR: 2.422; CI: 1.014-5.785. Conclusions The high prevalence rates of toxoplasmosis in Gurupi are related to age, raw meat and in natura milk intake, as well as education level, working outside the home, and poor hygienic habits during meal preparation.

  14. A Comparison of Chronic Periodontitis in HIV-Seropositive Subjects and the General Population in the Ga-Rankuwa Area, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Khammissa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of HIV infection on the prevalence and the rate of progression of chronic periodontitis is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare parameters associated with the severity of chronic periodontitis in terms of periodontal probing depths, gingival recession, plaque indexes, and bleeding indexes of HIV-seropositive subjects and healthy age-matched control subjects, and of HIV-seropositive subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy and those not receiving such treatment. Two cohorts of subjects with chronic periodontitis were recruited for this study over a period of six months. There were 30 HIV-seropositive subjects, and 30 control subjects. Periodontal probing depths, gingival marginal recession, plaque indexes, and bleeding indexes were compared by HIV serostatus, the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, and CD4+ T-cell counts. All participants were black persons between the age of 18 and 45 and were of a similar socioeconomic status and age. The results of this study indicate that chronic periodontitis in HIV-seropositive subjects is similar in terms of mean periodontal probing depth, gingival marginal recession, plaque index, and bleeding index to that in healthy age-matched control subjects, and a low CD4+ T-cell count does not appear to be a risk factor for increased severity of chronic periodontitis.

  15. Effects of chronic treatment with the eNOS stimulator Impaza on penis length and sexual behaviors in rats with a high baseline of sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, X; Zhavbert, E S; Dugina, J L; Kheyfets, I A; Sergeeva, S A; Epstein, O I; Agmo, A

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has an important role in erection, and it also affects aspects of sexual behavior. In this experiment, we determined whether a compound enhancing the activity of eNOS, Impaza, could stimulate any aspect of sexual behavior and increase penis length in rats with a high baseline of sexual activity. For comparison, the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil was included. Male rats were orally treated with Impaza or sildenafil for 28 days. Impaza (3 ml kg(-1)) was given daily while sildenafil (3 mg kg(-1)) was given twice weekly. Tests for sexual incentive motivation and copulatory behavior were performed just before drug treatment and at days 7, 14 and 28 of treatment. In addition, the length of the protruding penis at mount, intromission and ejaculation was measured. Impaza but not sildenafil increased penis length at mount after 14 and 28 days of treatment. The compounds failed to modify sexual incentive motivation or copulatory behavior. It is suggested that Impaza enhanced intracavernous pressure, as such a pressure increase is the most likely explanation for enhanced penis length at mount. This effect, together with an absence of motivational actions, suggests that Impaza may be the most valuable treatment for erectile dysfunction.

  16. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, their relationship with baseline functional and cognitive status, and their utility in predicting mortality in nonagenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Chivite, David; Pinto, Xavier; Cuerpo, Sandra; Pujol, Ramón

    2011-07-01

    Little is known about the role of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in oldest-old subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between HDL-C levels and physical and cognitive performance indicators in nonagenarians, and also to determine the influence of HDL-C levels on the 3-year mortality risk. The data analyzed were taken from the NonaSantfeliu Study. Functional status was determined by the Lawton-Brody Index (LI) for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and the Barthel Index (BI) for basic activities (BADL). Cognition was assessed using the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MEC). The sample consisted of 49 women (79%) and 13 men, aged 94.3 ± 2.6 years. Mean HDL-C levels were 60 ± 16 mg/dL, and 16 subjects (25.8%) had low HDL-C values. HDL-C levels did correlate with BI (r = 0.28, P = 0.02) and LI (r = 0.32, P = 0.01), but not with MEC (r = 0.18, P = 0.15). Normal HDL-C levels at baseline were significantly associated with higher BI scores (P < 0.006, odds ratio [OR] = 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.05) and a lower number of prescription drugs used (P < 0.04, OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.49-0.99). Baseline HDL-C levels were significantly lower among the group of nonagenarians who died within the 3 years of follow up (P = 0.02). However, after adjusting for potential confounders, the association between HDL-C and mortality lost significance. Higher levels of HDL-C correlate with better functional status and less use of prescribed drugs in nonagenarians. However, the relationship between low HDL-C levels and long-term mortality in this population remains unclear. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Familial Analysis of Seropositivity to Trypanosoma cruzi and of Clinical Forms of Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Grecco, Roseane L.; Balarin, Marly A. S.; Correia, Dalmo; Prata, Aluízio; Rodrigues, Virmondes

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Água Comprida, MG, Brazil, a region previously endemic to Chagas disease whose vectorial transmission was interrupted around 20 year ago. A total of 998 individuals were examined for anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies. Seropositivity was observed in 255 subjects (25.5%), and 743 subjects were negative. Forty-one families with 5–80 individuals with similar environmental conditions were selected for familial analysis. In 15 families, seropositivity to T. cruzi was observed in > 50% of individuals. The segregation analysis confirmed family aggregation for the seropositivity to the T. cruzi. Heart commitment was the major clinical form observed, and in six families, > 50% of the individuals display cardiopathy that may be attributed to T. cruzi infection. Our results support the hypothesis that there is a family aggregation for the seropositivity but without the effect of one major gene. PMID:20064994

  18. Baseline characteristics in the Avoiding Cardiovascular events through Combination therapy in Patients Living with Systolic Hypertension (ACCOMPLISH) trial: a hypertensive population at high cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michael A; Bakris, George L; Dahlöf, Björn; Pitt, Bertram; Velazquez, Eric; Gupte, Jitendra; Lefkowitz, Martin; Hester, Allen; Shi, Victor; Weir, Matthew; Kjeldsen, Sverre; Massie, Barry; Nesbitt, Shawna; Ofili, Elizabeth; Jamerson, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    ACCOMPLISH is the first trial designed to compare the effects on major fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular endpoints of two forms of antihypertensive combination therapy: benazepril plus hydrochlorothiazide and amlodipine plus benazepril in hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk. Enrollment for this trial is now complete and this report describes the clinical characteristics of the study cohort. Patients with hypertension and a previous history of cardiovascular events, strokes or diabetes mellitus were randomized to double-blind treatment with either of the two combination regimens. The data in this report detail the clinical history and demographic characteristics in patients immediately prior to randomization to study drugs. A total of 11,454 patients were randomized. Mean age (+/-SD) was 68.4+/-6.9 years, 60% were men, and 1360 (12%) were African American. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 31.0+/-6.3 kg/m(2). At study entry, 46% of patients had a history of acute coronary syndromes, coronary artery bypass grafts or percutaneous coronary interventions; 13% had a history of stroke. A history of diabetes mellitus was reported in 6928 (60%) of patients. Mean blood pressure at baseline (on prior hypertension therapy) was 145.4/80.0 mmHg; only 38% of patients had a BP less than 140/90 mmHg. Overall, 97% of patients had received previous antihypertensive treatment (74% on at least two drugs); 53% were on oral diabetes therapy or insulin, 68% on anti-lipid therapy and 63% on anti-platelet agents. In summary, the ACCOMPLISH trial has recruited hypertensive patients at high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is noteworthy that the mean BMI of 31 in this cohort is clearly above the accepted diagnostic criterion of obesity and that 60% of patients are diabetic, possibly reflecting secular trends in clinical disease.

  19. Magic Baseline Beta Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

    2007-01-01

    We study the physics reach of an experiment where neutrinos produced in a beta-beam facility at CERN are observed in a large magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). The CERN-INO distance is close to the so-called "magic" baseline which helps evade some of the parameter degeneracies and allows for a better measurement of the neutrino mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{13}$.

  20. Rationing with baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems...... such as bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....

  1. The TDAQ Baseline Architecture

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F J

    The Trigger-DAQ community is currently busy preparing material for the DAQ, HLT and DCS TDR. Over the last few weeks a very important step has been a series of meetings to complete agreement on the baseline architecture. An overview of the architecture indicating some of the main parameters is shown in figure 1. As reported at the ATLAS Plenary during the February ATLAS week, the main area where the baseline had not yet been agreed was around the Read-Out System (ROS) and details in the DataFlow. The agreed architecture has: Read-Out Links (ROLs) from the RODs using S-Link; Read-Out Buffers (ROB) sited near the RODs, mounted in a chassis - today assumed to be a PC, using PCI bus at least for configuration, control and monitoring. The baseline assumes data aggregation, in the ROB and/or at the output (which could either be over a bus or in the network). Optimization of the data aggregation will be made in the coming months, but the current model has each ROB card receiving input from 4 ROLs, and 3 such c...

  2. Symptomatic Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection in Children of Seropositive Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Mack

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is the most frequent congenital virus infection worldwide. The risk of congenital CMV (cCMV transmission is highest in seronegative women who acquire primary CMV infection during pregnancy. A growing body of evidence indicates that secondary CMV infections in pregnant women with preconceptual immunity (either through reactivation of latent virus or re-infection with a new strain of CMV contribute to a much greater proportion of symptomatic cCMV than was previously thought. Here, we describe a case of symptomatic cCMV infection in the newborn of a woman with proven immunity prior to pregnancy. Diagnosis was confirmed by CMV PCR from amniotic fluid and fetal MR imaging. The newborn presented with typical cCMV symptoms including jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, cholestasis, petechiae, small head circumference, and sensorineural hearing loss, the most common neurologic sequela. CMV was detected in infant blood and urine by PCR, and intravenous ganciclovir was initiated and continued orally for 6 weeks totally. Apart from persisting right-sided deafness, the child exhibited normal neurological development up through the last follow-up at 4.5 years. To date, the most effective strategy to prevent vertical CMV transmission is hygiene counseling for women of childbearing age, which, in our case, and in concordance with recent literature, applies to seronegative, as well as seropositive, women. Once an expecting mother shows seroconversion or signs of an active CMV infection, there are no established procedures to reduce the risk of transmission, or therapeutic options for the fetus with signs of infection. After birth, symptomatic infants can be treated with ganciclovir to inhibit viral replication and improve hearing ability and neurodevelopmental outcome. A comprehensive review of the literature, including our case study, reveals the most current and significant diagnostic and treatment options available. In conclusion, the triad

  3. Enteric Opportunistic Parasitic Infections among HIV-Seropositive Patients at Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

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    Sangeeta D Patel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enteric opportunistic parasitic infections are the major source of diarrheal disease in developing countries mainly in Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. Objective: The study was to detect enteric parasites causing diarrhea and their association with immune status in HIV-seropositive patients. Methods: The present study was conducted in tertiary care teaching Hospital, Baroda between January 2006 to January 2007 involving 100 Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive patients. Stool was examined for enteric parasites by microscopy with special staining methods. Results: A total of 100 HIV sero-positive patients with and without diarrhea were included in the study. Of the 100 patients, the protozoan parasitic infection was found in 28% (28/100. Out of 100 patients, 50 had diarrhea in which parasitic infection was 24 (48% and 4 (4/50 protozoal parasites positive cases did not have diarrhea. A significant difference (p<0.05 was observed in the level of infection of intestinal protozoan between the HIV seropositive with diarrhea and HIV-seropositive without diarrhea. Conclusion Enteric opportunistic parasitic infections were detected in 28% among HIV-seropositive patients. Early detection of enteric parasitic infections will help in the management and to improve the quality of life for HIV-infected individuals. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(3.000: 190-193

  4. Assessing Nutrient Intake and Nutrient Status of HIV Seropositive Patients Attending Clinic at Chulaimbo Sub-District Hospital, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha Christine Onyango

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nutritional status is an important determinant of HIV outcomes. Objective. To assess the nutrient intake and nutrient status of HIV seropositive patients attending an AIDS outpatient clinic, to improve the nutritional management of HIV-infected patients. Design. Prospective cohort study. Setting. Comprehensive care clinic in Chulaimbo Sub-District Hospital, Kenya. Subjects. 497 HIV sero-positive adults attending the clinic. Main Outcome Measures. Evaluation of nutrient intake using 24-hour recall, food frequency checklist, and nutrient status using biochemical assessment indicators (haemoglobin, creatinine, serum glutamate pyruvate (SGPT and mean corpuscular volume (MCV. Results. Among the 497 patients recruited (M : F sex ratio: 1.4, mean age: 39 years ± 10.5 y, Generally there was inadequate nutrient intake reported among the HIV patients, except iron (10.49 ± 3.49 mg. All the biochemical assessment indicators were within normal range except for haemoglobin 11.2 g/dL (11.4 ± 2.60 male and 11.2 ± 4.25 female. Conclusions. Given its high frequency, malnutrition should be prevented, detected, monitored, and treated from the early stages of HIV infection among patients attending AIDS clinics in order to improve survival and quality of life.

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity and hepatitis B surface antigenemia (HBSAG) among blood donors in Benin city, Edo state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umolu, Patience Idia; Okoror, Lawrence Ehis; Orhue, Philip

    2005-03-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B virus are blood borne pathogens that can be transmitted through blood transfusion and could pose a huge problem in areas where mechanisms of ensuring blood safety are suspect. This study became necessary in a population where most of the blood for transfusion is from commercial blood donors. A total of 130 donors comprising 120 commercial donors and 10 voluntary donors were tested for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B surface antigen in Benin city using Immunocomb HIV - 1 and 2 Biospot kit and Quimica Clinica Aplicada direct latex agglutination method respectively. Thirteen (10%) samples were HIV seropositive and 7(5.8%) were HBsAg positive. The age bracket 18 - 25years had the highest numbers of donors and also had the highest number of HBsAg positive cases (7.8%) while the age group 29 - 38years had highest number of HIV seropositive cases. High prevalence of HIV antibodies and Hepatitis B surface antigen was found among commercial blood donors. Appropriate and compulsory screening of blood donors using sensitive methods, must be ensured to prevent post transfusion hepatitis and HIV.

  6. Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity and Stool Antigen in Patients With Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate whether Helicobacter pylori is an etiologic factor in hyperemesis gravidarum. Thirty one patients with hyperemesis gravidarum and twenty nine pregnant controls without hyperemesis gravidarum were included in this prospective study. All pregnant women were examined both for Helicobacter pylori serum immunoglobulin G antibodies (HpIgG Ab, showing chronic infection, and Helicobacter pylori stool antigens (HpSA, showing active gastrointestinal colonization. Chi-square and Student t tests were used accordingly for statistical analysis. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity was 67.7% in the patients with hyperemesis gravidarum and 79.3% in the control group ( χ 2 =1.02,P=.31 . HpSA was detected in 22.6% of patients with hyperemesis gravidarum, whereas 6.9% of patients in the control group. The difference was not statistically significant ( χ 2 =2.89,P=.08 . In this study, no relation was found between Helicobacter pylori and hyperemesis gravidarum. The low social status of women in both groups could be one of the reasons for the high prevalence of Hp infection.

  7. Mental health of HIV-seropositive women during pregnancy and postpartum period: a comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanovic, Suad; Dass-Brailsford, Priscilla; Nora, Diana; Talisman, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    With growing numbers of HIV-seropositive (HIV+) women of child-bearing age and increased access to effective clinical protocols for preventing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, mental health-related factors have become increasingly relevant due to their potential to affect the women's quality of life, obstetric outcomes and risk of MTCT. This review synthesizes evidence from 53 peer-reviewed publications examining mental health-related variables in pregnant and postpartum HIV+ women. The presentation of results is organized by the level of socioeconomic resources in the countries where studies were conducted (i.e., high-, middle-, and low-income countries). It is concluded that psychiatric symptoms, particularly depression, and mental health vulnerabilities (e.g., inadequate coping skills) are widespread among pregnant HIV+ women globally and have a potential to affect psychological well-being, quality of life and salient clinical outcomes. The current body of evidence provides rationale for developing and evaluating clinical and structural interventions aimed at improving mental health outcomes and their clinical correlates in pregnant HIV+ women.

  8. Contrasting disease patterns in seropositive and seronegative neuromyelitis optica: A multicentre study of 175 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarius Sven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnostic and pathophysiological relevance of antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Ab in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD has been intensively studied. However, little is known so far about the clinical impact of AQP4-Ab seropositivity. Objective To analyse systematically the clinical and paraclinical features associated with NMO spectrum disorders in Caucasians in a stratified fashion according to the patients' AQP4-Ab serostatus. Methods Retrospective study of 175 Caucasian patients (AQP4-Ab positive in 78.3%. Results Seropositive patients were found to be predominantly female (p 1 myelitis attacks in the first year were identified as possible predictors of a worse outcome. Conclusion This study provides an overview of the clinical and paraclinical features of NMOSD in Caucasians and demonstrates a number of distinct disease characteristics in seropositive and seronegative patients.

  9. Assessment of local carotid stiffness in seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Şirin Özcan, Ayşe Nur; Erten, Şükran; Alsancak, Yakup; Durmaz, Tahir

    2017-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory disease associated with increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Arterial stiffness (AS) is an independent predictor of CV events. This study aimed to analyse local carotid AS parameters in seronegative and seropositive RA patients. Of 347 consecutive RA patients, we selected specifically those who were free of established CV diseases and risk factors. As a result, 140 patients (126 women, 52.2 ± 10 years) and 140 healthy controls (122 women, 52.7 ± 8.0 years) were enrolled into this study. The common carotid AS was evaluated using radio frequency echo-tracking system to determine the local carotid pulse wave velocity (cPWV) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Based on rheumatoid factor (RF) and/or anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positivity, RA patients were categorized into seronegative and seropositive subgroups. Carotid PWV was determined to be significantly higher in all patients and subgroups than controls (p < .001 for all). Although cIMT was similar between the patients, controls and seropositive subgroup, seronegative patients had significantly higher cIMT compared to controls (p = .035) and seropositive group (p = .010). Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between cPWV and age (r: 0.603, p < .001), ESR (r: 0.297, p = .004), ACPA (r: 0.346, p = .001) and cIMT (r: 0.290, p = .005) in seropositive patients. RA per se is sufficient to cause arteriosclerosis in the absence of classical CV risk factors. However, arterial hypertrophy is only increased in seronegative patients but not in seropositive group.

  10. Candida colonization of the vagina of HIV-seropositive pregnant women and their seronegative counterparts at selected health-care centers in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Itohan Ebhodaghe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida colonization of the vagina is a risk factor in pregnancy. Candida isolates have been implicated in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The study determined the incidence of Candida species recovered from the vagina of HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative pregnant women that attended antenatal clinics in Akure, Ondo State between November 2014 and December 2015. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty pregnant women aged 19–43 participated in the study, which included 114 HIV-seropositive subjects with mean age 31.81 years and 126 HIV-seronegative subjects with mean age 29.05 years as controls. High vaginal swab was collected from each subject using sterile cotton-tipped applicator, streaked onto Mycological Agar - supplemented with streptomycin. Each sample was incubated 24 h for yeast and 72–120 h for the growth of molds. Yeast colonies that grew on Mycological Agar were picked and studied. Thereafter, colonies resembling Candida were identified using sugar assimilation and fermentation. Candida isolates were further speciated using Candida Ident Agar, modified. Antifungal resistance profile was identified with azoles, polyenes, echinocandins, flucytosine, and griseofulvin drugs. Antifungal resistant assay was determined by disc and agar well diffusion. Results: Altogether, 157 Candida isolates were recovered from HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative subjects. Candida albicans constituted 46.5%, Candida dubliniensis and Candida glabrata 15.3% each, Candida krusei 12.1%, Candida spp. 5.7%, and Candida tropicalis and Candida pseudotropicalis 2.5% each. Antifungal resistance was widespread with azoles, polyenes, echinocandins, flucytosine, and griseofulvin. Conclusion: C. albicans was the predominant isolate recovered (17.2% HIV-seropositive and 29.3% HIV-seronegative subjects. Widespread antifungal resistance seems high and suggests possible abuse of these drugs.

  11. Obesogenic dietary intake in families with 1-year-old infants at high and low obesity risk based on parental weight status: baseline data from a longitudinal intervention (Early STOPP)

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Viktoria; Sobko, Tanja; Ek, Anna; Forssén, Michaela; Ekbom, Kerstin; Johansson, Elin; Nowicka, Paulina; Westerståhl, Maria; Riserus, Ulf; Marcus, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare dietary intake in 1-year-old infants and their parents between families with high and low obesity risk, and to explore associations between infant dietary intake and relative weight. Methods Baseline analyses of 1-year-old infants (n = 193) and their parents participating in a longitudinal obesity intervention (Early STOPP) were carried out. Dietary intake and diet quality indicators were compared between high- and low-risk families, where obesity risk was based on parental...

  12. The effect of vernal solar UV radiation on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration depends on the baseline level: observations from a high latitude in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Toni; Ala-Houhala, Meri; Ylianttila, Lasse; Kautiainen, Hannu; Lakkala, Kaisa; Hannula, Henna-Reetta; Turunen, Esa; Viljakainen, Heli; Reunala, Timo; Snellman, Erna

    2017-01-01

    Humans obtain vitamin D from conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation or from dietary sources. As the radiation level is insufficient in winter, vitamin D deficiency is common at higher latitudes. We assessed whether vernal solar UVB radiation at latitudes 61°N and 67°N in Finland has an impact on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] concentrations. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers participated in outdoor activities in snow-covered terrain for 4-10 days in March or April, with their face and hands sun-exposed. The personal UVB doses and S-25(OH)D levels were monitored. A mean UVB dose of 11.8 standard erythema doses (SED) was received during an average of 12.3 outdoor hours. The mean S-25(OH)D concentration in subjects with a baseline concentration below 90.0 nmol/L (n=13) increased significantly, by 6.0 nmol/L from an initial mean of 62.4 nmol/L (pD levels in subjects with a baseline level below 90 nmol/L but not in those with higher levels.

  13. Associated risk factors for silent cerebral infarcts in sickle cell anemia: low baseline hemoglobin, sex, and relative high systolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBaun, Michael R; Sarnaik, Sharada A; Rodeghier, Mark J; Minniti, Caterina P; Howard, Thomas H; Iyer, Rathi V; Inusa, Baba; Telfer, Paul T; Kirby-Allen, Melanie; Quinn, Charles T; Bernaudin, Françoise; Airewele, Gladstone; Woods, Gerald M; Panepinto, Julie Ann; Fuh, Beng; Kwiatkowski, Janet K; King, Allison A; Rhodes, Melissa M; Thompson, Alexis A; Heiny, Mark E; Redding-Lallinger, Rupa C; Kirkham, Fenella J; Sabio, Hernan; Gonzalez, Corina E; Saccente, Suzanne L; Kalinyak, Karen A; Strouse, John J; Fixler, Jason M; Gordon, Mae O; Miller, J Phillip; Noetzel, Michael J; Ichord, Rebecca N; Casella, James F

    2012-04-19

    The most common form of neurologic injury in sickle cell anemia (SCA) is silent cerebral infarction (SCI). In the Silent Cerebral Infarct Multi-Center Clinical Trial, we sought to identify risk factors associated with SCI. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the clinical history and baseline laboratory values and performed magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in participants with SCA (HbSS or HbSβ° thalassemia) between the ages of 5 and 15 years with no history of overt stroke or seizures. Neuroradiology and neurology committees adjudicated the presence of SCI. SCIs were diagnosed in 30.8% (251 of 814) participants who completed all evaluations and had valid data on all prespecified demographic and clinical covariates. The mean age of the participants was 9.1 years, with 413 males (50.7%). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, lower baseline hemoglobin concentration (P blood pressure (P = .018), and male sex (P = .030) were statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of an SCI. Hemoglobin concentration and systolic blood pressure are risk factors for SCI in children with SCA and may be therapeutic targets for decreasing the risk of SCI. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00072761.

  14. Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzetto, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Following the discovery of neutrino oscillations by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration, recently awarded with the Nobel Prize, two generations of long baseline experiments had been setup to further study neutrino oscillations. The first generation experiments, K2K in Japan, Minos in the States and Opera in Europe, focused in confirming the Super-Kamiokande result, improving the precision with which oscillation parameters had been measured and demonstrating the ντ appearance process. Second generation experiments, T2K in Japan and very recently NOνA in the States, went further, being optimized to look for genuine three neutrino phenomena like non-zero values of θ13 and first glimpses to leptonic CP violation (LCPV) and neutrino mass ordering (NMO). The discovery of leptonic CP violation will require third generation setups, at the moment two strong proposals are ongoing, Dune in the States and Hyper-Kamiokande in Japan. This review will focus a little more in these future initiatives.

  15. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  16. The influence of previous infections and antichlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity on functional outcome in ischemic stroke patients: results from the IN2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Domenico; Vidale, Simone; Aguglia, Umberto; Bassi, Pietro; Cavallini, Anna; Consoli, Arturo; Galati, Franco; Guidetti, Donata; Micieli, Giuseppe; Neri, Giuseppe; Rasura, Maurizia; Sterzi, Roberto; Toni, Danilo; Inzitari, Domenico

    2015-05-01

    Although a growing attention is being paid to acute ischemic stroke patients, the correlation between clinical outcome and infectious events in this population has been poorly investigated. 749 ischemic stroke (mean age 71 years old, males 56%) patients were enrolled in this prospective case-control study by 11 Italian Stroke Units. Demographic data, vascular risk factors, previous infections and post-stroke infections (PSIs) were recorded. Blood samples were collected and the enzyme-linked immunoassay was chosen to measure Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG and IgA plasma antibodies (antibody titers were classified with specific cut-off levels: IgA > 1:16 and IgG > 1:64). Early poor outcome was defined as mRS score >2 at discharge, while poor outcome at 6-month follow-up. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Median NIHSS was 7, IgA and IgG antichlamydia pneumoniae seropositivities were observed in 308 (37.1%) and 207 (23.6%) patients, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed significant correlations between PSIs and NIHSS (RR: 1.06; 95% CI 1.02-1.09; p < 0.001) and PSIs and IgA antichlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity (RR: 3.84; 95% CI 2.53-5.84; p < 0.001). Significant disability was associated with baseline NIHSS (RR: 1.32; 95% CI 1.16-1.50; p < 0.001), IgA (RR: 2.67; 95% CI 1.06-6.70; p = 0.035) and IgG antichlamydia (RR: 5.75; 95% CI 1.83-18.03; p = 0.003) seropositivity and atrial fibrillation (RR: 2.58; 95% CI 1.81-3.67; p < 0.001). While previous infections were not associated with functional outcome, antichlamydia antibodies play a negative role in ischemic stroke patients. Preventive strategies may reduce the stroke burden and improve the clinical outcome.

  17. Immunosuppressive cytokine Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is up-regulated in high-grade CIN but not associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) at baseline, outcomes of HR-HPV infections or incident CIN in the LAMS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrjänen, Stina; Naud, Paulo; Sarian, Luis; Derchain, Sophie; Roteli-Martins, Cecilia; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Tatti, Silvio; Branca, Margherita; Erzen, Mojca; Hammes, L S; Costa, S; Syrjänen, Kari

    2009-12-01

    Bypassing the local immunological defense reactions in the cervix is one of the prerequisites for human papillomaviruses (HPV) infections to progress to intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The role of potent immunosuppressive cytokines, e.g., interleukin-10 (IL-10), depressing these local virus-specific immunological responses is incompletely studied. To assess, whether IL-10 expression in cervical HPV lesions has any implications in the outcome of HPV infections or disease progression to CIN. Baseline cervical biopsies from 225 women of the LAMS study sub-cohort were analyzed for IL-10 expression using immunohistochemistry, to assess its associations with CIN grade, and high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) at baseline, as well as in predicting outcomes of HR-HPV infections, and development of incident CIN1+ and CIN2+ in this longitudinal setting. Expression of IL-10 in cervical lesions was up-regulated most often in high-grade CIN, and IL-10 over-expression retained its value as independent predictor of CIN2+ (odds ratio (OR) = 4.92) and CIN3+ (OR = 7.51) also in multivariate model, including HR-HPV and several known covariates of IL-10 expression. Up-regulation was not related to HR-HPV detection, and showed no relationship to HR-HPV viral loads. Using longitudinal predictive indicators (SE, SP, PPV, NPV), IL-10 expression was of no value in predicting (1) the outcomes of HR-HPV infections, or (2) the surrogate endpoints (incident CIN1+, CIN2+) of progressive disease. IL-10 over-expression (along with HR-HPV) was one of the independent covariates of CIN2/3. This immunosuppressive cytokine might play an important role in creating a microenvironment that favors progressive cervical disease and immune evasion by HR-HPV.

  18. High-pass filters and baseline correction in M/EEG analysis. Commentary on: "How inappropriate high-pass filters can produce artefacts and incorrect conclusions in ERP studies of language and cognition".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maess, Burkhard; Schröger, Erich; Widmann, Andreas

    2016-06-15

    Tanner et al. (2015. Psychophysiology, 52(8), 1009. doi: 10.1111/psyp.12437) convincingly demonstrate how a late deflection like the N400 or the P600 is reflected into both earlier and later latencies by the application of high-pass filters with cutoff frequencies higher than 0.1Hz. It nicely underlines the importance of test-wise application of filters with different parameters to electrophysiological data to identify such unwanted filter effects. In general, we agree with their approach and conclusions, particularly with the notions that the application of a high-pass filter is reasonable if it improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the signal of interest, and that low frequency signals may carry important information. However, we disagree in two aspects: First, the test data of Tanner et al. are not optimally suited to demonstrate the benefits of high-pass filtering as they are only minimally contaminated by low frequency noise, and second, the standard baseline correction for particular applications in M/EEG data analysis should be replaced with high-pass filtering-as recommended by Widmann et al. (2015. J Neurosci Methods, 250, 46. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2014.08.002). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and validation of a clinical scoring system for predicting risk of HCC in asymptomatic individuals seropositive for anti-HCV antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hsuan Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of a risk assessment tool for long-term hepatocellular carcinoma risk would be helpful in identifying high-risk patients and providing information of clinical consultation. METHODS: The model derivation and validation cohorts consisted of 975 and 572 anti-HCV seropositives, respectively. The model included age, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, the ratio of aspirate aminotransferase to ALT, serum HCV RNA levels and cirrhosis status and HCV genotype. Two risk prediction models were developed: one was for all-anti-HCV seropositives, and the other was for anti-HCV seropositives with detectable HCV RNA. The Cox's proportional hazards models were utilized to estimate regression coefficients of HCC risk predictors to derive risk scores. The cumulative HCC risks in the validation cohort were estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods. The area under receiver operating curve (AUROC was used to evaluate the performance of the risk models. RESULTS: All predictors were significantly associated with HCC. The summary risk scores of two models derived from the derivation cohort had predictability of HCC risk in the validation cohort. The summary risk score of the two risk prediction models clearly divided the validation cohort into three groups (p<0.001. The AUROC for predicting 5-year HCC risk in the validation cohort was satisfactory for the two models, with 0.73 and 0.70, respectively. CONCLUSION: Scoring systems for predicting HCC risk of HCV-infected patients had good validity and discrimination capability, which may triage patients for alternative management strategies.

  20. The effect of vernal solar UV radiation on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration depends on the baseline level: observations from a high latitude in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Toni; Ala-Houhala, Meri; Ylianttila, Lasse; Kautiainen, Hannu; Lakkala, Kaisa; Hannula, Henna-Reetta; Turunen, Esa; Viljakainen, Heli; Reunala, Timo; Snellman, Erna

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Humans obtain vitamin D from conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation or from dietary sources. As the radiation level is insufficient in winter, vitamin D deficiency is common at higher latitudes. We assessed whether vernal solar UVB radiation at latitudes 61°N and 67°N in Finland has an impact on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] concentrations. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers participated in outdoor activities in snow-covered terrain for 4–10 days in March or April, with their face and hands sun-exposed. The personal UVB doses and S-25(OH)D levels were monitored. A mean UVB dose of 11.8 standard erythema doses (SED) was received during an average of 12.3 outdoor hours. The mean S-25(OH)D concentration in subjects with a baseline concentration below 90.0 nmol/L (n=13) increased significantly, by 6.0 nmol/L from an initial mean of 62.4 nmol/L (p<0.001), whereas in those with a basal concentration above 90.0 nmol/L (n=12) it decreased significantly, by 6.7 nmol/L from a mean of 116.9 nmol/L (p<0.01). To conclude, only 7% of total body surface area was exposed to vernal sunlight and this was capable of increasing S-25(OH)D levels in subjects with a baseline level below 90 nmol/L but not in those with higher levels.

  1. Persistent seropositivity for yellow fever in a previously vaccinated autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Kayoko; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Tsunemine, Hiroko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Mawatari, Momoko; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Kei; Ohmagari, Norio; Kato, Yasuyuki

    2015-08-01

    The duration of a protective level of yellow fever antibodies after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a previously vaccinated person is unclear. The case of a patient who had previously been vaccinated for yellow fever and who remained seropositive for 22 months after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for malignant lymphoma is described herein.

  2. predictors of cd4+ lymphocyte count among hiv-seropositive and hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-04-04

    Apr 4, 2000 ... psycho-social impact of HIV-seropositivity among women ... CD4+ lymphocyte measurements, we collected duplicate blood ... Laboratory methods: Blood for HIV testing and T- ..... stronger associations in patients with advanced disease(4). .... Standardization, quality control, and normal values in the ...

  3. Serotonin modulates immune function in T cells from HIV-seropositive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, J; Afzelius, P; Andresen, L

    1997-01-01

    We have shown earlier increased intracellular levels of cAMP in peripheral lymphocytes from HIV-seropositive subjects and that a chemically induced decrease in this level increases cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. Others have shown that serotonin indirectly decreases intracellular cAMP levels...

  4. Prevention for HIV-Seropositive Persons: Successive Approximation Toward a New Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Marguerita; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Swendeman, Dallas

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a three-module intervention based on social action theory that focuses on health promotion and social identity formation for seropositive youth. The modules are designed to reduce transmission of HIV by reducing sexual and substance abuse acts, increasing healthy acts and adherence to care, and maintaining positive behavioral…

  5. HTLV-I/II and blood donors: determinants associated with seropositivity in a low risk population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Catalan Soares

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Blood donors in Brazil have been routinely screened for HTLV-I/II since 1993. A study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HTLV-I/II infection in a low risk population and to better understand determinants associated with seropositivity. METHODS: HTLV-I/II seropositive (n=135, indeterminate (n=167 and seronegative blood donors (n=116 were enrolled in an open prevalence prospective cohort study. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of positive, indeterminate and seronegative HTLV-I/II subjects was conducted to assess behavioral and environmental risk factors for seropositivity. HTLV-I/II serological status was confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA and Western blot (WB. RESULTS: The three groups were not homogeneous. HTLV-I/II seropositivity was associated to past blood transfusion and years of schooling, a marker of socioeconomic status, and use of non-intravenous illegal drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The study results reinforce the importance of continuous monitoring and improvement of blood donor selection process.

  6. Trends in HIV seropositivity among young adults in the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trends in HIV seropositivity among young adults in the Niger Delta of ... a cosmopolitan city in the Niger Delta, the heart of the oil and gas industry in Nigeria. ... and social changes coupled with the provision of youth friendly health services.

  7. In rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with tocilizumab, the rate of clinical disease activity index (CDAI) remission at 24 weeks is superior in those with higher titers of IgM-rheumatoid factor at baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashiri, Shin-Ya; Kawakami, Atsushi; Iwamoto, Naoki; Fujikawa, Keita; Aramaki, Toshiyuki; Tamai, Mami; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Hideki; Origuchi, Tomoki; Ueki, Yukitaka; Migita, Kiyoshi; Mizokami, Akinari; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Katsumi

    2011-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of tocilizumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), using the clinical disease activity index (CDAI), and to determine the baseline variables associated with CDAI remission. Fifty-eight patients with active RA were enrolled. We tried to evaluate whether baseline variables were associated with CDAI remission at 24 weeks. Twenty-two of the 58 patients (37.9%) had received tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors. The continuation rate of tocilizumab at 24 weeks was 87.9%. The seropositivity rates of IgM-rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies at baseline were both 91.4%. The rate of CDAI remission at 24 weeks was 20.7%. We selected baseline variables including age, gender, duration of disease, concomitant use of glucocorticoids, concomitant use of methotrexate (MTX), previous anti-TNF therapy, titer of anti-CCP antibodies (high or low toward median), titer of IgM-RF (high or low toward median), and CDAI, and found that a high titer of IgM-RF was the only variable to be associated with CDAI remission, according to univariate and logistic regression analyses. This is a new finding, and may be specific to tocilizumab as compared with previous observations in anti-TNF therapy.

  8. Statin use in adults at high risk of cardiovascular disease mortality: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Catriona

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to examine the extent to which statins are used by adults at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to European clinical guidelines. The high-risk groups examined are those with (1) known CVD, (2) known diabetes and (3) a high or very high risk (≥5%) of CVD mortality based on Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE).

  9. Hantavirus seropositivity in rodents in relation to habitat heterogeneity in human-shaped landscapes of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasdell, Kim; Morand, Serge; Henttonen, Heikki; Tran, Annelise; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    To establish how the conversion of natural habitats for agricultural purposes may impact the distribution of hantaviruses in Southeast Asia, we tested how habitat structure affects hantavirus infection prevalence of common murine rodents that inhabit human-dominated landscapes in this region. For this, we used geo-referenced data of rodents analysed for hantavirus infection and land cover maps produced for the seven study sites in Thailand, Cambodia and Lao PDR where they were collected. Rodents were tested by serological methods that detect several hantaviruses, including pathogenic ones. Rodents with a seropositive status were more likely to be found near to agriculture on steep land, and also in environments with a high proportion of agriculture on steep land. These results suggest that in Southeast Asia, hantaviruses, which are often associated with generalist rodent species with a preference for agricultural land, may benefit from land conversion to agriculture.

  10. Risk Factors for Physical Domestic Violence in a High-Prevalence HIV Setting: Findings from Project Accept Baseline Data (HPTN-043).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian; Woelk, Godfrey; Shade, Starley B; Kulich, Michal; Turan, Janet M; Chingono, Alfred; Morin, Stephen F

    2013-06-25

    Zimbabwe faces an acute generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic combined with rapidly deteriorating economic and political conditions, under which levels of domestic violence are on the rise. We aimed to determine possible demographic and behavioral factors associated with physical domestic violence in a rural setting in order to better inform both national and local domestic violence and HIV prevention policies. Using the Project Accept baseline data set, we selected demographic, socio-economic, and behavioral variables that might be associated with physical domestic violence based on a review of the literature. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out, and odds ratios (OR) were computed using logistic regression. Women reporting physical domestic violence were significantly more likely to report (i) a history of childhood domestic violence (OR=2.96, Peconomic status as measured by type of homestead (OR=1.4, P=0.04) than women who reported no experience of physical domestic violence. Married women were less likely to experience physical domestic violence than unmarried women (OR=0.65, P=0.011). Women at greatest risk of domestic violence include those with a personal history of violence or sexual abuse, multiple lifetime partners, and low or medium socio-economic status. Risk assessments and joint interventions for both domestic violence reduction and HIV prevention should target these population groups, which are effective both on the public health and global heath diplomacy levels.

  11. Polarimetric Observations of 15 Active Galactic Nuclei at High Frequencies: Jet Kinematics from Bimonthly Monitoring with the Very Long Baseline Array

    CERN Document Server

    Jorstad, S G; Lister, M L; Stirling, A M; Cawthorne, T V; Gear, W K; Gómez, J L; Stevens, J A; Smith, P S; Forster, J R; Gabuzda, D C; Robson, E I; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Marscher, Alan P.; Lister, Matthew L.; Stirling, Alastair M.; Cawthorne, Timothy V.; Gear, Walter K.; Gomez, Jose L.; Stevens, Jason A.; Smith, Paul S.; Forster, James R.; Gabuzda, Denise C.

    2005-01-01

    We present total and polarized intensity images of 15 active galactic nuclei obtained with the Very Long Baseline Array at 7 mm at 17 epochs from 1998 March to 2001 April. At some epochs the images are accompanied by nearly simultaneous polarization measurements at 3 mm, 1.35/0.85 mm, and optical wavelengths. Here we analyze the 7 mm images to define the properties of the jets of two radio galaxies, five BL Lac objects, and eight quasars on angular scales $\\gtrsim 0.1$ milliarcseconds. We determine the apparent velocities of 109 features in the jets; for many of the features we derive Doppler factors using a new method based on comparison of timescale of decline in flux density with the light-travel time across the emitting region. This allows us to estimate the Lorentz factors, intrinsic brightness temperatures, and viewing angles of 77 superluminal knots, as well as the opening angle of the jet for each source. We analyze the derived physical parameters of the jets. In nine sources we detect statistically m...

  12. Impact of PGL-I seropositivity on the protective effect of BCG vaccination among leprosy contacts: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia C Düppre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Contacts of leprosy patients are at increased risk of developing leprosy and need to be targeted for early diagnosis. Seropositivity to the phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I antigen of Mycobacterium leprae has been used to identify contacts who have an increased risk of developing leprosy. In the present study, we studied the effect of seropositivity in patient contacts, on the risk of developing leprosy, stratified by Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG vaccination after index case diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Leprosy contacts were examined as part of the surveillance programme of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute Leprosy Outpatient Clinic in Rio de Janeiro. Demographic, social, epidemiological and clinical data were collected. The presence of IgM antibodies to PGL-I in sera and BCG vaccination status at the time of index case diagnosis were evaluated in 2,135 contacts. During follow-up, 60 (2.8%; 60/2,135 leprosy cases were diagnosed: 41 among the 1,793 PGL-I-negative contacts and 19 among the 342 PGL-I-positive contacts. Among PGL-I-positive contacts, BCG vaccination after index case diagnosis increased the adjusted rate of developing clinical manifestations of leprosy (Adjusted Rate Ratio (aRR = 4.1; 95% CI: 1.8-8.2 compared with the PGL-I-positive unvaccinated contacts (aRR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2-8.1. The incidence density was highest during the first year of follow-up for the PGL-I-positive vaccinated contacts. However, all of those contacts developed PB leprosy, whereas most MB cases (4/6 occurred in PGL-I-positive unvaccinated contacts. CONCLUSION: Contact examination combined with PGL-I testing and BCG vaccination remain important strategies for leprosy control. The finding that rates of leprosy cases were highest among seropositive contacts justifies targeting this specific group for close monitoring. Furthermore, it is recommended that PGL-I-positive contacts and contacts with a high familial bacteriological index

  13. Association of conjunctival and corneal calcification with vascular calcification among hepatitis-C-seropositive hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled AbouSeif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disorders associated with the hepatitis C virus (HCV have been reported including cardiovascular, metabolic, and central nervous system diseases. Since chronic HCV infections may be curable, their identification as causal contributors to cardiovascular risk could offer new perspectives in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between HCV and aortic arch calcification (AAC and corneal and conjunctival calcification (CCC in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD patients; further, we assessed the correlation of CCC with vascular calcification. A total of 100 patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD in our hospital were included in this study. Patients underwent a complete ocular examination including intraocular pressure, and CCC was looked for by slit lamp and fundoscopy. CCC was graded according to modified Porter and Crombie classification system described by Tokuyama et al. Helical computerized tomographic chest examination was used to evaluate the grading of AAC. Demographic, hematological, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were obtained. There was significant difference between seropositive (n = 51 and seronegative patients (n = 49 regarding grading of AAC and CCC (P <0.001. Significant positive correlation was found between grading of CCC, AAC, age (P <0.001, duration on HD (P <0.001, HCV-antibody positivity (P <0.001, serum calcium level (P <0.001, serum phosphorus level (P <0.001, calcium × phosphorus product (P <0.001, and i-parathormone level (P < 0.001. In addition, CCC grading positively correlated with AAC. Our results suggest that patients undergoing HD infected with the HCV have high degree of CCC, AAC, and mineral metabolism disorder. The strong correlation between CCC and AAC indicates that CCC evaluation is an easy, fast, non-invasive method, and might be used as an indirect indicator to detect vascular calcification in patients undergoing MHD.

  14. A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF HPV16 L1, E6 AND E7 SEROPOSITIVITY AND ORAL HPV16 INFECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachler, Daniel C.; Viscidi, Raphael; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Minkoff, Howard; Strickler, Howard D.; Cranston, Ross D.; Wiley, Dorothy J.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Reddy, Susheel; Gillison, Maura L.; D’Souza, Gypsyamber

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with HPV infections can develop IgG antibodies to HPV proteins including the L1 capsid and E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Evidence on whether L1 antibodies reduce the risk of cervical HPV infection is mixed, but this has not been explored for oral HPV infections. Antibodies to HPV16’s E6 oncoprotein have been detected in some oropharyngeal cancer cases years prior to cancer diagnosis, but it is unknown if these antibodies are associated with oral HPV16 DNA. Methods Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays tested for serum antibodies to HPV16’s L1 capsid in 463 HIV-infected and 293 HIV-uninfected adults, and for antibodies to recombinantly expressed E6 and E7 oncoproteins to HPV16 in 195 HIV-infected and 69 HIV-uninfected cancer-free participants at baseline. Oral rinse samples were collected semi-annually for up to three years and tested for HPV DNA using PGMY 09/11 primers. Adjusted Poisson, logistic, and Wei-Lin-Weissfeld regression models were utilized. Results HPV16 L1 seroreactivity did not reduce the subsequent risk of incident oral HPV16 infection in unadjusted (HR=1.4, 95%CI=0.59–3.3) or adjusted (aHR=1.1, 95%CI=0.41–3.0) analysis. Antibodies to HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins were detected in 7.6% and 3.4% of participants respectively, but they were not associated with baseline oral HPV16 DNA prevalence or oral HPV16 persistence (each p-value>0.40). Conclusions Naturally acquired HPV16 L1 antibodies did not reduce the risk of subsequent oral HPV16 infection. HPV16 E6 and E7 seropositivity was not a marker for oral HPV16 infection in this population without HPV-related cancer. PMID:25585068

  15. Risk factors for physical domestic violence in a high-prevalence HIV setting: findings from Project Accept baseline data (HPTN-043

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kevany

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zimbabwe faces an acute generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic combined with rapidly deteriorating economic and political conditions, under which levels of domestic violence are on the rise. We aimed to determine possible demographic and behavioral factors associated with physical domestic violence in a rural setting in order to better inform both national and local domestic violence and HIV prevention policies. Using the Project Accept baseline data set, we selected demographic, socio-economic, and behavioral variables that might be associated with physical domestic violence based on a review of the literature. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out, and odds ratios (OR were computed using logistic regression. Women reporting physical domestic violence were significantly more likely to report (i a history of childhood domestic violence (OR=2.96, P<0.001, (ii two or more lifetime partners (OR=1.94, P<0.001, (iii some form of sexual abuse as a child (OR=1.82, not significant, and (iv low or medium socio-economic status as measured by type of homestead (OR=1.4, P=0.04 than women who reported no experience of physical domestic violence. Married women were less likely to experience physical domestic violence than unmarried women (OR=0.65, P=0.011. Women at greatest risk of domestic violence include those with a personal history of violence or sexual abuse, multiple lifetime partners, and low or medium socio-economic status. Risk assessments and joint interventions for both domestic violence reduction and HIV prevention should target these population groups, which are effective both on the public health and global heath diplomacy levels.

  16. Prevalence of seropositivity to pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus in the United States following the 2009 pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Reed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (A(H1N1pdm09 was first detected in the United States in April 2009 and resulted in a global pandemic. We conducted a serologic survey to estimate the cumulative incidence of A(H1N1pdm09 through the end of 2009 when pandemic activity had waned in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a pair of cross sectional serologic surveys before and after the spring/fall waves of the pandemic for evidence of seropositivity (titer ≥40 using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay. We tested a baseline sample of 1,142 serum specimens from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, and 2,759 serum specimens submitted for routine screening to clinical diagnostic laboratories from ten representative sites. RESULTS: The age-adjusted prevalence of seropositivity to A(H1N1pdm09 by year-end 2009 was 36.9% (95%CI: 31.7-42.2%. After adjusting for baseline cross-reactive antibody, pandemic vaccination coverage and the sensitivity/specificity of the HI assay, we estimate that 20.2% (95%CI: 10.1-28.3% of the population was infected with A(H1N1pdm09 by December 2009, including 53.3% (95%CI: 39.0-67.1% of children aged 5-17 years. CONCLUSIONS: By December 2009, approximately one-fifth of the US population, or 61.9 million persons, may have been infected with A(H1N1pdm09, including around half of school-aged children.

  17. Hanford Site technical baseline database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, P.E.

    1996-09-30

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of September 30, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that dellinate the differences between this revision and revision 4 (May 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.

  18. Hanford Site technical baseline database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, P.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-10

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of May 10, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 3 (April 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.

  19. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  20. A European longitudinal study in Salmonella seronegative and seropositive-classified finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dahl, J.; Wingstrand, Anne;

    2004-01-01

    in pig herds. For this purpose, 17 finishing pig herds initially classified as seropositive and 15 as seronegative, were followed for a 2-year period through serological and bacteriological sampling. The study included 10 herds from Denmark, 13 from The Netherlands, 4 from Germany and 5 from Sweden...... and was performed between October 1996 and May 1999. The Salmonella status of finishing pig herds was determined by an initial blood sampling of approximately 50 finishing pigs close to market weight per herd. The development of the Salmonella status of the selected herds was assessed at seven subsequent sampling.......0, 95 % CI 3.2-32.8). When Salmonella was isolated from pen faecal samples, the herd was more likely to be classified seropositive in the same sampling round, compared to no Salmonella being detected (OR 4.0, 95 % CI 1.1-14.6). The stability of an initially allocated Salmonella status was found to vary...

  1. The importance of serial immunoglobulin evaluations in HIV-seropositive haemophiliacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, M; Sartori, M T; Zerbinati, P; Girolami, A

    1993-01-01

    The aim of our investigation was to evaluate whether the alteration of immunoglobulins (Igs) may be a predictive marker of the evolution of HIV infection in seropositive haemophiliacs. For this purpose two groups of haemophiliac patients (16 seronegative and 21 seropositive) were compared to evaluate the variations of the Ig profile over a period of 5 years (1985-1989). The two populations were similar for the number of transfusions of blood products and for the severity of post-transfusional hepatic disorders. The IgM increase, in the first stages of HIV infection, appears to be more discriminant than polyclonal elevation of IgG, which is already present in seronegative polytransfused haemophiliac patients.

  2. Predictors of Depression among Seropositive Batswana Men and Women: A Descriptive Correlational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Christopher Lance

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to describe predictors of depressive symptoms among N=70 seropositive Botswana men and women residing in Gaborne, Botswana. A demographic questionnaire, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, (CESD-D), and the SF-36 [Quality of life] were administered. The questionnaires were translated and back translated in Setswana and administered by Batswana men and women. The results of the regression analyses resulted in two calculated models. In the first Model energy/fatigue explained 46% of the variance in depressive symptoms (P=.000), and in the second Model energy/fatigue and role limitations on emotional well-being explained 50% of the variance in depressive symptoms respectively. The study findings underscore the need for mental health services for seropositive Batswana men and women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimating the abortion risk difference in Neospora caninum seropositive dairy cattle in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Romero Nicolino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neosporosis in cattle herds is associated with large economic losses, with abortion being the only clinical sign perceptible to the producer. Losses are estimated at over one billion dollars worldwide. This study aimed to estimate the abortion risk difference in seropositive animals using specific data for dairy herds in Brazil. Differences in the risk of abortion between seropositive and seronegative animals were calculated through a meta-analysis of previous data from several Brazilian states, and an increase of 10.04% (0.091 to 0.118 in the specific risk was identified. This finding indicates that more than 474,000 abortions caused by neosporosis may be occurring only in dairy cattle herds in Brazil, causing a major economic loss in the milk production chain. The use of this specific measure for Brazilian herds opens the possibility of developing cost-benefit analysis for neosporosis in Brazil using data that are more reliable

  4. Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity and Childhood Neurodevelopment, the Rhea Birth Cohort in Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachaliou, Marianna; Chatzi, Leda; Michel, Angelika; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Kampouri, Mariza; Koutra, Katerina; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Pawlita, Michael; Waterboer, Tim; Kogevinas, Manolis; de Sanjose, Silvia

    2017-07-01

    Limited evidence exists on the association between exposure to Helicobacter pylori infection early in life, including fetal life, and neurodevelopment in childhood. We used prospective data on 352 mother-child pairs and cross-sectional data on 674 children to assess the association of maternal and child's H. pylori seropositivity correspondingly on child's neurodevelopment at age four in the Rhea birth cohort in Crete, Greece. Blood levels of immunoglobulin G antibodies to 12 H. pylori proteins were measured using multiplex serology. Child's neurodevelopment at age four was assessed using the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Linear regression models were used to explore the associations after adjusting for potential confounders. Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence (95% CI) in cord blood, representing maternal status, was 41.5% (36.3%, 46.8%) and in 4 years old children was 6.5% (95% CI 4.8%, 8.7%). Children of H. pylori seropositive mothers had lower score in the general cognitive (-3.87, 95% CI -7.02, -0.72), verbal (-2.96, 95% CI -6.08, 0.15), perceptual performance (-3.37, 95% CI -6.60, -0.15), quantitative (-2.85, 95% CI -6.28, 0.58), and memory scale (-3.37, 95% CI -6.67, -0.07) compared to those of seronegative mothers. Seropositivity in cord blood specifically to GroEl and NapA - two of the 12 H. pylori proteins investigated - was associated with lower scores in almost all scales. At age four, H. pylori seropositive children performed worst in neurodevelopment assessment compared to their seronegative counterparts although no association reached statistically significant level. Helicobacter pylori infection in early life may be an important but preventable risk factor for poor neurodevelopment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Association of HCV Core Antigen Seropositivity with Long-Term Mortality in Patients on Regular Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Kato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV antibody seropositivity is independently associated with poor prognosis in hemodialysis (HD patients. However, anti-HCV antibody cannot distinguish between patients with active infection and those who have recovered from infection. We therefore aimed in this study to examine the association of HCV core antigen (HCVcAg seropositivity with mortality in HD patients. We first measured serum HCVcAg using an immunoradiometric assay and anti-HCV antibody in 405 patients on regular HD, and followed them for 104 months. There were 82 patients (20.2% who had been positive for anti-HCV antibodies; 57 (69.5% of these were positive for HCVcAg. During the follow-up, 29 patients were excluded, so we tested the association of HCVcAg seropositivity with all-cause, cardiovascular (CV and non-CV mortalities in 376 patients. A total of 209 patients (55.6% had expired during the observational period, 92 out of them due to CV causes. After adjusting for comorbid parameters, HCVcAg was independently associated with overall mortality (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.05–2.47, p < 0.05. HCV infection was significantly related to liver disease-related mortality. Past HCV infection also contributed to CV mortality (HR 2.63, 95% CI 1.27–5.45, p < 0.01. In contrast, anti-HCV antibody and HCVcAg seropositivities did not associate with infectious disease-related and cancer-related (expect for hepatocellular carcinoma mortality. It follows from these findings that HCVcAg serology is associated with all-cause and CV mortality in HD patients.

  6. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum seropositivity in buffaloes in Paraiba State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Willian de Lima Brasil

    Full Text Available Abstract The aims of this survey were to determine the frequency of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies and to identify the risk factors associated with seropositivity among buffaloes in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. This survey included 136 buffaloes belonging to 14 herds. To detect anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum antibodies, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT was used. Among the 136 samples analyzed, 17 (12.5% were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies with titers ranging from 64 to 1,024, and 26 (19.1% for anti-N. caninum with titers from 200 to 1,600. Animals seropositive for both T. gondii and N. caninum were found in 10 of the 14 herds (71.4%. Semi-intensive management systems (odds ratio = 2.99 and presence of pigs (odds ratio = 4.33 were identified as risk factors for T. gondii and N. caninum, respectively. It can be suggested that T. gondii and N. caninum are widespread in buffaloes in Paraíba, and that additional surveys are needed in order to ascertain the importance of these agents for this species and for pigs, and the influence of the farming type on occurrences of seropositive animals.

  7. Prevalence of HIV and VDRL seropositivity in blood donors of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bharat; Verma, Monika; Kotru, Mrinalini; Verma, Karttikaye; Batra, Madhu

    2005-09-01

    Blood transfusion has been the transmission mechanism in 15 per cent of total patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A few reports are available regarding the trend of HIV seropositivity in northern India. Prevalence of VDRL (venereal disease research laboratory) reactivity varies from 0.8-15 per cent in blood donors. We present data on the prevalence and trends of infection with HIV 1 and 2 and VDRL reactivity in blood donors in Delhi. Between 2000-2002, a total of 76089 (voluntary and replacement) donors were screened. Majority (82.4%) were replacement donors. Seropositivity for HIV and VDRL was seen in 0.54 and 2.6 per cent of donors respectively. The percentage of seropositivity for HIV and VDRL was significantly higher in replacement donors (P<0.001). It is suggested that extensive donor selection and a voluntary donor service would reduce the number of infectious donors significantly. Non-renumerated repeat voluntary donor services are urgently required to lower the prevalence of transmissible infections. While the need to change to a voluntary donor service and devising effective donor screening cannot be over emphasized, there is also a need to mandate HIV antigen detection in India.

  8. Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-27

    PNNL developed a new tool for oscillation analysis and baselining. This tool has been developed under a new DOE Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium (GMLC) Project (GM0072 - “Suite of open-source applications and models for advanced synchrophasor analysis”) and it is based on the open platform for PMU analysis. The Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool (OBAT) performs the oscillation analysis and identifies modes of oscillations (frequency, damping, energy, and shape). The tool also does oscillation event baselining (fining correlation between oscillations characteristics and system operating conditions).

  9. Comparison of prevalence factors in horses with and without seropositivity to Neospora hughesi and/or Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusterla, Nicola; Tamez-Trevino, Eva; White, Alexandria; Vangeem, Joshua; Packham, Andrea; Conrad, Patricia A; Kass, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a commonly diagnosed neurological disease of horses in North America and is caused by infection with Sarcocystis neurona or Neospora hughesi. The aim of this study was to compare prevalence factors among horses seropositive or seronegative to N. hughesi and/or S. neurona. A total of 3123 submissions were included in the study, with horses originating from 49 States. Thirty-eight animals from 21 States tested seropositive for N. hughesi only, 840 horses from 40 States were seropositive for S. neurona only, 25 horses from 14 States were seropositive for both protozoa, and 2220 horses from 49 States tested seronegative for both parasites. Significant associations were found between geographical location (State), month of submission, breed and serological status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chandra Shrestha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV, HBV, Syphilis and HCV share common modes of transmission. Objective: The study was aimed to determine the co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors. Methods: The study was conducted on blood samples screened as HCV seropositive at Nepal Red Cross Society, Central Blood Transfusion Service, Kathmandu, Nepal. HCV seropositive samples were further tested for HIV, HBV and Syphilis. Results: Eight co-infections were observed in 139 HCV seropositives with total co-infection rate of 5.75% (95% CI = 2.52-11.03. Conclusion: Co-infection of HIV, HBV and Syphilis with HCV is prevalent in the healthy looking blood donors of Kathmandu, Nepal.

  11. Leptospira seroprevalence and associations between seropositivity, clinical disease and host factors in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engvall E Olsson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of different serovars of Leptospira spp. and their association with clinical disease and host factors in Swedish horses. Methods Sera from 2017 horses brought to equine clinics during 1997–98 were investigated. The sera were examined by microscopic agglutination test for the presence of antibodies against the following L. interrogans serovars: Bratislava strain Jez, Icterohaemorrhagiae strain Kantorowicz and Pomona strain Pomona and also L. kirschneri sv Grippotyphosa strain Duyster and L. borgpetersenii sv Sejroe strain M 84. Host factors, disease factors, season, pasture access and outdoor confinement variables were analysed with respect to seropositivity to sv Bratislava and Icterohaemorrhagiae. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model seropositivity to sv Bratislava and Icterohaemorrhagiae (seroprevalence > 8%. Results The seroprevalence, at a cut-off 1:100, were for sv Bratislava (16.6%, Icterohaemorrhagiae (8.3%, Sejroe (1.2%, Pomona (0.5% and Grippotyphosa (0.4%. In the multivariable analysis, it was demonstrated that seroprevalence increased with age for sv Bratislava and Icterohaemorrhagiae. For sv Bratislava the seasons April – June and October – December and for sv Icterohaemorrhagiae October – December had higher seroprevalences than other seasons. Horses not used for racing had higher levels of seropositivity to sv Bratislava. Furthermore, horses with respiratory problems as well as horses with fatigue had higher levels of seropositivity to sv Bratislava. Ponies and coldbloods, and horses with access to pasture, had lower seroprevalence for sv Icterohaemorrhagiae. Healthy horses had lower seroprevalence for sv Icterohaemorrhagiae, than non-healthy horses. Conclusion There was no significant association between clinical signs and disease and positive titres to sv Bratislava (except for the association between respiratory

  12. Quivira NWR biological baseline data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset is biological baseline data for Quivira National Wildlife Refuge as of January 2016. It contains data on species found on the refuge, when and where...

  13. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  14. Potential demographic and baselines variables for risk stratification of high-risk post-myocardial infarction patients in the era of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator - a prognostic indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yap, Yee Guan; Duong, Trinh; Bland, Martin

    2008-01-01

    , sex, previous MI or angina, hypertension, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, NYHA functional class and non-Q wave infarct on electrocardiogram. Distinct survival curves were obtained for 3 risk groups based on the median and inter-quartile range for the prognostic index. In the high-risk......BACKGROUND: Risk stratification after myocardial infarction (MI) remains expensive and disappointing. We designed a prognostic indicator using demographic information to select patients at risk of dying after MI. METHOD AND RESULTS: We combined individual patient data from the placebo arms of EMIAT......, CAMIAT, TRACE and DIAMOND-MI with LVEF 10 ventricular premature beats/hour or a run of ventricular tachycardia). Risk factors for mortality beginning at day 45 post-MI up to 2 years were examined using Cox regression analysis. Risk scores were derived from the equation of a Cox regression model...

  15. Hypertension and obesity as cardiovascular risk factors among HIV seropositive patients in Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald S Bloomfield

    Full Text Available There is increased risk of cardiovascular disease among HIV seropositive individuals. The prevalence of HIV is highest in sub-Saharan Africa; however, HIV-related cardiovascular risk research is largely derived from developed country settings. Herein, we describe the prevalence of hypertension and obesity in a large HIV treatment program in Kenya.We performed a retrospective analysis of the electronic medical records of a large HIV treatment program in Western Kenya between 2006 and 2009. We calculated the prevalence of hypertension and obesity among HIV+ adults as well as utilized multiple logistic regression analyses to examine the relationship between clinical characteristics, HIV-related characteristics, and hypertension.Our final sample size was 12,194. The median systolic/diastolic blood pressures were similar for both sexes (male: 110/70 mmHg, female: 110/70 mmHg. The prevalence of hypertension among men and women were 11.2% and 7.4%, respectively. Eleven percent of men and 22.6% of women were overweight/obese (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2. Ordinal logistic regression analyses showed that overweight/obesity was more strongly associated with hypertension among HIV+ men (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.88-3.09 than a higher successive age category (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.40-1.87 comparing 16-35, 36-45 and >45 years categories. Among women, higher age category and overweight/obesity were most strongly associated with hypertension (age category: OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.95-2.50, overweight/obesity: OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.50-2.16. Length of time on protease inhibitors was not found to be related to hypertension for men (OR 1.62, 95% CI 0.42-6.20 or women (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.37-2.65 after adjustment for CD4 count, age and BMI.In Western Kenya, there is a high prevalence of hypertension and overweight/obesity among HIV+ patients with differences observed between men and women. The care of HIV+ patients in sub-Saharan Africa should also include both identification and

  16. The baseline characteristics and interim analyses of the high-risk sentinel cohort of the Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic InfectiONS (VIZIONS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J; Tue, Ngo T; Bryant, Juliet E; Saylors, Karen; Cuong, Nguyen V; Hoa, Ngo T; An, Nguyen N; Hien, Vo B; Lao, Pham V; Tu, Nguyen C; Chuyen, Nguyen K; Chuc, Nguyen T K; Tan, Dinh V; Duong, Hoang Van V; Toan, Tran K; Chi, Nguyen T Y; Campbell, James; Rabaa, Maia A; Nadjm, Behzad; Woolhouse, Mark; Wertheim, Heiman; Thwaites, Guy; Baker, Stephen

    2015-12-10

    The Vietnam Initiative for Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS) includes community-based 'high-risk sentinel cohort' (HRSC) studies investigating individuals at risk of zoonotic infection due to occupational or residential exposure to animals. A total of 852 HRSC members were recruited between March 2013 and August 2014 from three provinces (Ha Noi, Dak Lak, and Dong Thap). The most numerous group (72.8%) corresponded to individuals living on farms, followed by slaughterers (16.3%) and animal health workers (8.5%). Nasal/pharyngeal and rectal swabs were collected from HRSC members at recruitment and after notifying illness. Exposure to exotic animals (including wild pigs, porcupine, monkey, civet, bamboo rat and bat) was highest for the Dak Lak cohort (53.7%), followed by Ha Noi (13.7%) and Dong Thap (4.0%). A total of 26.8% of individuals reported consumption of raw blood over the previous year; 33.6% slaughterers reported no use of protective equipment at work. Over 686 person-years of observation, 213 episodes of suspect infectious disease were notified, equivalent of 0.35 reports per person-year. Responsive samples were collected from animals in the farm cohort. There was noticeable time and space clustering of disease episodes suggesting that the VIZIONS set up is also suitable for the formal epidemiological investigation of disease outbreaks.

  17. Partner awareness of the serostatus of HIV-seropositive men who have sex with men: impact on unprotected sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Trevor A; Wolitski, Richard J; Purcell, David W; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Gómez, Cynthia A

    2005-06-01

    Prior research has provided conflicting evidence about the association between partner awareness of an HIV-seropositive person's serostatus and HIV transmission behavior via unprotected intercourse. The current study examined partner awareness of participant HIV-seropositive status and sexual behavior in a multiethnic sample of HIV-seropositive men who have sex with men. Most HIV-seropositive men reported that their primary partners are aware, and most reported that at least some non-primary partners are aware the participant was HIV-seropositive before first having sex. Partner awareness of participant HIV-serostatus was related to unprotected sexual behavior during the past 3 months in a non-linear fashion, as men with partners who were inconsistently aware had higher rates of unprotected receptive anal intercourse than men with partners who were consistently aware or consistently unaware. Men with partners who were inconsistently aware also had higher rates of insertive oral intercourse than men with partners who were consistently aware. However, there were no differences in HIV transmission risk behavior between men with partners who were consistently aware and men with partners who were consistently unaware a participant was HIV-seropositive.

  18. O Blood Group as a Risk Factor for Helicobacter Pylori IgG Seropositivity Among Pregnant Sudanese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasim, Gasim I; Elmugabil, Abdelmageed; Hamdan, Hamdan Z; Rayis, Duria A; Adam, Ishag

    2017-06-07

    The objective was to investigate the prevalence and the association between blood groups and Helicobacter pylori IgG seropositivity among pregnant Sudanese women. A cross-sectional survey was carried-out at Saad Abul Ela Maternity Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan during the period of July 2014 through December 2015. Questionnaires covering socio-demographic and obstetrics information were administered. Specific H. pylori IgG antibody was analysed using ELISA. One hundred eighty six pregnant women were enrolled. The mean (SD) of the age, parity was 28.3 (2.6) years and 2.6 (3.5), respectively. Of the 186 women, 42 (22.6%), 24 (12.9%), 11(5.9%) and 109 (58.6%) had blood group A, B, AB and O, respectively. H. pylori IgG seropositivity rate was 132/186 (71.0%). There was no significant difference in age and parity between women with H. pylori IgG seropositive and seronegative. Compared with the women with H. pylori IgG seronegative, significantly higher numbers of women with H. pylori IgG seropositive had O blood group, [84/132(63.6) versus 25/54(46.3), Ppylori IgG seropositivity. The current study showed that women with blood group O were at higher risk for H. pylori IgG seropositivity.

  19. Antibody levels correlate with detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA by sensitive PCR assays in seropositive blood donors and possible resolution of infection over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, E.C.; Lee, T.H.; Montalvo, L.; Nguyen, M.L.; Leiby, D.A.; Carrick, D.M.; Otani, M.M.; Vinelli, E.; Wright, D.; Stramer, S.L.; Busch, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinical significance of anti-T. cruzi low-level reactive samples is incompletely understood. PCR-positive rates and antibody levels among seropositive blood donors in three countries are described. Methods Follow-up whole blood and plasma samples were collected from T. cruzi-seropositive donors from 2008-2010 in the US (n=195) and Honduras (n=58). Also 143 samples from Brazil in 1996-2002, originally positive by three serological assays, were available and paired with contemporary follow-up samples from these donors. All samples were retested with the FDA-approved Ortho ELISA. PCR assays were performed on coded sample panels by two laboratories (BSRI and ARC) that amplified kinetoplast minicircle DNA sequences of T. cruzi. Results PCR testing at BSRI yielded slightly higher overall sensitivity and specificity (33% and 98%) compared with the ARC lab (28% and 94%). Among seropositive donors, PCR-positive rates varied by country (p<0.0001) for the BSRI laboratory: Brazil (57%), Honduras (32%) and the US (14%). ELISA signal/cutoff (S/CO) ratios were significantly higher for PCR-positive compared to PCR-negative donors (p<0.05 for all comparisons). Additionally, PCR-negative Brazilian donors exhibited greater frequencies of antibody decline over time versus PCR-positive donors (p=0.003). Conclusion For all three countries, persistent DNA positivity correlated with higher ELISA S/CO values, suggesting that high-level seroreactivity reflects chronic parasitemia. The higher rate of PCR positivity for Brazilian donors was likely attributable to required reactivity on three assays available a decade ago. Significant S/CO declines in 10% of the PCR-negative Brazilian donors may indicate seroreversion following parasite clearance in the absence of treatment. PMID:23002996

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of HIV infection among infants, born from HIV seropositive mothers, tested by DNA-PCR at yekatit 12 Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerihun Weldesenbet

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since its recognition two decades ago, HIV/AIDS remains a major global challenge. Infants contract the infection from their mother in the womb, during birth and breast feeding. In Ethiopia, limited information is available in relation to mother to child transmission (MCT. Objective: To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among infants born from HIV seropositive mothers and identify associated risk factors. Method: Hospital based retrospective record review was employed on 159 infants born from HIV seropositive mothers. Data was collected from the pediatric HIV log book using a structured questionnaire. Data was entered in to excel sheet, cleaned and then exported to STATA and analyzed using appropriate statistical tools. Result: The study revealed that 32.1% (51/159 of the infants born from HIV seropositive mothers were found to be HIV positive. Majority of the infants were born in health institutions and their birth was attended by health professionals. The rate of HIV transmission was about 3 times higher in those born at home and assisted by traditional birth attendants (TBA than those born at health institutions and assisted by health professionals (58.5% versus 22,9%; P 0.004. The data also revealed a significant association between HIV infection and feeding practice (p 0.004 which was 45.4% (25/55 in those who practice mixed feeding, 34% (18/53 in those practicing exclusive breast feeding and 15.7% (8/51 among those with replacement feeding. Conclusion: The vertical transmission rate of 32.1% observed in the present study is quite high and is within the estimated range for Sub saharan African countries.

  1. Learning to Baseline Business Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gore

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available bills, sign multi-­‐year contracts, and make purchasing decisions without having an overall technology plan. That plan includes a technology baseline to fully assess existing technology. A CIO's goal is to align IT with business goals. Businesses must know total cost of ownership and the return on investment for all technology purchases and monthly costs. A business must also be able to manage technology assets and best utilize resources across the business. Teaching students to baseline technology will enable them to track and manage costs, discover errors and waste, and consolidate and improve existing technology.

  2. Prevalence and predictors of kaposi sarcoma herpes virus seropositivity: a cross-sectional analysis of HIV-infected adults initiating ART in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskew Mhairi

    2011-11-01

    the virus was undetectable. Conclusions We demonstrate a high prevalence of KSHV among HIV-infected adults initiating ART in a large urban public-sector HIV clinic. KSHV viremia but not KSHV seropositivity may be associated with markers of advanced HIV disease.

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with hepatitis C virus seropositivity in female individuals in islamabad, pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Anjum; Saleem, Khalid; Soomro, Jamil Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 150-200 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C. Only limited information about the epidemiology of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is available. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies and the possible factors for transmission in the female population of a largely urban city, Islamabad, Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted from May to August 2006 in Islamabad. The city is divided into forty union councils. Five union councils were selected randomly and then, we randomly selected 252 female households (n = 252) of age ranges between 15-50 years who were able to read and write the self-administered questionnaires. Those with severe debilitating disease, physical or mental handicapped or those who did not give consent and known cases of HCV were excluded. The primary outcome variables were HCV seropositivity and factors as history of major surgical procedure, blood transfusion and intravenous drug use. The mean age of participants was 33.21 (9.95) years and HCV seropositivity prevalence was 62 (24.6%). Final forward stepwise multiple logistic regression showed blood transfusion [OR, 10.09; 95% CI: 1.95-52.25], dental procedure [OR, 5.38; 95% CI: 2.31-12.50] and dilation and curettage [OR, 3.86; 95% CI: 1.86-8.01] were significantly associated with HCV seropositivity. The study highlights the poor quality of care provided and a massive need to educate general population including patients as well as health professionals and allied health workers for controlling, combating and preventing the wild epidemic of HCV.

  4. Prediction of Bluetongue virus seropositivity on pastoral properties in northern Australia using remotely sensed bioclimatic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingseisen, Bernhard; Stevenson, Mark; Corner, Robert

    2013-06-01

    To monitor Bluetongue virus (BTV) activity in northern and eastern Australia the National Arbovirus Monitoring Program (NAMP) collects data from a network of sentinel herds. Groups of young cattle, previously unexposed to infection, are regularly tested to detect evidence of seroconversion. While this approach has been successful in fulfilling international surveillance requirements, it is labour and cost intensive and operationally challenging in the remote area of the northern Australian rangelands. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of remotely sensed data as a means for predicting the distribution of BTV seroprevalence. For the period 2000-2009, bioclimatic variables were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data products for the entire Northern Territory. A generalised linear model, based on the seasonal Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and minimum land surface temperature, was developed to predict BTV seropositivity. The odds of seropositivity in locations with NDVI estimates >0.45 was 3.90 (95% CI 1.11 to 13.7) times that of locations where NDVI estimates were between 0 and 0.45. Unit increases in minimum night land surface temperature in the previous winter increased the odds of seropositivity by a factor of 1.40 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.91). The area under a Receiver Operator Characteristic curve generated on the basis of the model predictions was 0.8. Uncertainty in the model's predictions was attributed to the spatio-temporal inconsistency in the precision of the available serosurveillance data. The discriminatory ability of models of this type could be improved by ensuring that exact location details and date of NAMP BTV test events are consistently recorded.

  5. Sera from patients with seropositive neuromyelitis optica spectral disorders caused the degeneration of rodent optic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yoshiko; Kanamori, Akiyasu; Nakamura, Makoto; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Nakashima, Ichiro; Negi, Akira

    2014-02-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune inflammatory, neurodestructive disease primarily targeting the optic nerve and spinal cord. An autoantibody against water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which is expressed at endofeet of astrocytes has been implicated in the pathogenesis of NMO. We evaluated the impact of sera of seropositive patients with NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) on the rodent optic nerve and retina. Serum was obtained either from patients with seropositive NMOSD (AQP4+), seronegative patient with idiopathic optic neuritis (AQP4-), and healthy volunteers (control). Anti-AQP4 antibody in a serum was measured by a previously established cell-based assay. The patients' sera were applied on the optic nerve after de-sheathed. Immunohistochemistry showed that at 7 days after the treatment, the area of the optic nerve exposed to the AQP4+ sera lost expression of both AQP4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Also, Human-IgG immunoreactivity and marked invasion of inflammation cells were observed in the optic nerve treated with AQP4+ serum. Immnoreactivity of neurofilament was reduced at 14 days after the treatment, not 7 days. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed the reduced gene expression of neurofilament in retina from the eye that was exposed to the AQP4+ sera at 14 days. Retrograde fluorogold-labeling on the retinal flatmount disclosed the significantly reduced number of retinal ganglion cells when the AQP4+ sera were applied. The present model has demonstrated that the sera from patients with seropositive NMOSDs led to the regional astrocytic degeneration and inflammatory cell invasion in the optic nerve, resulting in the ultimate loss of RGCs and their axons at areas beyond the injury site.

  6. Correlates of HCV seropositivity among familial contacts of HCV positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matera Antonio

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determinants of intrafamilial HCV transmission are still being debated. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlates of HCV seropositivity among familial contacts of HCV positive patients in Italy. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 175 HCV positive patients (index cases, recruited from Policlinico Gemelli in Rome as well as other hospitals in Central Italy between 1995 and 2000 (40% female, mean age 57 ± 15.2 years, and 259 familial contacts. Differences in proportions of qualitative variables were tested with non-parametric tests (χ2, Yates correction, Fisher exact test, and a p value Results Seropositivity for HCV was found in 8.9% of the contacts. From the univariate analysis, risk factors significantly associated to HCV positivity in the contacts were: intravenous drug addiction (p = 0.004 and intercourse with drug addicts (p = 0.005. The only variables associated significantly and independently to HCV seropositivity in patients' contacts were intercourse with drug addicts (OR = 19.28; 95% CI: 2.01 – 184.94, the retirement status from work (OR = 3.76; 95% CI: 1.17 – 11.98, the time of the relationship (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.00 – 1.11 and tattoos (OR = 7.68; 95% CI: 1.00 – 60.20. Conclusion The present study confirms that having intercourse with a drug addict is the most significant risk factor for intrafamilial HCV transmission. The association with retirement status from work could be related to both a long-term relationship with an index case and past exposure to common risk factors.

  7. Isolation and molecular characterization of Brucella melitensis from seropositive goats in Peninsula Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaiyi, P H; Hassan, L; Khairani-Bejo, S; Zainal Abidin, M; Ramlan, M; Krishnan, N; Adzhar, A; Abdullah, N; Hamidah N, H M; Norsuhanna, M M; Hashim, S N

    2012-12-01

    A study was carried out to isolate Brucella melitensis using established bacteriological and PCR techniques in Brucella seropositive goats in farms in Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Melaka and Pulau Pinang. Brucella melitensis was isolated from 7 of 134 reactors with the highest isolation from the vaginal swabs (57.14%) followed by the spleen (28.57%), uterine fluid (14.29%). No Brucella was isolated from the lymph nodes. PCR confirmed all the seven isolates as B. melitensis and isolates were phylogenetically related to other isolates from India, Iran, and Israel but most closely related to isolates from Singapore.

  8. Associations of Neospora caninum seropositivity with gestation number and pregnancy outcome in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anette Møllegaard; Bjorkman, C.; Kjeldsen, A.M.;

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence and distribution of seropositivity towards the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum were studied in single blood samples from 1561 cows from 31 Danish dairy herds. Blood samples were analysed by an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay and an indirect fluorescent-antibody test......, Seroprevalence in 15 herds with previous abortions assigned to neosporosis ranged from I% to 58%, with a mean frequency of 22%. In eight out of 16 herds without a history of N. caninum related abortions, no seroreactors were found. In the remaining eight herds, the seroprevalence ranged from 6% to 59...

  9. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii among Stray and Domestic Cats (Felis silvestris catus

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    Christel Bohn T. Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that causes toxoplasmosis. It is widespread in the environment and infects a variety of warm-blooded animals, causing miscarriages and birth problems. Previous studies in the Philippines have determined the seropositivity of T. gondii in humans. However, the seroprevalence of the parasite among household pets, par ticularly its feline def initive host, remains insufficient . This study aimed to: (1 determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies among domestic and stray cats in the Philippines; and, (2 to analyze the risk factors associated with seropositivity. Blood samples from 59 domestic and stray cats were collected and tested for T. gondii seropositivity using a commercially available indirect ELISA kit, while pet owners and handlers were given questionnaires about their cats. Thirteen or 22.03% of the cats were seropositive to T. gondii, and risk factor analysis revealed a significant difference between domestic and stray cats with regard to diet (p = 0.026, OR = 8.333, c = 0.299 and domestication (p = 0.039, OR = 5.000, c = 0.276. Cats fed with table food tested 31.43% seropositive compared to the 4.35% of those fed with cat food, whereas 33.33% of the stray cats were seropositive compared to 7.69% for domestic cats. Odds ratio test showed that the risk factors studied were associated with higher likelihood of T. gondii seropositivity. These results implicate diet and environment in the transmission dynamics of T. gondii among cats.

  10. A CCL5 Haplotype Is Associated with Low Seropositivity Rate of HCV Infection in People Who Inject Drugs.

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    Kristi Huik

    Full Text Available The role of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 and its ligand CCL5 on the pathogenesis of HIV infection has been well studied but not for HCV infection. Here, we investigated whether CCL5 haplotypes influence HIV and HCV seropositivity among 373 Caucasian people who inject drugs (PWID from Estonia.Study included 373 PWID; 56% were HIV seropositive, 44% HCV seropositive and 47% co-infected. Four CCL5 haplotypes (A-D were derived from three CCL5 polymorphisms (rs2107538/rs2280788/rs2280789 typed by Taqman allelic discrimination assays. The data of CCR5 haplotypes were used from our previous study. The association between CCL5 haplotypes with HIV and/or HCV seropositivity was determined using logistic regression analysis.Possessing CCL5 haplotype D (defined by rs2107538A/rs2280788G/rs2280789C decreased the odds of HCV seropositivity compared to those not possessing it (OR = 0.19; 95% CI 0.09-0.40, which remained significant after adjustment to co-variates (OR = 0.08; 95% CI 0.02-0.29. An association of this haplotype with HIV seropositivity was not found. In step-wise logistic regression with backward elimination CCL5 haplotype D and CCR5 HHG*1 had reduced odds for HCV seropositivity (OR = 0.28 95% CI 0.09-0.92; OR = 0.23 95% CI 0.08-0.68, respectively compared to those who did not possess these haplotypes, respectively.Our results suggest that among PWID CCL5 haplotype D and CCR5 HHG*1 independently protects against HCV. Our findings highlight the importance of CCL5 genetic variability and CCL5-CCR5 axis on the susceptibility to HCV.

  11. Baseline Removal From EMG Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    a time-varying baseline contamination. Acknowledgements: Work funded by the Departamento de Salud del Gobierno de Navarrra and by a Spanish MEC...Name(s) and Address(es) Departamento de Ingenieria Electra y Electronica Universidad Publica de Navarra Pamplona, Spain Performing Organization Report

  12. Impact of perceived HIV stigma within men who have sex with men community on mental health of seropositive MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Eddie S K; Mak, Winnie W S; Tam, Terence C Y; Zhu, Chen; Chung, Rita W Y

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested that seropositive men who have sex with men (MSM) do not only face biased treatment from the general public but also from members of the MSM community. We conceptualized such biases perpetuated within the MSM community as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in-group stigma. This study examined the pathways by which perceived HIV in-group stigma impacted the mental health of seropositive MSM in Hong Kong. Internalized HIV stigma, serostatus disclosure concerns, and negative reactions towards HIV stigma were hypothesized as intermediate factors. Based on 100 Chinese seropositive MSM who were on antiretroviral therapy, results of a path analysis partially supported our hypotheses. Only negative reactions towards HIV stigma within the MSM community was a significant intermediate factor. The findings highlight the importance of understanding seropositive MSM's different reactions to HIV stigma perpetuated within the MSM community. On top of stigma reduction research, further research may explore ways that help seropositive MSM cope with HIV in-group stigma and foster resilience.

  13. Serum levels of nitric oxide and protein oxidation in goats seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonin, A A; Weber, A; Ribeiro, A; Camillo, G; Vogel, F F; Moura, A B; Bochi, G V; Moresco, R N; Da Silva, A S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and analyze the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in serum of goats naturally infected by Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, or concomitantly infected by these two parasites. Thus, it was measured NOx and AOPP levels in twenty (n=20) sera samples of goats seronegative for T. gondii and N. caninum [negative control group (A)]; while the positive groups were composed by sera of infected animals, twelve (n=12) seropositive for N. caninum [group B]; eighteen (n=18) positive for T. gondii [group C]; and thirteen (n=13) seropositive for N. caninum and T. gondii [group D]. As results, it was observed that animals seropositive for N. caninum and T. gondii (Groups B to D) showed higher serum levels of NOx (P0.05). Interestingly, group B did not show increase in AOPP, what led us to hypothesize that the major protein damage is linked to T. gondii infection. Therefore, our results showed an increased in NOx levels, which was probably related to the immune response, since it is an important inflammatory mediator; and AOPP were increased in groups where there was seropositivity for T. gondii, but not for the group composed only by animals seropositive for N. caninum, allowing us to suggest higher protein damage in toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Persistent Strongyloidiasis Complicated by Recurrent Meningitis in an HTLV Seropositive Peruvian Migrant Resettled in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Montagnani, Francesca; Tordini, Giacinta; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Bisoffi, Zeno; Bartoloni, Alessandro; De Luca, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of persistent strongyloidiasis complicated by recurrent meningitis, in a human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) seropositive Peruvian migrant adult resettled in Italy. He was admitted with signs and symptoms of acute bacterial meningitis, reporting four other meningitis episodes in the past 6 years, with an etiological diagnosis of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecium in two cases. He had been previously treated with several antihelmintic regimens not including ivermectin, without eradication of strongyloidiasis, and he had never been tested for HTLV before. During the described episode, the patient was treated for meningitis with broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and 200 μg/kg/dose oral ivermectin once daily on day 1, 2, 15 and 16 with full recovery and no further episodes of meningitis. The presented case underlines several critical points concerning the management of poorly known neglected diseases such as strongyloidiasis and HTLV infection in low-endemic areas. Despite several admissions for meningitis and strongyloidiasis, the parasitic infection was not adequately treated and the patient was not previously tested for HTLV. The supply of ivermectin and the choice of treatment scheme was challenging since ivermectin is not approved in Italy and there are no standardized guidelines for the treatment of severe strongyloidiasis in HTLV seropositive subjects. PMID:25846292

  15. Risk Factors for Seropositivity to Kaposi Sarcoma–Associated Herpesvirus Among Children in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Emily L.; Sebina, Ismail; Nalwoga, Angela; Muhangi, Lawrence; Miley, Wendell; Johnston, W. Thomas; Ndibazza, Juliet; Whitby, Denise; Newton, Robert; Elliott, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Determinants of Kaposi sarcoma–associated herpesvirus (KSHV) seropositivity among children living in sub-Saharan African populations where infection is endemic are not well understood. Local environmental factors, including other infectious agents, may be key. Methods: Within the context of a well-characterized birth cohort, we examined associations between various factors and antibodies against KSHV, measured in stored plasma samples from 1823 mother–child pairs in Entebbe, Uganda. Results: Seroprevalence increased with increasing age of the child (P = 0.0003) and was higher among those with KSHV seropositive mothers than in those without (12% vs 9%; odds ratio: 1.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.1 to 2.0). It was also higher among children with HIV infection (29% vs 10%; odds ratio: 3.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 8.3) or malaria parasitemia (30% vs 10%; odds ratio: 4.1, 95% confidence interval: 2.4 to 7.0) than in children without. These associations were not explained by socioeconomic status. Conclusions: The finding that KSHV serostatus is associated with malaria parasitemia in children is novel. In a country endemic for KSHV, malaria may be a cofactor for KSHV infection or reactivation among children. PMID:23403859

  16. HTLV-III seropositivity in European haemophiliacs exposed to Factor VIII concentrate imported from the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, M; Froebel, K S; Madhok, R; Biggar, R J; Sarin, P S; Stenbjerg, S; Lowe, G D; Forbes, C D; Goedert, J J; Gallo, R C

    1984-12-22

    77 Scottish haemophiliacs and 22 Danish haemophiliacs were serologically tested for antibodies to human T-cell leukaemia virus III (HTLV-III). Since 1979 the Scottish patients had been treated largely with factor VIII concentrate produced in Scotland, whereas all but 2 of the Danish patients had received both locally prepared concentrate and commercial concentrate made from US donor material. 15.6% of Scottish and 59.1% of Danish haemophiliacs were antibody positive (p less than 0.001). None of 11 haemophiliacs not treated in the period 1979-84 was seropositive. 2 (6.7%) of 30 subjects who had been treated with locally produced concentrate only were antibody positive, compared with 23 (39.7%) of 58 subjects who had been treated with commercial concentrate. Among 52 users of both commercially and locally produced factor VIII concentrate, seropositivity was directly correlated with the consumption of commercial concentrate (p less than 0.001) but not locally produced material. These data indicate that European haemophiliacs were exposed to HTLV-III via some factor VIII concentrates obtained from the USA.

  17. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity protects against childhood asthma and inversely correlates to its clinical and functional severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, E M; Kamel, T B; Nabih, E S; Abdelazem, A A

    2017-06-20

    In recent years, the prevalence of asthma has risen in developed countries, and its extent related to a change in our indigenous microbiota. Helicobacter pylori disappearance across the population represents a fundamental change in our human microbiota and has preceded the rise in asthma prevalence. To assess the relationship between childhood asthma and Helicobacter pylori infection. Quantitative determination of Helicobacter pylori IgG among 90 asthmatic children and 90 - age and gender - matched non-atopic, non-asthmatic healthy children was performed using ELISA in serum of all participants. Helicobacter pylori IgG seropositivity was found in 25.6% of asthmatics compared to 44.4% of controls. Asthmatics showed lower median Helicobacter pylori IgG titre compared to healthy controls. We also detected a significant inverse relationship between Helicobacter pylori IgG titre and asthma severity. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity protects against childhood asthma and inversely correlates to its clinical and functional severity. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Melanocyte biology and function with reference to oral melanin hyperpigmentation in HIV-seropositive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Liviu; Chandran, Rakesh; Kramer, Beverley; Khammissa, Razia A G; Altini, Mario; Lemmer, Johan

    2014-09-01

    The color of normal skin and of oral mucosa is not determined by the number of melanocytes in the epithelium but rather by their melanogenic activity. Pigmented biopolymers or melanins are synthesized in melanosomes. Tyrosinase is the critical enzyme in the biosynthesis of both brown/black eumelanin and yellow/red pheomelanin. The number of the melanosomes within the melanocytes, the type of melanin within the melanosomes, and the efficacy of the transfer of melanosomes from the melanocytes to the neighboring keratinocytes all play an important role in tissue pigmentation. Melanin production is regulated by locally produced factors including proopiomelanocortin and its derivative peptides, particularly alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), adrenergic and cholinergic agents, growth factors, cytokines, and nitric oxide. Both eumelanin and pheomelanin can be produced by the same melanocytes, and the proportion of the two melanin types is influenced by the degree of functional activity of the α-MSH/MC1R intracellular pathway. The cause of HIV oral melanosis is not fully understood but may be associated with HIV-induced cytokine dysregulation, with the medications commonly prescribed to HIV-seropositive persons, and with adrenocortical dysfunction, which is not uncommon in HIV-seropositive subjects with AIDS. The purpose of this article is to discuss some aspects of melanocyte biology and HIV-associated oral melanin hyperpigmentation.

  19. Deconstructing stigma: perceptions of HIV-seropositive mothers and their disclosure to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letteney, Susan; LaPorte, Heidi Heft

    2004-01-01

    This study addressed the perceptions of stigma and disclosure behavior of HIV-seropositive mothers. Eighty-eight HIV-seropositive women in New York City completed two independent measures of stigma, the Perceived Stigma Scale and the Devaluation-Discrimination Measure. Disclosers (67%) and nondisclosers (33%) were similar in most sociodemographic characteristics-marital status, race, religion and employment, with the exception of age and education. Significant differences were found between disclosure groups in the use of secrecy as a stigmamanagement tool and in perceived devaluation-discrimination associated with an HIV diagnosis. Nondisclosers to children were significantly more likely than disclosers to use secrecy as a stigma management tool (t =-2.76; p =.01), and to feel devalued and discriminated against as a result of HIV serostatus (t = 3.11; p =.01). Disclosure of parental HIV serostatus to children is an important aspect of continuous care and custody planning. Secrecy and perceptions of devaluation and discrimination related to HIV diagnosis should be seen as barriers to disclosure of serostatus to children.

  20. Infectivity of seropositive dogs, showing different clinical forms of leishmaniasis, to Lutzomyia longipalpis phlebotomine sand flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Rocha, Marília Fonseca; da Rocha Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano; França-Silva, João Carlos; Pires, Marize Quinhone; Oliveira, Fernanda Santos; Pacheco, Raquel Silva; dos Santos, Sara Lopes; Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Romanha, Alvaro José; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2007-06-20

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a growing zoonosis with an increasing number of new cases and a rapid geographical spreading of the disease. In the present study, a canine survey was carried out in the city of Montes Claros (320,000 inhabitants), an endemic area of American visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total number of 4795 dogs were examined by serology, which showed a rate of seropositivity of 5%. Isoenzymatic analysis confirmed Leishmania infantum chagasi as the local aetiological agent of CVL. Canine tissues were assayed for the presence of Leishmania parasite DNA using different techniques. The infectivity of asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic and symptomatic seropositive dogs was tested by xenodiagnosis using laboratory reared Lutzomyia longipalpis. Rates of infection of 5.4%, 5.1% and 28.4% were found for the phlebotomine sand flies that fed in asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic and symptomatic dogs, respectively. Our results indicate that, under experimental conditions, symptomatic dogs are about four times more infective to VL vectors than oligosymptomatic or asymptomatic animals. The lower infectivity rates of dogs displaying any of the last two clinical forms of leishmaniasis, however, must be taken into account in the epidemiology of CVL.

  1. Progressive intraparenchymal lung nodules dissemination in a heavy smoker and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis suspected of tuberculosis relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arghir, Oana Cristina; Niţu, Mimi; Trenchea, Mihaela; Ciobotaru, Camelia

    2013-01-01

    Anthony Caplan first described rheumatoid lung nodules associated with pneumoconiosis in coal-miners (Caplan, 1953). Intraparenchymal lung nodules were later described in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who were never exposed to coal dust and/or without pneumoconiosis. Rheumatoid lung nodules are usually detected in unselected patients: 0.2% in chest radiography and 4% in high-resolution computed tomography (Nannini et al., 2008). Patients could be reluctant to perform surgical lung biopsy for an accurate histopathological diagnosis. We present a peculiar association between a seropositive RA and a presumptive active tuberculosis (TB) disease in a 59-year-old male patient, ex-smoker with a previously healed pulmonary TB disease. The purpose of this report is to describe an unusual case of a presumptive relapse of the nodular TB disease, which progressed to an extensive nodular bilateral dissemination under anti-tuberculosis therapy, mimicking a metastatic carcinoma. The diagnosis of rheumatoid necrobiotic lung nodules was confirmed after open biopsy left pulmonary was performed. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded pulmonary rheumatoid nodules were processed for histology and stained with Masson's trichrome. Central structure of the removed pulmonary nodules is typical of a rheumatoid nodule with central necrosis surrounded by a palisade of macrophages. The accumulation of anthracotic pigment was noticed inside the pulmonary nodules in a RA patient without professional exposure to coal or mineral dust. This rare entity is an appearance of the rheumatoid nodules lung syndrome and anthracosis in a heavy tobacco former smoker.

  2. Mode S Baseline Radar Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    range units and 20 azimuth units) overlaying the position of the beacon reports. In the cases analyzed where beacon reports were not radar reinforced ...82/53 j~ C ~ 7 C _ _ _ _ _ _ 4. Title end Su.btitle 5. Neget at. November 1982 MDDE S BASELINE RADAR TRACKIN4G 6. Poelin Orgeuianti.. Cede ACT-100...Ground Clutter 33 Mode S/ARTS III 100-Scan False Radar Track Summary 74 34 Percent Beacon Radar Reinforcement 77 vii INTRODUCTION PURPOSE. The purpose of

  3. Asbestos Surveillance Program Aachen (ASPA): initial results from baseline screening for lung cancer in asbestos-exposed high-risk individuals using low-dose multidetector-row CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Marco; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Mahnken, Andreas H; Hering, K G; Sirbu, H; Zschiesche, W; Knoll, Lars; Felten, Michael K; Kraus, Thomas; Günther, Rolf W; Wildberger, Joachim E

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of lung cancer in a high-risk asbestos-exposed cohort using low-dose MDCT. Of a population of 5,389 former power-plant workers, 316 were characterized as individuals at highest risk for lung cancer according to a lung-cancer risk model including age, asbestos exposure and smoking habits. Of these 316, 187 (mean age: 66.6 years) individuals were included in a prospective trial. Mean asbestos exposure time was 29.65 years and 89% were smokers. Screening was performed on a 16-slice MDCT (Siemens) with low-dose technique (10/20 mAs(eff.); 1 mm/0.5 mm increment). In addition to soft copy PACS reading analysis on a workstation with a dedicated lung analysis software (LungCARE; Siemens) was performed. One strongly suspicious mass and eight cases of histologically proven lung cancer were found plus 491 additional pulmonary nodules (average volume: 40.72 ml, average diameter 4.62 mm). Asbestos-related changes (pleural plaques, fibrosis) were visible in 80 individuals. Lung cancer screening in this high-risk cohort showed a prevalence of lung cancer of 4.28% (8/187) at baseline screening with an additional large number of indeterminate pulmonary nodules. Low-dose MDCT proved to be feasible in this highly selected population.

  4. Features of anti-aquaporin 4 antibody-seropositive Chinese patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum optic neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyang; Wang, Yanling; Xu, Quangang; Zhang, Aidi; Zhou, Huanfen; Zhao, Shuo; Kang, Hao; Peng, Chunxia; Cao, Shanshan; Wei, Shihui

    2015-10-01

    The detection of anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody (AQP-4 Ab) is crucial to detect patients who will develop neuromyelitis optica (NMO); however, there are few studies on the AQP-4 Ab serostatus of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum ON. We analyzed the clinical and paraclinical features of neuromyelitis optica spectrum ON patients in China according to the patients' AQP4-Ab serostatus. 125 patients with recurrent and bilateral ON with simultaneous attacks were divided into AQP-4 Ab-seropositive and -seronegative groups. Demographic, clinical, serum autoantibody data, connective tissue disorders (CTDs), visual performance were compared. A Visual Acuity (VA) of less than 0.1 during acute ON attacks occurred more frequently in the seropositive group (p = 0.023); however, there was not a significant difference between groups on VA recovery after the first attack. The seropositive group experienced the worst outcome during the last attack (p = 0.017). Other co-existing autoimmunity antibodies (p optica spectrum ON.

  5. Obesogenic dietary intake in families with 1-year-old infants at high and low obesity risk based on parental weight status: baseline data from a longitudinal intervention (Early STOPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Viktoria; Sobko, Tanja; Ek, Anna; Forssén, Michaela; Ekbom, Kerstin; Johansson, Elin; Nowicka, Paulina; Westerståhl, Maria; Riserus, Ulf; Marcus, Claude

    2016-03-01

    To compare dietary intake in 1-year-old infants and their parents between families with high and low obesity risk, and to explore associations between infant dietary intake and relative weight. Baseline analyses of 1-year-old infants (n = 193) and their parents participating in a longitudinal obesity intervention (Early STOPP) were carried out. Dietary intake and diet quality indicators were compared between high- and low-risk families, where obesity risk was based on parental weight status. The odds for high diet quality in relation to parental diet quality were determined. Associations between measured infant relative weight and dietary intake were examined adjusting for obesity risk, socio-demographics, and infant feeding. Infant dietary intake did not differ between high- and low-risk families. The parents in high-risk families consumed soft drinks, French fries, and low-fat spread more frequently, and fish and fruits less frequently (p intake of vegetables and fish increased the odds for children being consumers of vegetables (OR 1.7; 95 % CI 1.0-2.9) and fish, respectively (OR 2.5; 95 % CI 1.4-4.4). Infant relative weight was weakly associated with a high intake of milk cereal drink (r = 0.15; p intake, obesity risk, or early feeding patterns. At the age of one, dietary intake in infants is not associated with family obesity risk, nor with parental obesogenic food intake. Milk cereal drink consumption but no other infant dietary marker reflects relative weight at this young age.

  6. O blood group as a risk factor for Helicobacter pylori IgG seropositivity among pregnant Sudanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasim I. Gasim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to investigate the prevalence and the association between blood groups and Helicobacter pylori IgG seropositivity among pregnant Sudanese women. A cross-sectional survey was carried- out at Saad Abul Ela Maternity Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan during the period of July 2014 through December 2015. Questionnaires covering socio-demographic and obstetrics information were administered. Specific H. pylori IgG antibody was analysed using ELISA. One hundred eighty six pregnant women were enrolled. The mean (SD of the age, parity was 28.3 (2.6 years and 2.6 (3.5, respectively. Of the 186 women, 42 (22.6%, 24 (12.9%, 11(5.9% and 109 (58.6% had blood group A, B, AB and O, respectively. H. pylori IgG seropositivity rate was 132/186 (71.0%. There was no significant difference in age and parity between women with H. pylori IgG seropositive and seronegative. Compared with the women with H. pylori IgG seronegative, significantly higher numbers of women with H. pylori IgG seropositive had O blood group, [84/132(63.6 versus 25/54(46.3, P<0.001]. In binary logistic regression, women with O blood group (OR= 2.084, 95% CI=1.060 -4.097, P=0.033 were at a higher H. pylori IgG seropositivity. The current study showed that women with blood group O were at higher risk for H. pylori IgG seropositivity.

  7. HPV16 seropositivity and subsequent HPV16 infection risk in a naturally infected population: comparison of serological assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Wen Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several serological assays have been developed to detect antibodies elicited against infections with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV type 16. The association between antibody levels measured by various assays and subsequent HPV infection risk may differ. We compared HPV16-specific antibody levels previously measured by a virus-like particle (VLP-based direct enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA with levels measured by additional assays and evaluated the protection against HPV16 infection conferred at different levels of the assays. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Replicate enrollment serum aliquots from 388 unvaccinated women in the control arm of the Costa Rica HPV vaccine trial were measured for HPV16 seropositivity using three serological assays: a VLP-based direct ELISA; a VLP-based competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA; and a secreted alkaline phosphatase protein neutralization assay (SEAP-NA. We assessed the association of assay seropositivity and risk of subsequent HPV16 infection over four years of follow-up by calculating sampling-adjusted odds ratios (OR and HPV16 seropositivity based on standard cutoff from the cLIA was significantly associated with protection from subsequent HPV16 infection (OR = 0.48, CI = 0.27-0.86, compared with seronegatives. Compared with seronegatives, the highest seropositive tertile antibody levels from the direct ELISA (OR = 0.53, CI = 0.28-0.90 as well as the SEAP-NA (OR = 0.20, CI = 0.06, 0.64 were also significantly associated with protection from HPV16 infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Enrollment HPV16 seropositivity by any of the three serological assays evaluated was associated with protection from subsequent infection, although cutoffs for immune protection were different. We defined the assays and seropositivity levels after natural infection that better measure and translate to protective immunity.

  8. Prevalence of VDRL sero-positivity in women in reproductive age group in an urban slum community in Bombay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, D D; Angadi, S A; Chavan, M K; Pai, N P

    1995-01-01

    A cross sectional survey was carried in an Urban Slum Community in Bombay having a population of 60,000. A total of 393 women in reproductive age group were screened for VDRL reactivity. The highest prevalence was in 15 to 29 years of age group. The sero-positivity rate at 1:8 dilution and above was 0.50%. The seropositivity rate can be further brought down by properly planned and implemented STD (Sexually Transmitted Diseases) Control activities at a community level.

  9. Searching for neutrino oscillation parameters in long baseline experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Vihonen, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    Developing neutrino astronomy requires a good understanding of the neutrino oscillations mechanism. The European strategy for neutrino oscillation physics sets a high priority on future long baseline neutrino experiments with the aim to measure the intrinsic parameters that govern the neutrino oscillations. In this work we take a look at the next generation of long baseline experiments and discuss their prospects in future research.

  10. Using Baseline Studies in the Investigation of Test Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Dianne; Horak, Tania

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of "baseline studies" in investigations of test impact and to illustrate the type of thinking underlying the design and implementation of such studies by reference to a recent study relating to a high-stakes test of English language proficiency. Baseline studies are used to describe an educational…

  11. Risk factors for Brucella seropositivity in goat herds in eastern and western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, E K; Elzer, P H; Geaghan, J P; Opuda-Asibo, J; Scholl, D T; Miller, J E

    2001-12-03

    Cross-sectional prevalences and risk factors for Brucella seropositivity in goats in eastern and western Uganda were investigated. Serum was collected from 1518 goats randomly selected from 145 herds which had been identified using multistage sampling. The brucellosis card test (CT) and the Brucella melitensis tube-agglutination test (TAT) were used in parallel to detect antibodies against B. abortus and B. melitensis, respectively. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on goat health and management. This information was used in multivariable logistic-regression models to determine the risk factors for Brucella seropositivity in goat herds. For each analysis, a herd was considered positive if at least one goat in the herd tested positive for antibodies against Brucella and negative if none was positive. Four percent (55/1480) of the goats screened with the CT had antibodies against Brucella. The reactors were distributed in 13% (19/145) of the herds. The most-important herd-level risk factors identified were use of a hired caretaker as the primary manager of the operation compared to owner/family members (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=8.1; 95% CI 1.6, 39.7), keeping sheep in addition to goats (OR=6.0; CI 1.5, 23.7) compared to having no sheep, and free browsing (OR=4.7; 95% CI 1.0, 20.7) when compared to tethering or zero-grazing. Using the TAT, 10% (141/1446) of the goats tested positive. The positives were distributed in 43% (63/145) of the herds. Free browsing (OR=6.7; 95% CI 2.7, 16.9) when compared to tethering or zero-grazing and lack of veterinary care (OR=2.9; CI 1.3, 6.7) were the most-important factors identified in the multivariable model for B. melitensis herd seropositivity. To explore/reduce the risk of misclassification in a secondary analysis, herds were reclassified as positive if at least one goat tested positive on both tests and negative if none of the goats was positive on any of the two tests. Using this

  12. Pathology of HIV seropositive: forensic autopsy study in a tertiary care hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peonim, Vichan; Sujirachato, Kanchana; Srisont, Smith; Udnoon, Jitta

    2012-08-01

    To retrospectively study the pathology of HIV seropositive in forensic autopsies. Three hundred thirty five HIV seropositive cases, selected from 7,387 forensic postmortem inquests by law, were studied in Ramathibodi hospital between 2000 and 2010. The study topics were sex, age, cause of death, manner of death, and pathological features. Autopsies were done in 67 cases. The pathological features were classified into five groups, (a) HIV disease with infectious and parasitic diseases, (b) HIV disease with malignant neoplasms, (c) HIV disease with other specified diseases, (d) HIV disease with other conditions, and (e) HIV disease with unspecified pathology. The average prevalence of HIV seropositive cases was 4.5%. The peak was 10.0% in 2001 and gradually decreased until 1.8% in 2010. The ratio of male:female was 4:1. The most manner of death was natural death (83.6%). In unnatural death cases, the most frequently method was suicide by hanging. The prevalence of HIV group (a) to group (e) were 56.7%, 6.0%, 3.0%, 17.9%, and 16.4%, respectively. Pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common found in group (a) with frequency of 28.4%. Kaposi's sarcoma of skin, coronary atherosclerosis, and fatty change of liver were frequently observed in HIV group (b) to group (d), respectively. The pathology showed multiple pathological features in each group, i.e., group (a) pulmonary tuberculosis, pneumonia, disseminated fungal infection, brain abscess, and meningitis, group (b) Kaposi's sarcoma of skin and acute lymphoblastic leukemia, group (c) coronary atherosclerosis, chronic pyelonephritis, gastritis, and cirrhosis of the liver, and group (d) cardiomegaly, fatty change of liver; pulmonary edema, and splenomegaly. HIV disease causes pathology of various organs. The severities vary from severe to asymptomatic disease. Five pathological patterns of HIV were established in this study that showed interesting topics, i.e., pulmonary tuberculosis was the most frequent and occurred (28

  13. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Diwan, M V; Qian, X; Rubbia, A

    2016-01-01

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We will summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology with our focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We proceed from the first evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research.

  14. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, M. V.; Galymov, V.; Qian, X.; Rubbia, A.

    2016-10-01

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology, with a focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We proceed from the first evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research.

  15. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  16. Compliance with a three-day course of artesunate-mefloquine combination and baseline anti-malarial treatment in an area of Thailand with highly multidrug resistant falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-Bangchang Kesara

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT is presently recommended by the World Health Organization as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in several countries, as a mean of prolonging the effectiveness of first-line malaria treatment regimens. A three-day course of artesunate-mefloquine (4 mg/kg body weight once daily for three consecutive days, plus 15 and 10 mg/kg body weight mefloquine on the first and second days has been adopted by Malaria Control Programme of Thailand as first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria all over the country since 2008. The gametocytocydal anti-malarial drug primaquine is administered at the dose of 30 mg (0.6 mg/kg on the last day. The aim of the present study was to assess patient compliance of this combination regimen when applied to field condition. Methods A total of 240 patients (196 males and 44 females who were attending the malaria clinics in Mae-Sot, Tak Province and presenting with symptomatic acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria, with no reappearance of Plasmodium vivax parasitaemia during follow-up were included into the study. The first dose of the treatment was given to the patients under direct supervision. All patients were given the medication for self-treatment at home and were requested to come back for follow-up on day 3 of the initial treatment. Baseline (day 0 and day 3 whole blood mefloquine and plasma primaquine concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Results Two patients had recrudescence on days 28 and 35. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the 42-day efficacy rate of this combination regimen was 99.2% (238/240. Based on whole blood mefloquine and plasma primaquine concentrations on day 3 of the initial treatment, compliance with mefloquine and primaquine in this three-day artesunate-mefloquine combination regimen were 96.3% (207/215, and 98.5% (197/200, respectively. Baseline mefloquine

  17. Two Babinski signs in seropositive (HAM) and seronegative tropical spastic paraparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Calderon, Andres; Hernandez, Hernan G

    2008-09-01

    Tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) may or may not be associated to HTLV-I antibodies and is usually characterized by clinical and pathological spinal cord abnormalities at thoracic levels. We present here five Brazilian patients who had typical chronic idiopathic spastic paraparesis; two of them were HTLV-I seropositive (HAM) and three HTLV-I seronegative (TSP) -associated-myelopathy. Three out of these five patients also displayed clinical supraspinal involvement, indeed, platysma muscle hypotrophy or atrophy (the Babinski plus sign). These findings support the view that clinical involvement in HAM and TSP is wider than the spinal cord abnormalities usually considered. Possible non-infectious co-factors (e.g., mycotoxins) may be involved in disease pathogenesis in a multistep process of viruses, toxins and environment which may account for serological differences found in this group of patients.

  18. Hematological and biochemical parameters in symptomatic and asymptomatic leishmania-seropositive dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ulchar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is vector-born severe enzootic disease in dogs. It includes a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, but the most characteristic are alterations in the hematopoetic system and renal failure. Also, infected animals could be asymptomatic, so the manifestation of L. infantum infection depends on many factors, including host’s immunological status. The aim of this survey was to find parameters related with hematopoetic and renal failure (hematology, biochemical parameters – urea, creatinine, serum proteins in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs seropositive for canine leishmaniosis. Within the hematological parameters, we found signifi cant differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs in the erythrogram and platelet count, but not in the leukogram. Significant differences between the two groups were found also for urea, creatinine, serum albumin and globulin, but not in serum total protein and A/G ratio. These findings indicate individual variability of the host’s response to infection with L. infantum.

  19. PARSONAGE-TURNER SYNDROME: CASE REPORT OF A HIV-SEROPOSITIVE PATIENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Saulo Gomes de; Pombo, Eduardo Hosken; Batista, Priscila Rossi de; Cardoso, Igor Machado; Rezende, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Parsonage-Turner Syndrome is a rare disease that affects the musculature of the scapular girdle, leading to muscle atrophy and large motor deficit. The etiology is uncertain, but it is believed that infectious and autoimmune factors are involved. The diagnosis is made by exclusion, and the main differential diagnoses are cervical disc hernias, rotator cuff injuries and rheumatic diseases. During diagnostic investigations, we perform laboratory tests, radiographs and MRI on the shoulders and cervical spine, with emphasis on electroneuromyography to help in making a definitive diagnosis. This case report is presented because it shows a disease that is rarely associated with HIV seropositivity and the importance of early diagnosis for better treatment of these patients.

  20. Prevalence ofHIV seropositivity among patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adesuwa I Osahon; Catherine U Ukponmwan; Odarosa M Uhunmwangho

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence ofHIV seropositivity among patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva.Methods:All patients with clinical and histopathological confirmation of squamous cell carcinoma seen during a ten year period (July1999 to June2009) were tested for HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). The number of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva who areHIV positive were counted.Results:A total of thirty-three(33) eyes in thirty-two(32) patients were confirmed histopathologically to have conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma. Their ages ranged from22 years to66 years with a mean age of (38.6±11.8) years (SD). The male to female ratio was1:1.5. Twenty four (75%) of these patients wereHIV positive.Conclusions: Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with the human immunodeficiency virus and is thus a marker for the disease in Benin City, Nigeria.

  1. Efficient Wide Baseline Structure from Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Mario; Mayer, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a Structure from Motion approach for complex unorganized image sets. To achieve high accuracy and robustness, image triplets are employed and (an approximate) camera calibration is assumed to be known. The focus lies on a complete linking of images even in case of large image distortions, e.g., caused by wide baselines, as well as weak baselines. A method for embedding image descriptors into Hamming space is proposed for fast image similarity ranking. The later is employed to limit the number of pairs to be matched by a wide baseline method. An iterative graph-based approach is proposed formulating image linking as the search for a terminal Steiner minimum tree in a line graph. Finally, additional links are determined and employed to improve the accuracy of the pose estimation. By this means, loops in long image sequences are implicitly closed. The potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated by results for several complex image sets also in comparison with VisualSFM.

  2. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  3. PLATELET COUNT IN SEROPOSITIVE AND SERONEGATIVE DENGUE CASES IN RAICHUR DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inder Raj Itagi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue Fever is caused by Dengue Viruses (4 Serotypes by the bites of aedes aegypti mosquito. Laboratory findings in dengue cases show leucopenia and thrombocytopenia which is mild in nature. In this study we have made an attempt to compare platelet count in seropositive and seronegative dengue cases in and around Raichur District. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To compare the platelet count in seropositive and seronegative dengue fever patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS USED: Automated cell counter (SYSMEX-5PART. Specimen: Blood or serum in a red top tube. Acute and convalescent specimens do not need be sent together. Collection: KHEL Serology kit with the yellow (red top blood tubes or any other red topped, clot separator blood tubes. Volume: 2 cc (ml. of centrifuged serum or plasma. Storage: On ice or in refrigerator (not in a freezer until it is delivered to CDC Dengue Branch. Any specimens stored greater than a month prior to arrival at CDC will not be tested. Timing of collection for serology: Acute- obtained up to 5 days after onset of symptoms; convalescent- 6 or more days after the onset of symptoms. Test results are normally available 3 days (PCR to 1 week (serology after specimen receipt. During periods of a severe dengue epidemic it may be necessary to prioritize testing based on the severity of disease. Any severe case that is hospitalized should be indicated on the form. Type of Study: PROSPECTIVE (COHORT STUDY Duration of Study: 6 months (Dec-2011 to May 2012. Study Site: RAICHUR DISTRICT IN KARNATAKA.

  4. Profile of HIV voluntary counseling and testing seropositive acceptors in Niger-Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Terkimbi Utoo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa is most heavily affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection worldwide. The infection is more commonly observed amongst vulnerable populations. The objective was to determine the profile of seropositive acceptors of HIV voluntary counseling and testing in Niger-Delta, Nigeria. Medical records of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT acceptors at the Sacred Heart Hospital Obudu, Cross-River State, Nigeria, from January to July 2010 were reviewed. HIV antibody screening was done using two rapid ELISA tests. A total of 1269 VCT acceptors were screened for HIV antibodies out of which 134 (10.6% tested positive. The age group 20-29 year old was more affected (41.0%. Average age of seropositive acceptors was however 31.21±8.8 years. Most of them 80 (59.7% were females, married 61 (45.5% and either had none or low level of formal education (61.2%. Traders constituted 25.4%, students 24.6%, farmers 20.9% among others. More females were married than the males (50.0% vs 38.9% (P>0.05. There were more educated females than males (P>0.05. Those who had formal education were more likely to be either gainfully employed or seeking for one (P<0.001. HIV positivity was observed mostly among married, female adolescence/ young adult with either none or low level of formal education and engaged in commercial activities. Sustaining efforts towards women education, economic empowerment, and gender equity, modification of risky social lifestyle and VCT for HIV will be helpful in reducing HIV infection among the vulnerable groups.

  5. Toxocara Canis IgG Seropositivity in Patients with Chronic Urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Burak-Selek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate IgG antibody levels specific to Toxocara canis (T. canis, a parasite which subsists in dog’s intestine, on serum samples obtained from patients with chronic urticaria (CU to evaluate effective risk in CU etiopathogenesis.In this study, 73 patients diagnosed with CU and 109 healthy individuals as control group, were included. Various factors such as sex, age, education and income, daily hand washing habits, history of dog owning and soil eating were questioned in patient anamnesis. T. canis IgG antibodies were detected using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit prepared with T. canis larval excretory-secretory antigens. Positive results were confirmed with western blot (WB WB test.We found T. canis IgG positivity in 17.8% (n=13 of patients (n=73 with CU. But we did not observe any T. canis IgG positivity in healthy controls (n=109. Low molecular weight bands (24-35 kDa were observed in 11 samples in WB analyses while two of the samples were weakly positive. It is revealed that dog owning history increases T. canis seropositivity12.9 times while insufficient daily hand washing habit (less than six times a day increasesseropositivity 20.7 times. Our study showed that T. canis may trigger CU since we found17.8% seropositivity in 73 patients with CU and none in 109 healthy individuals.Moreover, various socio-demographic characteristics have been shown to affect T. canisseropositivity in patients with CU. 

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis IgM seropositivity during pregnancy and assessment of its risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M; Chowdhury, S B; Akhtar, N; Jahan, M; Jahan, M K; Jebunnahar, S

    2014-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine socio-demographic and reproductive risk factors associated with Chlamydia trachomaties IgM seropositivity during pregnancy. This cross sectional comparative study was carried out in the obstetrics outdoor of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh in collaboration with the department of Virology between the periods from July 2007 to December 2008. Pregnant women at their first visit to the hospital were approached consecutively and asked to complete a questionnaire and 2cc blood was collected from each subject for Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody testing using ELISA method. The study population was divided into two groups according to the presence and absence of serum Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody. Finally socio-demographic and reproductive risk factors were compared between the groups. Among 172 women the sero-prevalence of Chlamydia IgM was 41%. The multiple logistic regression model (step wise) finally extracted for characteristics correlated with seropositivity. Ten years or less (≤SSC) education (OR 2.6 95% CI 1.1to 5.9), history of adverse pregnancy outcome (OR 2.8 95% CI 1.2 to 6.5) and multiple sex partner of husband (OR 4.1 95% CI 1.2 to 14.8) were associated with chlamydia infection. The use of condom (OR 0.28 95% CI 0.12 to 0.63) was associated with decreased risk of infection. Chlamydia trachomatis infection during pregnancy is associated with risk factors on the basis of which selective screening can be done.

  7. The Seropositivity Rate of Atypical Agents in Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhan Karakoc Gunes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the IgM antibody positivities of atypical pneumonia agents in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, and to compare the results with controls. The serum samples which were collected from 87 adult patients and 21 healthy controls have been investigated by a commercial ELISA (Pneumobact ELISA IgM, Vircell, Spain in which four different atypical pneumonia agents were fixed onto a slide. In the patients group, IgM positivity rates for the agents were as follows, respectively; 2.3% for Legionella pneumophila, 56.3% Chlamydia pneumoniae, 33.3% for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 9.2% for Coxiella burnetii. The rates of IgM positivities in the control group varied 7% for all of the agents except M. Pneumoniae and C. Pneumoniae and 2 of these controls were positive for L. Pneumophila IgM, one was positive for C. Burnetii IgM. According to the statistical evaluation, there were significant differences for IgM seropositivities to Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia Pneumoniae,between the patient and the control groups (p0.05. We showed that the seropositivity rate of atypical agents in patients with CAP was significantly higher when compared to healthy control group. This result suggests us, atypical agents might be responsible in CAP patients in a great amount. Furthermore, our study also suggests that clinical and radiological findings are not useful for discriminating atypical from typical pneumonia. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 279-284

  8. Baseline blood pressure, low- and high-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides and the risk of vascular events in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Callahan, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    AND RESULTS: The SPARCL trial randomized 4731 patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and no known coronary heart disease and LDL-C between 100 and 190 mg/dL to either atorvastatin 80 mg/d or placebo. Baseline assessment included SBP, DBP and measurements of low-density lipoprotein....... There were no interactions between any of these baseline variables and the effect of treatment on outcome strokes. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with recent stroke or TIA and no coronary heart disease, only lower baseline HDL-C predicted the risk of recurrent stroke with HDL-C, triglycerides, and LDL/HDL ratio...

  9. Clinical presentation and opportunistic infections in HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Jespersen, Sanne; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2016-01-01

    seropositive patients had a lower BMI and a higher prevalence of weight loss, skin rash and productive cough than HIV-2 seropositive patients (p value 0.03, 0.002, 0.03 and 0.04). Only four cases (2%) of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) were diagnosed. One patient (1/96, 1%) was tested positive for cryptococcal...

  10. Blood transfusion and iatrogenic risks in Mexico city: anti-Trypanosoma cruzi seroprevalence in 43,048 blood donors, evaluation of parasitemia, and electrocardiogram findings in seropositive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia Hernández-Becerril

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenous transmission of Trypanosoma cruziby blood transfusion was suggested as a potential risk by Pellegrino (1949. Seropositive blood donors in Mexico were first reported in 1978, however, limited information is available due to small sampling, the use of heterogeneous serologic assays, and geographically limited studies. A wide survey carried out in 18 out of the 32 states of Mexico, showed a national mean of 1.6% seropositive among 64,969 donors, ranging from 0.2 to 2.8%. In the present study, we have screened 43,048 voluntary blood donors in a period of five years at the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología I. Chávez, a concentration hospital located in Mexico city which serves mainly the metropolitan area and accepts from all over the country. Standardized ELISA and IIF were used to identify seropositive individuals in addition to hemoculture, PCR and standard 12 lead ECG tests that were applied to a group of seropositive patients (29/161. The result showed a seropositivity of 0.37% (161/43,048. From the group of seropositive individuals 40% (12/29 were potential carriers of T. cruzi at the donation time and 5/29 had subclinical ECG abnormalities. Parasitological tests performed in 70 erythrocyte and platelet fractions from seropositive units (70/161 showed negative results. Our findings strongly support T. cruzi screening in the transfusion medicine practice and identify subclinical heart disease among seropositive blood donors.

  11. HBV carriage in children born from HIV-seropositive mothers in Senegal: The need of birth-dose HBV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, Sokhna Bousso; Diop-Ndiaye, Halimatou; Lo, Gora; Mintsa, Sandrine; Guindo, Ibrahima; Dia, Aminata; Sow-Sall, Amina; Gaye-Diallo, Aissatou; Mboup, Souleymane; Touré-Kane, Coumba

    2016-05-01

    Hepatitis B is a major public health problem in Senegal, a country with high prevalence and a transmission occurring mainly during infancy. Only, one 6-8 weeks vaccination campaign was initiated in 2005 and it was part of the expanded program of immunization. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBsAg in children born from HIV-seropositive mothers by using dried blood specimens. Specimens were collected between July 2007 and November 2012 from children aged 2-48 weeks in Dakar and decentralized sites working on HIV mother-to-child transmission prevention. HBsAg detection was performed using Architect HBsAg Qualitative II kit (Abbott Diagnostics, Ireland) and for all reactive samples confirmation was done using Architect HBsAg Qualitative II Confirmatory kit (Abbott Diagnostics, Ireland). Nine hundred thirty samples were collected throughout the country with 66% out of Dakar, the capital city. The median age was 20 weeks and 88% of children were less than 1 year of age with a sex ratio of 1.27 in favor of boys. HBsAg was detected in 28 cases giving a global prevalence of 3%. According to age, HBsAg prevalences were 5.1% for children less than 6 weeks, 4.1% and 4.6%, respectively, for those aged 12-18 weeks and 18-24 weeks of age. The HIV prevalence was 2.6% with no HIV/HBV co-infection. This study showed a high rate of HBV infection in children under 24 months, highlighting the need to promote birth-dose HBV vaccination as recommended by WHO.

  12. Risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity among cattle in the central savannah-forest area of Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanogo, Moussa; Abatih, Emmanuel; Thys, Eric; Fretin, David; Berkvens, Dirk; Saegerman, Claude

    2012-11-01

    Serological results obtained from 907 serum samples collected from unvaccinated cattle of at least 6 months of age in the savannah-forest region of Ivory Coast were used to investigate risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis seropositivity. Serum samples were tested using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). Using a parallel interpretation, RBT and iELISA results showed that 10.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.4, 12.4) of the cattle had antibodies against Brucella in our study area. The logistic regression analysis indicated that brucellosis seropositivity was associated with age and herd size. Cattle above 5 years of age were found to have a higher chance of being seropositive (odd ratio (OR)=2.8; 95% CI: 1.3, 6.4) compared to cattle under 3 years of age. Similarly, the odd of brucellosis seropositivity for herds with more than 100 cattle was 3.3 (95% CI: 1.2, 8.9) times higher compared to those with less than 50 cattle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  14. TWRS privatization process technical baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orme, R.M.

    1996-09-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning a two-phased program for the remediation of Hanford tank waste. Phase 1 is a pilot program to demonstrate the procurement of treatment services. The volume of waste treated during the Phase 1 is a small percentage of the tank waste. During Phase 2, DOE intends to procure treatment services for the balance of the waste. The TWRS Privatization Process Technical Baseline (PPTB) provides a summary level flowsheet/mass balance of tank waste treatment operations which is consistent with the tank inventory information, waste feed staging studies, and privatization guidelines currently available. The PPTB will be revised periodically as privatized processing concepts are crystallized.

  15. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jon F.; Kehrer, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts. Following the guidance in this handbook will help customers and suppliers preparing for an IBR understand the expectations of the IBR, and ensure that the IBR meets the requirements for both in-house and contract efforts.

  16. Anti-hepatitis C virus seropositivity is not associated with metabolic syndrome irrespective of age, gender and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan-Lung; Wang, Yuan-Chen; Lan, Keng-Hsin; Huo, Teh-Ia; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Su, Chien-Wei; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Wu, Jaw-Ching; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have tried to clarify the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and metabolic syndrome, few studies have comprehensively assessed their relationship stratified by different demographic characteristics. We aimed to investigate the correlation between metabolic syndrome and anti-HCV seropositivity in Taiwan. This study enrolled consecutive subjects who had received health check-up services at Taipei Veterans General Hospital from 2002 to 2009. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the criteria defined by the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention. Among the 30616 subjects enrolled in this study, the prevalence of positive anti-HCV serology was 2.7%, and 28.8% were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. By multivariate analysis, metabolic syndrome was associated with higher body mass index, older age, male sex, a higher level of alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, platelet count and the presence of fatty liver whereas anti-HCV seropositivity was not an independent variable for metabolic syndrome. Further stratifying the subjects by age and sex, and there was still no significant difference in HCV status between those with and without metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the stage of liver fibrosis represented by aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index was also not correlated with metabolic syndrome in the subjects with anti-HCV seropositivity. In conclusion, although subjects with anti-HCV seropositivity had higher fasting glucose levels and lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels compared to those with negative anti-HCV test, anti-HCV seropositivity was not associated with metabolic syndrome based on the current diagnostic criteria irrespective of age, gender and the stage of hepatic fibrosis.

  17. Primary Cytomegalovirus Infection in Seronegative Kidney Transplant Patients Is Associated with Protracted Cold Ischemic Time of Seropositive Donor Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Matevossian, Edouard; Lutz, Jens; Heemann, Uwe; Hösel, Volker; Busch, Dirk H.; Renders, Lutz; Neuenhahn, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Human Cytomegalovirus (CMV) can lead to primary infection or reactivation in CMV-seronegative or -seropositive kidney transplant recipients, respectively. Complications comprise severe end-organ diseases and acute or chronic transplant rejection. Risk for CMV manifestation is stratified according to the CMV-IgG-serostatus, with donor+/recipient- (D+/R-) patients carrying the highest risk for CMV-replication. However, risk factors predisposing for primary infection in CMV-seronegative recipients are still not fully elucidated. Therefore, we monitored D+/R- high-risk patients undergoing kidney transplantation in combination with antiviral prophylaxis for the incidence of CMV-viremia for a median follow-up time of 784 days (156–1155 days). In this period, we analyzed the functional CMV-specific T cell response by intracellular cytokine staining and CMV-serology by ELISA. Only four of eight D+/R- patients developed clinically relevant CMV-viremia followed by seroconversion. Viremia triggered expansion of functional CMV-specific T cells correlating with protection against secondary CMV-reactivations. In contrast, all other patients remained permanently aviremic and showed no immunological correlate of infection after discontinuation of antiviral prophylaxis for up to three years. Comparing cold ischemic times (CIT) of viremic (median = 1020 min; 720–1080 min) and aviremic patients (median = 335 min; 120–660 min) revealed significantly (p = 0.0286) protracted CIT in patients with primary CMV-infection. Taken together, primary CMV-infection affects only a subgroup of D+/R- patients correlating with length of CIT. Therefore, patients with extended CIT should be thoroughly monitored for CMV-replication well beyond discontinuation of antiviral prophylaxis. In contrast, patients with short CIT remained permanently uninfected and might benefit from shorter prophylactic treatment. PMID:28129395

  18. Síndrome de Parsonage-Turner em paciente HIV positivo Parsonage-Turner syndrome in HIV seropositive patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acir Rachid

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Parsonage-Turner é uma desordem rara de etiologia ainda indeterminada, contudo com fortes evidências de associação a infecções virais inclusive pelo vírus HIV, que afeta a cintura escapular e desencadeia dor e fraqueza da musculatura do ombro e da extremidade superior. O diagnóstico raramente é feito no início do quadro e poucos exames laboratoriais podem ser úteis, com destaque para a eletroneuromiografia. Seu tratamento é basicamente observacional e de controle dos sintomas e a recuperação é esperada na maioria dos pacientes. Por se tratar de uma enfermidade rara e de difícil diagnóstico clínico, os autores relatam o caso de um paciente com quadro clínico laboratorial compatível com a síndrome de Parsonage-Turner associada à soropositividade ao vírus da imunodeficiência adquirida.Parsonage-Turner syndrome is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, nevertheless with high evidences of association with viral infections, including HIV, which affects the shoulder girdle and unleash pain and weakness of the shoulder and upper extremity. The diagnosis is rarely made in acute setting and few diagnostic tests are helpful, except for electroneuromyography. The treatment is basically supportive and full recovery is expected in most patients. For being a rare ailment allied with difficult diagnosis, the authors report a case of a patient with clinical and laboratorial findings of Parsonage-Turner syndrome associated with acquired immunodeficiency virus seropositivity.

  19. Seropositivity to herpes simplex virus antibodies and risk of Alzheimer's disease: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Letenneur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV infection has been proposed as a possible risk factor of Alzheimer's Disease (AD notably because it is neurotropic, ubiquitous in the general population and able to establish lifelong latency in the host. The fact that HSV was present in elderly subjects with AD suggests that the virus could be a co-factor of the disease. We investigated the risk of developing AD in anti-HSV immunoglobulin G (IgG positive subjects (indicator of a lifelong infection to HSV and IgM-positive subjects (indicator of primary infection or reactivation of the virus in a longitudinal population-based cohort of elderly subjects living in the community. METHODS: Cox proportional hazard models were used to study the risk of developing AD according to the presence or not of anti-HSV IgG and IgM antibodies, assessed in the sera of 512 elderly initially free of dementia followed for 14 years. RESULTS: During the follow-up, 77 incident AD cases were diagnosed. Controlled for age, gender, educational level and Apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4 status, IgM-positive subjects showed a significant higher risk of developing AD (HR = 2.55; 95% CI [1.38-4.72], although no significant increased risk was observed in IgG-positive subjects (HR = 1.67; 95%CI [0.75-3.73]. No modification effect with APOE4 status was found. CONCLUSION: Reactivation of HSV seropositivity is highly correlated with incident AD. HSV chronic infection may therefore be contributive to the progressive brain damage characteristic of AD.

  20. Cross-border injection drug use and HIV and hepatitis C virus seropositivity among people who inject drugs in San Diego, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horyniak, Danielle; Wagner, Karla D; Armenta, Richard F; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Hendrickson, Erik; Garfein, Richard S

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) are significantly lower among people who inject drugs (PWID) in San Diego, CA, USA compared with PWID in Tijuana, Mexico, located directly across the border. We investigated associations between cross-border injection drug use (IDU), HIV and HCV seroprevalence and engagement in injecting risk behaviours while on each side of the border. Using baseline interviews and serologic testing data from STAHR II, a longitudinal cohort study of PWID in San Diego, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses examined associations between recent (past six months) cross-border IDU and HIV and HCV antibody seropositivity, socio-demographics, drug use characteristics, and participants' connections to, and perceptions about Mexico. Chi-squared tests and McNemar tests examined associations between cross-border IDU and injecting risk behaviours. Of the 567 participants (93% U.S.-born, 73% male, median age 45 years), 86 (15%) reported recent cross-border IDU. Cross-border IDU was not associated with HIV (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.37-1.95) or HCV seropositivity (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.62-1.65). Age, identifying as Hispanic or Latino/a, and being concerned about risk of violence when travelling to Mexico were independently associated with decreased odds of recent cross-border IDU. Injecting cocaine at least weekly, having ever lived in Mexico and knowing PWID who reside in Mexico were associated with increased odds of recent cross-border IDU. PWID who reported cross-border IDU were significantly less likely to engage in receptive needle sharing, equipment sharing, and public injection while in Mexico compared with in San Diego (all p<0.001). Prevalence of HIV and HCV infection was similar among PWID who had and had not injected in Mexico, possibly due to practising safer injecting while in Mexico. Research is needed to elucidate contextual factors enabling U.S. PWID to inject safely while in Mexico. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  1. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-01

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  2. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB) - Webinar Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; Porro, Gian; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-13

    This deck was presented for the 2016 Annual Technology Baseline Webinar. The presentation describes the Annual Technology Baseline, which is a compilation of current and future cost and performance data for electricity generation technologies.

  3. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline points are the discrete coordinate points along the...

  4. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline points are the discrete coordinate points along the...

  5. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Tangents

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline tangent lines are typically bay or river closing...

  6. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in south-east of Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Jafarzadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been also reported that that H. pylori infection may be responsible for some endocrine disorders, such as autoimmune thyroid diseases, diabetes mellitus and primary hyperparathyroidism. H. pylori which express cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA may be more virulent than those that do not. The aim was to evaluate the seroprevalence of anti-H. pylori IgG and anti-CagA  antibodies in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM and healthy individuals from Rafsanjan city (Iran. A total of 100 patients with type 2 diabetes and 100 age-matched healthy individuals were enrolled to study. A blood sample was collected from each participant. The type 2 DM established according to the fasting blood glucose level of 126 mg/dl. The sera were tested for the presence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies and antibody to CagA by use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The seroprevalence of anti-H. pylori antibodies in diabetic  patients (76% was similar to that observed in healthy subjects (75%. The mean titer of anti-H. pylori IgG in healthy control group (131.63±11.68 U/ml was significantly higher than diabetic group (54.43±4.50 U/ml; P<0.0001. The prevalence of serum anti-CagA IgG antibodies was 78.9% in infected diabetic patients and 77.3% in healthy control group with mean titer of 75.02±4.54 U/ml and 84.34±5.85 U/ml, respectively. No significant differences were observed between diabetic and healthy control groups regarding the prevalence and the mean titer of anti-CagA IgG antibodies. In the diabetic group, the seropositive rate of anti-H. pylori IgG was higher in women as compared to men, but the difference was not statistically significant. These results show that H. pylori seropositivity rate was similar in type 2 DM patients and non-diabetics control group. No association was also found between CagA-positive strains of H. pylori and type 2 DM.

  7. 40 CFR 1042.825 - Baseline determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Baseline determination. 1042.825... Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines § 1042.825 Baseline determination. (a) For the purpose of this... not valid. (f) Use good engineering judgment for all aspects of the baseline determination. We may...

  8. Low prevalence of liver-kidney microsomal autoantibodies of type 1 (LKM1 in hepatitis C seropositive subjects on Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappas Georgios

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C is a serious problem on the Greek island of Crete, where a high prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis C (anti-HCV has recently been reported. This article reports the findings of a study carried out in Crete, which investigated the prevalence of serum autoantibodies in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Patients and Methods One hundred and forty two patients (59 men and 83 women, who were found anti-HCV seropositive in two hospitals and two Primary Health Care Centres in Crete, were eligible. Sixty healthy blood donors (46 men, 14 women, which were negative to anti-HCV, were used as the control group. They were randomly selected from those attending Rethymnon Hospital. Autoantibodies were identified using the indirect immunofluorescence (IFL technique on human epithelial cells from larynx cancer (HEp-2 cells, rat liver-kidney-stomach substrate (CT3 and Chrithidia Luciliae (CL. Results Serum autoantibodies were detected in 104 HCV patients, yielding an overall prevalence of 73.2%. The most frequent autoantibodies were antinuclear antibodies (ANA, positive in 72 patients (50.7%. Anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA were detected in 33 patients (23.2%. Only one patient was positive for LKM1 autoantibodies. No autoantibodies were found in 38 patients (26.7%. Autoantibodies were also found in 5 out of the 60 examined healthy blood donors (8.3%. Conclusions Autoantibodies, mainly ANA and ASMA are very common in HCV seropositive patients from Crete. By contrast LKM1 autoantibodies are exceptionally rare in these patients.

  9. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii (Q fever seropositivity in dairy goat farmers' households in The Netherlands, 2009-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Schimmer

    Full Text Available Community Q fever epidemics occurred in The Netherlands in 2007-2009, with dairy goat and dairy sheep farms as the implicated source. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for seropositivity in dairy goat farmers and their household members living or working on these farms. Sera of 268 people living or working on 111 dairy goat farms were tested for Coxiella burnetii IgG and IgM antibodies using immunofluorescence assay. Seroprevalences in farmers, spouses and children (12-17 years were 73.5%, 66.7%, and 57.1%, respectively. Risk factors for seropositivity were: performing three or more daily goat-related tasks, farm location in the two southern provinces of the country, proximity to bulk milk-positive farms, distance from the nearest stable to residence of 10 meters or less, presence of cats and multiple goat breeds in the stable, covering stable air spaces and staff not wearing farm boots. Goat farmers have a high risk to acquire this occupational infection. Clinicians should consider Q fever in this population presenting with compatible symptoms to allow timely diagnosis and treatment to prevent severe sequelae. Based on the risk factors identified, strengthening general biosecurity measures is recommended such as consistently wearing boots and protective clothing by farm staff to avoid indirect transmission and avoiding access of companion animals in the goat stable. Furthermore, it provides an evidence base for continuation of the current vaccination policy for small ruminants, preventing spread from contaminated farms to other farms in the vicinity. Finally, vaccination of seronegative farmers and household members could be considered.

  10. Pattern of co-infection by enteric pathogenic parasites among HIV sero-positive individuals in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishat Hussain Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the major medical concerns in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA is management of diarrhea that can lead to severe morbidity and mortality. Such clinical scenario warrants an analysis of intestinal parasites, which are important opportunistic pathogens in PLHA. Owing to the scarcity of recent pattern of intestinal opportunistic infections from this region, the study was designed to determine the opportunistic parasites causing diarrhea in PLHA; and to find out whether there is any significant difference in the enteric parasitic pathogens in patients with different immunological status and in those on highly active anti retro-viral therapy (HAART. Materials and Methods: Analysis of the spectrum of intestinal parasites was carried out with 192 subjects in two groups (142 HIV sero-positive patients having diarrhea and 50 HIV sero-negative patients having diarrhea. The routine light microscopic examination was carried out to determine the infection and CD4+ T-Lymphocyte count was estimated using flow cytometry. Results: Enteric parasites were detected in 35.9% of HIV sero-positive patients having diarrhea and 18% of HIV sero-negative patients having diarrhea. Most common opportunistic enteric parasite was Isospora belli (11.5%; others were Entamoeba histolytica (4.7%, Cryptosporidium sp. (3.6%, Strongyloides stercoralis (3.1%, Giardia intestinalis (3.1% and Cyclospora cayatanenesis (1.6%. Opportunistic enteric parasites were detected in significantly low numbers in patients with CD4+ T-Lymphocyte counts >500 cells/ml; and in those taking HAART.

  11. Neutrino oscillations: what is magic about the "magic" baseline?

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, A Yu

    2006-01-01

    Physics interpretation of the ``magic'' baseline that can play important role in future oscillation experiments is given. The ``magic'' baseline coincides with the refraction length, $l_0$. The latter, in turn, approximately equals the oscillation length in matter at high energies. Therefore at the baseline $L = l_0$ the oscillation phase is $2\\pi$, and consequently, the ``solar'' amplitude of oscillations driven by the mixing angle $\\theta_{12}$ and mass splitting $\\Delta m^2_{21}$ vanishes. As a result, in the lowest order (i) the interference of amplitudes in the $\

  12. Automatic system for blood donors control with seropositive results in epidemiological tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Menéndez Barrios

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of infectious diseases transmission through blood transfusion is one of the biggest challenges in the transfusion field of medicine. Objective: to design a computerized system for blood donors control with seropositive results in epidemiological tests. Methods: A system designed by the Provincial Blood Bank using Microsoft Access as a data base system and DELFHI 7 as associated language. It runs under Windows 2000 or any other superior system with 64 RAM and do not need special requirements of software or hardware. It includes the following data: Full name, age, sex, race, Id number, home address, number of the clinical record in the blood bank, date when the trial took place in each patient, kind of disease diagnosed, technical data of the trial such as: fluorescence, sectional level of the 1st trial as well as the repetition, name of the technician who performed it. Results: It permits to consult general data of donors as well as the disease diagnosed. It also permits to elaborate reports of these patients from any PC of the blood bank acceding with the security password of the program. Conclusions: It constitutes a beneficial tool which permits to improve the notification system established in the program of the web about sexually transmitted diseases from the Minister of Public Health in Cuba.

  13. Characteristics of prospective memory deficits in HIV-seropositive substance-dependent individuals: preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Eileen M; Nixon, Heather; Pitrak, David L; Weddington, William; Rains, Niles A; Nunnally, Gerald; Grbesic, Silvana; Gonzalez, Raul; Jacobus, Joanna; Bechara, Antoine

    2007-07-01

    The construct of "prospective memory" (PM) refers to a type of episodic memory for a future intention or "remembering what one must do." This function has been proposed as a candidate mechanism underlying behaviors of critical importance in HIV disease, including adherence with medication regimens and continued engagement in risk behavior. We administered tasks of time-based and event-based prospective memory and control tasks of retrospective and working memory to 31 HIV-seropositive and 35 HIV-seronegative substance-dependent individuals (SDIs). We found that compared with HIV- controls HIV+ participants showed deficits in time-based but not event-based PM. Retrospective, but not working, memory performance correlated significantly with time-based PM performance. In addition, performance on the time-based PM task was a significant predictor of scores on a self-report measure of risky sexual and injection practices. These preliminary data provide new and unique findings regarding the components of executive function mediated by prefrontal cortical systems that are impaired among HIV+ SDIs and their relevance to "real-world" behaviors.

  14. Ovine catarrhal fever (Bluetongue): analysis of Culicoides species in seropositive farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercio, A; Di Marco, P; Manno, C; Di Bella, C; Purpari, G; Torina, A

    2010-04-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is an orbiviral disease of wild and domestic ruminants, mainly sheep. In Sicily, the first Bluetongue outbreak occurred in October 2000; there have been 76 recorded outbreaks so far. The National Surveillance Plan, based on European Union Commission Decision 138/2001/CE, establishes serological and entomological surveys. This plan consists of controls of seronegative cattle, called 'sentry' as indicators for the presence and circulation of virus in defined areas. To check the seroconversions, the regional territory has been subdivided in 400 km(2) areas including 58 seronegative cattle, periodically checked by serological tests. All positive sera have been tested to detect the specific serotype by the National Reference Centre for Exotic Diseases (CESME) at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Abruzzo e Molise in Teramo (IZS Teramo). Moreover, entomological surveillance has been implemented in seropositive herds, to investigate the presence of insect vectors belonging to Culicoides genus. The goal of the present communication is to report on the different species of Culicoides found in the farms with Bluetongue virus and to investigate on the probable role of new competent vectors. This paper concerns data analysis of 581 light-trap catches collected in 321 farms from 2003 to 2008. We observed that 82% of checked farms were positive for Culicoides spp., and only 10% of the farms were positive for Culicoides imicola.

  15. The relationship between adenovirus-36 seropositivity, obesity and metabolic profile in Turkish children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamese, M; Altoparlak, U; Turgut, A; Aydogdu, S; Karamese, S Aksak

    2015-12-01

    Obesity potentially arising from viral infection is known as 'infectobesity'. The latest reports suggest that adenovirus-36 (Adv36) is related to obesity in adults and children. Our aim was not only to determine the Adv36 seropositivity in both obese and non-obese children and adults, but also to investigate correlations between antibody positivity and serum lipid profiles. Both Adv36 positivity and tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha, leptin and interleukin-6 levels were detected in blood samples collected from 146 children and 130 adults by ELISA. Fasting plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels were also measured. Adv36 positivity was determined to be 27·1% and 6% in obese and non-obese children and 17·5% and 4% in obese and non-obese adults, respectively. There was no difference with regard to total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels (P > 0·05). However, there was a significant difference between groups in terms of leptin levels (P obese children and adults. Our results showed that Adv36 may be an obesity agent for both adults and children, parallel with current literature data. However, the available data on a possible relationship between Adv36 infection and obesity both in children and adults do not completely solve the problem.

  16. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anka, Mukhtar Salihu; Hassan, Latiffah; Khairani-Bejo, Siti; Zainal, Mohamed Abidin; Mohamad, Ramlan Bin; Salleh, Annas; Adzhar, Azri

    2014-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59-50.05); originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94-443.19) and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10-71.83) were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31-140.24) and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54-590.90) when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program.

  17. Evaluation of Clinical Findings, Some Hematological and Biochemical Findings, and Age and Sex Status in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) Seropositive Cats With Clinical Symptoms and Without Clinical Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    DENİZ, Abdülkerim

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the clinical findings, some hematological and biochemical findings, and sex and age status in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) seropositive cats. In 37 FIV-seropositive cats, different clinical symptoms were observed (group 1). However, seven of the FIV-seropositive cats showed no clinical symptoms (group 2). The control group was made up of 116 healthy cats. FIV infection was seen more in male cats (78.4%) than in female cats. 62% of the FIV-seropos...

  18. Evaluation of Clinical Findings, Some Hematological and Biochemical Findings, and Age and Sex Status in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) Seropositive Cats With Clinical Symptoms and Without Clinical Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    DENİZ, Abdülkerim

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the clinical findings, some hematological and biochemical findings, and sex and age status in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) seropositive cats. In 37 FIV-seropositive cats, different clinical symptoms were observed (group 1). However, seven of the FIV-seropositive cats showed no clinical symptoms (group 2). The control group was made up of 116 healthy cats. FIV infection was seen more in male cats (78.4%) than in female cats. 62% of the FIV-seropos...

  19. Impact of baseline covariates on the immunogenicity of the 9-valent HPV vaccine - A combined analysis of five phase III clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Lone K; Restrepo, Jaime; Moreira, Edson D; Iversen, Ole-Erik; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Van Damme, Pierre; Joura, Elmar A; Olsson, Sven-Erik; Ferris, Daron; Block, Stan; Giuliano, Anna R; Bosch, Xavier; Pils, Sophie; Cuzick, Jack; Garland, Suzanne M; Huh, Warner; Kjaer, Susanne K; Bautista, Oliver M; Hyatt, Donna; Maansson, Roger; Moeller, Erin; Qi, Hong; Roberts, Christine; Luxembourg, Alain

    2017-06-01

    The immunogenicity profile of the 9-valent HPV (9vHPV) vaccine was evaluated across five phase III clinical studies conducted in girls and boys 9-15 years of age and young women 16-26 years of age. The effect of baseline characteristics of subjects on vaccine-induced HPV antibody responses was assessed. Immunogenicity data from 11,304 subjects who received ≥1 dose of 9vHPV vaccine in five Phase III studies were analyzed. Vaccine was administered as a 3-dose regimen. HPV antibody titers were assessed 1 month after dose 3 using a competitive Luminex immunoassay and summarized as geometric mean titers (GMTs). Covariates examined were age, gender, race, region of residence, and HPV serostatus and PCR status at day 1. GMTs to all 9 vaccine HPV types decreased with age at vaccination initiation, and were otherwise generally similar among the demographic subgroups defined by gender, race and region of residence. For all subgroups defined by race or region of residence, GMTs were higher in girls and boys than in young women. Vaccination of subjects who were seropositive at day 1 to a vaccine HPV type resulted in higher GMTs to that type, compared with those in subjects who were seronegative for that type at day 1. 9vHPV vaccine immunogenicity was robust among subjects with differing baseline characteristics. It was generally comparable across subjects of different races and from different regions. Greater immunogenicity in girls and boys versus young women (the population used to establish 9vHPV vaccine efficacy in clinical studies) indicates that the anti-HPV responses generated by the vaccine in adolescents from all races or regions were sufficient to induce high-level protective efficacy. This immunogenicity profile supports a widespread 9vHPV vaccination program and early vaccination. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for Brucella seropositivity among sheep and goats in a peri-urban region of Tajikistan

    OpenAIRE

    Rajala, Elisabeth Lindahl; Grahn, Cecilia; Ljung, Isabel; Sattorov, Nosirjon; Boqvist, Sofia; Magnusson, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of Brucella infection among sheep and goats on small-scale farms in a peri-urban area of Tajikistan and identify factors associated with seropositivity. The study population was 667 female sheep and goats >6 months of age from 21 villages in four districts surrounding the capital city, Dushanbe. Individual blood samples were collected during October and November 2012 and analysed with indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (E...

  1. Cytotoxin-associated gene-A-seropositive virulent strains of Helicobacter pylori and atherosclerotic diseases: a systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shuo; GUO Yang; MA Yan; TENG Yue

    2008-01-01

    Objective A systematic meta-analysis was performed to explore the role of cytotoxin-associated gene-A (CagA)seropositive strains of Helicobacterpylori (H. pylon) in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic diseases.Data sources Data from Medline, EMBASE, CBMdisc, CNKI and the Cochrane Collaboration database were searched.Similar search strategies were applied to each of these databases.Study selection The review was restricted to the case-control studies on infective, chronic virulent CagA strains of H.pylori, involving the risk of ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease, ineligible studies were excluded. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and assessed study quality.Results Totally 26 case-control studies (11 studies on ischemic stroke and 15 studies on coronary heart disease) were retrieved and considered. The combined data revealed that the chronic seropositive virulent strains of H. pylori infection had a trend of increasing the risk of ischemic strokes and coronary heart diseases, yielding pooled Ors of 2.68 (95% CI: 2.20, 3.27)and 2.11 (95% CI: 1.70, 2.62), respectively. We also performed subgroup analyses, dividing the total population into Caucasian and Chinese subgroups. Through the subgroup analysis, no significant difference was found between the subgroups.Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that CagA-seropositive strains infection is significantly associated with susceptibility to ischemic strokes and coronary heart diseases. The magnitude of the association with atherosclerotic diseases needs to be confirmed by prospective studies and the studies on CagA-seropositive strains eradication are more important.

  2. Computed tomographic demonstrations of HIV seropositive pulmonary tuberculosis and their relationship with CD4+T-lymphocyte count

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-zhong; LI Hong-jun; CHENG Jing-liang; WU Hao; BAO Dong-ying

    2011-01-01

    Background Factors of cell-mediated immunity and allergy together play their roles in the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and its prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the computed tomographic demonstrations of HIV seropositive PTB and the relationship between its pathogenesis and CD4+ T-lymphocyte count.Methods The documented CT images of a total of 44 patients with HIV seropositive PTB, definitely diagnosed by etiological or pathological examinations, their clinical data and their CD4+ T-lymphocyte count were retrospectively reviewed.Results There were 15 cases of miliary tuberculosis, accounting for 34.1% of the total cases; 15 cases of nodular tuberculosis, 34.1%; 6 cases of ground-glass opacity, 13.6%; 5 cases of cord-liked fiber shadows, 11.4%; 16 cases of flaky and flocculating shadows, 36.4%; 5 cases of cavitation, 11.4%; 5 cases of tumor shadows, 11.4%; 2 cases of pleural thickening, 4.5% and 11 cases of pleural effusion, 25.0%; 1 case of calcification, 2.3%; 16 cases of lymphadenectasis,36.4%. The foci were located around the pulmonary hilum, anterior segment of superior lobe, basal segment of inferior lobe, medial lobe and lingual lobe. CD4+ T-lymphocyte count was closely related to the imaging demonstrations of HIV seropositive PTB.Conclusions CT scanning can demonstrate various signs of PTB. CD4+ T-lymphocyte level determines the variety of imaging demonstrations of HIV seropositive PTB and its prognosis.

  3. The role of niacin in raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to reduce cardiovascular events in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and optimally treated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: baseline characteristics of study participants. The Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic syndrome with low HDL/high triglycerides: impact on Global Health outcomes (AIM-HIGH) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The study aims to report the baseline characteristics of the fully randomized AIM-HIGH study population. Residual risk persists despite aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease, many of whom have atherogenic dyslipidemia (low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated triglycerides, and small dense LDL particles). All study participants had established CV disease and atherogenic dyslipidemia. Participants received simvastatin (or simvastatin plus ezetimibe) at a dose sufficient to maintain LDL-C at 40 - 80 mg/dL (1.03-2.07 mmol/L) and were randomized to receive extended-release niacin or matching placebo. The primary end point is time to the first occurrence of coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome or symptom-driven coronary or cerebral revascularization with average follow-up of 4.1 years. Between 2006 and 2010, 8,162 individuals signed consent to be screened, 4,275 began study drug run-in, and 3,414 were randomized to treatment. Mean age at entry was 64 ± 9 years, 85% were men, and 92% were white. As expected, risk factors were prevalent with 34% having diabetes; 71%, hypertension; and 81%, metabolic syndrome. Most participants had coronary artery disease (92%), whereas 11% had peripheral arterial disease; and 12%, cerebrovascular disease. Previous coronary revascularization occurred in 82%, and 54% reported a prior myocardial infarction. Among participants on a statin at entry (94%), mean baseline LDL-C was 71 mg/dL (1.84 mmol/L); mean HDL-C, 34.9 mg/dL (0.90 mmol/L); and median triglycerides, 161 mg/dL (1.82 mmol/L). AIM-HIGH enrolled a high-risk group of patients with established atherosclerotic CV disease and atherogenic dyslipidemia. This study should determine whether there is incremental clinical benefit of niacin in reducing cardiovascular events in patients who

  4. Report of the baseline survey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    administered the questionnaire, linee coordinators supervised die activities of .... operating in highly disadvantaged env- .... physician, one nurse and one sani- ..... room. Type of light. Number of rooms. House shared with animals*. No.

  5. Correlation of Hepatitis C Antibody Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Saliva of Hepatitis C Seropositive Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Açıkgöz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Search for hepatitis C virus (HCV in body fluids other than blood is important when assessing possible nonparenteral routes of viral transmission. However, the role of oral fluids in HCV transmission remains controversial. Our aim was to compare the prevalence of HCV antibody (HCV Ab levels in saliva, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of HCV seropositive hemodialysis patients. Serum, saliva and GCF samples were collected from thirty-nine patients. Samples were analyzed for HCV Ab using the Ortho HCV 3.0 SAVe enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. HCH Ab levels in saliva and GCF of all HCV-seropositive patients were statistically compared. Reported here are the results of the study designed to determine the correlation between HCV-RNA positivity in serum and the detection of antibodies in GCF and saliva. One hundred percent (100% of the 39 patients have antibodies to HCV in their serum, 15.4% have antibodies to HCV in GCF, and saliva found out. HCV Ab seropositivity in GCF and saliva was significantly correlated (kappa = 0.462; <.001. This study supports the concept that GCF may be a significant source of HCV in saliva.

  6. Comparative study on the microbiological features of angular cheilitis in HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative patients from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Anitha Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to compare the microbiological features of angular cheilitis (AC in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative individuals, in a group of south Indians. Materials and Methods: Swabs from oral commissures of 46 patients were obtained and inoculated on to Sabouraud′s dextrose agar (SDA supplemented with chloramphenicol, blood agar (BA and MacConkey′s agar (MCA plates and cultured. α-hemolytic Streptococci, Staphylococcus albus, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida species, Klebsiella species and Pseudomonas species were cultured. Candidal colonies were further speciated by the conventional biotyping technique. Results: In AC of HIV seropositive patients Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus were more prevalent than that in HIV seronegative patients. Incidentally in patients with CD4 cell count less than 200 there was an increase in the incidence of Candidal and Staphylococcus aureus colonization when compared to patients with CD4 cell count higher than 200. Conclusion: The present study suggests a definite difference in the microbial flora of AC in HIV seropositive patients than that of HIV seronegative population.

  7. Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, long-baseline neutrino experiments played a fundamental role in confirming neutrino flavor change and in measuring the neutrino mixing matrix with high precision. This role will be amplified with the next generation of experiments, which will begin probing the possibility of CP violation in the leptonic sector and possibly pin down the neutrino mass hierarchy. An account of the most recent results from the MINOS experiment is presented, along with the earlier measurement from the K2K experiment. The next generation projects, T2K and NOvA, are described and their current status, schedule and physics reach discussed. Finally, we report on future efforts, currently in the R&D stage, such as the LBNE and T2KK projects.

  8. The Relationship between Cocaine Use and Human Papillomavirus Infections in HIV-Seropositive and HIV-Seronegative Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Minkoff

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Animal data suggest that cocaine has an immunosuppressive effect, but no human studies have been conducted to assess the relation of cocaine use with human papillomavirus (HPV infection, the viral cause of cervical cancer. Since both cocaine use and HPV infection are common among HIV-positive women, we sought to determine whether use of cocaine and/or crack influences the natural history of HPV among women with or at high risk of HIV. Methods. Women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (2278 HIV-seropositive and 826 high-risk seronegative women were examined every six months for up to 9.5 years with Pap smear, collection of cervicovaginal lavage (CVL samples, and detailed questionnaires regarding health and behavior, including use of crack and cocaine (crack/cocaine. CVLs were tested for HPV DNA by PCR, with genotyping for over forty HPV types. Results. In multivariate logistic regression models, censoring women treated for cervical neoplasia, crack/cocaine use within the last six months was associated with prevalent detection of oncogenic HPV DNA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.30 (1.09–1.55, and with oncogenic HPV-positive squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL (OR = 1.70 (1.27–2.27, following adjustment for age, race, HIV-serostatus, and CD4+ T-cell count, the number of sexual partners in the past six months, and smoking. In multivariate Cox models crack/cocaine use was also associated with a trend that approached significance in regard to incident detection of oncogenic HPV-positive SIL (HR = 1.51, 95% CI 0.99–2.30, and while the rate of oncogenic HPV clearance was not related to cocaine use, the clearance of any SIL was significantly lower in those with versus those without recent crack/cocaine use (HR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.34–0.97. Conclusions. Cocaine use is associated with an increased risk of detection of both prevalent and incident oncogenic HPV infection, as well as an increased risk of HPV-positive SIL over time.

  9. Age-associated Epstein–Barr virus-specific T cell responses in seropositive healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas Sierra, D; Vélez Colmenares, G; Orfao de Matos, A; Fiorentino Gómez, S; Quijano Gómez, S M

    2014-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is present in 95% of the world's adult population. The immune response participates in immune vigilance and persistent infection control, and this condition is maintained by both a good quality (functionality) and quantity of specific T cells throughout life. In the present study, we evaluated EBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte responses in seropositive healthy individuals younger and older than 50 years of age. The assessment comprised the frequency, phenotype, functionality and clonotypic distribution of T lymphocytes. We found that in both age groups a similar EBV-specific T cell response was found, with overlapping numbers of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α+ T lymphocytes (CD4+ and CD8+) within the memory and effector cell compartments, in addition to monofunctional and multi-functional T cells producing interleukin (IL)-2 and/or interferon (IFN)-γ. However, individuals aged more than 50 years showed significantly higher frequencies of IL-2-producing CD4+ T lymphocytes in association with greater production of soluble IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6 than subjects younger than 50 years. A polyclonal T cell receptor (TCR)-variable beta region (Vβ) repertoire exists in both age groups under basal conditions and in response to EBV; the major TCR families found in TNF-α+/CD4+ T lymphocytes were Vβ1, Vβ2, Vβ17 and Vβ22 in both age groups, and the major TCR family in TNF-α+/CD8+ T cells was Vβ13·1 for individuals younger than 50 years and Vβ9 for individuals aged more than 50 years. Our findings suggest that the EBV-specific T cell response (using a polyclonal stimulation model) is distributed throughout several T cell differentiation compartments in an age-independent manner and includes both monofunctional and multi-functional T lymphocytes. PMID:24666437

  10. Semen Bacterial Concentrations and HIV-1 RNA Shedding Among HIV-1–Seropositive Kenyan Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sujatha; Huang, Dandi; Ko, Daisy L.; Sanders, Eduard J.; Peshu, Norbert M.; Krieger, John N.; Muller, Charles H.; Coombs, Robert W.; Fredricks, David N.; Graham, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: HIV-1 is transmitted through semen from men to their sexual partners. Genital infections can increase HIV-1 RNA shedding in semen, but shedding also occurs in the absence of typical pathogens. We hypothesized that higher bacterial concentrations in semen would be associated with higher HIV-1 RNA levels. Methods: We analyzed semen samples from 42 HIV-1–seropositive Kenyan men using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess bacterial concentrations and real-time PCR to measure HIV-1 RNA levels. Generalized estimation equations were used to evaluate associations between these 2 measures. Broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR with pyrosequencing was performed on a subset of 13 samples to assess bacterial community composition. Results: Bacteria were detected in 96.6% of 88 samples by quantitative PCR. Semen bacterial concentration and HIV-1 RNA levels were correlated 0.30 (P = 0.01). The association between bacterial concentration and HIV-1 RNA detection was not significant after adjustment for antiretroviral therapy (ART) (adjusted odds ratio: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.84 to 1.91). Factors associated with semen bacterial concentration included insertive anal sex (adjusted beta 0.92, 95% CI: 0.12 to 1.73) and ART use (adjusted beta: −0.77, 95% CI: −1.50 to 0.04). Among 13 samples with pyrosequencing data, Corynebacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp. were most frequently detected. Conclusion: Most of these HIV-1–infected men had bacteria in their semen. ART use was associated with undetectable semen HIV-1 RNA and lower semen bacterial concentrations, whereas insertive anal sex was associated with higher bacterial concentrations. Additional studies evaluating the relationship between semen bacteria, inflammation, mucosal immunity, and HIV-1 shedding are needed to understand implications for HIV-1 transmission. PMID:27861240

  11. Issues surrounding HIV status disclosure: Experiences of seropositive women in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseun E Oseni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disclosure of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositivity by infected women is crucial in HIV control. To determine the rates, patterns, effects, and determinants of disclosure of status among HIV-positive women in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Simple random sampling method was used to select 364 HIV-positive women accessing care in HIV treatment centers in Lagos Island. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires and analyzed with Epi Info (version 3.5.3. Inferential statistics done was Chi-square test and level of statistical significance was set at <5%. Results: Mean age of respondents was 37.3 ± 3 years, and most were married or cohabiting in monogamous families. The disclosure rates were 81.9% to anyone (excluding a health care professional; 60.4% to spouse/sexual partners; and 67.7% disclosed on the same day of diagnosis. Main reasons for disclosure were failing health (49.3% and a sense of responsibility to the spouse/sexual partner (33.6%. Major reasons for nondisclosure were negative public opinion (84.8% and fear of losing relationships (40.3%. Positive reactions following disclosure were mostly acceptance: 75.2% (family member and 72.3% (spouse/sexual partner while blame was the main negative outcome. Longer duration of diagnosis significantly improved disclosure to anyone (P < 0.001. Older age (P < 0.001 and awareness of spouse/sexual partner's HIV status (P < 0.001 significantly improved disclosure to spouse/sexual partner. Conclusions: Many respondents had not disclosed their status and require support and counseling to do so. Community education regarding stigmatization should be intensified.

  12. Hepatitis B and C: prevalence and risk factors associated with seropositivity among children in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Saeed

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV can lead to chronic liver disease and hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC. This cross-sectional study estimated the prevalence and identified risk factors associated with Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and HCV antibody (anti-HCV sero-positivity among children 1 to 15 years of age. Methods The study targeted the low to middle socioeconomic population that comprises 80% to 85% of the population. Consent was obtained from parents of the eligible children before administering questionnaire and collected a blood sample for anti-HCV and HBsAg serology. Results 3533 children were screened for HBsAg and anti-HCV. 1826 (52 % were males. 65 (1.8 % were positive for HBsAg, male to female ratio 38:27; mean age 10 ± 4 years. 55 (1.6 % were positive for anti-HCV with a mean age 9 ± 4 years. 3 (0.11% boys were positive for both HBsAg and anti-HCV. The overall infection rate was 3.3 % in the studied population. Hepatitis BsAg was more prevalent in subjects who received therapeutic injections 45 (69.2% positive [Odd Ratio OR = 2.2; 95% Confidence interval CI: 1.3–3.6] inspite of using new needle and syringe 44 (67.7% positive [OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3–3.7] and vaccination in the government healthcare facilities 46 (70.7 % positive with [OR = 3.0; 95% CI: 1.4–6.4]. These factors were not significant in anti-HCV positive cases. Conclusion There is a need to educate general population regarding HBV and HCV infection and risks associated with inappropriate therapeutic injections. Hepatitis B vaccine should be administered to all newborns regardless of maternal HBsAg status.

  13. Brucellosis Seropositivity in Animals and Humans in Ethiopia: A Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to assess the heterogeneities of estimates and to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in animals and humans in Ethiopia. Methods/Principal findings Data from 70 studies covering 75879 animals and 2223 humans were extracted. Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Complement Fixation Test (CFT) in series were the most frequently used serological tests. A random effects model was used to calculate pooled prevalence estimates. The overall True Prevalence of brucellosis seropositivity in goats and sheep were estimated at 5.3% (95%CI = 3.5, 7.5) and 2.7% (95%CI = 1.8, 3.4), respectively, and 2.9% for each of camels and cattle. The prevalence was higher in post-pubertal than in pre-pubertal animals (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.6, 3.7) and in the pastoral than in the mixed crop-livestock production system (OR = 2.8, 95%CI = 2.5, 3.2). The incidence rates of brucellosis in humans of pastoral and sedentary system origins were estimated at 160 and 28 per 100 000 person years, respectively. Conclusions The seroprevalence of brucellosis is higher in goats than in other species. Its occurrence is evocative of its importance in the country in general and in the pastoral system in particular. Public awareness creation could reduce the transmission of Brucella spp. from animals to humans and the potential of livestock vaccination as a means of control of brucellosis needs to be assessed. PMID:27792776

  14. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Salihu Anka

    Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59-50.05; originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94-443.19 and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10-71.83 were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31-140.24 and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54-590.90 when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program.

  15. Stroke outcomes in Malawi, a country with high prevalence of HIV: a prospective follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terttu Heikinheimo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stroke contributes significantly to disability and mortality in developing countries yet little is known about the determinants of stroke outcomes in such countries. 12% of Malawian adults have HIV/AIDS. It is not known whether having HIV-infection alters the outcome of stroke. The aim of this study was to document the functional outcome and mortality at 1 year of first-ever acute stroke in Malawi. Also to find out if the baseline variables, including HIV-infection, affect the outcome of stroke. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 147 adult patients with first-ever acute stroke were prospectively followed up for 12 months. Conventional risk factors and HIV-infection were assessed at baseline. Stroke severity was evaluated with modified National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (mNIHSS and functional outcome with modified Rankin scale (mRS. Fifty (34% of patients were HIV-seropositive. 53.4% of patients had a poor outcome (severe disability or death, mRS 4-6 at 1 year. Poor outcome was related to stroke severity and female gender but not to presence of HIV-infection. HIV-seropositive patients were younger and had less often common risk factors for stroke. They suffer more often ischemic stroke than HIV-seronegative patients. CONCLUSIONS: Mild stroke and male gender were associated with favourable outcome. HIV-infection is common in stroke patients in Malawi but does not worsen the outcome of stroke. However, it may be a risk factor for ischemic stroke for young people, who do not have the common stroke risk factors. Our results are significant, because stroke outcome in HIV-seropositive patients has not been studied before in a setting such as ours, with very limited resources and a high prevalence of HIV.

  16. The seropositivity and risk factors for rickettsial infections in selected areas from Black Sea Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicem Tekin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the seropositivity of rickettsial infections (rickettsioses and to as-sess risky behaviors for rickettsioses in North Anatolia, which have dense tick population. Materials and methods: Blood samples of 409 voluntary participants were collected in a cross-sectional seropreva-lence research in Samsun-Tekkeköy and 171 from Samsun Regional Laboratory, KTÜ Medical Faculty/Clinic of Infec-tion Diseases and Tokat State Hospital to determine regional characteristics and risk factors of rickettsial infections. The total sample size was 580 persons. A standard questionnaire was performed by a face to face interview with par-ticipants. The 0-4 age group children were not included. The presence of anti-Rickettsia IgG antibodies was tested in blood samples with Indirect Immunoflourescein Antibody (IFA method.Results: Spotted fever group anti-Rickettsia IgG antibody seropositivity was detected in 68 (11.7% blood samples. Contrarily, typhus group anti-Rickettsia IgG antibody seropositivity was not found in any participant. With bivariate analyses following variables were found to be significantly correlated with rickettsia seropositivity: education status (p=0.015, age (p=0.001, working in farm (p=0.008, working in garden (p=0.022, agricultural activities (p=0.001, being interested in relaxation activity (p=0.009, animal breeding (p=0.007, milking (p=0.001 and exposure to wild animals (p=0.004. With logistic regression analysis; age [Risk Odds Ratio ‘ROR’=1.03 (95% GA=1.02-1.05] and ex-posure to wild animals [ROR=1.97 (95% GA=1.12-3.46] were found to be associated with increased seropositivity.Conclusions: Our results supported the existence of rickettsial diseases in Turkey. Further seroepidemiological in-vestigations are needed to detect incidence/prevalences of rickettsioses and related risky behaviors in our country.

  17. Post Auction Coverage Baseline 2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — FINAL TELEVISION CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT INFORMATION RELATED TO INCENTIVE AUCTION REPACKING. NOTE: This file provides new baseline coverage and population data for all...

  18. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: comparison of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of AQP4-IgG versus MOG-IgG seropositive cases in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, E D; Wong, Y Y M; Ketelslegers, I A; Hamann, D; Hintzen, R Q

    2016-03-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) are a group of rare inflammatory demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system. The identification of specific antibodies directed to aquaporin 4 (AQP4-IgG) led to the distinction from multiple sclerosis. However, up to 25% of the clinically diagnosed NMO patients are seronegative for AQP4-IgG. A subgroup of these patients might be identified by antibodies directed to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG). Our objective was to investigate whether the clinical characteristics of these patients differ. Using a cell-based assay, samples of 61 AQP4-IgG seronegative patients and 41 AQP4-IgG seropositive patients with clinically NMOSD were analysed for the presence of MOG-IgG. Clinical characteristics of the AQP4-IgG, MOG-IgG seropositive and double seronegative NMOSD patients were compared. Twenty of the 61 AQP4-IgG seronegative patients tested MOG-IgG seropositive (33%). MOG-IgG seropositive patients were more frequently males in contrast to AQP4-IgG seropositive patients (55% vs. 15%, P < 0.01) and Caucasians (90% vs. 63%, P = 0.03). They more frequently presented with coincident optic neuritis and transverse myelitis (40% vs. 12%, P = 0.02) and had a monophasic disease course (70% vs. 29%, P < 0.01). AQP4-IgG seropositive patients were 2.4 times more likely to suffer from relapses compared with MOG-IgG seropositive patients (relative risk 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.7). AQP4-IgG seropositive patients had higher Expanded Disability Status Scale levels at last follow-up (P < 0.01). Antibodies directed to MOG identify a subgroup of AQP4-IgG seronegative NMO patients with generally a favourable monophasic disease course. © 2015 EAN.

  19. Understanding how adherence goals promote adherence behaviours: a repeated measure observational study with HIV seropositive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Gareth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent to which patients follow treatments as prescribed is pivotal to treatment success. An exceptionally high level (> 95% of HIV medication adherence is required to suppress viral replication and protect the immune system and a similarly high level (> 80% of adherence has also been suggested in order to benefit from prescribed exercise programmes. However, in clinical practice, adherence to both often falls below the desirable level. This project aims to investigate a wide range of psychological and personality factors that may lead to adherence/non-adherence to medical treatment and exercise programmes. Methods HIV positive patients who are referred to the physiotherapist-led 10-week exercise programme as part of the standard care are continuously recruited. Data on social cognitive variables (attitude, intention, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and outcome beliefs about the goal and specific behaviours, selected personality factors, perceived quality of life, physical activity, self-reported adherence and physical assessment are collected at baseline, at the end of the exercise programme and again 3 months later. The project incorporates objective measures of both exercise (attendance log and improvement in physical measures such as improved fitness level, weight loss, improved circumferential anthropometric measures and medication adherence (verified by non-invasive hair analysis. Discussion The novelty of this project comes from two key aspects, complemented with objective information on exercise and medication adherence. The project assesses beliefs about both the underlying goal such as following prescribed treatment; and about the specific behaviours such as undertaking the exercise or taking the medication, using both implicit and explicit assessments of patients’ beliefs and attitudes. We predict that i the way people think about the underlying goal of their treatments explains medication and exercise

  20. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  1. ECG baseline wander reduction using linear phase filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsté, van J.A.; Eck, van W.; Hermann, O.E.

    1986-01-01

    The continuous real time reduction of baseline wander is a considerable problem in electrocardiography during exercises. Our solution consists of spectral filtering. The legitimacy of high-pass filtering of the ECG by means of digital linear phase filters with a low cut-off frequency as high as the

  2. Gated integrator with signal baseline subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xucheng

    1996-01-01

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator includes an opamp having differential inputs. A signal to be integrated is applied to one of the differential inputs through a first input network, and a signal indicative of the DC offset component of the signal to be integrated is applied to the other of the differential inputs through a second input network. A pair of electronic switches in the first and second input networks define an integrating period when they are closed. The first and second input networks are substantially symmetrically constructed of matched components so that error components introduced by the electronic switches appear symmetrically in both input circuits and, hence, are nullified by the common mode rejection of the integrating opamp. The signal indicative of the DC offset component is provided by a sample and hold circuit actuated as the integrating period begins. The symmetrical configuration of the integrating circuit improves accuracy and speed by balancing out common mode errors, by permitting the use of high speed switching elements and high speed opamps and by permitting the use of a small integrating time constant. The sample and hold circuit substantially eliminates the error caused by the input signal baseline offset during a single integrating window.

  3. Gated integrator with signal baseline subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.

    1996-12-17

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator includes an opamp having differential inputs. A signal to be integrated is applied to one of the differential inputs through a first input network, and a signal indicative of the DC offset component of the signal to be integrated is applied to the other of the differential inputs through a second input network. A pair of electronic switches in the first and second input networks define an integrating period when they are closed. The first and second input networks are substantially symmetrically constructed of matched components so that error components introduced by the electronic switches appear symmetrically in both input circuits and, hence, are nullified by the common mode rejection of the integrating opamp. The signal indicative of the DC offset component is provided by a sample and hold circuit actuated as the integrating period begins. The symmetrical configuration of the integrating circuit improves accuracy and speed by balancing out common mode errors, by permitting the use of high speed switching elements and high speed opamps and by permitting the use of a small integrating time constant. The sample and hold circuit substantially eliminates the error caused by the input signal baseline offset during a single integrating window. 5 figs.

  4. NASA Orbital Debris Baseline Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has created high fidelity populations of the debris environment. The populations include objects of 1 cm and larger in Low Earth Orbit through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. They were designed for the purpose of assisting debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment is derived directly from the newest ORDEM model populations which include a background derived from LEGEND, as well as specific events such as the Chinese ASAT test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, the RORSAT sodium-potassium droplet releases, and other miscellaneous events. It is the most realistic ODPO debris population to date. In this paper we present the populations in chart form. We describe derivations of the background population and the specific populations added on. We validate our 1 cm and larger Low Earth Orbit population against SSN, Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  5. THE 2014 ALMA LONG BASELINE CAMPAIGN: AN OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partnership, ALMA [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Corder, S.; Remijan, A.; Barkats, D.; Dent, W. R. F.; Phillips, N.; Cox, P.; Hales, A. S. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Lucas, R. [Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (UMR 5274), BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Hunter, T. R.; Brogan, C. L.; Amestica, R.; Cotton, W. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Asaki, Y. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Matsushita, S. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Hills, R. E. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Richards, A. M. S. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Broguiere, D., E-mail: efomalon@nrao.edu [Institut de Radioastronomie Millime´trique (IRAM), 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); and others

    2015-07-20

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ∼15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from 2014 September to late November, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C 138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long baselines achieved angular resolutions as fine as 19 mas at ∼350 GHz. Observing with ALMA on baselines of up to 15 km is now possible, and opens up new parameter space for submm astronomy.

  6. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process.

  7. Precise baseline determination for the TanDEM-X mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Rolf; Moon, Yongjin; Neumayer, Hans; Wermuth, Martin; Montenbruck, Oliver; Jäggi, Adrian

    The TanDEM-X mission will strive for generating a global precise Digital Elevation Model (DEM) by way of bi-static SAR in a close formation of the TerraSAR-X satellite, already launched on June 15, 2007, and the TanDEM-X satellite to be launched in May 2010. Both satellites carry the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) payload supplied by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The TOR consists of a high-precision dual-frequency GPS receiver, called Integrated GPS Occultation Receiver (IGOR), and a Laser retro-reflector (LRR) for precise orbit determination (POD) and atmospheric sounding. The IGOR is of vital importance for the TanDEM-X mission objectives as the millimeter level determination of the baseline or distance between the two spacecrafts is needed to derive meter level accurate DEMs. Within the TanDEM-X ground segment GFZ is responsible for the operational provision of precise baselines. For this GFZ uses two software chains, first its Earth Parameter and Orbit System (EPOS) software and second the BERNESE software, for backup purposes and quality control. In a concerted effort also the German Aerospace Center (DLR) generates precise baselines independently with a dedicated Kalman filter approach realized in its FRNS software. By the example of GRACE the generation of baselines with millimeter accuracy from on-board GPS data can be validated directly by way of comparing them to the intersatellite K-band range measurements. The K-band ranges are accurate down to the micrometer-level and therefore may be considered as truth. Both TanDEM-X baseline providers are able to generate GRACE baselines with sub-millimeter accuracy. By merging the independent baselines by GFZ and DLR, the accuracy can even be increased. The K-band validation however covers solely the along-track component as the K-band data measure just the distance between the two GRACE satellites. In addition they inhibit an un-known bias which must be modelled in the comparison, so the

  8. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.; Wagner, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. With the ability to accurately compare different technologies' performance for the same function, managers will be able to make better decisions regarding technology development.

  9. Cervicovaginal Neutralizing Antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) in Women Seropositive for HSV Types 1 and 2

    OpenAIRE

    Mbopi-Kéou, Francois-Xavier; Bélec, Laurent; Dalessio, Julie; Legoff, Jérôme; Grésenguet, Gérard; Mayaud, Philippe; Brown, David W.G.; Ashley Morrow, Rhoda

    2003-01-01

    Antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA isotypes were detected in the cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) of 77 HSV-1- and HSV-2-seropositive but clinically asymptomatic African women by type-specific enhanced chemiluminescence Western blotting (ECL-WB). Of the 77 subjects, 34 were HIV negative, shedding HSV-2 DNA in their genital secretions; 20 were HIV positive, shedding HSV-2 DNA; and 23 were HIV negative, not shedding HSV-2 DNA. HSV-sp...

  10. Five amino acids in three HLA proteins explain most of the association between MHC and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Sandor, Cynthia; Stahl, Eli A; Freudenberg, Jan; Lee, Hye-Soon; Jia, Xiaoming; Alfredsson, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid; Klareskog, Lars; Worthington, Jane; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Robert M Plenge; Peter K Gregersen; De Bakker, Paul I. W.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic association of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to rheumatoid arthritis risk has commonly been attributed to HLA-DRB1 alleles. Yet controversy persists about the causal variants in HLA-DRB1 and the presence of independent effects elsewhere in the MHC. Using existing genome-wide SNP data in 5,018 seropositive cases and 14,974 controls, we imputed and tested classical alleles and amino acid polymorphisms for HLA-A, B, C, DPA1, DPB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DRB1 along with 3,117 SN...

  11. Leptospira spp. in Domestic Cats from Different Environments: Prevalence of Antibodies and Risk Factors Associated with the Seropositivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azócar-Aedo, Lucía; Monti, Gustavo; Jara, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Although Leptospira infection occurs in domestic cat populations, studies on leptospirosis are very limited in felines and the role of cats in the epidemiology of this zoonosis has not received much attention. The present work is an epidemiologic study intended to determine the prevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies and risk factors related with the seropositivity in cats from urban and rural environments. A higher prevalence in rural cats was detected (25.2%) compared with urban animals (1.8%). Characteristics of the habitat of the animals and some agricultural activities performed by cat’s owners were found to be risk factors associated with the seropositivity. Abstract Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution. A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban and rural environments in southern Chile (1) to detect domestic cats with serologic evidence of exposure to Leptospira spp.; (2) to determine the prevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies; (3) to describe seroprevalences according to different characteristics of the animals, and (4) to identify risk factors associated with the seropositivity in the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Blood samples were taken from 124 owned cats. A frequentist and Bayesian approach were applied for prevalence estimation. The overall apparent prevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies was 8.1% (95% Confident Interval = 3.9–4.3). With the Bayesian approach, the overall True Prevalence (TP) was 5.2% (95% Credibility Interval (CrI) = 0.6–12.4). The TP for urban cats was 1.8% (95% CrI = 0.1–7.2) and the TP for rural felines was 25.2% (95% CrI = 9.3–46.6). Cats that live in a place where agricultural activities are performed with water that flows in streams or backwater and cats that live in places near flooded areas had a higher risk of seropositivity in MAT. The exposure to Leptospira spp. in domestic cats of urban and rural origin in Southern Chile is a public health concern

  12. CLINICAL AND LABORATORY PROFILE OF SPUTUM POSITIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AMONG HIV SEROPOSITIVE AND HIV SERONEGATIVE PATIENTS- A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Govind Kamat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The global impact of the converging dual epidemics of TB and HIV is one of the major public health challenges. The increasing rate of HIV infection in many countries has had an impact on TB epidemiology. As the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis is increasing among HIV seropositive patients with a wide range of immune status and clinical presentations, the present study was undertaken to assess the clinical and laboratory profile of sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present one year cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Medicine, KLES Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belgaum on 104 patients with sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients during the period of January 2009 to December 2009. Routine investigations such as blood group, haemogram that is haemoglobin, total count, differential count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, sputum smears for AFB and chest x-ray were done. RESULTS Seroprevalence of HIV among pulmonary tuberculosis patients was 23.08%. On examination anaemia, undernourishment, lymphadenopathy and the presence of opportunistic infections like oral candidiasis, herpes zoster stain and genital lesions were more predominant among HIV seropositives compared to HIV seronegatives. Mean Hb and TLC were significantly low among HIV seropositives compared to HIV seronegatives. Chest x-ray showed varied presentation. Upper zone infiltration, cavitation and fibrosis were more commonly involved among HIV seronegatives compared to HIV seropositives. CONCLUSION HIV seropositive PTB patients commonly present with fever, weight loss and loss of appetite, while cough with expectoration, haemoptysis, breathlessness were more common with HIV seronegative patients. Cavitation, fibrosis and fibrocavitary lesions were predominantly seen among HIV seronegatives, while infiltration and miliary mottling was

  13. Trajectories of Marijuana Use among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), 1984-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Chukwuemeka N; Cook, Robert L; Chen, Xinguang; Surkan, Pamela J; Becker, James T; Shoptaw, Steve; Martin, Eileen; Plankey, Michael W

    2017-04-01

    To construct longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use in a sample of men who have sex with men living with or at-risk for HIV infection. We determined factors associated with distinct trajectories of use as well as those that serve to modify the course of the trajectory. Data were from 3658 [1439 HIV-seropositive (HIV+) and 2219 HIV-seronegative (HIV-)] participants of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Frequency of marijuana use was obtained semiannually over a 29-year period (1984-2013). Group-based trajectory models were used to identify the trajectories and to determine predictors and modifiers of the trajectories over time. Four distinct trajectories of marijuana use were identified: abstainer/infrequent (65 %), decreaser (13 %), increaser (12 %) and chronic high (10 %) use groups. HIV+ status was significantly associated with increased odds of membership in the decreaser, increaser and chronic high use groups. Alcohol, smoking, stimulant and other recreational drug use were associated with increasing marijuana use across all four trajectory groups. Antiretroviral therapy use over time was associated with decreasing marijuana use in the abstainer/infrequent and increaser trajectory groups. Having a detectable HIV viral load was associated with increasing marijuana use in the increaser group only. Future investigations are needed to determine whether long-term patterns of use are associated with adverse consequences especially among HIV+ persons.

  14. Resetting predator baselines in coral reef ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Darcy; Conklin, Eric; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Pollock, Kydd; Pollock, Amanda; Kendall, Bruce E.; Gaines, Steven D.; Caselle, Jennifer E.

    2017-01-01

    What did coral reef ecosystems look like before human impacts became pervasive? Early efforts to reconstruct baselines resulted in the controversial suggestion that pristine coral reefs have inverted trophic pyramids, with disproportionally large top predator biomass. The validity of the coral reef inverted trophic pyramid has been questioned, but until now, was not resolved empirically. We use data from an eight-year tag-recapture program with spatially explicit, capture-recapture models to re-examine the population size and density of a key top predator at Palmyra atoll, the same location that inspired the idea of inverted trophic biomass pyramids in coral reef ecosystems. Given that animal movement is suspected to have significantly biased early biomass estimates of highly mobile top predators, we focused our reassessment on the most mobile and most abundant predator at Palmyra, the grey reef shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos). We estimated a density of 21.3 (95% CI 17.8, 24.7) grey reef sharks/km2, which is an order of magnitude lower than the estimates that suggested an inverted trophic pyramid. Our results indicate that the trophic structure of an unexploited reef fish community is not inverted, and that even healthy top predator populations may be considerably smaller, and more precarious, than previously thought. PMID:28220895

  15. Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector line data that were input into the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0,...

  16. SSA FITARA Common Baseline Implementation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This document describes the agency's plan to implement the Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Common Baseline per OMB memorandum M-15-14.

  17. NRAO Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It's the world's largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye...

  18. Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector line data that were input into the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0,...

  19. Hanford Site technical baseline database. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, P.E.

    1995-01-27

    This report lists the Hanford specific files (Table 1) that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database. Table 2 includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 0 of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database. This information is being managed and maintained on the Hanford RDD-100 System, which uses the capabilities of RDD-100, a systems engineering software system of Ascent Logic Corporation (ALC). This revision of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database uses RDD-100 version 3.0.2.2 (see Table 3). Directories reflect those controlled by the Hanford RDD-100 System Administrator. Table 4 provides information regarding the platform. A cassette tape containing the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database is available.

  20. 基于稳健统计学确定高潜在污染土壤CU、Pb基线值%DEFINING Cu AND Pb GEOCHEMICAL BASELINES FOR SOILS HIGH IN POLLUTION RISK WITH ROBUST STATISTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 赵永存; 孙维侠; 黄标; 邵学新; Jeremy L.Dariek

    2011-01-01

    It is of great practice significance to define baselines for soil heavy metals in the Yangtze River Delta Region to evaluation of status quo of the heavy metal accumulation in the soil. In the presence of anthropogenic heavy metal pollution, soil heavy metal data always significantly deviate from normal or lognormal distribution, which affects reliability of the results of classical statistics. In contrast, robust statistics is aimed at lowering the effect of outliers on statistical analysis. With the robust regression method regression relationships between Cu and Pb concentrations in topsoil and in subsoil were established for the study region of Zhangjiagang, which has thousands of years of agricultural history and has recently been developing rapidly in industry. Based on the topsoil Cu and Pb concentration baselines calculated through robust regression of their subsoil concentrations, the status of soil Cu and Pb accumulations were evaluated. Results show that the calculated geochemical baselines can reflect natural variation of soil Cu and Pb background values between different sampling sites. Compared with the robust statistical method, the evaluation of soil heavy metal accumulation in a region that has spatial variation of natural background values on the basis of the national standard for soil environmental quality or regional soil background values would generate bigger errors.%土壤重金属基线值的确定对于评价重金属积累现状具有重要意义.在存在人为污染的情况下,土壤重金属数据经常强烈地偏离正态分布和对数正态分布,影响统计分析结果的可信度,而稳健统计方法可以降低离群值对统计分析结果的影响.本研究以张家港为研究区域,采用稳健回归方法,建立表层和底层土壤Cu、Pb的回归关系,通过底层土壤Cu、Pb含量计算表层土壤Cu、Pb基线值,并对土壤Cu、Pb积累状况进行评价.结果表明,稳健回归方法确定的表层土壤Cu、Pb

  1. Deformation Monitoring of the Submillimetric UPV Calibration Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Asenjo, Luis; Baselga, Sergio; Garrigues, Pascual

    2017-06-01

    A 330 m calibration baseline was established at the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV) in 2007. Absolute scale was subsequently transferred in 2012 from the Nummela Standard Baseline in Finland and distances between pillars were determined with uncertainties ranging from 0.1 mm to 0.3 mm. In order to assess the long-term stability of the baseline three field campaigns were carried out from 2013 to 2015 in a co-operative effort with the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), which provided the only Mekometer ME5000 distance meter available in Spain. Since the application of the ISO17123-4 full procedure did not suffice to come to a definite conclusion about possible displacements of the pillars, we opted for the traditional geodetic network approach. This approach had to be adapted to the case at hand in order to deal with problems such as the geometric weakness inherent to calibration baselines and scale uncertainty derived from both the use of different instruments and the high correlation between the meteorological correction and scale determination. Additionally, the so-called the maximum number of stable points method was also tested. In this contribution it is described the process followed to assess the stability of the UPV submillimetric calibration baseline during the period of time from 2012 to 2015.

  2. Detection of abrupt baseline length changes using cumulative sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Volker

    2009-06-01

    Dynamic processes are usually monitored by collecting a time series of observations, which is then analysed in order to detect any motion or non-standard behaviour. Geodetic examples include the monitoring of dams, bridges, high-rise buildings, landslides, volcanoes and tectonic motion. The cumulative sum (CUSUM) test is recognised as a popular means to detect changes in the mean and/or the standard deviation of a time series and has been applied to various monitoring tasks. This paper briefly describes the CUSUM technique and how it can be utilised for the detection of small baseline length changes by differencing two perpendicular baselines sharing a common site. A simulation is carried out in order to investigate the expected behaviour of the resulting CUSUM charts for a variety of typical deformation monitoring scenarios. This simulation shows that using first differences (between successive epochs) as input, rather than the original baseline lengths, produces clear peaks or jumps in the differenced CUSUM time series when a sudden change in baseline length occurs. These findings are validated by analysing several GPS baseline pairs of a network deployed to monitor the propagation of an active ice shelf rift on the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica.

  3. Comparison of seropositivity of HCV between oral lichen planus and healthy control group in Hamedan province (west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Mobaien

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lichen planus is an idiopathic inflammatory disease of the skin, nail, hair and mucous membranes. Oral lichen planus (LP is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the oral mucous membranes with a variety of clinical presentations. Various etiologies include HCV suggested for LP, and the aim of this study was comparison of seropositivity of HCV in LP patients and control group. Methods: All oral LP patients that were referred to dermatology clinic of farshchian hospitalwere entered in the study. Five cc of clot blood was taken from each patient and tested for anti-HCVand when anti-HCV tested positive another 2cc clot bloodwas taken for HCV-Rt-PCR test. The results were analyzed with SPSS 16. Results: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 oral lichen planus patients [males 13(43.3% females 17(56.7%] with mean ages of 46±13.7years and 60 healthy individual [males 26(43.3% females 34(56.7%]. There was no oral lichen planus patients who had anti-HCV positive whiles 2 males(3.3% of healthy group had anti-HCV positive which was confirmed by HCV-Rt-PCR. Conclusions: This study showed that there is no correlation between seropositivity of HCV and oral lichen planus in our patients in the west of Iran.

  4. Isolation and characterization of BoHV-1 from seropositive cows after inducing artificial stress in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Tapabrata; Guha, Chanchal; Chakraborty, Dhruba; Pal, Biplab; Biswas, Ujjwal; Chatterjee, Amaresh; Koenig, Patricia; Beer, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (BoHV-1) is the most important emerging disease of cattle in India. With an aim to reactivate BoHV-1 from latently infected sero-positive cattle for molecular characteristics of the isolates prevalent in tropical and sub-tropical countries like India and further epidemiological investigations on IBR infections this study had been conducted. Artificial stress with dexamethasone at the dose rate of 0.1 mg kg(-1) body weight for 5 consecutive days was induced in BoHV-1 sero-positive cows. Then isolation from nasal swabs was attempted in Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell line to find out the prevalent strain in India. The virus was isolated from all the three cows. All the three isolates were typed as BoHV-1.2 (Strain India 4, India 5 and India 6). The reactivation obtained in this study with dexamethasone suggests the usefulness of BoHV-1 cow latency model for epidemiological investigations on BoHV-1 infections in tropical and sub-tropical countries like India, Pakistan etc.

  5. Candida Species Prevalence Profile in HIV Seropositive Patients from a Major Tertiary Care Hospital in New Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Monika; Kaur, Ravinder; Chadha, Sanjim

    2016-01-01

    Candida is a common opportunistic pathogen during the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression. Changes in the clinical severity of candidiasis and the Candida species prevalence profile may be a reflection of immunological changes in HIV positive patients. The aim of this study was to document the changing pattern of Candida species prevalence profile in HIV seropositive patients from a tertiary care hospital in North India. One hundred and twenty HIV seropositive subjects were recruited for Candida microbial screening. Clinical specimens including blood, oral swabs, expectorated or induced sputum/bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and urine were collected depending on the patient's symptoms. A total of 128 Candida isolates were obtained from 88 cases and 7 different Candida species were identified. C. albicans (50%) was the most common species isolated followed by C. glabrata (17%) and C. dubliniensis (12.5%). Other species isolated were C. parapsilosis (7.8%), C. krusei, C. tropicalis (4.6% each), and C. kefyr (3%). Strong clinical suspicion along with optimal sampling of an accurate diagnosis of Candida species involved would go a long way in decreasing the morbidity associated with non-albicans Candida species. PMID:27092278

  6. Candida Species Prevalence Profile in HIV Seropositive Patients from a Major Tertiary Care Hospital in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Monika; Kaur, Ravinder; Chadha, Sanjim

    2016-01-01

    Candida is a common opportunistic pathogen during the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression. Changes in the clinical severity of candidiasis and the Candida species prevalence profile may be a reflection of immunological changes in HIV positive patients. The aim of this study was to document the changing pattern of Candida species prevalence profile in HIV seropositive patients from a tertiary care hospital in North India. One hundred and twenty HIV seropositive subjects were recruited for Candida microbial screening. Clinical specimens including blood, oral swabs, expectorated or induced sputum/bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and urine were collected depending on the patient's symptoms. A total of 128 Candida isolates were obtained from 88 cases and 7 different Candida species were identified. C. albicans (50%) was the most common species isolated followed by C. glabrata (17%) and C. dubliniensis (12.5%). Other species isolated were C. parapsilosis (7.8%), C. krusei, C. tropicalis (4.6% each), and C. kefyr (3%). Strong clinical suspicion along with optimal sampling of an accurate diagnosis of Candida species involved would go a long way in decreasing the morbidity associated with non-albicans Candida species.

  7. Increased seropositivity of Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin-associated gene-A in Behçet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apan, Teoman Zafer; Gürsel, Ragip; Dolgun, Alp

    2007-06-01

    Behçet's disease is a systemic vasculitic syndrome with unknown etiology. The aim of the present study was to compare the Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and cytotoxin associated gene-A status in patients with Behçet's disease. Ninety-one patients with Behçet's disease and 83 age- and sex-matched persons with or without any gastrointestinal complaints were included in the study. Demographic characteristics and H. pylori IgG, IgM, and cytotoxin-associated gene-A IgG status of the Behçet's disease and the control groups were analyzed. The influence of eradication therapy on clinical findings was also determined. The prevalence of H. pylori IgG seropositivity was slightly but not significantly higher in patients with Behçet's disease compared to the controls [72 (79.1%) vs 56 (67.5%), (p = 0.082)]. The prevalence of cytotoxin-associated gene A positivity was significantly higher in Behçet's disease compared to the controls [59 (64.8.%) vs 32 (38.5%), respectively, (p = 0.002)]. Eradication of H. pylori has significantly decreased clinical manifestations such as oral and genital ulceration, arthritis/arthralgia, and cutaneous findings of Bahçet's disease. Our study indicates that H. pylori may be involved in the pathogenesis of Behçet's disease or disease activity might be enhanced due to induced inflammation or altered immunity.

  8. Candida Species Prevalence Profile in HIV Seropositive Patients from a Major Tertiary Care Hospital in New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Maheshwari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a common opportunistic pathogen during the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease progression. Changes in the clinical severity of candidiasis and the Candida species prevalence profile may be a reflection of immunological changes in HIV positive patients. The aim of this study was to document the changing pattern of Candida species prevalence profile in HIV seropositive patients from a tertiary care hospital in North India. One hundred and twenty HIV seropositive subjects were recruited for Candida microbial screening. Clinical specimens including blood, oral swabs, expectorated or induced sputum/bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and urine were collected depending on the patient’s symptoms. A total of 128 Candida isolates were obtained from 88 cases and 7 different Candida species were identified. C. albicans (50% was the most common species isolated followed by C. glabrata (17% and C. dubliniensis (12.5%. Other species isolated were C. parapsilosis (7.8%, C. krusei, C. tropicalis (4.6% each, and C. kefyr (3%. Strong clinical suspicion along with optimal sampling of an accurate diagnosis of Candida species involved would go a long way in decreasing the morbidity associated with non-albicans Candida species.

  9. Latent infection with Leishmania donovani in highly endemic villages in Bihar, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epco Hasker

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Asymptomatic persons infected with the parasites causing visceral leishmaniasis (VL usually outnumber clinically apparent cases by a ratio of 4-10 to 1. We describe patterns of markers of Leishmania donovani infection and clinical VL in relation to age in Bihar, India. METHODS: We selected eleven villages highly endemic for Leishmania donovani. During a 1-year interval we conducted two house to house surveys during which we collected blood samples on filter paper from all consenting individuals aged 2 years and above. Samples were tested for anti-leishmania serology by Direct Agglutination Test (DAT and rK39 ELISA. Data collected during the surveys included information on episodes of clinical VL among study participants. RESULTS: We enrolled 13,163 persons; 6.2% were reactive to DAT and 5.9% to rK39. Agreement between the tests was weak (kappa = 0.30. Among those who were negative on both tests at baseline, 3.6% had converted to sero-positive on either of the two tests one year later. Proportions of sero-positives and sero-converters increased steadily with age. Clinical VL occurred mainly among children and young adults (median age 19 years. DISCUSSION: Although infection with L. donovani is assumed to be permanent, serological markers revert to negative. Most VL cases occur at younger ages, yet we observed a steady increase with age in the frequency of sero-positivity and sero-conversion. Our findings can be explained by a boosting effect upon repeated exposure to the parasite or by intermittent release of parasites in infected subjects from safe target cells. A certain proportion of sero-negative subjects could have been infected but below the threshold of antibody abundance for our serologic testing.

  10. A Method of High Resolution Imaging of Multi-baseline InSAR%一种高分辨率多基线InSAR三维层析成像方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳祥乐; 何向成; 杨汝良

    2014-01-01

    多基线InSAR(Muti-baseline InSAR)可以进行三维层析成像,用于地面遥感与地下地质情况分析.受限于实际系统,多基线InSAR的基线数目非常少,使用传统方法成像时分辨率很低.为提高高度维分辨率,文中建立了多基线InSAR成像的阵列信号处理模型,将阵列信号处理中的MUSIC算法应用到多基线InSAR的高度维成像中,进行数字仿真实验,仿真结果表明,文中的方案能提高多基线InSAR高度维的分辨率,获得较低的旁瓣.

  11. Genital warts and infection with human immunodeficiency virus in high-risk women in Burkina Faso: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van de Perre Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomaviruses are the most common sexually transmitted infections, and genital warts, caused by HPV-6 and 11, entail considerable morbidity and cost. The natural history of genital warts in relation to HIV-1 infection has not been described in African women. We examined risk factors for genital warts in a cohort of high-risk women in Burkina Faso, in order to further describe their epidemiology. Methods A prospective study of 765 high-risk women who were followed at 4-monthly intervals for 27 months in Burkina Faso. Logistic and Cox regression were used to identify factors associated with prevalent, incident and persistent genital warts, including HIV-1 serostatus, CD4+ count, and concurrent sexually transmitted infections. In a subset of 306 women, cervical HPV DNA was tested at enrolment. Results Genital wart prevalence at baseline was 1.6% (8/492 among HIV-uninfected and 7.0% (19/273 among HIV-1 seropositive women. Forty women (5.2% experienced at least one incident GW episode. Incidence was 1.1 per 100 person-years among HIV-uninfected women, 7.4 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count >200 cells/μL and 14.6 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count ≤200 cells/μL. Incident genital warts were also associated with concurrent bacterial vaginosis, and genital ulceration. Antiretroviral therapy was not protective against incident or persistent genital warts. Detection of HPV-6 DNA and abnormal cervical cytology were strongly associated with incident genital warts. Conclusions Genital warts occur much more frequently among HIV-1 infected women in Africa, particularly among those with low CD4+ counts. Antiretroviral therapy did not reduce the incidence or persistence of genital warts in this population.

  12. Salton Sea sampling program: baseline studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullis, R.E.; Carter, J.L.; Langlois, G.W.

    1981-04-13

    Baseline data are provided on three species of fish from the Salton Sea, California. The fishes considered were the orange mouth corvina (Cynoscion xanthulus), gulf croaker (Bairdiella icistius) and sargo (Anisotremus davidsonii). Morphometric and meristic data are presented as a baseline to aid in the evaluation of any physiological stress the fish may experience as a result of geothermal development. Analyses were made on muscle, liver, and bone of the fishes sampled to provide baseline data on elemental tissue burdens. The elements measured were: As, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Mn, Mi, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Zn, and Zr. These data are important if an environmentally sound progression of geothermal power production is to occur at the Salton Sea.

  13. Baseline methodologies for clean development mechanism projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.K. (ed.); Shrestha, R.M.; Sharma, S.; Timilsina, G.R.; Kumar, S.

    2005-11-15

    The Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) came into force on 16th February 2005 with its ratification by Russia. The increasing momentum of this process is reflected in more than 100 projects having been submitted to the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB) for approval of the baselines and monitoring methodologies, which is the first step in developing and implementing CDM projects. A CDM project should result in a net decrease of GHG emissions below any level that would have resulted from other activities implemented in the absence of that CDM project. The 'baseline' defines the GHG emissions of activities that would have been implemented in the absence of a CDM project. The baseline methodology is the process/algorithm for establishing that baseline. The baseline, along with the baseline methodology, are thus the most critical element of any CDM project towards meeting the important criteria of CDM, which are that a CDM should result in 'real, measurable, and long term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change'. This guidebook is produced within the frame work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) facilitated 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM)' Project. This document is published as part of the projects effort to develop guidebooks that cover important issues such as project finance, sustainability impacts, legal framework and institutional framework. These materials are aimed to help stakeholders better understand the CDM and are believed to eventually contribute to maximize the effect of the CDM in achieving the ultimate goal of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. This Guidebook should be read in conjunction with the information provided in the two other guidebooks entitled, 'Clean Development Mechanism: Introduction to the CDM' and 'CDM Information and Guidebook' developed under the CD4CDM project. (BA)

  14. Geochemical baseline studies of soil in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2017-04-01

    The soil element concentrations regionally vary a lot in Finland. Mostly this is caused by the different bedrock types, which are reflected in the soil qualities. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is carrying out geochemical baseline studies in Finland. In the previous phase, the research is focusing on urban areas and mine environments. The information can, for example, be used to determine the need for soil remediation, to assess environmental impacts or to measure the natural state of soil in industrial areas or mine districts. The field work is done by taking soil samples, typically at depth between 0-10 cm. Sampling sites are chosen to represent the most vulnerable areas when thinking of human impacts by possible toxic soil element contents: playgrounds, day-care centers, schools, parks and residential areas. In the mine districts the samples are taken from the areas locating outside the airborne dust effected areas. Element contents of the soil samples are then analyzed with ICP-AES and ICP-MS, Hg with CV-AAS. The results of the geochemical baseline studies are published in the Finnish national geochemical baseline database (TAPIR). The geochemical baseline map service is free for all users via internet browser. Through this map service it is possible to calculate regional soil baseline values using geochemical data stored in the map service database. Baseline data for 17 elements in total is provided in the map service and it can be viewed on the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/Tapir/indexEN.html).

  15. Neutrino Interactions and Long-Baseline Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mosel, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The extraction of neutrino mixing parameters and the CP-violating phase requires knowledge of the neutrino energy. This energy must be reconstructed from the final state of a neutrino-nucleus reaction since all long-baseline experiments use nuclear targets. This reconstruction requires detailed knowledge of the neutrino reactions with bound nucleons and of the final state interactions of hadrons with the nuclear environment. Quantum-kinetic transport theory can be used to build an event generator for this reconstruction that takes basic nuclear properties, such as binding, into account. Some examples are discussed that show the effects of nuclear interactions on observables in long-baseline experiments

  16. Long-baseline Neutrino Oscillation at DUNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, Elizabeth; DUNE Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment with primary physics goals of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy and measuring δc P with sufficient sensitivity to discover CP violation in neutrino oscillation. CP violation sensitivity in DUNE requires careful understanding of systematic uncertainty, with contributions expected from uncertainties in the neutrino flux, neutrino interactions, and detector effects. In this presentation, we will describe the expected sensitivity of DUNE to long-baseline neutrino oscillation parameters, how various aspects of the experimental design contribute to that sensitivity, and the planned strategy for constraining systematic uncertainty in these measurements.

  17. Patients double-seropositive for ANCA and anti-GBM antibodies have varied renal survival, frequency of relapse, and outcomes compared to single-seropositive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, Stephen P; Tanna, Anisha; Hrušková, Zdenka; Holm, Lisa; Weiner, Maria; Arulkumaran, Nishkantha; Kang, Amy; Satrapová, Veronika; Levy, Jeremy; Ohlsson, Sophie; Tesar, Vladimir; Segelmark, Mårten; Pusey, Charles D

    2017-09-01

    Co-presentation with both ANCA and anti-GBM antibodies is thought to be relatively rare. Current studies of such 'double-positive' cases report small numbers and variable outcomes. To study this further we retrospectively analyzed clinical features and long-term outcomes of a large cohort of 568 contemporary patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis, 41 patients with anti-GBM disease, and 37 double-positive patients with ANCA and anti-GBM disease from four European centers. Double-positive patients shared characteristics of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), such as older age distribution and longer symptom duration before diagnosis, and features of anti-GBM disease, such as severe renal disease and high frequency of lung hemorrhage at presentation. Despite having more evidence of chronic injury on renal biopsy compared to patients with anti-GBM disease, double-positive patients had a greater tendency to recover from being dialysis-dependent after treatment and had intermediate long-term renal survival compared to the single-positive patients. However, overall patient survival was similar in all three groups. Predictors of poor patient survival included advanced age, severe renal failure, and lung hemorrhage at presentation. No single-positive anti-GBM patients experienced disease relapse, whereas approximately half of surviving patients with AAV and double-positive patients had recurrent disease during a median follow-up of 4.8 years. Thus, double-positive patients have a truly hybrid disease phenotype, requiring aggressive early treatment for anti-GBM disease, and careful long-term follow-up and consideration for maintenance immunosuppression for AAV. Since double-positivity appears common, further work is required to define the underlying mechanisms of this association and define optimum treatment strategies. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lower CD28+ T cell proportions were associated with CMV-seropositivity in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Alterations in the naive T cell subpopulations have been demonstrated in patients with T cell mediated autoimmune disorders, reminiscent of immunological changes found in the elderly during immunosenescence, including the switch from CD45RA + to CD45RO + T cells and decreased thymic function with increased compensatory proliferative mechanisms, partly associated with latent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The present study was aimed to investigate proportions of lymphocytes, their relation to CMV-seropositivity and the replicative history of CD45RA + expressing T cells in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT, n = 18) and healthy controls (HC, n = 70). Methods Proportions of peripheral T cells were investigated by flow cytometry. The replicative history was assessed by T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and relative telomere length (RTL). Expression of CD62L was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in thyroid sections. The role of CMV was assessed by serology, ELISPOT assay and in situ hybridization. Results Our results demonstrated a significant increase of CD28-negative T cells, associated with CMV-seropositivity in HT patients. HT showed abundant CD45RO + T cells with peripheral loss of CD62L-expressing CD8 + CD45RA + T cells, the latter mainly depending on disease duration. CD62L was expressed in thyroid lymphocyte infiltrations. The diagnosis of HT and within the HT group CMV-seropositivity were the main determinants for the loss of CD28 expression. RTL was not different between HC and HT. HT showed significantly lower TRECs in CD4 + CD45RA + T cells compared to HC. Conclusions Patients with HT display a peripheral T cell phenotype reminiscent of findings in elderly persons or other autoimmune disorders. Whether these mechanisms are primary or secondary to the immunological alterations of autoimmune conditions should be investigated in longitudinal studies which may open research on new therapeutic regimes for

  19. Waste management project technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1997-08-13

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project.

  20. How Valid Are the Portland Baseline Essays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Erich

    1991-01-01

    Portland, Oregon's "African-American Baseline Essays," widely used in creating multicultural curricula, inaccurately depicts ancient Egyptians as black people and Olmec civilization as derived from African influences. The authors advance racial theories long abandoned by mainline Africa scholars, attribute mystical powers to pyramids,…

  1. Physics Potential of Long-Baseline Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of neutrino mixing and oscillations over the past decade provides firm evidence for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Recently, θ13 has been determined to be moderately large, quite close to its previous upper bound. This represents a significant milestone in establishing the three-flavor oscillation picture of neutrinos. It has opened up exciting prospects for current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments towards addressing the remaining fundamental questions, in particular the type of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible presence of a CP-violating phase. Another recent and crucial development is the indication of non-maximal 2-3 mixing angle, causing the octant ambiguity of θ23. In this paper, I will review the phenomenology of long-baseline neutrino oscillations with a special emphasis on sub-leading three-flavor effects, which will play a crucial role in resolving these unknowns. First, I will give a brief description of neutrino oscillation phenomenon. Then, I will discuss our present global understanding of the neutrino mass-mixing parameters and will identify the major unknowns in this sector. After that, I will present the physics reach of current generation long-baseline experiments. Finally, I will conclude with a discussion on the physics capabilities of accelerator-driven possible future long-baseline precision oscillation facilities.

  2. Geochemical modelling baseline compositions of groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Kjøller, Claus; Andersen, Martin Søgaard

    2008-01-01

    Reactive transport models, were developed to explore the evolution in groundwater chemistry along the flow path in three aquifers; the Triassic East Midland aquifer (UK), the Miocene aquifer at Valreas (F) and the Cretaceous aquifer near Aveiro (P). All three aquifers contain very old groundwaters...... of the evolution in natural baseline properties in groundwater....

  3. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  4. Rationing in the presence of baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a general model of rationing in which agents have baselines, in addition to claims against the (insufficient) endowment of the good to be allocated. Many real-life problems fit this general model (e.g., bankruptcy with prioritized claims, resource allocation in the public health care...

  5. National Cyberethics, Cybersafety, Cybersecurity Baseline Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study that explores the nature of the Cyberethics, Cybersafety, and Cybersecurity (C3) educational awareness policies, initiatives, curriculum, and practices currently taking place in the U.S. public and private K-12 educational settings. The study establishes baseline data on C3 awareness, which can be used…

  6. Non-detection of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA in HHV-8-seropositive blood donors from three Brazilian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, José Eduardo; Nascimento, Maria Claudia; Sumita, Laura Masami; de Souza, Vanda Akico Ueda Fick; Freire, Wilton S; Mayaud, Philippe; Pannuti, Claudio S

    2011-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is the etiologic agent of all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and the plasmablastic cell variant of multicentric Castleman disease. In endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa, blood transfusions have been associated with a substantial risk of HHV-8 transmission. By contrast, several studies among healthy blood donors from North America have failed to detect HHV-8 DNA in samples of seropositive individuals. In this study, using a real-time PCR assay, we investigated the presence of HHV-8 DNA in whole-blood samples of 803 HHV-8 blood donors from three Brazilian states (São Paulo, Amazon, Bahia) who tested positive for HHV-8 antibodies, in a previous multicenter study. HHV-8 DNA was not detected in any sample. Our findings do not support the introduction of routine HHV-8 screening among healthy blood donors in Brazil. (WC = 140).

  7. HPV16 E6 seropositivity among cancer-free men with oral, anal or genital HPV16 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachler, Daniel C; Waterboer, Tim; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Ingles, Donna J; Kuhs, Krystle A Lang; Nyitray, Alan G; Hildesheim, Allan; Pawlita, Michael; Kreimer, Aimée R; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-12-01

    Antibodies against the Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 oncoprotein appear years prior to clinical diagnosis of anal and oropharyngeal cancer, but whether they develop around the time of HPV infection is unclear. Serum samples from 173 cancer-free men from the Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men (HIM) Study were tested for HPV antibodies and DNA. HPV16 E6 seropositivity was low among men with oral HPV16-infection (1/28; 3.6%, 95%CI=0.0%-18.4%), anal HPV16-infection (1/61; 1.6%, 95%CI=0.0%-8.8%), and 24-month persistent genital HPV16-infection (1/84; 1.2%, 0.0-6.5%). This suggests E6 seroconversion may not occur around the time of oral, anal, or genital HPV16 acquisition.

  8. Male preponderance in HIV seropositive patients with mucocutaneous complaints in a tertiary care hospital in North India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shivani Sharma; Karan Jeet Pal Singh Puri; Mankesh Lal Gambhir

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A panorama of mucocutaneous manifestations is seen at every stage of HIV. This study was done to study the sex prevalence in HIV/AIDS patients with mucocutaneous disorders. Methods: A total of 1 000 HIV seropositive patients attending Skin-STD clinic, Govt. Medical College, Amritsar, for any dermatologic complaints were studied in respect to the sex group preponderance. Results: Males constituted the majority as 75.6% while females were 24.4%. Conclusions: Women, in most of the cases, get infected from their spouses, who have acquired infection through extramarital sexual contact. HIV infection in female patients increases the risk of HIV transmission to neonates and infants, thus further spreading the HIV in a community. So it is very crucial to initiate early preventive measures to reduce HIV burden.

  9. An Overview of the 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Partnership, ALMA; Vlahakis, C; Corder, S; Remijan, A; Barkats, D; Lucas, R; Hunter, T R; Brogan, C L; Asaki, Y; Matsushita, S; Dent, W R F; Hills, R E; Phillips, N; Richards, A M S; Cox, P; Amestica, R; Broguiere, D; Cotton, W; Hales, A S; Hiriart, R; Hirota, A; Hodge, J A; Impellizzeri, C M V; Kern, J; Kneissl, R; Liuzzo, E; Marcelino, N; Marson, R; Mignano, A; Nakanishi, K; Nikolic, B; Perez, J E; Pérez, L M; Toledo, I; Aladro, R; Butler, B; Cortes, J; Cortes, P; Dhawan, V; Di Francesco, J; Espada, D; Galarza, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Humphreys, E M; Jung, T; Kameno, S; Laing, R A; Leon, S; Mangum, J; Marconi, G; Nagai, H; Nyman, L -A; Perley, R; Radiszcz, M; Rodón, J A; Sawada, T; Takahashi, S; Tilanus, R P J; van Kempen, T; Vilaro, B Vila; Watson, L C; Wiklind, T; Gueth, F; Tatematsu, K; Wootten, A; Castro-Carrizo, A; Chapillon, E; Dumas, G; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Francke, H; Gallardo, J; Garcia, J; Gonzalez, S; Hibbard, J E; Hill, T; Kaminski, T; Karim, A; Krips, M; Kurono, Y; Lopez, C; Martin, S; Maud, L; Morales, F; Pietu, V; Plarre, K; Schieven, G; Testi, L; Videla, L; Villard, E; Whyborn, N; Zwaan, M A; Alves, F; Andreani, P; Avison, A; Barta, M; Bedosti, F; Bendo, G J; Bertoldi, F; Bethermin, M; Biggs, A; Boissier, J; Brand, J; Burkutean, S; Casasola, V; Conway, J; Cortese, L; Dabrowski, B; Davis, T A; Trigo, M Diaz; Fontani, F; Franco-Hernandez, R; Fuller, G; Madrid, R Galvan; Giannetti, A; Ginsburg, A; Graves, S F; Hatziminaoglou, E; Hogerheijde, M; Jachym, P; Serra, I Jimenez; Karlicky, M; Klaasen, P; Kraus, M; Kunneriath, D; Lagos, C; Longmore, S; Leurini, S; Maercker, M; Magnelli, B; Vidal, I Marti; Massardi, M; Maury, A; Muehle, S; Muller, S; Muxlow, T; O'Gorman, E; Paladino, R; Petry, D; Pineda, J; Randall, S; Richer, J S; Rossetti, A; Rushton, A; Rygl, K; Monge, A Sanchez; Schaaf, R; Schilke, P; Stanke, T; Schmalzl, M; Stoehr, F; Urban, S; van Kampen, E; Vlemmings, W; Wang, K; Wild, W; Yang, Y; Iguchi, S; Hasegawa, T; Saito, M; Inatani, J; Mizuno, N; Asayama, S; Kosugi, G; Morita, K -I; Chiba, K; Kawashima, S; Okumura, S K; Ohashi, N; Ogasawara, R; Sakamoto, S; Noguchi, T; Huang, Y -D; Liu, S -Y; Kemper, F; Koch, P M; Chen, M -T; Chikada, Y; Hiramatsu, M; Iono, D; Shimojo, M; Komugi, S; Kim, J; Lyo, A -R; Muller, E; Herrera, C; Miura, R E; Ueda, J; Chibueze, J; Su, Y -N; Trejo-Cruz, A; Wang, K -S; Kiuchi, H; Ukita, N; Sugimoto, M; Kawabe, R; Hayashi, M; Miyama, S; Ho, P T P; Kaifu, N; Ishiguro, M; Beasley, A J; Bhatnagar, S; Braatz, J A; Brisbin, D G; Brunetti, N; Carilli, C; Crossley, J H; D'Addario, L; Meyer, J L Donovan; Emerson, D T; Evans, A S; Fisher, P; Golap, K; Griffith, D M; Hale, A E; Halstead, D; Hardy, E J; Hatz, M C; Holdaway, M; Indebetouw, R; Jewell, P R; Kepley, A A; Kim, D -C; Lacy, M D; Leroy, A K; Liszt, H S; Lonsdale, C J; Matthews, B; McKinnon, M; Mason, B S; Moellenbrock, G; Moullet, A; Myers, S T; Ott, J; Peck, A B; Pisano, J; Radford, S J E; Randolph, W T; Venkata, U Rao; Rawlings, M; Rosen, R; Schnee, S L; Scott, K S; Sharp, N K; Sheth, K J; Simon, R S; Tsutsumi, T; Wood, S J

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ~15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from September to late November 2014, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long...

  10. Consumption of Sutherlandia frutescens by HIV-Seropositive South African Adults: An Adaptive Double-Blind Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Wilson

    Full Text Available Sutherlandia frutescens (L. R. Br. is widely used as an over the counter complementary medicine and in traditional medications by HIV seropositive adults living in South Africa; however the plant's safety has not been objectively studied. An adaptive two-stage randomized double-blind placebo controlled study was used to evaluate the safety of consuming dried S. frutescens by HIV seropositive adults with CD4 T-lymphocyte count of >350 cells/μL.In Stage 1 56 participants were randomized to S. frutescens 400, 800 or 1,200 mg twice daily or matching placebo for 24 weeks. In Stage 2 77 additional participants were randomized to either 1,200 mg S. frutescens or placebo. In the final analysis data from Stage 1 and Stage 2 were combined such that 107 participants were analysed (54 in the S. frutescens 1,200 mg arm and 53 in the placebo arm.S. frutescens did not change HIV viral load, and CD4 T-lymphocyte count was similar in the two arms at 24 weeks; however, mean and total burden of infection (BOI; defined as days of infection-related events in each participant was greater in the S. frutescens arm: mean (SD 5.0 (5.5 vs. 9.0 (12.7 days (p = 0.045, attributed to two tuberculosis cases in subjects taking isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT.A possible interaction between S. frutescens and IPT needs further evaluation, and may presage antagonistic interactions with other herbs having similar biochemical (antioxidant properties. No other safety issues relating to consumption of S. frutescens in this cohort were identified.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00549523.

  11. Dengue virus specific dual HLA binding T cell epitopes induce CD8+ T cell responses in seropositive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, Joseph D; Karabudak, Aykan; Huang, Xiaofang; Piazza, Paolo A; Marques, Ernesto T A; Philip, Ramila

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus infects an estimated 300 million people each year and even more are at risk of becoming infected as the virus continues to spread into new areas. Despite the increase in viral prevalence, no anti-viral medications or vaccines are approved for treating or preventing infection. CD8+ T cell responses play a major role in viral clearance. Therefore, effective vaccines that induce a broad, multi-functional T cell response with substantial cross-reactivity between all virus serotypes can have major impacts on reducing infection rates and infection related complications. Here, we took an immunoproteomic approach to identify novel MHC class I restricted T cell epitopes presented by dengue virus infected cells, representing the natural and authentic targets of the T cell response. Using this approach we identified 4 novel MHC-I restricted epitopes: 2 with the binding motif for HLA-A24 molecules and 2 with both HLA-A2 and HLA-A24 binding motifs. These peptides were able to activate CD8+ T cell responses in both healthy, seronegative individuals and in seropositive individuals who have previously been infected with dengue virus. Importantly, the dual binding epitopes activated pre-existing T cell precursors in PBMCs obtained from both HLA-A2+ and HLA-A24+ seropositive individuals. Together, the data indicate that these epitopes are immunologically relevant T cell activating peptides presented on infected cells during a natural infection and therefore may serve as candidate antigens for the development of effective multi-serotype specific dengue virus vaccines.

  12. Clinical presentation and aetiologies of acute or complicated headache among HIV-seropositive patients in a Ugandan clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katwere Michael

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We set out to define the relative prevalence and common presentations of the various aetiologies of headache within an ambulant HIV-seropositive adult population in Kampala, Uganda. Methods We conducted a prospective study of adult HIV-1-seropositive ambulatory patients consecutively presenting with new onset headaches. Patients were classified as focal-febrile, focal-afebrile, non-focal-febrile or non-focal-afebrile, depending on presence or absence of fever and localizing neurological signs. Further management followed along a pre-defined diagnostic algorithm to an endpoint of a diagnosis. We assessed outcomes during four months of follow up. Results One hundred and eighty patients were enrolled (72% women. Most subjects presented at WHO clinical stages III and IV of HIV disease, with a median Karnofsky performance rating of 70% (IQR 60-80. The most common diagnoses were cryptococcal meningitis (28%, n = 50 and bacterial sinusitis (31%, n = 56. Less frequent diagnoses included cerebral toxoplasmosis (4%, n = 7, and tuberculous meningitis (4%, n = 7. Thirty-two (18% had other diagnoses (malaria, bacteraemia, etc.. No aetiology could be elucidated in 28 persons (15%. Overall mortality was 13.3% (24 of 180 after four months of follow up. Those without an established headache aetiology had good clinical outcomes, with only one death (4% mortality, and 86% were ambulatory at four months. Conclusion In an African HIV-infected ambulatory population presenting with new onset headache, aetiology was found in at least 70%. Cryptococcal meningitis and sinusitis accounted for more than half of the cases.

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology and alcohol use among HIV-seropositive adults in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert M; Attonito, Jennifer M; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Gaston, Stéphanie; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Deschamps, Marie-Marcelle

    2013-01-01

    Psychological trauma resulting from natural disasters can negatively affect the health of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). This study examined relationships of alcohol use and exposure to the 2010 Haiti earthquake on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among HIV-positive adults enrolled in an intervention study. Baseline data were collected from male and female PLWH, 19-56 years old on: alcohol consumption and related harms; anxiety; and coping strategies used to deal with HIV. Two to three months postearthquake, data were collected from 104 of the study participants on PTSD and earthquake-related impacts. Most participants had less than a secondary education (66%) and very low income (92% ≤ H$10,000 or ≤ US$1250/year). Over two-thirds of participants felt at some point that they should cut down on drinking. Fifty-two (50.5%) met criteria for PTSD. More than 83% lost their belongings and 64% had someone close to them hurt or killed during the earthquake. Bivariate analysis showed that women, younger participants, those who lost all belongings, and those with greater overall alcohol impact were more likely to report PTSD symptoms. In the multivariate model, participants more likely to meet PTSD criteria (pnatural disaster, it is important to address trauma-related mental health needs of PLWH - particularly women and individuals who abuse alcohol.

  14. Incidence of multiple Herpesvirus infection in HIV seropositive patients, a big concern for Eastern Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guha Shubhasish K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is associated with an increased risk for human herpes viruses (HHVs and their related diseases and they frequently cause disease deterioration and therapeutic failures. Methods for limiting the transmission of HHVs require a better understanding of the incidence and infectivity of oral HHVs in HIV-infected patients. This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of human herpes viruses (CMV, HSV 2, EBV-1, VZV antibodies and to evaluate their association with age, sex as well as other demographic and behavioral factors. Results A study of 200 HIV positive patients from Eastern India attending the Calcutta Medical College Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, Apex Clinic, Calcutta Medical College Hospital and ART Center, School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, West Bengal was done. Serum samples were screened for antibodies to the respective viruses using the indirect ELISA in triplicates. CytoMegalo virus (CMV, Herpes Simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, Varicella Zoster virus (VZV, and Epstein Barr virus (EBV-1 were detected in 49%, 47%, 32.5%, and 26% respectively. Conclusion This study has contributed baseline data and provided insights in viral OI and HIV co-infection in Eastern India. This would undoubtedly serve as a basis for further studies on this topic.

  15. Measurement of baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging approach, which allows determining the spatial baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms by the proposed high-precision time-interval estimation method. This approach is novel in the sense that it cancels the effect of oscillator frequency synchronization errors due to separate oscillators that are used in the platforms. Several performance specifications are also discussed. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by simulation results.

  16. Hepatitis C treatment response kinetics and impact of baseline predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindh, M; Arnholm, B; Eilard, A

    2011-01-01

    Summary. The optimal duration of treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections is highly variable but critical for achieving cure (sustained virological response, SVR). We prospectively investigated the impact of age, fibrosis, baseline viraemia and genotype on the early viral kinetics...... above 400 000 IU/mL were strongly associated with slower second phase declines of HCV RNA. Genotype 2/3 infections responded more rapidly than genotype 1, reaching week 4 negativity (RVR) in 59%vs 22%. We conclude that baseline response predictors such as age, fibrosis and viral load were well reflected...... by the early viral kinetics as assessed by repeated HCV RNA quantifications. The kinetic patterns and the high relapse rate in genotype 2/3 patients without RVR suggest that this group might benefit from treatment durations longer than 24 weeks....

  17. Revised SRC-I project baseline. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    International Coal Refining Company (ICRC), in cooperation with the Commonwealth of Kentucky has contracted with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to design, build and operate a first-of-its-kind plant demonstrating the economic, environmental, socioeconomic and technical feasibility of the direct coal liquefaction process known as SRC-I. ICRC has made a massive commitment of time and expertise to design processes, plan and formulate policy, schedules, costs and technical drawings for all plant systems. These fully integrated plans comprise the Project Baseline and are the basis for all future detailed engineering, plant construction, operation, and other work set forth in the contract between ICRC and the DOE. Volumes I and II of the accompanying documents constitute the updated Project Baseline for the SRC-I two-stage liquefaction plant. International Coal Refining Company believes this versatile plant design incorporates the most advanced coal liquefaction system available in the synthetic fuels field. SRC-I two-stage liquefaction, as developed by ICRC, is the way of the future in coal liquefaction because of its product slate flexibility, high process thermal efficiency, and low consumption of hydrogen. The SRC-I Project Baseline design also has made important state-of-the-art advances in areas such as environmental control systems. Because of a lack of funding, the DOE has curtailed the total project effort without specifying a definite renewal date. This precludes the development of revised accurate and meaningful schedules and, hence, escalated project costs. ICRC has revised and updated the original Design Baseline to include in the technical documentation all of the approved but previously non-incorporated Category B and C and new Post-Baseline Engineering Change Proposals.

  18. Mycobacterium avium and purified protein derivative-specific cytotoxicity mediated by CD4+ lymphocytes from healthy HIV-seropositive and-seronegative individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, P; Pedersen, B K

    1996-01-01

    to respond to mycobacterial antigens. The immunological dysfunction leading to reduced mycobacterial-specific cytotoxic activity in healthy HIV-seropositive subjects is caused either by a reduction in the number of antigen-responsive CD4+ T cells (memory) or by an impairment of their ability to respond...

  19. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) seropositivity in dairy goat farmers' households in The Netherlands, 2009-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimmer, B.; Lenferink, A.; Schneeberger, P.; Aangenend, H.; Vellema, P.; Hautvast, J.L.; Duynhoven, Y. Van

    2012-01-01

    Community Q fever epidemics occurred in The Netherlands in 2007-2009, with dairy goat and dairy sheep farms as the implicated source. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for seropositivity in dairy goat farmers and their household members living or working on th

  20. Extremely low exposure of a community to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus: false seropositivity due to use of bacterially derived antigens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leung, D.T.; Maren, W.W.C. van; Chan, F.K.; Chan, W.S.; Lo, A.W.; Ma, C.H.; Tam, F.C.; To, K.F.; Chan, P.K.; Sung, J.J.; Lim, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    Estimates of seropositivity to a new infectious agent in a community are useful to public health. For severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the figures are conflicting. Herein, we screened 12,000 people in a community stricken by SARS 10 months previously and found 53 individuals (0.44%) who had

  1. Efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and feasibility of optimizing preventive strategies in patients at high cardiovascular risk: rationale, design and baseline characteristics of the Rischio and Prevenzione study, a large randomised trial in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimization of preventive strategies in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events and the evaluation of bottlenecks and limitations of transferring current guidelines to the real world of clinical practice are important limiting steps to cardiovascular prevention. Treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves prognosis after myocardial infarction, but evidence of this benefit is lacking in patients at high cardiovascular risk, but without a history of myocardial infarction. Methods/design Patients were eligible if their general practitioner (GP considered them at high cardiovascular risk because of a cardiovascular disease other than myocardial infarction, or multiple risk factors (at least four major risk factors in non-diabetic patients and one in diabetics. Patients were randomly allocated to treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (1 g daily or placebo in a double-blind study and followed up for five years by their GPs to assess the efficacy of the treatment in preventing cardiovascular mortality (including sudden death and hospitalization for cardiovascular reasons. The secondary, epidemiological, aim of the study is to assess whether it is feasible to adopt current guidelines in everyday clinical practice, with a view to optimizing all the available preventive strategies in people at high cardiovascular risk. A nation-wide network of 860 GPs admitted 12,513 patients to the study between February 2004 and March 2007. The mean age was 64 years and 62% were males. Diabetes mellitus plus one or more cardiovascular risk factors was the main inclusion criterion (47%. About 30% of patients were included because of a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, 21% for four or more risk factors, and less than 1% for other reasons. Discussion The Rischio and Prevenzione (R&P project provides a feasible model to test the efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid therapy in patients at high

  2. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  3. Joint Multi-baseline SAR Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tebaldini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a technique to provide interferometry by combining multiple images of the same area. This technique differs from the multi-baseline approach in literature as (a it exploits all the images simultaneously, (b it performs a spectral shift preprocessing to remove most of the decorrelation, and (c it exploits distributed targets. The technique is mainly intended for DEM generation at centimetric accuracy, as well as for differential interferometry. The problem is framed in the contest of single-input multiple-output (SIMO channel estimation via the cross-relations (CR technique and the resulting algorithm provides significant improvements with respect to conventional approaches based either on independent analysis of single interferograms or multi-baselines phase analysis of single pixels of current literature, for those targets that are correlated in all the images, like for long-term coherent areas, or for acquisitions taken with a short revisit time (as those gathered with future satellite constellations.

  4. Dissipative Effect in Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Roberto L N

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of neutrinos in long baselines experiments may be influenced by dissipation effects. Using Lindblad Master Equation we evolve neutrinos taking into account these dissipative effects. The MSW and the dissipative effects may change the probabilities behavior. In this work, we show and explain how the behavior of the probabilities can change due to the decoherence and relaxation effects acting individually with the MSW effect. A new exotic peak appears in this case and we show the difference between the decoherence and relaxation effects in the appearance of this peak. We also adapt the usual approximate expression for survival and appearance probabilities with all possible decoherence effects. We suppose the baseline of DUNE and show how each decoherence parameters change the probabilities analyzing the possible modification using numeric and analytic approach.

  5. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  6. Mortality among blood donors seropositive and seronegative for Chagas disease (1996-2000) in São Paulo, Brazil: A death certificate linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuani, Ligia; Bierrenbach, Ana Luiza; Pereira Alencar, Airlane; Mendrone, Alfredo; Ferreira, João Eduardo; Custer, Brian; P Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Cerdeira Sabino, Ester

    2017-05-01

    Individuals in the indeterminate phase of Chagas disease are considered to have mortality rates similar to those of the overall population. This study compares mortality rates among blood donors seropositive for Chagas disease and negative controls in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. This is a retrospective cohort study of blood donors from 1996 to 2000: 2842 seropositive and 5684 seronegative for Chagas disease. Death status was ascertained by performing probabilistic record linkage (RL) with the Brazil national mortality information system (SIM). RL was assessed in a previous validation study. Cox Regression was used to derive hazard ratios (HR), adjusting for confounders. RL identified 159 deaths among the 2842 seropositive blood donors (5.6%) and 103 deaths among the 5684 seronegative (1.8%). Out of the 159 deaths among seropositive donors, 26 had the 10th International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) indicating Chagas disease as the underlying cause of death (B57.0/B57.5), 23 had ICD-10 codes (I42.0/I42.2/I47.0/I47.2/I49.0/I50.0/I50.1/ I50.9/I51.7) indicating cardiac abnormalities possibly related to Chagas disease listed as an underlying or associated cause of death, with the others having no mention of Chagas disease in part I of the death certificate. Donors seropositive for Chagas disease had a 2.3 times higher risk of death due to all causes (95% Confidence Interval (95% CI), 1.8-3.0) than seronegative donors. When considering deaths due to Chagas disease or those that had underlying causes of cardiac abnormalities related to Chagas disease, seropositive donors had a risk of death 17.9 (95% CI, 6.3-50.8) times greater than seronegative donors. There is an excess risk of death in donors seropositive blood for Chagas disease compared to seronegative donors. Chagas disease is an under-reported cause of death in the Brazilian mortality database.

  7. Systematic errors in long baseline oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2006-02-01

    This article gives a brief overview of long baseline neutrino experiments and their goals, and then describes the different kinds of systematic errors that are encountered in these experiments. Particular attention is paid to the uncertainties that come about because of imperfect knowledge of neutrino cross sections and more generally how neutrinos interact in nuclei. Near detectors are planned for most of these experiments, and the extent to which certain uncertainties can be reduced by the presence of near detectors is also discussed.

  8. The Gambia Impact Evaluation Baseline Report

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Government of The Gambia is implementing the Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health Results Project (MCNHRP) to increase the utilization of community nutrition and primary maternal and child health services. In collaboration with the Government, the World Bank is conducting an impact evaluation (IE) to assess the impact of the project on key aspects of maternal and child nutrition and health. The baseline survey for the MCNHRP IE took place between November 2014 and February 2015. It c...

  9. Geochemical baseline data, Youngs Bay, Oregon, 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Johnson, V.G.; Cutshall, N.H.

    1975-04-01

    This report comprises one part of a final report to the Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation on the Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies of Youngs Bay''. The data reported herein are the product of the geochemical baseline section of the project. The primary objectives of the geochemical study were: to provide a baseline record of fluoride and selected trace metal levels in Youngs Bay bottom sediment, to identify areas that might function as heavy metal traps, to attempt to determine the recent depositional history of sediment in the bay. In addition to these primary objectives, a number of secondary tasks were undertaken during the study. While time did not allow these additional studies to be carried to completion, preliminary results are included herein because of their potential usefulness in assessing the impact of environmental releases of fluoride to aquatic systems in the vicinity of Youngs Bay or elsewhere. This report is made up of two major sections. In the first, a description of sample collection and analytical procedures is followed by a discussion of the baseline results. Obvious vertical and horizontal patterns of elemental distribution are identified and their origins considered. Problems needed further research are also discussed. In the second section, the data are presented in interpretive, graphical form, as well as in tables. 35 refs., 29 figs., 14 tabs.

  10. Greater prevalence of seropositivity for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody in unaffected first-degree relatives in multicase rheumatoid arthritis-affected families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Kyu; Bae, Jisuk; Lee, Hwajeong; Kim, Ji Hun; Park, Sung-Hoon; Choe, Jung-Yoon

    2013-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence and determinants of seropositivity for rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody, and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV) antibody in unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. A total of 337 subjects (135 with RA and 202 FDRs) were enrolled in this case-control study. Serum RF, anti-CCP antibody, and anti-MCV antibody were assayed. Subjects in multicase families (≥ 2 affected FDRs within the same family) were identified. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with RA-related autoantibodies. Seropositivity for RF, anti-CCP antibody, or anti-MCV antibody was detected in 14.4%, 5.0%, or 13.4% of unaffected FDRs, respectively. Anti-CCP antibody seropositivity was more prevalent in FDRs in multicase families (17.8%) than in those not in multicase families (1.3%, p autoantibodies were detected in the FDR group (between RF and anti-CCP antibody: r = 0.366, p < 0.0001; between RF and anti-MCV antibody: r = 0.343, p < 0.0001; and between anti-CCP antibody and anti-MCV antibody: r = 0.849, p < 0.0001). After adjustment for age and sex, anti-CCP antibody seropositivity in FDRs was significantly associated with being in a multicase family (odds ratio, 49.8; 95% confidence interval, 5.6 to 441.6). The association between anti-CCP antibody seropositivity in unaffected FDRs and being in a multicase family suggests that genetic and/or environmental factors may increase the risk for RA development in unaffected FDRs.

  11. Seropositivity to non-vaccine incorporated genotypes induced by the bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, Sara L; Godi, Anna; Jit, Mark; Beddows, Simon

    2017-07-13

    Human papillomavirus vaccines have demonstrated remarkable efficacy against persistent infection and disease associated with vaccine-incorporated genotypes and a degree of efficacy against some genetically related, non-vaccine-incorporated genotypes. The vaccines differ in the extent of cross-protection against these non-vaccine genotypes. Data supporting the role for neutralizing antibodies as a correlate or surrogate of cross-protection are lacking, as is a robust assessment of the seroconversion rates against these non-vaccine genotypes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available data on vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody seropositivity to non-vaccine incorporated HPV genotypes. Of 304 articles screened, 9 were included in the analysis representing ca. 700 individuals. The pooled estimate for seropositivity against HPV31 for the bivalent vaccine (86%; 95%CI 78-91%) was higher than that for the quadrivalent vaccine (61%; 39-79%; p=0.011). The pooled estimate for seropositivity against HPV45 for the bivalent vaccine (50%; 37-64%) was also higher than that for the quadrivalent vaccine (16%; 6-36%; p=0.007). Seropositivity against HPV33, HPV52 and HPV58 were similar between the vaccines. Mean seropositivity rates across non-vaccine genotypes were positively associated with the corresponding vaccine efficacy data reported from vaccine trials. These data improve our understanding of vaccine-induced functional antibody specificity against non-vaccine incorporated genotypes and may help to parameterize vaccine-impact models and improve patient management in a post-vaccine setting. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ALMA Long Baseline Campaigns: Phase Characteristics of Atmosphere at Long Baselines in the Millimeter and Submillimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Satoki; Asaki, Yoshiharu; Fomalont, Edward B.; Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Barkats, Denis; Hills, Richard E.; Kawabe, Ryohei; Maud, Luke T.; Nikolic, Bojan; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Vlahakis, Catherine; Whyborn, Nicholas D.

    2017-03-01

    likely to be water ice or a dry component. Excess path length fluctuation after the WVR phase correction at a baseline length of 10 km is large (≳ 200 μ {{m}}), which is significant for high frequency (> 450 {GHz} or method to reduce the degree of phase fluctuation, such as fast switching, in addition to the WVR phase correction. We simulated the fast switching phase correction method using observations of single quasars, and the result suggests that it works well, with shorter cycle times linearly improving the coherence.

  13. NA61/SHINE Data For Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Hälser, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Accelerator based long baseline neutrino experiments require precise neutrino fl ux predictions to reach their physics goals. These experiments are commonly based on a set of two detectors. At the near detector, cross section measurements are performed and the neutrino fl ux can be observed before oscillation, while at the far detector the signal for neutrino oscillations is studied. An accurate knowledge on hadron production is mandatory in order to predict the neutrino fluxes. The NA61/SHINE facility at the CERN SPS has proven its ability to deliver high quality measurements of hadron production for the long baseline neutrino experiments. In this paper, the latest results from N A61 /SHINE for the neutrino physics programme are reviewed and future plans are presented.

  14. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter-Trial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, K. H.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for sensorimotor adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a "one-size-fits-all" approach is inappropriate. Therefore, it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. This information could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time and provide better outcomes. The principal aim of this work is to look for baseline performance metrics that relate to locomotor adaptability. We propose a novel hypothesis that considers baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations ("noise") in motor performance, as a predictor of individual adaptive capabilities.

  15. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter­-Trial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for sensorimotor adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a one-size-fits-all approach is inappropriate. Therefore it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. This information could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time and provide better outcomes. The principal aim of this work is to look for baseline performance metrics that relate to locomotor adaptability. To-date, a strong relationship has been found between baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations ("noise") in motor performance, and adaptability in two oculomotor systems (see Preliminary Results). We now propose an analogous predictive mechanisms in the locomotor system.

  16. Centimeter repeatability of the VLBI estimates of European baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Antonio; Zarraoa, Nestor; Sardon, Esther; Ma, Chopo

    1992-01-01

    In the last three years, the European Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Network has grown to a total of six fixed antennas placed in Germany, Italy, Spain and Sweden, all equipped with the standard geodetic VLBI instrumentation and data recording systems. During this period of time, several experiments have been carried out using this interferometer providing data of very high quality due to the excellent sensitivity and performance of the European stations. The purpose of this paper is to study the consistency of the VLBI geodetic results on the European baselines with respect to the different degrees of freedom in the analysis procedure. Used to complete this study were both real and simulated data sets, two different software packages (OCCAM 3.0 and CALC 7.4/SOLVE), and a variety of data analysis strategies.

  17. Baseline characteristics of participants in the JUPITER trial, a randomized placebo-controlled primary prevention trial of statin therapy among individuals with low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridker, Paul M; Fonseca, Francisco A H; Genest, Jacques; Gotto, Antonio M; Kastelein, John J P; Khurmi, Nardev S; Koenig, Wolfgang; Libby, Peter; Lorenzatti, Alberto J; Nordestgaard, Borge G; Shepherd, James; Willerson, James T; Glynn, Robert J

    2007-12-01

    The Justification for the Use of statins in Primary prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled primary prevention trial of statin therapy among persons with average to low levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol who are at increased cardiovascular risk due to elevated plasma concentrations of the inflammatory biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). A total of 17,802 persons with LDL cholesterolor=2 mg/L were recruited from 26 countries and randomly allocated to 20 mg/day rosuvastatin or placebo. In contrast to previous studies of statin therapy in primary prevention, JUPITER is evaluating a group with modest plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol (median 108 mg/dl, interquartile range 94 to 119). Further, the trial includes 6,801 women (38.2%) and 5,577 participants with metabolic syndrome (32.1%). Thus, in addition to broadening our understanding of statin therapy and inflammation, the JUPITER trial will provide important and clinically relevant information on primary prevention among patients who do not currently qualify for lipid-lowering therapy. In conclusion, as 20 mg of rosuvastatin can reduce LDL cholesterol by up to 50%, JUPITER will also provide crucial safety data for several thousand patients who should achieve LDL cholesterol levels<50 mg/dl on a long-term basis.

  18. Track baseline data processing network method for coordinate transformation in high-speed railway%高铁轨道基准网平面网坐标转换方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟昊然; 刘成龙; 付恒友; 杨雪峰; 陈海军

    2011-01-01

    在高速铁路轨道基准网平面网数据处理中,需要将外业所测合格的轨道基准点坐标从测站站心坐标系转换到铁路工程独立坐标系,目前德国采用的是三参数坐标转换模型,而不是常规采用的四参数坐标转换模型.介绍了2种平面坐标转换模型及其转换参数精度评定的算法,通过对2种坐标转换的转换参数精度、坐标转换前后公共点残差以及站间坐标搭接情况的比较分析,认为2种坐标转换方法均能满足轨道基准网的精度要求,但是在其上一级CPⅢ控制网为约束平差的前提下,采用四参数坐标转换方法效果更优.%To process the data of horizontal network of track basis net of the high - speed railway, it is required to rewrite coordinates of qualified track datum mark, which are surveyed in the field operation, from the survey station' s topocentric coordinate system into the independent coordinate system of railway engineering. At status quo, Germany adopts tri - parameter transformation model rather than the regularly utilized quad - parameter transformation model. In this article, both coordinate systems and the algorithm of assessing the precision of the parameter transformation are introduced. It is suggested that both transformation models could meet with the requirements of precision of track basis net, through the comparative analysis on the transformation parameters' precision of both coordinate systems by the residual error of common points before and after the coordinate transformation , and the overlapping situations from various stations. However, it is quad - parameter coordinate transformation that appears to be better, on the assumption that the higher level, I. E. CPIII control network is used as the constrained surveying adjustment.

  19. Pipeline integrity: ILI baseline data for QRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Todd R. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: tporter@varco.com; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: guto@pipeway.com; Marr, James [MARR and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)]. E-mail: jmarr@marr-associates.com

    2003-07-01

    The initial phase of a pipeline integrity management program (IMP) is conducting a baseline assessment of the pipeline system and segments as part of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA). This gives the operator's integrity team the opportunity to identify critical areas and deficiencies in the protection, maintenance, and mitigation strategies. As a part of data gathering and integration of a wide variety of sources, in-line inspection (ILI) data is a key element. In order to move forward in the integrity program development and execution, the baseline geometry of the pipeline must be determined with accuracy and confidence. From this, all subsequent analysis and conclusions will be derived. Tuboscope Pipeline Services (TPS), in conjunction with Pipeway Engenharia of Brazil, operate ILI inertial navigation system (INS) and Caliper geometry tools, to address this integrity requirement. This INS and Caliper ILI tool data provides pipeline trajectory at centimeter level resolution and sub-metre 3D position accuracy along with internal geometry - ovality, dents, misalignment, and wrinkle/buckle characterization. Global strain can be derived from precise INS curvature measurements and departure from the initial pipeline state. Accurate pipeline elevation profile data is essential in the identification of sag/over bend sections for fluid dynamic and hydrostatic calculations. This data, along with pipeline construction, operations, direct assessment and maintenance data is integrated in LinaViewPRO{sup TM}, a pipeline data management system for decision support functions, and subsequent QRA operations. This technology provides the baseline for an informed, accurate and confident integrity management program. This paper/presentation will detail these aspects of an effective IMP, and experience will be presented, showing the benefits for liquid and gas pipeline systems. (author)

  20. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation, Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-11-01

    As discussed in the program plan for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, this program has been implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the current state of knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The objective of the program is to install a series of observation well clusters (wells installed in each major water bearing formation at the same site) at key locations across the plant site in order to: (1) provide detailed information on the lithology, stratigraphy, and groundwater hydrology, (2) provide observation wells to monitor the groundwater quality, head relationships, gradients, and flow paths.

  1. Very Long Baseline Interferometry with the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Paragi, Zsolt; Reynolds, Cormac; Rioja, Maria; Deller, Adam; Zhang, Bo; Gurvits, Leonid; Bietenholz, Michael; Szomoru, Arpad; Bignall, Hayley; Boven, Paul; Charlot, Patrick; Dodson, Richard; Frey, Sandor; Garrett, Michael; Imai, Hiroshi; Lobanov, Andrei; Reid, Mark; Ros, Eduardo; van Langevelde, Huib; Zensus, J Anton; Zheng, Xing Wu; Alberdi, Antxon; Agudo, Ivan; An, Tao; Argo, Megan; Beswick, Rob; Biggs, Andy D; Brunthaler, Andreas; Campbell, Robert M; Cimo, Giuseppe; Colomer, Francisco; Corbel, Stephane; Conway, John; Cseh, David; Deane, Roger; Falcke, Heino; Gabanyi, Krisztina; Gawronski, Marcin; Gaylard, Michael; Giovannini, Gabriele; Giroletti, Marcello; Goddi, Ciriaco; Goedhart, Sharmila; Gomez, Jose L; Gunn, Alastair; Jung, Taehyun; Kharb, Preeti; Klockner, Hans-Rainer; Kording, Elmar; Kovalev, Yurii Yu; Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Lindqvist, Michael; Lister, Matt; Mantovani, Franco; Marti-Vidal, Ivan; Mezcua, Mar; McKean, John; Middelberg, Enno; Miller-Jones, James; Moldon, Javier; Muxlow, Tom; O'Brien, Tim; Pérez-Torres, Miguel; Pogrebenko, Sergei; Quick, Jonathan; Rushton, Anthony P; Schilizzi, Richard; Smirnov, Oleg; Sohn, Bong Won; Surcis, Gabriele; Taylor, Greg; Tingay, Steven; Tudose, Valeriu; van der Horst, Alexander; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Venturi, Tiziana; Vermeulen, Rene; Vlemmings, Wouter; de Witt, Aletha; Wucknitz, Olaf; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Adding VLBI capability to the SKA arrays will greatly broaden the science of the SKA, and is feasible within the current specifications. SKA-VLBI can be initially implemented by providing phased-array outputs for SKA1-MID and SKA1-SUR and using these extremely sensitive stations with other radio telescopes, and in SKA2 by realising a distributed configuration providing baselines up to thousands of km, merging it with existing VLBI networks. The motivation for and the possible realization of SKA-VLBI is described in this paper.

  2. Optimization of the CLIC Baseline Collimation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resta-Lopez, Javier; /Oxford U., JAI; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa; /Daresbury; Fernandez-Hernando, Juan; /Daresbury; Jackson, Frank; /Daresbury; Dalena, Barbara; /CERN; Schulte, Daniel; /CERN; Tomas, Rogelio; /CERN; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2012-07-06

    Important efforts have recently been dedicated to the improvement of the design of the baseline collimation system of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). Different aspects of the design have been optimized: the transverse collimation depths have been recalculated in order to reduce the collimator wakefield effects while maintaining a good efficiency in cleaning the undesired beam halo; the geometric design of the spoilers have also been reviewed to minimize wakefields; in addition, the optics design have been polished to improve the collimation efficiency. This paper describes the current status of the CLIC collimation system after this optimization.

  3. SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1988-08-01

    The SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation was implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the SRP site. Phase III, which is discussed in this report, includes the drilling of 7 deep coreholes (sites P-24 through P-30) and the installation of 53 observation wells ranging in depth from approximately 50 ft to more than 970 ft below the ground surface. In addition to the collection of geologic cores for lithologic and stratigraphic study, samples were also collected for the determination of physical characteristics of the sediments and for the identification of microorganisms.

  4. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  5. Risk of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia during follow-up in HPV-positive women according to baseline p16-INK4A results: a prospective analysis of a nested substudy of the NTCC randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Francesca; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Confortini, Massimo; Del Mistro, Annarosa; Sani, Cristina; De Marco, Laura; Girlando, Salvatore; Rosso, Stefano; Naldoni, Carlo; Dalla Palma, Paolo; Zorzi, Manuel; Giorgi-Rossi, Paolo; Segnan, Nereo; Cuzick, Jack; Ronco, Guglielmo

    2013-02-01

    Immunostaining for p16-INK4A (henceforth p16) is a sensitive and specific method for detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women infected with human papillomavirus (HPV), but longitudinal data have not been obtained. We investigated the relation between p16 status and risk of CIN during 3 years of follow-up. Women aged 25-60 years were enrolled between June 10, 2003, and Dec 31, 2004, in a multicentre randomised trial comparing HPV testing with cytology. HPV-positive women were referred for colposcopy and, in seven of nine centres, were tested for p16 overexpression by immunostaining. If no CIN was detected, these women were followed up at yearly intervals until clearance of HPV infection. The primary endpoint was histologically confirmed CIN of grade 2 or worse (CIN of grade 2 [CIN2], CIN of grade 3 [CIN3], or invasive cervical cancer) at recruitment or during follow-up. We calculated the absolute and relative risks by p16 status at recruitment. We also calculated the longitudinal sensitivity of p16 testing. Additionally, we assessed the relative sensitivity of an alternative strategy (referral to colposcopy and follow-up of only HPV-positive, p16-positive women) versus conventional cytology in two age groups. Percentages were weighted by the inverse of the tested fraction. The trial in which this study is nested is registered, number ISRCTN81678807. Of 1042 HPV-positive women who were tested for p16 with no CIN detected during the first round of screening, 944 (91%) had further HPV tests. 793 (84%) of these 944 were followed up until detection of CIN2 or worse, HPV infection clearance, or for at least 3 years. CIN2 or worse was detected during follow-up in more p16-positive women (31 of 365, 8·8% [95% CI 5·8-11·8]) than in p16-negative women (17 of 579, 3·7% [1·9-5·4]; relative risk [RR] 2·61 [95% CI 1·49-4·59]). RR was higher in women aged 35-60 years at recruitment (3·37 [1·39-8·15]) than in those aged 25-34 years (2

  6. Baseline Response Levels Are a Nuisance in Infant Contingency Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, W. S.; Weir, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The impact of differences in level of baseline responding on contingency learning in the first year was examined by considering the response acquisition of infants classified into baseline response quartiles. Whereas the three lower baseline groups showed the predicted increment in responding to a contingency, the highest baseline responders did…

  7. Wide baseline stereo matching based on double topological relationship consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaohong; Liu, Bin; Song, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yang

    2009-07-01

    Stereo matching is one of the most important branches in computer vision. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for wide-baseline stereo vision matching. Here, a novel scheme is presented called double topological relationship consistency (DCTR). The combination of double topological configuration includes the consistency of first topological relationship (CFTR) and the consistency of second topological relationship (CSTR). It not only sets up a more advanced model on matching, but discards mismatches by iteratively computing the fitness of the feature matches and overcomes many problems of traditional methods depending on the powerful invariance to changes in the scale, rotation or illumination across large view changes and even occlusions. Experimental examples are shown where the two cameras have been located in very different orientations. Also, epipolar geometry can be recovered using RANSAC by far the most widely method adopted possibly. By the method, we can obtain correspondences with high precision on wide baseline matching problems. Finally, the effectiveness and reliability of this method are demonstrated in wide-baseline experiments on the image pairs.

  8. Gravity sensing with Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlippert, Dennis; Albers, Henning; Richardson, Logan L.; Nath, Dipankar; Meiners, Christian; Wodey, Etienne; Schubert, Christian; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.

    2016-05-01

    Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry (VLBAI) has applications in high-accuracy absolute gravimetry, gravity-gradiometry, and for tests of fundamental physics. Extending the baseline of atomic gravimeters from tens of centimeters to meters opens the route towards competition with superconducting gravimeters. The VLBAI-test stand will consist of a 10m-baseline atom interferometer allowing for free fall times of seconds. In order to suppress environmental noise, the facility utilizes a state-of-the-art vibration isolation platform and a three-layer magnetic shield. We envisage a resolution of local gravitational acceleration of 5 .10-10 m/ s2 with sub-ppb inaccuracy. Operation as a gradiometer will allow to resolve the gravity gradient at a resolution of 5 .10-10 1/ s2. The operation of VLBAI as a differential dual-species gravimeter using ultracold mixtures of Yb and Rb atoms enables quantum tests of the universality of free fall (UFF) at an unprecedented level, with the potential to surpass the accuracy of the best experiments to date. We report on a quantum test of the UFF using two different chemical elements, 39 K and 87 Rb, reaching a 100 ppb inaccuracy and show the potential of UFF tests in VLBAI at an inaccuracy of 10-13 and beyond.

  9. Antibody Response in Seropositive Multiple Sclerosis Patients Vaccinated with Attenuated Live Varicella Zoster Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RT Ross

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and effectiveness of live attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV vaccine (OKA/Merck on 50 patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS, based on the hypothesis that VZV might be the antigen or antigen mimic of MS plus the fact that repeated high antigen doses have produced ‘antigen paralysis’ in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis mice.

  10. Physics Potential of Long-Baseline Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino mixing and oscillations over the past decade provides firm evidence for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Recently, theta13 has been determined to be moderately large, quite close to its previous upper bound. This represents a significant milestone in establishing the three-flavor oscillation picture of neutrinos. It has opened up exciting prospects for current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments towards addressing the remaining fundamental questions, in particular the type of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible presence of a CP-violating phase. Another recent and crucial development is the indication of non-maximal 2-3 mixing angle, causing the octant ambiguity of theta23. In this paper, I will review the phenomenology of long-baseline neutrino oscillations with a special emphasis on sub-leading three-flavor effects, which will play a crucial role in resolving these unknowns. First, I will give a brief description of neutrino oscillation phenomeno...

  11. Baseline and benchmark model development for hotels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Edward T., Jr.

    The hotel industry currently faces rising energy costs and requires the tools to maximize energy efficiency. In order to achieve this goal a clear definition of the current methods used to measure and monitor energy consumption is made. Uncovering the limitations to the most common practiced analysis strategies and presenting methods that can potentially overcome those limitations is the main purpose. Techniques presented can be used for measurement and verification of energy efficiency plans and retrofits. Also, modern energy modeling tool are introduced to demonstrate how they can be utilized for benchmarking and baseline models. This will provide the ability to obtain energy saving recommendations and parametric analysis to explore energy savings potential. These same energy models can be used in design decisions for new construction. An energy model is created of a resort style hotel that over one million square feet and has over one thousand rooms. A simulation and detailed analysis is performed on a hotel room. The planning process for creating the model and acquiring data from the hotel room to calibrate and verify the simulation will be explained. An explanation as to how this type of modeling can potentially be beneficial for future baseline and benchmarking strategies for the hotel industry. Ultimately the conclusion will address some common obstacles the hotel industry has in reaching their full potential of energy efficiency and how these techniques can best serve them.

  12. Vegetation baseline report : Connacher great divide project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    This baseline report supported an application by Connacher Oil and Gas Ltd. to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environment (AENV) for the Great Divide Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Project. The goal of the report was to document the distribution and occurrence of ecosite phases and wetland classes in the project footprint as well as to document the distribution of rare plants; rare plant communities: and intrusive species and old growth communities, including species of management concern. A methodology of the baseline report was presented, including details of mapping and field surveys. Six vegetation types in addition to the disturbed land unit were identified in the project footprint and associated buffer. It was noted that all vegetation types are common for the boreal forest natural regions. Several species of management concern were identified during the spring rare plant survey, including rare bryophytes and non-native or invasive species. Mitigation was identified through a slight shift of the footprint, transplant of appropriate bryophyte species and implementation of a weed management plan. It was noted that results of future surveys for rare plants will be submitted upon completion. It was concluded that the effects of the project on existing vegetation is expected to be low because of the small footprint, prior disturbance history, available mitigation measures and conservation and reclamation planning. 27 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Perceived HIV-associated stigma among HIV-seropositive men: psychometric study of HIV stigma scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eValle

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the internal consistency and factor structure of the abridged Spanish version of the Berger HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-21, provide evidence for its convergent and discriminant validity, and describe perceived stigma in an urban population from northeast Mexico. Methods: Seventy five HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM were recruited. Participants answered the Spanish versions of three Likert-type scales: HSS-21, Robsenberg’s self-esteem scale, and the abbreviated version of the Zung’s Depression Scale.Results: HSS-21 showed high reliability and validity; its factor structure included four components: concern with public attitudes; negative self-image; disclosure concerns; and enacted stigma. The level of stigma was high in 27 out of 75 (36% participants; nevertheless, the score found in the component related to disclosure concerns indicated high level of stigma in 68% of participants. The score of HSS-21 was positively correlated with the score of depression and negatively correlated with the score of self-esteem. Conclusion: Results demonstrated high reliability for the HSS-21; correlations with other scales supported its validity. This scale demonstrated to be a practical tool for assessing stigma among Mexican HIV-positive MSM. High level of stigma was found only in the factor related to disclosure concerns. Policy Implications: Identifying HIV-associated stigma through a short, reliable and validated instrument will allow the development of interventions that cope and manage stigma in HIV-positive MSM. HSS-21 distinguishes between different dimensions of stigma and will contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon.

  14. Perceived HIV-Associated Stigma among HIV-Seropositive Men: Psychometric Study of HIV Stigma Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Adrian; Treviño, Ana Cecilia; Zambrano, Farith Francisco; Urriola, Karla Elizabeth; Sánchez, Luis Antonio; Elizondo, Jesus Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the internal consistency and factor structure of the abridged Spanish version of the Berger HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-21), to provide evidence for its convergent and discriminant validity, and to describe perceived stigma in an urban population from northeast Mexico. Seventy-five HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) were recruited. Participants answered the Spanish versions of three Likert-type scales: HSS-21, Robsenberg's self-esteem scale, and the abbreviated version of the Zung's Depression Scale. HSS-21 showed high reliability and validity; its factor structure included four components: concern with public attitudes; negative self-image; disclosure concerns; and enacted stigma. The level of stigma was high in 27 out of 75 (36%) participants; nevertheless, the score found in the component related to disclosure concerns indicated high level of stigma in 68% of participants. The score of HSS-21 was positively correlated with the score of depression and negatively correlated with the score of self-esteem. Results demonstrated high reliability for the HSS-21; correlations with other scales supported its validity. This scale demonstrated to be a practical tool for assessing stigma among Mexican HIV-positive MSM. High level of stigma was found only in the factor related to disclosure concerns. Identifying HIV-associated stigma through a short, reliable, and validated instrument will allow the development of interventions that cope and manage stigma in HIV-positive MSM. HSS-21 distinguishes between different dimensions of stigma and will contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon.

  15. Modeling nonlinear errors in surface electromyography due to baseline noise: a new methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Laura Frey; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Avin, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The surface electromyographic (EMG) signal is often contaminated by some degree of baseline noise. It is customary for scientists to subtract baseline noise from the measured EMG signal prior to further analyses based on the assumption that baseline noise adds linearly to the observed EMG signal. The stochastic nature of both the baseline and EMG signal, however, may invalidate this assumption. Alternately, "true" EMG signals may be either minimally or nonlinearly affected by baseline noise. This information is particularly relevant at low contraction intensities when signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) may be lowest. Thus, the purpose of this simulation study was to investigate the influence of varying levels of baseline noise (approximately 2-40% maximum EMG amplitude) on mean EMG burst amplitude and to assess the best means to account for signal noise. The simulations indicated baseline noise had minimal effects on mean EMG activity for maximum contractions, but increased nonlinearly with increasing noise levels and decreasing signal amplitudes. Thus, the simple baseline noise subtraction resulted in substantial error when estimating mean activity during low intensity EMG bursts. Conversely, correcting EMG signal as a nonlinear function of both baseline and measured signal amplitude provided highly accurate estimates of EMG amplitude. This novel nonlinear error modeling approach has potential implications for EMG signal processing, particularly when assessing co-activation of antagonist muscles or small amplitude contractions where the SNR can be low.

  16. Seropositividad para Trypanosoma cruzi en caninos de la localidad de La Para (Córdoba, Argentina Seropositivity to Trypanosoma cruzi in dogs in the town of La Para (Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S Graiff

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La Para, es una localidad de 3000 habitantes ubicada al noreste de la Provincia de Córdoba. Se determinó la seropositividad para infección chagásica en perros, conocidos reservorios de esta enfermedad. Se dividió al área urbana del pueblo en 10 zonas, y se tomaron 90 muestras en total, de una población canina estimada de 767 animales. El diagnóstico serológico se realizó con el test de ELISA y con Inmunofluorescencia Indirecta. El 11,11% de las muestras resultaron positivas a las dos pruebas. La mitad de los propietarios de los perros afectados no conocían la enfermedad. Los resultados obtenidos en la localidad de La Para aportan información valiosa para la ejecución de acciones sanitarias profundas en la localidad y en la región, debido a la demostración de alta prevalencia de seropositividad en los perros y la falta de datos de prevalencia en población humana actualizados en la región.La Para is a town of 3,000 habitants located northeast of the Province of Cordoba. We determine the seropositivity status to Chagas' disease in dogs, important domectic reservoirs of the disease. The urban area was divided into 10 areas of the village, taking 90 samples in total, estimating a canine population of 767 animals. The serodiagnosis was made through the serological test Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay and indirect immunofluorescence. 11.11% of the samples were positive on both tests. Half of owners of affected dogs did not know the disease. The results obtained in the town of La Para provide valuable information to implement health actions deep in the town and the region, due to high prevalence of seropositivity in dogs and the lack of updated data on human prevalence in the region.

  17. Prevalence of acute and chronic viral seropositivity and characteristics of disease in patients with psoriatic arthritis treated with cyclosporine: a post hoc analysis from a sex point of view on the observational study of infectious events in psoriasis complicated by active psoriatic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Delia; Chimenti, Sergio; Grossi, Paolo Antonio; Marchesoni, Antonio; Bardazzi, Federico; Ayala, Fabio; Simoni, Lucia; Vassellatti, Donatella; Bellia, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Sex medicine studies have shown that there are sex differences with regard to disease characteristics in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis, in immune response and susceptibility to viral infections. We performed a post hoc analysis of the Observational Study of infectious events in psoriasis complicated by active psoriatic arthritis (SYNERGY) study in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) treated with immunosuppressive regimens including cyclosporine, in order to evaluate potential between-sex differences in severity of disease and prevalence of viral infections. Methods SYNERGY was an observational study conducted in 24 Italian dermatology clinics, which included 238 consecutively enrolled patients with PsA, under treatment with immunosuppressant regimens including cyclosporin A. In this post hoc analysis, patients’ demographical data and clinical characteristics of psoriasis, severity and activity of PsA, prevalence of seropositivity for at least one viral infection, and treatments administered for PsA and infections were compared between sexes. Results A total of 225 patients were evaluated in this post hoc analysis, and 121 (54%) were males. Demographic characteristics and concomitant diseases were comparable between sexes. Statistically significant sex differences were observed at baseline in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score (higher in males), mean number of painful joints, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, and the global activity of disease assessed by patients (all higher in females). The percentage of patients with at least one seropositivity detected at baseline, indicative of concomitant or former viral infection, was significantly higher among women than among men. No between-sex differences were detected in other measures, at other time points, and in treatments. Patients developed no hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus reactivation during cyclosporine treatment. Conclusion Our post hoc

  18. Recurrence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy despite immune recovery in two HIV seropositive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Kate M; Agnihotri, Shruti; Chaganti, Joga; Rodriguez, Michael L; McNally, Leon Patrick; Venna, Nagagopal; Turbett, Sarah E; Gutman, Matthew; Morey, Adrienne; Koralnik, Igor J; Brew, Bruce J

    2016-08-01

    We present two cases of recurrent progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients with long standing virally suppressed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and normal CD4+ T cell count who were taking stable regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This has significant implications for other patients with a past history of PML, not just those with HIV but also those on medications such as natalizumab or fumarates.

  19. Sudden hearing loss as the initial symptom in Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis and seropositive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masami; Tanaka, Keiko

    2016-09-15

    Sudden hearing loss may occur in rare cases of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). There have also been reports of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), but the frequency of such cases is unclear. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 173 consecutive patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 101 consecutive patients with NMOSD who tested positive for anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies in addition to 37 consecutive patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) to investigate the frequency and onset timing of SNHL. SNHL was observed in six (3.5%) of the RRMS cases, one (1.0%) of the seropositive NMOSD cases, and three (8.1%) of the CIS cases. SNHL occurred ahead of onset in 4/6 MS patients and in all of 3 CIS patients. Patient with NMOSD exhibited SNHL 6years after the onset of NMOSD. Although SNHL is rare, these results suggest the risk of developing demyelinating lesions in the central nervous system and further conversion to MS in the future. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Non-detection of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 DNA in HHV-8-seropositive blood donors from three Brazilian regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Levi

    Full Text Available Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8, also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, is the etiologic agent of all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and the plasmablastic cell variant of multicentric Castleman disease. In endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa, blood transfusions have been associated with a substantial risk of HHV-8 transmission. By contrast, several studies among healthy blood donors from North America have failed to detect HHV-8 DNA in samples of seropositive individuals. In this study, using a real-time PCR assay, we investigated the presence of HHV-8 DNA in whole-blood samples of 803 HHV-8 blood donors from three Brazilian states (São Paulo, Amazon, Bahia who tested positive for HHV-8 antibodies, in a previous multicenter study. HHV-8 DNA was not detected in any sample. Our findings do not support the introduction of routine HHV-8 screening among healthy blood donors in Brazil. (WC = 140.

  1. [The management of dialysis patients seropositive for HBsAg, anti-HCV, or anti-HIV antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Fabrizio; Messa, Piergiorgio

    2012-01-01

    Infections by hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus are still common among patients on maintenance dialysis in Western countries. The natural history of HBV and HCV in the dialysis population remains unclear; however, there is good evidence showing an adverse impact of an anti-HCV seropositive status on survival in dialysis patients. A recent meta-analysis of observational studies (n=7, 11,589 unique patients) reported that anti-HCV-positive patients on dialysis had a higher mortality rate than those who were anti-HCV negative (adjusted hazard ratio=1.35, 95% confidence interval, 1.13; 1.59, pdialysis. Standard precautions and specific procedures against the transmission of blood-borne agents have been recommended to control HCV infection within dialysis units. Isolation by dialysis machines, staff and rooms has been strongly recommended to control HBV. Vaccination is an important tool against transmission of HBV infection among patients on maintenance dialysis; however, the immune response towards the hepatitis B vaccine in uremic patients remains unsatisfactory. Monotherapy with lamivudine is currently used for dialysis patients with hepatitis B whereas combination antiviral therapy (pegylated interferon plus ribavirin) is the standard of care for hepatitis C in the dialysis population, even if various side effects have been observed.

  2. Seropositivity rates of HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and VDRL in blood donors in Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilek, İmdat; Demir, Cengiz; Bay, Ali; Akdeniz, Hayrettin; Öner, Ahmet Faik

    2007-03-05

    Infections caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) remain the leading most important health problems worldwide. Screening tests such as HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and VDRL are mandatory tests to look at before transfusion of blood or blood components. In this study, donors who applied to our Blood Center in a nine-year period were retrospectively evaluated with respect to HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and syphilis seroprevalence. HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV were examined by microparticle ELISA system, and syphilis antibodies were screened by a syphilis test device. Of the total 39,002 individuals, 16,601 (42%) were females and 22,401 (58%) were males. HBsAg positivity was found in 2.55%, anti-HCV in 0.17%, anti-HIV in 0.036%, and VDRL in 0.057% of overall donors. As a result, HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and VDRL seropositivity rates in donors living in our region were found lower than those in many regions of Turkey. Nevertheless, because there is no screening method to reduce the risk resulting from transfusion to zero, it appears that it is essential to adopt strict criteria in the selection of donors and to avoid unnecessary transfusion.

  3. Spontaneous rupture of tuberculous spleen in a HIV seropositive patient on maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathore Shubhra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of the spleen usually occurs secondary to infection, hematolo-gical disorders or infiltrative lesions of the spleen. In patients with positive human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV antibodies and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS who pre-sent with acute abdomen, splenic rupture should be considered as a possible cause and should addi-tionally be investigated for co-infection with tuberculosis. Spontaneous rupture of spleen in asymp-tomatic patients requires a high index of suspicion for diagnosis. We herein report on a HIV-positive patient on maintenance hemodialysis, who presented with spontaneous rupture of a tuberculous spleen.

  4. Radio sources - Very, Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D. H.

    1983-03-01

    With resolution of a thousandth of an arcsecond, the radio technique of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) provides astronomers with their highest-resolution view of the universe. Data taken with widely-separated antennas are combined, with the help of atomic clocks, to form a Michelson interferometer whose size may be as great as the earth's diameter. Extraordinary phenomena, from the birth of stars as signaled by the brilliant flashes of powerful interstellar masers to the 'faster-than-light' expansion of the cores of distant quasars, are being explored with this technique. However, earth-bound VLBI suffers from several restrictions due to the location of the component antennas at fixed places on the earth's surface. The use of one or more antennas in space in concert with ground-based equipment will greatly expand the technical and scientific capabilities of VLBI, leading to a more complete and even higher resolution view of cosmic phenomena.

  5. The OPERA long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilquet, G.

    2008-05-01

    OPERA is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to observe the appearance of vτ in a pure vμ beam in the parameter space indicated by the atmospheric neutrinos oscillation signal. The detector is situated in the underground LNGS laboratory under 3 800 water meter equivalent at a distance of 730 km from CERN where the CNGS neutrino beam to which it is exposed originates. It consists of two identical 0.68 kilotons lead/nuclear emulsion targets, each instrumented with a tracking device and complemented by a muon spectrometer. The concept and the status of the detector are described and the first results obtained with cosmic rays and during two weeks of beam commissioning in 2006 are reported.

  6. In-Space Manufacturing Baseline Property Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Tom; Schneider, Judith; Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Nicki

    2016-01-01

    The In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center currently operates a 3D FDM (fused deposition modeling) printer onboard the International Space Station. In order to enable utilization of this capability by designer, the project needs to establish characteristic material properties for materials produced using the process. This is difficult for additive manufacturing since standards and specifications do not yet exist for these technologies. Due to availability of crew time, there are limitations to the sample size which in turn limits the application of the traditional design allowables approaches to develop a materials property database for designers. In this study, various approaches to development of material databases were evaluated for use by designers of space systems who wish to leverage in-space manufacturing capabilities. This study focuses on alternative statistical techniques for baseline property development to support in-space manufacturing.

  7. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek scabbling technology was tested at Florida International University (FIU) and is being evaluated as a baseline technology. This report evaluates it for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek concrete scabbling system consisted of the MOOSE{reg_sign}, SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-I, and SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-III scabblers. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross-section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 318 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  8. Steganography Based on Baseline Sequential JPEG Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Information hiding in Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) compressed images are investigated in this paper. Quantization is the source of information loss in JPEG compression process. Therefore, information hidden in images is probably destroyed by JPEG compression. This paper presents an algorithm to reliably embed information into the JPEG bit streams in the process of JPEG encoding. Information extraction is performed in the process of JPEG decoding. The basic idea of our algorithm is to modify the quantized direct current (DC) coefficients and non-zero alternating current (AC) coefficients to represent one bit information (0 or 1). Experimental results on gray images using baseline sequential JPEG encoding show that the cover images (images without secret information) and the stego-images (images with secret information) are perceptually indiscernible.

  9. Intensity interferometry: Optical imaging with kilometer baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis

    2016-01-01

    Optical imaging with microarcsecond resolution will reveal details across and outside stellar surfaces but requires kilometer-scale interferometers, challenging to realize either on the ground or in space. Intensity interferometry, electronically connecting independent telescopes, has a noise budget that relates to the electronic time resolution, circumventing issues of atmospheric turbulence. Extents up to a few km are becoming realistic with arrays of optical air Cherenkov telescopes (primarily erected for gamma-ray studies), enabling an optical equivalent of radio interferometer arrays. Pioneered by Hanbury Brown and Twiss, digital versions of the technique have now been demonstrated, reconstructing diffraction-limited images from laboratory measurements over hundreds of optical baselines. This review outlines the method from its beginnings, describes current experiments, and sketches prospects for future observations.

  10. The WITCH Model. Structure, Baseline, Solutions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosetti, V.; Massetti, E.; Tavoni, M.

    2007-07-01

    WITCH - World Induced Technical Change Hybrid - is a regionally disaggregated hard link hybrid global model with a neoclassical optimal growth structure (top down) and an energy input detail (bottom up). The model endogenously accounts for technological change, both through learning curves affecting prices of new vintages of capital and through R and D investments. The model features the main economic and environmental policies in each world region as the outcome of a dynamic game. WITCH belongs to the class of Integrated Assessment Models as it possesses a climate module that feeds climate changes back into the economy. In this paper we provide a thorough discussion of the model structure and baseline projections. We report detailed information on the evolution of energy demand, technology and CO2 emissions. Finally, we explicitly quantifiy the role of free riding in determining the emissions scenarios. (auth)

  11. Octant degeneracy, CPV phase at Long Baseline $\

    CERN Document Server

    Bora, Kalpana; Dutta, Debajyoti

    2015-01-01

    In a recent work by two of us, we have studied, how CP violation discovery potential can be improved at long baseline neutrino experiments (LBNE/DUNE), by combining with its ND (near detector) and reactor experiments. In this work, we discuss how this study can be further analysed to resolve entanglement of the quadrant of CPV phase and Octant of atmospheric mixing angle {\\theta}23, at LBNEs. The study is done for both NH (Normal hierarchy) and IH (Inverted hierarchy). We further show how leptogenesis can enhance this effect of resolving this entanglement. A detailed analytic and numerical study of baryogenesis through leptogenesis is performed in this framework in a model independent way. We then compare our result of the baryon to photon ratio with the the current observational data of the baryon asymmetry.

  12. Tightly coupled long baseline/ultra-short baseline integrated navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Pedro; Silvestre, Carlos; Oliveira, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel integrated navigation filter based on a combined long baseline/ultra short baseline acoustic positioning system with application to underwater vehicles. With a tightly coupled structure, the position, linear velocity, attitude, and rate gyro bias are estimated, considering the full nonlinear system dynamics without resorting to any algebraic inversion or linearisation techniques. The resulting solution ensures convergence of the estimation error to zero for all initial conditions, exponentially fast. Finally, it is shown, under simulation environment, that the filter achieves very good performance in the presence of sensor noise.

  13. Owning the program technical baseline for future space systems acquisition: program technical baseline tracking tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Guillen, Andy T.; Hant, James J.; Kizer, Justin R.; Min, Inki A.; Siedlak, Dennis J. L.; Yoh, James

    2017-05-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has recognized the needs for owning the program and technical knowledge within the Air Force concerning the systems being acquired to ensure success. This paper extends the previous work done by the authors [1-2] on the "Resilient Program Technical Baseline Framework for Future Space Systems" and "Portfolio Decision Support Tool (PDST)" to the development and implementation of the Program and Technical Baseline (PTB) Tracking Tool (PTBTL) for the DOD acquisition life cycle. The paper describes the "simplified" PTB tracking model with a focus on the preaward phases and discusses how to implement this model in PDST.

  14. Biological baseline data Youngs Bay, Oregon, 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Higley, D.L.; Holton, R.L.

    1975-04-01

    This report presents biological baseline information gathered during the research project, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies on Youngs Bay.'' Youngs Bay is a shallow embayment located on the south shore of the Columbia River, near Astoria, Oregon. Research on Youngs Bay was motivated by the proposed construction by Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation of an aluminum reduction plant at Warrenton, Oregon. The research was designed to provide biological baseline information on Youngs Bay in anticipation of potential harmful effects from plant effluents. The information collected concerns the kinds of animals found in the Youngs Bay area, and their distribution and seasonal patterns of abundance. In addition, information was collected on the feeding habits of selected fish species, and on the life history and behavioral characteristics of the most abundant benthic amphipod, Corophium salmonis. Sampling was conducted at approximately three-week intervals, using commonly accepted methods of animal collection. Relatively few stations were sampled for fish, because of the need to standardize conditions of capture. Data on fish capture are reported in terms of catch-per-unit effort by a particular sampling gear at a specific station. Methods used in sampling invertebrates were generally more quantitative, and allowed sampling at a greater variety of places, as well as a valid basis for the computation of densities. Checklists of invertebrate species and fish species were developed from these samples, and are referred to throughout the report. The invertebrate checklist is more specific taxonomically than are tables reporting invertebrate densities. This is because the methods employed in identification were more precise than those used in counts. 9 refs., 27 figs., 25 tabs.

  15. Evaluation of Immunity and Seropositivity of IgG Antibodies to Canine Parvoviruses in Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Dogs in Abeokuta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, E T; Ijaopo, O K; Okonko, I O

    2016-01-01

    Canine Parvovirus (CPV) is a very contagious and virulent viral disease affecting domestic dogs all over the world causing high morbidity and mortality in dogs, especially puppies. This study aimed at determining the seropositivity of IgG antibodies against CPV in vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs and to evaluate the immune status of dogs presented in Abeokuta. Forty-eight dogs were enrolled in this study. These dogs were presented at random for treatment, routine checkup, and vaccination at the State Veterinary Hospital and Veterinary Teaching Hospital all in Abeokuta. All the dogs were fully maintained under domestic setting. Selection for study was done based on thorough examination of the dogs and their medical records. The clients were informed of the nature of the investigation. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-CPV-IgG. In principle, protective immunity correlates with high antibody titers and this was determined using a commercially available immunocomb® test kit for anti-CPV IgG antibody. Of 48 dogs sampled, 38 (79.2%) had high level of anti-CPV antibody titer and 10 (20.8%) had low level of anti-CPV antibody titer. Twenty six (54.2%) were males while 22 (45.8%) were females. Forty-five (93.75%) dogs were exotic breeds while 3 (6.25%) dogs were mongrels. Thirty (62.5%) of the dogs were less than one year old and the age range of all dogs sampled was between 7 weeks and 7 years. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between sex and the level of immunity but significant differences (P canine parvovirus among dogs in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Of all variables evaluated, ages of dogs, breeds and post-vaccination period were the main correlates of the level of immunity to CPV. This study also showed agreement with previous studies in the diagnostic value of using the immunoblot ELISA assay for the rapid detection of anti-CPV IgG antibody.

  16. A FPGA Implementation of JPEG Baseline Encoder for Wearable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuecheng; Jia, Wenyan; Luan, Bo; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, an efficient field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of the JPEG baseline image compression encoder is presented for wearable devices in health and wellness applications. In order to gain flexibility in developing FPGA-specific software and balance between real-time performance and resources utilization, A High Level Synthesis (HLS) tool is utilized in our system design. An optimized dataflow configuration with a padding scheme simplifies the timing control for data transfer. Our experiments with a system-on-chip multi-sensor system have verified our FPGA implementation with respect to real-time performance, computational efficiency, and FPGA resource utilization.

  17. Firocoxib on aqueous humor prostaglandin E 2 levels for controlling experimentally-induced breakdown of blood-aqueous barrier in healthy and Toxoplasma gondii -seropositive cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Cristine Schroder

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of firocoxib for controlling experimentally-induced breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier in healthy and Toxoplasma gondii -seropositive cats. Thirty two cats with no ocular abnormalities were used. Groups (n=8/each were formed with healthy cats that received 5mg g-1 of oral firocoxib (FH or no treatment (CH on day 0; seropositive cats for anti -T. gondii specific immunoglobulin G (IgG were grouped (n=8/each and treated in a similar fashion (FT and CT. On day 1, cats of all groups received the same treatment protocol, and 1h later, aqueocentesis was performed under general anesthesia (M0. Following 1h, the same procedure was repeated (M1. Quantitation of aqueous humor total protein and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were determined. Aqueous samples of seropositive cats were tested for anti- T. gondii specific IgG. In M0, aqueous samples of CT showed a significantly higher concentration of PGE2 in comparison with other groups (P<0.05. In all groups, PGE2 concentration increased significantly from M0 to M1 (P=0.001. PGE2 values did not change significantly between groups in M1 (P=0.17. Anti- T. gondii specific IgG were reported only in samples of M1, and aqueous titers did not change significantly between FT and CT (P=0.11. Although we have observed that aqueous humor PGE2 levels were significantly higher in cats of CT group during M0, such increase was not able to break the blood-aqueous barrier and cause anterior uveitis. Firocoxib did not prevent intraocular inflammation after aqueocentesis, in healthy and toxoplasmosis-seropositive cats.

  18. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter-Trial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, K. H.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges surrounding adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a "one-size-fits-all" approach is inappropriate. Therefore, it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. Such knowledge could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time, both preflight and inflight, and provide better outcomes. The primary goal of this project is to look for a baseline performance metric that can forecast sensorimotor adaptability without exposure to an adaptive stimulus. We propose a novel hypothesis that considers baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations in motor performance, as a predictor of individual sensorimotor adaptive capabilities. To-date, a strong relationship has been found between baseline inter-trial correlations and adaptability in two oculomotor systems. For this project, we will explore an analogous predictive mechanism in the locomotion system. METHODS: Baseline Inter-trial Correlations: Inter-trial correlations specify the relationships among repeated trials of a given task that transpire as a consequence of correcting for previous performance errors over multiple timescales. We can quantify the strength of inter-trial correlations by measuring the decay of the autocorrelation function (ACF), which describes how rapidly information from past trials is "forgotten." Processes whose ACFs decay more slowly exhibit longer-term inter-trial correlations (longer memory processes), while processes whose ACFs decay more rapidly exhibit shorterterm inter-trial correlations (shorter memory processes). Longer-term correlations reflect low-frequency activity, which is more easily

  19. Successful Orthotopic Heart Transplantation and Immunosuppressive Management in 2 Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Seropositive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Antonio Hernandez; Kittleson, Michelle M; Dilibero, Deanna; Hardy, W David; Kobashigawa, Jon A; Esmailian, Fardad

    2016-02-01

    Few orthotopic heart transplantations have been performed in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus since the first such case was reported in 2001. Since that time, advances in highly active antiretroviral therapy have resulted in potent and durable suppression of the causative human immunodeficiency virus-accompanied by robust immune reconstitution, reversal of previous immunodeficiency, a marked decrease in opportunistic and other infections, and near-normal long-term survival. Although human immunodeficiency virus infection is not an absolute contraindication, few centers in the United States and Canada have performed heart transplantations in this patient population; these patients have been de facto excluded from this procedure in North America. Re-evaluation of the reasons for excluding these patients from cardiac transplantation is warranted in light of such significant advances in antiretroviral therapy. This case report documents successful orthotopic heart transplantation in 2 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, and we describe their antiretroviral therapy and immunosuppressive management challenges. Both patients were doing well without sequelae 43 and 38 months after transplantation.

  20. Successful Orthotopic Heart Transplantation and Immunosuppressive Management in 2 Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Seropositive Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittleson, Michelle M.; Dilibero, Deanna; Hardy, W. David; Kobashigawa, Jon A.; Esmailian, Fardad

    2016-01-01

    Few orthotopic heart transplantations have been performed in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus since the first such case was reported in 2001. Since that time, advances in highly active antiretroviral therapy have resulted in potent and durable suppression of the causative human immunodeficiency virus—accompanied by robust immune reconstitution, reversal of previous immunodeficiency, a marked decrease in opportunistic and other infections, and near-normal long-term survival. Although human immunodeficiency virus infection is not an absolute contraindication, few centers in the United States and Canada have performed heart transplantations in this patient population; these patients have been de facto excluded from this procedure in North America. Re-evaluation of the reasons for excluding these patients from cardiac transplantation is warranted in light of such significant advances in antiretroviral therapy. This case report documents successful orthotopic heart transplantation in 2 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, and we describe their antiretroviral therapy and immunosuppressive management challenges. Both patients were doing well without sequelae 43 and 38 months after transplantation. PMID:27047290

  1. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in small ruminants of the Madrid region, Spain, and identification of factors influencing seropositivity by multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainar, R C; de la Cruz, C; Asensio, A; Domínguez, L; Vázquez-Boland, J A

    1996-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and goats was conducted in the Madrid region of Spain. Sera were collected from 60 herds, for which farming management information and other relevant data for their characterization were also obtained through a questionnaire. The seroprevalence was 11.8% (64 out of 541), using the modified (2-mercaptoethanol) direct agglutination technique with a 1:64 cut-off titre. The relationship between seropositivity and the variables in the questionnaire was assessed by multivariate analysis. Four variables were found to be significantly associated with seroprevalence. Two of them, the presence of cats and a previous history of abortion outbreaks in the farm, were factors known to be linked with toxoplasmosis, indicating the validity of the serological data. Seropositivity was also related to a lack of replacements in the preceding year. Proximity to other farms appeared to be a protective factor negatively associated with seropositivity, probably because it was an indicator of proximity to an urban area and the availability of local sanitary facilities.

  2. Providing ART to HIV Seropositive Persons who use Drugs: Progress in New York City, Prospects for “Ending the Epidemic”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; Arasteh, Kamyar; McKnight, Courtney; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Hagan, Holly; Cooper, Hannah L.F.; Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Tross, Susan; Perlman, David C.

    2015-01-01

    New York City has experienced the largest HIV epidemic among persons who use psychoactive drugs. We examined progress in placing HIV seropositive persons who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV seropositive non-injecting drug users (NIDU) onto antiretroviral treatment (ART) in New York City over the last 15 years. We recruited 3511 PWID and 3543 NIDU from persons voluntarily entering drug detoxification and methadone maintenance treatment programs in New York City from 2001 to 2014. HIV prevalence declined significantly among both PWID and NIDU. The percentage who reported receiving ART increased significantly, from approximately 50% (2001-2005) to approximately 75% (2012-2014). There were no racial/ethnic disparities in the percentages of HIV seropositive persons who were on ART. Continued improvement in ART uptake and TasP and maintenance of other prevention and care services should lead to an “End of the AIDS Epidemic” for persons who use heroin and cocaine in the New York City. PMID:25731661

  3. Prevalence of Influenza A (H1N1 Seropositivity in Unvaccinated Healthcare Workers in Scotland at the Height of the Global Pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We set out to identify the level of previous exposure to influenza A (H1N1 in unvaccinated healthcare workers (HCWs at the peak of the pandemic outbreak in the UK, with control samples collected prior to the outbreak. Methods. Cross-sectional study (seroprevalence assessed before and at pandemic peak, with questionnaire data collected at peak of outbreak in HCWs in Scotland. Results. The prevalence of seropositivity in 493 HCWs at pandemic peak was 10.3%, which was higher than the prepandemic level by 3.7 percentage points (95% CI 0.3% to 7.3%, P=0.048. Seropositivity rates for frontline and nonfrontline HCWs were similar. Conclusion. At pandemic peak, only 10.3% of HCWs were seropositive for influenza A (H1N1, so the great majority were still susceptible to infection at the introduction of the vaccination programme. Few studies have reported on seroprevalence in unvaccinated and asymptomatic participants, so our findings may have relevance to the wider population.

  4. Cross-sectional analysis of the seropositivity and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection among veterinarians, in relation to their public professional activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang-Eun, Lee; Hong, Sung-Hee; Jeong, Yeong-Il; Lee, Jin-Hee; Yoo, Seok-Ju; Lim, Hyun-Sul; Lee, Won-Ja; Cho, Shin-Hyeong

    2014-06-16

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic pathogen that can infect most warm-blooded animals and humans. Although numerous epidemiological studies of T. gondii have been published, very limited data exist on the prevalence of T. gondii infection among veterinarians. In this study, a survey was used to analyze the seropositivity of and risk factors for T. gondii infection among public veterinarians (PV) and veterinarians in veterinary service laboratories (VVSL). Blood samples were collected from individuals in both groups and examined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). A questionnaire survey on work activities and personal dietary habits was also conducted. The positive rate for specific anti-T. gondii IgG antibody was 8% overall, comprising 13.4% in the PV group and 5.5% in the VVSL group. The seropositivity of T. gondii infection in the PV group was significantly related to involvement with the enforced destruction and contact with animals that were infected with zoonotic pathogens. Consumption of raw pork and drinking unboiled groundwater were also critical dietary risk factors for seropositivity for T. gondii infection. This is the first study of the factors that contribute to T. gondii infection among veterinarians with public professional activities in Korea. Further preventive educational programs for veterinarians with public professional activities are necessary to prevent exposure to T. gondii infection in this population. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. An autoregressive integrated moving average model for short-term prediction of hepatitis C virus seropositivity among male volunteer blood donors in Karachi, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saeed Akhtar; Shafquat Rozi

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To identify the stochastic autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model for short term forecasting of hepatitis C virus (HCV) seropositivity among volunteer blood donors in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: Ninety-six months (1998-2005) data on volunteer blood donors tested at four major blood banks in Karachi, Pakistan were subjected to ARIMA modeling. Subsequently, a fitted ARIMA model was used to forecast HCV seropositive donors for 91-96 mo to contrast with observed series of the same months. To assess the forecast accuracy, the mean absolute error rate (%) between the observed and predicted HCV seroprevalence was calculated. Finally, a fitted ARIMA model was used for short-term forecasts beyond the observed series. RESULTS: The goodness-of-fit test of the optimum ARIMA (2,1,7) model showed non- s igni f icant autocorrelations in the residuals of the model. The forecasts by ARIMA for 91-96 mo closely followed the pattern of observed series for the same months, with mean monthly absolute forecast errors (%) over 6 mo of 6.5%. The short-term forecasts beyond the observed series adequately captured the pattern in the data and showed increasing tendency of HCV seropositivity with CONCLUSION: To curtail HCV spread, public health authorities need to educate communities and health care providers about HCV transmission routes based on known HCV epidemiology in Pakistan and its neighboring countries. Future research may focus on factors associated with hyperendemic levels of HCV infection.

  6. CD4 count levels and pattern of respiratory complications in HIV seropositive patients in Calabar, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, E J; Essien, O E; Immananagha, K K; Inah, G A; Philip-Ephraim, E E; Agbulu, R E

    2007-01-01

    A prospective observational study was carried out to describe the pattern of pulmonary complications in hospitalized patients with Human Immune-deficiency Virus (HIV) infection at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar between January 2005 to December 2006. One hundred and twenty-four patients which consists 60 males and 64 females, aged between 20-60 who met the inclusion criteria formed the subjects for the study. The mean age of the subjects was 34.60 +/-1.2 years. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the demographic data, clinical information and CD4 lymphocyte count. Radiological analysis of chest was done with the chest X-ray of each subject. Chronic productive cough topped the list of respiratory symptoms (89%) followed by chest pain (74%) and dyspnea (62 %). Lung consolidation was the commonest respiratory sign as seen in 44 % of the cases. Hilar lymphadenopathy was seen in (35 %), Pleural effusion (32%), lung fibrosis (21%) and finger clubbing (15%). The clinical and radiological pattern of most patients with chronic cough was highly suggestive of mycobacterial infection such as tuberculosis, although only 40% of cases had positive acid fast bacilli. The mean CD4 lymphocyte count level was 174.8 +/- 5.4 cells/microlitre and this may be responsible for the respiratory findings as opportunistic lung infections are said to be commoner at CD4 count levels below 200 cells/microlitre. However, four patients had mediasternal masses which may suggest neoplasms. Concerted efforts and continuous evaluation of these patients are needed to determine the spectrum of respiratory illnesses among HIV positive patients in Calabar.

  7. A comparison of baseline methodologies for 'Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Kasper

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A mechanism for emission reductions from deforestation and degradation (REDD is very likely to be included in a future climate agreement. The choice of REDD baseline methodologies will crucially influence the environmental and economic effectiveness of the climate regime. We compare three different historical baseline methods and one innovative dynamic model baseline approach to appraise their applicability under a future REDD policy framework using a weighted multi-criteria analysis. Results The results show that each baseline method has its specific strengths and weaknesses. Although the dynamic model allows for the best environmental and for comparatively good economic performance, its high demand for data and technical capacity limit the current applicability in many developing countries. Conclusion The adoption of a multi-tier approach will allow countries to select the baseline method best suiting their specific capabilities and data availability while simultaneously ensuring scientific transparency, environmental effectiveness and broad political support.

  8. State estimation and optimal long period clinical treatment of HIV seropositive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M. Grégio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal control theory provides a very interesting quantitative method that can be used to assist the decision making process in several areas of application, such as engineering, biology, economics and sociology. The main idea is to determine the values of the manipulated variables, such as drug doses, so that some cost function is minimized, subject to physical constraints. In this work, the cost function reflects the number of CD4+T cells, viral particles and the drug doses. It is worth noticing that high drug doses are related to more intense side-effects, apart from the impact on the actual cost of the treatment. In a previous paper by the authors, the LQR - Linear Quadratic Regulator approach was proposed for the computation of long period maintenance doses for the drugs, which turns out to be of state feedback form. However, it is not practical to determine all the components of the state vector, due to the fact that infected and uninfected CD4+T cells are not microscopically distinguishable. In order to overcome this difficulty, this work proposes the use of Extended Kalman Filter to estimate the state, even though, because of the nonlinear nature of the involved state equations, the separation principle may not be valid. Extensive simulations were then carried out to investigate numerically if the control strategy consisting of the feedback of estimated states yielded satisfactory clinical results.A teoria de controle ótimo apresenta um método quantitativo muito interessante que pode ajudar no processo de tomada de decisão em algumas áreas de aplicação, tais como engenharia, biologia, economia e sociologia. A principal idéia é determinar os valores das variáveis controladas, tais como doses de medicamentos, onde alguma função-custo é minimizada, sujeito às restrições físicas. Neste trabalho, a função-custo reflete o número de células CD4+T, partículas virais e doses de medicamentos. É fato que altas dosagens de

  9. Innate immune function in placenta and cord blood of hepatitis C--seropositive mother-infant dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Christine Waasdorp; Golden-Mason, Lucy; Brocato, Megan; Krull, Mona; Narkewicz, Michael R; Rosen, Hugo R

    2010-08-30

    Vertical transmission accounts for the majority of pediatric cases of hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection. In contrast to the adult population who develop persistent viremia in approximately 80% of cases following exposure, the rate of mother-to-child transmission (2-6%) is strikingly low. Protection from vertical transmission likely requires the coordination of multiple components of the immune system. Placenta and decidua provide a direct connection between mother and infant. We hypothesized that innate immune responses would differ across the three compartments (decidua, placenta and cord blood) and that hepatitis C exposure would modify innate immunity in these tissues. The study was comprised of HCV-infected and healthy control mother and infant pairs from whom cord blood, placenta and decidua were collected with isolation of mononuclear cells. Multiparameter flow cytometry was performed to assess the phenotype, intracellular cytokine production and cytotoxicity of the cells. In keeping with a model where the maternal-fetal interface provides antiviral protection, we found a gradient in proportional frequencies of NKT and gammadelta-T cells being higher in placenta than cord blood. Cytotoxicity of NK and NKT cells was enhanced in placenta and placental NKT cytotoxicity was further increased by HCV infection. HCV exposure had multiple effects on innate cells including a decrease in activation markers (CD69, TRAIL and NKp44) on NK cells and a decrease in plasmacytoid dendritic cells in both placenta and cord blood of exposed infants. In summary, the placenta represents an active innate immunological organ that provides antiviral protection against HCV transmission in the majority of cases; the increased incidence in preterm labor previously described in HCV-seropositive mothers may be related to enhanced cytotoxicity of NKT cells.

  10. HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2 SEROPOSITIVITY AMONG EVER MARRIED WOMEN IN SOUTH AND NORTH VIETNAM: A POPULATION-BASED STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Le, Hoa; Schoenbach, Victor J; Herrero, Rolando; Pham, Anh Thi Hoang; Nguyen, Hieu Trong; Nguyen, Thuy Thi; Muñoz, Nubia; Franceschi, Silvia; Vaccarella, Salvatore; Parkin, Max D; Snijders, Peter JF; Ashley, Rhoda; Smith, Jennifer S

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate herpes simplex virus type–2 (HSV-2) seropositivity and associated risk factors in Vietnamese women. Methods Cross-sectional study with personal interviews and gynecological examinations among population-based samples of ever married women, aged 15–69 years, living in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) and Hanoi in 1997. Type-specific IgG antibodies against HSV-2 were detected using HerpeSelect ELISA (Focus Diagnostics). Adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated with log-binomial regression. Results HSV-2 seroprevalence was higher in 1,106 women from HCMC (30.8%, 95% CI: 28.1–33.4, age-standardized to 2000 world standard population) than in 1,170 women from Hanoi (8.8%, 95% CI: 7.1–10.5). In HCMC, HSV-2 seroprevalence was higher for women who were not married, HPV DNA positive, current hormonal contraceptive users, or had a history of multiple sexual partners or spontaneous abortion. HCMC seroprevalence was inversely associated with educational attainment, age at first intercourse, and age at first pregnancy. In the multivariable model for HCMC, a trend of increasing HSV-2 seroprevalence with age was observed, and prevalence ratios were nearly identical to age-adjusted prevalence ratios for marital status, age at first pregnancy, and HPV DNA positivity. Conclusion HSV-2 was notably less prevalent in Hanoi than HCMC, where it was associated with traditional HSV-2 risk factors. These results are likely explained by socio-cultural, historical, economic, and demographic factors related to urban-rural and regional differences. Future population-based studies should include men and never-married women as a next step toward obtaining a more nearly complete picture of HSV-2 epidemiology in Vietnam. PMID:19617867

  11. Innate immune function in placenta and cord blood of hepatitis C--seropositive mother-infant dyads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Waasdorp Hurtado

    Full Text Available Vertical transmission accounts for the majority of pediatric cases of hepatitis C viral (HCV infection. In contrast to the adult population who develop persistent viremia in approximately 80% of cases following exposure, the rate of mother-to-child transmission (2-6% is strikingly low. Protection from vertical transmission likely requires the coordination of multiple components of the immune system. Placenta and decidua provide a direct connection between mother and infant. We hypothesized that innate immune responses would differ across the three compartments (decidua, placenta and cord blood and that hepatitis C exposure would modify innate immunity in these tissues. The study was comprised of HCV-infected and healthy control mother and infant pairs from whom cord blood, placenta and decidua were collected with isolation of mononuclear cells. Multiparameter flow cytometry was performed to assess the phenotype, intracellular cytokine production and cytotoxicity of the cells. In keeping with a model where the maternal-fetal interface provides antiviral protection, we found a gradient in proportional frequencies of NKT and gammadelta-T cells being higher in placenta than cord blood. Cytotoxicity of NK and NKT cells was enhanced in placenta and placental NKT cytotoxicity was further increased by HCV infection. HCV exposure had multiple effects on innate cells including a decrease in activation markers (CD69, TRAIL and NKp44 on NK cells and a decrease in plasmacytoid dendritic cells in both placenta and cord blood of exposed infants. In summary, the placenta represents an active innate immunological organ that provides antiviral protection against HCV transmission in the majority of cases; the increased incidence in preterm labor previously described in HCV-seropositive mothers may be related to enhanced cytotoxicity of NKT cells.

  12. The LOFAR long baseline snapshot calibrator survey

    CERN Document Server

    Moldón, J; Wucknitz, O; Jackson, N; Drabent, A; Carozzi, T; Conway, J; Kapińska, A D; McKean, P; Morabito, L; Varenius, E; Zarka, P; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Bell, M E; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bîrzan, L; Bregman, J; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Carbone, D; Ciardi, B; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Engels, D; Falcke, H; Fallows, R A; Fender, R; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Hamaker, J P; Hassall, T E; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Juette, E; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Mann, G; Markoff, S; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; Morganti, R; Munk, H; Norden, M J; Offringa, A R; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Rowlinson, A; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Stappers, B W; Steinmetz, M; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; Thoudam, S; Toribio, M C; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; van Weeren, R J; White, S; Wise, M W; Yatawatta, S; Zensus, A

    2014-01-01

    Aims. An efficient means of locating calibrator sources for International LOFAR is developed and used to determine the average density of usable calibrator sources on the sky for subarcsecond observations at 140 MHz. Methods. We used the multi-beaming capability of LOFAR to conduct a fast and computationally inexpensive survey with the full International LOFAR array. Sources were pre-selected on the basis of 325 MHz arcminute-scale flux density using existing catalogues. By observing 30 different sources in each of the 12 sets of pointings per hour, we were able to inspect 630 sources in two hours to determine if they possess a sufficiently bright compact component to be usable as LOFAR delay calibrators. Results. Over 40% of the observed sources are detected on multiple baselines between international stations and 86 are classified as satisfactory calibrators. We show that a flat low-frequency spectrum (from 74 to 325 MHz) is the best predictor of compactness at 140 MHz. We extrapolate from our sample to sho...

  13. Lorentz symmetry and very long baseline interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Hees, A.; Lambert, S.

    2016-12-01

    Lorentz symmetry violations can be described by an effective field theory framework that contains both general relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics called the Standard Model extension (SME). Recently, postfit analysis of Gravity Probe B and binary pulsars led to an upper limit at the 10-4 level on the time-time coefficient s¯T T of the pure-gravity sector of the minimal SME. In this work, we derive the observable of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) in SME and then implement it into a real data analysis code of geodetic VLBI observations. Analyzing all available observations recorded since 1979, we compare estimates of s¯T T and errors obtained with various analysis schemes, including global estimations over several time spans, and with various Sun elongation cutoff angles, and by analysis of radio source coordinate time series. We obtain a constraint on s¯ T T=(-5 ±8 )×10-5 , directly fitted to the observations and improving by a factor of 5 previous postfit analysis estimates.

  14. Baseline air quality study at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave, M.J.; Charboneau, R.

    1980-10-01

    Air quality and meteorological data collected at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are presented. The data represent baseline values for the pre-construction phase of a proposed coal-gasification test facility. Air quality data were characterized through continuous monitoring of gaseous pollutants, collection of meteorological data, data acquisition and reduction, and collection and analysis of discrete atmospheric samples. Seven air quality parameters were monitored and recorded on a continuous real-time basis: sulfur dioxide, ozone, total hydrocarbons, nonreactive hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide. A 20.9-m tower was erected near Argonne's mobile air monitoring laboratory, which was located immediately downwind of the proposed facility. The tower was instrumented at three levels to collect continuous meteorological data. Wind speed was monitored at three levels; wind direction, horizontal and vertical, at the top level; ambient temperature at the top level; and differential temperature between all three levels. All continuously-monitored parameters were digitized and recorded on magnetic tape. Appropriate software was prepared to reduce the data. Statistical summaries, grphical displays, and correlation studies also are presented.

  15. Camera Trajectory fromWide Baseline Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlena, M.; Torii, A.; Pajdla, T.

    2008-09-01

    Camera trajectory estimation, which is closely related to the structure from motion computation, is one of the fundamental tasks in computer vision. Reliable camera trajectory estimation plays an important role in 3D reconstruction, self localization, and object recognition. There are essential issues for a reliable camera trajectory estimation, for instance, choice of the camera and its geometric projection model, camera calibration, image feature detection and description, and robust 3D structure computation. Most of approaches rely on classical perspective cameras because of the simplicity of their projection models and ease of their calibration. However, classical perspective cameras offer only a limited field of view, and thus occlusions and sharp camera turns may cause that consecutive frames look completely different when the baseline becomes longer. This makes the image feature matching very difficult (or impossible) and the camera trajectory estimation fails under such conditions. These problems can be avoided if omnidirectional cameras, e.g. a fish-eye lens convertor, are used. The hardware which we are using in practice is a combination of Nikon FC-E9 mounted via a mechanical adaptor onto a Kyocera Finecam M410R digital camera. Nikon FC-E9 is a megapixel omnidirectional addon convertor with 180° view angle which provides images of photographic quality. Kyocera Finecam M410R delivers 2272×1704 images at 3 frames per second. The resulting combination yields a circular view of diameter 1600 pixels in the image. Since consecutive frames of the omnidirectional camera often share a common region in 3D space, the image feature matching is often feasible. On the other hand, the calibration of these cameras is non-trivial and is crucial for the accuracy of the resulting 3D reconstruction. We calibrate omnidirectional cameras off-line using the state-of-the-art technique and Mičušík's two-parameter model, that links the radius of the image point r to the

  16. Lorentz symmetry and Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Poncin-Lafitte, C Le; lambert, S

    2016-01-01

    Lorentz symmetry violations can be described by an effective field theory framework that contains both General Relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics called the Standard-Model extension (SME). Recently, post-fit analysis of Gravity Probe B and binary pulsars lead to an upper limit at the $10^{-4}$ level on the time-time coefficient $\\bar s^{TT}$ of the pure-gravity sector of the minimal SME. In this work, we derive the observable of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) in SME and then we implement it into a real data analysis code of geodetic VLBI observations. Analyzing all available observations recorded since 1979, we compare estimates of $\\bar s^{TT}$ and errors obtained with various analysis schemes, including global estimations over several time spans and with various Sun elongation cut-off angles, and with analysis of radio source coordinate time series. We obtain a constraint on $\\bar s^{TT}=(-5\\pm 8)\\times 10^{-5}$, directly fitted to the observations and improving by a factor 5 pr...

  17. Baseline review of the U.S. LHC Accelerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Review of the U.S. Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Accelerator project was conducted February 23--26, 1998, at the request of Dr. John R. O`Fallon, Director, Division of High Energy Physics, Office of Energy Research, U.S. DOE. This is the first review of the U.S. LHC Accelerator project. Overall, the Committee found that the U.S. LHC Accelerator project effort is off to a good start and that the proposed scope is very conservative for the funding available. The Committee recommends that the project be initially baselined at a total cost of $110 million, with a scheduled completion data of 2005. The U.S. LHC Accelerator project will supply high technology superconducting magnets for the interaction regions (IRs) and the radio frequency (rf) straight section of the LHC intersecting storage rings. In addition, the project provides the cryogenic support interface boxes to service the magnets and radiation absorbers to protect the IR dipoles and the inner triplet quadrupoles. US scientists will provide support in analyzing some of the detailed aspects of accelerator physics in the two rings. The three laboratories participating in this project are Brookhaven National Laboratory, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Committee was very impressed by the technical capabilities of the US LHC Accelerator project team. Cost estimates for each subsystem of the US LHC Accelerator project were presented to the Review Committee, with a total cost including contingency of $110 million (then year dollars). The cost estimates were deemed to be conservative. A re-examination of the funding profile, costs, and schedules on a centralized project basis should lead to an increased list of deliverables. The Committee concluded that the proposed scope of US deliverables to CERN can be readily accomplished with the $110 million total cost baseline for the project. The current deliverables should serve as

  18. Digital Offshore Cadastre (DOC) - Pacific83 - Baseline Tangent Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines and bay closing lines in ESRI Arc/Info export and Arc/View shape file formats for the BOEM Pacific Region. Baseline...

  19. Humanized anti-interleukin-6-receptor antibody (tocilizumab) monotherapy is more effective in slowing radiographic progression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at high baseline risk for structural damage evaluated with levels of biomarkers, radiography, and BMI: data from the SAMURAI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Jun; Garnero, Patrick; van der Heijde, Désirée; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kawai, Shinichi; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nishimoto, Norihiro

    2011-02-01

    Our aim was to assess the ability of tocilizumab monotherapy to reduce progressive structural joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis patients at high risk of progression. This study was a subanalysis from a prospective 1-year, multicenter, X-ray-reader-blinded, randomized controlled trial of tocilizumab [Study of Active Controlled Monotherapy Used for Rheumatoid Arthritis, an IL-6 Inhibitor (SAMURAI) trial]. All patients were categorized into two or three groups according to four independent predictive markers for progressive joint damage [urinary C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide (uCTX-II), urinary pyridinoline/deoxypyridinoline (uPYD/DPD) ratio, body mass index (BMI), and joint-space narrowing (JSN) score at baseline]. One-year progression of joint destruction was assessed in high-risk versus low-risk groups receiving tocilizumab monotherapy and compared with patients receiving conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) (n = 157 and 145, respectively). In patients at high risk of progression of erosion as estimated by high uCTX-II, uPYD/DPD, or low BMI, and at high risk of progression of JSN as estimated by low BMI or high JSN score, the 52-week changes in radiological erosion and JSN, respectively, were significantly less in patients treated with tocilizumab monotherapy compared with those receiving DMARDs for each type of risk factor. In patients at low risk, those receiving tocilizumab also progressed less than those on DMARDs, although the difference did not reach statistical significance. Tocilizumab monotherapy is more effective in reducing radiological progression in patients presenting with risk factors for rapid progression than in low-risk patients. Patients at high risk for progression may benefit more from tocilizumab treatment.

  20. Seropositivity for Anti-HCV Core Antigen is Independently Associated With Increased All-Cause, Cardiovascular, and Liver Disease-Related Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsawa, Masaki; Kato, Karen; Tanno, Kozo; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Fujishima, Yosuke; Okayama, Akira; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Kawamura, Kazuko; Akiba, Takashi; Sakata, Kiyomi; Fujioka, Tomoaki

    2011-01-01

    Background It is not known whether chronic or past hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection contributes to the high mortality rate in hemodialysis patients. Methods This prospective study of 1077 adult hemodialysis patients without hepatitis B virus infection used Poisson regression analysis to estimate crude and sex- and age-adjusted rates (per 1000 patient-years) of all-cause, cardiovascular, infectious disease-related and liver disease-related mortality in patients negative for HCV antibody (group A), patients positive for HCV antibody and negative for anti-HCV core antigen (group B), and patients positive for anti-HCV core antigen (group C). The relative risks (RRs) for each cause of death in group B vs group C as compared with those in group A were also estimated by Poisson regression analysis after multivariate adjustment. Results A total of 407 patients died during the 5-year observation period. The sex- and age-adjusted mortality rate was 71.9 in group A, 80.4 in group B, and 156 in group C. The RRs (95% CI) for death in group B vs group C were 1.23 (0.72 to 2.12) vs 1.60 (1.13 to 2.28) for all-cause death, 0.75 (0.28 to 2.02) vs 1.64 (0.98 to 2.73) for cardiovascular death, 1.64 (0.65 to 4.15) vs 1.58 (0.81 to 3.07) for infectious disease-related death, and 15.3 (1.26 to 186) vs 28.8 (3.75 to 221) for liver disease-related death, respectively. Conclusions Anti-HCV core antigen seropositivity independently contributes to elevated risks of all-cause and cause-specific death. Chronic HCV infection, but not past HCV infection, is a risk for death among hemodialysis patients. PMID:22001541

  1. Herd-level risk factors for Campylobacter fetus infection, Brucella seropositivity and within-herd seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, H M; Irons, P C; Kabir, J; Thompson, P N

    2013-09-01

    Brucellosis and campylobacteriosis are economically important diseases affecting bovine reproductive efficiency in Nigeria. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in 271 cattle herds in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states of northern Nigeria using multistage cluster sampling. Serum from 4745 mature animals was tested for Brucella antibodies using the Rose-Bengal plate test and positives were confirmed in series-testing protocol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Preputial scrapings from 602 bulls were tested using culture and identification for Campylobacter fetus. For each disease, a herd was classified as positive if one or more animals tested positive. For each herd, information on potential managemental and environmental risk factors was collected through a questionnaire administered during an interview with the manager, owner or herdsman. Multiple logistic regression models were used to model the odds of herd infection for each disease. A zero-inflated Poisson model was used to model the count of Brucella-positive animals within herds, with the number tested as an exposure variable. The presence of small ruminants (sheep and/or goats) on the same farm, and buying-in of >3 new animals in the previous year or failure to practice quarantine were associated with increased odds of herd-level campylobacteriosis and brucellosis, as well as increased within-herd counts of Brucella-positive animals. In addition, high rainfall, initial acquisition of animals from markets, practice of gynaecological examination and failure to practice herd prophylactic measures were positively associated with the odds of C. fetus infection in the herd. Herd size of >15, pastoral management system and presence of handling facility on the farm were associated with increased odds, and gynaecological examination with reduced odds of herd-level Brucella seropositivity. Furthermore, the zero-inflated Poisson model showed that borrowing or sharing of bulls was associated with

  2. The effect of short-baseline neutrino oscillations on LBNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, William C. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Short-baseline neutrino oscillations can have a relatively big effect on long-baseline oscillations, due to the cross terms that arise from multiple mass scales. The existing short-baseline anomalies suggest that short-baseline oscillations can affect the ν{sub μ} → ν{sub e} appearance probabilities by up to 20-40%, depending on the values of the CP-violating parameters.

  3. The effect of short-baseline neutrino oscillations on LBNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, William C.

    2015-10-01

    Short-baseline neutrino oscillations can have a relatively big effect on long-baseline oscillations, due to the cross terms that arise from multiple mass scales. The existing short-baseline anomalies suggest that short-baseline oscillations can affect the νμ → νe appearance probabilities by up to 20-40%, depending on the values of the CP-violating parameters.

  4. Re-creating missing population baselines for Pacific reef sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, Marc O; Baum, Julia K; Williams, Ivor D; McPherson, Jana M; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Richards, Benjamin L; Schroeder, Robert E; Brainard, Russell E

    2012-06-01

    Sharks and other large predators are scarce on most coral reefs, but studies of their historical ecology provide qualitative evidence that predators were once numerous in these ecosystems. Quantifying density of sharks in the absence of humans (baseline) is, however, hindered by a paucity of pertinent time-series data. Recently researchers have used underwater visual surveys, primarily of limited spatial extent or nonstandard design, to infer negative associations between reef shark abundance and human populations. We analyzed data from 1607 towed-diver surveys (>1 ha transects surveyed by observers towed behind a boat) conducted at 46 reefs in the central-western Pacific Ocean, reefs that included some of the world's most pristine coral reefs. Estimates of shark density from towed-diver surveys were substantially lower (sharks observed in towed-diver surveys and human population in models that accounted for the influence of oceanic primary productivity, sea surface temperature, reef area, and reef physical complexity. We used these models to estimate the density of sharks in the absence of humans. Densities of gray reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos), whitetip reef sharks (Triaenodon obesus), and the group "all reef sharks" increased substantially as human population decreased and as primary productivity and minimum sea surface temperature (or reef area, which was highly correlated with temperature) increased. Simulated baseline densities of reef sharks under the absence of humans were 1.1-2.4/ha for the main Hawaiian Islands, 1.2-2.4/ha for inhabited islands of American Samoa, and 0.9-2.1/ha for inhabited islands in the Mariana Archipelago, which suggests that density of reef sharks has declined to 3-10% of baseline levels in these areas.

  5. Gravity sensing with Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlippert, Dennis; Albers, Henning; Richardson, Logan L.; Nath, Dipankar; Meiners, Christian; Wodey, Étienne; Schubert, Christian; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.

    2016-04-01

    Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry (VLBAI) represents a new class of atom optics experiments with applications in high-accuracy absolute gravimetry, gravity-gradiometry, and for tests of fundamental physics. Extending the baseline of atomic gravimeters from tens of centimeters to several meters opens the route towards competition with superconducting gravimeters. The VLBAI-test stand will consist of a 10m-baseline atom interferometer allowing for free fall times on the order of seconds, which will implemented in the Hannover Institut für Technologie (HITec) of the Leibniz Universität Hannover. In order to suppress environmental noise, the facility utilizes a state-of-the-art vibration isolation platform and a three-layer magnetic shield. We envisage a resolution of local gravitational acceleration of 5 ṡ 10-10 m/s2 with an inaccuracy < 10-9 m/s2. Operation as a gravity-gradiometer will allow to resolve the first-order gravity gradient with a resolution of 5 ṡ 10-10 1/s2. The operation of VLBAI as a differential dual-species gravimeter using ultracold mixtures of ytterbium and rubidium atoms enables quantum tests of the universality of free fall (UFF) at an unprecedented level [1], with the potential to surpass the accuracy of the best experiments to date [2]. We report on the first quantum test of the UFF using two different chemical elements, 39K and 87Rb [3], reaching a 100 ppb inaccuracy and show the potential of UFF tests in VLBAI at an inaccuracy of 10-13 and beyond. References J. Hartwig et al., New J. Phys. 17, 035011- (2015) S. Schlamminger et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 041101- (2008) D. Schlippert et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 203002 (2014)

  6. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline baseline emissions determination. (a) Annual average baseline values. For any facility of a... gasoline volume of the facility, per § 80.91. (b) Baseline exhaust benzene emissions—simple model. (1) Simple model exhaust benzene emissions of conventional gasoline shall be determined using the following...

  7. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy... Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the... inventory, the responsible employer must: (1) Review current and historical records; (2) Interview...

  8. Nonintrusive methodology for wellness baseline profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Danny Wen-Yaw; Tsai, Yuh-Show; Miaou, Shaou-Gang; Chang, Walter H.; Chang, Yaw-Jen; Chen, Shia-Chung; Hong, Y. Y.; Chyang, C. S.; Chang, Quan-Shong; Hsu, Hon-Yen; Hsu, James; Yao, Wei-Cheng; Hsu, Ming-Sin; Chen, Ming-Chung; Lee, Shi-Chen; Hsu, Charles; Miao, Lidan; Byrd, Kenny; Chouikha, Mohamed F.; Gu, Xin-Bin; Wang, Paul C.; Szu, Harold

    2007-04-01

    We develop an accumulatively effective and affordable set of smart pair devices to save the exuberant expenditure for the healthcare of aging population, which will not be sustainable when all the post-war baby boomers retire (78 millions will cost 1/5~1/4 GDP in US alone). To design an accessible test-bed for distributed points of homecare, we choose two exemplars of the set to demonstrate the possibility of translation of modern military and clinical know-how, because two exemplars share identically the noninvasive algorithm adapted to the Smart Sensor-pairs for the real world persistent surveillance. Currently, the standard diagnoses for malignant tumors and diabetes disorders are blood serum tests, X-ray CAT scan, and biopsy used sometime in the physical checkup by physicians as cohort-average wellness baselines. The loss of the quality of life in making second careers productive may be caused by the missing of timeliness for correct diagnoses and easier treatments, which contributes to the one quarter of human errors generating the lawsuits against physicians and hospitals, which further escalates the insurance cost and wasteful healthcare expenditure. Such a vicious cycle should be entirely eliminated by building an "individual diagnostic aids (IDA)," similar to the trend of personalized drug, developed from daily noninvasive intelligent databases of the "wellness baseline profiling (WBP)". Since our physiology state undulates diurnally, the Nyquist anti-aliasing theory dictates a minimum twice-a-day sampling of the WBP for the IDA, which must be made affordable by means of noninvasive, unsupervised and unbiased methodology at the convenience of homes. Thus, a pair of military infrared (IR) spectral cameras has been demonstrated for the noninvasive spectrogram ratio test of the spontaneously emitted thermal radiation from a normal human body at 37°C temperature. This invisible self-emission spreads from 3 microns to 12 microns of the radiation wavelengths

  9. 1993 baseline solid waste management system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armacost, L.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Konynenbelt, H.S.

    1994-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has prepared this report under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company. The report provides an integrated description of the system planned for managing Hanford`s solid low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, transuranic waste, and transuranic mixed waste. The primary purpose of this document is to illustrate a collective view of the key functions planned at the Hanford Site to handle existing waste inventories, as well as solid wastes that will be generated in the future. By viewing this system as a whole rather than as individual projects, key facility interactions and requirements are identified and a better understanding of the overall system may be gained. The system is described so as to form a basis for modeling the system at various levels of detail. Model results provide insight into issues such as facility capacity requirements, alternative system operating strategies, and impacts of system changes (ie., startup dates). This description of the planned Hanford solid waste processing system: defines a baseline system configuration; identifies the entering waste streams to be managed within the system; identifies basic system functions and waste flows; and highlights system constraints. This system description will evolve and be revised as issues are resolved, planning decisions are made, additional data are collected, and assumptions are tested and changed. Out of necessity, this document will also be revised and updated so that a documented system description, which reflects current system planning, is always available for use by engineers and managers. It does not provide any results generated from the many alternatives that will be modeled in the course of analyzing solid waste disposal options; such results will be provided in separate documents.

  10. Comparison of baseline results for the TI-4100 and Trimble 4000SDT geodetic GPS receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    1992-10-01

    Many GPS networks which were initially surveyed with Texas Instruments TI-4100 receivers have now been resurveyed with mixtures of TI-4100 and Trimble 4000 receivers or exclusively with Trimble receivers. In order to make confident tectonic interpretation of displacements observed between such surveys, it is necessary to understand any biases which may be introduced by using different receiver types or by mixing receivers within a network. Therefore, one of the primary objectives of the Ecuador 1990 GPS campaign (February 1990) was to provide a direct long baseline comparison between the TI-4100 and Trimble 4000SDT GPS receivers. p ]During this campaign, TI and Trimble receivers were co-located at each end of a 1323 kilometer baseline (Jerusalen to Baltra). Solutions for this baseline show no variation with receiver type. Zero-length baseline solutions showed no evidence for any intrinsic bias caused by mixing the two receiver types. Short baseline solutions indicate a bias of -34±10 mm in the baseline vertical component; the sign of the bias indicates that either the assumed phase center location for the TI is too low or the assumed location for the Trimble is too high. The bias is explainable if the phase centers of the Trimble SDT and SST antennas are similarly located. p ]Solutions for baselines measured with codeless receivers (such as the Trimble) should be as precise as those for baselines measured with P-code receivers (such as the TI) as long as it is possible to resolve ambiguities. Resolution of the widelane ambiguity is the limiting factor in ambiguity resolution with any codeless receiver, and in the February 1990 campaigns it was not successful fore baselines longer than 100 km. Without explicit modeling of the ionospheric effect on the widelane, ambiguity resolution with codeless receivers will not be successful for baselines longer than about 100 km, depending on the local ionospheric conditions.

  11. The LBNO long-baseline oscillation sensitivities with two conventional neutrino beams at different baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, S.K.; Aittola, M.; Alekou, A.; Andrieu, B.; Antoniou, F.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Autiero, D.; Besida, O.; Balik, A.; Ballett, P.; Bandac, I.; Banerjee, D.; Bartmann, W.; Bay, F.; Biskup, B.; Blebea-Apostu, A.M.; Blondel, A.; Bogomilov, M.; Bolognesi, S.; Borriello, E.; Brancus, I.; Bravar, A.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Caiulo, D.; Calin, M.; Calviani, M.; Campanelli, M.; Cantini, C.; Cata-Danil, G.; Chakraborty, S.; Charitonidis, N.; Chaussard, L.; Chesneanu, D.; Chipesiu, F.; Crivelli, P.; Dawson, J.; De Bonis, I.; Declais, Y.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Delbart, A.; Di Luise, S.; Duchesneau, D.; Dumarchez, J.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Eliseev, A.; Emery, S.; Enqvist, T.; Enqvist, K.; Epprecht, L.; Erykalov, A.N.; Esanu, T.; Franco, D.; Friend, M.; Galymov, V.; Gavrilov, G.; Gendotti, A.; Giganti, C.; Gilardoni, S.; Goddard, B.; Gomoiu, C.M.; Gornushkin, Y.A.; Gorodetzky, P.; Haesler, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Horikawa, S.; Huitu, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jipa, A.; Kainulainen, K.; Karadzhov, Y.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kopylov, A.N.; Korzenev, A.; Kosyanenko, S.; Kryn, D.; Kudenko, Y.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Lazanu, I.; Lazaridis, C.; Levy, J.M.; Loo, K.; Maalampi, J.; Margineanu, R.M.; Marteau, J.; Martin-Mari, C.; Matveev, V.; Mazzucato, E.; Mefodiev, A.; Mineev, O.; Mirizzi, A.; Mitrica, B.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Narita, S.; Nesterenko, D.A.; Nguyen, K.; Nikolics, K.; Noah, E.; Novikov, Yu.; Oprima, A.; Osborne, J.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pascoli, S.; Patzak, T.; Pectu, M.; Pennacchio, E.; Periale, L.; Pessard, H.; Popov, B.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M.; Resnati, F.; Ristea, O.; Robert, A.; Rubbia, A.; Rummukainen, K.; Saftoiu, A.; Sakashita, K.; Sanchez-Galan, F.; Sarkamo, J.; Saviano, N.; Scantamburlo, E.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Slupecki, M.; Smargianaki, D.; Stanca, D.; Steerenberg, R.; Sterian, A.R.; Sterian, P.; Stoica, S.; Strabel, C.; Suhonen, J.; Suvorov, V.; Toma, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trzaska, W.H.; Tsenov, R.; Tuominen, K.; Valram, M.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Vannucci, F.; Vasseur, G.; Velotti, F.; Velten, P.; Venturi, V.; Viant, T.; Vihonen, S.; Vincke, H.; Vorobyev, A.; Weber, A.; Wu, S.; Yershov, N.; Zambelli, L.; Zito, M.

    2014-01-01

    The proposed Long Baseline Neutrino Observatory (LBNO) initially consists of $\\sim 20$ kton liquid double phase TPC complemented by a magnetised iron calorimeter, to be installed at the Pyh\\"asalmi mine, at a distance of 2300 km from CERN. The conventional neutrino beam is produced by 400 GeV protons accelerated at the SPS accelerator delivering 700 kW of power. The long baseline provides a unique opportunity to study neutrino flavour oscillations over their 1st and 2nd oscillation maxima exploring the $L/E$ behaviour, and distinguishing effects arising from $\\delta_{CP}$ and matter. In this paper we show how this comprehensive physics case can be further enhanced and complemented if a neutrino beam produced at the Protvino IHEP accelerator complex, at a distance of 1160 km, and with modest power of 450 kW is aimed towards the same far detectors. We show that the coupling of two independent sub-MW conventional neutrino and antineutrino beams at different baselines from CERN and Protvino will allow to measure ...

  12. Compression phase study of the HiPER baseline target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeyre, X; Nicolai, Ph; Schurtz, G; Olazabal-Loume, M; Breil, J; Maire, P H; Feugeas, J L; Hallo, L; Tikhonchuk, V T [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS, CEA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351, cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France)

    2008-02-15

    The European High Power laser Energy Research (HiPER) project aims at demonstrating the feasibility of high gain inertial confinement fusion using the fast ignitor approach. A baseline target has been recently developed by Atzeni et al (2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 052702). We study here the robustness of this target during the compression phase and define pulse shape tolerances for a successful fuel assembly. The comparison between a standard and a relaxation pulse shows that the latter allows one to reduce both the laser power contrast and the growth of perturbations due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We have found that with 95 kJ of absorbed laser energy one can assemble the fuel with a peak density around 500 g cm{sup -2} and a peak areal density of 1.2 g cm{sup -2}. This implies a total target gain of about 60.

  13. Numerical simulations of the HiPER baseline target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeyre, X; Nicolai, P; Schurtz, G; Olazabal-Loume, M; Breil, J; Maire, P H; Feugeas, J L; Hallo, L; Tikhonchuk, V T [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS, CEA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351, cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France)], E-mail: ribeyre@celia.u-bordeaux1

    2008-05-15

    The European High Power laser Energy Research (HiPER) project aims at demonstrating the feasibility of high gain inertial confinement fusion (ICF) using the fast ignitor approach. A baseline target has been recently developed by Atzeni et al. [Phys. Plasmas 14, 052702 (2007)]. The comparison between a standard and a relaxation pulse shows that the latter one allows to reduce both the laser power contrast and the growth of perturbation under Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We have found that with 95 kJ of absorbed laser energy one can assemble the fuel with to a peak density around 500 g/cm{sup 3} and to a peak areal density of 1.2 g/cm{sup 2}. This implies a total target gain of about 55.

  14. Numerical simulations of the HiPER baseline target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeyre, X.; Nicolai, Ph.; Schurtz, G.; Olazabal-Loume, M.; Breil, J.; Maire, P.H.; Feugeas, J.M.; Hallo, L.; Tikhonchuk, V.T. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, CNRS, CEA, 33 - Talence (France)

    2009-08-15

    The European High Power laser Energy Research (HiPER) project aims at demonstrating the feasibility of high gain inertial confinement fusion using the fast ignitor approach. A baseline target has been recently developed by Atzeni et al. [Phys. Plasmas 14, 052702 (2007)]. The radiative transport have a minor effect on the peak areal density but decreased by 20% the peak density. We have found that with 95 kJ of absorbed laser energy one can assemble the fuel with a peak density around 500 g/cm{sup 3} and a peak areal density of 1.2 g/cm{sup 2}. This implies a total target gain of about 60. (authors)

  15. Baseline Behavior of Pilot Whales and their Responses to Playback of Anthropogenic and Natural Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Baseline Behavior of Pilot Whales and their Responses to...N000141210417 LONG-TERM GOALS This project investigated the social ecology and baseline behavior of long-finned pilot whales as part of a broad...noise sources compared to beaked whales . However, studies have been hindered by high inherent variability in acoustic and diving behavior and a lack

  16. Frequency of Th17 CD4+ T Cells in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Marker of Anti-CCP Seropositivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Villa, Irene; Bautista-Caro, María-Belén; Balsa, Alejandro; Aguado-Acín, Pilar; Nuño, Laura; Bonilla-Hernán, María-Gema; Puig-Kröger, Amaya; Martín-Mola, Emilio; Miranda-Carús, María-Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the frequency and phenotype of Th17 cells in the peripheral blood of early RA (eRA) patients. Methods CD4+ T cells were isolated from the peripheral blood of 33 eRA patients, 20 established RA patients and 53 healthy controls (HC), and from the synovial fluid of 20 established RA patients (RASF), by ficoll-hypaque gradient and magnetical negative selection. After polyclonal stimulation, the frequency of Th17 and Th1 cells was determined by flow cytometry and concentrations of IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 were measured by ELISA in cell-free supernatants. Results When all of our eRA patients were analyzed together, a significantly lower percentage of circulating Th17 cells and a lower CD4-derived IL-17 secretion were observed in comparison with HC. However, after stratifying by anti-CCP antibody status, circulating Th17 cells were decreased in anti-CCP(+) but not in anti-CCP(-)-eRA. All Th17 cells were CD45RO+CD45RA- and CCR6+. Dual Th17/Th1 cells were also exclusively decreased in anti-CCP(+)-eRA. Circulating Th17 and Th17/Th1 cells were negatively correlated with anti-CCP titres. When anti-CCP(+)-eRA patients were retested one year after initiating treatment with oral methotrexate, their circulating Th17 frequency was no longer different from HC. Of note, the percentage of circulating Th1 cells and the secretion of CD4-derived IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 were not different between eRA patients and HC. In established RA patients, circulating Th17 and T17/Th1 cell frequencies were comparable to HC. In RASF, both Th17 and Th1 cells were increased when compared with blood of eRA patients, established RA patients and HC. Conclusion Decreased circulating Th17 levels in eRA seem to be a marker of anti-CCP seropositivity, and return to levels observed in healthy controls after treatment with methotrexate. PMID:22870298

  17. Household-level risk factors for Newcastle disease seropositivity and incidence of Newcastle disease virus exposure in backyard chicken flocks in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaka, Hassen; Goutard, Flavie; Roger, Francois; Bisschop, Shahn P R; Thompson, Peter N

    2013-05-01

    A cross-sectional study with repeated sampling was conducted to investigate potential risk factors for Newcastle disease (ND) seropositivity and for incidence of ND virus (NDV) exposure in household flocks of backyard chickens in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia. Data were collected from 260 randomly selected households in 52 villages in Adami Tulu Jido Kombolcha and Ada'a woredas (districts) using a structured questionnaire, and serum samples from chickens were tested for NDV antibodies using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sampling took place during September 2009 and the same households were again sampled in May 2010. Household-level seroprevalence and incidence of NDV exposure were estimated in various ways using serological results from the two samplings, flock dynamics, and farmers' reports of ND in their flocks. The risk factors were assessed using multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression models. Household-level seroprevalence at the two sampling times was 17.4% and 27.4%, respectively, and the estimated incidence of household-level NDV exposure during the intervening period ranged between 19.7% and 25.5%. At the first sampling, reduced frequency of cleaning of poultry waste was associated with increased odds of seropositivity (OR=4.78; 95% CI: 1.42, 16.11; P=0.01) while hatching at home vs. other sources (buying in replacement birds, receiving as gift or buying fertile eggs) was associated with lower odds of seropositivity, both at the first sampling (OR=0.30; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.82; P=0.02) and the second sampling (OR=0.23; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.52; PNewcastle disease seroprevalence and incidence of NDV exposure were more heterogeneous between villages than between kebeles (aggregations of villages) and woredas in the study area. Further investigation of village-level risk factors would likely improve our understanding of ND epidemiology in backyard chickens.

  18. Relative associations of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) seropositivity in beef and dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, M C; Woolhouse, M E J; Gunn, G J; Humphry, R W

    2013-11-01

    The success of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication campaigns can be undermined by spread through local transmission pathways and poor farmer compliance with biosecurity recommendations. This work combines recent survey data with cattle movement data to explore the issues likely to impact on the success of BVDV control in Scotland. In this analysis, data from 249 beef suckler herds and 185 dairy herds in Scotland were studied retrospectively to determine the relative influence of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity on BVDV seropositivity. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that cattle movement risk factors had approximately 3 times greater explanatory power than risk factors for local spread amongst beef suckler herds, but approximately the same explanatory power as risk factors for local spread amongst dairy herds. These findings are most likely related to differences in cattle husbandry practices and suggest that where financial prioritization is required, focusing on reducing movement-based risk is likely to be of greatest benefit when applied to beef suckler herds. The reported use of biosecurity measures such as purchasing cattle from BVDV accredited herds only, performing diagnostic screening at the time of sale, implementing isolation periods for purchased cattle, and installing double fencing on shared field boundaries had minimal impact on the risk of beef or dairy herds being seropositive for BVDV. Only 28% of beef farmers and 24% of dairy farmers with seropositive herds recognized that their cattle were affected by BVDV and those that did perceive a problem were no less likely to sell animals as replacement breeding stock and no more likely to implement biosecurity measures against local spread than farmers with no perceived problems. In relation to the current legislative framework for BVDV control in Scotland, these findings emphasize the importance of requiring infected herds take appropriate biosecurity measures

  19. Seroprevalence of heartworm infection, risk factors for seropositivity, and frequency of prescribing heartworm preventives for cats in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Julie K; Burling, Amie N; Crandall, Michael M; Tucker, Sylvia J; Wood, Erin G; Foster, Jessie D

    2017-04-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine the seroprevalence of heartworm infection, risk factors for seropositivity, and frequency of prescribing heartworm preventives for cats. DESIGN Prospective cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 34,975 cats from 1,353 veterinary clinics (n = 26,707) and 125 animal shelters (8,268) in the United States and Canada. PROCEDURES Blood samples were collected from all cats and tested with a point-of-care ELISA for Dirofilaria immitis antigen, FeLV antigen, and FIV antibody. Results were compared among geographic regions and various cat groupings. RESULTS Seropositivity for heartworm antigen in cats was identified in 35 states but not in Canada; overall seroprevalence in the United States was 0.4%. Seroprevalence of heartworm infection was highest in the southern United States. A 3-fold increase in the proportion of seropositive cats was identified for those with (vs without) outdoor access, and a 2.5-fold increase was identified for cats that were unhealthy (vs healthy) when tested. Seroprevalence was 0.3% in healthy cats, 0.7% in cats with oral disease, 0.9% in cats with abscesses or bite wounds, and 1.0% in cats with respiratory disease. Coinfection with a retrovirus increased the risk of heartworm infection. Heartworm preventives were prescribed for only 12.6% of cats at testing, and prescribing was more common in regions with a higher seroprevalence. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE At an estimated prevalence of 0.4%, hundreds of thousands of cats in the United States are likely infected with heartworms. Given the difficulty in diagnosing infection at all clinically relevant parasite stages and lack of curative treatment options, efforts should be increased to ensure all cats receive heartworm preventives.

  20. Baseline Requirements and Architecture for Cloud Computing Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Rahim Choudhary

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Government initiatives such as the “Cloud First” policy are bringing the cloud computing services into Federal Agencies. Further, many of the sectors in the Critical Infrastructure of the nation already use cloud computing. Although cloud computing services are slowly coming to age, many issues remain. This paper therefore takes a closer look at the cloud computing services. First it establishes a baseline by specifying high level requirements for cloud computing services. Next it improves upon the current architecture for the cloud computing services by adding new modules to the current architecture. The new modules are gleaned from an analysis of the telecommunications cloud and security in distributed systems. The new modules include a management and control network, a set of trust domains, and a set of proxies. The improved architecture is more ready for primetime use and supports a richer operational model.

  1. Laser-Ranging Long Baseline Differential Atom Interferometers for Space

    CERN Document Server

    Chiow, Sheng-wey; Yu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    High sensitivity differential atom interferometers are promising for precision measurements in science frontiers in space, including gravity field mapping for Earth science studies and gravitational wave detection. We propose a new configuration of twin atom interferometers connected by a laser ranging interferometer (LRI-AI) to provide precise information of the displacements between the two AI reference mirrors and a means to phase-lock the two independent interferometer lasers over long distances, thereby further enhancing the feasibility of long baseline differential atom interferometers. We show that a properly implemented LRI-AI can achieve equivalent functionality to the conventional differential atom interferometer measurement system. LRI-AI isolates the laser requirements for atom interferometers and for optical phase readout between distant locations, thus enabling optimized allocation of available laser power within a limited physical size and resource budget. A unique aspect of LRI-AI also enables...

  2. Spatial distribution and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in cattle slaughtered for human consumption in Rondônia, North region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Juliana Bianca Rocha; Soares, Vando Edésio; Maia, Maerle Oliveira; Pereira, Cleidiane Magalhães; Ferraudo, Antônio Sergio; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Pires Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício; Felippelli, Gustavo; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Gonçalves, Walter Antonio; da Costa, Alvimar José; Zanetti Lopes, Welber Daniel

    2016-08-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in cattle slaughtered for human consumption from rural properties in the state of Rondônia, North region, Brazil; the seroprevalence was determined using indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFATs). Additionally, spatial distribution and risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis were also analyzed. Of the 1000 cattle serum samples examined, 53 (5.3%) were determined to be seropositive for T. gondii with antibody titers (IgG) ≥64. In regard to results of the studied risk factors (presence of cats, cats with free access to cattle, breeding system, animal's gender, consumption of raw milk by humans on the property and cattle abortion in the last 12 months) and the odds ratio (OR) of each of these factors influencing cattle to acquire toxoplasmosis, only animals raised on a feeder/stocker/backgrounder system presented a higher probability of being seropositive for T. gondii (OR≥1, P=0.04) than cattle raised only in a feeder/stocker system. There was no association between the occurrence of reproductive problems and T. gondii seropositivity. Based on results obtained in the Brazilian state of Rondônia, it could be concluded that the presence of cats and their contact with cattle on each property, cattle breeding purpose and cattle abortion in the last 12 months were not considered risk factors for T. gondii infection in cattle. Considering that the presence of T. gondii was detected in animals slaughtered in the state of Rondônia, consuming raw or undercooked meat from seropositive cattle should be considered a route of transmission of T. gondii to humans. However, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis diagnosed in cattle from this state (5.30%) is lower than the prevalence of toxoplasmosis observed in South, Southeast and Center-West regions of Brazil, which may vary between 48.5% and 71.0%. The low prevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle is highlighted in Rondônia, which is the sixth largest state

  3. Short-baseline reactor neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariani, C. [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The neutrino mixing angle {theta}13 is currently a high-priority topic in the field of neutrino physics, with three different reactor neutrino experiments under way, searching for neutrino oscillations induced by this angle. A description of the reactor experiments searching for a non-zero value of {theta}13 is given, together with a discussion of their sensitivity within the next few years.

  4. Regional and hemispheric influences on temporal variability in baseline carbon monoxide and ozone over the Northeast US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Mao, H.; Demerjian, K.; Hogrefe, C.; Liu, J.

    2017-09-01

    Interannual variability in baseline carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3), defined as mixing ratios under minimal influence of recent and local emissions, was studied for seven rural sites in the Northeast US over 2001-2010. Annual baseline CO exhibited statistically significant decreasing trends (-4.3 to -2.3 ppbv yr-1), while baseline O3 did not display trends at any site. In examining the data by season, wintertime and springtime baseline CO at the two highest sites (1.5 km and 2 km asl) did not experience significant trends. Decadal increasing trends (∼2.55 ppbv yr-1) were found in springtime and wintertime baseline O3 in southern New Hampshire, which was associated with anthropogenic NOx emission reductions from the urban corridor. Biomass burning emissions impacted summertime baseline CO with ∼38% variability from wildfire emissions in Russia and ∼22% from Canada at five sites and impacted baseline O3 at the two high elevation sites only with ∼27% variability from wildfires in both Russia and Canada. The Arctic Oscillation was negatively correlated with summertime baseline O3, while the North Atlantic Oscillation was positively correlated with springtime baseline O3. This study suggested that anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions, and meteorological conditions were important factors working together to determine baseline O3 and CO in the Northeast U.S. during the 2000s.

  5. Long-baseline experiments, now and soon!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jenny Thomas

    2012-11-01

    The new results available this year from a number of neutrino experiments bring into stronger focus the details in the `Standard Model' of neutrino oscillations described by the PMNS mixing matrix. However, the parameters are still not known to very high precision. The next few years look bright for accelerator neutrino experiments, with much action occurring in the near future. We still have to wait a little longer, however, to be sure, but making educated guesses is needed to make plans for the future.

  6. BMC{trademark}: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    Barrier Membrane Containment (BMC){trademark} is a high-density polyethylene membrane (HDPE) groundwater barrier and pass-through system, with applications ranging from plume control and containment to groundwater manipulation coupled with in-site treatment. BMC{trademark} system can function as a permeable or impermeable reaction wall, a cut-off wall, interceptor trenches, a barrier with collection and/or monitoring system, and a pass-through in a funnel and gate configuration. BMC{trademark} can be inspected with a down-hole video camera, producing a permanent VHS format tape, insuring the integrity of the wall and the interlocking joints.

  7. Probing Neutrino Properties with Long-Baseline Neutrino Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Alysia [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This is nal report on an Early Career Award grant began in April 15, 2010 and concluded on April 14, 2015. Alysia Marino's research is fo- cussed on making precise measurements of neutrino properties using in- tense accelerator-generated neutrino beams. As a part of this grant, she is collaborating on the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) long-baseline neutrino exper- iment [6], currently taking data in Japan, and on the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) design e ort for a future Long-Baseline Neu- trino Facility (LBNF) in the US.1 She is also a member of the NA61/SHINE particle production experiment at CERN, but as that e ort is supported by other funds, it will not be discussed further here. T2K was designed to search for the disappearance of muon neutrinos ( ) and the appearance of electron neutrinos ( e), using a beam of muon neu- trino beam that travels 295 km across Japan towards the Super-Kamiokande detector. In 2011 T2K rst reported indications of e appearance [2], a pre- viously unobserved mode of neutrino oscillations. In the past year, T2K has published a combined analysis of disappearance and e appearance [1], and began collecting taking data with a beam of anti-neutrinos, instead of neutrinos, to search for hints of violation of the CP symmetry of the uni- verse. The proposed DUNE experiment has similar physics goals to T2K, but will be much more sensitive due to its more massive detectors and new higher-intensity neutrino beam. This e ort will be very high-priority particle physics project in the US over the next decade.

  8. Probing Neutrino Properties with Long-Baseline Neutrino Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Alysia [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This final report on an Early Career Award grant began in April 15, 2010 and concluded on April 14, 2015. Alysia Marino's research is focussed on making precise measurements of neutrino properties using intense accelerator-generated neutrino beams. As a part of this grant, she is collaborating on the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) long-baseline neutrino experiment, currently taking data in Japan, and on the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) design effort for a future Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) in the US. She is also a member of the NA61/SHINE particle production experiment at CERN, but as that effort is supported by other funds, it will not be discussed further here. T2K was designed to search for the disappearance of muon neutrinos (νμ) and the appearance of electron neutrinos (νe), using a beam of muon neutrino beam that travels 295 km across Japan towards the Super-Kamiokande detector. In 2011 T2K first reported indications of νe appearance, a previously unobserved mode of neutrino oscillations. In the past year, T2K has published a combined analysis of νμ disappearance and νe appearance, and began collecting taking data with a beam of anti-neutrinos, instead of neutrinos, to search for hints of violation of the CP symmetry of the universe. The proposed DUNE experiment has similar physics goals to T2K, but will be much more sensitive due to its more massive detectors and new higher-intensity neutrino beam. This effort will be very high-priority particle physics project in the US over the next decade.

  9. [Factors associated the seropositivity for Babesia, Toxoplasma, Neospora e Leishmania in dogs attended at nine veterinary clinics in the municipality of Lavras, MG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Antônio Marcos; Rocha, Christiane M B M; Oliveira, Trícia M F S; Rosado, Isabel R; Morais, Letícia G; Santos, Raquel R D

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency and evaluate the infuence of age, sex and breed in seropositivity anti-Babesia canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania (L.) chagasi and Neospora caninum, by means of the indirect immunofuorescence antibody test (IFAT), in serum samples collected from dogs attended in nine private veterinary clinics in municipality of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from August 2000 to April 2002. Of 300 dogs, 73.3% were seropositive (IFAT>or=1:80) to B. canis, and there was a signifcant increase (por=1:40). T. gondii, of 218 dogs, 60.7% were positive (IFAT>or=1:16). In 228 serum samples, 3.1% were positive (IFAT>or=1:50) to N. caninum. Infections to B. canis and T. gondii occur as endemic form in dogs examined at private veterinary clinics in Lavras. Tere is no evidence that there are autochthonous cases of canine visceral leishmaniosis in Lavras. Besides this the infection by N. caninum is uncommon in dogs breed at the urbane zone of the municipality.

  10. HCMV infection of humanized mice after transplantation of G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells from HCMV-seropositive donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakki, Morgan; Goldman, Devorah C; Streblow, Daniel N; Hamlin, Kimberly L; Krekylwich, Craig N; Fleming, William H; Nelson, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, including primary infection resulting from transmission from a seropositive donor to a seronegative recipient (D(+)/R(-)), remains a significant problem in the setting of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). The lack of a suitable animal model for studying HCMV transmission after PBSCT is a major barrier to understanding this process and, consequently, developing novel interventions to prevent HCMV infection. Our previous work demonstrated that human CD34(+) progenitor cell-engrafted NOD-scid IL2Rγc(null) (NSG) mice support latent HCMV infection after direct inoculation and reactivation after treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. To more accurately recapitulate HCMV infection in the D(+)/R(-) PBSCT setting, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells from seropositive donors were used to engraft NSG mice. All recipient mice demonstrated evidence of HCMV infection in liver, spleen, and bone marrow. These findings validate the NSG mouse model for studying HCMV transmission during PBSCT.

  11. Polymerase chain reaction genotyping of Epstein-Barr virus in scraping samples of the tongue lateral border in HIV-1 seropositive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TF Robaina

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is the etiological agent of oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL, an oral lesion with important diagnostic and prognostic value in acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome. The two EBV genotypes, EBV-1 and EBV-2, can be distinguished by divergent gene sequences encoding the EBNA-2, 3A, 3B, and 3C proteins. The purpose of this study was to identify the EBV genotype prevalent in 53 samples of scrapings from the lateral border of the tongue of HIV-1 seropositive patients, with and without OHL, and to correlate the genotypes with presence of clinical or subclinical OHL with the clinic data collected. EBV-1 and EBV-2 were identified through PCR and Nested-PCR based on sequence differences of the EBNA-2 gene. EBV-1 was identified in the 31 samples (15 without OHL, 7 with clinical OHL and 9 with subclinical OHL, EBV-2 in 12 samples (10 without OHL, 1 with clinical and 1 subclinical OHL, and a mixed infection in 10 samples (2 without OHL, 3 with clinical and 5 with subclinical OHL. The presence of EBV-1 was higher in women, but a significant statistical result relating one the EBV genotypes to the development of OHL was not found. We conclude that the oral epithelium in HIV-1 seropositive patients can be infected by EBV-1, EBV-2 or by a mixed viral population.

  12. Marijuana use is not associated with cervical human papillomavirus natural history or cervical neoplasia in HIV-seropositive or HIV-seronegative women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Palefsky, Joel M; Zhong, Ye; Minkoff, Howard; Massad, L Stewart; Anastos, Kathy; Levine, Alexandra M; Moxley, Michael; Xue, Xiao N; Burk, Robert D; Strickler, Howard D

    2010-03-01

    Marijuana use was recently reported to have a positive cross-sectional association with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck cancer. Laboratory data suggest that marijuana could have an immunomodulatory effect. Little is known, however, regarding the effects of marijuana use on cervical HPV or neoplasia. Therefore, we studied the natural history (i.e., prevalence, incident detection, clearance/persistence) of cervical HPV and cervical neoplasia (i.e., squamous intraepithelial lesions; SIL) in a large prospective cohort of 2,584 HIV-seropositive and 915 HIV-seronegative women. Marijuana use was classified as ever/never, current/not current, and by frequency and duration of use. No positive associations were observed between use of marijuana, and either cervical HPV infection or SIL. The findings were similar among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women, and in tobacco smokers and nonsmokers. These data suggest that marijuana use does not increase the burden of cervical HPV infection or SIL.

  13. High titers of anti-HBs prevent rituximab-related viral reactivation in resolved hepatitis B patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yuri; Yu, Su Jong; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae Min; Heo, Dae Seog; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan

    2016-06-01

    Rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, is associated with an increased risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation. This study aimed to determine the predictive factors for rituximab-related HBV reactivation in resolved hepatitis B patients, defined as HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-positive, and undetectable HBV DNA. Among 840 consecutive patients with CD20-positive B-cell lymphoma who received rituximab-based chemotherapy from 2003 through 2014 at Seoul National University Hospital, 732 patients were excluded because either anti-HBc was not assessed or they were HBsAg-seropositive. This retrospective study included 108 resolved hepatitis B patients. During a median 33.5-month follow-up period, eight cases of HBV reactivation occurred only among the patients with low anti-HBs titers (anti-HBs titers were the protective factors for HBV reactivation (hazard ratio [HR], 0.90 and 0.95, respectively). Among those who did not receive antiviral prophylaxis, patients with high baseline anti-HBs (≥100 mIU/ml) experienced significantly lower risk of HBV reactivation (HR, 0.49; P = 0.006) than the patients with low baseline anti-HBs (anti-HBs titer at baseline and antiviral prophylaxis prevented HBV reactivation, suggesting antiviral prophylaxis should be considered according to baseline anti-HBs titer. Meticulous follow-up for ALT and HBV DNA without antiviral prophylaxis might be possible for the patients with high baseline anti-HBs (≥100 mIU/ml).

  14. Evaluation of current tropospheric mapping functions by Deep Space Network very long baseline interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovers, O. J.; Lanyi, G. E.

    1994-01-01

    To compare the validity of current algorithms that map zenith tropospheric delay to arbitrary elevation angles, 10 different tropospheric mapping functions are used to analyze the current data base of Deep Space Network Mark 3 intercontinental very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) data. This analysis serves as a stringent test because of the high proportion of low-elevation observations necessitated by the extremely long baselines. Postfit delay and delay-rate residuals are examined, as well as the scatter of baseline lengths about the time-linear model that characterizes tectonic motion. Among the functions that utilize surface meteorological data as input parameters, the Lanyi 1984 mapping shows the best performance both for residuals and baselines, through the 1985 Davis function is statistically nearly identical. The next best performance is shown by the recent function of Niell, which is based on an examination of global atmospheric characteristics as a function of season and uses no weather data at the time of the measurements. The Niell function shows a slight improvement in residuals relative to Lanyi, but also an increase in baseline scatter that is significant for the California-Spain baseline. Two variants of the Chao mapping function, as well as the Chao tables used with the interpolation algorithm employed in the Orbit Determination Program software, show substandard behavior for both VLBI residuals and baseline scatter. The length of the California-Australia baseline (10,600 km) in the VLBI solution can vary by as much as 5 to 10 cm for the 10 mapping functions.

  15. Detection of human parvovirus 4 viremia in the follow-up blood samples from seropositive individuals suggests the existence of persistent viral replication or reactivation of latent viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mao-Yuan; Hung, Chien-Ching; Lee, Kuang-Lun

    2015-06-19

    The transmission routes for human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) infections in areas with high seroprevalence are not known. In the work described here, persistent PARV4 viral replication was investigated by conducting a longitudinal study. Ten healthcare workers each provided a blood sample at the beginning of the study (first sample) and 12 months later (second sample). The paired samples were tested for PARV4-positivity by immunoblotting analysis and nested polymerase chain reactions. IgG antibodies against PARV4 were detected in six participants, three of whom also had IgM antibodies against PARV4. The immunoblotting results did not vary over time. PARV4 DNA was detected in the first blood sample from one participant who had IgG antibodies against PARV4 and in the second blood samples from 2 participants who had IgG and IgM antibodies against PARV4. Detection of PARV4 DNA in the second blood samples from two seropositive participants suggests the existence of persistent PARV4 replication or reactivation of inactive virus in the tissues. The finding of persistent or intermittent PARV4 replication in individuals with past infections provides an important clue toward unraveling the non-parenteral transmission routes of PARV4 infection in areas where the virus is endemic.

  16. LTR real-time PCR for HIV-1 DNA quantitation in blood cells for early diagnosis in infants born to seropositive mothers treated in HAART area (ANRS CO 01).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avettand-Fènoël, Véronique; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Blanche, Stéphane; Burgard, Marianne; Floch, Corinne; Toure, Kadidia; Allemon, Marie-Christine; Warszawski, Josiane; Rouzioux, Christine

    2009-02-01

    HIV-1 diagnosis in babies born to seropositive mothers is one of the challenges of HIV epidemics in children. A simple, rapid protocol was developed for quantifying HIV-1 DNA in whole blood samples and was used in the ANRS French pediatric cohort in conditions of prevention of mother-to-child transmission. A quantitative HIV-1 DNA protocol (LTR real-time PCR) requiring small blood volumes was developed. First, analytical reproducibility was evaluated on 172 samples. Results obtained on blood cell pellets and Ficoll-Hypaque separated mononuclear cells were compared in 48 adult HIV-1 samples. Second, the protocol was applied to HIV-1 diagnosis in infants in parallel with plasma HIV-RNA quantitation. This prospective study was performed in children born between May 2005 and April 2007 included in the ANRS cohort. The assay showed good reproducibility. The 95% detection cut-off value was 6 copies/PCR, that is, 40 copies/10(6) leukocytes. HIV-DNA levels in whole blood were highly correlated with those obtained after Ficoll-Hypaque separation (r = 0.900, P mothers have received HAART. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. 77 FR 26535 - Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on April 26, 2012, Hope Gas, Inc. (Hope Gas) submitted a baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions...

  18. 77 FR 31841 - Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on May 16, 2012, Hope Gas, Inc. (Hope Gas) submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of...

  19. Adapting the M3 Surveillance Metrics for an Unknown Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Michael Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Abes, Jeff I. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jaramillo, Brandon Michael Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The original M3 surveillance metrics assume that the baseline is known. In this article, adapted M3 metrics are presented when the baseline is not known and estimated by available data. Deciding on how much available data is enough is also discussed.

  20. 40 CFR 80.93 - Individual baseline submission and approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: (i) Refinery block flow diagram, showing principal refining units; (ii) Principal refining unit..., whether or not the auditor was retained through the baseline approval process. (ii) Identification of the... samples from batch processes, including volume of each batch sampled; and (G) Baseline fuel parameter...

  1. Digital Offshore Cadastre (DOC) - Pacific83 - Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ESRI Arc/Info export and Arc/View shape file formats for the BOEM Pacific Region. Baseline points are used by the BOEM to...

  2. The 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign : An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ALMA Partnership, [Unknown; Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Corder, S.; Remijan, A.; Barkats, D.; Lucas, R.; Hunter, T. R.; Brogan, C. L.; Asaki, Y.; Matsushita, S.; Dent, W. R. F.; Hills, R. E.; Phillips, N.; Richards, A. M. S.; Cox, P.; Amestica, R.; Broguiere, D.; Cotton, W.; Hales, A. S.; Hiriart, R.; Hirota, A.; Hodge, J. A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Kern, J.; Kneissl, R.; Liuzzo, E.; Marcelino, N.; Marson, R.; Mignano, A.; Nakanishi, K.; Nikolic, B.; Perez, J. E.; Pérez, L. M.; Toledo, I.; Aladro, R.; Butler, B.; Cortes, J.; Cortes, P.; Dhawan, V.; Di Francesco, J.; Espada, D.; Galarza, F.; Garcia-Appadoo, D.; Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Humphreys, E. M.; Jung, T.; Kameno, S.; Laing, R. A.; Leon, S.; Mangum, J.; Marconi, G.; Nagai, H.; Nyman, L.-A.; Radiszcz, M.; Rodón, J. A.; Sawada, T.; Takahashi, S.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; van Kempen, T.; Vila Vilaro, B.; Watson, L. C.; Wiklind, T.; Gueth, F.; Tatematsu, K.; Wootten, A.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Chapillon, E.; Dumas, G.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Francke, H.; Gallardo, J.; Garcia, J.; Gonzalez, S.; Hibbard, J. E.; Hill, T.; Kaminski, T.; Karim, A.; Krips, M.; Kurono, Y.; Lopez, C.; Martin, S.; Maud, L.; Morales, F.; Pietu, V.; Plarre, K.; Schieven, G.; Testi, L.; Videla, L.; Villard, E.; Whyborn, N.; Alves, F.; Andreani, P.; Avison, A.; Barta, M.; Bedosti, F.; Bendo, G. J.; Bertoldi, F.; Bethermin, M.; Biggs, A.; Boissier, J.; Brand, J.; Burkutean, S.; Casasola, V.; Conway, J.; Cortese, L.; Dabrowski, B.; Davis, T. A.; Diaz Trigo, M.; Fontani, F.; Franco-Hernandez, R.; Fuller, G.; Galvan Madrid, R.; Giannetti, A.; Ginsburg, A.; Graves, S. F.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hogerheijde, M.; Jachym, P.; Jimenez Serra, I.; Karlicky, M.; Klaasen, P.; Kraus, M.; Kunneriath, D.; Lagos, C.; Longmore, S.; Leurini, S.; Maercker, M.; Magnelli, B.; Marti Vidal, I.; Massardi, M.; Maury, A.; Muehle, S.; Muller, S.; Muxlow, T.; O’Gorman, E.; Paladino, R.; Petry, D.; Pineda, J.; Randall, S.; Richer, J. S.; Rossetti, A.; Rushton, A.; Rygl, K.; Sanchez Monge, A.; Schaaf, R.; Schilke, P.; Stanke, T.; Schmalzl, M.; Stoehr, F.; Urban, S.; van Kampen, E.; Vlemmings, W.; Wang, K.; Wild, W.; Yang, Y.; Iguchi, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Saito, M.; Inatani, J.; Mizuno, N.; Asayama, S.; Kosugi, G.; Morita, K.-I.; Chiba, K.; Kawashima, S.; Okumura, S. K.; Ohashi, N.; Ogasawara, R.; Sakamoto, S.; Noguchi, T.; Huang, Y.-D.; Liu, S.-Y.; Kemper, F.; Koch, P. M.; Chen, M.-T.; Chikada, Y.; Hiramatsu, M.; Iono, D.; Shimojo, M.; Komugi, S.; Kim, J.; Lyo, A.-R.; Muller, E.; Herrera, C.; Miura, R. E.; Ueda, J.; Chibueze, J.; Su, Y.-N.; Trejo-Cruz, A.; Wang, K.-S.; Kiuchi, H.; Ukita, N.; Sugimoto, M.; Kawabe, R.; Hayashi, M.; Miyama, S.; Ho, P. T. P.; Kaifu, N.; Ishiguro, M.; Beasley, A. J.; Bhatnagar, S.; Braatz, J. A., III; Brisbin, D. G.; Brunetti, N.; Carilli, C.; Crossley, J. H.; D’Addario, L.; Donovan Meyer, J. L.; Emerson, D. T.; Evans, A. S.; Fisher, P.; Golap, K.; Griffith, D. M.; Hale, A. E.; Halstead, D.; Hardy, E. J.; Hatz, M. C.; Holdaway, M.; Indebetouw, R.; Jewell, P. R.; Kepley, A. A.; Kim, D.-C.; Lacy, M. D.; Leroy, A. K.; Liszt, H. S.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Matthews, B.; McKinnon, M.; Mason, B. S.; Moellenbrock, G.; Moullet, A.; Myers, S. T.; Ott, J.; Peck, A. B.; Pisano, J.; Radford, S. J. E.; Randolph, W. T.; Rao Venkata, U.; Rawlings, M. G.; Rosen, R.; Schnee, S. L.; Scott, K. S.; Sharp, N. K.; Sheth, K.; Simon, R. S.; Tsutsumi, T.; Wood, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ∼15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried

  3. Esophageal impedance baseline according to different time intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummarino Dario

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impedance baseline has been shown to reflect esophageal integrity, and to be decreased in patients with esophagitis. However, different methods for the determination of the impedance baseline have not been compared. Methods The median impedance baseline was calculated in 10 consecutive multichannel intraluminal impedance recordings in children with non-erosive reflux disease. All children underwent an endoscopy with a biopsy as part of the clinical work-up to exclude esophagitis. The impedance baseline was obtained both by including and excluding all impedance episodes (IE; reflux, swallows and gas episodes during the full recording, and during the first 1-minute period without an IE every hour (method 1, every 2 hours (method 2 or every 4 hours (method 3. The impedance baseline obtained during the full recording was set at 100%, and the variation (difference in impedance baseline for the different methods and variability (difference in impedance baseline during one analysis period were assessed. Results None of the participants had esophagitis. The mean difference over the six channels between the impedance baseline over the total recording with and without IE was approximately 2.5%, and comparable for each channel (range 0.47% to 5.55%. A mean of 1,028 IEs were excluded in each tracing, and it took between 4 and 24 hours to delete all events in one tracing. The difference in the impedance baseline obtained with and without IEs was mainly caused by the gas episodes in the upper channels and swallows in the lower channels. The median impedance baseline according to the three one-minute analysis methods was comparable to the median impedance baseline according to the 24 hour analysis. Conclusions The automatic determination of the median impedance baseline over the total tracing including IEs is an adequate method. In isolated tracings with numerous IEs, the calculation of the median impedance baseline over one minute

  4. Precision Neutrino Oscillation Physics with an Intermediate Baseline Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, S; Piai, M; Choubey, Sandhya

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the physics potential of intermediate $L \\sim 20 \\div 30$ km baseline experiments at reactor facilities, assuming that the solar neutrino oscillation parameters $\\Delta m^2_{\\odot}$ and $\\theta_{\\odot}$ lie in the high-LMA solution region. We show that such an intermediate baseline reactor experiment can determine both $\\Delta m^2_{\\odot}$ and $\\theta_{\\odot}$ with a remarkably high precision. We perform also a detailed study of the sensitivity of the indicated experiment to $\\Delta m^2_{\\rm atm}$, which drives the dominant atmospheric $\

  5. Establishing a store baseline during interim storage of waste packages and a review of potential technologies for base-lining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McTeer, Jennifer; Morris, Jenny; Wickham, Stephen [Galson Sciences Ltd. Oakham, Rutland (United Kingdom); Bolton, Gary [National Nuclear Laboratory Risley, Warrington (United Kingdom); McKinney, James; Morris, Darrell [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority Moor Row, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Angus, Mike [National Nuclear Laboratory Risley, Warrington (United Kingdom); Cann, Gavin; Binks, Tracey [National Nuclear Laboratory Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Interim storage is an essential component of the waste management lifecycle, providing a safe, secure environment for waste packages awaiting final disposal. In order to be able to monitor and detect change or degradation of the waste packages, storage building or equipment, it is necessary to know the original condition of these components (the 'waste storage system'). This paper presents an approach to establishing the baseline for a waste-storage system, and provides guidance on the selection and implementation of potential base-lining technologies. The approach is made up of two sections; assessment of base-lining needs and definition of base-lining approach. During the assessment of base-lining needs a review of available monitoring data and store/package records should be undertaken (if the store is operational). Evolutionary processes (affecting safety functions), and their corresponding indicators, that can be measured to provide a baseline for the waste-storage system should then be identified in order for the most suitable indicators to be selected for base-lining. In defining the approach, identification of opportunities to collect data and constraints is undertaken before selecting the techniques for base-lining and developing a base-lining plan. Base-lining data may be used to establish that the state of the packages is consistent with the waste acceptance criteria for the storage facility and to support the interpretation of monitoring and inspection data collected during store operations. Opportunities and constraints are identified for different store and package types. Technologies that could potentially be used to measure baseline indicators are also reviewed. (authors)

  6. Future long-baseline neutrino oscillations: View from North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Robert J., E-mail: wilson@colostate.edu [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1875 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    In late 2012 the US Department of Energy gave approval for the first phase of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) that will conduct a broad scientific program including neutrino oscillations, neutrino scattering physics, search for baryon violation, supernova burst neutrinos and other related astrophysical phenomena. The project is now being reformulated as an international facility hosted by the United States. The facility will consist of an intense neutrino beam produced at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), a highly capable set of neutrino detectors on the Fermilab campus, and a large underground liquid argon time projection chamber at Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in South Dakota 1300 km from Fermilab. With an intense beam and massive far detector, the experimental program at the facility will make detailed studies of neutrino oscillations, including measurements of the neutrino mass hierarchy and Charge-Parity symmetry violation, by measuring neutrino and anti-neutrino mixing separately. At the near site, the high-statistics neutrino scattering data will allow for many cross section measurements and precision tests of the Standard Model. This presentation will describe the configuration developed by the LBNE collaboration, the broad physics program, and the status of the formation of the international facility.

  7. A Neutrino Apparatus with Improved Capabilities for a short baseline $\

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Bueno, A G

    1996-01-01

    We propose the conceptual design of a Neutrino ApparatUS with Improved CApAbilities (NAUSICAA). This detector could be used for a new, short-baseline, high sensitivity \\osc oscillation search experiment at the CERN-SPS neutrino beam, as well as at the future Fermilab Main Injector neutrino beam. The heart of the detector is a finely instrumented target, made of a sandwich of a light Z material and high resolution tracking detectors. Downstream of the target there are tracking detectors for momentum measurement, followed by a compensating calorimeter. All these systems are contained within magnet providing a magnetic field of about 1 Tesla. Following the magnet there is a muon detector. Unlike previous experiments, NAUSICAA would be capable of searching for the \\tau signature using both kinematical and vertex criteria {\\it simultaneously}. Detailed Monte Carlo calculations show that NAUSICAA could improve the sensitivity of the on-going experiments, CHORUS and NOMAD by an order of magnitude in a four-year neut...

  8. Future Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillations: View from North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R. J.

    2015-06-01

    In late 2012 the US Department of Energy gave approval for the first phase of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE), that will conduct a broad scientific program including neutrino oscillations, neutrino scattering physics, search for baryon violation, supernova burst neutrinos and other related astrophysical phenomena. The project is now being reformulated as an international facility hosted by the United States. The facility will consist of an intense neutrino beam produced at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), a highly capable set of neutrino detectors on the Fermilab campus, and a large underground liquid argon time projection chamber at Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in South Dakota 1300 km from Fermilab. With an intense beam and massive far detector, the experimental program at the facility will make detailed studies of neutrino oscillations, including measurements of the neutrino mass hierarchy and Charge-Parity symmetry violation, by measuring neutrino and anti-neutrino mixing separately. At the near site, the high-statistics neutrino scattering data will allow for many cross section measurements and precision tests of the Standard Model. This presentation will describe the configuration developed by the LBNE collaboration, the broad physics program, and the status of the formation of the international facility.

  9. Prevalence of acute and chronic viral seropositivity and characteristics of disease in patients with psoriatic arthritis treated with cyclosporine: a post hoc analysis from a sex point of view on the observational study of infectious events in psoriasis complicated by active psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo D

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Delia Colombo,1 Sergio Chimenti,2 Paolo Antonio Grossi,3 Antonio Marchesoni,4 Federico Bardazzi,5 Fabio Ayala,6 Lucia Simoni,7 Donatella Vassellatti,1 Gilberto Bellia1 On behalf of SYNERGY Study Group 1Novartis Farma Italia, Origgio (VA, 2Tor Vergata Polyclinic Rome, 3Macchi Hospital and Foundation, Varese, 4Orthopaedic Institute Pini, Milan, 5S Orsola-Malpighi Polyclinic, Bologna, 6University Federico II Naples, 7MediData srl, Modena, Italy Background: Sex medicine studies have shown that there are sex differences with regard to disease characteristics in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis, in immune response and susceptibility to viral infections. We performed a post hoc analysis of the Observational Study of infectious events in psoriasis complicated by active psoriatic arthritis (SYNERGY study in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA treated with immunosuppressive regimens including cyclosporine, in order to evaluate potential between-sex differences in severity of disease and prevalence of viral infections.Methods: SYNERGY was an observational study conducted in 24 Italian dermatology clinics, which included 238 consecutively enrolled patients with PsA, under treatment with immunosuppressant regimens including cyclosporin A. In this post hoc analysis, patients' demographical data and clinical characteristics of psoriasis, severity and activity of PsA, prevalence of seropositivity for at least one viral infection, and treatments administered for PsA and infections were compared between sexes.Results: A total of 225 patients were evaluated in this post hoc analysis, and 121 (54% were males. Demographic characteristics and concomitant diseases were comparable between sexes. Statistically significant sex differences were observed at baseline in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score (higher in males, mean number of painful joints, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, and the global activity of disease

  10. Baseline glucocorticoids are drivers of body mass gain in a diving seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennin, Holly; Berlin, Alicia; Love, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    Life-history trade-offs are influenced by variation in individual state, with individuals in better condition often completing life-history stages with greater success. Although resource accrual significantly impacts key life-history decisions such as the timing of reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving resource accumulation. Baseline corticosterone (CORT, the primary avian glucocorticoid) mediates daily and seasonal energetics, responds to changes in food availability, and has been linked to foraging behavior, making it a strong potential driver of individual variation in resource accrual and deposition. Working with a captive colony of white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca deglandi), we aimed to causally determine whether variation in baseline CORT drives individual body mass gains mediated through fattening rate (plasma triglycerides corrected for body mass). We implanted individuals with each of three treatment pellets to elevate CORT within a baseline range in a randomized order: control, low dose of CORT, high dose of CORT, then blood sampled and recorded body mass over a two-week period to track changes in baseline CORT, body mass, and fattening rates. The high CORT treatment significantly elevated levels of plasma hormone for a short period of time within the biologically relevant, baseline range for this species, but importantly did not inhibit the function of the HPA (hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal) axis. Furthermore, an elevation in baseline CORT resulted in a consistent increase in body mass throughout the trial period compared to controls. This is some of the first empirical evidence demonstrating that elevations of baseline CORT within a biologically relevant range have a causal, direct, and positive influence on changes in body mass.

  11. GLoBES: General Long Baseline Experiment Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Patrick; Kopp, Joachim; Lindner, Manfred; Rolinec, Mark; Winter, Walter

    2007-09-01

    and the slow solar oscillations, which are driven by the respective mass squared differences. In addition, there could be interference effects between these two oscillations, provided that the coupling given by the small mixing angle θ is large enough. Such interference effects include, for example, leptonic CP violation. In order to test the unknown oscillation parameters, i.e. the mixing angle θ, the leptonic CP phase, and the neutrino mass hierarchy, new long-baseline and reactor experiments are proposed. These experiments send an artificial neutrino beam to a detector, or detect the neutrinos produced by a nuclear fission reactor. However, the presence of multiple solutions which are intrinsic to neutrino oscillation probabilities [2-5] affect these measurements. Thus optimization strategies are required which maximally exploit complementarity between experiments. Therefore, a modern, complete experiment simulation and analysis tool does not only need to have a highly accurate beam and detector simulation, but also powerful means to analyze correlations and degeneracies, especially for the combination of several experiments. The GLoBES software package is such a tool [6,7]. Solution method: GLoBES is a flexible software tool to simulate and analyze neutrino oscillation long-baseline and reactor experiments using a complete three-flavor description. On the one hand, it contains a comprehensive abstract experiment definition language (AEDL), which makes it possible to describe most classes of long baseline and reactor experiments at an abstract level. On the other hand, it provides a C-library to process the experiment information in order to obtain oscillation probabilities, rate vectors, and Δχ-values. In addition, it provides a binary program to test experiment definitions very quickly, before they are used by the application software. Restrictions: Currently restricted to discrete sets of sources and detectors. For example, the simulation of an atmospheric

  12. Frequencies of CCR5-D32, CCR2-64I and SDF1-3’A mutations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV seropositive subjects and seronegative individuals from the state of Pará in Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Andreza de Pinho Lott Carvalhaes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of genetic polymorphisms of chemokine receptors CCR5-delta32, CCR2-64I and chemokine (SDF1-3’A mutations were studied in 110 Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 seropositive individuals (seropositive group and 139 seronegative individuals (seronegative group from the population of the northern Brazilian city of Belém which is the capital of the state of Pará in the Brazilian Amazon. The CCR5-delta32 mutation was found in the two groups at similar frequencies, i.e. 2.2% for the seronegative group and 2.7% for the seropositive group. The frequencies of the SDF1-3’A mutation were 21.0% for the seronegative group and 15.4% for the seropositive group, and the CCR2-64I allele was found at frequencies of 12.5% for the seronegative group and 5.4% for the seropositive group. Genotype distributions were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg expectations in both groups, suggesting that none of the three mutations has a detectable selective effect. Difference in the allelic and genotypic frequencies was statistically significant for the CCR2 locus, the frequency in the seronegative group being twice that found in the seropositive group. This finding may indicate a protective effect of the CCR2-64I mutation in relation to HIV transmission. However, considering that the CCR2-64I mutation has been more strongly associated with a decreased risk for progression for AIDS than to the resistance to the HIV infection, this could reflect an aspect of population structure or a Type I error.

  13. The MINK methodology: background and baseline. [USA - Midwest Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Crosson, P.R.; Frederick, K.D.; Easterling, W.E. III; McKenney, M.S.; Bowes, M.D.; Sedjo, R.A.; Darmstadter, J.; Katz, L.A.; Lemon, K.M. (Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-06-01

    A four step methodology has been developed for study of the regional impacts of climate change and the possible responses thereto. First the region's climate sensitive sectors and total economy are described (Task A, current baseline). Next a scenario of climate change is imposed on the current baseline (Task B, current baseline with climate change). A new baseline describing the climate sensitive sectors and total regional economy is projected for some time in the future (Task C, future baseline, year 2030) in the absence of climate change. Finally, the climate change scenario is reimposed on the future baseline (Task D, future baseline with climate change). Impacts of the climate change scenario on the current and future regional economies are determined by means of simulation models and other appropriate techniques. These techniques are also used to assess the impacts of an elevated CO[sub 2] concentration (450 ppm) and of various forms of adjustments and adaptations. The region chosen for the first test of the methodology is composed of the four U.S. states of Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas. The climate change scenario is the actual weather of the 1930s decade in the MINK region. 'Current' climate is the actual weather of the period 1951-1980. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Schema therapy for personality disorders in older adults: a multiple-baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videler, Arjan C; van Alphen, Sebastiaan P J; van Royen, Rita J J; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; Rossi, Gina; Arntz, Arnoud

    2017-04-21

    No studies have been conducted yet into the effectiveness of treatment of personality disorders in later life. This study is a first test of the effectiveness of schema therapy for personality disorders in older adults. Multiple-baseline design with eight cluster C personality disorder patients, with a mean age of   69. After a baseline phase with random length, schema therapy was given during the first year, followed by follow-up sessions during six months. Participants weekly rated the credibility of dysfunctional core beliefs. Symptomatic distress, early maladaptive schemas, quality of life and target complaints were assessed every six months and personality disorder diagnosis was assessed before baseline and after follow-up. Data were analyzed with mixed regression analyses. Results revealed significant linear trends during treatment phases, but not during baseline and follow-up. The scores during follow-up remained stable and were significantly lower compared to baseline, with high effect sizes. Seven participants remitted from their personality disorder diagnosis. Schema therapy appears an effective treatment for cluster C personality disorders in older adults. This finding is highly innovative as this is the first study exploring the effectiveness of psychotherapy, in this case schema therapy, for personality disorders in older adults.

  15. Follow-up of Bernese Mountain dogs and other dogs with serologically diagnosed Borrelia burgdorferi infection: what happens to seropositive animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Bernhard; Haug, Katharina; Eichenberger, Simone; Reusch, Claudia E; Wittenbrink, Max M

    2009-05-08

    Data on the long-term outcome of B. burgdorferi infections in adult dogs are sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Bernese Mountain dogs with serological evidence of natural B. burgdorferi infection more often develop signs such as lameness, azotemia or proteinuria during a follow-up period of 2.5 to 3.0 years. Seropositive Bernese Mountain dogs were compared to seronegative Bernese Mountain dogs and to seropositive and seronegative control dogs of other breeds. Dogs included in a previous study on the prevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi in Bernese Mountain dogs were re-evaluated. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi were determined using an ELISA with a whole-cell sonicate as antigen and results were confirmed using a Western blot assay. Fifty-three Bernese Mountain dogs and 30 control dogs were re-evaluated. Re-evaluation was performed between 2.5 and 3.0 years (median 2.7 years) after the first assessment.The age of the dogs at the second evaluation ranged from 3 to 11 years (median 6 years). There were no significant differences with regard to poor general condition or lameness between the first and the second evaluation. At the first evaluation 22 (42%) of the Bernese Mountain dogs and 11 (37%) of the control dogs were considered positive for antibodies against B. burgdorferi. At the second evaluation 25 (47%) of the Bernese Mountain dogs and 12 (40%) of the control dogs were considered positive; 69% of the dogs showed the same serological result at both examinations and 31% were seroconverted or seroreverted. During the first examination, azotemia was diagnosed in 6 Bernese Mountain dogs and during the second examination in 11 Bernese Mountain dogs. No control dogs had azotemia in this study. In seropositive dogs there was no increase in lameness or signs of renal disease over time. It may be concluded that antibodies against B. burgdorferi determined by whole cell ELISA and confirmed by Western blot were neither associated

  16. Follow-up of Bernese Mountain dogs and other dogs with serologically diagnosed Borrelia burgdorferi infection: What happens to seropositive animals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reusch Claudia E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the long-term outcome of B. burgdorferi infections in adult dogs are sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Bernese Mountain dogs with serological evidence of natural B. burgdorferi infection more often develop signs such as lameness, azotemia or proteinuria during a follow-up period of 2.5 to 3.0 years. Seropositive Bernese Mountain dogs were compared to seronegative Bernese Mountain dogs and to seropositive and seronegative control dogs of other breeds. Dogs included in a previous study on the prevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi in Bernese Mountain dogs were re-evaluated. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi were determined using an ELISA with a whole-cell sonicate as antigen and results were confirmed using a Western blot assay. Results Fifty-three Bernese Mountain dogs and 30 control dogs were re-evaluated. Re-evaluation was performed between 2.5 and 3.0 years (median 2.7 years after the first assessment. The age of the dogs at the second evaluation ranged from 3 to 11 years (median 6 years. There were no significant differences with regard to poor general condition or lameness between the first and the second evaluation. At the first evaluation 22 (42% of the Bernese Mountain dogs and 11 (37% of the control dogs were considered positive for antibodies against B. burgdorferi. At the second evaluation 25 (47% of the Bernese Mountain dogs and 12 (40% of the control dogs were considered positive; 69% of the dogs showed the same serological result at both examinations and 31% were seroconverted or seroreverted. During the first examination, azotemia was diagnosed in 6 Bernese Mountain dogs and during the second examination in 11 Bernese Mountain dogs. No control dogs had azotemia in this study. In seropositive dogs there was no increase in lameness or signs of renal disease over time. Conclusion It may be concluded that antibodies against B. burgdorferi determined by whole cell ELISA

  17. Seropositivity of Lyme borreliosis and associated risk factors: a population-based study in Children and Adolescents in Germany (KiGGS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Dehnert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lyme borreliosis (LB caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. Data on the distribution and on risk factors in Germany are sketchy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood samples of a nationwide population-based cross-sectional study from 2003-2006 in children and adolescents aged 1 to 17 years in Germany (KiGGS were analysed (n = 12,614 to assess the seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia antibodies. Data from standardized interviews were used to assess potential risk factors. First, sera were screened for anti-Borrelia antibodies by ELISA. The overall prevalence was 4.8% (95% confidence interval (CI 4.3-5.4%. Positive and borderline ELISA test results were confirmed by a line blot revealing a combined prevalence of 4.0% (95% CI 3.6-4.5%. Seroprevalence of ELISA was significantly higher in males (odds ratio (OR = 1.37; CI 1.15-1.63 and in the southern part of Germany (OR = 1.41; CI 1.09-1.83, but significantly lower in children and adolescents with migration background (OR = 0.33; CI 0.24-0.44. Study participants from households with cats had a higher chance of seropositivity (OR = 6.7; CI 5.6-8.0. In a multivariable model the odds of seropositivity increases by 11% for every year of age for boys and 6% for girls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This survey is the first nationwide, representative seroprevalence survey of LB in children and young adolescents. The study shows that infections with Borrelia burgdorferi are endemic in all parts of Germany despite regional differences. Even at a young age children are exposed to tick bites including seropositivity. Encouraging a thorough check for ticks and promptly removal of ticks are the key public health strategies to reduce the risk of LB and other tick-borne diseases in children and adolescents. Further epidemiological studies are warranted to better understand the burden of disease related to LB.

  18. Increased occurrence of anti-AQP4 seropositivity and unique HLA Class II associations with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), among Muslim Arabs in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Livnat; Mandel, Micha; Karussis, Dimitrios; Petrou, Panayiota; Miller, Keren; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Karni, Arnon; Paltiel, Ora; Israel, Shoshana; Vaknin-Dembinsky, Adi

    2016-04-15

    Previous studies have revealed different human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO), further discriminating these two demyelinating pathological conditions. In worldwide analyses, NMO and opticospinal MS are represented at higher proportions among demyelinating conditions in African, East-Asian and Latin American populations. There are currently no data regarding the prevalence of NMO in Middle East Muslims. The population in Israel is diverse in many ways, and includes subpopulations, based on religion and ethnicity; some exhibit genetic homogeneity. In Israel, the incidence of MS is lower in the Muslim population than the Jewish population and Muslims carry different allele frequency distribution of HLA haplotypes. To evaluate the occurrence of anti-AQP4 seropositivity in the Israeli Muslim population among patients with central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating conditions; and to identify the HLA DR and DQ profiles of Muslim Arab Israeli patients with NMO spectrum of diseases (NMOSD). The prevalence of anti-AQP4 seropositivity was analyzed in 342 samples, obtained from patients with various CNS demyelinating conditions and in a validation set of 310 samples. HLA class II alleles (HLA-DRB1 and DQB1) were examined in DNA samples from 35 Israeli Muslim Arabs NMO patients and compared to available data from 74 Israeli Muslim controls. Our data reveal a significantly increased prevalence of anti-AQP4 seropositivity, indicative of NMOSD, in Muslim Arab Israeli patients with initial diagnosis of a CNS demyelinating syndrome. In this population, there was a positive association with the HLA-DRB1*04:04 and HLA-DRB1*10:01 alleles (p=0.03), and a strong negative association with the HLA-DRB1*07 and HLA-DQB1*02:02 alleles (p=0.003, p=0.002). Our findings indicate a possibly increased prevalence of NMOSD in Muslim Arabs in Israel with distinct (positive and negative) HLA associations. Further studies in patients with

  19. Trinocular Stereo Matching Based on Correlations Between Baselines and Disparities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANYepeng; GUWeikang

    2004-01-01

    Gray correlation technique is utilized to take the multi-peak feature points with gray correlation coefficients less than a certain range of maximal correlation coefficient as a potential candidate matching set. There exists the maximal correlation between the correct disparities and their corresponding baselines. A trinocular stereo matching algorithm is proposed based on correlations between the baselines and disparities. After computing the correlations between the baselines and disparities, the unique matches can be determined by maximal correlation coefficient. It is proved that the algorithm proposed is valid and credible by 3-D reconstruction on two pairs of actual natural stereo images.

  20. Dynamic baseline detection method for power data network service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic baseline Traffic detection Method which is based on the historical traffic data for the Power data network. The method uses Cisco's NetFlow acquisition tool to collect the original historical traffic data from network element at fixed intervals. This method uses three dimensions information including the communication port, time, traffic (number of bytes or number of packets) t. By filtering, removing the deviation value, calculating the dynamic baseline value, comparing the actual value with the baseline value, the method can detect whether the current network traffic is abnormal.

  1. Interaction of baseline synaptic noise and Ia EPSPs: evidence for appreciable negative correlation under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodkin, M; Jiménez, I; Collins, W F; Mendell, L M; Rudomin, P

    1991-04-01

    1. In the anesthetized cat, simultaneous intracellular recordings from pairs of spinal motoneurons were undertaken to see whether the amplitude of single-fiber excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in both cells fluctuated in a coordinated manner that would indicate correlative mechanisms at either pre- or post-synaptic level. Although these recordings revealed correlated fluctuations in the baseline, the single-fiber Ia/EPSPs recorded with the spike-triggered averaging technique exhibited no correlated fluctuations and, unexpectedly, virtually no increase in baseline variance associated with the EPSP. However, the fact that these experiments were carried out under conditions of high baseline synaptic noise (i.e., with muscle stretch) may have influenced the outcome because of interaction between EPSP and synaptic noise, and this possibility was evaluated explicitly. 2. A given connection was studied under low noise by electrically stimulating a single Ia fiber in the absence of muscle stretch. The same connection was analyzed under conditions of high noise by activating the fiber and all other stretch receptor afferents with muscle stretch and by using spike-triggered averaging to extract the EPSP. The differences in mean EPSP amplitude at a given connection under conditions of low noise and high noise were minimal. 3. Fluctuations in EPSP amplitude were then determined to see whether these were influenced by presence of baseline synaptic noise and whether the interaction was nonlinear. Two methods were used to measure EPSP fluctuations: measurement of the variance associated with the EPSP, and determination by the use of deconvolution methods of the discrete amplitude components associated with the EPSP. 4. An increase in baseline variance was observed during the EPSP evoked under low noise conditions at all six connections studied in this way. This increase disappeared at two of these connections when examined under high noise. This may help to explain the

  2. Peritoneal macrophage infiltration is correlated with baseline peritoneal solute transport rate in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Akiho; Ito, Yasuhiko; Mizuno, Masashi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Toda, Susumu; Ito, Isao; Hattori, Ryohei; Matsukawa, Yoshihisa; Gotoh, Momokazu; Takei, Yoshifumi; Yuzawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2011-07-01

    High baseline peritoneal solute transport rate is reportedly associated with reduced patient and technique survival in continuous peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. However, the determinants of baseline peritoneal solute transport rate remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between peritoneal local inflammation, angiogenesis and systemic inflammation and baseline peritoneal permeability. Peritoneal biopsy specimens from 42 pre-dialysis uraemic patients and 11 control individuals were investigated. Immunohistochemistry for CD68-positive macrophages, chymase- and tryptase-positive mast cells, interleukin-6 (IL-6)-positive cells, CD3-positive T cells, CD20-positive B cells, neutrophils and CD31- and pathologische anatomie Leiden-endothelium (PAL-E)-positive blood vessels in the peritoneum was performed. Baseline dialysate-to-plasma ratio for creatinine (D/P Cr) was determined within 6 months of PD induction. Clinical and laboratory parameters were measured at the time of peritoneal biopsy. Factors associated with peritoneal permeability were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis. Pre-dialysis uraemic peritoneum showed infiltration by CD68-positive macrophages, and mast cells, as compared with controls. Baseline D/P Cr was correlated with density of CD68-positive macrophages (P permeability was not correlated with infiltration by mast cells, B cells, T cells, neutrophils, serum C-reactive protein or other clinical factors. On multiple linear regression analysis, the number of CD68-positive macrophages in peritoneum was an independent predictor for baseline peritoneal permeability (P = 0.009). Peritoneal macrophage infiltration is predominant in uraemic patients and is an important factor in predicting baseline peritoneal permeability.

  3. Subtask 12D2: Baseline impact properties of vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the baseline impact properties of vanadium-base alloys as a function of compositional variables. Up-to-date results on impact properties of unirradiated V, V-Ti, V-Cr-Ti and V-Ti-Si alloys are presented and reviewed in this paper, with an emphasis on the most promising class of alloys, i.e., V-(4-5)Cr-(3-5)Ti containing 400-1000 wppm Si. Database on impact energy and ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) has been established from Charpy impact tests on small laboratory as well as production-scale heats. DBTT is influenced most significantly by Cr contents and, to a lesser extent, by Ti contents of the alloys. When combined contents of Cr and Ti were {le}10 wt.%, V-Cr-Ti alloys exhibit excellent impact properties, i.e., DBTT<-200{degrees}C and upper shelf energies of {approx}120-140 J/cm{sup 2}. Impact properties of the production-scale heat of the U.S. reference alloy V-4Cr- 4Ti were as good as those of the laboratory-scale heats. Optimal impact properties of the reference alloy were obtained after annealing the as-rolled products at 1000{degrees}C-1050{degrees}C for 1-2 h in high-quality vacuum. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. APOC impact assessment studies: baseline ophthalmological findings in Morogoro, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, O E; Maegga, B; Katenga, S; Ogbuagu, F K; Umeh, R E; Seketeli, E; Braide, E

    2008-12-01

    The goal of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) is to eliminate Onchocerciasis as a disease of public Health significance and an important constraint to socio-economic development in the 19 none OCP (Onchocerciasis Control Project) countries covered through Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin, CDTI. In 1998, impact assessment studies were carried out in Morogoro, Tanzania during which baseline ophthalmological parameters were established. The hypothesis being tested is that CDTI will prevent or delay progression of onchocercal eye lesions and blindness. A total of 425 subjects aged 10 years or more from 14 villages within Bwakira district ofMorogoro region in Tanzania were examined for Snellen visual acuity, ocular microfilaria, lens opacities, uveitis and posterior segment disease especially chorioretinitis and optic nerve disease. Motion Sensitivity Screening Test (MSST) was carried out as well. Microfilaria was present in the anterior chamber of nearly half (49.2%) of all subjects examined. Prevalence of blindness was extremely high at 15.2%. Onchocercal lesions were responsible for blindness in 41.5% of these, followed by cataracts (27.7%), glaucoma (10.8%) and trachoma (6.2%). The main pathway to onchocercal blindness in this population was anterior uveitis with or without secondary cataracts. There is an urgent need to get CDTI underway and institute other horizontal primary eye care measures, especially cataract backlog reduction, in order to reduce the excessive burden of avoidable blindness in this community.

  5. Updated baseline for a staged Compact Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Boland, M J; Giansiracusa, P J; Lucas, T G; Rassool, R P; Balazs, C; Charles, T K; Afanaciev, K; Emeliantchik, I; Ignatenko, A; Makarenko, V; Shumeiko, N; Patapenka, A; Zhuk, I; Abusleme Hoffman, A C; Diaz Gutierrez, M A; Gonzalez, M Vogel; Chi, Y; He, X; Pei, G; Pei, S; Shu, G; Wang, X; Zhang, J; Zhao, F; Zhou, Z; Chen, H; Gao, Y; Huang, W; Kuang, Y P; Li, B; Li, Y; Shao, J; Shi, J; Tang, C; Wu, X; Ma, L; Han, Y; Fang, W; Gu, Q; Huang, D; Huang, X; Tan, J; Wang, Z; Zhao, Z; Laštovička, T; Uggerhoj, U; Wistisen, T N; Aabloo, A; Eimre, K; Kuppart, K; Vigonski, S; Zadin, V; Aicheler, M; Baibuz, E; Brücken, E; Djurabekova, F; Eerola, P; Garcia, F; Haeggström, E; Huitu, K; Jansson, V; Karimaki, V; Kassamakov, I; Kyritsakis, A; Lehti, S; Meriläinen, A; Montonen, R; Niinikoski, T; Nordlund, K; Österberg, K; Parekh, M; Törnqvist, N A; Väinölä, J; Veske, M; Farabolini, W; Mollard, A; Napoly, O; Peauger, F; Plouin, J; Bambade, P; Chaikovska, I; Chehab, R; Davier, M; Kaabi, W; Kou, E; LeDiberder, F; Pöschl, R; Zerwas, D; Aimard, B; Balik, G; Baud, J-P; Blaising, J-J; Brunetti, L; Chefdeville, M; Drancourt, C; Geoffroy, N; Jacquemier, J; Jeremie, A; Karyotakis, Y; Nappa, J M; Vilalte, S; Vouters, G; Bernard, A; Peric, I; Gabriel, M; Simon, F; Szalay, M; van der Kolk, N; Alexopoulos, T; Gazis, E N; Gazis, N; Ikarios, E; Kostopoulos, V; Kourkoulis, S; Gupta, P D; Shrivastava, P; Arfaei, H; Dayyani, M K; Ghasem, H; Hajari, S S; Shaker, H; Ashkenazy, Y; Abramowicz, H; Benhammou, Y; Borysov, O; Kananov, S; Levy, A; Levy, I; Rosenblat, O; D'Auria, G; Di Mitri, S; Abe, T; Aryshev, A; Higo, T; Makida, Y; Matsumoto, S; Shidara, T; Takatomi, T; Takubo, Y; Tauchi, T; Toge, N; Ueno, K; Urakawa, J; Yamamoto, A; Yamanaka, M; Raboanary, R; Hart, R; van der Graaf, H; Eigen, G; Zalieckas, J; Adli, E; Lillestøl, R; Malina, L; Pfingstner, J; Sjobak, K N; Ahmed, W; Asghar, M I; Hoorani, H; Bugiel, S; Dasgupta, R; Firlej, M; Fiutowski, T A; Idzik, M; Kopec, M; Kuczynska, M; Moron, J; Swientek, K P; Daniluk, W; Krupa, B; Kucharczyk, M; Lesiak, T; Moszczynski, A; Pawlik, B; Sopicki, P; Wojtoń, T; Zawiejski, L; Kalinowski, J; Krawczyk, M; Żarnecki, A F; Firu, E; Ghenescu, V; Neagu, A T; Preda, T; Zgura, I-S; Aloev, A; Azaryan, N; Budagov, J; Chizhov, M; Filippova, M; Glagolev, V; Gongadze, A; Grigoryan, S; Gudkov, D; Karjavine, V; Lyablin, M; Olyunin, A; Samochkine, A; Sapronov, A; Shirkov, G; Soldatov, V; Solodko, A; Solodko, E; Trubnikov, G; Tyapkin, I; Uzhinsky, V; Vorozhtov, A; Levichev, E; Mezentsev, N; Piminov, P; Shatilov, D; Vobly, P; Zolotarev, K; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Kacarevic, G; Lukic, S; Milutinovic-Dumbelovic, G; Pandurovic, M; Iriso, U; Perez, F; Pont, M; Trenado, J; Aguilar-Benitez, M; Calero, J; Garcia-Tabares, L; Gavela, D; Gutierrez, J L; Lopez, D; Toral, F; Moya, D; Ruiz-Jimeno, A; Vila, I; Argyropoulos, T; Blanch Gutierrez, C; Boronat, M; Esperante, D; Faus-Golfe, A; Fuster, J; Fuster Martinez, N; Galindo Muñoz, N; García, I; Giner Navarro, J; Ros, E; Vos, M; Brenner, R; Ekelöf, T; Jacewicz, M; Ögren, J; Olvegård, M; Ruber, R; Ziemann, V; Aguglia, D; Alipour Tehrani, N; Aloev, A; Andersson, A; Andrianala, F; Antoniou, F; Artoos, K; Atieh, S; Ballabriga Sune, R; Barnes, M J; Barranco Garcia, J; Bartosik, H; Belver-Aguilar, C; Benot Morell, A; Bett, D R; Bettoni, S; Blanchot, G; Blanco Garcia, O; Bonnin, X A; Brunner, O; Burkhardt, H; Calatroni, S; Campbell, M; Catalan Lasheras, N; Cerqueira Bastos, M; Cherif, A; Chevallay, E; Constance, B; Corsini, R; Cure, B; Curt, S; Dalena, B; Dannheim, D; De Michele, G; De Oliveira, L; Deelen, N; Delahaye, J P; Dobers, T; Doebert, S; Draper, M; Duarte Ramos, F; Dubrovskiy, A; Elsener, K; Esberg, J; Esposito, M; Fedosseev, V; Ferracin, P; Fiergolski, A; Foraz, K; Fowler, A; Friebel, F; Fuchs, J-F; Fuentes Rojas, C A; Gaddi, A; Garcia Fajardo, L; Garcia Morales, H; Garion, C; Gatignon, L; Gayde, J-C; Gerwig, H; Goldblatt, A N; Grefe, C; Grudiev, A; Guillot-Vignot, F G; Gutt-Mostowy, M L; Hauschild, M; Hessler, C; Holma, J K; Holzer, E; Hourican, M; Hynds, D; Inntjore Levinsen, Y; Jeanneret, B; Jensen, E; Jonker, M; Kastriotou, M; Kemppinen, J M K; Kieffer, R B; Klempt, W; Kononenko, O; Korsback, A; Koukovini Platia, E; Kovermann, J W; Kozsar, C-I; Kremastiotis, I; Kulis, S; Latina, A; Leaux, F; Lebrun, P; Lefevre, T; Linssen, L; Llopart Cudie, X; Maier, A A; Mainaud Durand, H; Manosperti, E; Marelli, C; Marin Lacoma, E; Martin, R; Mazzoni, S; Mcmonagle, G; Mete, O; Mether, L M; Modena, M; Münker, R M; Muranaka, T; Nebot Del Busto, E; Nikiforou, N; Nisbet, D; Nonglaton, J-M; Nuiry, F X; Nürnberg, A; Olvegard, M; Osborne, J; Papadopoulou, S; Papaphilippou, Y; Passarelli, A; Patecki, M; Pazdera, L; Pellegrini, D; Pepitone, K; Perez, F; Perez Codina, E; Perez Fontenla, A; Persson, T H B; Petrič, M; Pitters, F; Pittet, S; Plassard, F; Rajamak, R; Redford, S; Renier, Y; Rey, S F; Riddone, G; Rinolfi, L; Rodriguez Castro, E; Roloff, P; Rossi, C; Rude, V; Rumolo, G; Sailer, A; Santin, E; Schlatter, D; Schmickler, H; Schulte, D; Shipman, N; Sicking, E; Simoniello, R; Skowronski, P K; Sobrino Mompean, P; Soby, L; Sosin, M P; Sroka, S; Stapnes, S; Sterbini, G; Ström, R; Syratchev, I; Tecker, F; Thonet, P A; Timeo, L; Timko, H; Tomas Garcia, R; Valerio, P; Vamvakas, A L; Vivoli, A; Weber, M A; Wegner, R; Wendt, M; Woolley, B; Wuensch, W; Uythoven, J; Zha, H; Zisopoulos, P; Benoit, M; Vicente Barreto Pinto, M; Bopp, M; Braun, H H; Csatari Divall, M; Dehler, M; Garvey, T; Raguin, J Y; Rivkin, L; Zennaro, R; Aksoy, A; Nergiz, Z; Pilicer, E; Tapan, I; Yavas, O; Baturin, V; Kholodov, R; Lebedynskyi, S; Miroshnichenko, V; Mordyk, S; Profatilova, I; Storizhko, V; Watson, N; Winter, A; Goldstein, J; Green, S; Marshall, J S; Thomson, M A; Xu, B; Gillespie, W A; Pan, R; Tyrk, M A; Protopopescu, D; Robson, A; Apsimon, R; Bailey, I; Burt, G; Constable, D; Dexter, A; Karimian, S; Lingwood, C; Buckland, M D; Casse, G; Vossebeld, J; Bosco, A; Karataev, P; Kruchinin, K; Lekomtsev, K; Nevay, L; Snuverink, J; Yamakawa, E; Boisvert, V; Boogert, S; Boorman, G; Gibson, S; Lyapin, A; Shields, W; Teixeira-Dias, P; West, S; Jones, R; Joshi, N; Bodenstein, R; Burrows, P N; Christian, G B; Gamba, D; Perry, C; Roberts, J; Clarke, J A; Collomb, N A; Jamison, S P; Shepherd, B J A; Walsh, D; Demarteau, M; Repond, J; Weerts, H; Xia, L; Wells, J D; Adolphsen, C; Barklow, T; Breidenbach, M; Graf, N; Hewett, J; Markiewicz, T; McCormick, D; Moffeit, K; Nosochkov, Y; Oriunno, M; Phinney, N; Rizzo, T; Tantawi, S; Wang, F; Wang, J; White, G; Woodley, M

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a multi-TeV high-luminosity linear e+e- collider under development. For an optimal exploitation of its physics potential, CLIC is foreseen to be built and operated in a staged approach with three centre-of-mass energy stages ranging from a few hundred GeV up to 3 TeV. The first stage will focus on precision Standard Model physics, in particular Higgs and top-quark measurements. Subsequent stages will focus on measurements of rare Higgs processes, as well as searches for new physics processes and precision measurements of new states, e.g. states previously discovered at LHC or at CLIC itself. In the 2012 CLIC Conceptual Design Report, a fully optimised 3 TeV collider was presented, while the proposed lower energy stages were not studied to the same level of detail. This report presents an updated baseline staging scenario for CLIC. The scenario is the result of a comprehensive study addressing the performance, cost and power of the CLIC accelerator complex as a function of...

  6. Scientific Opportunities with the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C.; et al.

    2013-07-28

    In this document, we describe the wealth of science opportunities and capabilities of LBNE, the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment. LBNE has been developed to provide a unique and compelling program for the exploration of key questions at the forefront of particle physics. Chief among the discovery opportunities are observation of CP symmetry violation in neutrino mixing, resolution of the neutrino mass hierarchy, determination of maximal or near-maximal mixing in neutrinos, searches for nucleon decay signatures, and detailed studies of neutrino bursts from galactic supernovae. To fulfill these and other goals as a world-class facility, LBNE is conceived around four central components: (1) a new, intense wide-band neutrino source at Fermilab, (2) a fine-grained `near' neutrino detector just downstream of the source, (3) the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota at an optimal distance (~1300 km) from the neutrino source, and (4) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) deployed there as a 'far' detector. The facilities envisioned are expected to enable many other science opportunities due to the high event rates and excellent detector resolution from beam neutrinos in the near detector and atmospheric neutrinos in the far detector. This is a mature, well developed, world class experiment whose relevance, importance, and probability of unearthing critical and exciting physics has increased with time.