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Sample records for high baseline nlr

  1. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) can risk stratify patients in transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condado, Jose F; Junpaparp, Parichart; Binongo, Jose N; Lasanajak, Yi; Witzke-Sanz, Christian F; Devireddy, Chandan; Leshnower, Bradley; Mavromatis, Kreton; Stewart, James; Guyton, Robert; Wheeler, David; Forcillo, Jessica; Patel, Ateet; Block, Peter C; Thourani, Vinod; Rangaswami, Janani; Babaliaros, Vasilis

    2016-11-15

    Neutrophil-lymphocyte (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratios (PLR) mark systemic inflammation. Patients with high NLR and PLR have worse cardiovascular disease and outcomes. We assessed the role of these ratios in predicting outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). The association between NLR and PLR with baseline characteristics, 30-day outcomes, and 1-year readmission/survival was determined in patients that underwent TAVR between 2007 and 2014 and had baseline complete blood count with differential. A subgroup analysis determined the association between change in NLR and PLR (discharge-baseline) and 1-year outcomes. In 520 patients that underwent TAVR, a higher NLR (p=0.01) and PLR (p=0.02) were associated with a higher STS-PROM score, and with increased occurrence of the 30-day early-safety outcome (by VARC-2), even after adjusting for STS-PROM score, valve generation (Sapien vs. Sapien XT), and access (transfemoral vs. non-transfemoral) (NLR: OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.61; PLR: OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.60) but not with 1-year readmission or survival. In our subgroup analysis (N=294), change in PLR was not associated with the 1-year outcomes but a high change in NLR was associated with worse 1-year survival/readmission and 1-year survival, even after adjusting for STS-PROM score, valve generation and access (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.44 and HR 1.26, 95% CI 0.99-1.6, respectively). NLR and PLR correlate with surgical risk. An elevated NLR and PLR were associated with the occurrence of 30-day adverse outcomes, similar to the STS-PROM score. A high variation of NLR from baseline to discharge may help stratify patients that underwent TAVR in addition to traditional risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolution and conservation of plant NLR functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eJacob

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In plants and animals, nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeats (NLR–containing proteins play pivotal roles in innate immunity. Despite their similar biological functions and protein architecture, comparative genome-wide analyses of NLRs and genes encoding NLR-like proteins suggest that plant and animal NLRs have independently arisen in evolution. Furthermore, the demonstration of interfamily transfer of plant NLR functions from their original species to phylogenetically distant species implies evolutionary conservation of the underlying immune principle across plant taxonomy. In this review we discuss plant NLR evolution and summarise recent insights into plant NLR signalling mechanisms, which might constitute evolutionarily conserved NLR-mediated immune mechanisms.

  3. Prognostic performance of pre-treatment NLR and PLR in patients suffering from osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wen-Kai; Liu, Zhi-Li; Shen, Dong; Lin, Qing-Feng; Su, Jun; Mao, Wei-Dong

    2016-04-29

    Inflammatory response markers have been proposed to predict the clinical outcomes in various cancers. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) on the prognosis of osteosarcoma. Three hundred fifty-nine patients who underwent curative surgery for osteosarcoma were enrolled from 2005 to 2010. NLR and PLR were calculated from peripheral blood cell counts taken at pre-treatment. Optimal cutoff values of NLR and PLR were determined on the basis of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. A predictive model was established to predict the clinical outcome for overall survival, and the predictive accuracy of this model was determined by concordance index (c-index). Our results showed that advanced stage and metastasis at diagnosis were significantly associated with the high NLR and PLR groups. NLR was an independent prognostic indicator for overall survival (HR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.35-2.41, P osteosarcoma (c-index 0.829). Our results suggest that both NLR and PLR can reflect clinical prognosis. NLR is more predictive of overall survival and progression-free survival than PLR.

  4. Influence of neutrophile granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) on poor prognosis of elderly AECOPD patients during hospital stay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Rong Cui

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the influence of neutrophile granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio(NLR) to the poor prognosis of elderly AECOPD patients during the stay in hospital.Method:A total of 133 cases elderly patients with AECOPD admitted in our hospital from March 2013 to September 2014 were selected, and divided them into death group (31 cases) and survival group (102 cases) according to in-hospital death occurrence; To compare the on admission general clinical data, therapy method, lung function, blood routine examination [white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophile granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio(NLR)], C-reactive protein (CRP), blood gas analysis and blood biochemical indexes in both groups, and drew ROC curve for a analysis of the clinical value of NLR in the prediction of death.Results: Among 133 cases of elderly AECOPD patients: the proportion of combined pulmonary heart disease and mechanical ventilation in death group was higher than that in survival group, PaCO2, WBC count, neutrophil count, NLR, CRP level in death group was higher, but lymphocyte count, serum albumin(ALB) in death group was lower; multiple logistic regression analysis showed that NLR presented independent positive correlation with the in-hospital death in elderly AECOPD patients; ROC curve analysis showed that the ROCAUC of NLR to the in-hospital death in elderly AECOPD patients was 0.787, the best diagnostic node value was 7.3, sensitivity and specificity were 77.4% and 74.5% respectively; bounded by NLR(7.3), divided patients into NLR 7.3 group and NLR<7.3 group, hospital stays, CRP level and mortality in NLR 7.3 group were higher than that in NLR<7.3 group.Conclusion:NLR was the high risk factor of the in-hospital death in elderly AECOPD patients, early detection of NLR level had a certain difference to the evaluation for short-term prognosis of elderly AECOPD patients and guide treatment.

  5. The Clinical Use of the Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) in Urothelial Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioni, Michele; Primiceri, Giulia; Ingrosso, Manuela; Filograna, Roberta; Castellan, Pietro; De Francesco, Piergustavo; Schips, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is an inflammatory index that has been considered as a potential prognostic factor in human cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available evidence regarding the NLR as a prognostic value in patients affected by urothelial cancer. This literature review, including papers on NLR in urothelial cancers, was done on PubMed/Medline and Cochrane libraries in November 2015. The selection of the articles followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses process. Twenty-three of 99 articles fulfilled all the inclusion criteria, including data on 6240 patients affected by urothelial cancers. Overall, cancer-specific, and recurrence-free survival were evaluated as the main oncological outcomes. There was significant heterogeneity among studies, and the majority of studies were of poor quality. Overall, NLR was considered as a prognostic marker in 87.5%, 80%, and 60% of the studies on upper tract urothelial cancer, urothelial bladder cancer, and metastatic and advanced disease, respectively. The NLR cut-off value ranged between 2 and 5. A high NLR was associated with worse overall, cancer-specific, and recurrence-free survival. NLR is a widely available, easy-to-collect, costless, prognostic marker in urothelial cancers. Its clinical use still remains under investigation, especially for the need for cut-off values, particularly in different subsets of patients.

  6. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) improves the risk assessment of ISS staging in newly diagnosed MM patients treated upfront with novel agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, A; Parrinello, N L; Consoli, M L; Marchionni, L; Forte, S; Conticello, C; Pompa, A; Corso, A; Milone, G; Di Raimondo, F; Borrello, I

    2015-11-01

    Recent reports identify the ratio between absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), called neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), as a predictor of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in various malignancies. We retrospectively examined the NLR in a cohort of 309 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients treated upfront with novel agents. NLR was calculated using data obtained from the complete blood count (CBC) at diagnosis and subsequently correlated with PFS and OS. The median NLR was 1.9 (range 0.4-15.9). Higher NLR was independent of international staging system (ISS) stage, plasma cell infiltration or cytogenetics. The 5-year PFS and OS estimates were, respectively, 18.2 and 36.4 % for patients with NLR ≥ 2 versus 25.5 and 66.6 % in patients with NLR ISS stages. By combining ISS stage and NLR in a model limited to young patients, we found that 19 % of the patients were classified as very low risk, 70 % standard risk and 11 % very high risk. The 5-year estimates were 39.3, 19.4 and 10.9 % for PFS and 95.8, 50.9 and 23.6 % for OS for very low, standard-risk and very high-risk groups. We found NLR to be a predictor of PFS and OS in MM patients treated upfront with novel agents. NLR can be combined with ISS staging system to identify patients with dismal outcome. However, larger cohorts and prospective studies are needed to use NLR as additional parameter to personalise MM therapy in the era of novel agents.

  7. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The technologies being tested for concrete decontamination are targeted for alpha contamination. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  8. Post-Transplant Recurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Elevated NLR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Tarun

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Approximately 80% of patients with HCC have cirrhosis, making liver transplantation (LT) the ideal treatment modality, as it provides a cure for the underlying liver disease as well as complete neoplastic clearance of tumor. Many criteria have been developed for HCC patient selection for LT, although the use of current criteria does not completely eliminate the risk of recurrence. Approximately 15% to 20% of patients who are within the criteria still develop recurrent disease, leading to an extensive search for surrogate markers of HCC aggressiveness. Methods: A prospectively collected database of all patients undergoing LT at our institution between January 1990 and January 2006 with a diagnosis of HCC was retrospectively analyzed. Patients undergoing LT had neutrophil and lymphocyte counts measured preoperatively on the day before surgery. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was calculated by dividing the neutrophil measurement by the lymphocyte measurement. An NLR ≥ 5 was considered elevated. Incidence of elevated NLR was compared in LT patients with and without HCC recurrence. Results: Total of 47 patients who underwent LT for HCC were identified. Patients were followed for mean duration of 6 years (range, 8 months – 15 years). Eight (8) patients had recurrence of HCC during the follow-up period. The mean duration between LT and diagnosis of HCC recurrence was 667 days (range, 306 – 1424 days). Twice the number of patients (16) were randomly selected from the remaining 39 patients who had no recurrence. Only 2/8 patients with recurrence and 3/16 patients without recurrence were found to have an elevated NLR. There was no statistical difference in incidence of elevated NLR between patients with and without recurrence (25% vs. 18.75%; P > .05). Conclusions: The effect of inflammation on carcinogenesis has been widely investigated, with recent increased

  9. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure. These were dust and noise. The dust exposure was found to be minimal, which would be expected due to the wet environment inherent in the technology, but noise exposure was at a significant level. Further testing for noise is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, fall hazards, slipping hazards, hazards associated with the high pressure water, and hazards associated with air pressure systems.

  10. Animal NLRs provide structural insights into plant NLR function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentham, Adam; Burdett, Hayden; Anderson, Peter A; Williams, Simon J; Kobe, Bostjan

    2017-03-01

    The plant immune system employs intracellular NLRs (nucleotide binding [NB], leucine-rich repeat [LRR]/nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain [NOD]-like receptors) to detect effector proteins secreted into the plant cell by potential pathogens. Activated plant NLRs trigger a range of immune responses, collectively known as the hypersensitive response (HR), which culminates in death of the infected cell. Plant NLRs show structural and functional resemblance to animal NLRs involved in inflammatory and innate immune responses. Therefore, knowledge of the activation and regulation of animal NLRs can help us understand the mechanism of action of plant NLRs, and vice versa. This review provides an overview of the innate immune pathways in plants and animals, focusing on the available structural and biochemical information available for both plant and animal NLRs. We highlight the gap in knowledge between the animal and plant systems, in particular the lack of structural information for plant NLRs, with crystal structures only available for the N-terminal domains of plant NLRs and an integrated decoy domain, in contrast to the more complete structures available for animal NLRs. We assess the similarities and differences between plant and animal NLRs, and use the structural information on the animal NLR pair NAIP/NLRC4 to derive a plausible model for plant NLR activation. Signalling by cooperative assembly formation (SCAF) appears to operate in most innate immunity pathways, including plant and animal NLRs. Our proposed model of plant NLR activation includes three key steps: (1) initially, the NLR exists in an inactive auto-inhibited state; (2) a combination of binding by activating elicitor and ATP leads to a structural rearrangement of the NLR; and (3) signalling occurs through cooperative assembly of the resistosome. Further studies, structural and biochemical in particular, will be required to provide additional evidence for the different features of this model and

  11. Scanner baseliner monitoring and control in high volume manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudrala, Pavan; Chung, Woong Jae; Aung, Nyan; Subramany, Lokesh; Gao, Haiyong; Gomez, Juan-Manuel

    2016-03-01

    We analyze performance of different customized models on baseliner overlay data and demonstrate the reduction in overlay residuals by ~10%. Smart Sampling sets were assessed and compared with the full wafer measurements. We found that performance of the grid can still be maintained by going to one-third of total sampling points, while reducing metrology time by 60%. We also demonstrate the feasibility of achieving time to time matching using scanner fleet manager and thus identify the tool drifts even when the tool monitoring controls are within spec limits. We also explore the scanner feedback constant variation with illumination sources.

  12. Baseline high heat flux and plasma facing materials for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Y.; Schmid, K.; Balden, M.; Coenen, J. W.; Loewenhoff, Th.; Ito, A.; Hasegawa, A.; Hardie, C.; Porton, M.; Gilbert, M.

    2017-09-01

    In fusion reactors, surfaces of plasma facing components (PFCs) are exposed to high heat and particle flux. Tungsten and Copper alloys are primary candidates for plasma facing materials (PFMs) and coolant tube materials, respectively, mainly due to high thermal conductivity and, in the case of tungsten, its high melting point. In this paper, recent understandings and future issues on responses of tungsten and Cu alloys to fusion environments (high particle flux (including T and He), high heat flux, and high neutron doses) are reviewed. This review paper includes; Tritium retention in tungsten (K. Schmid and M. Balden), Impact of stationary and transient heat loads on tungsten (J.W. Coenen and Th. Loewenhoff), Helium effects on surface morphology of tungsten (Y. Ueda and A. Ito), Neutron radiation effects in tungsten (A. Hasegawa), and Copper and copper alloys development for high heat flux components (C. Hardie, M. Porton, and M. Gilbert).

  13. Baseline Concept Description of a Small Modular High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gougar, Hans D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a description of generic small modular high temperature reactors (herein denoted as an smHTR), summarize their distinguishing attributes, and lay out the research and development (R&D) required for commercialization. The generic concepts rely heavily on the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor designs developed in the 1980s which were never built but for which pre-licensing or certification activities were conducted. The concept matured more recently under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, specifically in the areas of fuel and material qualification, methods development, and licensing. As all vendor-specific designs proposed under NGNP were all both ‘small’ or medium-sized and ‘modular’ by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Department of Energy (DOE) standards, the technical attributes, challenges, and R&D needs identified, addressed, and documented under NGNP are valid and appropriate in the context of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) applications. Although the term High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is commonly used to denote graphite-moderated, thermal spectrum reactors with coolant temperatures in excess of 650oC at the core outlet, in this report the historical term High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) will be used to distinguish the gas-cooled technology described herein from its liquid salt-cooled cousin. Moreover, in this report it is to be understood that the outlet temperature of the helium in an HTGR has an upper limit of 950 degrees C which corresponds to the temperature to which certain alloys are currently being qualified under DOE’s ARC program. Although similar to the HTGR in just about every respect, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) may have an outlet temperature in excess of 950 degrees C and is therefore farther from commercialization because of the challenges posed to materials exposed to these temperatures. The VHTR is the focus of R&D under the

  14. Baseline Concept Description of a Small Modular High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Gougar

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a description of generic small modular high temperature reactors (herein denoted as an smHTR), summarize their distinguishing attributes, and lay out the research and development (R&D) required for commercialization. The generic concepts rely heavily on the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor designs developed in the 1980s which were never built but for which pre-licensing or certification activities were conducted. The concept matured more recently under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, specifically in the areas of fuel and material qualification, methods development, and licensing. As all vendor-specific designs proposed under NGNP were all both ‘small’ or medium-sized and ‘modular’ by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Department of Energy (DOE) standards, the technical attributes, challenges, and R&D needs identified, addressed, and documented under NGNP are valid and appropriate in the context of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) applications. Although the term High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is commonly used to denote graphite-moderated, thermal spectrum reactors with coolant temperatures in excess of 650oC at the core outlet, in this report the historical term High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) will be used to distinguish the gas-cooled technology described herein from its liquid salt-cooled cousin. Moreover, in this report it is to be understood that the outlet temperature of the helium in an HTGR has an upper limit of 950 degrees C which corresponds to the temperature to which certain alloys are currently being qualified under DOE’s ARC program. Although similar to the HTGR in just about every respect, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) may have an outlet temperature in excess of 950 degrees C and is therefore farther from commercialization because of the challenges posed to materials exposed to these temperatures. The VHTR is the focus of R&D under the

  15. Prognostic Significance of Combination of Preoperative Platelet Count and Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio (COP-NLR in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Based on a Large Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of the combination of the preoperative platelet count and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (COP-NLR for predicting postoperative survival of patients undergoing complete resection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC.The preoperative COP-NLR was calculated on the basis of data obtained.Patients with both an increased platelet count (>30.0 × 104 mm(-3 and an elevated NLR (>2.3 were assigned a score of 2, and patients with one or neither were assigned as a score of 1 or 0, respectively.A total of 1238 NSCLC patients were enrolled in this analysis. Multivariate analysis using the 15 clinicolaboratory variables selected by univariate analyses demonstrated that the preoperative COP-NLR was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (HR: 1.834, 95%CI: 1.536 to 2.200, P<0.001 and OS (HR: 1.810, 95%CI: 1.587 to 2.056, P<0.001. In sub-analyses by tumor stage (I, II, IIIA, a significant association was found between DFS and OS and level of COP-NLR in each subgroup (P<0.001, P=0.002, P<0.001 for DFS, respectively; P<0.001, P=0.001, P<0.001 for OS. When the subgroup of patients with high-risk COP-NLR (score of 2 was analyzed, no benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy could be found (P=0.237 for DFS and P=0.165 for OS.The preoperative COP-NLR is able to predict the prognosis of patients with NSCLC and divide these patients into three independent groups before surgery. Our results also demonstrate that high-risk patients based on the COP-NLR do not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Independent validation of our findings is warranted.

  16. A new eye on NLR proteins: focused on clarity or diffused by complexity?

    OpenAIRE

    Bonardi, Vera; Cherkis, Karen; Nishimura, Marc T.; Dangl, Jeffery L.

    2012-01-01

    The nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs) represent the major class of intracellular innate immune receptors in plants and animals. Understanding their functions is a major challenge in immunology. This review highlights recent efforts toward elucidating NLR functions in human and plants. We compare unconventional aspects of NLR proteins across the two kingdoms. We review recent advances describing P-loop independent activation, nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking, oligome...

  17. A High-Speed Baseline Restorer for Neutron Flux Detection in ITER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宏睿; 李世平; 徐修峰; 袁国梁; 杨青巍; 阴泽杰

    2012-01-01

    A neutron flux monitor .(NFM) is a key diagnostic system in the International Ther- monuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), and may provide readings of a series of important parameters in fusion reaction processes. As a valuable part of the main electronics system of the NFM, the high-speed baseline restorer we designed is an important signal conversion plug-in which can restore the input signal baseline offset to a zero level, while keeping the output pulse signal waveform from the preamplifier basically unchanged.

  18. Comparison between summing-up algorithms to determine areas of small peaks on high baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Quanlin; Zhang, Jiamei; Chang, Yongfu; Qian, Shaojun

    2005-12-01

    It is found that the minimum detectable activity (MDA) has a same tendency as the relative standard deviation (RSD) and a particular application is characteristic of the ratio of the peak area to the baseline height. Different applications need different algorithms to reduce the RSD of peak areas or the MDA of potential peaks. A model of Gaussian peaks superposed on linear baselines is established to simulate the multichannel spectrum and summing-up algorithms such as total peak area (TPA), and Covell and Sterlinski are compared to find the most appropriate algorithm for different applications. The results show that optimal Covell and Sterlinski algorithms will yield MDA or RSD half lower than TPA when the areas of small peaks on high baselines are to be determined. The conclusion is proved by experiment.

  19. Structure and evolutionary history of a large family of NLR proteins in the zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kerstin; Schiffer, Philipp H; Zielinski, Julia; Wiehe, Thomas; Laird, Gavin K; Marioni, John C; Soylemez, Onuralp; Kondrashov, Fyodor; Leptin, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Multicellular eukaryotes have evolved a range of mechanisms for immune recognition. A widespread family involved in innate immunity are the NACHT-domain and leucine-rich-repeat-containing (NLR) proteins. Mammals have small numbers of NLR proteins, whereas in some species, mostly those without adaptive immune systems, NLRs have expanded into very large families. We describe a family of nearly 400 NLR proteins encoded in the zebrafish genome. The proteins share a defining overall structure, which arose in fishes after a fusion of the core NLR domains with a B30.2 domain, but can be subdivided into four groups based on their NACHT domains. Gene conversion acting differentially on the NACHT and B30.2 domains has shaped the family and created the groups. Evidence of positive selection in the B30.2 domain indicates that this domain rather than the leucine-rich repeats acts as the pathogen recognition module. In an unusual chromosomal organization, the majority of the genes are located on one chromosome arm, interspersed with other large multigene families, including a new family encoding zinc-finger proteins. The NLR-B30.2 proteins represent a new family with diversity in the specific recognition module that is present in fishes in spite of the parallel existence of an adaptive immune system. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. Restoring ecological integrity in highly regulated rivers: the role of baseline data and analytical references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Peter W; Singer, Maia S; Orr, Bruce K; Diggory, Zooey E; Church, Tamara C; Stella, J C

    2011-10-01

    The goal of restoring ecological integrity in rivers is frequently accompanied by an assumption that a comparative reference reach can be identified to represent minimally impaired conditions. However, in many regulated rivers, no credible historical, morphological or process-based reference reach exists. Resilient restoration designs should instead be framed around naturalization, using multiple analytical references derived from empirically-calibrated field- and model-based techniques to develop an integrated ecological reference condition. This requires baseline data which are rarely collected despite increasing evidence for systematic deficiencies in restoration practice. We illustrate the utility of baseline data collection in restoration planning for the highly fragmented and regulated lower Merced River, California, USA. The restoration design was developed using various baseline data surveys, monitoring, and modeling within an adaptive management framework. Baseline data assisted in transforming conceptual models of ecosystem function into specific restoration challenges, defining analytical references of the expected relationships among ecological parameters required for restoration, and specifying performance criteria for post-project monitoring and evaluation. In this way the study is an example of process-based morphological restoration designed to prompt recovery of ecosystem processes and resilience. For the Merced River, we illustrate that project-specific baseline data collection is a necessary precursor in developing performance-based restoration designs and addressing scale-related uncertainties, such as whether periodic gravel augmentation will sustain bed recovery and whether piecemeal efforts will improve ecological integrity. Given the numerous impediments to full, historical, restoration in many river systems, it seems apparent that projects of naturalization are a critical step in reducing the deleterious impacts of fragmented rivers

  1. The High Energy Neutrino Nuisance at a Medium Baseline Reactor Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ciuffoli, Emilio; Zhang, Xinmin

    2012-01-01

    10 years from now medium baseline reactor experiments will attempt to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy from the differences (RL+PV) between the extrema of the Fourier transformed neutrino spectra. Recently Qian et al. have claimed that this goal may be impeded by the strong dependence of the difference parameter RL+PV on the reactor neutrino flux and on slight variations of Delta M^2_32. We demonstrate that this effect results from a spurious dependence of the difference parameter on the very high energy (8+ MeV) tail of the reactor neutrino spectrum. This dependence is spurious because the high energy tail depends upon decays of exotic isotopes and is insensitive to the mass hierarchy. An energy-dependent weight in the Fourier transform not only eliminates this spurious dependence but in fact increases the chance of correctly determining the hierarchy.

  2. Structure and Function of the TIR Domain from the Grape NLR Protein RPV1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon J; Yin, Ling; Foley, Gabriel; Casey, Lachlan W; Outram, Megan A; Ericsson, Daniel J; Lu, Jiang; Boden, Mikael; Dry, Ian B; Kobe, Bostjan

    2016-01-01

    The N-terminal Toll/interleukin-1 receptor/resistance protein (TIR) domain has been shown to be both necessary and sufficient for defense signaling in the model plants flax and Arabidopsis. In examples from these organisms, TIR domain self-association is required for signaling function, albeit through distinct interfaces. Here, we investigate these properties in the TIR domain containing resistance protein RPV1 from the wild grapevine Muscadinia rotundifolia. The RPV1 TIR domain, without additional flanking sequence present, is autoactive when transiently expressed in tobacco, demonstrating that the TIR domain alone is capable of cell-death signaling. We determined the crystal structure of the RPV1 TIR domain at 2.3 Å resolution. In the crystals, the RPV1 TIR domain forms a dimer, mediated predominantly through residues in the αA and αE helices ("AE" interface). This interface is shared with the interface discovered in the dimeric complex of the TIR domains from the Arabidopsis RPS4/RRS1 resistance protein pair. We show that surface-exposed residues in the AE interface that mediate the dimer interaction in the crystals are highly conserved among plant TIR domain-containing proteins. While we were unable to demonstrate self-association of the RPV1 TIR domain in solution or using yeast 2-hybrid, mutations of surface-exposed residues in the AE interface prevent the cell-death autoactive phenotype. In addition, mutation of residues known to be important in the cell-death signaling function of the flax L6 TIR domain were also shown to be required for RPV1 TIR domain mediated cell-death. Our data demonstrate that multiple TIR domain surfaces control the cell-death function of the RPV1 TIR domain and we suggest that the conserved AE interface may have a general function in TIR-NLR signaling.

  3. Allelic diversity in an NLR gene BPH9 enables rice to combat planthopper variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Huang, Jin; Wang, Zhizheng; Jing, Shengli; Wang, Yang; Ouyang, Yidan; Cai, Baodong; Xin, Xiu-Fang; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Chunxiao; Pan, Yufang; Ma, Rui; Li, Qiaofeng; Jiang, Weihua; Zeng, Ya; Shangguan, Xinxin; Wang, Huiying; Du, Bo; Zhu, Lili; Xu, Xun; Feng, Yu-Qi; He, Sheng Yang; Chen, Rongzhi; Zhang, Qifa; He, Guangcun

    2016-10-24

    Brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål, is one of the most devastating insect pests of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Currently, 30 BPH-resistance genes have been genetically defined, most of which are clustered on specific chromosome regions. Here, we describe molecular cloning and characterization of a BPH-resistance gene, BPH9, mapped on the long arm of rice chromosome 12 (12L). BPH9 encodes a rare type of nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat (NLR)-containing protein that localizes to the endomembrane system and causes a cell death phenotype. BPH9 activates salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-signaling pathways in rice plants and confers both antixenosis and antibiosis to BPH. We further demonstrated that the eight BPH-resistance genes that are clustered on chromosome 12L, including the widely used BPH1, are allelic with each other. To honor the priority in the literature, we thus designated this locus as BPH1/9 These eight genes can be classified into four allelotypes, BPH1/9-1, -2, -7, and -9 These allelotypes confer varying levels of resistance to different biotypes of BPH. The coding region of BPH1/9 shows a high level of diversity in rice germplasm. Homologous fragments of the nucleotide-binding (NB) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains exist, which might have served as a repository for generating allele diversity. Our findings reveal a rice plant strategy for modifying the genetic information to gain the upper hand in the struggle against insect herbivores. Further exploration of natural allelic variation and artificial shuffling within this gene may allow breeding to be tailored to control emerging biotypes of BPH.

  4. High baseline activity in inferior temporal cortex improves neural and behavioral discriminability during visual categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazli eEmadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous firing is a ubiquitous property of neural activity in the brain. Recent literature suggests that this baseline activity plays a key role in perception. However, it is not known how the baseline activity contributes to neural coding and behavior. Here, by recording from the single neurons in the inferior temporal cortex of monkeys performing a visual categorization task, we thoroughly explored the relationship between baseline activity, the evoked response, and behavior. Specifically we found that a low-frequency (< 8 Hz oscillation in the spike train, prior and phase-locked to the stimulus onset, was correlated with increased gamma power and neuronal baseline activity. This enhancement of the baseline activity was then followed by an increase in the neural selectivity and the response reliability and eventually a higher behavioral performance.

  5. A high-capacity steganography scheme for JPEG2000 baseline system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Haili; Wu, Renbiao

    2009-08-01

    Hiding capacity is very important for efficient covert communications. For JPEG2000 compressed images, it is necessary to enlarge the hiding capacity because the available redundancy is very limited. In addition, the bitstream truncation makes it difficult to hide information. In this paper, a high-capacity steganography scheme is proposed for the JPEG2000 baseline system, which uses bit-plane encoding procedure twice to solve the problem due to bitstream truncation. Moreover, embedding points and their intensity are determined in a well defined quantitative manner via redundancy evaluation to increase hiding capacity. The redundancy is measured by bit, which is different from conventional methods which adjust the embedding intensity by multiplying a visual masking factor. High volumetric data is embedded into bit-planes as low as possible to keep message integrality, but at the cost of an extra bit-plane encoding procedure and slightly changed compression ratio. The proposed method can be easily integrated into the JPEG2000 image coder, and the produced stego-bitstream can be decoded normally. Simulation shows that the proposed method is feasible, effective, and secure.

  6. Baseline measures for net-proton distributions in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netrakanti, P. K.; Luo, X. F.; Mishra, D. K.; Mohanty, B.; Mohanty, A.; Xu, N.

    2016-03-01

    We report a systematic comparison of the recently measured cumulants of the net-proton distributions for 0-5% central Au + Au collisions in the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Collider facility to various kinds of possible baseline measures. These baseline measures correspond to an assumption that the proton and anti-proton distributions follow Poisson statistics, Binomial statistics, obtained from a transport model calculation and from a hadron resonance gas model. The higher order cumulant net-proton data for the center of mass energies (√{sNN}) of 19.6 and 27 GeV are observed to deviate from most of the baseline measures studied. The deviations are predominantly due to the difference in shape of the proton distributions between data and those obtained in the baseline measures. We also present a detailed study on the relevance of the independent production approach as a baseline for comparison with the measurements at various beam energies. Our studies point to the need of either more detailed baseline models for the experimental measurements or a description via QCD calculations in order to extract the exact physics process that leads to deviation of the data from the baselines presented.

  7. A First Baseline for the Magnets in the High Luminosity LHC Insertion Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Todesco, E; Ambrosio, G; Arduini, G; Cerutti, F; De Maria, R; Esposito, L; Fartoukh, S; Ferracin, P; Felice, H; Gupta, R; Kersevan, R; Mokhov, N; Nakamoto, T; Rakno, I; Rifflet, J M; Rossi, L; Sabbi, G L; Segreti, M; Toral, F; Xu, Q; Wanderer, P; van Weelderen, R

    2014-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project aims at accumulating 3000 fb-1 in the years 2023-2035, i.e. ten times more w.r.t. the nominal LHC performance expected for 2010- 2021. One key element to reach this challenging performance is a new insertion region to reduce the beam size in the interaction point by approximately a factor two. This requires larger aperture magnets in the region spanning from the interaction point to the matching section quadrupoles. This aperture has been fixed to 150 mm for the inner triplet quadrupoles in 2012. In this paper we give a first baseline of the interaction region. We discuss the main motivations that lead us to choose the technology, the combination of fields/gradients and lengths, the apertures, the quantity of superconductor, and the operational margin. Key elements are also the constraints given by the energy deposition in terms of heat load and radiation damage; we present the main features related to shielding and heat removal.

  8. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Status and Baseline Neurocognitive Performance in High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Christine M; Dean, Preston; LoGalbo, Anthony; Dougherty, Michael; Field, Melvin; Webbe, Frank M

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 136,000 concussions occur annually in American high school sports. Neuropsychological data indicate that children with preexisting cognitive difficulties, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), may have protracted recovery from concussion. ADHD, with an estimated prevalence of 11% in youth, may increase an athlete's vulnerability to sustaining sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI). The preponderance of evidence focusing on TBI and ADHD has derived from motor vehicle accidents rather than sports-related incidents. Thus, it is paramount to explore how ADHD may relate to injury in the sports concussion context, as well as to assess how ADHD may affect baseline neurocognitive testing. Adolescent athletes with ADHD (n = 256) demonstrated significantly reduced Verbal Memory, Visual Motor, and Impulse Control index scores compared with their peers without ADHD (n = 256). Athletes with ADHD were nearly twice as likely to have sustained a prior concussion (ADHD, 14.1%; non-ADHD, 7.8%). Knowledge regarding the unique neurocognitive profile of athletes with ADHD may enhance clinical management decisions.

  9. High Frequency Very Long Baseline Interferometry Observations of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Geoffrey Copeland

    Millimeter wavelength very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) provides an excellent tool for the investigation of compact synchrotron sources. The high angular resolution and the decline in synchrotron opacity and lifetime with decreasing wavelength give unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution in active galactic nuclei. We present here a description of the implementation of millimeter VLBI with the 9-element millimeter array at Hat Creek Radio Observatory. We emphasize the technical details of array phasing, calibration and observation. The Hat Creek array was used successfully in 5 VLBI experiments between 1995 and 1997. We tested the technique of total power correction for atmospheric phase fluctuations due to water vapor with two epochs of 3mm λ VLBI observations with the Hat Creek array and with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) Kitt Peak 12m antenna. We reduced the root-mean-square phase by as much as a factor of two and to as low as one radian. The limiting factor was the gain stability of the receivers. We present 7mm λ VLBI observations made with the NRAO Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of the compact, nonthermal radio source Sgr A*. We find that the image of Sgr A* is fully consistent with the hypothesis that it is a cyclo-synchrotron source powered by accretion onto a 106Msolar black hole and obscured by a screen of thermal electrons. We find no evidence for any asymmetric structure. We also present a two year study of the gamma-ray blazar 530 with multiple epochs of VLBI imaging at 3 mm, 7 mm, 1.3 cm and 3.6 cm λ. We incorporate flux density monitoring ranging from the radio band to positive correlation over 4 years between the millimeter and gamma-ray flux densities. We also find that a bright millimeter wavelength flare in early 1995 corresponded to the creation of a new parsec-scale jet component. We study the spectra and dynamical evolution of the jet. The jet component appears to decelerate from 7.6 ± 2.2c to 0.95 ± 0.16c

  10. An Offload NIC for NASA, NLR, and Grid Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awrach, James

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses distributed data management and access dynamically configurable high-speed access to data distributed and shared over wide-area high-speed network environments. An offload engine NIC (network interface card) is proposed that scales at nX10-Gbps increments through 100-Gbps full duplex. The Globus de facto standard was used in projects requiring secure, robust, high-speed bulk data transport. Novel extension mechanisms were derived that will combine these technologies for use by GridFTP, bandwidth management resources, and host CPU (central processing unit) acceleration. The result will be wire-rate encrypted Globus grid data transactions through offload for splintering, encryption, and compression. As the need for greater network bandwidth increases, there is an inherent need for faster CPUs. The best way to accelerate CPUs is through a network acceleration engine. Grid computing data transfers for the Globus tool set did not have wire-rate encryption or compression. Existing technology cannot keep pace with the greater bandwidths of backplane and network connections. Present offload engines with ports to Ethernet are 32 to 40 Gbps f-d at best. The best of ultra-high-speed offload engines use expensive ASICs (application specific integrated circuits) or NPUs (network processing units). The present state of the art also includes bonding and the use of multiple NICs that are also in the planning stages for future portability to ASICs and software to accommodate data rates at 100 Gbps. The remaining industry solutions are for carrier-grade equipment manufacturers, with costly line cards having multiples of 10-Gbps ports, or 100-Gbps ports such as CFP modules that interface to costly ASICs and related circuitry. All of the existing solutions vary in configuration based on requirements of the host, motherboard, or carriergrade equipment. The purpose of the innovation is to eliminate data bottlenecks within cluster, grid, and cloud computing systems

  11. High-temperature single-layer SQUID gradiometers with long baseline and parasitic effective area compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegrum, C.M.; Eulenburg, A.; Romans, E.J.; Carr, C.; Millar, A.J.; Donaldson, G.B. [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    First-order HTS SQUID gradiometers were fabricated on 30x10 mm{sup 2} bicrystal substrates. These devices have a baseline of 13 mm, intrinsic balance levels of {approx}1/700 and a typical gradient sensitivity at 1 kHz of 79 fT cm{sup -1}Hz{sup -1/2}. A two-SQUID coupling scheme is discussed that further enhances the device's ability to reject uniform fields. (author)

  12. The NLR protein, NLRX1, and its partner, TUFM, reduce type I interferon, and enhance autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Wen, Haitao; Ting, Jenny P Y

    2013-03-01

    The NLR (nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing) proteins serve as regulators of inflammatory signaling pathways. NLRX1, a mitochondria-localized NLR protein, has been previously shown to negatively regulate inflammatory cytokine production activated via the MAVS-DDX58 (RIG-I) pathway. The literature also indicates that DDX58 has a negative impact upon autophagy. Consistent with the inhibitory role of NLRX1 on DDX58, our recent study indicates a role of NLRX1 in augmenting virus-induced autophagy. This effect is through its interaction with another mitochondrial protein TUFM (Tu translation elongation factor, mitochondrial, also known as EF-TuMT, COXPD4, and P43). TUFM also reduces DDX58-activated cytokines but augments autophagy. Additionally it interacts with ATG12-ATG5-ATG16L1 to form a molecular complex that modulates autophagy. The work shows that both NLRX1 and TUFM work in concert to reduce cytokine response and augment autophagy.

  13. Regulatory role of acetylcholine receptor in muramyl dipeptide-induced activation of NLR2/RIP2 pathway in macrophages of mice%乙酰胆碱受体对胞壁酰二肽激活小鼠巨噬细胞NLR2/RIP2通路的调控作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥阳; 宋学敏; 王成夭; 李建国; 王焱林

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the regulatory role of acetylcholine receptor in muramyl dipeptide (MDP)-induced activation of Nod-like receptor 2/receptor-interacting protein 2 (2NLR2/RIP2) pathway in macrophages of mice.Methods RAW264.7 cells at the logarithmic growth phase were seeded in 12-well plates (density 1 × 106 cells/ml,2 ml/well),a total of 108 wells.The cells were randomly divided into 3 groups (n =36 each) using a random number table:control group (group C),MDP group (group M),and GTS-21 (a7nAChR specific agonist) group (group G).The cells were routinely cultured in group C.MDP with the final concentration of 10 μg/ml was added to the culture medium in group M.MDP with the final concentration of 10μg/ml and GTS21 with the final concentration of 50 μg/ml were added to the culture medium in group G.The cells were incubated for 24 h.At 1,6 and 24 h of incubation with MDP,12 wells were chosen and the cell suspension was obtained for measurement of NLR2 mRNA expression (by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR),RIP2 expression (by Western blot),and concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in the culture media (by ELISA).Results Compared with group C,the levels of NLR2 mRNA,RIP2,TNFα and HMGB1 were significantly increased at each time point in group M (P < 0.05).Compared with group M,the levels of NLR2 mRNA,RIP2,TNF-α and HMGB1 were significantly decreased at each time point in group G (P < 0.05).Conclusion Acetylcholine receptor can suppress MDP-induced transduction of NLR2/RIP2 pathway in macrophages of mice.%目的 评价乙酰胆碱受体对胞壁酰二肽(MDP)激活小鼠巨噬细胞Nod样受体2/受体相互作用蛋白2(NLR2/RIP2)通路的调控作用.方法 RAW264.7细胞长至对数生长期时,接种于12孔培养板(细胞密度1×106个/ml,2 ml/孔),108个培养孔.采用随机数字表法,将其分为3组(n=36),正常对照组(C组)常规培养;M组加入MDP,终浓度为10

  14. Scheme for generation of highly monochromatic X-rays from a baseline XFEL undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-01-01

    One goal of XFEL facilities is the production of narrow bandwidth X-ray radiation. The self-seeding scheme was proposed to obtain a bandwidth narrower than that achievable with conventional X-ray SASE FELs. A self-seeded FEL is composed of two undulators separated by a monochromator and an electron beam bypass that must compensate for the path delay of X-rays in the monochromator. This leads to a long bypass, with a length in the order of 40-60 m, which requires modifications of the baseline undulator configuration. As an attempt to get around this obstacle, together with a study of the self-seeding scheme for the European XFEL, here we propose a novel technique based on a pulse doubler concept. Using a crystal monochromator installed within a short magnetic chicane in the baseline undulator, it is possible to decrease the bandwidth of the radiation well beyond the XFEL design down to 10^(-5). The magnetic chicane can be installed without any perturbation of the XFEL focusing structure, and does not interfere...

  15. A genomic view of the NOD-like receptor family in teleost fish: Identification of a novel NLR subfamily in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, K.J.; Purcell, M.K.; Winton, J.R.; Hansen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Background. A large multigene family of NOD-like receptor (NLR) molecules have been described in mammals and implicated in immunity and apoptosis. Little information, however, exists concerning this gene family in non-mammalian taxa. This current study, therefore, provides an in-depth investigation of this gene family in lower vertebrates including extensive phylogenetic comparison of zebrafish NLRs with orthologs in tetrapods, and analysis of their tissue-specific expression. Results. Three distinct NLR subfamilies were identified by mining genome databases of various non-mammalian vertebrates; the first subfamily (NLR-A) resembles mammalian NODs, the second (NLR-B) resembles mammalian NALPs, while the third (NLR-C) appears to be unique to teleost fish. In zebrafish, NLR-A and NLR-B subfamilies contain five and six genes respectively. The third subfamily is large, containing several hundred NLR-C genes, many of which are predicted to encode a C-terminal B30.2 domain. This subfamily most likely evolved from a NOD3-like molecule. Gene predictions for zebrafish NLRs were verified using sequence derived from ESTs or direct sequencing of cDNA. Reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis confirmed expression of representative genes from each subfamily in selected tissues. Conclusion. Our findings confirm the presence of multiple NLR gene orthologs, which form a large multigene family in teleostei. Although the functional significance of the three major NLR subfamilies is unclear, we speculate that conservation and abundance of NLR molecules in all teleostei genomes, reflects an essential role in cellular control, apoptosis or immunity throughout bony fish. ?? 2008 Laing et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  16. A genomic view of the NOD-like receptor family in teleost fish: identification of a novel NLR subfamily in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winton James R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large multigene family of NOD-like receptor (NLR molecules have been described in mammals and implicated in immunity and apoptosis. Little information, however, exists concerning this gene family in non-mammalian taxa. This current study, therefore, provides an in-depth investigation of this gene family in lower vertebrates including extensive phylogenetic comparison of zebrafish NLRs with orthologs in tetrapods, and analysis of their tissue-specific expression. Results Three distinct NLR subfamilies were identified by mining genome databases of various non-mammalian vertebrates; the first subfamily (NLR-A resembles mammalian NODs, the second (NLR-B resembles mammalian NALPs, while the third (NLR-C appears to be unique to teleost fish. In zebrafish, NLR-A and NLR-B subfamilies contain five and six genes respectively. The third subfamily is large, containing several hundred NLR-C genes, many of which are predicted to encode a C-terminal B30.2 domain. This subfamily most likely evolved from a NOD3-like molecule. Gene predictions for zebrafish NLRs were verified using sequence derived from ESTs or direct sequencing of cDNA. Reverse-transcriptase (RT-PCR analysis confirmed expression of representative genes from each subfamily in selected tissues. Conclusion Our findings confirm the presence of multiple NLR gene orthologs, which form a large multigene family in teleostei. Although the functional significance of the three major NLR subfamilies is unclear, we speculate that conservation and abundance of NLR molecules in all teleostei genomes, reflects an essential role in cellular control, apoptosis or immunity throughout bony fish.

  17. Detecting Subsidence Along a High Speed Railway by Ultrashort Baseline TCP-InSAR with High Resolution Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, K. R.; Liu, G. X.; Yu, B.; Jia, H. G.; Ma, D. Y.; Wang, X. W.

    2013-10-01

    A High Speed Railway goes across Wuqing district of Tianjin, China. Historical studies showed that the land subsidence of this area was very serious, which would give rise to huge security risk to the high speed railway. For detecting the detailed subsidence related to the high speed railway, we use the multi-temporal InSAR (MT-InSAR) technique to extract regional scale subsidence of Wuqing district. Take it into consideration that Wuqing district is a suburban region with large area of low coherence farmland, we select the temporarily coherent point InSAR (TCP-InSAR) approach for MT-InSAR analysis. The TCP-InSAR is a potential approach for detecting land subsidence in low coherence areas as it can identify and analysis coherent points between just two images and can acquire a reliable solution without conventional phase unwrapping. This paper extended the TCP-InSAR with use of ultrashort spatial baseline (USB) interferograms. As thetopographic effects are negligible in the USB interferograms, an external digital elevation model (DEM) is no longer needed in interferometric processing, and the parameters needed to be estimated were simplified at the same time. With use of 17 TerraSAR-X (TSX) images acquired from 2009 to 2010 over Wuqing district, the annual subsidence rates along the high speed railway were derived by the USB-TCPInSAR approach. Two subsidence funnels were found at ShuangJie town and around Wuqing Station with subsidence rate of -17 ∼ -27 mm/year and -7 ∼ -17 mm/year, respectively. The subsidence rates derived by USB-TCPInSAR were compared with those derived by the conventional TCP-InSAR that uses an external DEM for differential interferometry. The mean and the standard deviation of the differences between two types of results at 370697 TCPs are -4.43 × 10-6 mm/year and ±1.4673 mm/year, respectively. Further comparison with the subsidence results mentioned in several other studies were made, which shows good consistencies. The results verify

  18. Baseline rationing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims......, there exist baselines (to be interpreted as objective entitlements, ideal targets, or past consumption) that might play an important role in the allocation process. The model we present is able to accommodate real-life rationing situations, ranging from resource allocation in the public health care sector...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...

  19. 虾夷马粪海胆NLR家族基因片段的克隆及表达特征分析%Cloning of partial sequence and expression of NLR family in sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亚东; 刘晓飞; 常亚青; 仇雪梅; 王秀利; 刘洋

    2014-01-01

    In this study, homologous cloning and semi-quantitative RT-PCR technologies were used to clone the fragments of NLR genes and to detect their expression patterns in tissues of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedi-us. The primers were designed according to the homology alignment of NLR genes from purple sea urchin S. purpu-ratus, and 9 fragment groups of NLR genes were obtained from the sea urchin, by sequencing of 10 clones for each group. Then bioinformatic analysis of these genes was conducted by the method of Blast, finding the diversity of cDNA sequences and amino acid sequences of these NLR genes. Also, the RNA was extracted from different tissues in the sea urchin, and the expression of NLR genes was analyzed by semi-quantitative PCR in different tissues of the sea urchin after reverse transcription. The results showed that 9 fragment groups of NLR genes were all ex-pressed in coelomocytes ( CL ) , membrana peristomialis ( WK ) , intestines ( GT ) , tube-feet ( GZ ) , and gonad ( GD) at a high level, the maximum in membrana peristomialis and gonad, indicating that NLR gene family plays an important role in the congenital immune system of the sea urchin, with different expression. The findings will provide the foundation for further study of NLR genes in the sea urchin.%采用同源克隆和半定量RT-PCR方法,对虾夷马粪海胆Strongylocentrotus intermedius NLR家族基因片段进行了克隆和组织表达特征分析。将紫球海胆S. purpuratus的9组NLR家族聚类的编码区序列进行比对后,根据保守区域设计引物扩增虾夷马粪海胆中相应的基因,通过测序获得了9组不同NLR聚类基因片段,每组各10个测序结果,通过基因序列及氨基酸序列比对分析,发现存在长度及序列结果上的差异,这说明每组NLR家族聚类都存在多个家族成员。同时选取虾夷马粪海胆的不同组织提取RNA,反转录后使用同样的引物进行半定量RT-PCR分析,结果表明, NLR基因在虾

  20. Understanding nlr in seyfert galaxies: numerical simulation of jet-cloud interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ferrari

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Observaciones recientes con el HST sugieren que la NLR de las galaxias Seyfert puede ser el resultado de la interacci on entre un chorro de plasma y un medio inhomog eneo. Con esta idea hacemos simulaciones num ericas de la colisi on de un chorro radiativo con una nube densa. Se utiliza un c odigo hidrodin amico con un tratamiento simple de los procesos radiativos, que permite estudiar los detalles de la hidrodin amica con una interpretaci on cualitativamente buena de los procesos de emisi on. Nuestros tres objetivos principales son (i reproducir en las simula- ciones las condiciones observadas, (ii deducir restricciones de los par ametros del chorro y (iii estudiar la capacidad del chorro para fotoionizar al medio circundante.

  1. Disentangling the NLR Structure in Mrk 573 with Integral Field Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Travis C.; Machuca, Camilo; Diniz, Marlon; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Kraemer, Steven; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Schmitt, Henrique R.; Baron, Fabien; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Straughn, Amber; Revalski, Mitchell; Pope, Crystal L.

    2017-01-01

    We present near-infrared emission-line kinematics of the Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 573 using the Near-Infrared Field Spectrograph (NIFS) at Gemini North. By obtaining 2D kinematic maps of the infrared ionized and molecular gas in the circumnuclear region of Mrk 573, we find that kinematics within and surrounding the spatially-resolved Narrow-Line Region (NLR) are largely due to a combination of both rotation and radiative, in situ acceleration of material originating in the host disk. From this analysis, we find that outflowing gas extends to distances less than 1 kpc, suggesting that outflows in this Seyfert galaxy may not be powerful enough to evacuate its entire bulge.

  2. Baseline correlates of insulin resistance in inner city high-BMI African-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Aarthi; Fitch, Mark D; Hudes, Mark L; Lustig, Robert H; Murray, Carolyn B; Ikeda, Joanne P; Fleming, Sharon E

    2008-09-01

    To characterize the influence of diet-, physical activity-, and self-esteem-related factors on insulin resistance in 8- 10-year-old African-American (AA) children with BMI greater than the 85th percentile who were screened to participate in a community-based type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevention trial. In 165 subjects, fasting glucose- and insulin-derived values for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) assessed insulin resistance. Body fatness was calculated following bioelectrical impedance analysis, and fitness was measured using laps from a 20-m shuttle run. Child questionnaires assessed physical activity, dietary habits, and self-esteem. Pubertal staging was assessed using serum levels of sex hormones. Parent questionnaires assessed family demographics, family health, and family food and physical activity habits. Girls had significantly higher percent body fat but similar anthropometric measures compared with boys, whereas boys spent more time in high-intensity activities than girls. Scores for self-perceived behavior were higher for girls than for boys; and girls desired a more slender body. Girls had significantly higher insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), compared with boys (P < 0.01). Adjusting for age, sex, pubertal stage, socioeconomic index (SE index), and family history of diabetes, multivariate regression analysis showed that children with higher waist circumference (WC) (P < 0.001) and lower Harter's scholastic competence (SC) scale (P = 0.044) had higher insulin resistance. WC and selected self-esteem parameters predicted insulin resistance in high-BMI AA children. The risk of T2DM may be reduced in these children by targeting these factors.

  3. Narrow-line seyfert 1 galaxies: the [O III] λ5007/Hβ ratio and photoionization models for the nlr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ardila Rodríguez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudiamos los per les opticos y las condiciones f sicas de la regi on de l neas estrechas (NLR de galaxias Seyfert 1 con l neas estrechas (NLS1s. Los resultados muestran que el ujo asociado a la componente estrecha de H puede ser un factor de hasta 10 veces mayor que el valor usualmente adoptado en la literatura. Como consecuencia, la raz on [O III] 5007/H oscila entre 1 hasta 5, en lugar del valor de 10 comunmente adoptado. Probamos modelos de fotoionizaci on que consideran una NLR compuesta de una combinaci on de nubes limitadas por materia y limitadas por radiaci on y mostramos que este escenario reproduce de forma satisfactoria las razones de l neas de emisi on observadas. Proponemos que las propiedades peculiares de la NLR en las NLS1s pueden ser explicadas por un continuo inclinado de tipo ley de potencia en la region EUV{Rayos-X blandos, con un ndice espectral

  4. Correlation of low levels of nitrite and high levels of fetal hemoglobin in patients with sickle cell disease at baseline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcielle Bruna Dias Elias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is a hemoglobinopathy characterized by hemolytic anemia, increased susceptibility to infections and recurrent vaso-occlusive crises that reduces the quality of life of sufferers. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation of the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, malonaldehyde and nitrite to fetal hemoglobin in patients with sickle cell disease not under treatment with hydroxyurea in outpatients at a university hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: Forty-four patients diagnosed with sickle cell disease were enrolled at baseline. Diagnosis was confirmed by evaluating the beta globin gene using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The concentration of fetal hemoglobin was obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum levels of nitrite, malonaldehyde and lactate dehydrogenase were measured by biochemical methods. RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase, nitrite and malonaldehyde were observed in patients with sickle cell disease compared to a control group. The study of the correlation between fetal hemoglobin levels and these variables showed a negative correlation with nitrite levels. No correlation was found between fetal hemoglobin and malonaldehyde or lactate dehydrogenase. When the study population was stratified according to fetal hemoglobin levels, a decrease in the levels of nitrite was observed with higher levels of fetal hemoglobin (p-value = 0.0415. CONCLUSION: The results show that, similar to fetal hemoglobin levels, the concentration of nitrite can predict the clinical course of the disease, but should not be used alone as a modulator of prognosis in patients with sickle cell disease.

  5. The Biophysical Characterisation and SAXS Analysis of Human NLRP1 Uncover a New Level of Complexity of NLR Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Luigi; Holland, Louise; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Kunzelmann, Simone; Esposito, Diego

    2016-01-01

    NOD-like receptors represent an important class of germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors that play key roles in the regulation of inflammatory signalling pathways. They function as danger sensors and initiate inflammatory responses and the production of cytokines. Since NLR malfunction results in chronic inflammation and auto-immune diseases, there is a great interest in understanding how they work on a molecular level. To date, a lot of insight into the biological functions of NLRs is available but biophysical and structural studies have been hampered by the difficulty to produce soluble and stable recombinant NLR proteins. NLRP1 is an inflammasome forming NLR that is believed to be activated by binding to MDP and induces activation of caspase 1. Here, we report the identification of a soluble fragment of NLRP1 that contains the NACHT oligomerization domain and the putative MDP-sensing LRR domain. We describe the biophysical and biochemical characterization of this construct and a SEC-SAXS analysis that allowed the calculation of a low resolution molecular envelope. Our data indicate that the protein is constitutively bound to ATP with a negligible ability to hydrolyse the triphosphate nucleotide and that it adopts a monomeric extended conformation that is reminiscent of the structure adopted by NLRC4 in the inflammasome complex. Furthermore, we show that the presence of MDP is not sufficient to promote self-oligomerization of the NACHT-LRR fragment suggesting that MDP may either bind to regions outside the NACHT-LRR module or that it may not be the natural ligand of NLRP1. Taken together, our data suggest that the NLRP1 mechanism of action differs from that recently reported for other NLRs. PMID:27727326

  6. Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients Commencing Biologic Therapy Have High Baseline Levels of Comorbidity: A Report from the Australian Rheumatology Association Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, John; Schachna, Lionel; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Staples, Margaret; Murphy, Bridie; Bond, Molly; Briggs, Andrew; Lassere, Marissa; March, Lyn

    2009-01-01

    Aims. To compare the baseline characteristics of a population-based cohort of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) commencing biological therapy to the reported characteristics of bDMARD randomised controlled trials (RCTs) participants. Methods. Descriptive analysis of AS participants in the Australian Rheumatology Association Database (ARAD) who were commencing bDMARD therapy. Results. Up to December 2008, 389 patients with AS were enrolled in ARAD. 354 (91.0%) had taken bDMARDs at some time, and 198 (55.9%) completed their entry questionnaire prior to or within 6 months of commencing bDMARDs. 131 (66.1%) had at least one comorbid condition, and 24 (6.8%) had a previous malignancy (15 nonmelanoma skin, 4 melanoma, 2 prostate, 1 breast, cervix, and bowel). Compared with RCT participants, ARAD participants were older, had longer disease duration and higher baseline disease activity. Conclusions. AS patients commencing bDMARDs in routine care are significantly different to RCT participants and have significant baseline comorbidities. PMID:20107564

  7. The upgraded PTB 600 m baseline: a high-accuracy reference for the calibration and the development of long distance measurement devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollinger, Florian; Meyer, Tobias; Beyer, Jens; Doloca, Nicolae R.; Schellin, Wolfgang; Niemeier, Wolfgang; Jokela, Jorma; Häkli, Pasi; Abou-Zeid, Ahmed; Meiners-Hagen, Karl

    2012-09-01

    The calibration and verification of high-precision electronic distance meters (EDMs) requires well-characterized and calibrated geodetic baselines. As the length measurements are performed typically over several hundred metres in air, a thorough understanding of the environmental conditions is necessary. In the course of a major refurbishment, the 600 m baseline of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at Braunschweig, Germany, was equipped with a dense environmental sensor network. This paper presents the characterization of this novel reference baseline, including the calibration of the inter-pillar distances, and identifies the major sources of uncertainty for such a length standard. A preliminary expanded standard uncertainty (k = 2) of U ( l ) _{k=2}=\\sqrt{( 6.2 \\times 10^{-4} \\: m )^2 + ( 7.6 \\times 10^{-7} \\, l )^2} is deduced for single-slope distance comparisons on the baseline. In the course of a full calibration, the additive constant cEDM of an EDM can currently be determined with an expanded uncertainty of U(cEDM)k = 2 = 6.1 × 10-5 m, and its scale correction sEDM with an expanded uncertainty of U(sEDM)k = 2 = 8.2 × 10-7. As an example, a femtosecond laser-based distance measurement over 600 m on this baseline is presented.

  8. Leptospira Interrogans induces fibrosis in the mouse kidney through Inos-dependent, TLR- and NLR-independent signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Fanton d'Andon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospira (L. interrogans are bacteria responsible for a worldwide reemerging zoonosis. Rodents carry L. interrogans asymptomatically in their kidneys and excrete bacteria in the urine, contaminating the environment. Humans get infected through skin contact and develop a mild or severe leptospirosis that may lead to renal failure and fibrosis. L. interrogans provoke an interstitial nephritis, but the induction of fibrosis caused by L. interrogans has not been studied in murine models. Innate immune receptors from the TLR and NLR families have recently been shown to play a role in the development and progression of tissue fibrosis in the lung, liver and kidneys under different pathophysiological situations. We recently showed that TLR2, TLR4, and NLRP3 receptors were crucial in the defense against leptospirosis. Moreover, infection of a human cell line with L. interrogans was shown to induce TLR2-dependent production of fibronectin, a component of the extracellular matrix. Therefore, we thought to assess the presence of renal fibrosis in L. interrogans infected mice and to analyze the contribution of some innate immune pathways in this process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we characterized by immunohistochemical studies and quantitative real-time PCR, a model of Leptospira-infected C57BL/6J mice, with chronic carriage of L. interrogans inducing mild renal fibrosis. Using various strains of transgenic mice, we determined that the renal infiltrates of T cells and, unexpectedly, TLR and NLR receptors, are not required to generate Leptospira-induced renal fibrosis. We also show that the iNOS enzyme, known to play a role in Leptospira-induced interstitial nephritis, also plays a role in the induction of renal fibrosis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this work provides the first experimental murine model of sustained renal fibrosis induced by a chronic bacterial infection that may be peculiar, since it does not rely on

  9. Values of TTV, NLR, and HBV-DNA in predicting tumor recurrence on patients with HCC after cura-tive hepatectomy%术前TTV、NLR及HBV-DNA定量对预测肝癌术后复发的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁琳; 万磊; 陈佳佳; 刘建军; 阚和平; 谭永法

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the values of total tumor volume (TTV), preoperative peripheral blood neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR),and hepatitis B virus (HBV-DNA) level in predicting the tumor recurrence of patients with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative hepatectomy. Methods Clinical data of 180 patients with HBV-related HCC who underwent curative hepatectomy were retrospective-ly analyzed. All patients were followed up after hepatectomy, and their tumor recurrence and survival time were recorded. TTV and NLR were calculated according to the clinical data. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of TTV and NLR for predicting tumor recurrence were plotted, and the cut-off values were de-fined,respectively. The cut-off value of HBV-DNA for predicting tumor recurrence after hepatectomy was defined at 1,000 ng/mL in advance. The patients were divided into low TTV group and high TTV group, low NLR group and high NLR group, low HBV-DNA group and high HBV-DNA group respectively according to the cut-off values of TTV, NLR, and HBV-DNA. The differences of disease-free survival and cumulative survival rates between groups were compared with survival analysis. Clinical data were included as the factors influencing patients′disease-free survival rates by Cox proportional-hazards regression model. Survival anal-ysis was conducted using Kaplan-Meier method and Log-rank test. Survival prognosis was analyzed using Cox′s proportional-hazard model. Results When the cut-off value of TTV was defined at 183.59 cm3, the sensitivity was 0.492, and specificity was 0.964. When the cut-off value of NLR for predicting tumor recur-rence after operation was defined at 2.215, the sensitivity was 0.637, and specificity was 0.679. The 1,2,3-year disease-free survival and cumulative survival rates in low TTV group, low NLR group, and low HBV-DNA group were higher than those in high TTV group, high NLR group, and high HBV-DNA group respectively. The differences

  10. Increased Risk of Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Male Subjects with High Baseline Waist-to-Height Ratio: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyung Geun; Nallamshetty, Shriram; Rhee, Eun Jung

    2016-02-01

    The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is an easy and inexpensive adiposity index that reflects central obesity. In this study, we examined the association of baseline WHtR and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) over 4 years of follow-up in apparently healthy Korean men. A total of 1,048 male participants (mean age, 40.9 years) in a health-screening program in Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea who repeated a medical check-up in 2010 and 2014 were recruited. Baseline WHtR was calculated using the value for the waist in 2010 divided by the value for height in 2010. The CAC score (CACS) of each subject was measured by multi-detector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years greater than 0. During the follow-up period, progression of CAC occurred in 278 subjects (26.5%). The subjects with CAC progression had slightly higher but significant baseline WHtR compared to those who did not show CAC progression (0.51±0.04 vs. 0.50±0.04, P<0.01). The proportion of subjects with CAC progression significantly increased as the baseline WHtR increased from the 1st quartile to 4th quartile groups (18.3%, 18.7%, 28.8%, and 34.2%; P<0.01). The risk for CAC progression was elevated with an odds ratio of 1.602 in the 4th quartile group of baseline WHtR even after adjustment for confounding variables (95% confidence interval, 1.040 to 2.466). Increased baseline WHtR was associated with increased risk for CAC progression. WHtR might be a useful screening tool to identify individuals at high risk for subclinical atherosclerosis.

  11. Maize homologs of CCoAOMT and HCT, two key enzymes in lignin biosynthesis, form complexes with the NLR Rp1 protein to modulate the defense response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease resistance (R) genes encode nucleotide binding leucine-rich-repeat (NLR) proteins that confer resistance to specific pathogens. Upon pathogen recognition they trigger a defense response that usually includes a so-called hypersensitive response (HR), a rapid localized cell death at the site o...

  12. A lower baseline glomerular filtration rate predicts high mortality and newly cerebrovascular accidents in acute ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kai; Huang, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Zhipeng; Ding, Jianping; Song, Haiqing

    2017-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is gradually recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and cardio-/cerebrovascular disease. This study aimed to examine the association of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and clinical outcomes at 3 months after the onset of ischemic stroke in a hospitalized Chinese population.Totally, 972 patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled into this study. Modified of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations were used to calculate eGFR and define CKD. The site and degree of the stenosis were examined. Patients were followed-up for 3 months. Endpoint events included all-cause death and newly ischemic events. The multivariate logistic model was used to determine the association between renal dysfunction and patients' outcomes.Of all patients, 130 patients (13.4%) had reduced eGFR (stroke patients. A low baseline eGFR was also a strong independent predictor for newly ischemic events in ICAS patients.

  13. Baseline HbA1c to Identify High-Risk Gestational Diabetes: Utility in Early vs Standard Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Arianne N; Ross, Glynis P; Hyett, Jon; Molyneaux, Lynda; Tan, Kris; Constantino, Maria; Harding, Anna Jane; Wong, Jencia

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) necessitates risk stratification directing limited antenatal resources to those at greatest risk. Recent evidence demonstrates that an early pregnancy glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ≥5.9% (41 mmol/mol) predicts adverse pregnancy outcomes. To determine the optimal HbA1c threshold for adverse pregnancy outcomes in GDM in a treated multiethnic cohort and whether this differs in women diagnosed 5.9% (41 mmol/mol) was associated with the greatest risk of large-for-gestational-age (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 2.7 [1.5-4.9]), macrosomia (3.5 [1.4-8.6]), cesarean section (3.6 [2.1-6.2]), and hypertensive disorders (2.6 [1.1-5.8]). In early GDM, similar HbA1c associations were seen; however, lower HbA1c correlated with the greatest risk of small-for-gestational-age (P trend = 0.004) and prevalence of neonatal hypoglycemia. Baseline HbA1c >5.9% (41 mmol/mol) identifies an increased risk of large-for-gestational-age, macrosomia, cesarean section, and hypertensive disorders in standard GDM. Although similar associations are seen in early GDM, higher HbA1c levels do not adequately capture risk-limiting utility as a triage tool in this cohort.

  14. Increased risk of coronary artery calcification progression in subjects with high baseline Lp(a) levels: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung Hwan; Lee, Da Young; Lee, Eun Seo; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-11-01

    Results from previous studies support the association of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels and coronary artery disease risk. In this study, we analyzed the association between baseline Lp(a) levels and future progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. A total of 2611 participants (mean age: 41years, 92% mend) who underwent a routine health check-up in 2010 and 2014 were enrolled. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) were measured by multi-detector computed tomography. Baseline Lp(a) was measured by high-sensitivity immunoturbidimetric assay. Progression of CAC was defined as a change in CACS >0 over four years. Bivariate correlation analyses with baseline Lp(a) and other metabolic parameters revealed age, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C and CACS to have a significant positive correlation, while body weight, fasting glucose level, blood pressure and triglyceride level were negatively correlated with baseline Lp(a) level. After four years of follow-up, 635 subjects (24.3%) had CAC progression. The participants who had CAC progression were older, composed of more men, more obese, and had higher fasting glucose levels and worse baseline lipid profiles compared to those who did not have CAC progression. The mean serum Lp(a) level was significantly higher in subjects who had CAC progression compared to those who did not (32.5 vs. 28.9mg/dL, p<0.01). When the risk for CAC progression according to baseline Lp(a) was calculated, those with Lp(a) level≥50mg/dL had an odds ratio of 1.333 (95% CI 1.027-1.730) for CAC progression compared to those with Lp(a)<50mg/dL after adjusting for confounding factors. In this study, the subjects who had higher Lp(a) were at significantly higher risk for CAC progression after four years of follow-up, suggesting the role of high Lp(a) in CAC progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of baseline HIV-1 DNA level in highly-experienced patients receiving raltegravir, etravirine and darunavir/ritonavir regimen (ANRS139 TRIO trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Charpentier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the ANRS 139 TRIO trial, the use of 3 new active drugs (raltegravir, etravirine, and darunavir/ritonavir, resulted in a potent and sustained inhibition of viral replication in multidrug-resistant treatment-experienced patients. The aim of this virological sub-study of the ANRS 139 TRIO trial was to assess: (i the evolution of HIV-1 DNA over the first year; and (ii the association between baseline HIV-1 DNA and virological outcome. METHODS: Among the 103 HIV-1-infected patients included in the ANRS-139 TRIO trial, HIV-1 DNA specimens were available for 92, 84, 88, and 83 patients at Week (W0, W12, W24, and W48, respectively. Quantification of total HIV-1 DNA was performed by using the commercial kit "Generic HIV DNA Cell" (Biocentric, Bandol, France. RESULTS: Baseline median HIV-1 DNA of patients displaying virological success (n= 61, viral blip (n= 20, and virological failure (n = 11 were 2.34 log(10 copies/10(6 PBMC (IQR= 2.15-2.66, 2.42 (IQR = 2.12-2.48, and 2.68 (IQR= 2.46-2.83, respectively. Although not statistically significant, patients exhibiting virological success or viral blip had a tendency to display lower baseline HIV-1 DNA than patients experiencing virological failure (P = 0.06. Median decrease of HIV-1 DNA between baseline and W48 was -0.13 log(10 copies/10(6 PBMC (IQR = -0.34 to +0.10, mainly explained by the evolution from W0 to W4. No more changes were observed in the W4-W48 period. CONCLUSIONS: In highly-experienced multidrug-resistant patients, HIV-1 DNA slightly decreased during the first month and then remained stable during the first year of highly potent antiretroviral regimen. In this population, baseline HIV-1 DNA might help to better predict the virological response and to tailor clinical therapeutic management as more aggressive therapeutic choices in patients with higher baseline HIV-1 DNA.

  16. High (≥6.5 Spontaneous and Persistent Urinary pH Is Protective of Renal Function at Baseline and during Disease Course in Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Bazzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic acidosis correction in advanced renal failure slows renal function decline attributed to tubulointerstitial damage (TID reduction. No study evaluated if spontaneous baseline high urinary pH (UpH is renoprotective in patients with normal renal function and without metabolic acidosis. The study tested this hypothesis in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN. Eighty-five patients (follow-up 81 ± 54 months measured UpH, serum creatinine, eGFR, protein/creatinine ratio, fractional excretion of albumin, IgG, α1-microglobulin, and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (β-NAG/creatinine ratio. Twenty-eight patients (33% had UpH ≥ 6.5 and 57 (67% pH < 6.5; high versus low UpH patients had significantly lower values of the tubulointerstitial damage (TID markers FE α1m and β-NAG and significantly better baseline renal function. These differences persisted over time in a subset of 38 patients with 5 measurements along 53 ± 26 months. In 29 patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS treated with supportive therapy (follow-up: 80 ± 52 months renal function was stable in 10 high and significantly worse in 19 low UpH patients. Steroids + cyclophosphamide treatment in 35 NS patients masks the renoprotection of high UpH. Conclusions. In IMN high and persistent UpH is associated with reduction of the proteinuric markers of tubulointerstitial damage and baseline better renal function in all patients and in NS patients treated only with supportive therapy during disease course. The factors associated with high pH-dependent renoprotection were lower values of TID markers, eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min, BP < 140/90 mmHg, and age < 55 years.

  17. High (≥6.5) Spontaneous and Persistent Urinary pH Is Protective of Renal Function at Baseline and during Disease Course in Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Claudio; Tagliabue, Elena; Raimondi, Sara; Rizza, Virginia; Casellato, Daniela; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis correction in advanced renal failure slows renal function decline attributed to tubulointerstitial damage (TID) reduction. No study evaluated if spontaneous baseline high urinary pH (UpH) is renoprotective in patients with normal renal function and without metabolic acidosis. The study tested this hypothesis in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). Eighty-five patients (follow-up 81 ± 54 months) measured UpH, serum creatinine, eGFR, protein/creatinine ratio, fractional excretion of albumin, IgG, α1-microglobulin, and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (β-NAG)/creatinine ratio. Twenty-eight patients (33%) had UpH ≥ 6.5 and 57 (67%) pH UpH patients had significantly lower values of the tubulointerstitial damage (TID) markers FE α1m and β-NAG and significantly better baseline renal function. These differences persisted over time in a subset of 38 patients with 5 measurements along 53 ± 26 months. In 29 patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS) treated with supportive therapy (follow-up: 80 ± 52 months) renal function was stable in 10 high and significantly worse in 19 low UpH patients. Steroids + cyclophosphamide treatment in 35 NS patients masks the renoprotection of high UpH. Conclusions. In IMN high and persistent UpH is associated with reduction of the proteinuric markers of tubulointerstitial damage and baseline better renal function in all patients and in NS patients treated only with supportive therapy during disease course. The factors associated with high pH-dependent renoprotection were lower values of TID markers, eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min, BP < 140/90 mmHg, and age < 55 years.

  18. High pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio predicts recurrence and poor prognosis for combined small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, N; Cai, Q

    2015-10-01

    Compared to pure small cell lung cancer (SCLC), combined small cell lung cancer (C-SCLC) has its own characteristics. High neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been shown to be related to poor prognosis in several types of tumors. The aim of this study was to explore the prognosis value of NLR and PLR in patients with C-SCLC. A total of 112 patients diagnosed with C-SCLC between January 2000 and March 2009 were enrolled in the study. The clinicopathological parameters, laboratory analyses, and survival time were collected and analyzed. The correlation between NLR, PLR, and clinicopathological characters was analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate the prognostic significance of these parameters for C-SCLC. The pretreatment NLR was elevated in 37.5 % patients (NLR ≥ 4.15; n = 42; H-NLR). NLR was significantly related to disease stage (p = 0.033) and tumor recurrence (p = 0.014). The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were significantly worse in the H-NLR group (OS: 22.0 months vs 11.7 months, p = 0.001; PFS: 11.1 vs 6.0 months, p recurrence and predicts a poor long-term prognosis for C-SCLC, which should be considered in defining the prognosis with other well-known prognosticators in C-SCLC patients.

  19. School-Based Exercise to Lower Blood Pressure in High-Risk African American Girls: Project Design and Baseline Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, Craig K.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes effective methods for identifying and recruiting high risk African American ninth-grade girls to measure their fitness and assess the impact of fitness training on blood pressure. A multistage step test for fitness assessment in such girls is presented. The "Project Heart" aerobics class and control groups are described. (SM)

  20. High effort, low reward, and cardiovascular risk factors in employed Swedish men and women: baseline results from the WOLF Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, R; Alfredsson, L; Hammar, N; Siegrist, J; Theorell, T; Westerholm, P

    1998-09-01

    To examine associations between measures of work stress (that is, the combination of high effort and low reward) and cardiovascular risk factors. Cross sectional first screening of a prospective cohort study. The study was conducted among 5720 healthy employed men and women living in the greater Stockholm area aged 19-70 years. All analyses were restricted to subjects with complete data (n = 4958). The investigation of associations between indicators of effort-reward imbalance and cardiovascular risk factors was restricted to the age group 30-55 years (n = 3427). Subjects reporting high effort and low reward at work had a higher prevalence of well known risk factors for coronary heart disease. After adjustment for relevant confounders, associations between a measure of extrinsic effort and reward (the effort-reward ratio) and hypertension (multivariate prevalence odds ratio (POR) 1.62-1.68), increased total cholesterol (upper tertile 220 mg/dl)(POR = 1.24) and the total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein(HDL)-cholesterol ratio (upper tertile 4.61)(POR 1.26-1.30) were found among men. Among women a measure of high intrinsic effort (immersion) was related to increased low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (upper tertile 130 mg/dl)(POR 1.37-1.39). Analyses of variance showed increasing mean values of LDL cholesterol with an increasing degree of the effort-reward ratio among men and increased LDL-cholesterol among women with high levels of intrinsic effort (upper tertile of immersion). Findings lend support to the hypothesis that effort-reward imbalance represents a specific constellation of stressful experience at work related to cardiovascular risk. The relation was not explained by relevant confounders (for example, lack of physical exercise, body weight, cigarette smoking).

  1. The NOvA Data Acquistion System: A highly distributed, synchronized, continuous readout system for a long baseline neutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The NOvA experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Lab, has been designed and optimized to perform a suite of measurements critical to our understanding of the neutrino’s properties, their oscillations and their interactions. NOvA presents a unique set of data acquisition and computing challenges due to the immense size of the detectors, the data volumes that are generated through the continuous digitization of the frontend systems, and the need to buffer the full data stream to allow for highly asynchronous triggering and extraction of physics events. These challenges are compounded by the stringent timing and synchronization requirements that are placed on the acquisition systems by the need to precisely correlate information between the accelerator complex and the remote detector locations. The NOvA Data Acquisition system has been designed and built to meets these challenges. The system utilizes a highly modular, novel acquisition and event building scheme, which has been deployed on a large hierarch...

  2. La conexión rayos-X -- óptico en la NLR de la galaxia Mrk 573. Mecanismos de ionización.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaldi, V.; Guainazzi, M.; Feinstein, C.; Combi, J. A.

    We analyze the ionizing mechanisms for the narrow-line region (NLR) of Mrk 573. The alignment of radio, optical and X-ray features suggest that some interaction may be taking place in this region. We investigate if the optical and X-ray emission are being generated in shock waves triggered by the interaction between the radio jet and the intergalactic medium. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  3. LEADER-4: blood pressure control in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk: baseline data from the LEADER randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, John R; Marso, Steven P; Bain, Stephen C; Franek, Edward; Jacob, Stephan; Masmiquel, Luis; Leiter, Lawrence A; Haluzik, Martin; Satman, Ilhan; Omar, Mohamed; Shestakova, Marina; Van Gaal, Luc; Mann, Johannes F; Baeres, Florian M M; Zinman, Bernard; Poulter, Neil R

    2016-06-01

    As glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists lower blood pressure (BP) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we examined BP control in relation to targets set by international bodies prior to randomization in the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of cardiovascular outcome Results (LEADER) trial. We analyzed baseline data from LEADER (NCT01179048), an ongoing phase 3B, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cardiovascular outcomes trial examining the cardiovascular safety of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in 9340 people with T2DM from 32 countries [age (all mean ± SD) 64 ± 7.2 years, BMI 32.5 ± 6.3 kg/m, duration of diabetes 12.7 ± 8.0 years], all of whom were at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). A total of 81% (n = 7592) of participants had prior CVD and 90% (n = 8408) had a prior history of hypertension. Despite prescription of multiple antihypertensive agents at baseline, only 51% were treated to a target BP of less than 140/85 mmHg and only 26% to the recommended baseline BP target of less than 130/80 mmHg. In univariate analyses, those with prior CVD were prescribed more agents (P high cardiovascular risk, particularly outside North America. Longitudinal data from the LEADER trial may provide further insights into BP control in relation to cardiovascular outcomes in this condition.

  4. Nanocarriers for DNA Vaccines: Co-Delivery of TLR-9 and NLR-2 Ligands Leads to Synergistic Enhancement of Proinflammatory Cytokine Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Poecheim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvants enhance immunogenicity of vaccines through either targeted antigen delivery or stimulation of immune receptors. Three cationic nanoparticle formulations were evaluated for their potential as carriers for a DNA vaccine, and muramyl dipeptide (MDP as immunostimulatory agent, to induce and increase immunogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen encoding plasmid DNA (pDNA. The formulations included (1 trimethyl chitosan (TMC nanoparticles, (2 a squalene-in-water nanoemulsion, and (3 a mineral oil-in-water nanoemulsion. The adjuvant effect of the pDNA-nanocomplexes was evaluated by serum antibody analysis in immunized mice. All three carriers display a strong adjuvant effect, however, only TMC nanoparticles were capable to bias immune responses towards Th1. pDNA naturally contains immunostimulatory unmethylated CpG motifs that are recognized by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9. In mechanistic in vitro studies, activation of TLR-9 and the ability to enhance immunogenicity by simultaneously targeting TLR-9 and NOD-like receptor 2 (NLR-2 was determined by proinflammatory cytokine release in RAW264.7 macrophages. pDNA in combination with MDP was shown to significantly increase proinflammatory cytokine release in a synergistic manner, dependent on NLR-2 activation. In summary, novel pDNA-Ag85A loaded nanoparticle formulations, which induce antigen specific immune responses in mice were developed, taking advantage of the synergistic combinations of TLR and NLR agonists to increase the adjuvanticity of the carriers used.

  5. A truncated NLR protein, TIR-NBS2, is required for activated defense responses in the exo70B1 mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During exocytosis, the evolutionarily conserved exocyst complex tethers Golgi-derived vesicles to the target plasma membrane, a critical function for secretory pathways. Here we show that exo70B1 loss-of-function mutants express activated defense responses upon infection and express enhanced resistance to fungal, oomycete and bacterial pathogens. In a screen for mutants that suppress exo70B1 resistance, we identified nine alleles of TIR-NBS2 (TN2, suggesting that loss-of-function of EXO70B1 leads to activation of this nucleotide binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing (NLR-like disease resistance protein. This NLR-like protein is atypical because it lacks the LRR domain common in typical NLR receptors. In addition, we show that TN2 interacts with EXO70B1 in yeast and in planta. Our study thus provides a link between the exocyst complex and the function of a 'TIR-NBS only' immune receptor like protein. Our data are consistent with a speculative model wherein pathogen effectors could evolve to target EXO70B1 to manipulate plant secretion machinery. TN2 could monitor EXO70B1 integrity as part of an immune receptor complex.

  6. Baseline climatology of extremely high vertical wind shears' values over Europe based on ERA-Interim reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palarz, Angelika; Celiński-Mysław, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    The dominant role in the development of deep convection is played by kinematic and thermodynamic conditions, as well as atmospheric circulation, land cover and local relief. Severe thunderstorms are considerably more likely to form in environments with large values of convective available potential energy (CAPE) and significant magnitude of vertical wind shears (VWSs). According to the most recent research, the tropospheric wind shears have an important influence on intensity, longevity and organisation of the primary convective systems - bow echoes, squall lines and supercell thunderstorms. This study, in turn, examines the role of wind structure in controlling the spatial and temporal variability of VWSs over Europe. Considering the importance of the kinematic conditions for the convective systems formation, research is limited exclusively to 0-1 km, 0-3 km and 0-6 km wind shears. In order to compute the VWS' values, the data derived from ERA-Interim reanalysis for the period 1981-2015 was applied. It consisted of U and V wind components with 12-hourly sampling and horizontal resolution of 0.75×0.75°. The VWS' values were calculated as wind difference between two levels - this entails that the hodograph's shape was not considered (e.g. Clark 2013, Pucik et. al 2015). We have analysed both VWS' mean values (MN) and frequency of VWSs exceeding assumed thresholds (FQ). Taking into account previous studies (e.g. Rasmussen & Blanchard 1998, Schneider et al. 2006, Schaumann & Przybylinski 2012), the thresholds for extremely high values of vertical wind shears were set at 10 m/s for 0-1 km shear, 15 m/s for 0-3 km shear and 18 m/s for 0-6 km shear. Both MN and FQ values were characterised by strong temporal variability, as well as significant spatial differentiation over the research area. A clear diurnal cycle was identified in the case of 0-1 km shear, while seasonal variability was typical for 0-3 km and 0-6 km shears. Regardless of the season, 0-1 km shear reached

  7. Implementation of high precision optical and radiometric LRO tracking data in the orbit determination to supplement the baseline S-band tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, D.; Torrence, M. H.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2016-12-01

    LRO has been in a polar lunar orbit for 7 year since it was launched in June 2009. Seven instruments are onboard LRO to perform a global and detailed geophysical, geological and geochemical mapping of the Moon, some of which have very high spatial resolution. To take full advantage of the high resolution LRO datasets from these instruments, the spacecraft orbit must be reconstructed precisely. The baseline LRO tracking was the NASA's White Sands station in New Mexico and a commercial network, the Universal Space Network (USN), providing up to 20 hours per day of almost continuous S-band radio frequency link to LRO. The USN stations produce S-band range data with a 0.4 m precision and Doppler data with a 0.8 mm/s precision. Using the S-band tracking data together with the high-resolution gravity field model from the GRAIL mission, definitive LRO orbit solutions are obtained with an accuracy of 10 m in total position and 0.5 m radially. Confirmed by the 0.50-m high-resolution NAC images from the LROC team, these orbits well represent the LRO orbit "truth". In addition to the S-band data, one-way Laser Ranging (LR) to LRO provides a unique LRO optical tracking dataset over 5 years, from June 2009 to September 2014. Ten international satellite laser ranging stations contributed over 4000 hours LR data with the 0.05 - 0.10 m normal point precision. Another set of high precision LRO tracking data is provided by the Deep Space Network (DSN), which produces radiometric tracking data more precise than the USN S-band data. In the last two years of the LRO mission, the temporal coverage of the USN data has decreased significantly. We show that LR and DSN data can be a good supplement to the baseline tracking data for the orbit reconstruction.

  8. Fusion of space-borne multi-baseline and multi-frequency interferometric results based on extended Kalman filter to generate high quality DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Zeng, Qiming; Jiao, Jian; Zhang, Jingfa

    2016-01-01

    Repeat-pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a technique that can be used to generate DEMs. But the accuracy of InSAR is greatly limited by geometrical distortions, atmospheric effect, and decorrelations, particularly in mountainous areas, such as western China where no high quality DEM has so far been accomplished. Since each of InSAR DEMs generated using data of different frequencies and baselines has their own advantages and disadvantages, it is therefore very potential to overcome some of the limitations of InSAR by fusing Multi-baseline and Multi-frequency Interferometric Results (MMIRs). This paper proposed a fusion method based on Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), which takes the InSAR-derived DEMs as states in prediction step and the flattened interferograms as observations in control step to generate the final fused DEM. Before the fusion, detection of layover and shadow regions, low-coherence regions and regions with large height error is carried out because MMIRs in these regions are believed to be unreliable and thereafter are excluded. The whole processing flow is tested with TerraSAR-X and Envisat ASAR datasets. Finally, the fused DEM is validated with ASTER GDEM and national standard DEM of China. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective even in low coherence areas.

  9. The combination of amlodipine and angiotensin receptor blocker or diuretics in high-risk hypertensive patients: rationale, design and baseline characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Ma, L; Zhang, Y; Deng, Q; Liu, M; Liu, L

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese Hypertension Intervention Efficacy Study (CHIEF) is a multi-centre randomized controlled clinical trial comparing the effects of amlodipine+angiotensin II receptor blocker and amlodipine+diuretics on the incidence of cardiovascular events, represented as a composite of non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death events in high-risk Chinese hypertensive patients. The study also evaluates the long-term effects of lipid-lowering treatment and lifestyle modification. From October 2007 to October 2008, 13 542 patients were enrolled into the study in 180 centres in China. Patients will be followed up for 4 years. There was no difference in baseline characteristics between the two blood pressure arms. PMID:20445570

  10. The compact radio structure of the high-redshift quasar OQ172

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Jiang, D. R.; Gu, M.; Gurvits, L. I.

    2016-02-01

    The GHz-Peaked Spectrum (GPS) quasar OQ172 (J1445+0958) has an extremely high rest-frame rotation measure (RM > 20 000 rad m-2) and an RM gradient in its inner nucleus. Its jet observed with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is strongly bent along an arc spanning > 100 pc. Near infrared (NIR) spectra reveal an unusually large [O III] line width which suggests a large mass within the NLR and/or strong interactions between the emerging jet and the dense material therein. We present our VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP) and Multi-frequency Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observation of the GPS quasar OQ172. The observations will help us to explore the VLBI radio properties and to better understand the circumnuclear environment of OQ172.

  11. HIRENASD NLR grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Structured multiblock grid of HIRENASD wing with medium grid density, about 10 mill grid points, 9.5 mill cells. Starting from coarse AIAA AEPW structured grid,...

  12. High Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Cardiovascular Mortality in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ruifang

    2017-01-01

    The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a novel simple biomarker of inflammation. It has emerged as a predictor of poor prognosis in cancer and cardiovascular disease in general population. But little was known of its prognostic value in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Here we investigated the association between NLR and cardiovascular risk markers, including increased pulse pressure (PP), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and intima-media thickness (IMT), and mortality in HD patients. Two hundred and sixty-eight HD patients were enrolled in this study and were followed for 36 months. The primary end point was all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios for NLR on all-cause and cardiovascular survival. We pinpointed that higher NLR in HD patients was a predictor of increased PP, LVMI, and IMT; HD patients with higher NLR had a lower survival at the end of the study; furthermore, high NLR was an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality when adjusted for other risk factors. In conclusion, higher NLR in HD patients was associated with cardiovascular risk factors and mortality.

  13. The Effect of Prophylactic Lamivudine plus Adefovir Therapy Compared with Lamivudine Alone in Preventing Hepatitis B Reactivation in Lymphoma Patients with High Baseline HBV DNA during Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qingqing; Chen, Kailin; Chen, Jie; Wu, Shaoxu; Geng, Qirong; Huang, Huiqiang; Lin, Tongyu; Jiang, Wenqi; Xia, Zhongjun; Duan, Huaxin; Rao, Huilan; Yao, Mengfei; Hu, Liyang

    2016-01-01

    Prophylactic antiviral therapy is essential for lymphoma patients with high baseline HBV DNA who undergo cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, there are limited data on the optimal options. The present study was designed to compare the efficacy of prophylactic lamivudine (LAM) with lamivudine plus adefovir dipivoxil (LAM+ADV) in preventing hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in lymphoma with, pre-chemotherapy HBV DNA load ≥2000 IU/ml. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 86 lymphoma patients with baseline HBV DNA load ≥2000 IU/ml during chemotherapy and received LAM or LAM+ADV as prophylaxis between January 1, 2008 and November 30, 2014 at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, China. Sixty-five patients received LAM and 21 received LAM+ADV. The rate was significantly lower in the LAM+ADV group compared with the LAM group for HBV reactivation (23.8% vs 55.4%; p = 0.012), while no difference was observed between the two groups in patients for HBV-related hepatitis (21.3% vs 33.3%; p   =  0.349), and chemotherapy disruption (10.9% vs 19.0%; p = 0.337). In a multivariate analysis of factors associated with HBV reactivation in these patients, LAM+ADV treatment and HBeAg negative were the independent protective factors. Therefore, LAM+ADV should be considered for antiviral prophylaxis in lymphoma patients with pre-chemotherapy HBV DNA load ≥2000 IU/ml. Further study is warranted to confirm these findings.

  14. The Salmonella type III effector SspH2 specifically exploits the NLR co-chaperone activity of SGT1 to subvert immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit P Bhavsar

    Full Text Available To further its pathogenesis, S. Typhimurium delivers effector proteins into host cells, including the novel E3 ubiquitin ligase (NEL effector SspH2. Using model systems in a cross-kingdom approach we gained further insight into the molecular function of this effector. Here, we show that SspH2 modulates innate immunity in both mammalian and plant cells. In mammalian cell culture, SspH2 significantly enhanced Nod1-mediated IL-8 secretion when transiently expressed or bacterially delivered. In addition, SspH2 also enhanced an Rx-dependent hypersensitive response in planta. In both of these nucleotide-binding leucine rich repeat receptor (NLR model systems, SspH2-mediated phenotypes required its catalytic E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and interaction with the conserved host protein SGT1. SGT1 has an essential cell cycle function and an additional function as an NLR co-chaperone in animal and plant cells. Interaction between SspH2 and SGT1 was restricted to SGT1 proteins that have NLR co-chaperone function and accordingly, SspH2 did not affect SGT1 cell cycle functions. Mechanistic studies revealed that SspH2 interacted with, and ubiquitinated Nod1 and could induce Nod1 activity in an agonist-independent manner if catalytically active. Interestingly, SspH2 in vitro ubiquitination activity and protein stability were enhanced by SGT1. Overall, this work adds to our understanding of the sophisticated mechanisms used by bacterial effectors to co-opt host pathways by demonstrating that SspH2 can subvert immune responses by selectively exploiting the functions of a conserved host co-chaperone.

  15. Association of High Density Lipoprotein with Platelet to Lymphocyte and Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratios in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh H. Prajapati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We aimed to evaluate a relationship between platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR with high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels in coronary artery disease (CAD patients. Methods. A total of 354 patients with angiographically confirmed coronary blockages were enrolled in the study. Hematological indices and lipid profiling data of all the patients were collected. Results. We have observed significant association between HDL and PLR (P=0.008 and NLR (P=0.009; however no significant relationship was obtained with HDL and isolated platelet (P=0.488, neutrophil (P=0.407, and lymphocyte (P=0.952 counts in CAD patients. The association was subjected to gender specific variation as in males PLR (P=0.024 and NLR (P=0.03 were highly elevated in low HDL patients, whereas in females the elevation could not reach the statistically significant level. The PLR (217.47 versus 190.3; P=0.01 and NLR (6.33 versus 5.10; P=0.01 were significantly higher among the patients with acute coronary syndrome. In young patients the PLR (P=0.007 and NLR (P=0.001 were inversely associated with HDL, whereas in older population only NLR (P=0.05 had showed a significant association. Conclusion. We conclude that PLR and NLR are significantly elevated in CAD patients having low HDL levels.

  16. Effects of chronic treatment with the eNOS stimulator Impaza on penis length and sexual behaviors in rats with a high baseline of sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, X; Zhavbert, E S; Dugina, J L; Kheyfets, I A; Sergeeva, S A; Epstein, O I; Agmo, A

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has an important role in erection, and it also affects aspects of sexual behavior. In this experiment, we determined whether a compound enhancing the activity of eNOS, Impaza, could stimulate any aspect of sexual behavior and increase penis length in rats with a high baseline of sexual activity. For comparison, the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil was included. Male rats were orally treated with Impaza or sildenafil for 28 days. Impaza (3 ml kg(-1)) was given daily while sildenafil (3 mg kg(-1)) was given twice weekly. Tests for sexual incentive motivation and copulatory behavior were performed just before drug treatment and at days 7, 14 and 28 of treatment. In addition, the length of the protruding penis at mount, intromission and ejaculation was measured. Impaza but not sildenafil increased penis length at mount after 14 and 28 days of treatment. The compounds failed to modify sexual incentive motivation or copulatory behavior. It is suggested that Impaza enhanced intracavernous pressure, as such a pressure increase is the most likely explanation for enhanced penis length at mount. This effect, together with an absence of motivational actions, suggests that Impaza may be the most valuable treatment for erectile dysfunction.

  17. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, their relationship with baseline functional and cognitive status, and their utility in predicting mortality in nonagenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Chivite, David; Pinto, Xavier; Cuerpo, Sandra; Pujol, Ramón

    2011-07-01

    Little is known about the role of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in oldest-old subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between HDL-C levels and physical and cognitive performance indicators in nonagenarians, and also to determine the influence of HDL-C levels on the 3-year mortality risk. The data analyzed were taken from the NonaSantfeliu Study. Functional status was determined by the Lawton-Brody Index (LI) for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and the Barthel Index (BI) for basic activities (BADL). Cognition was assessed using the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MEC). The sample consisted of 49 women (79%) and 13 men, aged 94.3 ± 2.6 years. Mean HDL-C levels were 60 ± 16 mg/dL, and 16 subjects (25.8%) had low HDL-C values. HDL-C levels did correlate with BI (r = 0.28, P = 0.02) and LI (r = 0.32, P = 0.01), but not with MEC (r = 0.18, P = 0.15). Normal HDL-C levels at baseline were significantly associated with higher BI scores (P < 0.006, odds ratio [OR] = 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.05) and a lower number of prescription drugs used (P < 0.04, OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.49-0.99). Baseline HDL-C levels were significantly lower among the group of nonagenarians who died within the 3 years of follow up (P = 0.02). However, after adjusting for potential confounders, the association between HDL-C and mortality lost significance. Higher levels of HDL-C correlate with better functional status and less use of prescribed drugs in nonagenarians. However, the relationship between low HDL-C levels and long-term mortality in this population remains unclear. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. Baseline characteristics in the Avoiding Cardiovascular events through Combination therapy in Patients Living with Systolic Hypertension (ACCOMPLISH) trial: a hypertensive population at high cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michael A; Bakris, George L; Dahlöf, Björn; Pitt, Bertram; Velazquez, Eric; Gupte, Jitendra; Lefkowitz, Martin; Hester, Allen; Shi, Victor; Weir, Matthew; Kjeldsen, Sverre; Massie, Barry; Nesbitt, Shawna; Ofili, Elizabeth; Jamerson, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    ACCOMPLISH is the first trial designed to compare the effects on major fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular endpoints of two forms of antihypertensive combination therapy: benazepril plus hydrochlorothiazide and amlodipine plus benazepril in hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk. Enrollment for this trial is now complete and this report describes the clinical characteristics of the study cohort. Patients with hypertension and a previous history of cardiovascular events, strokes or diabetes mellitus were randomized to double-blind treatment with either of the two combination regimens. The data in this report detail the clinical history and demographic characteristics in patients immediately prior to randomization to study drugs. A total of 11,454 patients were randomized. Mean age (+/-SD) was 68.4+/-6.9 years, 60% were men, and 1360 (12%) were African American. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 31.0+/-6.3 kg/m(2). At study entry, 46% of patients had a history of acute coronary syndromes, coronary artery bypass grafts or percutaneous coronary interventions; 13% had a history of stroke. A history of diabetes mellitus was reported in 6928 (60%) of patients. Mean blood pressure at baseline (on prior hypertension therapy) was 145.4/80.0 mmHg; only 38% of patients had a BP less than 140/90 mmHg. Overall, 97% of patients had received previous antihypertensive treatment (74% on at least two drugs); 53% were on oral diabetes therapy or insulin, 68% on anti-lipid therapy and 63% on anti-platelet agents. In summary, the ACCOMPLISH trial has recruited hypertensive patients at high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is noteworthy that the mean BMI of 31 in this cohort is clearly above the accepted diagnostic criterion of obesity and that 60% of patients are diabetic, possibly reflecting secular trends in clinical disease.

  19. Magic Baseline Beta Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

    2007-01-01

    We study the physics reach of an experiment where neutrinos produced in a beta-beam facility at CERN are observed in a large magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). The CERN-INO distance is close to the so-called "magic" baseline which helps evade some of the parameter degeneracies and allows for a better measurement of the neutrino mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{13}$.

  20. Rationing with baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems...... such as bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....

  1. The TDAQ Baseline Architecture

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F J

    The Trigger-DAQ community is currently busy preparing material for the DAQ, HLT and DCS TDR. Over the last few weeks a very important step has been a series of meetings to complete agreement on the baseline architecture. An overview of the architecture indicating some of the main parameters is shown in figure 1. As reported at the ATLAS Plenary during the February ATLAS week, the main area where the baseline had not yet been agreed was around the Read-Out System (ROS) and details in the DataFlow. The agreed architecture has: Read-Out Links (ROLs) from the RODs using S-Link; Read-Out Buffers (ROB) sited near the RODs, mounted in a chassis - today assumed to be a PC, using PCI bus at least for configuration, control and monitoring. The baseline assumes data aggregation, in the ROB and/or at the output (which could either be over a bus or in the network). Optimization of the data aggregation will be made in the coming months, but the current model has each ROB card receiving input from 4 ROLs, and 3 such c...

  2. 急诊科醉酒患者血清hs-CRP水平、NLR及EPIC评分对急性胰腺炎的诊断价值%The Value of Serum Hs-CRP Level NLR and EPIC Score for the Diagnosis of Acute Pancreatitis in Alcoholism Patients in Emergency Department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书强; 张晓兰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the value of serum hs-CRP level NLR and EPIC score for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in alcoholism patients with emergency department. Method 100 cases of alcoholism patients in our hospital from January 2013-December 2014 were selected, including 38 patients with AAP as observation group, 62 cases of patients without the AAP as control group, all patients received blood tests and abdominal CT examination within 24h admitted to hospital, compared the serum hs-CRP levels, NLR and EPIC scale of the two groups of patients, analysis the relationship between three indicators and AAP illness severity. Results The proportion of male patients, proportion of SAP patients, the serum hs-CRP levels, NLR and EPIC score of the observing group were higher than the control group, the age of the observation group was younger than those in control group, the difference has statistical signiifcance (all P<0.05). Conclusion AAP occurs in young and middle-aged men, its has high incidence of SAP, its serum hs-CRP levels, NLR and EPIC score was higher than the non-AAP patients;the serum hs-CRP levels, NLR and EPIC scale can be used as the effective index response the severity of the alcoholism patients.%目的:探讨急诊科醉酒患者血清hs-CRP水平、NLR(中性粒细胞与淋巴细胞比值)及EPIC(胰腺外炎症CT评分)对急性胰腺炎(AAP)的诊断价值及与病情严重程度的关系。方法选取2013年1月至2014年12月我院收治的醉酒患者100例,其中AAP患者38例作为观察组,非AAP患者62例作为对照组,所有患者入院24 h内进行血液检验及腹部CT检查,对比两组患者的血清hs-CRP水平、NLR及EPIC评分,分析三项指标与AAP病情严重性的关系。结果观察组男性患者比例、血清hs-CRP水平、NLR及EPIC评分较对照组高,观察组患者年龄较对照组轻,差异具有统计学意义(均P<0.05)。结论醉酒患者中,AAP好发于中青年男性,其重

  3. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy of rectal carcinoma. Baseline hematologic parameters influencing outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodek, Miroslav; Sirak, Igor; Paluska, Petr; Kopecky, Jindrich; Petera, Jiri; Vosmik, Milan [University Hospital in Hradec Kralove, Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Ferko, Alexander; Oerhalmi, Julius [University Hospital in Hradec Kralove, Department of Surgery, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Hovorkova, Eva; Hadzi Nikolov, Dimitar [University Hospital in Hradec Kralove, Fingerland Department of Pathology, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2016-09-15

    The link between the blood count and a systemic inflammatory response (SIR) is indisputable and well described. Pretreatment hematological parameters may predict the overall clinical outcomes in many types of cancer. Thus, this study aims to systematically evaluate the relationship between baseline blood count levels and treatment response in rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. From 2009-2015, 173 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were retrospectively enrolled in the study and analyzed. The baseline blood count was recorded in all patients 1 week before chemoradiation. Tumor response was evaluated through pathologic findings. Blood count levels which included RBC (red blood cells), Hb (hemoglobin), PLT (platelet count), neutrophil count, WBC (white blood cells), NLR (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio), and PLR (platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio) were analyzed in relation to tumor downstaging, pCR (pathologic complete response), OS (overall survival), and DFS (disease-free survival). Hb levels were associated with a response in logistic regression analysis: pCR (p = 0.05; OR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.00-1.07); T downstaging (p = 0.006; OR 1.03, 95 % CI 1.01-1.05); N downstaging (p = 0.09; OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.00-1.04); T or N downstaging (p = 0.007; OR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.01-1.07); T and N downstaging (p = 0.02; OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.00-1.04); Hb and RBC were the most significant parameters influencing OS; PLT was a negative prognostic factor for OS and DFS (p = 0.008 for OS); an NLR value of 2.8 was associated with the greatest significance for OS (p = 0.03) and primary tumor downstaging (p = 0.02). Knowledge of pretreatment hematological parameters appears to be an important prognostic factor in patients with rectal carcinoma. (orig.) [German] Die Verbindung zwischen dem Blutbild und der systemischen Entzuendungsreaktion (''systemic inflammatory response'', SIR) ist unbestreitbar und gut beschrieben. Aufgrund der

  4. Obesogenic dietary intake in families with 1-year-old infants at high and low obesity risk based on parental weight status: baseline data from a longitudinal intervention (Early STOPP)

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Viktoria; Sobko, Tanja; Ek, Anna; Forssén, Michaela; Ekbom, Kerstin; Johansson, Elin; Nowicka, Paulina; Westerståhl, Maria; Riserus, Ulf; Marcus, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare dietary intake in 1-year-old infants and their parents between families with high and low obesity risk, and to explore associations between infant dietary intake and relative weight. Methods Baseline analyses of 1-year-old infants (n = 193) and their parents participating in a longitudinal obesity intervention (Early STOPP) were carried out. Dietary intake and diet quality indicators were compared between high- and low-risk families, where obesity risk was based on parental...

  5. The effect of vernal solar UV radiation on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration depends on the baseline level: observations from a high latitude in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Toni; Ala-Houhala, Meri; Ylianttila, Lasse; Kautiainen, Hannu; Lakkala, Kaisa; Hannula, Henna-Reetta; Turunen, Esa; Viljakainen, Heli; Reunala, Timo; Snellman, Erna

    2017-01-01

    Humans obtain vitamin D from conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation or from dietary sources. As the radiation level is insufficient in winter, vitamin D deficiency is common at higher latitudes. We assessed whether vernal solar UVB radiation at latitudes 61°N and 67°N in Finland has an impact on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] concentrations. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers participated in outdoor activities in snow-covered terrain for 4-10 days in March or April, with their face and hands sun-exposed. The personal UVB doses and S-25(OH)D levels were monitored. A mean UVB dose of 11.8 standard erythema doses (SED) was received during an average of 12.3 outdoor hours. The mean S-25(OH)D concentration in subjects with a baseline concentration below 90.0 nmol/L (n=13) increased significantly, by 6.0 nmol/L from an initial mean of 62.4 nmol/L (pD levels in subjects with a baseline level below 90 nmol/L but not in those with higher levels.

  6. Associated risk factors for silent cerebral infarcts in sickle cell anemia: low baseline hemoglobin, sex, and relative high systolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBaun, Michael R; Sarnaik, Sharada A; Rodeghier, Mark J; Minniti, Caterina P; Howard, Thomas H; Iyer, Rathi V; Inusa, Baba; Telfer, Paul T; Kirby-Allen, Melanie; Quinn, Charles T; Bernaudin, Françoise; Airewele, Gladstone; Woods, Gerald M; Panepinto, Julie Ann; Fuh, Beng; Kwiatkowski, Janet K; King, Allison A; Rhodes, Melissa M; Thompson, Alexis A; Heiny, Mark E; Redding-Lallinger, Rupa C; Kirkham, Fenella J; Sabio, Hernan; Gonzalez, Corina E; Saccente, Suzanne L; Kalinyak, Karen A; Strouse, John J; Fixler, Jason M; Gordon, Mae O; Miller, J Phillip; Noetzel, Michael J; Ichord, Rebecca N; Casella, James F

    2012-04-19

    The most common form of neurologic injury in sickle cell anemia (SCA) is silent cerebral infarction (SCI). In the Silent Cerebral Infarct Multi-Center Clinical Trial, we sought to identify risk factors associated with SCI. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the clinical history and baseline laboratory values and performed magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in participants with SCA (HbSS or HbSβ° thalassemia) between the ages of 5 and 15 years with no history of overt stroke or seizures. Neuroradiology and neurology committees adjudicated the presence of SCI. SCIs were diagnosed in 30.8% (251 of 814) participants who completed all evaluations and had valid data on all prespecified demographic and clinical covariates. The mean age of the participants was 9.1 years, with 413 males (50.7%). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, lower baseline hemoglobin concentration (P blood pressure (P = .018), and male sex (P = .030) were statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of an SCI. Hemoglobin concentration and systolic blood pressure are risk factors for SCI in children with SCA and may be therapeutic targets for decreasing the risk of SCI. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00072761.

  7. Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzetto, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Following the discovery of neutrino oscillations by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration, recently awarded with the Nobel Prize, two generations of long baseline experiments had been setup to further study neutrino oscillations. The first generation experiments, K2K in Japan, Minos in the States and Opera in Europe, focused in confirming the Super-Kamiokande result, improving the precision with which oscillation parameters had been measured and demonstrating the ντ appearance process. Second generation experiments, T2K in Japan and very recently NOνA in the States, went further, being optimized to look for genuine three neutrino phenomena like non-zero values of θ13 and first glimpses to leptonic CP violation (LCPV) and neutrino mass ordering (NMO). The discovery of leptonic CP violation will require third generation setups, at the moment two strong proposals are ongoing, Dune in the States and Hyper-Kamiokande in Japan. This review will focus a little more in these future initiatives.

  8. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  9. Immunosuppressive cytokine Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is up-regulated in high-grade CIN but not associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) at baseline, outcomes of HR-HPV infections or incident CIN in the LAMS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrjänen, Stina; Naud, Paulo; Sarian, Luis; Derchain, Sophie; Roteli-Martins, Cecilia; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Tatti, Silvio; Branca, Margherita; Erzen, Mojca; Hammes, L S; Costa, S; Syrjänen, Kari

    2009-12-01

    Bypassing the local immunological defense reactions in the cervix is one of the prerequisites for human papillomaviruses (HPV) infections to progress to intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The role of potent immunosuppressive cytokines, e.g., interleukin-10 (IL-10), depressing these local virus-specific immunological responses is incompletely studied. To assess, whether IL-10 expression in cervical HPV lesions has any implications in the outcome of HPV infections or disease progression to CIN. Baseline cervical biopsies from 225 women of the LAMS study sub-cohort were analyzed for IL-10 expression using immunohistochemistry, to assess its associations with CIN grade, and high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) at baseline, as well as in predicting outcomes of HR-HPV infections, and development of incident CIN1+ and CIN2+ in this longitudinal setting. Expression of IL-10 in cervical lesions was up-regulated most often in high-grade CIN, and IL-10 over-expression retained its value as independent predictor of CIN2+ (odds ratio (OR) = 4.92) and CIN3+ (OR = 7.51) also in multivariate model, including HR-HPV and several known covariates of IL-10 expression. Up-regulation was not related to HR-HPV detection, and showed no relationship to HR-HPV viral loads. Using longitudinal predictive indicators (SE, SP, PPV, NPV), IL-10 expression was of no value in predicting (1) the outcomes of HR-HPV infections, or (2) the surrogate endpoints (incident CIN1+, CIN2+) of progressive disease. IL-10 over-expression (along with HR-HPV) was one of the independent covariates of CIN2/3. This immunosuppressive cytokine might play an important role in creating a microenvironment that favors progressive cervical disease and immune evasion by HR-HPV.

  10. High-pass filters and baseline correction in M/EEG analysis. Commentary on: "How inappropriate high-pass filters can produce artefacts and incorrect conclusions in ERP studies of language and cognition".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maess, Burkhard; Schröger, Erich; Widmann, Andreas

    2016-06-15

    Tanner et al. (2015. Psychophysiology, 52(8), 1009. doi: 10.1111/psyp.12437) convincingly demonstrate how a late deflection like the N400 or the P600 is reflected into both earlier and later latencies by the application of high-pass filters with cutoff frequencies higher than 0.1Hz. It nicely underlines the importance of test-wise application of filters with different parameters to electrophysiological data to identify such unwanted filter effects. In general, we agree with their approach and conclusions, particularly with the notions that the application of a high-pass filter is reasonable if it improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the signal of interest, and that low frequency signals may carry important information. However, we disagree in two aspects: First, the test data of Tanner et al. are not optimally suited to demonstrate the benefits of high-pass filtering as they are only minimally contaminated by low frequency noise, and second, the standard baseline correction for particular applications in M/EEG data analysis should be replaced with high-pass filtering-as recommended by Widmann et al. (2015. J Neurosci Methods, 250, 46. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2014.08.002). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of vernal solar UV radiation on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration depends on the baseline level: observations from a high latitude in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Toni; Ala-Houhala, Meri; Ylianttila, Lasse; Kautiainen, Hannu; Lakkala, Kaisa; Hannula, Henna-Reetta; Turunen, Esa; Viljakainen, Heli; Reunala, Timo; Snellman, Erna

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Humans obtain vitamin D from conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation or from dietary sources. As the radiation level is insufficient in winter, vitamin D deficiency is common at higher latitudes. We assessed whether vernal solar UVB radiation at latitudes 61°N and 67°N in Finland has an impact on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] concentrations. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers participated in outdoor activities in snow-covered terrain for 4–10 days in March or April, with their face and hands sun-exposed. The personal UVB doses and S-25(OH)D levels were monitored. A mean UVB dose of 11.8 standard erythema doses (SED) was received during an average of 12.3 outdoor hours. The mean S-25(OH)D concentration in subjects with a baseline concentration below 90.0 nmol/L (n=13) increased significantly, by 6.0 nmol/L from an initial mean of 62.4 nmol/L (p<0.001), whereas in those with a basal concentration above 90.0 nmol/L (n=12) it decreased significantly, by 6.7 nmol/L from a mean of 116.9 nmol/L (p<0.01). To conclude, only 7% of total body surface area was exposed to vernal sunlight and this was capable of increasing S-25(OH)D levels in subjects with a baseline level below 90 nmol/L but not in those with higher levels.

  12. Statin use in adults at high risk of cardiovascular disease mortality: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Catriona

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to examine the extent to which statins are used by adults at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to European clinical guidelines. The high-risk groups examined are those with (1) known CVD, (2) known diabetes and (3) a high or very high risk (≥5%) of CVD mortality based on Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE).

  13. Risk Factors for Physical Domestic Violence in a High-Prevalence HIV Setting: Findings from Project Accept Baseline Data (HPTN-043).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian; Woelk, Godfrey; Shade, Starley B; Kulich, Michal; Turan, Janet M; Chingono, Alfred; Morin, Stephen F

    2013-06-25

    Zimbabwe faces an acute generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic combined with rapidly deteriorating economic and political conditions, under which levels of domestic violence are on the rise. We aimed to determine possible demographic and behavioral factors associated with physical domestic violence in a rural setting in order to better inform both national and local domestic violence and HIV prevention policies. Using the Project Accept baseline data set, we selected demographic, socio-economic, and behavioral variables that might be associated with physical domestic violence based on a review of the literature. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out, and odds ratios (OR) were computed using logistic regression. Women reporting physical domestic violence were significantly more likely to report (i) a history of childhood domestic violence (OR=2.96, Peconomic status as measured by type of homestead (OR=1.4, P=0.04) than women who reported no experience of physical domestic violence. Married women were less likely to experience physical domestic violence than unmarried women (OR=0.65, P=0.011). Women at greatest risk of domestic violence include those with a personal history of violence or sexual abuse, multiple lifetime partners, and low or medium socio-economic status. Risk assessments and joint interventions for both domestic violence reduction and HIV prevention should target these population groups, which are effective both on the public health and global heath diplomacy levels.

  14. Polarimetric Observations of 15 Active Galactic Nuclei at High Frequencies: Jet Kinematics from Bimonthly Monitoring with the Very Long Baseline Array

    CERN Document Server

    Jorstad, S G; Lister, M L; Stirling, A M; Cawthorne, T V; Gear, W K; Gómez, J L; Stevens, J A; Smith, P S; Forster, J R; Gabuzda, D C; Robson, E I; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Marscher, Alan P.; Lister, Matthew L.; Stirling, Alastair M.; Cawthorne, Timothy V.; Gear, Walter K.; Gomez, Jose L.; Stevens, Jason A.; Smith, Paul S.; Forster, James R.; Gabuzda, Denise C.

    2005-01-01

    We present total and polarized intensity images of 15 active galactic nuclei obtained with the Very Long Baseline Array at 7 mm at 17 epochs from 1998 March to 2001 April. At some epochs the images are accompanied by nearly simultaneous polarization measurements at 3 mm, 1.35/0.85 mm, and optical wavelengths. Here we analyze the 7 mm images to define the properties of the jets of two radio galaxies, five BL Lac objects, and eight quasars on angular scales $\\gtrsim 0.1$ milliarcseconds. We determine the apparent velocities of 109 features in the jets; for many of the features we derive Doppler factors using a new method based on comparison of timescale of decline in flux density with the light-travel time across the emitting region. This allows us to estimate the Lorentz factors, intrinsic brightness temperatures, and viewing angles of 77 superluminal knots, as well as the opening angle of the jet for each source. We analyze the derived physical parameters of the jets. In nine sources we detect statistically m...

  15. Risk factors for physical domestic violence in a high-prevalence HIV setting: findings from Project Accept baseline data (HPTN-043

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kevany

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zimbabwe faces an acute generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic combined with rapidly deteriorating economic and political conditions, under which levels of domestic violence are on the rise. We aimed to determine possible demographic and behavioral factors associated with physical domestic violence in a rural setting in order to better inform both national and local domestic violence and HIV prevention policies. Using the Project Accept baseline data set, we selected demographic, socio-economic, and behavioral variables that might be associated with physical domestic violence based on a review of the literature. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out, and odds ratios (OR were computed using logistic regression. Women reporting physical domestic violence were significantly more likely to report (i a history of childhood domestic violence (OR=2.96, P<0.001, (ii two or more lifetime partners (OR=1.94, P<0.001, (iii some form of sexual abuse as a child (OR=1.82, not significant, and (iv low or medium socio-economic status as measured by type of homestead (OR=1.4, P=0.04 than women who reported no experience of physical domestic violence. Married women were less likely to experience physical domestic violence than unmarried women (OR=0.65, P=0.011. Women at greatest risk of domestic violence include those with a personal history of violence or sexual abuse, multiple lifetime partners, and low or medium socio-economic status. Risk assessments and joint interventions for both domestic violence reduction and HIV prevention should target these population groups, which are effective both on the public health and global heath diplomacy levels.

  16. Hanford Site technical baseline database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, P.E.

    1996-09-30

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of September 30, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that dellinate the differences between this revision and revision 4 (May 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.

  17. Hanford Site technical baseline database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, P.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-10

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of May 10, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 3 (April 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.

  18. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  19. NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome gene polymorphism rs7512998 (C>T) predicts aging-related increase of blood pressure, the TAMRISK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnas, Tarja; Määttä, Kirsi; Nikkari, Seppo T

    2015-01-01

    The activation of NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome by cellular stress leads to activation of the inflammasome, and NLRP3 gene polymorphisms have been associated with autoinflammatory diseases. Inflammasomes have also been implicated in the initiation or progression of metabolic disorders such as atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and obesity. The association of NLRP3 genetic variant rs7512998 with blood pressure and hypertension was studied in a 50-year-old Finnish cohort with a subpopulation who had available data on blood pressure measurements also at the age of 45 years. NLRP3 gene polymorphism rs7512998 C-allele was associated with higher systolic (p = 0.006) and diastolic (p = 0.011) blood pressure compared to the TT-genotype carriers in 50-year-old subjects. In addition, by analysis of variance for repeated measures between ages of 45- and 50 years there was a significant time by genotype interaction; blood pressure increased more in subjects with the C-allele both in systolic (p = 0.035) and diastolic (p = 0.012) values. However, no association with diagnosed hypertension was found. We report for the first time that NLRP3 gene polymorphism rs7512998 was associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 50-year-old subjects. In addition, an effect of this variation upon blood pressure was seen in these same subjects in a 5-year follow-up from a 45-year-old cohort to 50 years of age.

  20. Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-27

    PNNL developed a new tool for oscillation analysis and baselining. This tool has been developed under a new DOE Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium (GMLC) Project (GM0072 - “Suite of open-source applications and models for advanced synchrophasor analysis”) and it is based on the open platform for PMU analysis. The Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool (OBAT) performs the oscillation analysis and identifies modes of oscillations (frequency, damping, energy, and shape). The tool also does oscillation event baselining (fining correlation between oscillations characteristics and system operating conditions).

  1. Quivira NWR biological baseline data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset is biological baseline data for Quivira National Wildlife Refuge as of January 2016. It contains data on species found on the refuge, when and where...

  2. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  3. Potential demographic and baselines variables for risk stratification of high-risk post-myocardial infarction patients in the era of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator - a prognostic indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yap, Yee Guan; Duong, Trinh; Bland, Martin

    2008-01-01

    , sex, previous MI or angina, hypertension, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, NYHA functional class and non-Q wave infarct on electrocardiogram. Distinct survival curves were obtained for 3 risk groups based on the median and inter-quartile range for the prognostic index. In the high-risk......BACKGROUND: Risk stratification after myocardial infarction (MI) remains expensive and disappointing. We designed a prognostic indicator using demographic information to select patients at risk of dying after MI. METHOD AND RESULTS: We combined individual patient data from the placebo arms of EMIAT......, CAMIAT, TRACE and DIAMOND-MI with LVEF 10 ventricular premature beats/hour or a run of ventricular tachycardia). Risk factors for mortality beginning at day 45 post-MI up to 2 years were examined using Cox regression analysis. Risk scores were derived from the equation of a Cox regression model...

  4. Protectin D1 reduces concanavalin A-induced liver injury by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis and NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun; Meng, Shanshan; Yan, Bingdi; Yu, Jinyan; Liu, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Protectin D1 (PD1) is a bioactive product generated from docosahexaenoic acid, which may exert anti-inflammatory effects in various inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of its anti‑inflammatory activity on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of PD1 against Con A‑induced liver injury and the underlying mechanisms via intravenous injection of PD1 prior to Con A administration. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups as follows: Control group, Con A group (30 mg/kg), 20 µg/kg PD1 + Con A (30 mg/kg) group and 10 µg/kg PD1 + Con A (30 mg/kg) group. PD1 pretreatment was demonstrated to significantly inhibit elevated plasma aminotransferase levels, high mobility group box 1 and liver necrosis, which were observed in Con A‑induced hepatitis. Furthermore, compared with the Con A group, PD1 pretreatment prevented the production of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor‑α, interferon‑γ and interleukin‑2, ‑1β and ‑6. In addition, pretreatment with PD1 markedly downregulated cluster of differentiation (CD)4+, CD8+ and natural killer T (NKT) cell infiltration in the liver. PD1 pretreatment was observed to suppress the messenger RNA and protein expression levels of NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 and Toll‑like receptor (TLR) 4 in liver tissue samples. Further data indicated that PD1 pretreatment inhibited the activation of the nuclear factor κ‑light‑chain‑enhancer of activated B cells (NF‑κB) signaling pathway and chemokine (C‑X3‑C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1)/chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 (CX3CR1) axis by preventing phosphorylation of nuclear factor of κ light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, α and NF‑κB in Con A‑induced liver injury. Therefore, these results suggest that PD1 administration protects mice against Con A‑induced liver injury via

  5. The baseline characteristics and interim analyses of the high-risk sentinel cohort of the Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic InfectiONS (VIZIONS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J; Tue, Ngo T; Bryant, Juliet E; Saylors, Karen; Cuong, Nguyen V; Hoa, Ngo T; An, Nguyen N; Hien, Vo B; Lao, Pham V; Tu, Nguyen C; Chuyen, Nguyen K; Chuc, Nguyen T K; Tan, Dinh V; Duong, Hoang Van V; Toan, Tran K; Chi, Nguyen T Y; Campbell, James; Rabaa, Maia A; Nadjm, Behzad; Woolhouse, Mark; Wertheim, Heiman; Thwaites, Guy; Baker, Stephen

    2015-12-10

    The Vietnam Initiative for Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS) includes community-based 'high-risk sentinel cohort' (HRSC) studies investigating individuals at risk of zoonotic infection due to occupational or residential exposure to animals. A total of 852 HRSC members were recruited between March 2013 and August 2014 from three provinces (Ha Noi, Dak Lak, and Dong Thap). The most numerous group (72.8%) corresponded to individuals living on farms, followed by slaughterers (16.3%) and animal health workers (8.5%). Nasal/pharyngeal and rectal swabs were collected from HRSC members at recruitment and after notifying illness. Exposure to exotic animals (including wild pigs, porcupine, monkey, civet, bamboo rat and bat) was highest for the Dak Lak cohort (53.7%), followed by Ha Noi (13.7%) and Dong Thap (4.0%). A total of 26.8% of individuals reported consumption of raw blood over the previous year; 33.6% slaughterers reported no use of protective equipment at work. Over 686 person-years of observation, 213 episodes of suspect infectious disease were notified, equivalent of 0.35 reports per person-year. Responsive samples were collected from animals in the farm cohort. There was noticeable time and space clustering of disease episodes suggesting that the VIZIONS set up is also suitable for the formal epidemiological investigation of disease outbreaks.

  6. Learning to Baseline Business Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gore

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available bills, sign multi-­‐year contracts, and make purchasing decisions without having an overall technology plan. That plan includes a technology baseline to fully assess existing technology. A CIO's goal is to align IT with business goals. Businesses must know total cost of ownership and the return on investment for all technology purchases and monthly costs. A business must also be able to manage technology assets and best utilize resources across the business. Teaching students to baseline technology will enable them to track and manage costs, discover errors and waste, and consolidate and improve existing technology.

  7. Baseline Removal From EMG Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    a time-varying baseline contamination. Acknowledgements: Work funded by the Departamento de Salud del Gobierno de Navarrra and by a Spanish MEC...Name(s) and Address(es) Departamento de Ingenieria Electra y Electronica Universidad Publica de Navarra Pamplona, Spain Performing Organization Report

  8. Mode S Baseline Radar Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    range units and 20 azimuth units) overlaying the position of the beacon reports. In the cases analyzed where beacon reports were not radar reinforced ...82/53 j~ C ~ 7 C _ _ _ _ _ _ 4. Title end Su.btitle 5. Neget at. November 1982 MDDE S BASELINE RADAR TRACKIN4G 6. Poelin Orgeuianti.. Cede ACT-100...Ground Clutter 33 Mode S/ARTS III 100-Scan False Radar Track Summary 74 34 Percent Beacon Radar Reinforcement 77 vii INTRODUCTION PURPOSE. The purpose of

  9. Asbestos Surveillance Program Aachen (ASPA): initial results from baseline screening for lung cancer in asbestos-exposed high-risk individuals using low-dose multidetector-row CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Marco; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Mahnken, Andreas H; Hering, K G; Sirbu, H; Zschiesche, W; Knoll, Lars; Felten, Michael K; Kraus, Thomas; Günther, Rolf W; Wildberger, Joachim E

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of lung cancer in a high-risk asbestos-exposed cohort using low-dose MDCT. Of a population of 5,389 former power-plant workers, 316 were characterized as individuals at highest risk for lung cancer according to a lung-cancer risk model including age, asbestos exposure and smoking habits. Of these 316, 187 (mean age: 66.6 years) individuals were included in a prospective trial. Mean asbestos exposure time was 29.65 years and 89% were smokers. Screening was performed on a 16-slice MDCT (Siemens) with low-dose technique (10/20 mAs(eff.); 1 mm/0.5 mm increment). In addition to soft copy PACS reading analysis on a workstation with a dedicated lung analysis software (LungCARE; Siemens) was performed. One strongly suspicious mass and eight cases of histologically proven lung cancer were found plus 491 additional pulmonary nodules (average volume: 40.72 ml, average diameter 4.62 mm). Asbestos-related changes (pleural plaques, fibrosis) were visible in 80 individuals. Lung cancer screening in this high-risk cohort showed a prevalence of lung cancer of 4.28% (8/187) at baseline screening with an additional large number of indeterminate pulmonary nodules. Low-dose MDCT proved to be feasible in this highly selected population.

  10. Obesogenic dietary intake in families with 1-year-old infants at high and low obesity risk based on parental weight status: baseline data from a longitudinal intervention (Early STOPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Viktoria; Sobko, Tanja; Ek, Anna; Forssén, Michaela; Ekbom, Kerstin; Johansson, Elin; Nowicka, Paulina; Westerståhl, Maria; Riserus, Ulf; Marcus, Claude

    2016-03-01

    To compare dietary intake in 1-year-old infants and their parents between families with high and low obesity risk, and to explore associations between infant dietary intake and relative weight. Baseline analyses of 1-year-old infants (n = 193) and their parents participating in a longitudinal obesity intervention (Early STOPP) were carried out. Dietary intake and diet quality indicators were compared between high- and low-risk families, where obesity risk was based on parental weight status. The odds for high diet quality in relation to parental diet quality were determined. Associations between measured infant relative weight and dietary intake were examined adjusting for obesity risk, socio-demographics, and infant feeding. Infant dietary intake did not differ between high- and low-risk families. The parents in high-risk families consumed soft drinks, French fries, and low-fat spread more frequently, and fish and fruits less frequently (p intake of vegetables and fish increased the odds for children being consumers of vegetables (OR 1.7; 95 % CI 1.0-2.9) and fish, respectively (OR 2.5; 95 % CI 1.4-4.4). Infant relative weight was weakly associated with a high intake of milk cereal drink (r = 0.15; p intake, obesity risk, or early feeding patterns. At the age of one, dietary intake in infants is not associated with family obesity risk, nor with parental obesogenic food intake. Milk cereal drink consumption but no other infant dietary marker reflects relative weight at this young age.

  11. Reach of NLR and CA-1 25 in the early diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer%中性粒细胞与淋巴细胞比值联合癌抗原-125对上皮性卵巢癌早期诊断的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石纳玉; 邓月月; 吴迪; 石瑞生

    2015-01-01

    Objectives:In order to discuss the significance of the application which combing the NLR with CA -1 25 together about early diagnosis epithelial ovarian cancer.Methods:60 cases with initial ovarian carcinoma from our gynecology and obstetrics were selected as a study group.Selecting the 60 cases of ovarian carcinoma begin and 60 normal women as control groups.to evaluate the NLR to diagnose the critical value of epithelial ovarian cancer by using ROC curves,and the joint application of critical value and CA -1 25 in order to judge that whether it have advantages of improving the susceptibility and specificity of ovarian carcinoma or not.Results:by using ROC curves to evaluate the NLR to diagnose ,the critical value were 2.8.The susceptibility,specificity were 0.72,0.83.By combing NLR with CA -1 25 to diagnose the epithelial ovarian cancer’s susceptibility,specificity, positive predictive value,negative predictive value,correct index.There were 0.87,0.85,0.85,0.86,and 0.72.Conclusions:The application of NLR have higher susceptibility,and specificity about epithelial ovarian cancer.Combing NLR with CA -1 25 can improve the susceptibility and specificity of early diagnosis of epithelial o-varian cancer.%目的:探讨应用外周血中性粒细胞与淋巴细胞比值(NLR)联合癌抗原-125(CA -125)对上皮性卵巢癌早期诊断的意义。方法:选取来我院妇科初治的卵巢癌患者60例为研究组,选取同期我院60例卵巢良性肿瘤患者与60例健康女性为良性对照组与健康对照组,通过受试者回归曲线(ROC 曲线)测定NLR 诊断上皮性卵巢癌的临界值,并与 CA -125联合诊断判断 NLR 联合 CA -125对提高鉴别卵巢包块良恶性中的敏感性与特异性中是否有优势。结果:通过 ROC 曲线测定 NLR 诊断上皮性卵巢癌的临界值2.8,敏感度0.72、特异度0.83,NLR 联合 CA -125诊断上皮性卵巢癌的敏感度、特异度、阳性预测值、阴

  12. Searching for neutrino oscillation parameters in long baseline experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Vihonen, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    Developing neutrino astronomy requires a good understanding of the neutrino oscillations mechanism. The European strategy for neutrino oscillation physics sets a high priority on future long baseline neutrino experiments with the aim to measure the intrinsic parameters that govern the neutrino oscillations. In this work we take a look at the next generation of long baseline experiments and discuss their prospects in future research.

  13. Using Baseline Studies in the Investigation of Test Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Dianne; Horak, Tania

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of "baseline studies" in investigations of test impact and to illustrate the type of thinking underlying the design and implementation of such studies by reference to a recent study relating to a high-stakes test of English language proficiency. Baseline studies are used to describe an educational…

  14. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Diwan, M V; Qian, X; Rubbia, A

    2016-01-01

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We will summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology with our focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We proceed from the first evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research.

  15. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, M. V.; Galymov, V.; Qian, X.; Rubbia, A.

    2016-10-01

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology, with a focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We proceed from the first evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research.

  16. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  17. Compliance with a three-day course of artesunate-mefloquine combination and baseline anti-malarial treatment in an area of Thailand with highly multidrug resistant falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-Bangchang Kesara

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT is presently recommended by the World Health Organization as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in several countries, as a mean of prolonging the effectiveness of first-line malaria treatment regimens. A three-day course of artesunate-mefloquine (4 mg/kg body weight once daily for three consecutive days, plus 15 and 10 mg/kg body weight mefloquine on the first and second days has been adopted by Malaria Control Programme of Thailand as first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria all over the country since 2008. The gametocytocydal anti-malarial drug primaquine is administered at the dose of 30 mg (0.6 mg/kg on the last day. The aim of the present study was to assess patient compliance of this combination regimen when applied to field condition. Methods A total of 240 patients (196 males and 44 females who were attending the malaria clinics in Mae-Sot, Tak Province and presenting with symptomatic acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria, with no reappearance of Plasmodium vivax parasitaemia during follow-up were included into the study. The first dose of the treatment was given to the patients under direct supervision. All patients were given the medication for self-treatment at home and were requested to come back for follow-up on day 3 of the initial treatment. Baseline (day 0 and day 3 whole blood mefloquine and plasma primaquine concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Results Two patients had recrudescence on days 28 and 35. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the 42-day efficacy rate of this combination regimen was 99.2% (238/240. Based on whole blood mefloquine and plasma primaquine concentrations on day 3 of the initial treatment, compliance with mefloquine and primaquine in this three-day artesunate-mefloquine combination regimen were 96.3% (207/215, and 98.5% (197/200, respectively. Baseline mefloquine

  18. Efficient Wide Baseline Structure from Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Mario; Mayer, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a Structure from Motion approach for complex unorganized image sets. To achieve high accuracy and robustness, image triplets are employed and (an approximate) camera calibration is assumed to be known. The focus lies on a complete linking of images even in case of large image distortions, e.g., caused by wide baselines, as well as weak baselines. A method for embedding image descriptors into Hamming space is proposed for fast image similarity ranking. The later is employed to limit the number of pairs to be matched by a wide baseline method. An iterative graph-based approach is proposed formulating image linking as the search for a terminal Steiner minimum tree in a line graph. Finally, additional links are determined and employed to improve the accuracy of the pose estimation. By this means, loops in long image sequences are implicitly closed. The potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated by results for several complex image sets also in comparison with VisualSFM.

  19. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  20. Baseline blood pressure, low- and high-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides and the risk of vascular events in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Callahan, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    AND RESULTS: The SPARCL trial randomized 4731 patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and no known coronary heart disease and LDL-C between 100 and 190 mg/dL to either atorvastatin 80 mg/d or placebo. Baseline assessment included SBP, DBP and measurements of low-density lipoprotein....... There were no interactions between any of these baseline variables and the effect of treatment on outcome strokes. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with recent stroke or TIA and no coronary heart disease, only lower baseline HDL-C predicted the risk of recurrent stroke with HDL-C, triglycerides, and LDL/HDL ratio...

  1. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  2. TWRS privatization process technical baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orme, R.M.

    1996-09-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning a two-phased program for the remediation of Hanford tank waste. Phase 1 is a pilot program to demonstrate the procurement of treatment services. The volume of waste treated during the Phase 1 is a small percentage of the tank waste. During Phase 2, DOE intends to procure treatment services for the balance of the waste. The TWRS Privatization Process Technical Baseline (PPTB) provides a summary level flowsheet/mass balance of tank waste treatment operations which is consistent with the tank inventory information, waste feed staging studies, and privatization guidelines currently available. The PPTB will be revised periodically as privatized processing concepts are crystallized.

  3. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jon F.; Kehrer, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts. Following the guidance in this handbook will help customers and suppliers preparing for an IBR understand the expectations of the IBR, and ensure that the IBR meets the requirements for both in-house and contract efforts.

  4. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-01

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  5. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB) - Webinar Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; Porro, Gian; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-13

    This deck was presented for the 2016 Annual Technology Baseline Webinar. The presentation describes the Annual Technology Baseline, which is a compilation of current and future cost and performance data for electricity generation technologies.

  6. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline points are the discrete coordinate points along the...

  7. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline points are the discrete coordinate points along the...

  8. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Tangents

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline tangent lines are typically bay or river closing...

  9. 40 CFR 1042.825 - Baseline determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Baseline determination. 1042.825... Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines § 1042.825 Baseline determination. (a) For the purpose of this... not valid. (f) Use good engineering judgment for all aspects of the baseline determination. We may...

  10. Neutrino oscillations: what is magic about the "magic" baseline?

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, A Yu

    2006-01-01

    Physics interpretation of the ``magic'' baseline that can play important role in future oscillation experiments is given. The ``magic'' baseline coincides with the refraction length, $l_0$. The latter, in turn, approximately equals the oscillation length in matter at high energies. Therefore at the baseline $L = l_0$ the oscillation phase is $2\\pi$, and consequently, the ``solar'' amplitude of oscillations driven by the mixing angle $\\theta_{12}$ and mass splitting $\\Delta m^2_{21}$ vanishes. As a result, in the lowest order (i) the interference of amplitudes in the $\

  11. High Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio as Prognostic Factor in Patients Affected by Upper Tract Urothelial Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioni, Michele; Cindolo, Luca; Autorino, Riccardo; Primiceri, Giulia; Arcaniolo, Davide; De Sio, Marco; Schips, Luigi

    2016-12-29

    Given the increasing interest in the possible role of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as an easily available oncologic marker for upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC), we sought to quantify the prognostic effect of this biomarker and assess its consistency in UTUC. A systematic review of the published data was performed up to May 2016 using multiple search engines (PubMed, Ovid, and Scopus) to identify eligible comparative studies. A formal meta-analysis was performed for studies comparing patients with a high and those with a low NLR before surgical treatment of UTUC to determine whether the NLR is an independent predictor of survival. Pooled estimates were calculated using a fixed-effects model if no significant heterogeneity was identified. Alternatively, a random-effects model was used when significant heterogeneity was detected. For continuous outcomes, the weighted mean difference was used as a summary measure. For binary variables, the odds ratio or risk ratio was calculated with the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Statistical analyses were performed using RevMan, version 5. Six studies with 1710 patients were included. A high NLR was associated with poorer oncologic outcomes in patients affected by UTUC, in particular in terms of overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.97; 95% CI, 1.27-3.04; P = .002) and recurrence-free survival (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.19-1.96; P = .0009) but not cancer-specific survival (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.29-5.41; P = .77). Current evidence suggests that the NLR might have an independent role as a prognostic factor in patients affected by UTUC undergoing surgical treatment. The NLR potentially represents an easily available measurement of prognosis; however, it requires validation in larger prospective studies.

  12. The role of niacin in raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to reduce cardiovascular events in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and optimally treated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: baseline characteristics of study participants. The Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic syndrome with low HDL/high triglycerides: impact on Global Health outcomes (AIM-HIGH) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The study aims to report the baseline characteristics of the fully randomized AIM-HIGH study population. Residual risk persists despite aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease, many of whom have atherogenic dyslipidemia (low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated triglycerides, and small dense LDL particles). All study participants had established CV disease and atherogenic dyslipidemia. Participants received simvastatin (or simvastatin plus ezetimibe) at a dose sufficient to maintain LDL-C at 40 - 80 mg/dL (1.03-2.07 mmol/L) and were randomized to receive extended-release niacin or matching placebo. The primary end point is time to the first occurrence of coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome or symptom-driven coronary or cerebral revascularization with average follow-up of 4.1 years. Between 2006 and 2010, 8,162 individuals signed consent to be screened, 4,275 began study drug run-in, and 3,414 were randomized to treatment. Mean age at entry was 64 ± 9 years, 85% were men, and 92% were white. As expected, risk factors were prevalent with 34% having diabetes; 71%, hypertension; and 81%, metabolic syndrome. Most participants had coronary artery disease (92%), whereas 11% had peripheral arterial disease; and 12%, cerebrovascular disease. Previous coronary revascularization occurred in 82%, and 54% reported a prior myocardial infarction. Among participants on a statin at entry (94%), mean baseline LDL-C was 71 mg/dL (1.84 mmol/L); mean HDL-C, 34.9 mg/dL (0.90 mmol/L); and median triglycerides, 161 mg/dL (1.82 mmol/L). AIM-HIGH enrolled a high-risk group of patients with established atherosclerotic CV disease and atherogenic dyslipidemia. This study should determine whether there is incremental clinical benefit of niacin in reducing cardiovascular events in patients who

  13. Report of the baseline survey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    administered the questionnaire, linee coordinators supervised die activities of .... operating in highly disadvantaged env- .... physician, one nurse and one sani- ..... room. Type of light. Number of rooms. House shared with animals*. No.

  14. Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, long-baseline neutrino experiments played a fundamental role in confirming neutrino flavor change and in measuring the neutrino mixing matrix with high precision. This role will be amplified with the next generation of experiments, which will begin probing the possibility of CP violation in the leptonic sector and possibly pin down the neutrino mass hierarchy. An account of the most recent results from the MINOS experiment is presented, along with the earlier measurement from the K2K experiment. The next generation projects, T2K and NOvA, are described and their current status, schedule and physics reach discussed. Finally, we report on future efforts, currently in the R&D stage, such as the LBNE and T2KK projects.

  15. Post Auction Coverage Baseline 2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — FINAL TELEVISION CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT INFORMATION RELATED TO INCENTIVE AUCTION REPACKING. NOTE: This file provides new baseline coverage and population data for all...

  16. Mean platelet volume, red cell distribution width, platelet-to-lymphocyte and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and their relationships with high-frequency hearing thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozan, Nazim; Alpaycı, Mahmut; Aslan, Mehmet; Cankaya, Hakan; Kıroglu, Ahmet Faruk; Turan, Mahfuz; Ayral, Abdurrahman; Senkoy, Emre; Ilter, Server

    2016-11-01

    The mean platelet volume (MPV), red cell distribution width (RDW) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) comprise laboratory markers in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). There is a controversy in the literature regarding which type of ear involvement is characteristic of AS. The aim of this study was to simultaneously investigate the MPV, RDW, platelet to lymphocyte (PLR) and NLR in patients with AS and their relationships with high-frequency hearing thresholds. Thirty patients with AS and 35 age-matched healthy subjects were included. Each subject was tested with low- (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) and high- (4000, 8000, 10,000, 12,000, 14,000 and 16,000 Hz) frequency audiometry. Additionally, the case and control groups were evaluated regarding the average hearing thresholds in bone conduction. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured. The RDW, MPV, neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelet counts were evaluated with the complete blood count. Furthermore, the NLR and PLR were calculated. The complete blood count, platelet numbers, ESR, CRP and NLR levels were significantly increased in the AS patients compared with the healthy controls (p  0.05) in the AS patients compared with the healthy controls. The BASDAI score and disease duration were not correlated with the ESR, CRP levels, MPV, PLR, RDW or NLR in patients with AS (all; p > 0.05). The AS patients had increased average measurement values for the hearing threshold in both ears at frequencies of 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz; however, there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). The average values of the hearing threshold in both ears at the high frequencies of 4000, 6000, 8000, 10,000, 12,000 and 14,000 Hz were significantly increased in the case group; however, it was not significantly increased at 16,000 Hz. The current study is the first to investigate the PLR, NLR, MPV and RDW levels in acute AS. We identified a significantly increased

  17. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  18. ECG baseline wander reduction using linear phase filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsté, van J.A.; Eck, van W.; Hermann, O.E.

    1986-01-01

    The continuous real time reduction of baseline wander is a considerable problem in electrocardiography during exercises. Our solution consists of spectral filtering. The legitimacy of high-pass filtering of the ECG by means of digital linear phase filters with a low cut-off frequency as high as the

  19. Gated integrator with signal baseline subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xucheng

    1996-01-01

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator includes an opamp having differential inputs. A signal to be integrated is applied to one of the differential inputs through a first input network, and a signal indicative of the DC offset component of the signal to be integrated is applied to the other of the differential inputs through a second input network. A pair of electronic switches in the first and second input networks define an integrating period when they are closed. The first and second input networks are substantially symmetrically constructed of matched components so that error components introduced by the electronic switches appear symmetrically in both input circuits and, hence, are nullified by the common mode rejection of the integrating opamp. The signal indicative of the DC offset component is provided by a sample and hold circuit actuated as the integrating period begins. The symmetrical configuration of the integrating circuit improves accuracy and speed by balancing out common mode errors, by permitting the use of high speed switching elements and high speed opamps and by permitting the use of a small integrating time constant. The sample and hold circuit substantially eliminates the error caused by the input signal baseline offset during a single integrating window.

  20. Gated integrator with signal baseline subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.

    1996-12-17

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator includes an opamp having differential inputs. A signal to be integrated is applied to one of the differential inputs through a first input network, and a signal indicative of the DC offset component of the signal to be integrated is applied to the other of the differential inputs through a second input network. A pair of electronic switches in the first and second input networks define an integrating period when they are closed. The first and second input networks are substantially symmetrically constructed of matched components so that error components introduced by the electronic switches appear symmetrically in both input circuits and, hence, are nullified by the common mode rejection of the integrating opamp. The signal indicative of the DC offset component is provided by a sample and hold circuit actuated as the integrating period begins. The symmetrical configuration of the integrating circuit improves accuracy and speed by balancing out common mode errors, by permitting the use of high speed switching elements and high speed opamps and by permitting the use of a small integrating time constant. The sample and hold circuit substantially eliminates the error caused by the input signal baseline offset during a single integrating window. 5 figs.

  1. NASA Orbital Debris Baseline Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has created high fidelity populations of the debris environment. The populations include objects of 1 cm and larger in Low Earth Orbit through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. They were designed for the purpose of assisting debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment is derived directly from the newest ORDEM model populations which include a background derived from LEGEND, as well as specific events such as the Chinese ASAT test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, the RORSAT sodium-potassium droplet releases, and other miscellaneous events. It is the most realistic ODPO debris population to date. In this paper we present the populations in chart form. We describe derivations of the background population and the specific populations added on. We validate our 1 cm and larger Low Earth Orbit population against SSN, Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  2. THE 2014 ALMA LONG BASELINE CAMPAIGN: AN OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partnership, ALMA [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Corder, S.; Remijan, A.; Barkats, D.; Dent, W. R. F.; Phillips, N.; Cox, P.; Hales, A. S. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Lucas, R. [Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (UMR 5274), BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Hunter, T. R.; Brogan, C. L.; Amestica, R.; Cotton, W. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Asaki, Y. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Matsushita, S. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Hills, R. E. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Richards, A. M. S. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Broguiere, D., E-mail: efomalon@nrao.edu [Institut de Radioastronomie Millime´trique (IRAM), 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); and others

    2015-07-20

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ∼15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from 2014 September to late November, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C 138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long baselines achieved angular resolutions as fine as 19 mas at ∼350 GHz. Observing with ALMA on baselines of up to 15 km is now possible, and opens up new parameter space for submm astronomy.

  3. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process.

  4. Precise baseline determination for the TanDEM-X mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Rolf; Moon, Yongjin; Neumayer, Hans; Wermuth, Martin; Montenbruck, Oliver; Jäggi, Adrian

    The TanDEM-X mission will strive for generating a global precise Digital Elevation Model (DEM) by way of bi-static SAR in a close formation of the TerraSAR-X satellite, already launched on June 15, 2007, and the TanDEM-X satellite to be launched in May 2010. Both satellites carry the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) payload supplied by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The TOR consists of a high-precision dual-frequency GPS receiver, called Integrated GPS Occultation Receiver (IGOR), and a Laser retro-reflector (LRR) for precise orbit determination (POD) and atmospheric sounding. The IGOR is of vital importance for the TanDEM-X mission objectives as the millimeter level determination of the baseline or distance between the two spacecrafts is needed to derive meter level accurate DEMs. Within the TanDEM-X ground segment GFZ is responsible for the operational provision of precise baselines. For this GFZ uses two software chains, first its Earth Parameter and Orbit System (EPOS) software and second the BERNESE software, for backup purposes and quality control. In a concerted effort also the German Aerospace Center (DLR) generates precise baselines independently with a dedicated Kalman filter approach realized in its FRNS software. By the example of GRACE the generation of baselines with millimeter accuracy from on-board GPS data can be validated directly by way of comparing them to the intersatellite K-band range measurements. The K-band ranges are accurate down to the micrometer-level and therefore may be considered as truth. Both TanDEM-X baseline providers are able to generate GRACE baselines with sub-millimeter accuracy. By merging the independent baselines by GFZ and DLR, the accuracy can even be increased. The K-band validation however covers solely the along-track component as the K-band data measure just the distance between the two GRACE satellites. In addition they inhibit an un-known bias which must be modelled in the comparison, so the

  5. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.; Wagner, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. With the ability to accurately compare different technologies' performance for the same function, managers will be able to make better decisions regarding technology development.

  6. Resetting predator baselines in coral reef ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Darcy; Conklin, Eric; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Pollock, Kydd; Pollock, Amanda; Kendall, Bruce E.; Gaines, Steven D.; Caselle, Jennifer E.

    2017-01-01

    What did coral reef ecosystems look like before human impacts became pervasive? Early efforts to reconstruct baselines resulted in the controversial suggestion that pristine coral reefs have inverted trophic pyramids, with disproportionally large top predator biomass. The validity of the coral reef inverted trophic pyramid has been questioned, but until now, was not resolved empirically. We use data from an eight-year tag-recapture program with spatially explicit, capture-recapture models to re-examine the population size and density of a key top predator at Palmyra atoll, the same location that inspired the idea of inverted trophic biomass pyramids in coral reef ecosystems. Given that animal movement is suspected to have significantly biased early biomass estimates of highly mobile top predators, we focused our reassessment on the most mobile and most abundant predator at Palmyra, the grey reef shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos). We estimated a density of 21.3 (95% CI 17.8, 24.7) grey reef sharks/km2, which is an order of magnitude lower than the estimates that suggested an inverted trophic pyramid. Our results indicate that the trophic structure of an unexploited reef fish community is not inverted, and that even healthy top predator populations may be considerably smaller, and more precarious, than previously thought. PMID:28220895

  7. Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector line data that were input into the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0,...

  8. SSA FITARA Common Baseline Implementation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This document describes the agency's plan to implement the Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Common Baseline per OMB memorandum M-15-14.

  9. NRAO Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It's the world's largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye...

  10. Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector line data that were input into the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0,...

  11. Hanford Site technical baseline database. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, P.E.

    1995-01-27

    This report lists the Hanford specific files (Table 1) that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database. Table 2 includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 0 of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database. This information is being managed and maintained on the Hanford RDD-100 System, which uses the capabilities of RDD-100, a systems engineering software system of Ascent Logic Corporation (ALC). This revision of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database uses RDD-100 version 3.0.2.2 (see Table 3). Directories reflect those controlled by the Hanford RDD-100 System Administrator. Table 4 provides information regarding the platform. A cassette tape containing the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database is available.

  12. 基于稳健统计学确定高潜在污染土壤CU、Pb基线值%DEFINING Cu AND Pb GEOCHEMICAL BASELINES FOR SOILS HIGH IN POLLUTION RISK WITH ROBUST STATISTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 赵永存; 孙维侠; 黄标; 邵学新; Jeremy L.Dariek

    2011-01-01

    It is of great practice significance to define baselines for soil heavy metals in the Yangtze River Delta Region to evaluation of status quo of the heavy metal accumulation in the soil. In the presence of anthropogenic heavy metal pollution, soil heavy metal data always significantly deviate from normal or lognormal distribution, which affects reliability of the results of classical statistics. In contrast, robust statistics is aimed at lowering the effect of outliers on statistical analysis. With the robust regression method regression relationships between Cu and Pb concentrations in topsoil and in subsoil were established for the study region of Zhangjiagang, which has thousands of years of agricultural history and has recently been developing rapidly in industry. Based on the topsoil Cu and Pb concentration baselines calculated through robust regression of their subsoil concentrations, the status of soil Cu and Pb accumulations were evaluated. Results show that the calculated geochemical baselines can reflect natural variation of soil Cu and Pb background values between different sampling sites. Compared with the robust statistical method, the evaluation of soil heavy metal accumulation in a region that has spatial variation of natural background values on the basis of the national standard for soil environmental quality or regional soil background values would generate bigger errors.%土壤重金属基线值的确定对于评价重金属积累现状具有重要意义.在存在人为污染的情况下,土壤重金属数据经常强烈地偏离正态分布和对数正态分布,影响统计分析结果的可信度,而稳健统计方法可以降低离群值对统计分析结果的影响.本研究以张家港为研究区域,采用稳健回归方法,建立表层和底层土壤Cu、Pb的回归关系,通过底层土壤Cu、Pb含量计算表层土壤Cu、Pb基线值,并对土壤Cu、Pb积累状况进行评价.结果表明,稳健回归方法确定的表层土壤Cu、Pb

  13. Deformation Monitoring of the Submillimetric UPV Calibration Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Asenjo, Luis; Baselga, Sergio; Garrigues, Pascual

    2017-06-01

    A 330 m calibration baseline was established at the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV) in 2007. Absolute scale was subsequently transferred in 2012 from the Nummela Standard Baseline in Finland and distances between pillars were determined with uncertainties ranging from 0.1 mm to 0.3 mm. In order to assess the long-term stability of the baseline three field campaigns were carried out from 2013 to 2015 in a co-operative effort with the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), which provided the only Mekometer ME5000 distance meter available in Spain. Since the application of the ISO17123-4 full procedure did not suffice to come to a definite conclusion about possible displacements of the pillars, we opted for the traditional geodetic network approach. This approach had to be adapted to the case at hand in order to deal with problems such as the geometric weakness inherent to calibration baselines and scale uncertainty derived from both the use of different instruments and the high correlation between the meteorological correction and scale determination. Additionally, the so-called the maximum number of stable points method was also tested. In this contribution it is described the process followed to assess the stability of the UPV submillimetric calibration baseline during the period of time from 2012 to 2015.

  14. Detection of abrupt baseline length changes using cumulative sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Volker

    2009-06-01

    Dynamic processes are usually monitored by collecting a time series of observations, which is then analysed in order to detect any motion or non-standard behaviour. Geodetic examples include the monitoring of dams, bridges, high-rise buildings, landslides, volcanoes and tectonic motion. The cumulative sum (CUSUM) test is recognised as a popular means to detect changes in the mean and/or the standard deviation of a time series and has been applied to various monitoring tasks. This paper briefly describes the CUSUM technique and how it can be utilised for the detection of small baseline length changes by differencing two perpendicular baselines sharing a common site. A simulation is carried out in order to investigate the expected behaviour of the resulting CUSUM charts for a variety of typical deformation monitoring scenarios. This simulation shows that using first differences (between successive epochs) as input, rather than the original baseline lengths, produces clear peaks or jumps in the differenced CUSUM time series when a sudden change in baseline length occurs. These findings are validated by analysing several GPS baseline pairs of a network deployed to monitor the propagation of an active ice shelf rift on the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica.

  15. A Method of High Resolution Imaging of Multi-baseline InSAR%一种高分辨率多基线InSAR三维层析成像方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳祥乐; 何向成; 杨汝良

    2014-01-01

    多基线InSAR(Muti-baseline InSAR)可以进行三维层析成像,用于地面遥感与地下地质情况分析.受限于实际系统,多基线InSAR的基线数目非常少,使用传统方法成像时分辨率很低.为提高高度维分辨率,文中建立了多基线InSAR成像的阵列信号处理模型,将阵列信号处理中的MUSIC算法应用到多基线InSAR的高度维成像中,进行数字仿真实验,仿真结果表明,文中的方案能提高多基线InSAR高度维的分辨率,获得较低的旁瓣.

  16. Structure-function analysis of barley NLR immune receptor MLA10 reveals its cell compartment specific activity in cell death and disease resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Bai

    Full Text Available Plant intracellular immune receptors comprise a large number of multi-domain proteins resembling animal NOD-like receptors (NLRs. Plant NLRs typically recognize isolate-specific pathogen-derived effectors, encoded by avirulence (AVR genes, and trigger defense responses often associated with localized host cell death. The barley MLA gene is polymorphic in nature and encodes NLRs of the coiled-coil (CC-NB-LRR type that each detects a cognate isolate-specific effector of the barley powdery mildew fungus. We report the systematic analyses of MLA10 activity in disease resistance and cell death signaling in barley and Nicotiana benthamiana. MLA10 CC domain-triggered cell death is regulated by highly conserved motifs in the CC and the NB-ARC domains and by the C-terminal LRR of the receptor. Enforced MLA10 subcellular localization, by tagging with a nuclear localization sequence (NLS or a nuclear export sequence (NES, shows that MLA10 activity in cell death signaling is suppressed in the nucleus but enhanced in the cytoplasm. By contrast, nuclear localized MLA10 is sufficient to mediate disease resistance against powdery mildew fungus. MLA10 retention in the cytoplasm was achieved through attachment of a glucocorticoid receptor hormone-binding domain (GR, by which we reinforced the role of cytoplasmic MLA10 in cell death signaling. Together with our data showing an essential and sufficient nuclear MLA10 activity in disease resistance, this suggests a bifurcation of MLA10-triggered cell death and disease resistance signaling in a compartment-dependent manner.

  17. Salton Sea sampling program: baseline studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullis, R.E.; Carter, J.L.; Langlois, G.W.

    1981-04-13

    Baseline data are provided on three species of fish from the Salton Sea, California. The fishes considered were the orange mouth corvina (Cynoscion xanthulus), gulf croaker (Bairdiella icistius) and sargo (Anisotremus davidsonii). Morphometric and meristic data are presented as a baseline to aid in the evaluation of any physiological stress the fish may experience as a result of geothermal development. Analyses were made on muscle, liver, and bone of the fishes sampled to provide baseline data on elemental tissue burdens. The elements measured were: As, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Mn, Mi, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Zn, and Zr. These data are important if an environmentally sound progression of geothermal power production is to occur at the Salton Sea.

  18. Baseline methodologies for clean development mechanism projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.K. (ed.); Shrestha, R.M.; Sharma, S.; Timilsina, G.R.; Kumar, S.

    2005-11-15

    The Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) came into force on 16th February 2005 with its ratification by Russia. The increasing momentum of this process is reflected in more than 100 projects having been submitted to the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB) for approval of the baselines and monitoring methodologies, which is the first step in developing and implementing CDM projects. A CDM project should result in a net decrease of GHG emissions below any level that would have resulted from other activities implemented in the absence of that CDM project. The 'baseline' defines the GHG emissions of activities that would have been implemented in the absence of a CDM project. The baseline methodology is the process/algorithm for establishing that baseline. The baseline, along with the baseline methodology, are thus the most critical element of any CDM project towards meeting the important criteria of CDM, which are that a CDM should result in 'real, measurable, and long term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change'. This guidebook is produced within the frame work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) facilitated 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM)' Project. This document is published as part of the projects effort to develop guidebooks that cover important issues such as project finance, sustainability impacts, legal framework and institutional framework. These materials are aimed to help stakeholders better understand the CDM and are believed to eventually contribute to maximize the effect of the CDM in achieving the ultimate goal of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. This Guidebook should be read in conjunction with the information provided in the two other guidebooks entitled, 'Clean Development Mechanism: Introduction to the CDM' and 'CDM Information and Guidebook' developed under the CD4CDM project. (BA)

  19. Geochemical baseline studies of soil in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2017-04-01

    The soil element concentrations regionally vary a lot in Finland. Mostly this is caused by the different bedrock types, which are reflected in the soil qualities. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is carrying out geochemical baseline studies in Finland. In the previous phase, the research is focusing on urban areas and mine environments. The information can, for example, be used to determine the need for soil remediation, to assess environmental impacts or to measure the natural state of soil in industrial areas or mine districts. The field work is done by taking soil samples, typically at depth between 0-10 cm. Sampling sites are chosen to represent the most vulnerable areas when thinking of human impacts by possible toxic soil element contents: playgrounds, day-care centers, schools, parks and residential areas. In the mine districts the samples are taken from the areas locating outside the airborne dust effected areas. Element contents of the soil samples are then analyzed with ICP-AES and ICP-MS, Hg with CV-AAS. The results of the geochemical baseline studies are published in the Finnish national geochemical baseline database (TAPIR). The geochemical baseline map service is free for all users via internet browser. Through this map service it is possible to calculate regional soil baseline values using geochemical data stored in the map service database. Baseline data for 17 elements in total is provided in the map service and it can be viewed on the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/Tapir/indexEN.html).

  20. Neutrino Interactions and Long-Baseline Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mosel, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The extraction of neutrino mixing parameters and the CP-violating phase requires knowledge of the neutrino energy. This energy must be reconstructed from the final state of a neutrino-nucleus reaction since all long-baseline experiments use nuclear targets. This reconstruction requires detailed knowledge of the neutrino reactions with bound nucleons and of the final state interactions of hadrons with the nuclear environment. Quantum-kinetic transport theory can be used to build an event generator for this reconstruction that takes basic nuclear properties, such as binding, into account. Some examples are discussed that show the effects of nuclear interactions on observables in long-baseline experiments

  1. Long-baseline Neutrino Oscillation at DUNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, Elizabeth; DUNE Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment with primary physics goals of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy and measuring δc P with sufficient sensitivity to discover CP violation in neutrino oscillation. CP violation sensitivity in DUNE requires careful understanding of systematic uncertainty, with contributions expected from uncertainties in the neutrino flux, neutrino interactions, and detector effects. In this presentation, we will describe the expected sensitivity of DUNE to long-baseline neutrino oscillation parameters, how various aspects of the experimental design contribute to that sensitivity, and the planned strategy for constraining systematic uncertainty in these measurements.

  2. Waste management project technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1997-08-13

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project.

  3. How Valid Are the Portland Baseline Essays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Erich

    1991-01-01

    Portland, Oregon's "African-American Baseline Essays," widely used in creating multicultural curricula, inaccurately depicts ancient Egyptians as black people and Olmec civilization as derived from African influences. The authors advance racial theories long abandoned by mainline Africa scholars, attribute mystical powers to pyramids,…

  4. Physics Potential of Long-Baseline Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of neutrino mixing and oscillations over the past decade provides firm evidence for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Recently, θ13 has been determined to be moderately large, quite close to its previous upper bound. This represents a significant milestone in establishing the three-flavor oscillation picture of neutrinos. It has opened up exciting prospects for current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments towards addressing the remaining fundamental questions, in particular the type of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible presence of a CP-violating phase. Another recent and crucial development is the indication of non-maximal 2-3 mixing angle, causing the octant ambiguity of θ23. In this paper, I will review the phenomenology of long-baseline neutrino oscillations with a special emphasis on sub-leading three-flavor effects, which will play a crucial role in resolving these unknowns. First, I will give a brief description of neutrino oscillation phenomenon. Then, I will discuss our present global understanding of the neutrino mass-mixing parameters and will identify the major unknowns in this sector. After that, I will present the physics reach of current generation long-baseline experiments. Finally, I will conclude with a discussion on the physics capabilities of accelerator-driven possible future long-baseline precision oscillation facilities.

  5. Geochemical modelling baseline compositions of groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Kjøller, Claus; Andersen, Martin Søgaard

    2008-01-01

    Reactive transport models, were developed to explore the evolution in groundwater chemistry along the flow path in three aquifers; the Triassic East Midland aquifer (UK), the Miocene aquifer at Valreas (F) and the Cretaceous aquifer near Aveiro (P). All three aquifers contain very old groundwaters...... of the evolution in natural baseline properties in groundwater....

  6. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  7. Rationing in the presence of baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a general model of rationing in which agents have baselines, in addition to claims against the (insufficient) endowment of the good to be allocated. Many real-life problems fit this general model (e.g., bankruptcy with prioritized claims, resource allocation in the public health care...

  8. National Cyberethics, Cybersafety, Cybersecurity Baseline Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study that explores the nature of the Cyberethics, Cybersafety, and Cybersecurity (C3) educational awareness policies, initiatives, curriculum, and practices currently taking place in the U.S. public and private K-12 educational settings. The study establishes baseline data on C3 awareness, which can be used…

  9. An Overview of the 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Partnership, ALMA; Vlahakis, C; Corder, S; Remijan, A; Barkats, D; Lucas, R; Hunter, T R; Brogan, C L; Asaki, Y; Matsushita, S; Dent, W R F; Hills, R E; Phillips, N; Richards, A M S; Cox, P; Amestica, R; Broguiere, D; Cotton, W; Hales, A S; Hiriart, R; Hirota, A; Hodge, J A; Impellizzeri, C M V; Kern, J; Kneissl, R; Liuzzo, E; Marcelino, N; Marson, R; Mignano, A; Nakanishi, K; Nikolic, B; Perez, J E; Pérez, L M; Toledo, I; Aladro, R; Butler, B; Cortes, J; Cortes, P; Dhawan, V; Di Francesco, J; Espada, D; Galarza, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Humphreys, E M; Jung, T; Kameno, S; Laing, R A; Leon, S; Mangum, J; Marconi, G; Nagai, H; Nyman, L -A; Perley, R; Radiszcz, M; Rodón, J A; Sawada, T; Takahashi, S; Tilanus, R P J; van Kempen, T; Vilaro, B Vila; Watson, L C; Wiklind, T; Gueth, F; Tatematsu, K; Wootten, A; Castro-Carrizo, A; Chapillon, E; Dumas, G; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Francke, H; Gallardo, J; Garcia, J; Gonzalez, S; Hibbard, J E; Hill, T; Kaminski, T; Karim, A; Krips, M; Kurono, Y; Lopez, C; Martin, S; Maud, L; Morales, F; Pietu, V; Plarre, K; Schieven, G; Testi, L; Videla, L; Villard, E; Whyborn, N; Zwaan, M A; Alves, F; Andreani, P; Avison, A; Barta, M; Bedosti, F; Bendo, G J; Bertoldi, F; Bethermin, M; Biggs, A; Boissier, J; Brand, J; Burkutean, S; Casasola, V; Conway, J; Cortese, L; Dabrowski, B; Davis, T A; Trigo, M Diaz; Fontani, F; Franco-Hernandez, R; Fuller, G; Madrid, R Galvan; Giannetti, A; Ginsburg, A; Graves, S F; Hatziminaoglou, E; Hogerheijde, M; Jachym, P; Serra, I Jimenez; Karlicky, M; Klaasen, P; Kraus, M; Kunneriath, D; Lagos, C; Longmore, S; Leurini, S; Maercker, M; Magnelli, B; Vidal, I Marti; Massardi, M; Maury, A; Muehle, S; Muller, S; Muxlow, T; O'Gorman, E; Paladino, R; Petry, D; Pineda, J; Randall, S; Richer, J S; Rossetti, A; Rushton, A; Rygl, K; Monge, A Sanchez; Schaaf, R; Schilke, P; Stanke, T; Schmalzl, M; Stoehr, F; Urban, S; van Kampen, E; Vlemmings, W; Wang, K; Wild, W; Yang, Y; Iguchi, S; Hasegawa, T; Saito, M; Inatani, J; Mizuno, N; Asayama, S; Kosugi, G; Morita, K -I; Chiba, K; Kawashima, S; Okumura, S K; Ohashi, N; Ogasawara, R; Sakamoto, S; Noguchi, T; Huang, Y -D; Liu, S -Y; Kemper, F; Koch, P M; Chen, M -T; Chikada, Y; Hiramatsu, M; Iono, D; Shimojo, M; Komugi, S; Kim, J; Lyo, A -R; Muller, E; Herrera, C; Miura, R E; Ueda, J; Chibueze, J; Su, Y -N; Trejo-Cruz, A; Wang, K -S; Kiuchi, H; Ukita, N; Sugimoto, M; Kawabe, R; Hayashi, M; Miyama, S; Ho, P T P; Kaifu, N; Ishiguro, M; Beasley, A J; Bhatnagar, S; Braatz, J A; Brisbin, D G; Brunetti, N; Carilli, C; Crossley, J H; D'Addario, L; Meyer, J L Donovan; Emerson, D T; Evans, A S; Fisher, P; Golap, K; Griffith, D M; Hale, A E; Halstead, D; Hardy, E J; Hatz, M C; Holdaway, M; Indebetouw, R; Jewell, P R; Kepley, A A; Kim, D -C; Lacy, M D; Leroy, A K; Liszt, H S; Lonsdale, C J; Matthews, B; McKinnon, M; Mason, B S; Moellenbrock, G; Moullet, A; Myers, S T; Ott, J; Peck, A B; Pisano, J; Radford, S J E; Randolph, W T; Venkata, U Rao; Rawlings, M; Rosen, R; Schnee, S L; Scott, K S; Sharp, N K; Sheth, K J; Simon, R S; Tsutsumi, T; Wood, S J

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ~15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from September to late November 2014, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long...

  10. Measurement of baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging approach, which allows determining the spatial baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms by the proposed high-precision time-interval estimation method. This approach is novel in the sense that it cancels the effect of oscillator frequency synchronization errors due to separate oscillators that are used in the platforms. Several performance specifications are also discussed. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by simulation results.

  11. Hepatitis C treatment response kinetics and impact of baseline predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindh, M; Arnholm, B; Eilard, A

    2011-01-01

    Summary. The optimal duration of treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections is highly variable but critical for achieving cure (sustained virological response, SVR). We prospectively investigated the impact of age, fibrosis, baseline viraemia and genotype on the early viral kinetics...... above 400 000 IU/mL were strongly associated with slower second phase declines of HCV RNA. Genotype 2/3 infections responded more rapidly than genotype 1, reaching week 4 negativity (RVR) in 59%vs 22%. We conclude that baseline response predictors such as age, fibrosis and viral load were well reflected...... by the early viral kinetics as assessed by repeated HCV RNA quantifications. The kinetic patterns and the high relapse rate in genotype 2/3 patients without RVR suggest that this group might benefit from treatment durations longer than 24 weeks....

  12. Revised SRC-I project baseline. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    International Coal Refining Company (ICRC), in cooperation with the Commonwealth of Kentucky has contracted with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to design, build and operate a first-of-its-kind plant demonstrating the economic, environmental, socioeconomic and technical feasibility of the direct coal liquefaction process known as SRC-I. ICRC has made a massive commitment of time and expertise to design processes, plan and formulate policy, schedules, costs and technical drawings for all plant systems. These fully integrated plans comprise the Project Baseline and are the basis for all future detailed engineering, plant construction, operation, and other work set forth in the contract between ICRC and the DOE. Volumes I and II of the accompanying documents constitute the updated Project Baseline for the SRC-I two-stage liquefaction plant. International Coal Refining Company believes this versatile plant design incorporates the most advanced coal liquefaction system available in the synthetic fuels field. SRC-I two-stage liquefaction, as developed by ICRC, is the way of the future in coal liquefaction because of its product slate flexibility, high process thermal efficiency, and low consumption of hydrogen. The SRC-I Project Baseline design also has made important state-of-the-art advances in areas such as environmental control systems. Because of a lack of funding, the DOE has curtailed the total project effort without specifying a definite renewal date. This precludes the development of revised accurate and meaningful schedules and, hence, escalated project costs. ICRC has revised and updated the original Design Baseline to include in the technical documentation all of the approved but previously non-incorporated Category B and C and new Post-Baseline Engineering Change Proposals.

  13. Efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and feasibility of optimizing preventive strategies in patients at high cardiovascular risk: rationale, design and baseline characteristics of the Rischio and Prevenzione study, a large randomised trial in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimization of preventive strategies in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events and the evaluation of bottlenecks and limitations of transferring current guidelines to the real world of clinical practice are important limiting steps to cardiovascular prevention. Treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves prognosis after myocardial infarction, but evidence of this benefit is lacking in patients at high cardiovascular risk, but without a history of myocardial infarction. Methods/design Patients were eligible if their general practitioner (GP considered them at high cardiovascular risk because of a cardiovascular disease other than myocardial infarction, or multiple risk factors (at least four major risk factors in non-diabetic patients and one in diabetics. Patients were randomly allocated to treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (1 g daily or placebo in a double-blind study and followed up for five years by their GPs to assess the efficacy of the treatment in preventing cardiovascular mortality (including sudden death and hospitalization for cardiovascular reasons. The secondary, epidemiological, aim of the study is to assess whether it is feasible to adopt current guidelines in everyday clinical practice, with a view to optimizing all the available preventive strategies in people at high cardiovascular risk. A nation-wide network of 860 GPs admitted 12,513 patients to the study between February 2004 and March 2007. The mean age was 64 years and 62% were males. Diabetes mellitus plus one or more cardiovascular risk factors was the main inclusion criterion (47%. About 30% of patients were included because of a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, 21% for four or more risk factors, and less than 1% for other reasons. Discussion The Rischio and Prevenzione (R&P project provides a feasible model to test the efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid therapy in patients at high

  14. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  15. Joint Multi-baseline SAR Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tebaldini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a technique to provide interferometry by combining multiple images of the same area. This technique differs from the multi-baseline approach in literature as (a it exploits all the images simultaneously, (b it performs a spectral shift preprocessing to remove most of the decorrelation, and (c it exploits distributed targets. The technique is mainly intended for DEM generation at centimetric accuracy, as well as for differential interferometry. The problem is framed in the contest of single-input multiple-output (SIMO channel estimation via the cross-relations (CR technique and the resulting algorithm provides significant improvements with respect to conventional approaches based either on independent analysis of single interferograms or multi-baselines phase analysis of single pixels of current literature, for those targets that are correlated in all the images, like for long-term coherent areas, or for acquisitions taken with a short revisit time (as those gathered with future satellite constellations.

  16. Dissipative Effect in Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Roberto L N

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of neutrinos in long baselines experiments may be influenced by dissipation effects. Using Lindblad Master Equation we evolve neutrinos taking into account these dissipative effects. The MSW and the dissipative effects may change the probabilities behavior. In this work, we show and explain how the behavior of the probabilities can change due to the decoherence and relaxation effects acting individually with the MSW effect. A new exotic peak appears in this case and we show the difference between the decoherence and relaxation effects in the appearance of this peak. We also adapt the usual approximate expression for survival and appearance probabilities with all possible decoherence effects. We suppose the baseline of DUNE and show how each decoherence parameters change the probabilities analyzing the possible modification using numeric and analytic approach.

  17. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  18. Systematic errors in long baseline oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2006-02-01

    This article gives a brief overview of long baseline neutrino experiments and their goals, and then describes the different kinds of systematic errors that are encountered in these experiments. Particular attention is paid to the uncertainties that come about because of imperfect knowledge of neutrino cross sections and more generally how neutrinos interact in nuclei. Near detectors are planned for most of these experiments, and the extent to which certain uncertainties can be reduced by the presence of near detectors is also discussed.

  19. The Gambia Impact Evaluation Baseline Report

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Government of The Gambia is implementing the Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health Results Project (MCNHRP) to increase the utilization of community nutrition and primary maternal and child health services. In collaboration with the Government, the World Bank is conducting an impact evaluation (IE) to assess the impact of the project on key aspects of maternal and child nutrition and health. The baseline survey for the MCNHRP IE took place between November 2014 and February 2015. It c...

  20. Geochemical baseline data, Youngs Bay, Oregon, 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Johnson, V.G.; Cutshall, N.H.

    1975-04-01

    This report comprises one part of a final report to the Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation on the Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies of Youngs Bay''. The data reported herein are the product of the geochemical baseline section of the project. The primary objectives of the geochemical study were: to provide a baseline record of fluoride and selected trace metal levels in Youngs Bay bottom sediment, to identify areas that might function as heavy metal traps, to attempt to determine the recent depositional history of sediment in the bay. In addition to these primary objectives, a number of secondary tasks were undertaken during the study. While time did not allow these additional studies to be carried to completion, preliminary results are included herein because of their potential usefulness in assessing the impact of environmental releases of fluoride to aquatic systems in the vicinity of Youngs Bay or elsewhere. This report is made up of two major sections. In the first, a description of sample collection and analytical procedures is followed by a discussion of the baseline results. Obvious vertical and horizontal patterns of elemental distribution are identified and their origins considered. Problems needed further research are also discussed. In the second section, the data are presented in interpretive, graphical form, as well as in tables. 35 refs., 29 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. ALMA Long Baseline Campaigns: Phase Characteristics of Atmosphere at Long Baselines in the Millimeter and Submillimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Satoki; Asaki, Yoshiharu; Fomalont, Edward B.; Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Barkats, Denis; Hills, Richard E.; Kawabe, Ryohei; Maud, Luke T.; Nikolic, Bojan; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Vlahakis, Catherine; Whyborn, Nicholas D.

    2017-03-01

    likely to be water ice or a dry component. Excess path length fluctuation after the WVR phase correction at a baseline length of 10 km is large (≳ 200 μ {{m}}), which is significant for high frequency (> 450 {GHz} or method to reduce the degree of phase fluctuation, such as fast switching, in addition to the WVR phase correction. We simulated the fast switching phase correction method using observations of single quasars, and the result suggests that it works well, with shorter cycle times linearly improving the coherence.

  2. NA61/SHINE Data For Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Hälser, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Accelerator based long baseline neutrino experiments require precise neutrino fl ux predictions to reach their physics goals. These experiments are commonly based on a set of two detectors. At the near detector, cross section measurements are performed and the neutrino fl ux can be observed before oscillation, while at the far detector the signal for neutrino oscillations is studied. An accurate knowledge on hadron production is mandatory in order to predict the neutrino fluxes. The NA61/SHINE facility at the CERN SPS has proven its ability to deliver high quality measurements of hadron production for the long baseline neutrino experiments. In this paper, the latest results from N A61 /SHINE for the neutrino physics programme are reviewed and future plans are presented.

  3. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter-Trial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, K. H.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for sensorimotor adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a "one-size-fits-all" approach is inappropriate. Therefore, it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. This information could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time and provide better outcomes. The principal aim of this work is to look for baseline performance metrics that relate to locomotor adaptability. We propose a novel hypothesis that considers baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations ("noise") in motor performance, as a predictor of individual adaptive capabilities.

  4. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter­-Trial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for sensorimotor adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a one-size-fits-all approach is inappropriate. Therefore it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. This information could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time and provide better outcomes. The principal aim of this work is to look for baseline performance metrics that relate to locomotor adaptability. To-date, a strong relationship has been found between baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations ("noise") in motor performance, and adaptability in two oculomotor systems (see Preliminary Results). We now propose an analogous predictive mechanisms in the locomotor system.

  5. Centimeter repeatability of the VLBI estimates of European baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Antonio; Zarraoa, Nestor; Sardon, Esther; Ma, Chopo

    1992-01-01

    In the last three years, the European Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Network has grown to a total of six fixed antennas placed in Germany, Italy, Spain and Sweden, all equipped with the standard geodetic VLBI instrumentation and data recording systems. During this period of time, several experiments have been carried out using this interferometer providing data of very high quality due to the excellent sensitivity and performance of the European stations. The purpose of this paper is to study the consistency of the VLBI geodetic results on the European baselines with respect to the different degrees of freedom in the analysis procedure. Used to complete this study were both real and simulated data sets, two different software packages (OCCAM 3.0 and CALC 7.4/SOLVE), and a variety of data analysis strategies.

  6. Baseline characteristics of participants in the JUPITER trial, a randomized placebo-controlled primary prevention trial of statin therapy among individuals with low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridker, Paul M; Fonseca, Francisco A H; Genest, Jacques; Gotto, Antonio M; Kastelein, John J P; Khurmi, Nardev S; Koenig, Wolfgang; Libby, Peter; Lorenzatti, Alberto J; Nordestgaard, Borge G; Shepherd, James; Willerson, James T; Glynn, Robert J

    2007-12-01

    The Justification for the Use of statins in Primary prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled primary prevention trial of statin therapy among persons with average to low levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol who are at increased cardiovascular risk due to elevated plasma concentrations of the inflammatory biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). A total of 17,802 persons with LDL cholesterolor=2 mg/L were recruited from 26 countries and randomly allocated to 20 mg/day rosuvastatin or placebo. In contrast to previous studies of statin therapy in primary prevention, JUPITER is evaluating a group with modest plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol (median 108 mg/dl, interquartile range 94 to 119). Further, the trial includes 6,801 women (38.2%) and 5,577 participants with metabolic syndrome (32.1%). Thus, in addition to broadening our understanding of statin therapy and inflammation, the JUPITER trial will provide important and clinically relevant information on primary prevention among patients who do not currently qualify for lipid-lowering therapy. In conclusion, as 20 mg of rosuvastatin can reduce LDL cholesterol by up to 50%, JUPITER will also provide crucial safety data for several thousand patients who should achieve LDL cholesterol levels<50 mg/dl on a long-term basis.

  7. Track baseline data processing network method for coordinate transformation in high-speed railway%高铁轨道基准网平面网坐标转换方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟昊然; 刘成龙; 付恒友; 杨雪峰; 陈海军

    2011-01-01

    在高速铁路轨道基准网平面网数据处理中,需要将外业所测合格的轨道基准点坐标从测站站心坐标系转换到铁路工程独立坐标系,目前德国采用的是三参数坐标转换模型,而不是常规采用的四参数坐标转换模型.介绍了2种平面坐标转换模型及其转换参数精度评定的算法,通过对2种坐标转换的转换参数精度、坐标转换前后公共点残差以及站间坐标搭接情况的比较分析,认为2种坐标转换方法均能满足轨道基准网的精度要求,但是在其上一级CPⅢ控制网为约束平差的前提下,采用四参数坐标转换方法效果更优.%To process the data of horizontal network of track basis net of the high - speed railway, it is required to rewrite coordinates of qualified track datum mark, which are surveyed in the field operation, from the survey station' s topocentric coordinate system into the independent coordinate system of railway engineering. At status quo, Germany adopts tri - parameter transformation model rather than the regularly utilized quad - parameter transformation model. In this article, both coordinate systems and the algorithm of assessing the precision of the parameter transformation are introduced. It is suggested that both transformation models could meet with the requirements of precision of track basis net, through the comparative analysis on the transformation parameters' precision of both coordinate systems by the residual error of common points before and after the coordinate transformation , and the overlapping situations from various stations. However, it is quad - parameter coordinate transformation that appears to be better, on the assumption that the higher level, I. E. CPIII control network is used as the constrained surveying adjustment.

  8. Pipeline integrity: ILI baseline data for QRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Todd R. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: tporter@varco.com; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: guto@pipeway.com; Marr, James [MARR and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)]. E-mail: jmarr@marr-associates.com

    2003-07-01

    The initial phase of a pipeline integrity management program (IMP) is conducting a baseline assessment of the pipeline system and segments as part of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA). This gives the operator's integrity team the opportunity to identify critical areas and deficiencies in the protection, maintenance, and mitigation strategies. As a part of data gathering and integration of a wide variety of sources, in-line inspection (ILI) data is a key element. In order to move forward in the integrity program development and execution, the baseline geometry of the pipeline must be determined with accuracy and confidence. From this, all subsequent analysis and conclusions will be derived. Tuboscope Pipeline Services (TPS), in conjunction with Pipeway Engenharia of Brazil, operate ILI inertial navigation system (INS) and Caliper geometry tools, to address this integrity requirement. This INS and Caliper ILI tool data provides pipeline trajectory at centimeter level resolution and sub-metre 3D position accuracy along with internal geometry - ovality, dents, misalignment, and wrinkle/buckle characterization. Global strain can be derived from precise INS curvature measurements and departure from the initial pipeline state. Accurate pipeline elevation profile data is essential in the identification of sag/over bend sections for fluid dynamic and hydrostatic calculations. This data, along with pipeline construction, operations, direct assessment and maintenance data is integrated in LinaViewPRO{sup TM}, a pipeline data management system for decision support functions, and subsequent QRA operations. This technology provides the baseline for an informed, accurate and confident integrity management program. This paper/presentation will detail these aspects of an effective IMP, and experience will be presented, showing the benefits for liquid and gas pipeline systems. (author)

  9. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation, Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-11-01

    As discussed in the program plan for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, this program has been implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the current state of knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The objective of the program is to install a series of observation well clusters (wells installed in each major water bearing formation at the same site) at key locations across the plant site in order to: (1) provide detailed information on the lithology, stratigraphy, and groundwater hydrology, (2) provide observation wells to monitor the groundwater quality, head relationships, gradients, and flow paths.

  10. Very Long Baseline Interferometry with the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Paragi, Zsolt; Reynolds, Cormac; Rioja, Maria; Deller, Adam; Zhang, Bo; Gurvits, Leonid; Bietenholz, Michael; Szomoru, Arpad; Bignall, Hayley; Boven, Paul; Charlot, Patrick; Dodson, Richard; Frey, Sandor; Garrett, Michael; Imai, Hiroshi; Lobanov, Andrei; Reid, Mark; Ros, Eduardo; van Langevelde, Huib; Zensus, J Anton; Zheng, Xing Wu; Alberdi, Antxon; Agudo, Ivan; An, Tao; Argo, Megan; Beswick, Rob; Biggs, Andy D; Brunthaler, Andreas; Campbell, Robert M; Cimo, Giuseppe; Colomer, Francisco; Corbel, Stephane; Conway, John; Cseh, David; Deane, Roger; Falcke, Heino; Gabanyi, Krisztina; Gawronski, Marcin; Gaylard, Michael; Giovannini, Gabriele; Giroletti, Marcello; Goddi, Ciriaco; Goedhart, Sharmila; Gomez, Jose L; Gunn, Alastair; Jung, Taehyun; Kharb, Preeti; Klockner, Hans-Rainer; Kording, Elmar; Kovalev, Yurii Yu; Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Lindqvist, Michael; Lister, Matt; Mantovani, Franco; Marti-Vidal, Ivan; Mezcua, Mar; McKean, John; Middelberg, Enno; Miller-Jones, James; Moldon, Javier; Muxlow, Tom; O'Brien, Tim; Pérez-Torres, Miguel; Pogrebenko, Sergei; Quick, Jonathan; Rushton, Anthony P; Schilizzi, Richard; Smirnov, Oleg; Sohn, Bong Won; Surcis, Gabriele; Taylor, Greg; Tingay, Steven; Tudose, Valeriu; van der Horst, Alexander; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Venturi, Tiziana; Vermeulen, Rene; Vlemmings, Wouter; de Witt, Aletha; Wucknitz, Olaf; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Adding VLBI capability to the SKA arrays will greatly broaden the science of the SKA, and is feasible within the current specifications. SKA-VLBI can be initially implemented by providing phased-array outputs for SKA1-MID and SKA1-SUR and using these extremely sensitive stations with other radio telescopes, and in SKA2 by realising a distributed configuration providing baselines up to thousands of km, merging it with existing VLBI networks. The motivation for and the possible realization of SKA-VLBI is described in this paper.

  11. Optimization of the CLIC Baseline Collimation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resta-Lopez, Javier; /Oxford U., JAI; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa; /Daresbury; Fernandez-Hernando, Juan; /Daresbury; Jackson, Frank; /Daresbury; Dalena, Barbara; /CERN; Schulte, Daniel; /CERN; Tomas, Rogelio; /CERN; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2012-07-06

    Important efforts have recently been dedicated to the improvement of the design of the baseline collimation system of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). Different aspects of the design have been optimized: the transverse collimation depths have been recalculated in order to reduce the collimator wakefield effects while maintaining a good efficiency in cleaning the undesired beam halo; the geometric design of the spoilers have also been reviewed to minimize wakefields; in addition, the optics design have been polished to improve the collimation efficiency. This paper describes the current status of the CLIC collimation system after this optimization.

  12. SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1988-08-01

    The SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation was implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the SRP site. Phase III, which is discussed in this report, includes the drilling of 7 deep coreholes (sites P-24 through P-30) and the installation of 53 observation wells ranging in depth from approximately 50 ft to more than 970 ft below the ground surface. In addition to the collection of geologic cores for lithologic and stratigraphic study, samples were also collected for the determination of physical characteristics of the sediments and for the identification of microorganisms.

  13. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  14. Risk of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia during follow-up in HPV-positive women according to baseline p16-INK4A results: a prospective analysis of a nested substudy of the NTCC randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Francesca; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Confortini, Massimo; Del Mistro, Annarosa; Sani, Cristina; De Marco, Laura; Girlando, Salvatore; Rosso, Stefano; Naldoni, Carlo; Dalla Palma, Paolo; Zorzi, Manuel; Giorgi-Rossi, Paolo; Segnan, Nereo; Cuzick, Jack; Ronco, Guglielmo

    2013-02-01

    Immunostaining for p16-INK4A (henceforth p16) is a sensitive and specific method for detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women infected with human papillomavirus (HPV), but longitudinal data have not been obtained. We investigated the relation between p16 status and risk of CIN during 3 years of follow-up. Women aged 25-60 years were enrolled between June 10, 2003, and Dec 31, 2004, in a multicentre randomised trial comparing HPV testing with cytology. HPV-positive women were referred for colposcopy and, in seven of nine centres, were tested for p16 overexpression by immunostaining. If no CIN was detected, these women were followed up at yearly intervals until clearance of HPV infection. The primary endpoint was histologically confirmed CIN of grade 2 or worse (CIN of grade 2 [CIN2], CIN of grade 3 [CIN3], or invasive cervical cancer) at recruitment or during follow-up. We calculated the absolute and relative risks by p16 status at recruitment. We also calculated the longitudinal sensitivity of p16 testing. Additionally, we assessed the relative sensitivity of an alternative strategy (referral to colposcopy and follow-up of only HPV-positive, p16-positive women) versus conventional cytology in two age groups. Percentages were weighted by the inverse of the tested fraction. The trial in which this study is nested is registered, number ISRCTN81678807. Of 1042 HPV-positive women who were tested for p16 with no CIN detected during the first round of screening, 944 (91%) had further HPV tests. 793 (84%) of these 944 were followed up until detection of CIN2 or worse, HPV infection clearance, or for at least 3 years. CIN2 or worse was detected during follow-up in more p16-positive women (31 of 365, 8·8% [95% CI 5·8-11·8]) than in p16-negative women (17 of 579, 3·7% [1·9-5·4]; relative risk [RR] 2·61 [95% CI 1·49-4·59]). RR was higher in women aged 35-60 years at recruitment (3·37 [1·39-8·15]) than in those aged 25-34 years (2

  15. Baseline Response Levels Are a Nuisance in Infant Contingency Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, W. S.; Weir, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The impact of differences in level of baseline responding on contingency learning in the first year was examined by considering the response acquisition of infants classified into baseline response quartiles. Whereas the three lower baseline groups showed the predicted increment in responding to a contingency, the highest baseline responders did…

  16. Wide baseline stereo matching based on double topological relationship consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaohong; Liu, Bin; Song, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yang

    2009-07-01

    Stereo matching is one of the most important branches in computer vision. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for wide-baseline stereo vision matching. Here, a novel scheme is presented called double topological relationship consistency (DCTR). The combination of double topological configuration includes the consistency of first topological relationship (CFTR) and the consistency of second topological relationship (CSTR). It not only sets up a more advanced model on matching, but discards mismatches by iteratively computing the fitness of the feature matches and overcomes many problems of traditional methods depending on the powerful invariance to changes in the scale, rotation or illumination across large view changes and even occlusions. Experimental examples are shown where the two cameras have been located in very different orientations. Also, epipolar geometry can be recovered using RANSAC by far the most widely method adopted possibly. By the method, we can obtain correspondences with high precision on wide baseline matching problems. Finally, the effectiveness and reliability of this method are demonstrated in wide-baseline experiments on the image pairs.

  17. Gravity sensing with Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlippert, Dennis; Albers, Henning; Richardson, Logan L.; Nath, Dipankar; Meiners, Christian; Wodey, Etienne; Schubert, Christian; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.

    2016-05-01

    Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry (VLBAI) has applications in high-accuracy absolute gravimetry, gravity-gradiometry, and for tests of fundamental physics. Extending the baseline of atomic gravimeters from tens of centimeters to meters opens the route towards competition with superconducting gravimeters. The VLBAI-test stand will consist of a 10m-baseline atom interferometer allowing for free fall times of seconds. In order to suppress environmental noise, the facility utilizes a state-of-the-art vibration isolation platform and a three-layer magnetic shield. We envisage a resolution of local gravitational acceleration of 5 .10-10 m/ s2 with sub-ppb inaccuracy. Operation as a gradiometer will allow to resolve the gravity gradient at a resolution of 5 .10-10 1/ s2. The operation of VLBAI as a differential dual-species gravimeter using ultracold mixtures of Yb and Rb atoms enables quantum tests of the universality of free fall (UFF) at an unprecedented level, with the potential to surpass the accuracy of the best experiments to date. We report on a quantum test of the UFF using two different chemical elements, 39 K and 87 Rb, reaching a 100 ppb inaccuracy and show the potential of UFF tests in VLBAI at an inaccuracy of 10-13 and beyond.

  18. Physics Potential of Long-Baseline Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino mixing and oscillations over the past decade provides firm evidence for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Recently, theta13 has been determined to be moderately large, quite close to its previous upper bound. This represents a significant milestone in establishing the three-flavor oscillation picture of neutrinos. It has opened up exciting prospects for current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments towards addressing the remaining fundamental questions, in particular the type of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible presence of a CP-violating phase. Another recent and crucial development is the indication of non-maximal 2-3 mixing angle, causing the octant ambiguity of theta23. In this paper, I will review the phenomenology of long-baseline neutrino oscillations with a special emphasis on sub-leading three-flavor effects, which will play a crucial role in resolving these unknowns. First, I will give a brief description of neutrino oscillation phenomeno...

  19. Baseline and benchmark model development for hotels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Edward T., Jr.

    The hotel industry currently faces rising energy costs and requires the tools to maximize energy efficiency. In order to achieve this goal a clear definition of the current methods used to measure and monitor energy consumption is made. Uncovering the limitations to the most common practiced analysis strategies and presenting methods that can potentially overcome those limitations is the main purpose. Techniques presented can be used for measurement and verification of energy efficiency plans and retrofits. Also, modern energy modeling tool are introduced to demonstrate how they can be utilized for benchmarking and baseline models. This will provide the ability to obtain energy saving recommendations and parametric analysis to explore energy savings potential. These same energy models can be used in design decisions for new construction. An energy model is created of a resort style hotel that over one million square feet and has over one thousand rooms. A simulation and detailed analysis is performed on a hotel room. The planning process for creating the model and acquiring data from the hotel room to calibrate and verify the simulation will be explained. An explanation as to how this type of modeling can potentially be beneficial for future baseline and benchmarking strategies for the hotel industry. Ultimately the conclusion will address some common obstacles the hotel industry has in reaching their full potential of energy efficiency and how these techniques can best serve them.

  20. Vegetation baseline report : Connacher great divide project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    This baseline report supported an application by Connacher Oil and Gas Ltd. to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environment (AENV) for the Great Divide Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Project. The goal of the report was to document the distribution and occurrence of ecosite phases and wetland classes in the project footprint as well as to document the distribution of rare plants; rare plant communities: and intrusive species and old growth communities, including species of management concern. A methodology of the baseline report was presented, including details of mapping and field surveys. Six vegetation types in addition to the disturbed land unit were identified in the project footprint and associated buffer. It was noted that all vegetation types are common for the boreal forest natural regions. Several species of management concern were identified during the spring rare plant survey, including rare bryophytes and non-native or invasive species. Mitigation was identified through a slight shift of the footprint, transplant of appropriate bryophyte species and implementation of a weed management plan. It was noted that results of future surveys for rare plants will be submitted upon completion. It was concluded that the effects of the project on existing vegetation is expected to be low because of the small footprint, prior disturbance history, available mitigation measures and conservation and reclamation planning. 27 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  1. Modeling nonlinear errors in surface electromyography due to baseline noise: a new methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Laura Frey; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Avin, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The surface electromyographic (EMG) signal is often contaminated by some degree of baseline noise. It is customary for scientists to subtract baseline noise from the measured EMG signal prior to further analyses based on the assumption that baseline noise adds linearly to the observed EMG signal. The stochastic nature of both the baseline and EMG signal, however, may invalidate this assumption. Alternately, "true" EMG signals may be either minimally or nonlinearly affected by baseline noise. This information is particularly relevant at low contraction intensities when signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) may be lowest. Thus, the purpose of this simulation study was to investigate the influence of varying levels of baseline noise (approximately 2-40% maximum EMG amplitude) on mean EMG burst amplitude and to assess the best means to account for signal noise. The simulations indicated baseline noise had minimal effects on mean EMG activity for maximum contractions, but increased nonlinearly with increasing noise levels and decreasing signal amplitudes. Thus, the simple baseline noise subtraction resulted in substantial error when estimating mean activity during low intensity EMG bursts. Conversely, correcting EMG signal as a nonlinear function of both baseline and measured signal amplitude provided highly accurate estimates of EMG amplitude. This novel nonlinear error modeling approach has potential implications for EMG signal processing, particularly when assessing co-activation of antagonist muscles or small amplitude contractions where the SNR can be low.

  2. Imbalance in systemic inflammation and immune response following transarterial chemoembolization potentially increases metastatic risk in huge hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Tong-Chun; Jia, Qing-An; Ge, Ning-Ling; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Bo-Heng; Ye, Sheng-Long

    2015-11-01

    Inflammation plays a critical role in tumor metastasis. However, few inflammation-related biomarkers are currently available to predict the risk of metastasis for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using huge tumors (diameter >10 cm) as a model, we evaluated the potential risk of pre- and post-treatment inflammatory responses in the development of metastasis of HCC patients undergoing transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). A logistic regression model was used to analyze the risk factors. One hundred and sixty-five patients with huge HCC were enrolled in the study. Metastases were identified in 25.5% (42/165) patients by imaging evaluation post-TACE. Neutrophils increased, whereas lymphocytes decreased significantly post-TACE. Univariate analysis showed that high post-treatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR; p = 0.003), low post-treatment lymphocyte count (p = 0.047), and high baseline NLR (p = 0.100) were potential risk factors for metastasis. Further, multivariate analysis showed that high post-treatment NLR, but not pre-treatment NLR, was an independent risk factor for metastasis; this was confirmed by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Post-treatment NLR, however, had no correlation to tumor response and overall survival of patients. In conclusion, post-treatment NLR but not pre-treatment NLR independently increases the risk of metastasis in huge HCC. Our findings suggest the potential contribution of treatment-related inflammation to metastasis in advanced HCC.

  3. Radio sources - Very, Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D. H.

    1983-03-01

    With resolution of a thousandth of an arcsecond, the radio technique of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) provides astronomers with their highest-resolution view of the universe. Data taken with widely-separated antennas are combined, with the help of atomic clocks, to form a Michelson interferometer whose size may be as great as the earth's diameter. Extraordinary phenomena, from the birth of stars as signaled by the brilliant flashes of powerful interstellar masers to the 'faster-than-light' expansion of the cores of distant quasars, are being explored with this technique. However, earth-bound VLBI suffers from several restrictions due to the location of the component antennas at fixed places on the earth's surface. The use of one or more antennas in space in concert with ground-based equipment will greatly expand the technical and scientific capabilities of VLBI, leading to a more complete and even higher resolution view of cosmic phenomena.

  4. The OPERA long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilquet, G.

    2008-05-01

    OPERA is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to observe the appearance of vτ in a pure vμ beam in the parameter space indicated by the atmospheric neutrinos oscillation signal. The detector is situated in the underground LNGS laboratory under 3 800 water meter equivalent at a distance of 730 km from CERN where the CNGS neutrino beam to which it is exposed originates. It consists of two identical 0.68 kilotons lead/nuclear emulsion targets, each instrumented with a tracking device and complemented by a muon spectrometer. The concept and the status of the detector are described and the first results obtained with cosmic rays and during two weeks of beam commissioning in 2006 are reported.

  5. In-Space Manufacturing Baseline Property Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Tom; Schneider, Judith; Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Nicki

    2016-01-01

    The In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center currently operates a 3D FDM (fused deposition modeling) printer onboard the International Space Station. In order to enable utilization of this capability by designer, the project needs to establish characteristic material properties for materials produced using the process. This is difficult for additive manufacturing since standards and specifications do not yet exist for these technologies. Due to availability of crew time, there are limitations to the sample size which in turn limits the application of the traditional design allowables approaches to develop a materials property database for designers. In this study, various approaches to development of material databases were evaluated for use by designers of space systems who wish to leverage in-space manufacturing capabilities. This study focuses on alternative statistical techniques for baseline property development to support in-space manufacturing.

  6. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek scabbling technology was tested at Florida International University (FIU) and is being evaluated as a baseline technology. This report evaluates it for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek concrete scabbling system consisted of the MOOSE{reg_sign}, SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-I, and SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-III scabblers. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross-section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 318 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  7. Steganography Based on Baseline Sequential JPEG Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Information hiding in Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) compressed images are investigated in this paper. Quantization is the source of information loss in JPEG compression process. Therefore, information hidden in images is probably destroyed by JPEG compression. This paper presents an algorithm to reliably embed information into the JPEG bit streams in the process of JPEG encoding. Information extraction is performed in the process of JPEG decoding. The basic idea of our algorithm is to modify the quantized direct current (DC) coefficients and non-zero alternating current (AC) coefficients to represent one bit information (0 or 1). Experimental results on gray images using baseline sequential JPEG encoding show that the cover images (images without secret information) and the stego-images (images with secret information) are perceptually indiscernible.

  8. Intensity interferometry: Optical imaging with kilometer baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis

    2016-01-01

    Optical imaging with microarcsecond resolution will reveal details across and outside stellar surfaces but requires kilometer-scale interferometers, challenging to realize either on the ground or in space. Intensity interferometry, electronically connecting independent telescopes, has a noise budget that relates to the electronic time resolution, circumventing issues of atmospheric turbulence. Extents up to a few km are becoming realistic with arrays of optical air Cherenkov telescopes (primarily erected for gamma-ray studies), enabling an optical equivalent of radio interferometer arrays. Pioneered by Hanbury Brown and Twiss, digital versions of the technique have now been demonstrated, reconstructing diffraction-limited images from laboratory measurements over hundreds of optical baselines. This review outlines the method from its beginnings, describes current experiments, and sketches prospects for future observations.

  9. The WITCH Model. Structure, Baseline, Solutions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosetti, V.; Massetti, E.; Tavoni, M.

    2007-07-01

    WITCH - World Induced Technical Change Hybrid - is a regionally disaggregated hard link hybrid global model with a neoclassical optimal growth structure (top down) and an energy input detail (bottom up). The model endogenously accounts for technological change, both through learning curves affecting prices of new vintages of capital and through R and D investments. The model features the main economic and environmental policies in each world region as the outcome of a dynamic game. WITCH belongs to the class of Integrated Assessment Models as it possesses a climate module that feeds climate changes back into the economy. In this paper we provide a thorough discussion of the model structure and baseline projections. We report detailed information on the evolution of energy demand, technology and CO2 emissions. Finally, we explicitly quantifiy the role of free riding in determining the emissions scenarios. (auth)

  10. Octant degeneracy, CPV phase at Long Baseline $\

    CERN Document Server

    Bora, Kalpana; Dutta, Debajyoti

    2015-01-01

    In a recent work by two of us, we have studied, how CP violation discovery potential can be improved at long baseline neutrino experiments (LBNE/DUNE), by combining with its ND (near detector) and reactor experiments. In this work, we discuss how this study can be further analysed to resolve entanglement of the quadrant of CPV phase and Octant of atmospheric mixing angle {\\theta}23, at LBNEs. The study is done for both NH (Normal hierarchy) and IH (Inverted hierarchy). We further show how leptogenesis can enhance this effect of resolving this entanglement. A detailed analytic and numerical study of baryogenesis through leptogenesis is performed in this framework in a model independent way. We then compare our result of the baryon to photon ratio with the the current observational data of the baryon asymmetry.

  11. Tightly coupled long baseline/ultra-short baseline integrated navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Pedro; Silvestre, Carlos; Oliveira, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel integrated navigation filter based on a combined long baseline/ultra short baseline acoustic positioning system with application to underwater vehicles. With a tightly coupled structure, the position, linear velocity, attitude, and rate gyro bias are estimated, considering the full nonlinear system dynamics without resorting to any algebraic inversion or linearisation techniques. The resulting solution ensures convergence of the estimation error to zero for all initial conditions, exponentially fast. Finally, it is shown, under simulation environment, that the filter achieves very good performance in the presence of sensor noise.

  12. Owning the program technical baseline for future space systems acquisition: program technical baseline tracking tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Guillen, Andy T.; Hant, James J.; Kizer, Justin R.; Min, Inki A.; Siedlak, Dennis J. L.; Yoh, James

    2017-05-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has recognized the needs for owning the program and technical knowledge within the Air Force concerning the systems being acquired to ensure success. This paper extends the previous work done by the authors [1-2] on the "Resilient Program Technical Baseline Framework for Future Space Systems" and "Portfolio Decision Support Tool (PDST)" to the development and implementation of the Program and Technical Baseline (PTB) Tracking Tool (PTBTL) for the DOD acquisition life cycle. The paper describes the "simplified" PTB tracking model with a focus on the preaward phases and discusses how to implement this model in PDST.

  13. Biological baseline data Youngs Bay, Oregon, 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Higley, D.L.; Holton, R.L.

    1975-04-01

    This report presents biological baseline information gathered during the research project, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies on Youngs Bay.'' Youngs Bay is a shallow embayment located on the south shore of the Columbia River, near Astoria, Oregon. Research on Youngs Bay was motivated by the proposed construction by Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation of an aluminum reduction plant at Warrenton, Oregon. The research was designed to provide biological baseline information on Youngs Bay in anticipation of potential harmful effects from plant effluents. The information collected concerns the kinds of animals found in the Youngs Bay area, and their distribution and seasonal patterns of abundance. In addition, information was collected on the feeding habits of selected fish species, and on the life history and behavioral characteristics of the most abundant benthic amphipod, Corophium salmonis. Sampling was conducted at approximately three-week intervals, using commonly accepted methods of animal collection. Relatively few stations were sampled for fish, because of the need to standardize conditions of capture. Data on fish capture are reported in terms of catch-per-unit effort by a particular sampling gear at a specific station. Methods used in sampling invertebrates were generally more quantitative, and allowed sampling at a greater variety of places, as well as a valid basis for the computation of densities. Checklists of invertebrate species and fish species were developed from these samples, and are referred to throughout the report. The invertebrate checklist is more specific taxonomically than are tables reporting invertebrate densities. This is because the methods employed in identification were more precise than those used in counts. 9 refs., 27 figs., 25 tabs.

  14. A FPGA Implementation of JPEG Baseline Encoder for Wearable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuecheng; Jia, Wenyan; Luan, Bo; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, an efficient field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of the JPEG baseline image compression encoder is presented for wearable devices in health and wellness applications. In order to gain flexibility in developing FPGA-specific software and balance between real-time performance and resources utilization, A High Level Synthesis (HLS) tool is utilized in our system design. An optimized dataflow configuration with a padding scheme simplifies the timing control for data transfer. Our experiments with a system-on-chip multi-sensor system have verified our FPGA implementation with respect to real-time performance, computational efficiency, and FPGA resource utilization.

  15. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter-Trial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, K. H.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges surrounding adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a "one-size-fits-all" approach is inappropriate. Therefore, it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. Such knowledge could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time, both preflight and inflight, and provide better outcomes. The primary goal of this project is to look for a baseline performance metric that can forecast sensorimotor adaptability without exposure to an adaptive stimulus. We propose a novel hypothesis that considers baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations in motor performance, as a predictor of individual sensorimotor adaptive capabilities. To-date, a strong relationship has been found between baseline inter-trial correlations and adaptability in two oculomotor systems. For this project, we will explore an analogous predictive mechanism in the locomotion system. METHODS: Baseline Inter-trial Correlations: Inter-trial correlations specify the relationships among repeated trials of a given task that transpire as a consequence of correcting for previous performance errors over multiple timescales. We can quantify the strength of inter-trial correlations by measuring the decay of the autocorrelation function (ACF), which describes how rapidly information from past trials is "forgotten." Processes whose ACFs decay more slowly exhibit longer-term inter-trial correlations (longer memory processes), while processes whose ACFs decay more rapidly exhibit shorterterm inter-trial correlations (shorter memory processes). Longer-term correlations reflect low-frequency activity, which is more easily

  16. A comparison of baseline methodologies for 'Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Kasper

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A mechanism for emission reductions from deforestation and degradation (REDD is very likely to be included in a future climate agreement. The choice of REDD baseline methodologies will crucially influence the environmental and economic effectiveness of the climate regime. We compare three different historical baseline methods and one innovative dynamic model baseline approach to appraise their applicability under a future REDD policy framework using a weighted multi-criteria analysis. Results The results show that each baseline method has its specific strengths and weaknesses. Although the dynamic model allows for the best environmental and for comparatively good economic performance, its high demand for data and technical capacity limit the current applicability in many developing countries. Conclusion The adoption of a multi-tier approach will allow countries to select the baseline method best suiting their specific capabilities and data availability while simultaneously ensuring scientific transparency, environmental effectiveness and broad political support.

  17. The LOFAR long baseline snapshot calibrator survey

    CERN Document Server

    Moldón, J; Wucknitz, O; Jackson, N; Drabent, A; Carozzi, T; Conway, J; Kapińska, A D; McKean, P; Morabito, L; Varenius, E; Zarka, P; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Bell, M E; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bîrzan, L; Bregman, J; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Carbone, D; Ciardi, B; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Engels, D; Falcke, H; Fallows, R A; Fender, R; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Hamaker, J P; Hassall, T E; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Juette, E; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Mann, G; Markoff, S; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; Morganti, R; Munk, H; Norden, M J; Offringa, A R; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Rowlinson, A; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Stappers, B W; Steinmetz, M; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; Thoudam, S; Toribio, M C; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; van Weeren, R J; White, S; Wise, M W; Yatawatta, S; Zensus, A

    2014-01-01

    Aims. An efficient means of locating calibrator sources for International LOFAR is developed and used to determine the average density of usable calibrator sources on the sky for subarcsecond observations at 140 MHz. Methods. We used the multi-beaming capability of LOFAR to conduct a fast and computationally inexpensive survey with the full International LOFAR array. Sources were pre-selected on the basis of 325 MHz arcminute-scale flux density using existing catalogues. By observing 30 different sources in each of the 12 sets of pointings per hour, we were able to inspect 630 sources in two hours to determine if they possess a sufficiently bright compact component to be usable as LOFAR delay calibrators. Results. Over 40% of the observed sources are detected on multiple baselines between international stations and 86 are classified as satisfactory calibrators. We show that a flat low-frequency spectrum (from 74 to 325 MHz) is the best predictor of compactness at 140 MHz. We extrapolate from our sample to sho...

  18. Lorentz symmetry and very long baseline interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Hees, A.; Lambert, S.

    2016-12-01

    Lorentz symmetry violations can be described by an effective field theory framework that contains both general relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics called the Standard Model extension (SME). Recently, postfit analysis of Gravity Probe B and binary pulsars led to an upper limit at the 10-4 level on the time-time coefficient s¯T T of the pure-gravity sector of the minimal SME. In this work, we derive the observable of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) in SME and then implement it into a real data analysis code of geodetic VLBI observations. Analyzing all available observations recorded since 1979, we compare estimates of s¯T T and errors obtained with various analysis schemes, including global estimations over several time spans, and with various Sun elongation cutoff angles, and by analysis of radio source coordinate time series. We obtain a constraint on s¯ T T=(-5 ±8 )×10-5 , directly fitted to the observations and improving by a factor of 5 previous postfit analysis estimates.

  19. Baseline air quality study at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave, M.J.; Charboneau, R.

    1980-10-01

    Air quality and meteorological data collected at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are presented. The data represent baseline values for the pre-construction phase of a proposed coal-gasification test facility. Air quality data were characterized through continuous monitoring of gaseous pollutants, collection of meteorological data, data acquisition and reduction, and collection and analysis of discrete atmospheric samples. Seven air quality parameters were monitored and recorded on a continuous real-time basis: sulfur dioxide, ozone, total hydrocarbons, nonreactive hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide. A 20.9-m tower was erected near Argonne's mobile air monitoring laboratory, which was located immediately downwind of the proposed facility. The tower was instrumented at three levels to collect continuous meteorological data. Wind speed was monitored at three levels; wind direction, horizontal and vertical, at the top level; ambient temperature at the top level; and differential temperature between all three levels. All continuously-monitored parameters were digitized and recorded on magnetic tape. Appropriate software was prepared to reduce the data. Statistical summaries, grphical displays, and correlation studies also are presented.

  20. Camera Trajectory fromWide Baseline Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlena, M.; Torii, A.; Pajdla, T.

    2008-09-01

    Camera trajectory estimation, which is closely related to the structure from motion computation, is one of the fundamental tasks in computer vision. Reliable camera trajectory estimation plays an important role in 3D reconstruction, self localization, and object recognition. There are essential issues for a reliable camera trajectory estimation, for instance, choice of the camera and its geometric projection model, camera calibration, image feature detection and description, and robust 3D structure computation. Most of approaches rely on classical perspective cameras because of the simplicity of their projection models and ease of their calibration. However, classical perspective cameras offer only a limited field of view, and thus occlusions and sharp camera turns may cause that consecutive frames look completely different when the baseline becomes longer. This makes the image feature matching very difficult (or impossible) and the camera trajectory estimation fails under such conditions. These problems can be avoided if omnidirectional cameras, e.g. a fish-eye lens convertor, are used. The hardware which we are using in practice is a combination of Nikon FC-E9 mounted via a mechanical adaptor onto a Kyocera Finecam M410R digital camera. Nikon FC-E9 is a megapixel omnidirectional addon convertor with 180° view angle which provides images of photographic quality. Kyocera Finecam M410R delivers 2272×1704 images at 3 frames per second. The resulting combination yields a circular view of diameter 1600 pixels in the image. Since consecutive frames of the omnidirectional camera often share a common region in 3D space, the image feature matching is often feasible. On the other hand, the calibration of these cameras is non-trivial and is crucial for the accuracy of the resulting 3D reconstruction. We calibrate omnidirectional cameras off-line using the state-of-the-art technique and Mičušík's two-parameter model, that links the radius of the image point r to the

  1. Lorentz symmetry and Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Poncin-Lafitte, C Le; lambert, S

    2016-01-01

    Lorentz symmetry violations can be described by an effective field theory framework that contains both General Relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics called the Standard-Model extension (SME). Recently, post-fit analysis of Gravity Probe B and binary pulsars lead to an upper limit at the $10^{-4}$ level on the time-time coefficient $\\bar s^{TT}$ of the pure-gravity sector of the minimal SME. In this work, we derive the observable of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) in SME and then we implement it into a real data analysis code of geodetic VLBI observations. Analyzing all available observations recorded since 1979, we compare estimates of $\\bar s^{TT}$ and errors obtained with various analysis schemes, including global estimations over several time spans and with various Sun elongation cut-off angles, and with analysis of radio source coordinate time series. We obtain a constraint on $\\bar s^{TT}=(-5\\pm 8)\\times 10^{-5}$, directly fitted to the observations and improving by a factor 5 pr...

  2. Baseline review of the U.S. LHC Accelerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Review of the U.S. Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Accelerator project was conducted February 23--26, 1998, at the request of Dr. John R. O`Fallon, Director, Division of High Energy Physics, Office of Energy Research, U.S. DOE. This is the first review of the U.S. LHC Accelerator project. Overall, the Committee found that the U.S. LHC Accelerator project effort is off to a good start and that the proposed scope is very conservative for the funding available. The Committee recommends that the project be initially baselined at a total cost of $110 million, with a scheduled completion data of 2005. The U.S. LHC Accelerator project will supply high technology superconducting magnets for the interaction regions (IRs) and the radio frequency (rf) straight section of the LHC intersecting storage rings. In addition, the project provides the cryogenic support interface boxes to service the magnets and radiation absorbers to protect the IR dipoles and the inner triplet quadrupoles. US scientists will provide support in analyzing some of the detailed aspects of accelerator physics in the two rings. The three laboratories participating in this project are Brookhaven National Laboratory, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Committee was very impressed by the technical capabilities of the US LHC Accelerator project team. Cost estimates for each subsystem of the US LHC Accelerator project were presented to the Review Committee, with a total cost including contingency of $110 million (then year dollars). The cost estimates were deemed to be conservative. A re-examination of the funding profile, costs, and schedules on a centralized project basis should lead to an increased list of deliverables. The Committee concluded that the proposed scope of US deliverables to CERN can be readily accomplished with the $110 million total cost baseline for the project. The current deliverables should serve as

  3. Digital Offshore Cadastre (DOC) - Pacific83 - Baseline Tangent Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines and bay closing lines in ESRI Arc/Info export and Arc/View shape file formats for the BOEM Pacific Region. Baseline...

  4. Humanized anti-interleukin-6-receptor antibody (tocilizumab) monotherapy is more effective in slowing radiographic progression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at high baseline risk for structural damage evaluated with levels of biomarkers, radiography, and BMI: data from the SAMURAI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Jun; Garnero, Patrick; van der Heijde, Désirée; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kawai, Shinichi; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nishimoto, Norihiro

    2011-02-01

    Our aim was to assess the ability of tocilizumab monotherapy to reduce progressive structural joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis patients at high risk of progression. This study was a subanalysis from a prospective 1-year, multicenter, X-ray-reader-blinded, randomized controlled trial of tocilizumab [Study of Active Controlled Monotherapy Used for Rheumatoid Arthritis, an IL-6 Inhibitor (SAMURAI) trial]. All patients were categorized into two or three groups according to four independent predictive markers for progressive joint damage [urinary C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide (uCTX-II), urinary pyridinoline/deoxypyridinoline (uPYD/DPD) ratio, body mass index (BMI), and joint-space narrowing (JSN) score at baseline]. One-year progression of joint destruction was assessed in high-risk versus low-risk groups receiving tocilizumab monotherapy and compared with patients receiving conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) (n = 157 and 145, respectively). In patients at high risk of progression of erosion as estimated by high uCTX-II, uPYD/DPD, or low BMI, and at high risk of progression of JSN as estimated by low BMI or high JSN score, the 52-week changes in radiological erosion and JSN, respectively, were significantly less in patients treated with tocilizumab monotherapy compared with those receiving DMARDs for each type of risk factor. In patients at low risk, those receiving tocilizumab also progressed less than those on DMARDs, although the difference did not reach statistical significance. Tocilizumab monotherapy is more effective in reducing radiological progression in patients presenting with risk factors for rapid progression than in low-risk patients. Patients at high risk for progression may benefit more from tocilizumab treatment.

  5. The effect of short-baseline neutrino oscillations on LBNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, William C. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Short-baseline neutrino oscillations can have a relatively big effect on long-baseline oscillations, due to the cross terms that arise from multiple mass scales. The existing short-baseline anomalies suggest that short-baseline oscillations can affect the ν{sub μ} → ν{sub e} appearance probabilities by up to 20-40%, depending on the values of the CP-violating parameters.

  6. The effect of short-baseline neutrino oscillations on LBNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, William C.

    2015-10-01

    Short-baseline neutrino oscillations can have a relatively big effect on long-baseline oscillations, due to the cross terms that arise from multiple mass scales. The existing short-baseline anomalies suggest that short-baseline oscillations can affect the νμ → νe appearance probabilities by up to 20-40%, depending on the values of the CP-violating parameters.

  7. Re-creating missing population baselines for Pacific reef sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, Marc O; Baum, Julia K; Williams, Ivor D; McPherson, Jana M; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Richards, Benjamin L; Schroeder, Robert E; Brainard, Russell E

    2012-06-01

    Sharks and other large predators are scarce on most coral reefs, but studies of their historical ecology provide qualitative evidence that predators were once numerous in these ecosystems. Quantifying density of sharks in the absence of humans (baseline) is, however, hindered by a paucity of pertinent time-series data. Recently researchers have used underwater visual surveys, primarily of limited spatial extent or nonstandard design, to infer negative associations between reef shark abundance and human populations. We analyzed data from 1607 towed-diver surveys (>1 ha transects surveyed by observers towed behind a boat) conducted at 46 reefs in the central-western Pacific Ocean, reefs that included some of the world's most pristine coral reefs. Estimates of shark density from towed-diver surveys were substantially lower (sharks observed in towed-diver surveys and human population in models that accounted for the influence of oceanic primary productivity, sea surface temperature, reef area, and reef physical complexity. We used these models to estimate the density of sharks in the absence of humans. Densities of gray reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos), whitetip reef sharks (Triaenodon obesus), and the group "all reef sharks" increased substantially as human population decreased and as primary productivity and minimum sea surface temperature (or reef area, which was highly correlated with temperature) increased. Simulated baseline densities of reef sharks under the absence of humans were 1.1-2.4/ha for the main Hawaiian Islands, 1.2-2.4/ha for inhabited islands of American Samoa, and 0.9-2.1/ha for inhabited islands in the Mariana Archipelago, which suggests that density of reef sharks has declined to 3-10% of baseline levels in these areas.

  8. Gravity sensing with Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlippert, Dennis; Albers, Henning; Richardson, Logan L.; Nath, Dipankar; Meiners, Christian; Wodey, Étienne; Schubert, Christian; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.

    2016-04-01

    Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry (VLBAI) represents a new class of atom optics experiments with applications in high-accuracy absolute gravimetry, gravity-gradiometry, and for tests of fundamental physics. Extending the baseline of atomic gravimeters from tens of centimeters to several meters opens the route towards competition with superconducting gravimeters. The VLBAI-test stand will consist of a 10m-baseline atom interferometer allowing for free fall times on the order of seconds, which will implemented in the Hannover Institut für Technologie (HITec) of the Leibniz Universität Hannover. In order to suppress environmental noise, the facility utilizes a state-of-the-art vibration isolation platform and a three-layer magnetic shield. We envisage a resolution of local gravitational acceleration of 5 ṡ 10-10 m/s2 with an inaccuracy < 10-9 m/s2. Operation as a gravity-gradiometer will allow to resolve the first-order gravity gradient with a resolution of 5 ṡ 10-10 1/s2. The operation of VLBAI as a differential dual-species gravimeter using ultracold mixtures of ytterbium and rubidium atoms enables quantum tests of the universality of free fall (UFF) at an unprecedented level [1], with the potential to surpass the accuracy of the best experiments to date [2]. We report on the first quantum test of the UFF using two different chemical elements, 39K and 87Rb [3], reaching a 100 ppb inaccuracy and show the potential of UFF tests in VLBAI at an inaccuracy of 10-13 and beyond. References J. Hartwig et al., New J. Phys. 17, 035011- (2015) S. Schlamminger et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 041101- (2008) D. Schlippert et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 203002 (2014)

  9. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline baseline emissions determination. (a) Annual average baseline values. For any facility of a... gasoline volume of the facility, per § 80.91. (b) Baseline exhaust benzene emissions—simple model. (1) Simple model exhaust benzene emissions of conventional gasoline shall be determined using the following...

  10. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy... Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the... inventory, the responsible employer must: (1) Review current and historical records; (2) Interview...

  11. Nonintrusive methodology for wellness baseline profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Danny Wen-Yaw; Tsai, Yuh-Show; Miaou, Shaou-Gang; Chang, Walter H.; Chang, Yaw-Jen; Chen, Shia-Chung; Hong, Y. Y.; Chyang, C. S.; Chang, Quan-Shong; Hsu, Hon-Yen; Hsu, James; Yao, Wei-Cheng; Hsu, Ming-Sin; Chen, Ming-Chung; Lee, Shi-Chen; Hsu, Charles; Miao, Lidan; Byrd, Kenny; Chouikha, Mohamed F.; Gu, Xin-Bin; Wang, Paul C.; Szu, Harold

    2007-04-01

    We develop an accumulatively effective and affordable set of smart pair devices to save the exuberant expenditure for the healthcare of aging population, which will not be sustainable when all the post-war baby boomers retire (78 millions will cost 1/5~1/4 GDP in US alone). To design an accessible test-bed for distributed points of homecare, we choose two exemplars of the set to demonstrate the possibility of translation of modern military and clinical know-how, because two exemplars share identically the noninvasive algorithm adapted to the Smart Sensor-pairs for the real world persistent surveillance. Currently, the standard diagnoses for malignant tumors and diabetes disorders are blood serum tests, X-ray CAT scan, and biopsy used sometime in the physical checkup by physicians as cohort-average wellness baselines. The loss of the quality of life in making second careers productive may be caused by the missing of timeliness for correct diagnoses and easier treatments, which contributes to the one quarter of human errors generating the lawsuits against physicians and hospitals, which further escalates the insurance cost and wasteful healthcare expenditure. Such a vicious cycle should be entirely eliminated by building an "individual diagnostic aids (IDA)," similar to the trend of personalized drug, developed from daily noninvasive intelligent databases of the "wellness baseline profiling (WBP)". Since our physiology state undulates diurnally, the Nyquist anti-aliasing theory dictates a minimum twice-a-day sampling of the WBP for the IDA, which must be made affordable by means of noninvasive, unsupervised and unbiased methodology at the convenience of homes. Thus, a pair of military infrared (IR) spectral cameras has been demonstrated for the noninvasive spectrogram ratio test of the spontaneously emitted thermal radiation from a normal human body at 37°C temperature. This invisible self-emission spreads from 3 microns to 12 microns of the radiation wavelengths

  12. 1993 baseline solid waste management system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armacost, L.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Konynenbelt, H.S.

    1994-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has prepared this report under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company. The report provides an integrated description of the system planned for managing Hanford`s solid low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, transuranic waste, and transuranic mixed waste. The primary purpose of this document is to illustrate a collective view of the key functions planned at the Hanford Site to handle existing waste inventories, as well as solid wastes that will be generated in the future. By viewing this system as a whole rather than as individual projects, key facility interactions and requirements are identified and a better understanding of the overall system may be gained. The system is described so as to form a basis for modeling the system at various levels of detail. Model results provide insight into issues such as facility capacity requirements, alternative system operating strategies, and impacts of system changes (ie., startup dates). This description of the planned Hanford solid waste processing system: defines a baseline system configuration; identifies the entering waste streams to be managed within the system; identifies basic system functions and waste flows; and highlights system constraints. This system description will evolve and be revised as issues are resolved, planning decisions are made, additional data are collected, and assumptions are tested and changed. Out of necessity, this document will also be revised and updated so that a documented system description, which reflects current system planning, is always available for use by engineers and managers. It does not provide any results generated from the many alternatives that will be modeled in the course of analyzing solid waste disposal options; such results will be provided in separate documents.

  13. Comparison of baseline results for the TI-4100 and Trimble 4000SDT geodetic GPS receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    1992-10-01

    Many GPS networks which were initially surveyed with Texas Instruments TI-4100 receivers have now been resurveyed with mixtures of TI-4100 and Trimble 4000 receivers or exclusively with Trimble receivers. In order to make confident tectonic interpretation of displacements observed between such surveys, it is necessary to understand any biases which may be introduced by using different receiver types or by mixing receivers within a network. Therefore, one of the primary objectives of the Ecuador 1990 GPS campaign (February 1990) was to provide a direct long baseline comparison between the TI-4100 and Trimble 4000SDT GPS receivers. p ]During this campaign, TI and Trimble receivers were co-located at each end of a 1323 kilometer baseline (Jerusalen to Baltra). Solutions for this baseline show no variation with receiver type. Zero-length baseline solutions showed no evidence for any intrinsic bias caused by mixing the two receiver types. Short baseline solutions indicate a bias of -34±10 mm in the baseline vertical component; the sign of the bias indicates that either the assumed phase center location for the TI is too low or the assumed location for the Trimble is too high. The bias is explainable if the phase centers of the Trimble SDT and SST antennas are similarly located. p ]Solutions for baselines measured with codeless receivers (such as the Trimble) should be as precise as those for baselines measured with P-code receivers (such as the TI) as long as it is possible to resolve ambiguities. Resolution of the widelane ambiguity is the limiting factor in ambiguity resolution with any codeless receiver, and in the February 1990 campaigns it was not successful fore baselines longer than 100 km. Without explicit modeling of the ionospheric effect on the widelane, ambiguity resolution with codeless receivers will not be successful for baselines longer than about 100 km, depending on the local ionospheric conditions.

  14. The LBNO long-baseline oscillation sensitivities with two conventional neutrino beams at different baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, S.K.; Aittola, M.; Alekou, A.; Andrieu, B.; Antoniou, F.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Autiero, D.; Besida, O.; Balik, A.; Ballett, P.; Bandac, I.; Banerjee, D.; Bartmann, W.; Bay, F.; Biskup, B.; Blebea-Apostu, A.M.; Blondel, A.; Bogomilov, M.; Bolognesi, S.; Borriello, E.; Brancus, I.; Bravar, A.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Caiulo, D.; Calin, M.; Calviani, M.; Campanelli, M.; Cantini, C.; Cata-Danil, G.; Chakraborty, S.; Charitonidis, N.; Chaussard, L.; Chesneanu, D.; Chipesiu, F.; Crivelli, P.; Dawson, J.; De Bonis, I.; Declais, Y.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Delbart, A.; Di Luise, S.; Duchesneau, D.; Dumarchez, J.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Eliseev, A.; Emery, S.; Enqvist, T.; Enqvist, K.; Epprecht, L.; Erykalov, A.N.; Esanu, T.; Franco, D.; Friend, M.; Galymov, V.; Gavrilov, G.; Gendotti, A.; Giganti, C.; Gilardoni, S.; Goddard, B.; Gomoiu, C.M.; Gornushkin, Y.A.; Gorodetzky, P.; Haesler, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Horikawa, S.; Huitu, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jipa, A.; Kainulainen, K.; Karadzhov, Y.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kopylov, A.N.; Korzenev, A.; Kosyanenko, S.; Kryn, D.; Kudenko, Y.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Lazanu, I.; Lazaridis, C.; Levy, J.M.; Loo, K.; Maalampi, J.; Margineanu, R.M.; Marteau, J.; Martin-Mari, C.; Matveev, V.; Mazzucato, E.; Mefodiev, A.; Mineev, O.; Mirizzi, A.; Mitrica, B.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Narita, S.; Nesterenko, D.A.; Nguyen, K.; Nikolics, K.; Noah, E.; Novikov, Yu.; Oprima, A.; Osborne, J.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pascoli, S.; Patzak, T.; Pectu, M.; Pennacchio, E.; Periale, L.; Pessard, H.; Popov, B.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M.; Resnati, F.; Ristea, O.; Robert, A.; Rubbia, A.; Rummukainen, K.; Saftoiu, A.; Sakashita, K.; Sanchez-Galan, F.; Sarkamo, J.; Saviano, N.; Scantamburlo, E.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Slupecki, M.; Smargianaki, D.; Stanca, D.; Steerenberg, R.; Sterian, A.R.; Sterian, P.; Stoica, S.; Strabel, C.; Suhonen, J.; Suvorov, V.; Toma, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trzaska, W.H.; Tsenov, R.; Tuominen, K.; Valram, M.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Vannucci, F.; Vasseur, G.; Velotti, F.; Velten, P.; Venturi, V.; Viant, T.; Vihonen, S.; Vincke, H.; Vorobyev, A.; Weber, A.; Wu, S.; Yershov, N.; Zambelli, L.; Zito, M.

    2014-01-01

    The proposed Long Baseline Neutrino Observatory (LBNO) initially consists of $\\sim 20$ kton liquid double phase TPC complemented by a magnetised iron calorimeter, to be installed at the Pyh\\"asalmi mine, at a distance of 2300 km from CERN. The conventional neutrino beam is produced by 400 GeV protons accelerated at the SPS accelerator delivering 700 kW of power. The long baseline provides a unique opportunity to study neutrino flavour oscillations over their 1st and 2nd oscillation maxima exploring the $L/E$ behaviour, and distinguishing effects arising from $\\delta_{CP}$ and matter. In this paper we show how this comprehensive physics case can be further enhanced and complemented if a neutrino beam produced at the Protvino IHEP accelerator complex, at a distance of 1160 km, and with modest power of 450 kW is aimed towards the same far detectors. We show that the coupling of two independent sub-MW conventional neutrino and antineutrino beams at different baselines from CERN and Protvino will allow to measure ...

  15. Compression phase study of the HiPER baseline target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeyre, X; Nicolai, Ph; Schurtz, G; Olazabal-Loume, M; Breil, J; Maire, P H; Feugeas, J L; Hallo, L; Tikhonchuk, V T [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS, CEA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351, cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France)

    2008-02-15

    The European High Power laser Energy Research (HiPER) project aims at demonstrating the feasibility of high gain inertial confinement fusion using the fast ignitor approach. A baseline target has been recently developed by Atzeni et al (2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 052702). We study here the robustness of this target during the compression phase and define pulse shape tolerances for a successful fuel assembly. The comparison between a standard and a relaxation pulse shows that the latter allows one to reduce both the laser power contrast and the growth of perturbations due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We have found that with 95 kJ of absorbed laser energy one can assemble the fuel with a peak density around 500 g cm{sup -2} and a peak areal density of 1.2 g cm{sup -2}. This implies a total target gain of about 60.

  16. Numerical simulations of the HiPER baseline target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeyre, X; Nicolai, P; Schurtz, G; Olazabal-Loume, M; Breil, J; Maire, P H; Feugeas, J L; Hallo, L; Tikhonchuk, V T [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS, CEA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351, cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France)], E-mail: ribeyre@celia.u-bordeaux1

    2008-05-15

    The European High Power laser Energy Research (HiPER) project aims at demonstrating the feasibility of high gain inertial confinement fusion (ICF) using the fast ignitor approach. A baseline target has been recently developed by Atzeni et al. [Phys. Plasmas 14, 052702 (2007)]. The comparison between a standard and a relaxation pulse shows that the latter one allows to reduce both the laser power contrast and the growth of perturbation under Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We have found that with 95 kJ of absorbed laser energy one can assemble the fuel with to a peak density around 500 g/cm{sup 3} and to a peak areal density of 1.2 g/cm{sup 2}. This implies a total target gain of about 55.

  17. Numerical simulations of the HiPER baseline target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeyre, X.; Nicolai, Ph.; Schurtz, G.; Olazabal-Loume, M.; Breil, J.; Maire, P.H.; Feugeas, J.M.; Hallo, L.; Tikhonchuk, V.T. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, CNRS, CEA, 33 - Talence (France)

    2009-08-15

    The European High Power laser Energy Research (HiPER) project aims at demonstrating the feasibility of high gain inertial confinement fusion using the fast ignitor approach. A baseline target has been recently developed by Atzeni et al. [Phys. Plasmas 14, 052702 (2007)]. The radiative transport have a minor effect on the peak areal density but decreased by 20% the peak density. We have found that with 95 kJ of absorbed laser energy one can assemble the fuel with a peak density around 500 g/cm{sup 3} and a peak areal density of 1.2 g/cm{sup 2}. This implies a total target gain of about 60. (authors)

  18. Baseline Behavior of Pilot Whales and their Responses to Playback of Anthropogenic and Natural Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Baseline Behavior of Pilot Whales and their Responses to...N000141210417 LONG-TERM GOALS This project investigated the social ecology and baseline behavior of long-finned pilot whales as part of a broad...noise sources compared to beaked whales . However, studies have been hindered by high inherent variability in acoustic and diving behavior and a lack

  19. Baseline Requirements and Architecture for Cloud Computing Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Rahim Choudhary

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Government initiatives such as the “Cloud First” policy are bringing the cloud computing services into Federal Agencies. Further, many of the sectors in the Critical Infrastructure of the nation already use cloud computing. Although cloud computing services are slowly coming to age, many issues remain. This paper therefore takes a closer look at the cloud computing services. First it establishes a baseline by specifying high level requirements for cloud computing services. Next it improves upon the current architecture for the cloud computing services by adding new modules to the current architecture. The new modules are gleaned from an analysis of the telecommunications cloud and security in distributed systems. The new modules include a management and control network, a set of trust domains, and a set of proxies. The improved architecture is more ready for primetime use and supports a richer operational model.

  20. Laser-Ranging Long Baseline Differential Atom Interferometers for Space

    CERN Document Server

    Chiow, Sheng-wey; Yu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    High sensitivity differential atom interferometers are promising for precision measurements in science frontiers in space, including gravity field mapping for Earth science studies and gravitational wave detection. We propose a new configuration of twin atom interferometers connected by a laser ranging interferometer (LRI-AI) to provide precise information of the displacements between the two AI reference mirrors and a means to phase-lock the two independent interferometer lasers over long distances, thereby further enhancing the feasibility of long baseline differential atom interferometers. We show that a properly implemented LRI-AI can achieve equivalent functionality to the conventional differential atom interferometer measurement system. LRI-AI isolates the laser requirements for atom interferometers and for optical phase readout between distant locations, thus enabling optimized allocation of available laser power within a limited physical size and resource budget. A unique aspect of LRI-AI also enables...

  1. Short-baseline reactor neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariani, C. [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The neutrino mixing angle {theta}13 is currently a high-priority topic in the field of neutrino physics, with three different reactor neutrino experiments under way, searching for neutrino oscillations induced by this angle. A description of the reactor experiments searching for a non-zero value of {theta}13 is given, together with a discussion of their sensitivity within the next few years.

  2. Regional and hemispheric influences on temporal variability in baseline carbon monoxide and ozone over the Northeast US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Mao, H.; Demerjian, K.; Hogrefe, C.; Liu, J.

    2017-09-01

    Interannual variability in baseline carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3), defined as mixing ratios under minimal influence of recent and local emissions, was studied for seven rural sites in the Northeast US over 2001-2010. Annual baseline CO exhibited statistically significant decreasing trends (-4.3 to -2.3 ppbv yr-1), while baseline O3 did not display trends at any site. In examining the data by season, wintertime and springtime baseline CO at the two highest sites (1.5 km and 2 km asl) did not experience significant trends. Decadal increasing trends (∼2.55 ppbv yr-1) were found in springtime and wintertime baseline O3 in southern New Hampshire, which was associated with anthropogenic NOx emission reductions from the urban corridor. Biomass burning emissions impacted summertime baseline CO with ∼38% variability from wildfire emissions in Russia and ∼22% from Canada at five sites and impacted baseline O3 at the two high elevation sites only with ∼27% variability from wildfires in both Russia and Canada. The Arctic Oscillation was negatively correlated with summertime baseline O3, while the North Atlantic Oscillation was positively correlated with springtime baseline O3. This study suggested that anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions, and meteorological conditions were important factors working together to determine baseline O3 and CO in the Northeast U.S. during the 2000s.

  3. Long-baseline experiments, now and soon!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jenny Thomas

    2012-11-01

    The new results available this year from a number of neutrino experiments bring into stronger focus the details in the `Standard Model' of neutrino oscillations described by the PMNS mixing matrix. However, the parameters are still not known to very high precision. The next few years look bright for accelerator neutrino experiments, with much action occurring in the near future. We still have to wait a little longer, however, to be sure, but making educated guesses is needed to make plans for the future.

  4. BMC{trademark}: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    Barrier Membrane Containment (BMC){trademark} is a high-density polyethylene membrane (HDPE) groundwater barrier and pass-through system, with applications ranging from plume control and containment to groundwater manipulation coupled with in-site treatment. BMC{trademark} system can function as a permeable or impermeable reaction wall, a cut-off wall, interceptor trenches, a barrier with collection and/or monitoring system, and a pass-through in a funnel and gate configuration. BMC{trademark} can be inspected with a down-hole video camera, producing a permanent VHS format tape, insuring the integrity of the wall and the interlocking joints.

  5. Probing Neutrino Properties with Long-Baseline Neutrino Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Alysia [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This is nal report on an Early Career Award grant began in April 15, 2010 and concluded on April 14, 2015. Alysia Marino's research is fo- cussed on making precise measurements of neutrino properties using in- tense accelerator-generated neutrino beams. As a part of this grant, she is collaborating on the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) long-baseline neutrino exper- iment [6], currently taking data in Japan, and on the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) design e ort for a future Long-Baseline Neu- trino Facility (LBNF) in the US.1 She is also a member of the NA61/SHINE particle production experiment at CERN, but as that e ort is supported by other funds, it will not be discussed further here. T2K was designed to search for the disappearance of muon neutrinos ( ) and the appearance of electron neutrinos ( e), using a beam of muon neu- trino beam that travels 295 km across Japan towards the Super-Kamiokande detector. In 2011 T2K rst reported indications of e appearance [2], a pre- viously unobserved mode of neutrino oscillations. In the past year, T2K has published a combined analysis of disappearance and e appearance [1], and began collecting taking data with a beam of anti-neutrinos, instead of neutrinos, to search for hints of violation of the CP symmetry of the uni- verse. The proposed DUNE experiment has similar physics goals to T2K, but will be much more sensitive due to its more massive detectors and new higher-intensity neutrino beam. This e ort will be very high-priority particle physics project in the US over the next decade.

  6. Probing Neutrino Properties with Long-Baseline Neutrino Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Alysia [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This final report on an Early Career Award grant began in April 15, 2010 and concluded on April 14, 2015. Alysia Marino's research is focussed on making precise measurements of neutrino properties using intense accelerator-generated neutrino beams. As a part of this grant, she is collaborating on the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) long-baseline neutrino experiment, currently taking data in Japan, and on the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) design effort for a future Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) in the US. She is also a member of the NA61/SHINE particle production experiment at CERN, but as that effort is supported by other funds, it will not be discussed further here. T2K was designed to search for the disappearance of muon neutrinos (νμ) and the appearance of electron neutrinos (νe), using a beam of muon neutrino beam that travels 295 km across Japan towards the Super-Kamiokande detector. In 2011 T2K first reported indications of νe appearance, a previously unobserved mode of neutrino oscillations. In the past year, T2K has published a combined analysis of νμ disappearance and νe appearance, and began collecting taking data with a beam of anti-neutrinos, instead of neutrinos, to search for hints of violation of the CP symmetry of the universe. The proposed DUNE experiment has similar physics goals to T2K, but will be much more sensitive due to its more massive detectors and new higher-intensity neutrino beam. This effort will be very high-priority particle physics project in the US over the next decade.

  7. Evaluation of current tropospheric mapping functions by Deep Space Network very long baseline interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovers, O. J.; Lanyi, G. E.

    1994-01-01

    To compare the validity of current algorithms that map zenith tropospheric delay to arbitrary elevation angles, 10 different tropospheric mapping functions are used to analyze the current data base of Deep Space Network Mark 3 intercontinental very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) data. This analysis serves as a stringent test because of the high proportion of low-elevation observations necessitated by the extremely long baselines. Postfit delay and delay-rate residuals are examined, as well as the scatter of baseline lengths about the time-linear model that characterizes tectonic motion. Among the functions that utilize surface meteorological data as input parameters, the Lanyi 1984 mapping shows the best performance both for residuals and baselines, through the 1985 Davis function is statistically nearly identical. The next best performance is shown by the recent function of Niell, which is based on an examination of global atmospheric characteristics as a function of season and uses no weather data at the time of the measurements. The Niell function shows a slight improvement in residuals relative to Lanyi, but also an increase in baseline scatter that is significant for the California-Spain baseline. Two variants of the Chao mapping function, as well as the Chao tables used with the interpolation algorithm employed in the Orbit Determination Program software, show substandard behavior for both VLBI residuals and baseline scatter. The length of the California-Australia baseline (10,600 km) in the VLBI solution can vary by as much as 5 to 10 cm for the 10 mapping functions.

  8. First Detections of the [N II] 122 micron Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [N II] 122 micron line from a high-redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (>6(sigma)) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and H1413 + 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift (zeta) and Early Universe Spectrometer on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line to far-infrared (FIR) continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0 x 10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1 x 10(exo -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line to continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8%-17% of the molecUlar gas mass. The [O III]/[N II] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using Our previous detection of the [O III] 88 micron line, the [O III]/[N II]line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates that the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar H II regions ionized by O9.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter log(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30%-50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82-like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [N II]line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This war!< demonstrates the utility of the [N II] and [O III] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  9. First Detections of the [NII] 122 Micrometer Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [NIl] 122 {\\mu} m line from a high redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (> 6{\\sigma}) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and HI413+ 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift(z) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS) on the CSO. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line-to-FIR continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0x10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1x10(exp -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line-to-continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8 to 17% of the molecular gas mass. The [OIII]/[NII] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an AGN. Using our previous detection of the [01II] 88 {\\mu}m line, the [OIII]/ [NIl] line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar HII regions ionized by 09.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter 10g(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30 to 50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [NIl] line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This work demonstrates the utility of the [NIl] and [OIII] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  10. First Detections of the [N II] 122 micron Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [N II] 122 micron line from a high-redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (>6(sigma)) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and H1413 + 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift (zeta) and Early Universe Spectrometer on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line to far-infrared (FIR) continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0 x 10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1 x 10(exo -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line to continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8%-17% of the molecUlar gas mass. The [O III]/[N II] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using Our previous detection of the [O III] 88 micron line, the [O III]/[N II]line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates that the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar H II regions ionized by O9.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter log(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30%-50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82-like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [N II]line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This war!< demonstrates the utility of the [N II] and [O III] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  11. 77 FR 26535 - Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on April 26, 2012, Hope Gas, Inc. (Hope Gas) submitted a baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions...

  12. 77 FR 31841 - Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on May 16, 2012, Hope Gas, Inc. (Hope Gas) submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of...

  13. Adapting the M3 Surveillance Metrics for an Unknown Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Michael Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Abes, Jeff I. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jaramillo, Brandon Michael Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The original M3 surveillance metrics assume that the baseline is known. In this article, adapted M3 metrics are presented when the baseline is not known and estimated by available data. Deciding on how much available data is enough is also discussed.

  14. 40 CFR 80.93 - Individual baseline submission and approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: (i) Refinery block flow diagram, showing principal refining units; (ii) Principal refining unit..., whether or not the auditor was retained through the baseline approval process. (ii) Identification of the... samples from batch processes, including volume of each batch sampled; and (G) Baseline fuel parameter...

  15. Digital Offshore Cadastre (DOC) - Pacific83 - Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ESRI Arc/Info export and Arc/View shape file formats for the BOEM Pacific Region. Baseline points are used by the BOEM to...

  16. The 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign : An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ALMA Partnership, [Unknown; Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Corder, S.; Remijan, A.; Barkats, D.; Lucas, R.; Hunter, T. R.; Brogan, C. L.; Asaki, Y.; Matsushita, S.; Dent, W. R. F.; Hills, R. E.; Phillips, N.; Richards, A. M. S.; Cox, P.; Amestica, R.; Broguiere, D.; Cotton, W.; Hales, A. S.; Hiriart, R.; Hirota, A.; Hodge, J. A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Kern, J.; Kneissl, R.; Liuzzo, E.; Marcelino, N.; Marson, R.; Mignano, A.; Nakanishi, K.; Nikolic, B.; Perez, J. E.; Pérez, L. M.; Toledo, I.; Aladro, R.; Butler, B.; Cortes, J.; Cortes, P.; Dhawan, V.; Di Francesco, J.; Espada, D.; Galarza, F.; Garcia-Appadoo, D.; Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Humphreys, E. M.; Jung, T.; Kameno, S.; Laing, R. A.; Leon, S.; Mangum, J.; Marconi, G.; Nagai, H.; Nyman, L.-A.; Radiszcz, M.; Rodón, J. A.; Sawada, T.; Takahashi, S.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; van Kempen, T.; Vila Vilaro, B.; Watson, L. C.; Wiklind, T.; Gueth, F.; Tatematsu, K.; Wootten, A.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Chapillon, E.; Dumas, G.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Francke, H.; Gallardo, J.; Garcia, J.; Gonzalez, S.; Hibbard, J. E.; Hill, T.; Kaminski, T.; Karim, A.; Krips, M.; Kurono, Y.; Lopez, C.; Martin, S.; Maud, L.; Morales, F.; Pietu, V.; Plarre, K.; Schieven, G.; Testi, L.; Videla, L.; Villard, E.; Whyborn, N.; Alves, F.; Andreani, P.; Avison, A.; Barta, M.; Bedosti, F.; Bendo, G. J.; Bertoldi, F.; Bethermin, M.; Biggs, A.; Boissier, J.; Brand, J.; Burkutean, S.; Casasola, V.; Conway, J.; Cortese, L.; Dabrowski, B.; Davis, T. A.; Diaz Trigo, M.; Fontani, F.; Franco-Hernandez, R.; Fuller, G.; Galvan Madrid, R.; Giannetti, A.; Ginsburg, A.; Graves, S. F.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hogerheijde, M.; Jachym, P.; Jimenez Serra, I.; Karlicky, M.; Klaasen, P.; Kraus, M.; Kunneriath, D.; Lagos, C.; Longmore, S.; Leurini, S.; Maercker, M.; Magnelli, B.; Marti Vidal, I.; Massardi, M.; Maury, A.; Muehle, S.; Muller, S.; Muxlow, T.; O’Gorman, E.; Paladino, R.; Petry, D.; Pineda, J.; Randall, S.; Richer, J. S.; Rossetti, A.; Rushton, A.; Rygl, K.; Sanchez Monge, A.; Schaaf, R.; Schilke, P.; Stanke, T.; Schmalzl, M.; Stoehr, F.; Urban, S.; van Kampen, E.; Vlemmings, W.; Wang, K.; Wild, W.; Yang, Y.; Iguchi, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Saito, M.; Inatani, J.; Mizuno, N.; Asayama, S.; Kosugi, G.; Morita, K.-I.; Chiba, K.; Kawashima, S.; Okumura, S. K.; Ohashi, N.; Ogasawara, R.; Sakamoto, S.; Noguchi, T.; Huang, Y.-D.; Liu, S.-Y.; Kemper, F.; Koch, P. M.; Chen, M.-T.; Chikada, Y.; Hiramatsu, M.; Iono, D.; Shimojo, M.; Komugi, S.; Kim, J.; Lyo, A.-R.; Muller, E.; Herrera, C.; Miura, R. E.; Ueda, J.; Chibueze, J.; Su, Y.-N.; Trejo-Cruz, A.; Wang, K.-S.; Kiuchi, H.; Ukita, N.; Sugimoto, M.; Kawabe, R.; Hayashi, M.; Miyama, S.; Ho, P. T. P.; Kaifu, N.; Ishiguro, M.; Beasley, A. J.; Bhatnagar, S.; Braatz, J. A., III; Brisbin, D. G.; Brunetti, N.; Carilli, C.; Crossley, J. H.; D’Addario, L.; Donovan Meyer, J. L.; Emerson, D. T.; Evans, A. S.; Fisher, P.; Golap, K.; Griffith, D. M.; Hale, A. E.; Halstead, D.; Hardy, E. J.; Hatz, M. C.; Holdaway, M.; Indebetouw, R.; Jewell, P. R.; Kepley, A. A.; Kim, D.-C.; Lacy, M. D.; Leroy, A. K.; Liszt, H. S.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Matthews, B.; McKinnon, M.; Mason, B. S.; Moellenbrock, G.; Moullet, A.; Myers, S. T.; Ott, J.; Peck, A. B.; Pisano, J.; Radford, S. J. E.; Randolph, W. T.; Rao Venkata, U.; Rawlings, M. G.; Rosen, R.; Schnee, S. L.; Scott, K. S.; Sharp, N. K.; Sheth, K.; Simon, R. S.; Tsutsumi, T.; Wood, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ∼15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried

  17. Esophageal impedance baseline according to different time intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummarino Dario

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impedance baseline has been shown to reflect esophageal integrity, and to be decreased in patients with esophagitis. However, different methods for the determination of the impedance baseline have not been compared. Methods The median impedance baseline was calculated in 10 consecutive multichannel intraluminal impedance recordings in children with non-erosive reflux disease. All children underwent an endoscopy with a biopsy as part of the clinical work-up to exclude esophagitis. The impedance baseline was obtained both by including and excluding all impedance episodes (IE; reflux, swallows and gas episodes during the full recording, and during the first 1-minute period without an IE every hour (method 1, every 2 hours (method 2 or every 4 hours (method 3. The impedance baseline obtained during the full recording was set at 100%, and the variation (difference in impedance baseline for the different methods and variability (difference in impedance baseline during one analysis period were assessed. Results None of the participants had esophagitis. The mean difference over the six channels between the impedance baseline over the total recording with and without IE was approximately 2.5%, and comparable for each channel (range 0.47% to 5.55%. A mean of 1,028 IEs were excluded in each tracing, and it took between 4 and 24 hours to delete all events in one tracing. The difference in the impedance baseline obtained with and without IEs was mainly caused by the gas episodes in the upper channels and swallows in the lower channels. The median impedance baseline according to the three one-minute analysis methods was comparable to the median impedance baseline according to the 24 hour analysis. Conclusions The automatic determination of the median impedance baseline over the total tracing including IEs is an adequate method. In isolated tracings with numerous IEs, the calculation of the median impedance baseline over one minute

  18. Precision Neutrino Oscillation Physics with an Intermediate Baseline Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, S; Piai, M; Choubey, Sandhya

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the physics potential of intermediate $L \\sim 20 \\div 30$ km baseline experiments at reactor facilities, assuming that the solar neutrino oscillation parameters $\\Delta m^2_{\\odot}$ and $\\theta_{\\odot}$ lie in the high-LMA solution region. We show that such an intermediate baseline reactor experiment can determine both $\\Delta m^2_{\\odot}$ and $\\theta_{\\odot}$ with a remarkably high precision. We perform also a detailed study of the sensitivity of the indicated experiment to $\\Delta m^2_{\\rm atm}$, which drives the dominant atmospheric $\

  19. Establishing a store baseline during interim storage of waste packages and a review of potential technologies for base-lining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McTeer, Jennifer; Morris, Jenny; Wickham, Stephen [Galson Sciences Ltd. Oakham, Rutland (United Kingdom); Bolton, Gary [National Nuclear Laboratory Risley, Warrington (United Kingdom); McKinney, James; Morris, Darrell [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority Moor Row, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Angus, Mike [National Nuclear Laboratory Risley, Warrington (United Kingdom); Cann, Gavin; Binks, Tracey [National Nuclear Laboratory Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Interim storage is an essential component of the waste management lifecycle, providing a safe, secure environment for waste packages awaiting final disposal. In order to be able to monitor and detect change or degradation of the waste packages, storage building or equipment, it is necessary to know the original condition of these components (the 'waste storage system'). This paper presents an approach to establishing the baseline for a waste-storage system, and provides guidance on the selection and implementation of potential base-lining technologies. The approach is made up of two sections; assessment of base-lining needs and definition of base-lining approach. During the assessment of base-lining needs a review of available monitoring data and store/package records should be undertaken (if the store is operational). Evolutionary processes (affecting safety functions), and their corresponding indicators, that can be measured to provide a baseline for the waste-storage system should then be identified in order for the most suitable indicators to be selected for base-lining. In defining the approach, identification of opportunities to collect data and constraints is undertaken before selecting the techniques for base-lining and developing a base-lining plan. Base-lining data may be used to establish that the state of the packages is consistent with the waste acceptance criteria for the storage facility and to support the interpretation of monitoring and inspection data collected during store operations. Opportunities and constraints are identified for different store and package types. Technologies that could potentially be used to measure baseline indicators are also reviewed. (authors)

  20. Future long-baseline neutrino oscillations: View from North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Robert J., E-mail: wilson@colostate.edu [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1875 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    In late 2012 the US Department of Energy gave approval for the first phase of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) that will conduct a broad scientific program including neutrino oscillations, neutrino scattering physics, search for baryon violation, supernova burst neutrinos and other related astrophysical phenomena. The project is now being reformulated as an international facility hosted by the United States. The facility will consist of an intense neutrino beam produced at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), a highly capable set of neutrino detectors on the Fermilab campus, and a large underground liquid argon time projection chamber at Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in South Dakota 1300 km from Fermilab. With an intense beam and massive far detector, the experimental program at the facility will make detailed studies of neutrino oscillations, including measurements of the neutrino mass hierarchy and Charge-Parity symmetry violation, by measuring neutrino and anti-neutrino mixing separately. At the near site, the high-statistics neutrino scattering data will allow for many cross section measurements and precision tests of the Standard Model. This presentation will describe the configuration developed by the LBNE collaboration, the broad physics program, and the status of the formation of the international facility.

  1. A Neutrino Apparatus with Improved Capabilities for a short baseline $\

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Bueno, A G

    1996-01-01

    We propose the conceptual design of a Neutrino ApparatUS with Improved CApAbilities (NAUSICAA). This detector could be used for a new, short-baseline, high sensitivity \\osc oscillation search experiment at the CERN-SPS neutrino beam, as well as at the future Fermilab Main Injector neutrino beam. The heart of the detector is a finely instrumented target, made of a sandwich of a light Z material and high resolution tracking detectors. Downstream of the target there are tracking detectors for momentum measurement, followed by a compensating calorimeter. All these systems are contained within magnet providing a magnetic field of about 1 Tesla. Following the magnet there is a muon detector. Unlike previous experiments, NAUSICAA would be capable of searching for the \\tau signature using both kinematical and vertex criteria {\\it simultaneously}. Detailed Monte Carlo calculations show that NAUSICAA could improve the sensitivity of the on-going experiments, CHORUS and NOMAD by an order of magnitude in a four-year neut...

  2. Future Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillations: View from North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R. J.

    2015-06-01

    In late 2012 the US Department of Energy gave approval for the first phase of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE), that will conduct a broad scientific program including neutrino oscillations, neutrino scattering physics, search for baryon violation, supernova burst neutrinos and other related astrophysical phenomena. The project is now being reformulated as an international facility hosted by the United States. The facility will consist of an intense neutrino beam produced at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), a highly capable set of neutrino detectors on the Fermilab campus, and a large underground liquid argon time projection chamber at Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in South Dakota 1300 km from Fermilab. With an intense beam and massive far detector, the experimental program at the facility will make detailed studies of neutrino oscillations, including measurements of the neutrino mass hierarchy and Charge-Parity symmetry violation, by measuring neutrino and anti-neutrino mixing separately. At the near site, the high-statistics neutrino scattering data will allow for many cross section measurements and precision tests of the Standard Model. This presentation will describe the configuration developed by the LBNE collaboration, the broad physics program, and the status of the formation of the international facility.

  3. Baseline glucocorticoids are drivers of body mass gain in a diving seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennin, Holly; Berlin, Alicia; Love, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    Life-history trade-offs are influenced by variation in individual state, with individuals in better condition often completing life-history stages with greater success. Although resource accrual significantly impacts key life-history decisions such as the timing of reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving resource accumulation. Baseline corticosterone (CORT, the primary avian glucocorticoid) mediates daily and seasonal energetics, responds to changes in food availability, and has been linked to foraging behavior, making it a strong potential driver of individual variation in resource accrual and deposition. Working with a captive colony of white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca deglandi), we aimed to causally determine whether variation in baseline CORT drives individual body mass gains mediated through fattening rate (plasma triglycerides corrected for body mass). We implanted individuals with each of three treatment pellets to elevate CORT within a baseline range in a randomized order: control, low dose of CORT, high dose of CORT, then blood sampled and recorded body mass over a two-week period to track changes in baseline CORT, body mass, and fattening rates. The high CORT treatment significantly elevated levels of plasma hormone for a short period of time within the biologically relevant, baseline range for this species, but importantly did not inhibit the function of the HPA (hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal) axis. Furthermore, an elevation in baseline CORT resulted in a consistent increase in body mass throughout the trial period compared to controls. This is some of the first empirical evidence demonstrating that elevations of baseline CORT within a biologically relevant range have a causal, direct, and positive influence on changes in body mass.

  4. GLoBES: General Long Baseline Experiment Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Patrick; Kopp, Joachim; Lindner, Manfred; Rolinec, Mark; Winter, Walter

    2007-09-01

    and the slow solar oscillations, which are driven by the respective mass squared differences. In addition, there could be interference effects between these two oscillations, provided that the coupling given by the small mixing angle θ is large enough. Such interference effects include, for example, leptonic CP violation. In order to test the unknown oscillation parameters, i.e. the mixing angle θ, the leptonic CP phase, and the neutrino mass hierarchy, new long-baseline and reactor experiments are proposed. These experiments send an artificial neutrino beam to a detector, or detect the neutrinos produced by a nuclear fission reactor. However, the presence of multiple solutions which are intrinsic to neutrino oscillation probabilities [2-5] affect these measurements. Thus optimization strategies are required which maximally exploit complementarity between experiments. Therefore, a modern, complete experiment simulation and analysis tool does not only need to have a highly accurate beam and detector simulation, but also powerful means to analyze correlations and degeneracies, especially for the combination of several experiments. The GLoBES software package is such a tool [6,7]. Solution method: GLoBES is a flexible software tool to simulate and analyze neutrino oscillation long-baseline and reactor experiments using a complete three-flavor description. On the one hand, it contains a comprehensive abstract experiment definition language (AEDL), which makes it possible to describe most classes of long baseline and reactor experiments at an abstract level. On the other hand, it provides a C-library to process the experiment information in order to obtain oscillation probabilities, rate vectors, and Δχ-values. In addition, it provides a binary program to test experiment definitions very quickly, before they are used by the application software. Restrictions: Currently restricted to discrete sets of sources and detectors. For example, the simulation of an atmospheric

  5. The MINK methodology: background and baseline. [USA - Midwest Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Crosson, P.R.; Frederick, K.D.; Easterling, W.E. III; McKenney, M.S.; Bowes, M.D.; Sedjo, R.A.; Darmstadter, J.; Katz, L.A.; Lemon, K.M. (Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-06-01

    A four step methodology has been developed for study of the regional impacts of climate change and the possible responses thereto. First the region's climate sensitive sectors and total economy are described (Task A, current baseline). Next a scenario of climate change is imposed on the current baseline (Task B, current baseline with climate change). A new baseline describing the climate sensitive sectors and total regional economy is projected for some time in the future (Task C, future baseline, year 2030) in the absence of climate change. Finally, the climate change scenario is reimposed on the future baseline (Task D, future baseline with climate change). Impacts of the climate change scenario on the current and future regional economies are determined by means of simulation models and other appropriate techniques. These techniques are also used to assess the impacts of an elevated CO[sub 2] concentration (450 ppm) and of various forms of adjustments and adaptations. The region chosen for the first test of the methodology is composed of the four U.S. states of Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas. The climate change scenario is the actual weather of the 1930s decade in the MINK region. 'Current' climate is the actual weather of the period 1951-1980. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Schema therapy for personality disorders in older adults: a multiple-baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videler, Arjan C; van Alphen, Sebastiaan P J; van Royen, Rita J J; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; Rossi, Gina; Arntz, Arnoud

    2017-04-21

    No studies have been conducted yet into the effectiveness of treatment of personality disorders in later life. This study is a first test of the effectiveness of schema therapy for personality disorders in older adults. Multiple-baseline design with eight cluster C personality disorder patients, with a mean age of   69. After a baseline phase with random length, schema therapy was given during the first year, followed by follow-up sessions during six months. Participants weekly rated the credibility of dysfunctional core beliefs. Symptomatic distress, early maladaptive schemas, quality of life and target complaints were assessed every six months and personality disorder diagnosis was assessed before baseline and after follow-up. Data were analyzed with mixed regression analyses. Results revealed significant linear trends during treatment phases, but not during baseline and follow-up. The scores during follow-up remained stable and were significantly lower compared to baseline, with high effect sizes. Seven participants remitted from their personality disorder diagnosis. Schema therapy appears an effective treatment for cluster C personality disorders in older adults. This finding is highly innovative as this is the first study exploring the effectiveness of psychotherapy, in this case schema therapy, for personality disorders in older adults.

  7. Trinocular Stereo Matching Based on Correlations Between Baselines and Disparities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANYepeng; GUWeikang

    2004-01-01

    Gray correlation technique is utilized to take the multi-peak feature points with gray correlation coefficients less than a certain range of maximal correlation coefficient as a potential candidate matching set. There exists the maximal correlation between the correct disparities and their corresponding baselines. A trinocular stereo matching algorithm is proposed based on correlations between the baselines and disparities. After computing the correlations between the baselines and disparities, the unique matches can be determined by maximal correlation coefficient. It is proved that the algorithm proposed is valid and credible by 3-D reconstruction on two pairs of actual natural stereo images.

  8. Dynamic baseline detection method for power data network service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic baseline Traffic detection Method which is based on the historical traffic data for the Power data network. The method uses Cisco's NetFlow acquisition tool to collect the original historical traffic data from network element at fixed intervals. This method uses three dimensions information including the communication port, time, traffic (number of bytes or number of packets) t. By filtering, removing the deviation value, calculating the dynamic baseline value, comparing the actual value with the baseline value, the method can detect whether the current network traffic is abnormal.

  9. Prognostic Utility of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio on Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Severe Calcific Aortic Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyoung Im; Cho, Sang Hoon; Her, Ae-Young; Singh, Gillian Balbir; Shin, Eun-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammation is an important factor in the pathogenesis of calcific aortic stenosis (AS). We aimed to evaluate the association between an inflammatory marker, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with severe calcific AS. Methods A total of 336 patients with isolated severe calcific AS newly diagnosed between 2010 and 2015 were enrolled in this study. Using Cox proportional hazards (PH) regression models, we investigated the prognostic value of NLR adjusted for baseline covariates including logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation score (EuroSCORE-I) and undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR). We also evaluated the clinical relevance of NLR risk groups (divided into low, intermediate, high risk) as categorized by NLR cutoff values. MACE was defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, cardiac death and non-fatal myocardial infarction during the follow-up period. Results The inflammatory marker NLR was an independent prognostic factor most significantly associated with MACE [hazard ratio (HR), 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04–1.09; p-value 9), respectively. Conclusion The findings of the present study demonstrate the potential utility of NLR in risk stratification of patients with severe calcific AS. PMID:27548384

  10. Interaction of baseline synaptic noise and Ia EPSPs: evidence for appreciable negative correlation under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodkin, M; Jiménez, I; Collins, W F; Mendell, L M; Rudomin, P

    1991-04-01

    1. In the anesthetized cat, simultaneous intracellular recordings from pairs of spinal motoneurons were undertaken to see whether the amplitude of single-fiber excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in both cells fluctuated in a coordinated manner that would indicate correlative mechanisms at either pre- or post-synaptic level. Although these recordings revealed correlated fluctuations in the baseline, the single-fiber Ia/EPSPs recorded with the spike-triggered averaging technique exhibited no correlated fluctuations and, unexpectedly, virtually no increase in baseline variance associated with the EPSP. However, the fact that these experiments were carried out under conditions of high baseline synaptic noise (i.e., with muscle stretch) may have influenced the outcome because of interaction between EPSP and synaptic noise, and this possibility was evaluated explicitly. 2. A given connection was studied under low noise by electrically stimulating a single Ia fiber in the absence of muscle stretch. The same connection was analyzed under conditions of high noise by activating the fiber and all other stretch receptor afferents with muscle stretch and by using spike-triggered averaging to extract the EPSP. The differences in mean EPSP amplitude at a given connection under conditions of low noise and high noise were minimal. 3. Fluctuations in EPSP amplitude were then determined to see whether these were influenced by presence of baseline synaptic noise and whether the interaction was nonlinear. Two methods were used to measure EPSP fluctuations: measurement of the variance associated with the EPSP, and determination by the use of deconvolution methods of the discrete amplitude components associated with the EPSP. 4. An increase in baseline variance was observed during the EPSP evoked under low noise conditions at all six connections studied in this way. This increase disappeared at two of these connections when examined under high noise. This may help to explain the

  11. Peritoneal macrophage infiltration is correlated with baseline peritoneal solute transport rate in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Akiho; Ito, Yasuhiko; Mizuno, Masashi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Toda, Susumu; Ito, Isao; Hattori, Ryohei; Matsukawa, Yoshihisa; Gotoh, Momokazu; Takei, Yoshifumi; Yuzawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2011-07-01

    High baseline peritoneal solute transport rate is reportedly associated with reduced patient and technique survival in continuous peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. However, the determinants of baseline peritoneal solute transport rate remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between peritoneal local inflammation, angiogenesis and systemic inflammation and baseline peritoneal permeability. Peritoneal biopsy specimens from 42 pre-dialysis uraemic patients and 11 control individuals were investigated. Immunohistochemistry for CD68-positive macrophages, chymase- and tryptase-positive mast cells, interleukin-6 (IL-6)-positive cells, CD3-positive T cells, CD20-positive B cells, neutrophils and CD31- and pathologische anatomie Leiden-endothelium (PAL-E)-positive blood vessels in the peritoneum was performed. Baseline dialysate-to-plasma ratio for creatinine (D/P Cr) was determined within 6 months of PD induction. Clinical and laboratory parameters were measured at the time of peritoneal biopsy. Factors associated with peritoneal permeability were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis. Pre-dialysis uraemic peritoneum showed infiltration by CD68-positive macrophages, and mast cells, as compared with controls. Baseline D/P Cr was correlated with density of CD68-positive macrophages (P permeability was not correlated with infiltration by mast cells, B cells, T cells, neutrophils, serum C-reactive protein or other clinical factors. On multiple linear regression analysis, the number of CD68-positive macrophages in peritoneum was an independent predictor for baseline peritoneal permeability (P = 0.009). Peritoneal macrophage infiltration is predominant in uraemic patients and is an important factor in predicting baseline peritoneal permeability.

  12. Subtask 12D2: Baseline impact properties of vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the baseline impact properties of vanadium-base alloys as a function of compositional variables. Up-to-date results on impact properties of unirradiated V, V-Ti, V-Cr-Ti and V-Ti-Si alloys are presented and reviewed in this paper, with an emphasis on the most promising class of alloys, i.e., V-(4-5)Cr-(3-5)Ti containing 400-1000 wppm Si. Database on impact energy and ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) has been established from Charpy impact tests on small laboratory as well as production-scale heats. DBTT is influenced most significantly by Cr contents and, to a lesser extent, by Ti contents of the alloys. When combined contents of Cr and Ti were {le}10 wt.%, V-Cr-Ti alloys exhibit excellent impact properties, i.e., DBTT<-200{degrees}C and upper shelf energies of {approx}120-140 J/cm{sup 2}. Impact properties of the production-scale heat of the U.S. reference alloy V-4Cr- 4Ti were as good as those of the laboratory-scale heats. Optimal impact properties of the reference alloy were obtained after annealing the as-rolled products at 1000{degrees}C-1050{degrees}C for 1-2 h in high-quality vacuum. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. APOC impact assessment studies: baseline ophthalmological findings in Morogoro, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, O E; Maegga, B; Katenga, S; Ogbuagu, F K; Umeh, R E; Seketeli, E; Braide, E

    2008-12-01

    The goal of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) is to eliminate Onchocerciasis as a disease of public Health significance and an important constraint to socio-economic development in the 19 none OCP (Onchocerciasis Control Project) countries covered through Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin, CDTI. In 1998, impact assessment studies were carried out in Morogoro, Tanzania during which baseline ophthalmological parameters were established. The hypothesis being tested is that CDTI will prevent or delay progression of onchocercal eye lesions and blindness. A total of 425 subjects aged 10 years or more from 14 villages within Bwakira district ofMorogoro region in Tanzania were examined for Snellen visual acuity, ocular microfilaria, lens opacities, uveitis and posterior segment disease especially chorioretinitis and optic nerve disease. Motion Sensitivity Screening Test (MSST) was carried out as well. Microfilaria was present in the anterior chamber of nearly half (49.2%) of all subjects examined. Prevalence of blindness was extremely high at 15.2%. Onchocercal lesions were responsible for blindness in 41.5% of these, followed by cataracts (27.7%), glaucoma (10.8%) and trachoma (6.2%). The main pathway to onchocercal blindness in this population was anterior uveitis with or without secondary cataracts. There is an urgent need to get CDTI underway and institute other horizontal primary eye care measures, especially cataract backlog reduction, in order to reduce the excessive burden of avoidable blindness in this community.

  14. Updated baseline for a staged Compact Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Boland, M J; Giansiracusa, P J; Lucas, T G; Rassool, R P; Balazs, C; Charles, T K; Afanaciev, K; Emeliantchik, I; Ignatenko, A; Makarenko, V; Shumeiko, N; Patapenka, A; Zhuk, I; Abusleme Hoffman, A C; Diaz Gutierrez, M A; Gonzalez, M Vogel; Chi, Y; He, X; Pei, G; Pei, S; Shu, G; Wang, X; Zhang, J; Zhao, F; Zhou, Z; Chen, H; Gao, Y; Huang, W; Kuang, Y P; Li, B; Li, Y; Shao, J; Shi, J; Tang, C; Wu, X; Ma, L; Han, Y; Fang, W; Gu, Q; Huang, D; Huang, X; Tan, J; Wang, Z; Zhao, Z; Laštovička, T; Uggerhoj, U; Wistisen, T N; Aabloo, A; Eimre, K; Kuppart, K; Vigonski, S; Zadin, V; Aicheler, M; Baibuz, E; Brücken, E; Djurabekova, F; Eerola, P; Garcia, F; Haeggström, E; Huitu, K; Jansson, V; Karimaki, V; Kassamakov, I; Kyritsakis, A; Lehti, S; Meriläinen, A; Montonen, R; Niinikoski, T; Nordlund, K; Österberg, K; Parekh, M; Törnqvist, N A; Väinölä, J; Veske, M; Farabolini, W; Mollard, A; Napoly, O; Peauger, F; Plouin, J; Bambade, P; Chaikovska, I; Chehab, R; Davier, M; Kaabi, W; Kou, E; LeDiberder, F; Pöschl, R; Zerwas, D; Aimard, B; Balik, G; Baud, J-P; Blaising, J-J; Brunetti, L; Chefdeville, M; Drancourt, C; Geoffroy, N; Jacquemier, J; Jeremie, A; Karyotakis, Y; Nappa, J M; Vilalte, S; Vouters, G; Bernard, A; Peric, I; Gabriel, M; Simon, F; Szalay, M; van der Kolk, N; Alexopoulos, T; Gazis, E N; Gazis, N; Ikarios, E; Kostopoulos, V; Kourkoulis, S; Gupta, P D; Shrivastava, P; Arfaei, H; Dayyani, M K; Ghasem, H; Hajari, S S; Shaker, H; Ashkenazy, Y; Abramowicz, H; Benhammou, Y; Borysov, O; Kananov, S; Levy, A; Levy, I; Rosenblat, O; D'Auria, G; Di Mitri, S; Abe, T; Aryshev, A; Higo, T; Makida, Y; Matsumoto, S; Shidara, T; Takatomi, T; Takubo, Y; Tauchi, T; Toge, N; Ueno, K; Urakawa, J; Yamamoto, A; Yamanaka, M; Raboanary, R; Hart, R; van der Graaf, H; Eigen, G; Zalieckas, J; Adli, E; Lillestøl, R; Malina, L; Pfingstner, J; Sjobak, K N; Ahmed, W; Asghar, M I; Hoorani, H; Bugiel, S; Dasgupta, R; Firlej, M; Fiutowski, T A; Idzik, M; Kopec, M; Kuczynska, M; Moron, J; Swientek, K P; Daniluk, W; Krupa, B; Kucharczyk, M; Lesiak, T; Moszczynski, A; Pawlik, B; Sopicki, P; Wojtoń, T; Zawiejski, L; Kalinowski, J; Krawczyk, M; Żarnecki, A F; Firu, E; Ghenescu, V; Neagu, A T; Preda, T; Zgura, I-S; Aloev, A; Azaryan, N; Budagov, J; Chizhov, M; Filippova, M; Glagolev, V; Gongadze, A; Grigoryan, S; Gudkov, D; Karjavine, V; Lyablin, M; Olyunin, A; Samochkine, A; Sapronov, A; Shirkov, G; Soldatov, V; Solodko, A; Solodko, E; Trubnikov, G; Tyapkin, I; Uzhinsky, V; Vorozhtov, A; Levichev, E; Mezentsev, N; Piminov, P; Shatilov, D; Vobly, P; Zolotarev, K; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Kacarevic, G; Lukic, S; Milutinovic-Dumbelovic, G; Pandurovic, M; Iriso, U; Perez, F; Pont, M; Trenado, J; Aguilar-Benitez, M; Calero, J; Garcia-Tabares, L; Gavela, D; Gutierrez, J L; Lopez, D; Toral, F; Moya, D; Ruiz-Jimeno, A; Vila, I; Argyropoulos, T; Blanch Gutierrez, C; Boronat, M; Esperante, D; Faus-Golfe, A; Fuster, J; Fuster Martinez, N; Galindo Muñoz, N; García, I; Giner Navarro, J; Ros, E; Vos, M; Brenner, R; Ekelöf, T; Jacewicz, M; Ögren, J; Olvegård, M; Ruber, R; Ziemann, V; Aguglia, D; Alipour Tehrani, N; Aloev, A; Andersson, A; Andrianala, F; Antoniou, F; Artoos, K; Atieh, S; Ballabriga Sune, R; Barnes, M J; Barranco Garcia, J; Bartosik, H; Belver-Aguilar, C; Benot Morell, A; Bett, D R; Bettoni, S; Blanchot, G; Blanco Garcia, O; Bonnin, X A; Brunner, O; Burkhardt, H; Calatroni, S; Campbell, M; Catalan Lasheras, N; Cerqueira Bastos, M; Cherif, A; Chevallay, E; Constance, B; Corsini, R; Cure, B; Curt, S; Dalena, B; Dannheim, D; De Michele, G; De Oliveira, L; Deelen, N; Delahaye, J P; Dobers, T; Doebert, S; Draper, M; Duarte Ramos, F; Dubrovskiy, A; Elsener, K; Esberg, J; Esposito, M; Fedosseev, V; Ferracin, P; Fiergolski, A; Foraz, K; Fowler, A; Friebel, F; Fuchs, J-F; Fuentes Rojas, C A; Gaddi, A; Garcia Fajardo, L; Garcia Morales, H; Garion, C; Gatignon, L; Gayde, J-C; Gerwig, H; Goldblatt, A N; Grefe, C; Grudiev, A; Guillot-Vignot, F G; Gutt-Mostowy, M L; Hauschild, M; Hessler, C; Holma, J K; Holzer, E; Hourican, M; Hynds, D; Inntjore Levinsen, Y; Jeanneret, B; Jensen, E; Jonker, M; Kastriotou, M; Kemppinen, J M K; Kieffer, R B; Klempt, W; Kononenko, O; Korsback, A; Koukovini Platia, E; Kovermann, J W; Kozsar, C-I; Kremastiotis, I; Kulis, S; Latina, A; Leaux, F; Lebrun, P; Lefevre, T; Linssen, L; Llopart Cudie, X; Maier, A A; Mainaud Durand, H; Manosperti, E; Marelli, C; Marin Lacoma, E; Martin, R; Mazzoni, S; Mcmonagle, G; Mete, O; Mether, L M; Modena, M; Münker, R M; Muranaka, T; Nebot Del Busto, E; Nikiforou, N; Nisbet, D; Nonglaton, J-M; Nuiry, F X; Nürnberg, A; Olvegard, M; Osborne, J; Papadopoulou, S; Papaphilippou, Y; Passarelli, A; Patecki, M; Pazdera, L; Pellegrini, D; Pepitone, K; Perez, F; Perez Codina, E; Perez Fontenla, A; Persson, T H B; Petrič, M; Pitters, F; Pittet, S; Plassard, F; Rajamak, R; Redford, S; Renier, Y; Rey, S F; Riddone, G; Rinolfi, L; Rodriguez Castro, E; Roloff, P; Rossi, C; Rude, V; Rumolo, G; Sailer, A; Santin, E; Schlatter, D; Schmickler, H; Schulte, D; Shipman, N; Sicking, E; Simoniello, R; Skowronski, P K; Sobrino Mompean, P; Soby, L; Sosin, M P; Sroka, S; Stapnes, S; Sterbini, G; Ström, R; Syratchev, I; Tecker, F; Thonet, P A; Timeo, L; Timko, H; Tomas Garcia, R; Valerio, P; Vamvakas, A L; Vivoli, A; Weber, M A; Wegner, R; Wendt, M; Woolley, B; Wuensch, W; Uythoven, J; Zha, H; Zisopoulos, P; Benoit, M; Vicente Barreto Pinto, M; Bopp, M; Braun, H H; Csatari Divall, M; Dehler, M; Garvey, T; Raguin, J Y; Rivkin, L; Zennaro, R; Aksoy, A; Nergiz, Z; Pilicer, E; Tapan, I; Yavas, O; Baturin, V; Kholodov, R; Lebedynskyi, S; Miroshnichenko, V; Mordyk, S; Profatilova, I; Storizhko, V; Watson, N; Winter, A; Goldstein, J; Green, S; Marshall, J S; Thomson, M A; Xu, B; Gillespie, W A; Pan, R; Tyrk, M A; Protopopescu, D; Robson, A; Apsimon, R; Bailey, I; Burt, G; Constable, D; Dexter, A; Karimian, S; Lingwood, C; Buckland, M D; Casse, G; Vossebeld, J; Bosco, A; Karataev, P; Kruchinin, K; Lekomtsev, K; Nevay, L; Snuverink, J; Yamakawa, E; Boisvert, V; Boogert, S; Boorman, G; Gibson, S; Lyapin, A; Shields, W; Teixeira-Dias, P; West, S; Jones, R; Joshi, N; Bodenstein, R; Burrows, P N; Christian, G B; Gamba, D; Perry, C; Roberts, J; Clarke, J A; Collomb, N A; Jamison, S P; Shepherd, B J A; Walsh, D; Demarteau, M; Repond, J; Weerts, H; Xia, L; Wells, J D; Adolphsen, C; Barklow, T; Breidenbach, M; Graf, N; Hewett, J; Markiewicz, T; McCormick, D; Moffeit, K; Nosochkov, Y; Oriunno, M; Phinney, N; Rizzo, T; Tantawi, S; Wang, F; Wang, J; White, G; Woodley, M

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a multi-TeV high-luminosity linear e+e- collider under development. For an optimal exploitation of its physics potential, CLIC is foreseen to be built and operated in a staged approach with three centre-of-mass energy stages ranging from a few hundred GeV up to 3 TeV. The first stage will focus on precision Standard Model physics, in particular Higgs and top-quark measurements. Subsequent stages will focus on measurements of rare Higgs processes, as well as searches for new physics processes and precision measurements of new states, e.g. states previously discovered at LHC or at CLIC itself. In the 2012 CLIC Conceptual Design Report, a fully optimised 3 TeV collider was presented, while the proposed lower energy stages were not studied to the same level of detail. This report presents an updated baseline staging scenario for CLIC. The scenario is the result of a comprehensive study addressing the performance, cost and power of the CLIC accelerator complex as a function of...

  15. Scientific Opportunities with the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C.; et al.

    2013-07-28

    In this document, we describe the wealth of science opportunities and capabilities of LBNE, the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment. LBNE has been developed to provide a unique and compelling program for the exploration of key questions at the forefront of particle physics. Chief among the discovery opportunities are observation of CP symmetry violation in neutrino mixing, resolution of the neutrino mass hierarchy, determination of maximal or near-maximal mixing in neutrinos, searches for nucleon decay signatures, and detailed studies of neutrino bursts from galactic supernovae. To fulfill these and other goals as a world-class facility, LBNE is conceived around four central components: (1) a new, intense wide-band neutrino source at Fermilab, (2) a fine-grained `near' neutrino detector just downstream of the source, (3) the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota at an optimal distance (~1300 km) from the neutrino source, and (4) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) deployed there as a 'far' detector. The facilities envisioned are expected to enable many other science opportunities due to the high event rates and excellent detector resolution from beam neutrinos in the near detector and atmospheric neutrinos in the far detector. This is a mature, well developed, world class experiment whose relevance, importance, and probability of unearthing critical and exciting physics has increased with time.

  16. Long baseline neutrino physics: From Fermilab to Kamioka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeJongh, Fritz

    2002-03-01

    We have investigated the physics potential of very long baseline experiments designed to measure nu_mu to nu_e oscillation probabilities. The principles of our design are to tune the beam spectrum to the resonance energy for the matter effect, and to have the spectrum cut off rapidly above this energy. The matter effect amplifies the signal, and the cut-off suppresses backgrounds which feed-down from higher energy. The signal-to-noise ratio is potentially better than for any other conventional nu_mu beam experiment. We find that a beam from Fermilab aimed at the Super-K detector has excellent sensitivity to sin^2(2theta_13) and the sign of Delta M^2. If the mass hierarchy is inverted, the beam can be run in antineutrino mode with a similar signal-to-noise ratio, and event rate 55% as high as for the neutrino mode. Combining the Fermilab beam with the JHF-Kamioka proposal adds very complementary information. We find good sensitivity to maximal CP violation for values of sin^2(2theta_13) ranging from 0.001 to 0.05.

  17. Constraints on New Physics from Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, Minako; Okamura, Naotoshi; Pronin, Alexey; Takeuchi, Tatsu

    2007-01-01

    New physics beyond the Standard Model can lead to extra matter effects on neutrino oscillation if the new interactions distinguish among the three flavors of neutrino. In a previous paper, we argued that a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in which the Fermilab-NUMI beam in its high-energy mode is aimed at the planned Hyper-Kamiokande detector would be capable of constraining the size of those extra effects, provided the vacuum value of \\sin^2 2\\theta_{23} is not too close to one. In this paper, we discuss how such a constraint would translate into limits on the coupling constants and masses of new particles in various models. The models we consider are: models with generation distinguishing Z's such as topcolor assisted technicolor, models containing various types of leptoquarks, R-parity violating SUSY, and extended Higgs sector models. In several cases, we find that the limits thus obtained could be competitive with those expected from direct searches at the LHC. In the event that any of the pa...

  18. Concrete Cleaning, Inc. centrifugal shot blaster: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The centrifugal shot blaster technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The centrifugal shot blaster is an electronically operated shot blast machine that has been modified to remove layers of concrete to varying depths. A hardened steel shot propelled at a high rate of speed abrades the surface of the concrete. The depth of material removed is determined by the rate of speed the machine is traveling and the volume of shot being fired into the blast chamber. The steel shot is recycled and used over until it is pulverized into dust, which ends up in the waste container with the concrete being removed. Debris is continually vacuumed by a large dust collection system attached to the shot blaster. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  19. LTC vacuum blasting maching (concrete): Baseline report: Greenbook (Chapter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjuction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  20. Baseline ion production dedicated to beta-beams

    CERN Document Server

    Stora, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Beta-beams, a concept introduced in 1991, require a large facility that produces and accelerates to high energy electron neutrino and antineutrino beams for oscillation experiments. They are produced by b decay of radioactive ion beams in a dedicated ring directed towards underground detectors. This article addresses the production of the 6He and 18Ne baseline ions. Part of the results were obtained within EURISOL-DS, a design study for the next generation OnLine Isotope Separation facility for nuclear physics in Europe. 200 kW, 2 GeV protons on a solid neutron spallation source surrounded by a thick beryllium oxide target produce the required 6He rates, while 18Ne production falls short by more than an order of magnitude. A first alternative might fulfil the objectives with a 30 MeV 3He primary beam onto large solid oxide target disks at several MW. A second 18Ne production alternative is based on a 700 kW proton beam at medium energy (70-160 MeV) and a target made of a circulating molten salt loop.

  1. Baseline inventory data recommendations for National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Baseline Inventory Team recommends that each refuge have available abiotic “data layers” for topography, aerial photography, hydrography, soils, boundaries, and...

  2. Baseline Biomarkers for Outcome of Melanoma Patients Treated with Pembrolizumab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weide, Benjamin; Martens, Alexander; Hassel, Jessica C.; Berking, Carola; Postow, Michael A.; Bisschop, Kees; Simeone, Ester; Mangana, Johanna; Schilling, Bastian; Di Giacomo, Anna Maria; Brenner, Nicole; Kaehler, Katharina; Heinzerling, Lucie; Gutzmer, Ralf; Bender, Armin; Gebhardt, Christoffer; Romano, Emanuela; Meier, Friedegund; Martus, Peter; Maio, Michele; Blank, Christian; Schadendorf, Dirk; Dummer, Reinhard; Ascierto, Paolo A.; Hospers, Geke; Garbe, Claus; Wolchok, Jedd D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Biomarkers for outcome after immune-checkpoint blockade are strongly needed as these may influence individual treatment selection or sequence. We aimed to identify baseline factors associated with overall survival (OS) after pembrolizumab treatment in melanoma patients. Experimental Design:

  3. Baseline inventory data users guide to abiotic GIS layers

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Baseline Inventory Team was chartered by the Fulfilling the Promises Implementation Team to recommend minimum abiotic and biotic inventories for the National...

  4. Seier NWR second year baseline CCP preparation surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report for a project to collect baseline biological information on John W. And Louise Seier National Wildlife Refuge, to aid in preparation of 2014...

  5. Butler Hollow Glades : Baseline assessment and vegetation monitoring establishment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Several sampling and documentation protocols were implemented to establish baseline vegetation data. These data will provide a comparison point for future...

  6. Information architecture. Volume 2, Part 1: Baseline analysis summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture, Volume 2, Baseline Analysis, is a collaborative and logical next-step effort in the processes required to produce a Departmentwide information architecture. The baseline analysis serves a diverse audience of program management and technical personnel and provides an organized way to examine the Department`s existing or de facto information architecture. A companion document to Volume 1, The Foundations, it furnishes the rationale for establishing a Departmentwide information architecture. This volume, consisting of the Baseline Analysis Summary (part 1), Baseline Analysis (part 2), and Reference Data (part 3), is of interest to readers who wish to understand how the Department`s current information architecture technologies are employed. The analysis identifies how and where current technologies support business areas, programs, sites, and corporate systems.

  7. Information architecture. Volume 2, Part 1: Baseline analysis summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture, Volume 2, Baseline Analysis, is a collaborative and logical next-step effort in the processes required to produce a Departmentwide information architecture. The baseline analysis serves a diverse audience of program management and technical personnel and provides an organized way to examine the Department`s existing or de facto information architecture. A companion document to Volume 1, The Foundations, it furnishes the rationale for establishing a Departmentwide information architecture. This volume, consisting of the Baseline Analysis Summary (part 1), Baseline Analysis (part 2), and Reference Data (part 3), is of interest to readers who wish to understand how the Department`s current information architecture technologies are employed. The analysis identifies how and where current technologies support business areas, programs, sites, and corporate systems.

  8. Sterile Neutrino Fits to Short-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Conrad

    2013-01-01

    (3 + 2 and (3 + 3 fits, rather than (3 + 1 fits, for future neutrino oscillation phenomenology. These results motivate the pursuit of further short-baseline experiments, such as those reviewed in this paper.

  9. Baseline vegetation mapping : Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report for the baseline vegetation mapping project on Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge. This project aims to create a vegetation map showing the...

  10. Baseline assessment of fish communities of the Flower Garden Banks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The work developed baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys employed diving,...

  11. LBCS: The LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, N.; Tagore, A.; Deller, A.; Moldón, J.; Varenius, E.; Morabito, L.; Wucknitz, O.; Carozzi, T.; Conway, J.; Drabent, A.; Kapinska, A.; Orrù, E.; Brentjens, M.; Blaauw, R.; Kuper, G.; Sluman, J.; Schaap, J.; Vermaas, N.; Iacobelli, M.; Cerrigone, L.; Shulevski, A.; ter Veen, S.; Fallows, R.; Pizzo, R.; Sipior, M.; Anderson, J.; Avruch, I. M.; Bell, M. E.; van Bemmel, I.; Bentum, M. J.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Ciardi, B.; Corstanje, A.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J. M.; Gunst, A. W.; van Haarlem, M. P.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Intema, H.; Juette, E.; Kuniyoshi, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Loose, G. M.; Maat, P.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; McKean, J. P.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Munk, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Rowlinson, A.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Schwarz, D. J.; Steinmetz, M.; Swinbank, J.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wise, M. W.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.

    2016-11-01

    We outline the LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey (LBCS), whose aim is to identify sources suitable for calibrating the highest-resolution observations made with the International LOFAR Telescope, which include baselines >1000 km. Suitable sources must contain significant correlated flux density (≳ 50 - 100 mJy) at frequencies around 110-190 MHz on scales of a few hundred milliarcseconds. At least for the 200-300-km international baselines, we find around 1 suitable calibrator source per square degree over a large part of the northern sky, in agreement with previous work. This should allow a randomly selected target to be successfully phase calibrated on the international baselines in over 50% of cases. Products of the survey include calibrator source lists and fringe-rate and delay maps of wide areas - typically a few degrees - around each source. The density of sources with significant correlated flux declines noticeably with baseline length over the range 200-600 km, with good calibrators on the longest baselines appearing only at the rate of 0.5 per sq. deg. Coherence times decrease from 1-3 min on 200-km baselines to about 1 min on 600-km baselines, suggesting that ionospheric phase variations contain components with scales of a few hundred kilometres. The longest median coherence time, at just over 3 min, is seen on the DE609 baseline, which at 227 km is close to being the shortest. We see median coherence times of between 80 and 110 s on the four longest baselines (580-600 km), and about 2 min for the other baselines. The success of phase transfer from calibrator to target is shown to be influenced by distance, in a manner that suggests a coherence patch at 150-MHz of the order of 1 deg. Although source structures cannot be measured in these observations, we deduce that phase transfer is affected if the calibrator source structure is not known. We give suggestions for calibration strategies and choice of calibrator sources, and describe the access to

  12. Idaho National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2011-06-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at INL. Additionally, INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federal agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INL's FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in federal GHG guidance documents using operational control boundaries. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL's organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INL's activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 113,049 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during FY08. The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL's baseline GHG inventory: (1) Electricity (including the associated transmission and

  13. Idaho National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-09-01

    s baseline GHG inventory: • Electricity is the largest contributor to INL’s GHG inventory, with over 50% of the net anthropogenic CO2e emissions • Other sources with high emissions were stationary combustion, fugitive emissions from the onsite landfill, mobile combustion (fleet fuels) and the employee commute • Sources with low emissions were contracted waste disposal, wastewater treatment (onsite and contracted) and fugitive emissions from refrigerants. This report details the methods behind quantifying INL’s GHG inventory and discusses lessons learned on better practices by which information important to tracking GHGs can be tracked and recorded. It is important to stress that the methodology behind this inventory followed guidelines that have not yet been formally adopted. Thus, some modification of the conclusions may be necessary as additional guidance is received. Further, because this report differentiates between those portions of the INL that are managed and operated by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) and those managed by other contractors, it includes only that large proportion of Laboratory activities overseen by BEA. It is assumed that other contractors will provide similar reporting for those activities they manage, where appropriate.

  14. The LIFE Cognition Study: design and baseline characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sink KM

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Kaycee M Sink,1 Mark A Espeland,2 Julia Rushing,2 Cynthia M Castro,3 Timothy S Church,4 Ronald Cohen,5 Thomas M Gill,6 Leora Henkin,2 Janine M Jennings,7 Diana R Kerwin,8 Todd M Manini,5 Valerie Myers,9 Marco Pahor,5 Kieran F Reid,10 Nancy Woolard,1 Stephen R Rapp,11 Jeff D Williamson1 On behalf of LIFE Investigators 1Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Sticht Center on Aging, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 2Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 3Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 4Pennington Biomedical, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA; 5Institute on Aging and Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 6Yale School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 7Department of Psychology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 8Texas Alzheimer’s and Memory Disorders, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas, TX, USA; 9Klein Buendel, Inc., Golden, CO, USA; 10Nutrition, Exercise Physiology and Sarcopenia Laboratory, Jean Mayer United States Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA; 11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: Observational studies have shown beneficial relationships between exercise and cognitive function. Some clinical trials have also demonstrated improvements in cognitive function in response to moderate–high intensity aerobic exercise; however, these have been limited by relatively small sample sizes and short durations. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE Study is the largest and longest randomized controlled clinical trial of physical activity with cognitive outcomes, in older sedentary

  15. Fusion of a Variable Baseline System and a Range Finder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Arnay

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest difficulties in stereo vision is the appearance of ambiguities when matching similar points from different images. In this article we analyze the effectiveness of using a fusion of multiple baselines and a range finder from a theoretical point of view, focusing on the results of using both prismatic and rotational articulations for baseline generation, and offer a practical case to prove its efficiency on an autonomous vehicle.

  16. Socioeconomic position and participation in baseline and follow-up visits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Anne M; Jørgensen, Torben; Hansen, Bodil Helbech;

    2012-01-01

    of IHD were invited to follow-up visits after 1, 3, and 5 years.Methods:Data on five socioeconomic factors were retrieved from nationwide registers. For each socioeconomic factor we estimated the relative risks and relative index of inequality of participation at the baseline visit and among high...

  17. [Establishing IAQ Metrics and Baseline Measures.] "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update #20

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This issue of "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update ("IAQ TfS" Update) contains the following items: (1) News and Events; (2) IAQ Profile: Establishing Your Baseline for Long-Term Success (Feature Article); (3) Insight into Excellence: Belleville Township High School District #201, 2009 Leadership Award Winner; and (4) Have Your Questions…

  18. Baseline Characteristics in the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events With Aranesp Therapy (TREAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeffer, Marc A.; Burdmann, Emmanuel A.; Chen, Chao-Yin; Cooper, Mark E.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Ivanovich, Peter; Kewalramani, Reshma; Levey, Andrew S.; Lewis, Eldrin F.; McGill, Janet; McMurray, John J. V.; Parfrey, Patrick; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Singh, Ajay K.; Solomon, Scott D.; Toto, Robert; Uno, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anemia augments the already high rates of fatal and major nonfatal cardiovascular and renal events in individuals with type 2 diabetes. In 2004, we initiated the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events With Aranesp Therapy (TREAT). This report presents the baseline characteristics and ther

  19. Association between the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, a new marker of systemic inflammation, and restless legs syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varım, Ceyhun; Acar, Bilgehan Atılgan; Uyanık, Mehmet Sevki; Acar, Turkan; Alagoz, Neslihan; Nalbant, Ahmet; Kaya, Tezcan; Ergenc, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease, is characterised by abnormal sensations in the legs as well as dysaesthesia. Although the aetiology of RLS has not yet been determined, it may be associated with systemic inflammation. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a new and simple marker indicating systemic inflammation. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between systemic inflammation and RLS through the use of the NLR. METHODS A total of 75 newly diagnosed patients with RLS and 56 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Baseline NLR was calculated by dividing the absolute neutrophil count by the absolute lymphocyte count. The NLRs of the two groups were compared. RESULTS There were no significant differences in gender and age between the two groups. The NLR was 1.96 ± 0.66 in the patient group and 1.67 ± 0.68 in the control group (p = 0.005). Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the cut-off value of NLR to predict RLS. The NLR was predictive at 1.58 with a 64% sensitivity and 50% specificity (95% confidence interval 0.55–0.74, area under curve 0.648 ± 0.05). The NLR was found to be statistically higher in patients with RLS and may be used to predict RLS. CONCLUSION The aetiology of RLS remains undetermined. The present study showed that systemic inflammation may play a role in RLS. However, RLS could also be associated with systemic inflammatory diseases. This relationship is supported by high NLR values, which are related to chronic systemic inflammation. PMID:27662970

  20. MALDI-TOF Baseline Drift Removal Using Stochastic Bernstein Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic Bernstein (SB approximation can tackle the problem of baseline drift correction of instrumentation data. This is demonstrated for spectral data: matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF data. Two SB schemes for removing the baseline drift are presented: iterative and direct. Following an explanation of the origin of the MALDI-TOF baseline drift that sheds light on the inherent difficulty of its removal by chemical means, SB baseline drift removal is illustrated for both proteomics and genomics MALDI-TOF data sets. SB is an elegant signal processing method to obtain a numerically straightforward baseline shift removal method as it includes a free parameter that can be optimized for different baseline drift removal applications. Therefore, research that determines putative biomarkers from the spectral data might benefit from a sensitivity analysis to the underlying spectral measurement that is made possible by varying the SB free parameter. This can be manually tuned (for constant or tuned with evolutionary computation (for .

  1. GNSS Single Frequency, Single Epoch Reliable Attitude Determination Method with Baseline Vector Constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ang; Zhao, Xiubin; Pang, Chunlei; Duan, Rong; Wang, Yong

    2015-12-02

    For Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) single frequency, single epoch attitude determination, this paper proposes a new reliable method with baseline vector constraint. First, prior knowledge of baseline length, heading, and pitch obtained from other navigation equipment or sensors are used to reconstruct objective function rigorously. Then, searching strategy is improved. It substitutes gradually Enlarged ellipsoidal search space for non-ellipsoidal search space to ensure correct ambiguity candidates are within it and make the searching process directly be carried out by least squares ambiguity decorrelation algorithm (LAMBDA) method. For all vector candidates, some ones are further eliminated by derived approximate inequality, which accelerates the searching process. Experimental results show that compared to traditional method with only baseline length constraint, this new method can utilize a priori baseline three-dimensional knowledge to fix ambiguity reliably and achieve a high success rate. Experimental tests also verify it is not very sensitive to baseline vector error and can perform robustly when angular error is not great.

  2. Exceptional Sensitivity to Neutrino Parameters with a Two Baseline Beta-Beam Set-up

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

    2008-01-01

    We examine the reach of a Beta-beam experiment with two detectors at carefully chosen baselines for exploring neutrino mass parameters. Locating the source at CERN, the two detectors and baselines are: (a) a 50 kton iron calorimeter (ICAL) at a baseline of around 7150 km which is roughly the magic baseline, e.g., ICAL@INO, and (b) a 50 kton Totally Active Scintillator Detector at a distance of 730 km, e.g., at Gran Sasso. We choose 8B/8Li source ions with a boost factor \\gamma of 650 for the magic baseline while for the closer detector we consider 18Ne/6He ions with a range of Lorentz boosts. We find that the locations of the two detectors complement each other leading to an exceptional high sensitivity. With \\gamma=650 for 8B/8Li and \\gamma=575 for 18Ne/6He and total luminosity corresponding to 5\\times (1.1 \\times 10^{18}) and 5\\times (2.9\\times 10^{18}) useful ion decays in neutrino and antineutrino modes respectively, we find that our two detector set-up can probe maximal CP violation and establish the neu...

  3. GNSS Single Frequency, Single Epoch Reliable Attitude Determination Method with Baseline Vector Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Gong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS single frequency, single epoch attitude determination, this paper proposes a new reliable method with baseline vector constraint. First, prior knowledge of baseline length, heading, and pitch obtained from other navigation equipment or sensors are used to reconstruct objective function rigorously. Then, searching strategy is improved. It substitutes gradually Enlarged ellipsoidal search space for non-ellipsoidal search space to ensure correct ambiguity candidates are within it and make the searching process directly be carried out by least squares ambiguity decorrelation algorithm (LAMBDA method. For all vector candidates, some ones are further eliminated by derived approximate inequality, which accelerates the searching process. Experimental results show that compared to traditional method with only baseline length constraint, this new method can utilize a priori baseline three-dimensional knowledge to fix ambiguity reliably and achieve a high success rate. Experimental tests also verify it is not very sensitive to baseline vector error and can perform robustly when angular error is not great.

  4. The baseline paradox of optical interferometry. Application to the GRAVITY astrometric error budget

    CERN Document Server

    Lacour, S; Gillessen, S; Pfuhl, O; Woillez, J; Bonnet, H; Perrin, G; Lazareff, B; Rabien, S; Lapeyrere, V; Clenet, Y; Kok, Y

    2014-01-01

    A basic principle of long baseline interferometry is that an optical path difference (OPD) directly translate into an astrometric measurement. In the simplest case, the OPD is equal to the scalar product between the vector linking the two telescopes and the normalized vector pointing toward the star. However, in some circumstances, a too simple approximation interpretation of this scalar product leads to seemingly conflicting results, called here "the baseline paradox". For micro-arcsecond accuracy astrometry, we have to model in full the metrology measurement. It involves a complex system subject to many optical effects: from pure baseline errors to static, quasi-static and high order optical aberrations. The goal of this paper is to present the strategy used by GRAVITY to minimize the biases introduced by these defects. It is possible to give an analytical formula on how the baselines and tip-tilt errors affect the astrometric measurement. This formula depends on the limit-points of three type of baselines:...

  5. PCANet: A Simple Deep Learning Baseline for Image Classification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tsung-Han; Jia, Kui; Gao, Shenghua; Lu, Jiwen; Zeng, Zinan; Ma, Yi

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a very simple deep learning network for image classification that is based on very basic data processing components: 1) cascaded principal component analysis (PCA); 2) binary hashing; and 3) blockwise histograms. In the proposed architecture, the PCA is employed to learn multistage filter banks. This is followed by simple binary hashing and block histograms for indexing and pooling. This architecture is thus called the PCA network (PCANet) and can be extremely easily and efficiently designed and learned. For comparison and to provide a better understanding, we also introduce and study two simple variations of PCANet: 1) RandNet and 2) LDANet. They share the same topology as PCANet, but their cascaded filters are either randomly selected or learned from linear discriminant analysis. We have extensively tested these basic networks on many benchmark visual data sets for different tasks, including Labeled Faces in the Wild (LFW) for face verification; the MultiPIE, Extended Yale B, AR, Facial Recognition Technology (FERET) data sets for face recognition; and MNIST for hand-written digit recognition. Surprisingly, for all tasks, such a seemingly naive PCANet model is on par with the state-of-the-art features either prefixed, highly hand-crafted, or carefully learned [by deep neural networks (DNNs)]. Even more surprisingly, the model sets new records for many classification tasks on the Extended Yale B, AR, and FERET data sets and on MNIST variations. Additional experiments on other public data sets also demonstrate the potential of PCANet to serve as a simple but highly competitive baseline for texture classification and object recognition.

  6. Importance of baseline in event-related desynchronization during a combination task of motor imagery and motor observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangwiriyasakul, Chayanin; Verhagen, Rens; van Putten, Michel J. A. M.; Rutten, Wim L. C.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) or synchronization (ERS) refers to the modulation of any EEG rhythm in response to a particular event. It is typically quantified as the ratio between a baseline and a task condition (the event). Here, we focused on the sensorimotor mu-rhythm. We explored the effects of different baselines on mu-power and ERD of the mu-rhythm during a motor imagery task. Methods. Eighteen healthy subjects performed motor imagery tasks while EEGs were recorded. Five different baseline movies were shown. For the imagery task a right-hand opening/closing movie was shown. Power and ERD of the mu-rhythm recorded over C3 and C4 for the different baselines were estimated. Main Results. 50% of the subjects showed relatively high mu-power for specific baselines only, and ERDs of these subjects were strongly dependent on the baseline used. In 17% of the subjects no preference was found. Contralateral ERD of the mu-rhythm was found in about 67% of the healthy volunteers, with a significant baseline preference in about 75% of that subgroup. Significance. The sensorimotor ERD quantifies activity of the brain during motor imagery tasks. Selection of the optimal baseline increases ERD.

  7. 湖北武汉中盖艾滋病项目三类高危人群基线调查分析%Baseline investigation on three kinds of high risk population in Wuhan,China-Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation AIDS program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪; 许骏; 周旺; 杨连第; 姚中兆; 王夏; 王红方; 刘普林

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the baseline information of three kinds of high risk population (FSW, DU, MSM),and provide suggestion to establish strategy for the control program. Methods According to the guideline of UNAIDS/WHO/FHI, three kinds of high risk population were investigated, including: size-estimation of the three kinds of high risk population, AIDS related behavior, serology examination, and service-acceptability etc. Results The cumulative number of HIV/AIDS cases reported of the three kinds was: opposite sex contact (37. 69% ), drug-injection (27. 24% ) and homogeneous sexual transmission ( 5. 97% ). The three kinds of people were of a certain size and spread in different places. The awareness rate of AIDS knowledge of the DU, FSW, MSM was 80. 9%, 69.7%, 90. 4%, respectively. The acceptable rate of HIV antibody test was 55. 22%, 26. 62%, 28.50%, respectively. The MSM's HIV infection rate was 5.04%, syphilis infection rate was 21.49%. The rate of condom use of FSW and MSM in recent month was 73.42%,45.45%, respectively. The rate of needle-sharing of DU in recent six months was 66. 70%. Conclusions The three kinds of high risk population had a large size, they had a great proportion in the HIV transmission-constitute as well. However, the acoeptable rate of HIV antibody test was rather low. The high-risk behavior proportion was also high, and the MSM's HIV infection rate was in particular high. Therefore, there is great difficulty in AIDS control. It is necessary to form a “three-in-one” pattern, to strengthen the intervention for the high risk population and the management for HIV antibody positive cases, so as to contain the spread of AIDS.%目的 了解三类高危人群的基线情况,为制定中盖项目策略和计划提供参考.方法 按照UNAIDS/WHO/FHI有关指南的方法,进行三类高危人群的规模估计、艾滋病相关行为学调查、血清学检测、接受性病服务情况等.结果 累计报告HIV

  8. Way to increase the user access at the LCLS baseline

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-01-01

    The LCLS beam is meant for a single user, but the baseline undulator is long enough to serve two users simultaneously. To this end, we propose a setup composed of two elements: an X-ray mirrors pair for X-ray beam deflection, and a 4 m-long magnetic chicane, which creates an offset for mirrors pair installation in the middle of the baseline undulator. The insertable mirrors pair can separate spatially the X-ray beams generated in the first and in the second half of the baseline undulator. Rapid switching of the FEL amplification process allows deactivating one half and activating another half of the undulator. As proposed elsewhere, using a kicker installed upstream of the LCLS baseline undulator and an already existing corrector in the first half of the undulator, it is possible to rapidly switch the X-ray beam from one user to another. We present simulation results for the LCLS baseline, and show that it is possible to generate two saturated SASE X-ray beams in the whole 0.8-8 keV photon energy range in the...

  9. Combined GPS + BDS for short to long baseline RTK positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odolinski, R.; Teunissen, P. J. G.; Odijk, D.

    2015-04-01

    The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has become fully operational in the Asia-Pacific region and it is of importance to evaluate what BDS brings when combined with the Global Positioning System (GPS). In this contribution we will look at the short, medium and long single-baseline real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning performance. Short baseline refers to when the distance between the two receivers is at most a few kilometers so that the relative slant ionospheric and tropospheric delays can be assumed absent, whereas with medium baseline we refer to when the uncertainty of these ionospheric delays can reliably be modeled as a function of the baseline length. With long baseline we refer to the necessity to parameterize the ionospheric delays and (wet) Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) as completely unknown. The GNSS real data are collected in Perth, Australia. It will be shown that combining the two systems allows for the use of higher than customary elevation cut-off angles. This can be of particular benefit in environments with restricted satellite visibility such as in open pit mines or urban canyons.

  10. LBCS: the LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, N; Deller, A; Moldón, J; Varenius, E; Morabito, L; Wucknitz, O; Carozzi, T; Conway, J; Drabent, A; Kapinska, A; Orrù, E; Brentjens, M; Blaauw, R; Kuper, G; Sluman, J; Schaap, J; Vermaas, N; Iacobelli, M; Cerrigone, L; Shulevski, A; ter Veen, S; Fallows, R; Pizzo, R; Sipior, M; Anderson, J; Avruch, M; Bell, M; van Bemmel, I; Bentum, M; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J; Brouw, W; Brüggen, M; Ciardi, B; Corstanje, A; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Eislöffel, J; Engels, D; Falcke, H; Garrett, M; Griessmeier, J; Gunst, A; van Haarlem, M; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; Intema, H; Juette, E; Kuniyoshi, M; van Leeuwen, J; Loose, G; Maat, P; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J; Mulcahy, D; Munk, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Polatidis, A; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Rowlinson, A; Scaife, A; Schwarz, D; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Thoudam, S; Toribio, M; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; van Weeren, R; Wise, M; Yatawatta, S; Zarka, P

    2016-01-01

    (abridged). We outline LBCS (the LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey), whose aim is to identify sources suitable for calibrating the highest-resolution observations made with the International LOFAR Telescope, which include baselines >1000 km. Suitable sources must contain significant correlated flux density (50-100mJy) at frequencies around 110--190~MHz on scales of a few hundred mas. At least for the 200--300-km international baselines, we find around 1 suitable calibrator source per square degree over a large part of the northern sky, in agreement with previous work. This should allow a randomly selected target to be successfully phase calibrated on the international baselines in over 50% of cases. Products of the survey include calibrator source lists and fringe-rate and delay maps of wide areas -- typically a few degrees -- around each source. The density of sources with significant correlated flux declines noticeably with baseline length over the range 200--600~km, with good calibrators on the longest...

  11. Multiproject baselines for evaluation of electric power projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Murtishaw, Scott; Price, Lynn; Lefranc, Maurice; Roy, Joyashree; Winkler, Harald; Spalding-Fecher, Randall

    2003-03-12

    Calculating greenhouse gas emissions reductions from climate change mitigation projects requires construction of a baseline that sets emissions levels that would have occurred without the project. This paper describes a standardized multiproject methodology for setting baselines, represented by the emissions rate (kg C/kWh), for electric power projects. A standardized methodology would reduce the transaction costs of projects. The most challenging aspect of setting multiproject emissions rates is determining the vintage and types of plants to include in the baseline and the stringency of the emissions rates to be considered, in order to balance the desire to encourage no- or low-carbon projects while maintaining environmental integrity. The criteria for selecting power plants to include in the baseline depend on characteristics of both the project and the electricity grid it serves. Two case studies illustrate the application of these concepts to the electric power grids in eastern India and South Africa. We use hypothetical, but realistic, climate change projects in each country to illustrate the use of the multiproject methodology, and note the further research required to fully understand the implications of the various choices in constructing and using these baselines.

  12. Atmospheric pressure loading parameters from very long baseline interferometry observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, D. S.; Gipson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loading produces a primarily vertical displacement of the Earth's crust. This displacement is correlated with surface pressure and is large enough to be detected by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. Using the measured surface pressure at VLBI stations, we have estimated the atmospheric loading term for each station location directly from VLBI data acquired from 1979 to 1992. Our estimates of the vertical sensitivity to change in pressure range from 0 to -0.6 mm/mbar depending on the station. These estimates agree with inverted barometer model calculations (Manabe et al., 1991; vanDam and Herring, 1994) of the vertical displacement sensitivity computed by convolving actual pressure distributions with loading Green's functions. The pressure sensitivity tends to be smaller for stations near the coast, which is consistent with the inverted barometer hypothesis. Applying this estimated pressure loading correction in standard VLBI geodetic analysis improves the repeatability of estimated lengths of 25 out of 37 baselines that were measured at least 50 times. In a root-sum-square (rss) sense, the improvement generally increases with baseline length at a rate of about 0.3 to 0.6 ppb depending on whether the baseline stations are close to the coast. For the 5998-km baseline from Westford, Massachusetts, to Wettzell, Germany, the rss improvement is about 3.6 mm out of 11.0 mm. The average rss reduction of the vertical scatter for inland stations ranges from 2.7 to 5.4 mm.

  13. IODINE SALT CONSUMPTION IN INDONESIAN HOUSEHOLDS: BASELINE HEALTH SURVEY 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Aryastami

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine Deficiency Disorder (100 reduction program has been implemented since 1976. According to the National Economic Survey 2002, the average consumption of iodized salt was 6. 26 grams. The results of Iodine Salt Survey (SGY 2003 showed that the consumption of iodine salt at the household level was 73.2%, meanwhile, the baseline health survey (Riskesdas 2007 showed there was reduction of iodine salt consumption towards 60.2%. Methods: Type of study was secondary data analysis with cross-sectional design utilizing the Riskesdas 2007's data. Sample was selected purposively according to the previous SGY's survey based on the endemically criteria namely highly endemic, mediocre and non endemic. Results: The results of the analysis were there was discrepancy of iodine salt consumption among urban and rural areas as well as mother's education level. The iodine salt consumption was higher in the urban area (65.5% compare to the rural area (52.9%. The higher the education of mothers the better the iodine salt consumed. The usage of iodine salt in the households based on salt quick test was 60.2%, meanwhile, according to the salt titration it was only 23.4%. The results of Excretion Iodine Urine showed that the iodine intake among the school children (age of 6-12 years old was 12.8% and was still below the cut-off point prevalence, which is greater than 50%. The conclusion of this analysisis that there was evidence of iodine salt reduction consumed at the household level. Conversely, there was inclination of the percentage of iodine urine level among the school children in Indonesia in the year 2007. It is recommended that policy analysis need to be conducted due to the achievement of the Universal Salt iodization target, especially in the endemic areas to asses the existence of the IDO prevalence. Key words: Iodine salt at the households, Iodine salt consumption, urine iodine excretion

  14. Wyner-Ziv to Baseline H.264 Video Transcoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales-García, Alberto; Martínez, Jose Luis; Fernández-Escribano, Gerardo; Villalon, Jose Miguel; Kalva, Hari; Cuenca, Pedro

    2012-12-01

    Mobile-to-mobile video communications is one of the most requested services which operator networks can offer. However, in a framework where one mobile device sends video information to another, both transmitter and receptor should employ video encoders and decoders with low complexity. On the one hand, traditional video codecs, such as H.264, are based on architectures which have encoders with higher complexity than decoders. On the other hand, Wyner-Ziv (WZ) video coding (a particular case of distributed video coding) is an innovative paradigm, which provides encoders with less complexity than decoders. Taking advantage of both paradigms, in terms of low complexity algorithms, a suitable solution consists in transcoding from WZ to H.264. Nevertheless, the transcoding process should be carried out in an efficient way so as to avoid major delays in communication; in other words, the transcoding process should perform the conversion without requiring the complete process of decoding and re-encoding. Based on all the algorithms and techniques we have proposed before, a low complexity WZ to H.264 Transcoder for the Baseline Profile is proposed in this article. Firstly, the proposed transcoder can efficiently turn every WZ group of pictures into the common H.264 I11P pattern and, secondly, the proposed transcoder is based on the hypothesis that macroblock coding mode decisions in H.264 video have a high correlation with the distribution of the side information residual in WZ video. The proposed algorithm selects one sub-set of the several coding modes in H.264. Moreover, a dynamic motion estimation technique is proposed in this article for use in combination with the above algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed transcoder reduces the inter prediction complexity in H.264 by up to 93%, while maintaining coding efficiency.

  15. Functional Testing Protocols for Commercial Building Efficiency Baseline Modeling Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jump, David; Price, Phillip N.; Granderson, Jessica; Sohn, Michael

    2013-09-06

    This document describes procedures for testing and validating proprietary baseline energy modeling software accuracy in predicting energy use over the period of interest, such as a month or a year. The procedures are designed according to the methodology used for public domain baselining software in another LBNL report that was (like the present report) prepared for Pacific Gas and Electric Company: ?Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software: Performance Metrics and Method Testing with Open Source Models and Implications for Proprietary Software Testing Protocols? (referred to here as the ?Model Analysis Report?). The test procedure focuses on the quality of the software?s predictions rather than on the specific algorithms used to predict energy use. In this way the software vendor is not required to divulge or share proprietary information about how their software works, while enabling stakeholders to assess its performance.

  16. A publication database for optical long baseline interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Malbet, Fabien; Lawson, Peter; Taillifet, Esther; Lafrasse, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Optical long baseline interferometry is a technique that has generated almost 850 refereed papers to date. The targets span a large variety of objects from planetary systems to extragalactic studies and all branches of stellar physics. We have created a database hosted by the JMMC and connected to the Optical Long Baseline Interferometry Newsletter (OLBIN) web site using MySQL and a collection of XML or PHP scripts in order to store and classify these publications. Each entry is defined by its ADS bibcode, includes basic ADS informations and metadata. The metadata are specified by tags sorted in categories: interferometric facilities, instrumentation, wavelength of operation, spectral resolution, type of measurement, target type, and paper category, for example. The whole OLBIN publication list has been processed and we present how the database is organized and can be accessed. We use this tool to generate statistical plots of interest for the community in optical long baseline interferometry.

  17. Low baseline (pre-injury) blood pressure predicts inpatient mortality in elderly trauma patients: A bi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnen, Jordan D; Chang, David C; Ramly, Elie P; Olufajo, Olubode A; Le, Ryan T; Kaafarani, Haytham M A; Yeh, Daniel Dante; King, David R; Fagenholz, Peter J; Butler, Kathryn L; Askari, Reza; Salim, Ali; Velmahos, George C; de Moya, Marc

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between baseline (i.e., pre-injury) blood pressure and trauma outcomes in elderly patients is unknown. We therefore aimed to identify the independent impact of baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) on inpatient mortality among elderly trauma patients. The 2004 to 2014 trauma registries of two Level I Trauma Centers were linked to electronic health records then reviewed to identify patients ≥65 years old with available baseline vital signs. Baseline SBP was defined as mean outpatient SBP within 2 years before injury. Trauma SBP was defined as first SBP reading after presentation for trauma. Baseline and Trauma SBP were classified as Low (Low, Normal, and High Baseline SBP groups, respectively (p = 0.001). In multivariable analyses, patients with Low Baseline SBP had significantly increased mortality risk [OR 3.19 (95% CI 1.62-6.26), p = 0.001] compared to patients with Normal Baseline SBP, in particular when they presented with Low Trauma SBP (Low Baseline SBP was particularly elevated among patients with a pre-existing diagnosis of hypertension [OR 4.78 (1.97-11.62), p = 0.001]. Low baseline pre-injury SBP is independently associated with more than a threefold increase in inpatient mortality among elderly trauma patients and a fivefold increase in mortality risk among patients with pre-existing hypertension. Given that blood pressure control in the elderly offers a long-term survival advantage, the paradoxical finding of decreased survival after trauma warrants further investigation. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level III.

  18. Environmental baselines: preparing for shale gas in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, John; Manamsa, Katya; Bell, Rachel; Darling, George; Dochartaigh, Brighid O.; Stuart, Marianne; Ward, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater in the UK. It provides almost 30% of public water supply on average, but locally, for example in south-east England, it is constitutes nearly 90% of public supply. In addition to public supply, groundwater has a number of other uses including agriculture, industry, and food and drink production. It is also vital for maintaining river flows especially during dry periods and so is essential for maintaining ecosystem health. Recently, there have been concerns expressed about the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater. The UK has abundant shales and clays which are currently the focus of considerable interest and there is active research into their characterisation, resource evaluation and exploitation risks. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is undertaking research to provide information to address some of the environmental concerns related to the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater resources and quality. The aim of much of this initial work is to establish environmental baselines, such as a baseline survey of methane occurrence in groundwater (National methane baseline study) and the spatial relationships between potential sources and groundwater receptors (iHydrogeology project), prior to any shale gas exploration and development. The poster describes these two baseline studies and presents preliminary findings. BGS are currently undertaking a national survey of baseline methane concentrations in groundwater across the UK. This work will enable any potential future changes in methane in groundwater associated with shale gas development to be assessed. Measurements of methane in potable water from the Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic carbonate and sandstone aquifers are variable and reveal methane concentrations of up to 500 micrograms per litre, but the mean value is relatively low at 2km. The geological modelling process will be presented and discussed along with maps combining

  19. Association of Fetal Heart Rate Baseline Change and Neonatal Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Michael; Stout, Molly J; López, Julia D; Colvin, Ryan; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2017-07-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of baseline change within normal range during labor and its prediction of neonatal outcomes. Materials and Methods This was a prospective cohort of singleton, nonanomalous, term neonates with continuous electronic fetal monitoring and normal baseline fetal heart rate throughout the last 2 hours of labor. We determined baseline in 10-minute segments using Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development criteria. We evaluated baseline changes of ≥ 20 and ≥ 30 bpm for association with acidemia (umbilical cord arterial pH ≤ 7.10) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. Finally, we performed a sensitivity analysis of normal neonates, excluding those with acidemia, NICU admission, or 5-minute Apgar bpm; 272 (9.0%) had ≥ 30 bpm. Among normal neonates (n = 2,939), 1,221 (41.5%) had change ≥20 bpm. Acidemia was not associated with baseline change of any direction or magnitude. NICU admission was associated with decrease ≥ 20 bpm (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19 - 7.21) or any direction ≥ 20 bpm (aOR: 4.06; 95% CI: 1.46-11.29). For decrease ≥ 20 bpm, sensitivity and specificity were 40.0 and 81.7%; for any direction ≥ 20 bpm, 75.0 and 58.3%. Conclusion Changes of normal baseline are common in term labor and poorly predict morbidity, regardless of direction or magnitude. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Detecting dark energy in long baseline neutrino oscillations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Pei-Hong; BI Xiao-Jun; FENG Bo; YOUNG Bing-Lin; ZHANG Xin-Min

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a possibility of studying properties of dark energy in long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. We consider two types of models of neutrino dark energy. For one type of models the scalar field is taken to be quintessence-like and for the other phantom-like. In these models the scalar fields couple to the neutrinos to give rise to spatially varying neutrino masses. We will show that the two types of models predict different behaviors of the spatial variation of the neutrino masses inside the Earth and consequently result in different signals in long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments.

  1. Future long-baseline neutrino oscillations: View from Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayato, Yoshinari [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Accelerator based long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments have been playing important roles in revealing the nature of neutrinos. However, it turned out that the current experiments are not sufficient to study two major remaining problems, the CP violation in the lepton sector and the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. Therefore, several new experiments have been proposed. Among of them, two accelerator based long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, the J-PARC neutrino beam and Hyper-Kamiokande, and MOMENT, have been proposed in Asia. These two projects are reviewed in this article.

  2. Solar central electric power generation - A baseline design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents the conceptual technical baseline design of a solar electric power plant using the central receiver concept, and derives credible cost estimates from the baseline design. The major components of the plant - heliostats, tower, receiver, tower piping, and thermal storage - are discussed in terms of technical and cost information. The assumed peak plant output is 215 MW(e), over 4000 daylight hours. The contribution of total capital investment to energy cost is estimated to be about 55 mills per kwh in mid-1974 dollars.

  3. Intermediate baseline appearance experiments and three-neutrino mixing schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Cardall, C Y; Cline, D; Cardall, Christian Y.; Fuller, George M.; Cline, David

    1997-01-01

    Three-neutrino mixing schemes suggested by Cardall \\& Fuller and Acker \\& Pakvasa are compared and contrasted. Both of these schemes seek to solve the solar and atmospheric neutrino problems {\\em and} to account for the possible neutrino oscillation signal in the LSND experiment. These neutrino oscillation schemes have different atmospheric and solar neutrino signatures that will be discriminated by Super-Kamiokande and SNO. They will also have different signatures in proposed long-baseline accelerator and reactor experiments. In particular, both of these schemes would give dramatic (and dramatically different) signals in an ``intermediate baseline'' experiment, such as the proposed ICARUS detector in the Jura mountains 17 km from CERN.

  4. Subtracting Technique of Baselines for Capillary Electrophoresis Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; MO Jin-yuan; CHEN Zuan-guang; GAO Yan

    2004-01-01

    The drifting baselines of capillary electrophoresis affect the veracity of analysis greatly. This paper presents Threshold Fitting Technique(TFT) so as to subtract the baselines from the original signals and emendate the signals. In TFT, wav elet and curve fitting technique are applied synthetically, thresholds are decided by the computer automatically. Many experiments of signal processing indicate that TFT is simple for being used, there are few man-induced factors, and the results are satisfactory. TFT can be applied for noisy signals without any pre-processing.

  5. EQUIVALENT BASELINE AND INTERFEROMETRIC PHASE OF CLUSTER SATELLITE SAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Min; Zhang Chuanwu; Huang Shunji

    2005-01-01

    The change of the equivalent baseline and interferometric phase of cluster SAR satellites is analyzed when the constellation circles around the Earth and the satellites rotate around the center at the same time. The letter provides assessment of baseline error and phase error which influence the precision of height measurement in the across-track interferometric mode. The mathematical model of cluster satellite movement is built, simulation analyses and the curve of height error are presented. The simulation results show that height measurement error can be compensated by the formulae derived in this letter, therefore, the Digital Elevation Models (DEM's) are recovered accurately.

  6. Addendum to the 2015 Eastern Interconnect Baselining and Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Follum, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This report serves as an addendum to the report 2015 Eastern Interconnect Baselining and Analysis Report (Amidan, Follum, and Freeman, 2015). This addendum report investigates the following: the impact of shorter record lengths and of adding a daily regularization term to the date/time models for angle pair measurements, additional development of a method to monitor the trend in phase angle pairs, the effect of changing the length of time to determine a baseline, when calculating atypical events, and a comparison between quantitatively discovered atypical events and actual events.

  7. BASELINE DESIGN/ECONOMICS FOR ADVANCED FISCHER-TROPSCH TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-04-01

    Bechtel, along with Amoco as the main subcontractor, developed a Baseline design, two alternative designs, and computer process simulation models for indirect coal liquefaction based on advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology for the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC).

  8. IEA Wind Task 26: Offshore Wind Farm Baseline Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, Gavin [Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult, Blyth, Northumberland (United Kingdom); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sperstad, Iver Bakken [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway); Prinsen, Bob [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands). TKI Wind Op Zee; Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto [European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC), Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-06-02

    This document has been produced to provide the definition and rationale for the Baseline Offshore Wind Farm established within IEA Wind Task 26--Cost of Wind Energy. The Baseline has been developed to provide a common starting point for country comparisons and sensitivity analysis on key offshore wind cost and value drivers. The baseline project reflects an approximate average of the characteristics of projects installed between 2012 and 2014, with the project life assumed to be 20 years. The baseline wind farm is located 40 kilometres (km) from construction and operations and maintenance (O&M) ports and from export cable landfall. The wind farm consists of 100 4-megawatt (MW) wind turbines mounted on monopile foundations in an average water depth of 25 metres (m), connected by 33-kilovolt (kV) inter-array cables. The arrays are connected to a single offshore substation (33kV/220kV) mounted on a jacket foundation, with the substation connected via a single 220kV export cable to an onshore substation, 10km from landfall. The wind farm employs a port-based O&M strategy using crew-transfer vessels.

  9. Revised SRC-I project baseline. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The SRC Process Area Design Baseline consists of six volumes. The first four were submitted to DOE on 9 September 1981. The fifth volume, summarizing the Category A Engineering Change Proposals (ECPs), was not submitted. The sixth volume, containing proprietary information on Kerr-McGee's Critical Solvent Deashing System, was forwarded to BRHG Synthetic Fuels, Inc. for custody, according to past instructions from DOE, and is available for perusal by authorized DOE representatives. DOE formally accepted the Design Baseline under ICRC Release ECP 4-1001, at the Project Configuration Control Board meeting in Oak Ridge, Tennessee on 5 November 1981. The documentation was then revised by Catalytic, Inc. to incorporate the Category B and C and Post-Baseline Engineering Change Proposals. Volumes I through V of the Revised Design Baseline, dated 22 October 1982, are nonproprietary and they were issued to the DOE via Engineering Change Notice (ECN) 4-1 on 23 February 1983. Volume VI again contains proprieary information on Kerr-McGee Critical Solvent Deashing System; it was issued to Burns and Roe Synthetic Fuels, Inc. Subsequently, updated process descriptions, utility summaries, and errata sheets were issued to the DOE and Burns and Roe Synthetic Fuels, Inc. on nonproprietary Engineering Change Notices 4-2 and 4-3 on 24 May 1983.

  10. Treatment decisions based on scalar and functional baseline covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarleglio, Adam; Petkova, Eva; Ogden, R Todd; Tarpey, Thaddeus

    2015-12-01

    The amount and complexity of patient-level data being collected in randomized-controlled trials offer both opportunities and challenges for developing personalized rules for assigning treatment for a given disease or ailment. For example, trials examining treatments for major depressive disorder are not only collecting typical baseline data such as age, gender, or scores on various tests, but also data that measure the structure and function of the brain such as images from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), or electroencephalography (EEG). These latter types of data have an inherent structure and may be considered as functional data. We propose an approach that uses baseline covariates, both scalars and functions, to aid in the selection of an optimal treatment. In addition to providing information on which treatment should be selected for a new patient, the estimated regime has the potential to provide insight into the relationship between treatment response and the set of baseline covariates. Our approach can be viewed as an extension of "advantage learning" to include both scalar and functional covariates. We describe our method and how to implement it using existing software. Empirical performance of our method is evaluated with simulated data in a variety of settings and also applied to data arising from a study of patients with major depressive disorder from whom baseline scalar covariates as well as functional data from EEG are available.

  11. The Dutch CAFE baseline: In or out of line?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimmink BA; Folkert RJM; Thomas R; Beck JP; Eerdt MM van; Elzenga HE; Hoek KW van der; Hoen A; Peek CJ; LED; KMD; NMD; LVM; RIM; LDL

    2004-01-01

    The European Commission is constructing a strategy on air pollution within the Clean Air For Europe (CAFE) programme. This strategy will be based on assessments using the RAINS model for different policy ambitions where the CAFE baseline scenario and control strategies are employed. The Netherlands

  12. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment - Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2016-10-04

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and LLNL Division Leader for Fire Protection and reviewed by LLNL Emergency Management Department Head James Colson. The document follows and expands upon the format and contents of the DOE Model Fire Protection Baseline Capabilities Assessment document contained on the DOE Fire Protection Web Site, but only addresses emergency response.

  13. THE FIRST VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRIC SETI EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rampadarath, H.; Morgan, J. S.; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M., E-mail: hayden.rampadarath@icrar.org [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2012-08-15

    The first Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) conducted with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) is presented. By consideration of the basic principles of interferometry, we show that VLBI is efficient at discriminating between SETI signals and human generated radio frequency interference (RFI). The target for this study was the star Gliese 581, thought to have two planets within its habitable zone. On 2007 June 19, Gliese 581 was observed for 8 hr at 1230-1544 MHz with the Australian Long Baseline Array. The data set was searched for signals appearing on all interferometer baselines above five times the noise limit. A total of 222 potential SETI signals were detected and by using automated data analysis techniques were ruled out as originating from the Gliese 581 system. From our results we place an upper limit of 7 MW Hz{sup -1} on the power output of any isotropic emitter located in the Gliese 581 system within this frequency range. This study shows that VLBI is ideal for targeted SETI including follow-up observations. The techniques presented are equally applicable to next-generation interferometers, such as the long baselines of the Square Kilometre Array.

  14. Moon-Based INSAR Geolocation and Baseline Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang; Ren, Yuanzhen; Ye, Hanlin; Guo, Huadong; Ding, Yixing; Ruan, Zhixing; Lv, Mingyang; Dou, Changyong; Chen, Zhaoning

    2016-07-01

    Earth observation platform is a host, the characteristics of the platform in some extent determines the ability for earth observation. Currently most developing platforms are satellite, in contrast carry out systematic observations with moon based Earth observation platform is still a new concept. The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite and is the only one which human has reached, it will give people different perspectives when observe the earth with sensors from the moon. Moon-based InSAR (SAR Interferometry), one of the important earth observation technology, has all-day, all-weather observation ability, but its uniqueness is still a need for analysis. This article will discuss key issues of geometric positioning and baseline parameters of moon-based InSAR. Based on the ephemeris data, the position, liberation and attitude of earth and moon will be obtained, and the position of the moon-base SAR sensor can be obtained by coordinate transformation from fixed seleno-centric coordinate systems to terrestrial coordinate systems, together with the Distance-Doppler equation, the positioning model will be analyzed; after establish of moon-based InSAR baseline equation, the different baseline error will be analyzed, the influence of the moon-based InSAR baseline to earth observation application will be obtained.

  15. Automated baseline change detection phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD) project is supported by the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) as part of its ER&WM cross-cutting technology program in robotics. Phase 1 of the Automated Baseline Change Detection project is summarized in this topical report. The primary objective of this project is to apply robotic and optical sensor technology to the operational inspection of mixed toxic and radioactive waste stored in barrels, using Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD), based on image subtraction. Absolute change detection is based on detecting any visible physical changes, regardless of cause, between a current inspection image of a barrel and an archived baseline image of the same barrel. Thus, in addition to rust, the ABCD system can also detect corrosion, leaks, dents, and bulges. The ABCD approach and method rely on precise camera positioning and repositioning relative to the barrel and on feature recognition in images. In support of this primary objective, there are secondary objectives to determine DOE operational inspection requirements and DOE system fielding requirements.

  16. Attendance at Health Promotion Programs: Baseline Predictors and Program Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Catherine J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    As part of a family cardiovascular health promotion project, 111 Mexican-American and 95 Anglo-American families with fifth or sixth grade children were assigned to either a primary prevention program involving 18 sessions or to a control condition. Correlates of attendance were low baseline scores on physical activity and cardiovascular fitness…

  17. International Space Station EXPRESS Pallet. Ground Demonstration Baseline Design Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, James R.

    1995-01-01

    This publication is comprised of the viewgraphs from the presentations of the EXPRESS Pallet Baseline Design Review meeting held July 20, 1995. Individual presentations addressed general requirements and objectives; mechanical, electrical, and data systems; software; operations and KSC (Kennedy Space Center) integration; payload candidates; thermal considerations; ground vs. flight demo; and recommended actions.

  18. Magical properties of 2540 km baseline Superbeam Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umasankar, Sankagiri; Raut, Sushant [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology - I.I.T. Bombay, Mumbai, 400076 Maharashtra (India); Singh, Ravi Shanker [Department of Physics, Barus-Holley building, 184 Hope Street, Brown University, Box 1843, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The determination if the neutrino mixing matrix and mass-squared differences is one of the aims of neutrino physics today. This is a complicated affair, owing to the various parameter degeneracies. While the proposed 7500 km long 'magic baseline' experiment simplifies the task considerably, the intense beam required for such an experiment seems futuristic by current standards. As an alternative, we highlight the 'magical' properties of the 2540 km baseline. We propose a Superbeam experiment at this much shorter baseline with a narrow band NuMI-like beam, and demonstrate the ability of this single setup to distinguish between the two mass hierarchies. This, we show, is possible with a moderate exposure and by running the experiment in the neutrino mode only. Our results hold up to fairly small values of the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} and irrespective of the value of the CP violating parameter. Unlike the magic baseline, it may also be possible to use this setup to measure CP violation in neutrino oscillation experiments. (authors)

  19. Baseline correction of intraoperative electromyography using discrete wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampp, Stefan; Prell, Julian; Thielemann, Henning; Posch, Stefan; Strauss, Christian; Romstöck, Johann

    2007-08-01

    In intraoperative analysis of electromygraphic signals (EMG) for monitoring purposes, baseline artefacts frequently pose considerable problems. Since artefact sources in the operating room can only be reduced to a limited degree, signal-processing methods are needed to correct the registered data online without major changes to the relevant data itself. We describe a method for baseline correction based on "discrete wavelet transform" (DWT) and evaluate its performance compared to commonly used digital filters. EMG data from 10 patients who underwent removal of acoustic neuromas were processed. Effectiveness, preservation of relevant EMG patterns and processing speed of a DWT based correction method was assessed and compared to a range of commonly used Butterworth, Resistor-Capacitor and Gaussian filters. Butterworth and DWT filters showed better performance regarding artefact correction and pattern preservation compared to Resistor-Capacitor and Gaussian filters. Assuming equal weighting of both characteristics, DWT outperformed the other methods: While Butterworth, Resistor-Capacitor and Gaussian provided good pattern preservation, the effectiveness was low and vice versa, while DWT baseline correction at level 6 performed well in both characteristics. The DWT method allows reliable and efficient intraoperative baseline correction in real-time. It is superior to commonly used methods and may be crucial for intraoperative analysis of EMG data, for example for intraoperative assessment of facial nerve function.

  20. The Dutch CAFE baseline: In or out of line?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimmink BA; Folkert RJM; Thomas R; Beck JP; Eerdt MM van; Elzenga HE; Hoek KW van der; Hoen A; Peek CJ; LED; KMD; NMD; LVM; RIM; LDL

    2004-01-01

    The European Commission is constructing a strategy on air pollution within the Clean Air For Europe (CAFE) programme. This strategy will be based on assessments using the RAINS model for different policy ambitions where the CAFE baseline scenario and control strategies are employed. The Netherlands

  1. Baseline design of an OTEC pilot plantship. Volume C. Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glosten, L. R.; Bringloe, Thomas; Soracco, Dave; Fenstermacher, Earl; Magura, Donald; Sander, Olof; Richards, Dennis; Seward, Jerry

    1979-05-01

    Volume C is part of a three-volume report that presents a baseline engineering design of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plantship. This volume provides the specifications for the hull, cold-water pipe, ship outfitting and machinery, OTEC power system, electrical system, and folded-tube heat exchangers.

  2. Delta Healthy Sprouts: Participants' Diet and Food Environment at Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local food environments influence the nutrition and health of area residents. This baseline analysis focuses on the food environments of women who participated in the Delta Healthy Sprouts project, a randomized, controlled, comparative trial designed to test the efficacy of two Maternal, Infant, an...

  3. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program. Eleventh quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F.W.; Wagner, C.E.

    1975-07-31

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. NASA completed initial heat balance testing of a baseline engine. An additional 450 hours were run on ceramic regenerators and seals. Seal wear rates are very good, and the elastomeric mounting system was satisfactory. An engine/control oil supply system based on the power steering pump is successfully operating in baseline vehicles. The design of the upgraded engine power turbine nozzle actuator was finalized, and layouts of the inlet guide vane actuator are in process. A lock-up torque converter was installed in the free rotor vehicle. Baseline engine and vehicle testing of water injection and variable inlet guide vanes was completed. A thermal analysis of the gas generator is in process. A steady-state, full power analysis was made. A three-dimensional stress analysis of the compressor cover was made. The power turbine nozzle actuating system layout was completed. The analytical studies of the power turbine rotor bearings were completed. MTI completed the design of the gas generator rotor simulation fixture and is starting to build it. Optimized reduction gears were successfully tested in a baseline engine.

  4. Predicting incident fatty liver using simple cardio-metabolic risk factors at baseline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ki-Chul

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and chronic liver disease but identifying patients who have NAFLD without resorting to expensive imaging tests is challenging. In order to help identify people for imaging investigation of the liver who are at high risk of NAFLD, our aim was to: a identify easily measured risk factors at baseline that were independently associated with incident fatty liver at follow up, and then b to test the diagnostic performance of thresholds of these factors at baseline, to predict or to exclude incident fatty liver at follow up. Methods 2589 people with absence of fatty liver on ultrasound examination at baseline were re-examined after a mean of 4.4 years in a Korean occupational cohort study. Multi-variable logistic regression analyses were used to identify baseline factors that were independently associated with incident fatty liver at follow up. The diagnostic performance of thresholds of these baseline factors to identify people with incident fatty liver at follow-up was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. Results 430 incident cases of fatty liver were identified. Several factors were independently associated with incident fatty liver: increased triglyceride (per mmol/l increase OR 1.378 [95%CIs 1.179, 1.611], p 9/L increase OR 1.004 [1.001, 1.006], p = 0.001; were each independently associated with incident fatty liver. Binary thresholds of the five factors were applied and the area under the ROC curve for incident fatty liver was 0.75 (95%CI 0.72–0.78 for the combination of all five factors above these thresholds. Conclusion Simple risk factors that overlap considerably with risk factors for type 2 diabetes allow identification of people at high risk of incident fatty liver at who use of hepatic imaging could be targeted.

  5. Baseline geochemistry of soil and bedrock Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff at MDA-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, R.G.; McDonald, E.V.; Ryti, R.T.

    1997-08-01

    This report provides baseline geochemistry for soils (including fill), and for bedrock within three specific areas that are planned for use in the remediation of Material Disposal Area P (MDA-P) at Technical Area 16 (TA-16). The baseline chemistry includes leachable element concentrations for both soils and bedrock and total element concentrations for all soil samples and for two selected bedrock samples. MDA-P operated from the early 1950s to 1984 as a landfill for rubble and debris generated by the burning of high explosives (HE) at the TA-16 Burning Ground, HE-contaminated equipment and material, barium nitrate sand, building materials, and trash. The aim of this report is to establish causes for recognizable chemical differences between the background and baseline data sets. In many cases, the authors conclude that recognizable differences represent natural enrichments. In other cases, differences are best attributed to analytical problems. But most importantly, the comparison of background and baseline geochemistry demonstrates significant contamination for several elements not only at the two remedial sites near the TA-16 Burning Ground, but also within the entire region of the background study. This contamination is highly localized very near to the surface in soil and fill, and probably also in bedrock; consequently, upper tolerance limits (UTLs) calculated as upper 95% confidence limits of the 95th percentile are of little value and thus are not provided. This report instead provides basic statistical summaries and graphical comparisons for background and baseline samples to guide strategies for remediation of the three sites to be used in the restoration of MDA-P.

  6. Probing neutrino parameters with a Two-Baseline Beta-beam set-up

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, S K; Raychaudhuri, A

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the prospects of exploring the neutrino mass parameters with a CERN based Beta-beam experiment using two different detectors at two different baselines. The proposed set-up consists of a 50 kton iron calorimeter (ICAL) at a baseline of around 7150 km which is roughly the magic baseline, e.g., ICAL@INO, and a 50 kton Totally Active Scintillator Detector at a distance of 730 km, e.g., at Gran Sasso. We take 8B and 8Li source ions with a boost factor $\\gamma$ of 650 for the magic baseline while for the closer detector we consider 18Ne and 6He ions with a range of Lorentz boosts. We find that the locations of the two detectors complement each other leading to an exceptional high sensitivity. With $\\gamma=650$ for 8B/8Li and $\\gamma=575$ for 18Ne/6He and total luminosity corresponding to $5\\times (1.1\\times 10^{19})$ and $5\\times (2.9\\times 10^{19})$ useful ion decays in neutrino and antineutrino modes respectively, we find that the two-detector set-up can probe maximal CP violation and establish the ne...

  7. Are sawfishes still present in Mozambique? A baseline ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeney, Ruth H

    2017-01-01

    Sawfishes (Pristidae) were formerly abundant in the western Indian Ocean, but current data on sawfish presence and distribution are lacking for most of the region. This paper summarises historical records of sawfishes in Mozambican waters and presents the findings of the first assessment of the presence and status of sawfishes in Mozambique. A countrywide baseline assessment was undertaken between May and July 2014, using interviews with artisanal, semi-industrial and industrial fishers, fish traders and fisheries monitoring staff as the primary source of information on sawfish distribution, recent catches, socio-economic value and cultural importance. Additional interviews were conducted via email or telephone with individuals running sport fishing operations or who otherwise had considerable experience interacting with the fishing sectors or the marine environment in Mozambique. Where encountered, sawfish rostra were photographed and a series of measurements and associated data were collected. In total, 200 questionnaire surveys and seven interviews with recreational fishing and dive operators were conducted, and 19 rostra were documented from museum archives and private collections, belonging to two sawfish species, the Largetooth Sawfish (Pristis pristis) and Green Sawfish (P. zijsron). The most recent captures of sawfishes were reported to have occurred in 2014. Two key sites were identified where both recent encounters were reported and numerous Largetooth Sawfish rostra were documented. Gill nets were the fishing gear most commonly attributed to sawfish catches. Sawfishes did not hold any cultural importance in Mozambique, but they have at least some socio-economic importance to artisanal fishers, primarily through the sale of their fins. The meat did not appear to be held in high regard and was usually consumed locally. Sampling and further research is now required to confirm the presence of sawfishes and to assess the primary threats to sawfishes in those

  8. A Baseline Study of Piermont Marsh as Nekton Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M.; Bloomfield, F.; Torres, T.; Ward, J.; Sanders, D.; Lobato, A.

    2011-12-01

    Between 2007 and 2011 we have conducted a study of fish populations and water quality in the Piermont Marsh, a brackish tidal wetland about 40 km north of Manhattan. This 5-year period represents the baseline for an ongoing ecological study of the marsh. The marsh, along with similar wetlands between the Federal Dam at Troy and the Battery, is an important refuge for juvenile fish, and it is believed that estuarine wetland dynamics are critical in population recruitment for coastal fisheries. Piermont Marsh has undergone a rapid transition from a primarily Spartina alternaflora and Spartina pattens setting to one dominated by an invasive genotype of common reed Phragmites australis. The impact of this shift on local fish populations, species diversity, and adult recruitment are not well understood. The long term goal of this study is to tease apart factors in by use of the marsh as a nekton habitat. Fish were collected in unbaited minnow gee traps which were deployed at slack tide and left for 24 hours. Samples were preserved in 10% buffered formalin. All organisms were identified to the lowest practical taxonomic level, enumerated, and measured. Gross weight was recorded for each sample set. Water quality measurements such as temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen were collected concurrently with all sampling events. Sample collections were focused on the tidal creeks crossing the marsh, which provide the primary exchange of water and nutrients between the marsh interior and Hudson River estuary. As expected, most minnows captured were Fundulus heteroclitus. However a wide variety of other nekton, including species that are important to commercial and recreational coastal Atlantic fish stocks, was recorded as well. Comparisons are made between habitats such as erosional and depostional banks, rivulets, and exterior and interior marsh settings. Also involved were transient conditions such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen levels, and hydroperiod

  9. ESR Base: An Electron Spin Resonance Spectrum Baseline Correction Routine Using Chebyschev Polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    Arfken , G.," Mathematical Methods for Physicists", 3rd Edition, Orlando, Florida: Academic Press, Inc. (1985). 2. Draper, N.R. and H. Smith, "Applied...34, New York: Macmillan Publishing Co, Inc. (1970). 4. Ralston, A., and H. Wilf, Eds, " Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers", New York: John Wiley...a high degree of certainty and ease. METHOD OF LEAST-SQUARES: If one considers the ESR spectral baseline to be, in general, a line possessing some

  10. Baseline selenium status and effects of selenium and vitamin E supplementation on prostate cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kristal, AR; Darke, AK; Morris, JS; Tangen, CM; Goodman, PJ; Thompson, IM; Meyskens, FL; Goodman, GE; Minasian, LM; Parnes, HL; Lippman, SM; Klein, EA

    2014-01-01

    Background The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial found no effect of selenium supplementation on prostate cancer (PCa) risk but a 17% increased risk from vitamin E supplementation. This case-cohort study investigates effects of selenium and vitamin E supplementation conditional upon baseline selenium status. Methods There were 1739 total and 489 high-grade (Gleason 7-10) PCa cases and 3117 men in the randomly selected cohort. Proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios (HR...

  11. Baseline Plasma C-Reactive Protein Concentrations and Motor Prognosis in Parkinson Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Umemura

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP, a blood inflammatory biomarker, is associated with the development of Alzheimer disease. In animal models of Parkinson disease (PD, systemic inflammatory stimuli can promote neuroinflammation and accelerate dopaminergic neurodegeneration. However, the association between long-term systemic inflammations and neurodegeneration has not been assessed in PD patients.To investigate the longitudinal effects of baseline CRP concentrations on motor prognosis in PD.Retrospective analysis of 375 patients (mean age, 69.3 years; mean PD duration, 6.6 years. Plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity CRP were measured in the absence of infections, and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III scores were measured at five follow-up intervals (Days 1-90, 91-270, 271-450, 451-630, and 631-900.Change of UPDRS-III scores from baseline to each of the five follow-up periods.Change in UPDRS-III scores was significantly greater in PD patients with CRP concentrations ≥0.7 mg/L than in those with CRP concentrations <0.7 mg/L, as determined by a generalized estimation equation model (P = 0.021 for the entire follow-up period and by a generalized regression model (P = 0.030 for the last follow-up interval (Days 631-900. The regression coefficients of baseline CRP for the two periods were 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-2.61 and 2.62 (95% CI 0.25-4.98, respectively, after adjusting for sex, age, baseline UPDRS-III score, dementia, and incremental L-dopa equivalent dose.Baseline plasma CRP levels were associated with motor deterioration and predicted motor prognosis in patients with PD. These associations were independent of sex, age, PD severity, dementia, and anti-Parkinsonian agents, suggesting that subclinical systemic inflammations could accelerate neurodegeneration in PD.

  12. Baseline and post-bronchodilator interrupter resistance and spirometry in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydon, Nicole; Mahut, Bruno; Maingot, L; Guillo, H; La Rocca, M C; Medjahdi, N; Koskas, M; Boulé, M; Delclaux, Christophe

    2012-10-01

    In children unable to perform reliable spirometry, the interrupter resistance (R(int) ) technique for assessing respiratory resistance is easy to perform. However, few data are available on the possibility to use R(int) as a surrogate for spirometry. We aimed at comparing R(int) and spirometry at baseline and after bronchodilator administration in a large population of asthmatic children. We collected retrospectively R(int) and spirometry results measured in 695 children [median age 7.8 (range 4.8-13.9) years] referred to our lab for routine assessment of asthma disease. Correlations between R(int) and spirometry were studied using data expressed as z-scores. Receiver operator characteristic curves for the baseline R(int) value (z-score) and the bronchodilator effect (percentage predicted value and z-score) were generated to assess diagnostic performance. At baseline, the relationship between raw values of R(int) and FEV(1) was not linear. Despite a highly significant inverse correlation between R(int) and all of the spirometry indices (FEV(1) , FVC, FEV(1) /FVC, FEF(25-75%) ; P 12% baseline increase) with 70% sensitivity and 69% specificity (AUC = 0.79). R(int) measurements fitted a one-compartment model that explained the relationship between flows and airway resistance. We found that R(int) had poor sensitivity to detect baseline obstruction, but fairly good sensitivity and specificity to detect reversibility. However, in order to implement asthma guidelines for children unable to produce reliable spirometry, bronchodilator response measured by R(int) should be systematically studied and further assessed in conjunction with clinical outcomes.

  13. [Calculation on ecological security baseline based on the ecosystem services value and the food security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling; Jia, Qi-jian; Li, Chao; Xu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of coastal economy in Hebei Province caused rapid transition of coastal land use structure, which has threatened land ecological security. Therefore, calculating ecosystem service value of land use and exploring ecological security baseline can provide the basis for regional ecological protection and rehabilitation. Taking Huanghua, a city in the southeast of Hebei Province, as an example, this study explored the joint point, joint path and joint method between ecological security and food security, and then calculated the ecological security baseline of Huanghua City based on the ecosystem service value and the food safety standard. The results showed that ecosystem service value of per unit area from maximum to minimum were in this order: wetland, water, garden, cultivated land, meadow, other land, salt pans, saline and alkaline land, constructive land. The order of contribution rates of each ecological function value from high to low was nutrient recycling, water conservation, entertainment and culture, material production, biodiversity maintenance, gas regulation, climate regulation and environmental purification. The security baseline of grain production was 0.21 kg · m⁻², the security baseline of grain output value was 0.41 yuan · m⁻², the baseline of ecosystem service value was 21.58 yuan · m⁻², and the total of ecosystem service value in the research area was 4.244 billion yuan. In 2081 the ecological security will reach the bottom line and the ecological system, in which human is the subject, will be on the verge of collapse. According to the ecological security status, Huanghua can be divided into 4 zones, i.e., ecological core protection zone, ecological buffer zone, ecological restoration zone and human activity core zone.

  14. Near Detectors based on gas TPCs for neutrino long baseline experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, A

    2017-01-01

    Time Projection Chambers have been used with success for the T2K ND280 near detector and are proposed for an upgrade of the T2K near detector. High pressure TPCs are also being considered for future long-baseline experiments like Hyper-Kamiokande and DUNE. A High Pressure TPC would be a very sensitive detector for the detailed study of neutrino-nucleus interactions, a limiting factor for extracting the ultimate precision in long baseline experiments. The requirements of TPCs for neutrino detectors are quite specific. We propose here the development of state-of-the-art near detectors based on gas TPC: atmospheric pressure TPCs for T2K-II and a high-pressure TPC for neutrino experiments. The project proposed here benefits from a strong involvement of the European (CERN) members of the T2K collaboration and beyond. It is a strongly synergetic precursor of other projects of near detectors using gas TPCs that are under discussion for the long baseline neutrino projects worldwide. It will help maintain and develop...

  15. Baseline ecological risk assessment Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Salmon Site (SS), formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site, located in Mississippi was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion tests conducted between 1964 and 1970. A consequence of these testing activities is that radionuclides were released into the salt dome, where they are presently contained. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. As part of the remedial investigation effort, a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment was conducted at the SS. The purpose is to gauge ecological and other environmental impacts attributable to past activities at the former test facility. The results of this facility-specific baseline risk assessment are presented in this document.

  16. Long-Baseline Neutrino Physics in the U.S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Sacha E. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1600, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Long-baseline neutrino oscillation physics in the U.S. is centered at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), in particular at the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beamline commissioned in 2004-2005. Already, the MINOS experiment has published its first results confirming the disappearance of {nu}{sub {mu}}'s across a 735 km baseline. The forthcoming NO{nu}A experiment will search for the transition {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} and use this transition to understand the mass heirarchy of neutrinos. These, as well as other conceptual ideas for future experiments using the NuMI beam, will be discussed. The turn-on of the NuMI facility has been positive, with over 310 kW beam power achieved. Plans for increasing the beam intensity once the Main Injector accelerator is fully-dedicated to the neutrino program will be presented.

  17. Ultrasonic Techniques for Baseline-Free Damage Detection in Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debaditya

    This research presents ultrasonic techniques for baseline-free damage detection in structures in the context of structural health monitoring (SHM). Conventional SHM methods compare signals obtained from the pristine condition of a structure (baseline signals) with those from the current state, and relate certain changes in the signal characteristics to damage. While this approach has been successful in the laboratory, there are certain drawbacks of depending on baseline signals in real field applications. Data from the pristine condition are not available for most existing structures. Even if they are available, operational and environmental variations tend to mask the effect of damage on the signal characteristics. Most important, baseline measurements may become meaningless while assessing the condition of a structure after an extreme event such as an earthquake or a hurricane. Such events may destroy the sensors themselves and require installation of new sensors at different locations on the structure. Baseline-free structural damage detection can broaden the scope of SHM in the scenarios described above. A detailed discussion on the philosophy of baseline-free damage detection is provided in Chapter 1. Following this discussion, the research questions are formulated. The organization of this document and the major contributions of this research are also listed in this chapter. Chapter 2 describes a fully automated baseline-free technique for notch and crack detection in plates using a collocated pair of piezoelectric wafer transducers for measuring ultrasonic signals. Signal component corresponding to the damage induced mode-converted Lamb waves is extracted by processing the originally measured ultrasonic signals. The damage index is computed as a function of this mode-converted Lamb wave signal component. An over-determined system of Lamb wave measurements is used to find a least-square estimate of the measurement errors. This error estimate serves as the

  18. Coral reef baselines: how much macroalgae is natural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, John F; Precht, William F; Vroom, Peter S; Aronson, Richard B

    2014-03-15

    Identifying the baseline or natural state of an ecosystem is a critical step in effective conservation and restoration. Like most marine ecosystems, coral reefs are being degraded by human activities: corals and fish have declined in abundance and seaweeds, or macroalgae, have become more prevalent. The challenge for resource managers is to reverse these trends, but by how much? Based on surveys of Caribbean reefs in the 1970s, some reef scientists believe that the average cover of seaweed was very low in the natural state: perhaps less than 3%. On the other hand, evidence from remote Pacific reefs, ecological theory, and impacts of over-harvesting in other systems all suggest that, historically, macroalgal biomass may have been higher than assumed. Uncertainties about the natural state of coral reefs illustrate the difficulty of determining the baseline condition of even well studied systems.

  19. Statistical Mechanics of Node-perturbation Learning with Noisy Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kazuyuki; Katahira, Kentaro; Okada, Masato

    2017-02-01

    Node-perturbation learning is a type of statistical gradient descent algorithm that can be applied to problems where the objective function is not explicitly formulated, including reinforcement learning. It estimates the gradient of an objective function by using the change in the object function in response to the perturbation. The value of the objective function for an unperturbed output is called a baseline. Cho et al. proposed node-perturbation learning with a noisy baseline. In this paper, we report on building the statistical mechanics of Cho's model and on deriving coupled differential equations of order parameters that depict learning dynamics. We also show how to derive the generalization error by solving the differential equations of order parameters. On the basis of the results, we show that Cho's results are also apply in general cases and show some general performances of Cho's model.

  20. Configurations of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barger, Vernon; Chatterjee, Animesh; Gandhi, Raj; Marfatia, Danny; Masud, Mehedi

    2014-01-01

    We perform a comprehensive study of the ability of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) to answer outstanding questions in the neutrino sector. We consider the sensitivities to the mass hierarchy, the octant of $\\theta_{23}$ and to CP violation using data from beam and atmospheric neutrinos. We evaluate the dependencies on the precision with which $\\theta_{13}$ will be measured by reactor experiments, on the detector size, beam power and exposure time, on detector magnetization, and on the systematic uncertainties achievable with and without a near detector. We find that a 35 kt LBNE with a near detector will resolve the eight-fold degeneracy that is intrinsic to long baseline experiments and will meet the primary goals of oscillation physics that it is designed for.

  1. Fissile materials disposition program plutonium immobilization project baseline formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B B; Armantrout, G A; Gray, L; Herman, C C; Shaw, H F; Van Konynenburg, R A

    2000-09-01

    Since 1994 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), with the help of several other laboratories and university groups, has been the lead laboratory for the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). This involves, among other tasks, the development of a formulation and a fabrication process for a ceramic to be used in the immobilization of excess weapons-usable plutonium. This report reviews the history of the project as it relates to the development of the ceramic form. It describes the sample test plan for the pyrochlore-rich ceramic formulation that was selected, and it specifies the baseline formulation that has been adopted. It also presents compositional specifications (e.g. precursor compositions and mixing recipes) and other form and process specifications that are linked or potentially linked to the baseline formulation.

  2. Implementing wide baseline matching algorithms on a graphics processing unit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Larson, Kurt W.; Gonzales, Antonio Ignacio; Myers, Daniel S.

    2007-10-01

    Wide baseline matching is the state of the art for object recognition and image registration problems in computer vision. Though effective, the computational expense of these algorithms limits their application to many real-world problems. The performance of wide baseline matching algorithms may be improved by using a graphical processing unit as a fast multithreaded co-processor. In this paper, we present an implementation of the difference of Gaussian feature extractor, based on the CUDA system of GPU programming developed by NVIDIA, and implemented on their hardware. For a 2000x2000 pixel image, the GPU-based method executes nearly thirteen times faster than a comparable CPU-based method, with no significant loss of accuracy.

  3. The Fermilab Short-Baseline Program: MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schukraft, Anne [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The MicroBooNE experiment is the first of three detectors of the Fermilab short-baseline neutrino program that started operation in the Booster Neutrino Beamline in October 2015 [1]. When completed, the three-detector lineup will explore short-baseline neutrino oscillations and will be sensitive to sterile neutrino scenarios. MicroBooNE in itself is now starting its own physics program, with the measurement of neutrino-argon cross sections in the ~1GeV range being one of its main physics goals. These proceedings describe the status of the detector, the start of operation, and the automated reconstruction of the first neutrino events observed with MicroBooNE. Prospects for upcoming cross section measurements are also given.

  4. Tools for NEPA compliance: Baseline reports and compliance guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Environmental baseline documents and NEPA compliance guides should be carried in every NEPA implementation ``tool kit``. These two indispensable tools can play a major role in avoiding repeated violations of NEPA requirements that have occurred over the past 26 years. This paper describes these tools, discusses their contents, and explains how they are used to prepare better NEPA documents more cost-effectively. Focus is on experience at Sandia Laboratories (NM).

  5. Re-Creating Missing Population Baselines for Pacific Reef Sharks

    OpenAIRE

    Marc O Nadon; Julia K. Baum; Ivor D Williams; Mcpherson, Jana M; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Richards, Benjamin L.; Schroeder, Robert E.; Russell E Brainard

    2012-01-01

    Summary Abstract Sharks and other large predators are scarce on most coral reefs, but studies of their historical ecology provide qualitative evidence that predators were once numerous in these ecosystems. Quantifying density of sharks in the absence of humans (baseline) is, however, hindered by a paucity of pertinent time-series data. Recently researchers have used underwater visual surveys, primarily of limited spatial extent or nonstandard design, to infer negative associations between ree...

  6. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program. Fourteenth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F W; Wagner, C E

    1976-04-30

    Progress is reported for a Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program sponsored by the Heat Engine Systems Branch, Division of Transportation Energy Conservation (TEC) of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). Structurally, this program is made up of three parts: (1) documentation of the existing automotive gas turbine state-of-the-art; (2) conduction of an extensive component improvement program; and (3) utilization of the improvements in the design, and building of an Upgraded Engine capable of demonstrating program goals.

  7. GPS dynamic cycle slip detection and correction with baseline constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhenkun; Huang Ahunji

    2009-01-01

    When the cycle slips take place in the attitude determination of a moving platform, the precision of the attitude will be impaired badly. A method of cycle slip detection and correction is proposed, which is suitable to the dynamic measurement using GPS carrier phase: the cycle slips detection is first achieved by triple difference observables, then the cycle slips correction is performed with baseline length constraint. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective to the dynamic cycle slips problem.

  8. A Resilient Program technical baseline framework for future space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Guillen, Andy T.; Matsunaga, Sumner S.

    2015-05-01

    Recent Better Buying Power (BBP) initiative for improving DoD's effectiveness in developing complex systems includes "Owning the Technical Baseline" (OTB). This paper presents an innovative approach for the development of a "Resilient Program" Technical Baseline Framework (PTBF). The framework provides a recipe for generating the "Resilient Program2" Technical Baseline (PTB) components using the Integrated Program Management (IPM) approach to integrate Key Program Elements (KPEs)3 with System Engineering (SE) process/tools, acquisition policy/process/tools, Cost and Schedule estimating tools, DOD Architecture Framework (DODAF) process/tools, Open System Architecture (OSA) process/tools, Risk Management process/tools, Critical Chain Program Management (CCPM) process, and Earned Value Management System (EVMS) process/tools. The proposed resilient framework includes a matrix that maps the required tools/processes to technical features of a comprehensive reference U.S. DOD "owned" technical baseline. Resilient PTBF employs a new Open System Approach (OSAP) combining existing OSA4 and NOA (Naval Open Architecture) frameworks, supplemented by additional proposed OA (Open Architecture) principles. The new OSAP being recommended to SMC (Space and Missiles Systems Center) presented in this paper is referred to as SMC-OSAP5. Resilient PTBF and SMC-OSAP conform to U.S. DOD Acquisition System (DAS), Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS), and DODAF processes. The paper also extends Ref. 21 on "Program Resiliency" concept by describing how the new OSAP can be used to align SMC acquisition management with DOD BBP 3.0 and SMC's vison for resilient acquisition and sustainment efforts.

  9. Baseline Scotland : the Lower Devonian aquifer of Strathmore

    OpenAIRE

    O Dochartaigh, B.E.; Smedley, P. L.; MacDonald, A M; Darling, W. G.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the groundwater chemistry of the Devonian sedimentary aquifer in Strathmore, eastern Scotland. The area covered by this study extends from Perth in the southwest to Stonehaven in the northeast. The survey forms part of the ongoing Baseline Scotland project. The Devonian sedimentary rocks of Strathmore form an important regional aquifer in an area of some of the most fertile agricultural land in Scotland, with a number of major urban settleme...

  10. Logistics Operations Management Center: Maintenance Support Baseline (LOMC-MSB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurrus, R.; Stump, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Logistics Operations Management Center Maintenance Support Baseline is defined. A historical record of systems, applied to and deleted from, designs in support of future management and/or technical analysis is provided. All Flight elements, Ground Support Equipment, Facility Systems and Equipment and Test Support Equipment for which LOMC has responsibilities at Kennedy Space Center and other locations are listed. International Space Station Alpha Program documentation is supplemented. The responsibility of the Space Station Launch Site Support Office is established.

  11. A moving baseline for evaluation of advanced coal extraction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickerton, C. R.; Westerfield, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Results from the initial effort to establish baseline economic performance comparators for a program whose intent is to define, develop, and demonstrate advanced systems suitable for coal resource extraction beyond the year 2000 are reported. Systems used were selected from contemporary coal mining technology and from conservation conjectures of year 2000 technology. The analysis was also based on a seam thickness of 6 ft. Therefore, the results are specific to the study systems and the selected seam extended to other seam thicknesses.

  12. Degeneracies in long-baseline neutrino experiments from nonstandard interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Jiajun; Whisnant, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    We study parameter degeneracies that can occur in long-baseline neutrino appearance experiments due to nonstandard interactions (NSI). For a single off-diagonal NSI parameter, and neutrino and antineutrino measurements at a single L/E, there exists a continuous four-fold degeneracy (related to the mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{23}$ octant) that renders the mass hierarchy, octant, and CP phase unknowable. Even with a combination of NO$\

  13. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: User guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, J.C. [Bower Software Services, Kennewick, WA (United States); Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Matsumoto, S.W.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.; Winters, C.; Wood, B.M.

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. This User Guide explains how to start and use the IBS Program, which is designed to help civilian emergency management personnel to plan for and support their responses to a chemical-releasing event at a military chemical stockpile. The intended audience for this document is all users of the IBS, especially emergency management planners and analysts.

  14. Linking solar and long baseline terrestrial neutrino experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmedov, E K; Branco, G C; Rebelo, M N

    2000-04-17

    We show that, in the framework of three light neutrino species with hierarchical masses and assuming no fine tuning between the entries of the neutrino mass matrix, one can use the solar neutrino data to obtain information on the element U(e3) of the lepton mixing matrix. Conversely, a measurement of U(e3) in atmospheric or long baseline accelerator or reactor neutrino experiments would help discriminate between possible oscillation solutions of the solar neutrino problem.

  15. Challenges of collecting baseline data in emergency settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Schlecht

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the humanitarian community acknowledgesthe need for good quality data in programme design andmonitoring, the challenges and demands of field settingshave too often led to the argument that “we just don’thave time” or “it is too difficult”. Yet without the allocationof time and resources to the collection of baseline andmonitoring data, project activities cannot be groundedin strong evidence from programme evaluation.

  16. Baseline brain activity predicts response to neuromodulatory pain treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Sherlin, Leslie H; Fregni, Felipe; Gianas, Ann; Howe, Jon D; Hakimian, Shahin

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations between baseline electroencephalogram (EEG)-assessed brain oscillations and subsequent response to four neuromodulatory treatments. Based on available research, we hypothesized that baseline theta oscillations would prospectively predict response to hypnotic analgesia. Analyses involving other oscillations and the other treatments (meditation, neurofeedback, and both active and sham transcranial direct current stimulation) were viewed as exploratory, given the lack of previous research examining brain oscillations as predictors of response to these other treatments. Randomized controlled study of single sessions of four neuromodulatory pain treatments and a control procedure. Thirty individuals with spinal cord injury and chronic pain had their EEG recorded before each session of four active treatments (hypnosis, meditation, EEG biofeedback, transcranial direct current stimulation) and a control procedure (sham transcranial direct stimulation). As hypothesized, more presession theta power was associated with greater response to hypnotic analgesia. In exploratory analyses, we found that less baseline alpha power predicted pain reduction with meditation. The findings support the idea that different patients respond to different pain treatments and that between-person treatment response differences are related to brain states as measured by EEG. The results have implications for the possibility of enhancing pain treatment response by either 1) better patient/treatment matching or 2) influencing brain activity before treatment is initiated in order to prepare patients to respond. Research is needed to replicate and confirm the findings in additional samples of individuals with chronic pain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Optimized Two-Baseline Beta-Beam Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, Sandhya; Donini, Andrea; Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    We propose a realistic Beta-Beam experiment with four source ions and two baselines for the best possible sensitivity to theta_{13}, CP violation and mass hierarchy. Neutrinos from 18Ne and 6He with Lorentz boost gamma=350 are detected in a 500 kton water Cerenkov detector at a distance L=650 km (first oscillation peak) from the source. Neutrinos from 8B and 8Li are detected in a 50 kton magnetized iron detector at a distance L=7000 km (magic baseline) from the source. Since the decay ring requires a tilt angle of 34.5 degrees to send the beam to the magic baseline, the far end of the ring has a maximum depth of d=2132 m for magnetic field strength of 8.3 T, if one demands that the fraction of ions that decay along the straight sections of the racetrack geometry decay ring (called livetime) is 0.3. We alleviate this problem by proposing to trade reduction of the livetime of the decay ring with the increase in the boost factor of the ions, such that the number of events at the detector remains almost the same....

  18. COMSATCOM service technical baseline strategy development approach using PPBW concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Guillen, Andy T.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach to develop a Commercial Satellite Communications (COMSATCOM) service Technical Baseline (TB) and associated Program Baseline (PB) strategy using Portable Pool Bandwidth (PPBW) concept. The concept involves trading of the purchased commercial transponders' Bandwidths (BWs) with existing commercial satellites' bandwidths participated in a "designated pool bandwidth"3 according to agreed terms and conditions. Space Missile Systems Center (SMC) has been implementing the Better Buying Power (BBP 3.0) directive4 and recommending the System Program Offices (SPO) to own the Program and Technical Baseline (PTB) [1, 2] for the development of flexible acquisition strategy and achieving affordability and increased in competition. This paper defines and describes the critical PTB parameters and associated requirements that are important to the government SPO for "owning" an affordable COMSATCOM services contract using PPBW trading concept. The paper describes a step-by-step approach to optimally perform the PPBW trading to meet DoD and its stakeholders (i) affordability requirement, and (ii) fixed and variable bandwidth requirements by optimizing communications performance, cost and PPBW accessibility in terms of Quality of Services (QoS), Bandwidth Sharing Ratio (BSR), Committed Information Rate (CIR), Burstable Information Rate (BIR), Transponder equivalent bandwidth (TPE) and transponder Net Presence Value (NPV). The affordable optimal solution that meets variable bandwidth requirements will consider the operating and trading terms and conditions described in the Fair Access Policy (FAP).

  19. Graphics-processor-unit-based parallelization of optimized baseline wander filtering algorithms for long-term electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhauser, Thomas; Wyss-Balmer, Thomas; Haeberlin, Andreas; Marisa, Thanks; Wildhaber, Reto A; Goette, Josef; Jacomet, Marcel; Vogel, Rolf

    2015-06-01

    Long-term electrocardiogram (ECG) often suffers from relevant noise. Baseline wander in particular is pronounced in ECG recordings using dry or esophageal electrodes, which are dedicated for prolonged registration. While analog high-pass filters introduce phase distortions, reliable offline filtering of the baseline wander implies a computational burden that has to be put in relation to the increase in signal-to-baseline ratio (SBR). Here, we present a graphics processor unit (GPU)-based parallelization method to speed up offline baseline wander filter algorithms, namely the wavelet, finite, and infinite impulse response, moving mean, and moving median filter. Individual filter parameters were optimized with respect to the SBR increase based on ECGs from the Physionet database superimposed to autoregressive modeled, real baseline wander. A Monte-Carlo simulation showed that for low input SBR the moving median filter outperforms any other method but negatively affects ECG wave detection. In contrast, the infinite impulse response filter is preferred in case of high input SBR. However, the parallelized wavelet filter is processed 500 and four times faster than these two algorithms on the GPU, respectively, and offers superior baseline wander suppression in low SBR situations. Using a signal segment of 64 mega samples that is filtered as entire unit, wavelet filtering of a seven-day high-resolution ECG is computed within less than 3 s. Taking the high filtering speed into account, the GPU wavelet filter is the most efficient method to remove baseline wander present in long-term ECGs, with which computational burden can be strongly reduced.

  20. The impact of sterile neutrinos on CP measurements at long baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Gandhi, Raj; Masud, Mehedi; Prakash, Suprabh

    2015-01-01

    With the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) as an example, we show that the presence of even one sterile neutrino of mass $\\sim$1 eV can significantly impact the measurements of CP violation in long baseline experiments. Using a probability level analysis and neutrino-antineutrino asymmetry calculations, we discuss the large magnitude of these effects, and show how they translate into significant event rate deviations at DUNE. Our results demonstrate that measurements which, when interpreted in the context of the standard three family paradigm, indicate CP conservation at long baselines, may, in fact hide large CP violation if there is a sterile state. Similarly, any data indicating the violation of CP cannot be properly interpreted within the standard paradigm unless the presence of sterile states of mass O(1 eV) can be conclusively ruled out. Our work underscores the need for a parallel and linked short baseline oscillation program and a highly capable near detector for DUNE, in order that its high...

  1. Circular polarization control for the LCLS baseline in the soft X-ray regime

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-01-01

    The LCLS baseline includes a planar undulator system, producing linearly polarized light in the range 0.15-1.5 nm. Polarization control in the soft X-ray region from linear to circular is highly desirable. Several schemes using helical undulators have been discussed for the LCLS. One consists in replacing three of the last planar undulator segments by APPLE III. A second proposal, the 2nd harmonic helical afterburner, uses short, crossed undulators tuned to the second harmonic. This last scheme is expected to be the better one. Its advantages are a high and stable degree of circular polarization and a low cost. Its disadvantage is a small output power and a narrow wavelength range. We propose a novel method to generate 10 GW level power at the fundamental harmonic with 99% degree of circular polarization from the LCLS baseline. Its merits are low cost, simplicity and easy implementation. After the baseline undulator, the electron beam is sent through a 40 m long straight section, and subsequently passes throu...

  2. Postoperative Infection Rates in Patients with a Negative Baseline Urine Culture Undergoing Ureteroscopic Stone Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martov, Alexey; Gravas, Stavros; Etemadian, Masoud;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To examine the effects of antibiotic prophylaxis on postoperative infection rate in patients with negative urine cultures undergoing ureteroscopy (URS). Patients and Methods: Using the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) URS Global Study database...... in both groups. Factors predictive of postoperative UTI or fever were female gender, Crohn's and cardiovascular disease, a high stone burden, and an ASA score of II or higher. Conclusions: In patients with a negative baseline urine culture undergoing URS for ureteral or renal stones, rates......, patients with a negative baseline urine culture undergoing URS for ureteral stones (n=1141) or kidney stones (n=184) not receiving antibiotic prophylaxis were matched with those who were predefined by risk factors, including gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, and ureteral stent...

  3. A survey of the baseline correction algorithms for real-time spectroscopy processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanjie; Yu, Yude

    2016-11-01

    In spectroscopy data analysis, such as Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction, fluorescence and etc., baseline drift is a ubiquitous issue. In high speed testing which generating huge data, automatic baseline correction method is very important for efficient data processing. We will survey the algorithms from classical Shirley background to state-of-the-art methods to present a summation for this specific field. Both advantages and defects of each algorithm are scrutinized. To compare the algorithms with each other, experiments are also carried out under SVM gap gain criteria to show the performance quantitatively. Finally, a rank table of these methods is built and the suggestions for practical choice of adequate algorithms is provided in this paper.

  4. Sparse learning and stability selection for predicting MCI to AD conversion using baseline ADNI data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Jieping

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI are at high risk of progression to Alzheimer’s dementia. Identifying MCI individuals with high likelihood of conversion to dementia and the associated biosignatures has recently received increasing attention in AD research. Different biosignatures for AD (neuroimaging, demographic, genetic and cognitive measures may contain complementary information for diagnosis and prognosis of AD. Methods We have conducted a comprehensive study using a large number of samples from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI to test the power of integrating various baseline data for predicting the conversion from MCI to probable AD and identifying a small subset of biosignatures for the prediction and assess the relative importance of different modalities in predicting MCI to AD conversion. We have employed sparse logistic regression with stability selection for the integration and selection of potential predictors. Our study differs from many of the other ones in three important respects: (1 we use a large cohort of MCI samples that are unbiased with respect to age or education status between case and controls (2 we integrate and test various types of baseline data available in ADNI including MRI, demographic, genetic and cognitive measures and (3 we apply sparse logistic regression with stability selection to ADNI data for robust feature selection. Results We have used 319 MCI subjects from ADNI that had MRI measurements at the baseline and passed quality control, including 177 MCI Non-converters and 142 MCI Converters. Conversion was considered over the course of a 4-year follow-up period. A combination of 15 features (predictors including those from MRI scans, APOE genotyping, and cognitive measures achieves the best prediction with an AUC score of 0.8587. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the power of integrating various baseline data for prediction of the conversion from MCI

  5. Small pulmonary nodules in baseline and incidence screening rounds of low-dose CT lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Joan E; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2017-02-01

    Currently, lung cancer screening by low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is widely recommended for high-risk individuals by US guidelines, but there still is an ongoing debate concerning respective recommendations for European countries. Nevertheless, the available data regarding pulmonary nodules released by lung cancer screening studies could improve future screening guidelines, as well as the clinical practice of incidentally detected pulmonary nodules on routine CT scans. Most lung cancer screening trials present results for baseline and incidence screening rounds separately, clustering pulmonary nodules initially found at baseline screening and newly detected pulmonary nodules after baseline screening together. This approach does not appreciate possible differences among pulmonary nodules detected at baseline and firstly detected at incidence screening rounds and is heavily influenced by methodological differences of the respective screening trials. This review intends to create a basis for assessing non-calcified pulmonary nodules detected during LDCT lung cancer screening in a more clinical relevant manner. The aim is to present data of non-calcified pulmonary baseline nodules and new non-calcified pulmonary incident nodules without clustering them together, thereby also simplifying translation to the clinical practice of incidentally detected pulmonary nodules. Small pulmonary nodules newly detected at incidence screening rounds of LDCT lung cancer screening may possess a greater lung cancer probability than pulmonary baseline nodules at a smaller size, which is essential for the development of new guidelines.

  6. Minimal sufficient balance-a new strategy to balance baseline covariates and preserve randomness of treatment allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenle; Hill, Michael D; Palesch, Yuko

    2015-12-01

    In many clinical trials, baseline covariates could affect the primary outcome. Commonly used strategies to balance baseline covariates include stratified constrained randomization and minimization. Stratification is limited to few categorical covariates. Minimization lacks the randomness of treatment allocation. Both apply only to categorical covariates. As a result, serious imbalances could occur in important baseline covariates not included in the randomization algorithm. Furthermore, randomness of treatment allocation could be significantly compromised because of the high proportion of deterministic assignments associated with stratified block randomization and minimization, potentially resulting in selection bias. Serious baseline covariate imbalances and selection biases often contribute to controversial interpretation of the trial results. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Trial and the Captopril Prevention Project are two examples. In this article, we propose a new randomization strategy, termed the minimal sufficient balance randomization, which will dually prevent serious imbalances in all important baseline covariates, including both categorical and continuous types, and preserve the randomness of treatment allocation. Computer simulations are conducted using the data from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Trial. Serious imbalances in four continuous and one categorical covariate are prevented with a small cost in treatment allocation randomness. A scenario of simultaneously balancing 11 baseline covariates is explored with similar promising results. The proposed minimal sufficient balance randomization algorithm can be easily implemented in computerized central randomization systems for large multicenter trials.

  7. Baseline assessment of groundwater quality in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2016-06-30

    The Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and the Ordovician-age Utica Shale, geologic formations which have potential for natural gas development, underlie Wayne County and neighboring counties in northeastern Pennsylvania. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wayne Conservation District, conducted a study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers in Wayne County prior to potential extensive shale-gas development. The 2014 study expanded on previous, more limited studies that included sampling of groundwater from 2 wells in 2011 and 32 wells in 2013 in Wayne County. Eighty-nine water wells were sampled in summer 2014 to provide data on the presence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low levels in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines associated with fluids extracted from geologic formations during shale-gas development. Depths of sampled wells ranged from 85 to 1,300 feet (ft) with a median of 291 ft. All of the groundwater samples collected in 2014 were analyzed for bacteria, major ions, nutrients, selected inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, selected man-made organic compounds (including volatile organic compounds and glycols), dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and propane), and, if sufficient methane was present, the isotopic composition of methane.Results of the 2014 study show that groundwater quality generally met most drinking-water standards, but some well-water samples had one or more constituents or properties, including arsenic, iron, pH, bacteria, and radon-222, that exceeded primary or secondary maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Arsenic concentrations were higher than the MCL of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) in 4 of 89 samples (4.5 percent) with concentrations as high as 20 µg/L; arsenic

  8. A baseline algorithm for face detection and tracking in video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Vasant; Soundararajan, Padmanabhan; Korzhova, Valentina; Boonstra, Matthew; Goldgof, Dmitry; Kasturi, Rangachar

    2007-10-01

    Establishing benchmark datasets, performance metrics and baseline algorithms have considerable research significance in gauging the progress in any application domain. These primarily allow both users and developers to compare the performance of various algorithms on a common platform. In our earlier works, we focused on developing performance metrics and establishing a substantial dataset with ground truth for object detection and tracking tasks (text and face) in two video domains -- broadcast news and meetings. In this paper, we present the results of a face detection and tracking algorithm on broadcast news videos with the objective of establishing a baseline performance for this task-domain pair. The detection algorithm uses a statistical approach that was originally developed by Viola and Jones and later extended by Lienhart. The algorithm uses a feature set that is Haar-like and a cascade of boosted decision tree classifiers as a statistical model. In this work, we used the Intel Open Source Computer Vision Library (OpenCV) implementation of the Haar face detection algorithm. The optimal values for the tunable parameters of this implementation were found through an experimental design strategy commonly used in statistical analyses of industrial processes. Tracking was accomplished as continuous detection with the detected objects in two frames mapped using a greedy algorithm based on the distances between the centroids of bounding boxes. Results on the evaluation set containing 50 sequences (~ 2.5 mins.) using the developed performance metrics show good performance of the algorithm reflecting the state-of-the-art which makes it an appropriate choice as the baseline algorithm for the problem.

  9. The Monitored Atherosclerosis Regression Study (MARS). Design, methods and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashin-Hemphill, L; Kramsch, D M; Azen, S P; DeMets, D; DeBoer, L W; Hwang, I; Vailas, L; Hirsch, L J; Mack, W J; DeBoer, L

    1992-10-23

    67 years (mean age 57.9 years). For the cohort, baseline lipids are (mean +/- SD): TC, 231 +/- 24 mg/dL; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by ultracentrifugation, 153 +/- 24 mg/dL; LDL-C, by calculation, 157 +/- 23 mg/dL; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), 43 +/- 10 mg/dL; and triglycerides, 160 +/- 73 mg/dL. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in baseline lipid levels or baseline angiographic characteristics. MARS baseline data show adequacy of randomization with comparability of lovastatin and placebo groups in demographic, lipid, and angiographic characteristics.

  10. Exceptional sensitivity to neutrino parameters with a two-baseline Beta-beam set-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)], E-mail: sanjib@hri.res.in; Choubey, Sandhya [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India)], E-mail: sandhya@hri.res.in; Raychaudhuri, Amitava [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)], E-mail: raychaud@hri.res.in

    2008-12-11

    We examine the reach of a Beta-beam experiment with two detectors at carefully chosen baselines for exploring neutrino mass parameters. Locating the source at CERN, the two detectors and baselines are: (a) a 50 kton iron calorimeter (ICAL) at a baseline of around 7150 km which is roughly the magic baseline, e.g., ICAL-INO, and (b) a 50 kton Totally Active Scintillator Detector at a distance of 730 km, e.g., at Gran Sasso. We choose {sup 8}B and {sup 8}Li source ions with a boost factor {gamma} of 650 for the magic baseline while for the closer detector we consider {sup 18}Ne and {sup 6}He ions with a range of Lorentz boosts. We find that the locations of the two detectors complement each other leading to an exceptional high sensitivity. With {gamma}=650 for {sup 8}B/{sup 8}Li and {gamma}=575 for {sup 18}Ne/{sup 6}He and total luminosity corresponding to 5x(1.1x10{sup 18}) and 5x(2.9x10{sup 18}) useful ion decays in neutrino and antineutrino modes respectively, we find that the two-detector set-up can probe maximal CP violation and establish the neutrino mass ordering if sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13} is 1.4x10{sup -4} and 2.7x10{sup -4}, respectively, or more. The sensitivity reach for sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13} itself is 5.5x10{sup -4}. With a factor of 10 higher luminosity, the corresponding sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13} reach of this set-up would be 1.8x10{sup -5}, 4.6x10{sup -5} and 5.3x10{sup -5} respectively for the above three performance indicators. CP violation can be discovered for 64% of the possible {delta}{sub CP} values for sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13}{>=}10{sup -3} ({>=}8x10{sup -5}), for the standard luminosity (10 times enhanced luminosity). Comparable physics performance can be achieved in a set-up where data from CERN to INO-ICAL is combined with that from CERN to the Boulby mine in United Kingdom, a baseline of 1050 km.

  11. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: Utilities Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Williams, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bower, J.C. [Bower Software Services, Kennewick, WA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the US Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency. This Utilities Guide explains how you can use the IBS utility programs to manage and manipulate various kinds of IBS data. These programs include utilities for creating, editing, and displaying maps and other data that are referenced to geographic location. The intended audience for this document are chiefly data managers but also system managers and some emergency management planners and analysts.

  12. Future long-baseline neutrino oscillations: View from Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzak, T. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2015-07-15

    Since about a decade the european physics community interested in neutrino and neutrino-astrophysics develops a plan to conceive the next generation large underground neutrino observatory. Recently, the LAGUNA-LBNO collaboration made the outcome of the FP7 design study public which shows a clear path for the realization of such experiment. In this paper the LAGUNA and LAGUNA-LBNO Design studies, resulting in a proposal for the LBNO experiment, will be discussed. The author will focus on the long baseline neutrino oscillation search, especially on the potential to discover the neutrino mass ordering and the search for CP violation in the lepton sector.

  13. Implications of 3+1 short-baseline neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giunti, Carlo, E-mail: giunti@to.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Laveder, Marco, E-mail: laveder@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Universita di Padova, and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2011-12-06

    We present an upgrade of the 3+1 global fit of short-baseline neutrino oscillation data obtained with the addition of KARMEN and LSND {nu}{sub e}+{sup 12}C{yields}{sup 12}N{sub g.s.}+e{sup -} scattering data. We discuss the implications for the measurements of the effective neutrino mass in {beta}-decay and neutrinoless double-{beta}-decay experiments. We find respective predicted ranges of about 0.1-0.7 eV and 0.01-0.1 eV.

  14. Long baseline accelerator neutrino experiments present and future

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, André

    2000-01-01

    A nu /sub mu / disappearance effect has been seen in atmospheric neutrino experiments. This has led to the "evidence for neutrino oscillations". The next problem in neutrino physics is to perform the right experiment(s) to elucidate in a comprehensive way the pattern of neutrino masses and mixings. The long baseline experiments will play a fundamental role at settling definitively the question of flavor oscillation and at measuring with good precision the oscillation parameters. The CERN-NGS beam coupled with the proposed ICANOE and OPERA detectors is the only programme capable of sensitive tau and electron appearance searches. (14 refs).

  15. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 1.03: Utilities guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Pottier, M.C.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that was developed under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). This Utilities Guide explains how to operate utility programs that are supplied as a part of the IBS. These utility programs are chiefly for managing and manipulating various kinds of IBS data and system administration files. Many of the utilities are for creating, editing, converting, or displaying map data and other data that are related to geographic location.

  16. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment Compliance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, John A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-09-16

    This document is the second of a two-part analysis of Emergency Response Capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first part, 2013 Baseline Needs Assessment Requirements Document established the minimum performance criteria necessary to meet mandatory requirements. This second part analyses the performance of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Emergency Management Department to the contents of the Requirements Document. The document was prepared based on an extensive review of information contained in the 2009 BNA, the 2012 BNA document, a review of Emergency Planning Hazards Assessments, a review of building construction, occupancy, fire protection features, dispatch records, LLNL alarm system records, fire department training records, and fire department policies and procedures.

  17. Project W-320 thermal hydraulic model benchmarking and baselining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathyanarayana, K.

    1998-09-28

    Project W-320 will be retrieving waste from Tank 241-C-106 and transferring the waste to Tank 241-AY-102. Waste in both tanks must be maintained below applicable thermal limits during and following the waste transfer. Thermal hydraulic process control models will be used for process control of the thermal limits. This report documents the process control models and presents a benchmarking of the models with data from Tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102. Revision 1 of this report will provide a baselining of the models in preparation for the initiation of sluicing.

  18. Organic Contamination Baseline Study on NASA JSC Astromaterial Curation Gloveboxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Future planned sample return missions to carbon-rich asteroids and Mars in the next two decades will require strict handling and curation protocols as well as new procedures for reducing organic contamination. After the Apollo program, astromaterial collections have mainly been concerned with inorganic contamination [1-4]. However, future isolation containment systems for astromaterials, possibly nitrogen enriched gloveboxes, must be able to reduce organic and inorganic cross-contamination. In 2012, a baseline study was orchestrated to establish the current state of organic cleanliness in gloveboxes used by NASA JSC astromaterials curation labs that could be used as a benchmark for future mission designs.

  19. On the nature of Seyfert galaxies with high [OIII]5007 blueshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Komossa, S; Zhou, H; Storchi-Bergmann, T; Binette, L

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the properties of Seyfert galaxies with high [OIII]5007 blueshifts (`blue outliers'), originally identified because of their strong deviation from the M_BH - sigma relation of normal, narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) and broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLS1) galaxies. These blue outliers turn out to be important test-beds for models of the narrow-line region (NLR), for mechanisms of driving large-scale outflows, for links between NLS1 galaxies and radio galaxies, and for orientation-dependent NLS1 models. We report the detection of a strong correlation of line blueshift with ionization potential in each galaxy, including the measurement of coronal lines with radial velocities up to 500--1000 km/s. All [OIII] blue outliers have narrow widths of their broad Balmer lines and high Eddington ratios. While the presence of non-shifted low-ionization lines signifies the presence of a classical outer quiescent NLR in blue outliers, we also report the absence of any second, non-blueshifted [OIII] component from a cla...

  20. Suppression of baseline wander in the ECG using a bilinearly transformed, null-phase filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottala, E W; Bailey, J J; Horton, M R; Gradwohl, J R

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and test a bilinearly transformed, null-phase (BLT/NP) filter for removing baseline wander and to compare it with the cubic spline for performance. For this purpose, the ECG data were filtered to remove high-frequency noise and low-frequency baseline wander to form a set of "clean" ECGs. Artificial low-frequency noise mimicking typical baseline wander was constructed from sine and cosine waves at 0.20 and 0.45 Hz and with amplitudes of 400 and 300 microV, respectively, and added to the "clean" ECGs to form the "test" ECGs. The BLT/NP filter and the cubic spline method each were applied to a "test" ECG to form a "restored" ECG. The measure of performance was the root mean square difference (RMSD) between the "restored" ECG and the initial "clean" ECG. RMSD values showed that on the average the BLT/NP filter performed as well as the cubic spline method and has the advantage that accurate determination of the QRS onset is not required.

  1. Baseline-Dependent Responses of Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics to Climate and Land Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengxi Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial carbon (C sequestration through optimizing land use and management is widely considered a realistic option to mitigate the global greenhouse effect. But how the responses of individual ecosystems to changes in land use and management are related to baseline soil organic C (SOC levels still needs to be evaluated at various scales. In this study, we modeled SOC dynamics within both natural and managed ecosystems in North Dakota of the United States and found that the average SOC stock in the top 20 cm depth of soil lost at a rate of 450 kg C ha−1 yr−1 in cropland and 110 kg C ha−1 yr−1 in grassland between 1971 and 1998. Since 1998, the study area had become a SOC sink at a rate of 44 kg C ha−1 yr−1. The annual rate of SOC change in all types of lands substantially depends on the magnitude of initial SOC contents, but such dependency varies more with climatic variables within natural ecosystems and with management practices within managed ecosystems. Additionally, soils with high baseline SOC stocks tend to be C sources following any land surface disturbances, whereas soils having low baseline C contents likely become C sinks following conservation management.

  2. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission initial updated baseline summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swita, W.R.

    1998-01-09

    This document provides a summary of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (scope, schedule, and cost), developed to demonstrate Readiness-to-Proceed (RTP) in support of the TWRS Phase 1B mission. This Updated Baseline is the proposed TWRS plan to execute and measure the mission work scope. This document and other supporting data demonstrate that the TWRS Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team is prepared to fully support Phase 1B by executing the following scope, schedule, and cost baseline activities: Deliver the specified initial low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) feed batches in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner to support private contractors` operations starting in June 2002; Deliver specified subsequent LAW and HLW feed batches during Phase 1B in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner; Provide for the interim storage of immobilized HLW (IHLW) products and the disposal of immobilized LAW (ILAW) products generated by the private contractors; Provide for disposal of byproduct wastes generated by the private contractors; and Provide the infrastructure to support construction and operations of the private contractors` facilities.

  3. Multiadaptive Bionic Wavelet Transform: Application to ECG Denoising and Baseline Wandering Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayadi Omid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new modified wavelet transform, called the multiadaptive bionic wavelet transform (MABWT, that can be applied to ECG signals in order to remove noise from them under a wide range of variations for noise. By using the definition of bionic wavelet transform and adaptively determining both the center frequency of each scale together with the -function, the problem of desired signal decomposition is solved. Applying a new proposed thresholding rule works successfully in denoising the ECG. Moreover by using the multiadaptation scheme, lowpass noisy interference effects on the baseline of ECG will be removed as a direct task. The method was extensively clinically tested with real and simulated ECG signals which showed high performance of noise reduction, comparable to those of wavelet transform (WT. Quantitative evaluation of the proposed algorithm shows that the average SNR improvement of MABWT is 1.82 dB more than the WT-based results, for the best case. Also the procedure has largely proved advantageous over wavelet-based methods for baseline wandering cancellation, including both DC components and baseline drifts.

  4. EMD-based GPS baseline solution and validation test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; GAO Jing-xiang; WANG Jin-ling; XU Chang-hui

    2008-01-01

    A GPS baseline solution model is presented, based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), which has the advantage of eliminating the error effects outside the model. The EMD technique is a new signal processing method for non-linear time series, which decomposes a time series into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). The decomposition procedure is adaptive and data-driven which is suitable for non-linear data series analysis. A multi-scale decomposition and reconstruction architecture is defined on the basis of the EMD theory and the error mitigation model is demonstrated as well. A standard of the scale selection for the elimination of errors, outside the model, was given in terms of the mean of the accumulated standardized modes. Thereafter, the scheme of the GPS baseline solution based on the EMD is suggested. The float solution residuals of the Double-Difference (DD) observation equation are used to extract the errors outside the model applied to modify the GPS DD measurements. Then the float solution was given again and the fixed solution was obtained by a Lambda algorithm. Three schemes are designed to test the proposed model and the experimental results show that the proposed model dramatically improves the relia- bility of ambiguity resolution after the elimination of errors outside the model.

  5. Study of neutrino oscillations in long-baseline accelerator experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudenko, Yurii G [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-30

    A review of the title subject is given. The phenomenology of neutrino oscillations in the framework of the so-called neutrino Standard Model ({nu}SM) with three active neutrinos is considered. The recently completed long-baseline accelerator experiment K2K and currently in-progress MINOS and OPERA experiments are described in detail. The oscillation parameters obtained from the global analysis of all oscillation data are given. The short-baseline experiment MiniBooNE and its results on the search for light sterile neutrinos are discussed in detail. Considerable attention is given to searching for {nu}{sub {mu}{yields}{nu}e} oscillations and measuring the {theta}{sub 13} angle in muon neutrino experiments. The concept of the off-axis neutrino beam is reviewed. The T2K experiment, collecting statistics since early 2010, is described for its details and objectives. The NO{nu}A experiment under construction and the next-generation beta beam and neutrino factory experiments are also discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  6. Airborne infection control in India: Baseline assessment of health facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Malik M.; Sachdeva, K.S.; Rade, Kiran; Ghedia, Mayank; Bansal, Avi; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Willis, Matthew D.; Misquitta, Dyson P.; Nair, Sreenivas A.; Moonan, Patrick K.; Dewan, Puneet K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis transmission in health care settings represents a major public health problem. In 2010, national airborne infection control (AIC) guidelines were adopted in India. These guidelines included specific policies for TB prevention and control in health care settings. However, the feasibility and effectiveness of these guidelines have not been assessed in routine practice. This study aimed to conduct baseline assessments of AIC policies and practices within a convenience sample of 35 health care settings across 3 states in India and to assess the level of implementation at each facility after one year. Method A multi-agency, multidisciplinary panel of experts performed site visits using a standardized risk assessment tool to document current practices and review resource capacity. At the conclusion of each assessment, facility-specific recommendations were provided to improve AIC performance to align with national guidelines. Result Upon initial assessment, AIC systems were found to be poorly developed and implemented. Administrative controls were not commonly practiced and many departments needed renovation to achieve minimum environmental standards. One year after the baseline assessments, there were substantial improvements in both policy and practice. Conclusion A package of capacity building and systems development that followed national guidelines substantially improved implementation of AIC policies and practice. PMID:26970461

  7. Baseline urologic surgical skills among medical students: Differentiating trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishaal; Lantz, Andrea G; Alzharani, Tarek; Foell, Kirsten; Lee, Jason Y

    2014-07-01

    Urology training programs seek to identify ideal candidates with the potential to become competent urologic surgeons. It is unclear whether innate technical ability has a role in this selection process. We aimed to determine whether there are any innate differences in baseline urologic technical skills among medical students. Second-year medical students from the University of Toronto were recruited for this study and stratified into surgical and non-surgical cohorts based on their reported career aspirations. After a pre-test questionnaire, subjects were tested on several urologic surgical skills: laparoscopy, cystoscopy and robotic surgery. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-squared test, student t-tests and Spearman's correlation where appropriate. A total of 29 students participated in the study and no significant baseline differences were found between cohorts with respect to demographics and prior surgical experience. For laparoscopic skills, the surgical cohort outperformed the non-surgical cohort on several exercises: Lap Beans Missed (4.9 vs. 9.3, p robotic surgery performance metrics: Task Time (50.6 vs. 76.3, p robotics, may differ between early trainees interested in a surgical career compared to those interested in a non-surgical career. Further studies are required to illicit what impact such differences have on future performance and competence.

  8. The IUGS/IAGC Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David B.Smith; Shaun Reeder; Alecos Demetriades

    2012-01-01

    The Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines,operating under the auspices of both the International Union of Geological Sciences(IUGS) and the International Association of Geochemistry(IAGC),has the long-term goal of establishing a global geochemical database to document the concentration and distribution of chemical elements in the Earth's surface or near-surface environment.The database and accompanying element distribution maps represent a geochemical baseline against which future human-induced or natural changes to the chemistry of the land surface may be recognized and quantified.In order to accomplish this long-term goal,the activities of the Task Group include:(1) developing partnerships with countries conducting broad-scale geochemical mapping studies;(2) providing consultation and training in the form of workshops and short courses;(3) organizing periodic international symposia to foster communication among the geochemical mapping community;(4) developing criteria for certifying those projects whose data are acceptable in a global geochemical database;(5) acting as a repository for data collected by those projects meeting the criteria for standardization;(6) preparing complete metadata for the certified projects;and(7) preparing,ultimately,a global geochemical database.This paper summarizes the history and accomplishments of the Task Group since its first predecessor project was established in 1988.

  9. Model Order Selection in Multi-baseline Interferometric Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Gini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR is a powerful technique to derive three-dimensional terrain images. Interest is growing in exploiting the advanced multi-baseline mode of InSAR to solve layover effects from complex orography, which generate reception of unexpected multicomponent signals that degrade imagery of both terrain radar reflectivity and height. This work addresses a few problems related to the implementation into interferometric processing of nonlinear algorithms for estimating the number of signal components, including a system trade-off analysis. Performance of various eigenvalues-based information-theoretic criteria (ITC algorithms is numerically investigated under some realistic conditions. In particular, speckle effects from surface and volume scattering are taken into account as multiplicative noise in the signal model. Robustness to leakage of signal power into the noise eigenvalues and operation with a small number of looks are investigated. The issue of baseline optimization for detection is also addressed. The use of diagonally loaded ITC methods is then proposed as a tool for robust operation in the presence of speckle decorrelation. Finally, case studies of a nonuniform array are studied and recommendations for a proper combination of ITC methods and system configuration are given.

  10. Baselines for the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng

    2013-01-01

    Using a Canadian student achievement assessment database, the Science Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP), and employing the Rasch partial credit measurement model, this study estimated the difficulties of items corresponding to the learning outcomes in the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework and the latent abilities of students of grades 7, 8, 10, 11, 12 and OAC (Ontario Academic Course). The above estimates serve as baselines for validating the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework in terms of the learning progression of learning outcomes and expected mastery of learning outcomes by grades. It was found that there was no statistically significant progression in learning outcomes from grades 4-6 to grades 7-9, and from grades 7-9 to grades 10-12; the curriculum framework sets mastery expectation about 2 grades higher than students' potential abilities. In light of the above findings, this paper discusses theoretical issues related to deciding progression of learning outcomes and setting expectation of student mastery of learning outcomes, and highlights the importance of using national assessment data to establish baselines for the above purposes. This paper concludes with recommendations for further validating the Pan-Canadian science curriculum frameworks.

  11. The IUGS/IAGC Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Wang, Xueqiu; Reeder, Shaun; Demetriades, Alecos

    2012-01-01

    The Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines, operating under the auspices of both the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and the International Association of Geochemistry (IAGC), has the long-term goal of establishing a global geochemical database to document the concentration and distribution of chemical elements in the Earth’s surface or near-surface environment. The database and accompanying element distribution maps represent a geochemical baseline against which future human-induced or natural changes to the chemistry of the land surface may be recognized and quantified. In order to accomplish this long-term goal, the activities of the Task Group include: (1) developing partnerships with countries conducting broad-scale geochemical mapping studies; (2) providing consultation and training in the form of workshops and short courses; (3) organizing periodic international symposia to foster communication among the geochemical mapping community; (4) developing criteria for certifying those projects whose data are acceptable in a global geochemical database; (5) acting as a repository for data collected by those projects meeting the criteria for standardization; (6) preparing complete metadata for the certified projects; and (7) preparing, ultimately, a global geochemical database. This paper summarizes the history and accomplishments of the Task Group since its first predecessor project was established in 1988.

  12. Does Baseline Heart Rate Variability Reflect Stable Positive Emotionality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, Paul J; Jackson, Bryonna A; Sopko, Rachel S

    2014-11-01

    Several recent studies have found significant correlations, medium in effect size, between baseline heart rate variability (HRV) and measures of positive functioning, such as extraversion, agreeableness, and trait positive affectivity. Other research, however, has suggested an optimal level of HRV and found nonlinear effects. In the present study, a diverse sample of 239 young adults completed a wide range of measures that reflect positive psychological functioning, including personality traits, an array of positive emotions (measured with the Dispositional Positive Emotions Scale), and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms (measured with the DASS and CESD). HRV was measured with a 6-minute baseline period and quantified using many common HRV metrics (e.g., respiratory sinus arrhythmia, root mean square of successive differences, and others), and potentially confounding behavioral and lifestyle variables (e.g., BMI, caffeine and nicotine use, sleep quality) were assessed. Neither linear nor non-linear effects were found, and the effect sizes were small and near zero. The findings suggest that the cross-sectional relationship between HRV and positive experience deserves more attention and meta-analytic synthesis.

  13. Verification and optimization of the CFETR baseline scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D.; Lao, L. L.; Meneghini, O.; Staebler, G. M.; Candy, J.; Smith, S. P.; Snyder, P. B.; Prater, R.; Chen, X.; Chan, V. S.; Li, J.; Chen, J.; Shi, N.; Guo, W.; Pan, C.; Jian, X.

    2016-10-01

    The baseline scenario of China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) was designed starting from 0D calculations. The CFETR baseline scenario satisfies the minimum goal of Fusion Nuclear Science Facility aimed at bridging the gaps between ITER and DEMO. 1.5D calculations are presented to verify the on-going efforts in higher-dimensional modeling of CFETR. Steady-state scenarios are calculated self-consistently by the OMFIT integrated modeling framework that includes EFIT for equilibrium, ONETWO for sources and current, TGYRO for transport. With 68MW of neutral beam power and 8MW of ECH injected to the plasma, the average ion temperature is maintained at 15keV, while 150MW fusion power is produced. The neutral beams also drive 55% of the plasma current. Modest fast ion diffusion will reduce NBCD and affect the profile substantially. Top-launch ECH will increase the current drive and the power absorption rate. EPED model are being included. Work supported by U.S. DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and the USTC CFETR contract.

  14. A baseline for the multivariate comparison of resting state networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A Allen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available As the size of functional and structural MRI datasets expands, it becomes increasingly important to establish a baseline from which diagnostic relevance may be determined, a processing strategy that efficiently prepares data for analysis, and a statistical approach that identifies important effects in a manner that is both robust and reproducible. In this paper, we introduce a multivariate analytic approach that optimizes sensitivity and reduces unnecessary testing. We demonstrate the utility of this mega-analytic approach by identifying the effects of age and gender on the resting state networks of 603 healthy adolescents and adults (mean age: 23.4 years, range: 12 to 71 years. Data were collected on the same scanner, preprocessed using an automated analysis pipeline based in SPM, and studied using group independent component analysis. Resting state networks were identified and evaluated in terms of three primary outcome measures: time course spectral power, spatial map intensity, and functional network connectivity. Results revealed robust effects of age on all three outcome measures, largely indicating decreases in network coherence and connectivity with increasing age. Gender effects were of smaller magnitude but suggested stronger intra-network connectivity in females and more inter-network connectivity in males, particularly with regard to sensorimotor networks. These findings, along with the analysis approach and statistical framework described here, provide a useful baseline for future investigations of brain networks in health and disease.

  15. Active galactic nuclei cores in infrared-faint radio sources: Very long baseline interferometry observations using the Very Long Baseline Array

    CERN Document Server

    Herzog, Andreas; Norris, Ray P; Spitler, Lee R; Deller, Adam T; Collier, Jordan D; Parker, Quentin A

    2015-01-01

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) form a new class of galaxies characterised by radio flux densities between tenths and tens of mJy and faint or absent infrared counterparts. It has been suggested that these objects are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at significant redshifts (z >~ 2). Whereas the high redshifts of IFRS have been recently confirmed based on spectroscopic data, the evidence for the presence of AGNs in IFRS is mainly indirect. So far, only two AGNs have been unquestionably confirmed in IFRS based on very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. In this work, we test the hypothesis that IFRS contain AGNs in a large sample of sources using VLBI. We observed 57 IFRS with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) down to a detection sensitivity in the sub-mJy regime and detected compact cores in 35 sources. Our VLBA detections increase the number of VLBI-detected IFRS from 2 to 37 and provide strong evidence that most - if not all - IFRS contain AGNs. We find that IFRS have a marginal...

  16. Circular polarization control for the LCLS baseline in the soft X-ray regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The LCLS baseline includes a planar undulator system, which produces intense linearly polarized light in the wavelength range 0.15-1.5 nm. In the soft X-ray wavelength region polarization control from linear to circular is highly desirable for studying ultrafast magnetic phenomena and material science issues. Several schemes using helical undulators have been discussed in the context of the LCLS. One consists in replacing three of the last planar undulator segments by helical (APPLE III) ones. A second proposal, the 2nd harmonic helical afterburner, is based on the use of short, crossed undulators tuned to the second harmonic. This last scheme is expected to be the better one. Its advantages are a high (over 90%) and stable degree of circular polarization and a low cost. Its disadvantage is a small output power (1% of the power at the fundamental harmonic) and a narrow wavelength range. We propose a novel method to generate 10 GW level power at the fundamental harmonic with 99% degree of circular polarization from the LCLS baseline. Its merits are low cost, simplicity and easy implementation. In the option presented here, the microbunching of the planar undulator is used too. After the baseline undulator, the electron beam is sent through a 40 m long straight section, and subsequently passes through a short helical (APPLE II) radiator. In this case the microbunch structure is easily preserved, and intense coherent radiation is emitted in the helical radiator. The background radiation from the baseline undulator can be easily suppressed by letting radiation and electron beamthrough horizontal and vertical slits upstream the helical radiator, where the radiation spot size is about ten times larger than the electron bunch transverse size. Using thin Beryllium foils for the slits the divergence of the electron beam halo will increase by Coulomb scattering, but the beam will propagate through the setup without electron losses. The applicability of our method is not

  17. [The Octabaix study. Baseline assessment and 5 years of follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Assumpta; Formiga, Francesc; Padrós, Gloria; Badia, Teresa; Almeda, Jesús; Octabaix, Grupo Estudio

    This is a review of a prospective, community-based study with a follow-up period of 5years. It is a study of 328 participants aged 85 at baseline, of which 62% were female, 53% widows, and a third of them living alone. High blood pressure was observed in 75.9%, dyslipidaemia in 51.2%, and diabetes in 17.7%. At baseline the median Barthel Index was 95, the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination was 28, the Charlson index 1, the Mini Nutritional Assessment 25, the Gijón test 10, the visual analogue scale of the Quality of Life Test was 60, and with a mean of 6.1 prescription drugs. A lower quality of life was also associated with female gender, a phenotype of frailty, heart failure, and a high level of social risk. At 5years of follow-up, the mortality rate was high, with 138 (42.1%) of the population sample dying at the end of the period. It represents an annual mortality rate of 8.4%. Thus, a common denominator of this review has been the high importance of functionality and overall comorbidity factors associated with mortality in this very old age group, compared to other more traditional factors in younger populations. Several studies of frailty have also been assessed in this group, as well as falls, nutritional risk, diabetes and successful aging, including important aspects to better understand this population group.

  18. Spontaneous Neural Oscillations Bias Perception by Modulating Baseline Excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iemi, Luca; Chaumon, Maximilien; Crouzet, Sébastien M; Busch, Niko A

    2017-01-25

    The brain exhibits organized fluctuations of neural activity, even in the absence of tasks or sensory input. A prominent type of such spontaneous activity is the alpha rhythm, which influences perception and interacts with other ongoing neural activity. It is currently hypothesized that states of decreased prestimulus α oscillations indicate enhanced neural excitability, resulting in improved perceptual acuity. Nevertheless, it remains debated how changes in excitability manifest at the behavioral level in perceptual tasks. We addressed this issue by comparing two alternative models describing the effect of spontaneous α power on signal detection. The first model assumes that decreased α power increases baseline excitability, amplifying the response to both signal and noise, predicting a liberal detection criterion with no effect on sensitivity. The second model predicts that decreased α power increases the trial-by-trial precision of the sensory response, resulting in improved sensitivity. We tested these models in two EEG experiments in humans where we analyzed the effects of prestimulus α power on visual detection and discrimination using a signal detection framework. Both experiments provide strong evidence that decreased α power reflects a more liberal detection criterion, rather than improved sensitivity, consistent with the baseline model. In other words, when the task requires detecting stimulus presence versus absence, reduced α oscillations make observers more likely to report the stimulus regardless of actual stimulus presence. Contrary to previous interpretations, these results suggest that states of decreased α oscillations increase the global baseline excitability of sensory systems without affecting perceptual acuity. Spontaneous fluctuations of brain activity explain why a faint sensory stimulus is sometimes perceived and sometimes not. The prevailing view is that heightened neural excitability, indexed by decreased α oscillations, promotes

  19. The correlation between coronary flow reserve and clinical outcomes in patients with primary ;angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction with high baseline white blood cell count%基础白细胞计数增高的急性心肌梗死患者冠状动脉介入术后冠状动脉血流储备降低对远期预后的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑振国; 周旭晨; 朱皓; 尹达; 张妍

    2014-01-01

    Objective Both abnormal coronary flow reserve (CFR) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and elevated white blood cell (WBC) count in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are known as useful predictors for adverse outcomes. We evaluated the value of abnormal CFR for prediction of adverse outcomes in AMI patients with high baseline WBC count following primary PCI. Methods We studied 72 consecutive patients (mean age 56±12, male 55) presenting with AMI who were admitted to our institution. Analyze of CFR was performed following PCI by intra-coronary Doppler wire. All enroll patents’ baseline WBC count was obtained at admission and WBC count≥10.4×109/L. The occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were analyzed during clinical follow up (12.7±7.1 months). According to the best cutoff value of CFR for predicting MACE, the patients were divided into 2 groups:group 1 with CFR<1.4, group 2 with CFR≥1.4. Results Baseline CK and CK-MB in group 1 were significantly higher than in group 2[(4 109±407)U/L vs. (2 685±562)U/L, P<0.05; (290.8± 26.6)ng/ml vs. (255.7±65.6)ng/ml, P<0.05 respectively]; Percent of post PCI MBG grade3 were more often in group 2 than in group 1(25.9%vs. 38.9%, P<0.05). MACE rate were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2(40.7%vs. 27.8%, P<0.05), the mortality rate was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2(13.0% vs. 0, P<0.05). Conclusions Abnormal CFR following PCI with high baseline WBC count in patients with AMI were associated with a higher incidence of adverse long-term clinical outcomes. This observation may provide a potential explanation that links of microvascular dysfunction and vascular inflammation in patients with AMI.%目的:急性心肌梗死(AMI)患者在接受了冠状动脉介入术(PCI)后,即刻冠状动脉血流储备(CFR)的降低,以及AMI急性期基础血液中白细胞计数的增加均被视为AMI患者远期预后不良的预测因子。我们现将这

  20. Relationships Between Metabolic Syndrome and Other Baseline Factors and the Efficacy of Ezetimibe/Simvastatin and Atorvastatin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ronald B.; Guyton, John R.; Mazzone, Theodore; Weinstock, Ruth S.; Polis, Adam B.; Tipping, Diane; Tomassini, Joanne E.; Tershakovec, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate relationships between baseline factors and treatment-associated efficacy changes in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Multivariable analyses of treatment response in 1,229 type 2 diabetic patients with hypercholesterolemia who received ezetimibe/simvastatin or atorvastatin in a randomized double-blind 6-week study. RESULTS Increasing age was related to improvements in all lipid assessments. Men had greater triglyceride and non-HDL cholesterol reductions than women, and black/Hispanic patients had less favorable lipid effects than other races/ethnicities. Increasing baseline LDL cholesterol was associated with improvements in most lipids; higher baseline non-HDL cholesterol with improved HDL cholesterol and triglycerides; higher baseline HDL cholesterol with greater non-HDL cholesterol and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) reductions; and higher baseline hs-CRP with smaller LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B reductions. Patients with high baseline non-HDL cholesterol or triglycerides less frequently attained LDL cholesterol targets. Obesity was inversely related to HDL cholesterol and hs-CRP changes, and higher baseline A1C to smaller apolipoprotein B reductions. Metabolic syndrome was not a significant predictor. CONCLUSIONS Treatment responses in type 2 diabetic patients were related to baseline factors, although treatment effects (ezetimibe/simvastatin being more effective than atorvastatin) remained consistent. The presence of predictive factors should be considered in planning lipid-altering therapy. PMID:20150290

  1. Baseline assessment of groundwater quality in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2016-06-30

    The Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and the Ordovician-age Utica Shale, geologic formations which have potential for natural gas development, underlie Wayne County and neighboring counties in northeastern Pennsylvania. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wayne Conservation District, conducted a study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers in Wayne County prior to potential extensive shale-gas development. The 2014 study expanded on previous, more limited studies that included sampling of groundwater from 2 wells in 2011 and 32 wells in 2013 in Wayne County. Eighty-nine water wells were sampled in summer 2014 to provide data on the presence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low levels in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines associated with fluids extracted from geologic formations during shale-gas development. Depths of sampled wells ranged from 85 to 1,300 feet (ft) with a median of 291 ft. All of the groundwater samples collected in 2014 were analyzed for bacteria, major ions, nutrients, selected inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, selected man-made organic compounds (including volatile organic compounds and glycols), dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and propane), and, if sufficient methane was present, the isotopic composition of methane.Results of the 2014 study show that groundwater quality generally met most drinking-water standards, but some well-water samples had one or more constituents or properties, including arsenic, iron, pH, bacteria, and radon-222, that exceeded primary or secondary maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Arsenic concentrations were higher than the MCL of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) in 4 of 89 samples (4.5 percent) with concentrations as high as 20 µg/L; arsenic

  2. Perceived stress and freshman weight change: the moderating role of baseline body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G

    2015-02-01

    The transition from high-school to university is a critical period of weight change. Popular media suggest that freshman students gain 15 lb (6.80 kg) of body weight during their first year at university (i.e., the freshman 15). In contrast, a recent meta-analysis calculated freshman weight gain to be 1.75 kg, with statistics suggesting that only a proportion of freshman students are prone to gain weight. Researchers are beginning to investigate how certain variables and interactions between such variables predict freshman weight status. The current study focused on body mass index (BMI) and psychological stress. In isolation, previous research has tested how these two variables predict freshman student's weight status. However, because BMI and stress interact to predict weight gain and weight loss in adult samples, the current study tested the interaction between student's baseline BMI and baseline stress levels to predict weight change in a New Zealand sample of freshman students (N=65). Participants completed two separate online surveys in March and October 2012 (i.e., New Zealand's academic year). Although only three students gained over 6.80 kg (i.e., the freshman 15), participants did gain a statistically significant 1.10 kg of body weight during the year. Consistent with previous research, students with a higher baseline BMI gained a higher amount of body weight. However, this main effect was qualified by an interaction between stress and BMI. Students who entered university with high levels of stress gained weight if they also had high BMIs; if they had lower BMIs then they lost weight. In order to reduce unhealthy levels of freshman weight change, vulnerable students need to be taught stress-reduction techniques and coping strategies early in the academic year.

  3. Report of the US long baseline neutrino experiment study

    CERN Document Server

    Barger, V; Bogert, D; Bromberg, C; Curioni, A; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M; Dufour, F; Finley, D; Fleming, B T; Gallardo, J; Heim, J; Huber, P; Jung, C K; Kahn, S; Kearns, E; Kirk, H; Kirk, T; Lande, K; Laughton, C; Lee, W Y; Lesko, K; Lewis, C; Litchfield, P J; Mann, A K; Marchionni, A; Marciano, W; Marfatia, D; Marino, A D; Marshak, M; Menary, S; McDonald, K; Messier, M; Pariseau, W; Parsa, Z; Pordes, S; Potenza, R; Rameika, R; Saoulidou, N; Simos, N; Van Berg, R; Viren, B; Whisnant, K; Wilson, R; Winter, W; Yanagisawa, C; Yumiceva, F; Zimmerman, E D; Zwaska, R

    2007-01-01

    This report provides the results of an extensive and important study of the potential for a U.S. scientific program that will extend our knowledge of neutrino oscillations well beyond what can be anticipated from ongoing and planned experiments worldwide. The program examined here has the potential to provide the U.S. particle physics community with world leading experimental capability in this intensely interesting and active field of fundamental research. Furthermore, this capability could be unique compared to anywhere else in the world because of the available beam intensity and baseline distances. The present study was initially commissioned in April 2006 by top research officers of Brookhaven National Laboratory and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and, as the study evolved, it also provided responses to questions formulated and addressed to the study group by the Neutrino Scientific Advisory Committee (NuSAG) of the U.S. DOE and NSF. The participants in the study, its Charge and history, plus the ...

  4. Direct coal liquefaction baseline design and system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The primary objective of the study is to develop a computer model for a base line direct coal liquefaction design based on two stage direct coupled catalytic reactors. This primary objective is to be accomplished by completing the following: a base line design based on previous DOE/PETC results from Wilsonville pilot plant and other engineering evaluations; a cost estimate and economic analysis; a computer model incorporating the above two steps over a wide range of capacities and selected process alternatives; a comprehensive training program for DOE/PETC Staff to understand and use the computer model; a thorough documentation of all underlying assumptions for baseline economics; and a user manual and training material which will facilitate updating of the model in the future.

  5. Impact of selected energy conservation technologies on baseline demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doernberg, A

    1977-09-01

    This study is an application of the modeling and demand projection capability existing at Brookhaven National Laboratory to specific options in energy conservation. Baseline energy demands are modified by introducing successively three sets of conservation options. The implementation of improved building standards and the use of co-generation in industry are analyzed in detail and constitute the body of this report. Two further sets of energy demands are presented that complete the view of a low energy use, ''conservation'' scenario. An introduction to the report covers the complexities in evaluating ''conservation'' in view of the ways it is inextricably linked to technology, prices, policy, and the mix of output in the economy. The term as used in this report is narrowly defined, and methodologies are suggested by which these other aspects listed can be studied in the future.

  6. Development of baseline random vibration criteria for STS pallet payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    On, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical evaluation of measured random vibration response data obtained from the Office of Space Science-1 (OSS-1) pallet payload. The data were measured during the acoustic test simulation (September 1980) and the ascent phase of the flight of STS-3, Orbiter 102 (launched from the Kennedy Space Center on March 22, 1982). Acoustic test efficiency factors are evaluated based on the Dynamic, Acoustic and Thermal Environments (DATE) instrumentation as the source of the measured vibration data. Test efficiency correction to test data is applied in the extrapolation of non-DATE acoustic test data to increase sample population size for improved statistical evaluation. For baseline criteria evaluation and development, data are grouped in accordance with the payload 'zone' in which the component is mounted.

  7. Electricity End Uses, Energy Efficiency, and Distributed Energy Resources Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Deason, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leow, Woei Ling [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Plotkin, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report was developed by a team of analysts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with Argonne National Laboratory contributing the transportation section, and is a DOE EPSA product and part of a series of “baseline” reports intended to inform the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER 1.2). QER 1.2 provides a comprehensive review of the nation’s electricity system and cover the current state and key trends related to the electricity system, including generation, transmission, distribution, grid operations and planning, and end use. The baseline reports provide an overview of elements of the electricity system. This report focuses on end uses, electricity consumption, electric energy efficiency, distributed energy resources (DERs) (such as demand response, distributed generation, and distributed storage), and evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) methods for energy efficiency and DERs.

  8. Direct coal liquefaction baseline design and system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The primary objective of the study is to develop a computer model for a base line direct coal liquefaction design based on two stage direct coupled catalytic reactors. This primary objective is to be accomplished by completing the following: a base line design based on previous DOE/PETC results from Wilsonville pilot plant and other engineering evaluations; a cost estimate and economic analysis; a computer model incorporating the above two steps over a wide range of capacities and selected process alternatives; a comprehensive training program for DOE/PETC Staff to understand and use the computer model; a thorough documentation of all underlying assumptions for baseline economics; and a user manual and training material which will facilitate updating of the model in the future.

  9. Precise geodesy with the Very Long Baseline Array

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Leonid; Gipson, John; MacMillan, Dan; Ma, Chopo; Fomalont, Ed; Walker, R Craig; Carabajal, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    We report on a program of regular measurements between 1994 and 2007 which used the Very Long Baseline Array and up to 10 additional stations. One of the goals of these sessions was to monitor positions of the array at 1 millimeter level of accuracy and to tie the VLBA into the International Terrestrial Reference Frame. The large number of stations and the many competing goals made scheduling these sessions manually difficult, and lead to advances in scheduling software. We describe the analysis of these data, which is non-standard, and involves translating the data into a form useful for geodetic VLBI. We also describe several interesting geophysical results including measured station displacement due to crustal motion, earthquakes, and antenna tilt. In terms of both formal errors and observed scatter, these sessions are among the very best geodetic VLBI sessions.

  10. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment - Compliance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, John A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and Division Leader for Fire Protection and was reviewed by LLNL Emergency Management Department Head, James Colson. This document is the second of a two-part analysis on Emergency Response Capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first part, 2016 Baseline Needs Assessment Requirements Document established the minimum performance criteria necessary to meet mandatory requirements. This second part analyses the performance of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Emergency Management Department to the contents of the Requirements Document. The document was prepared based on an extensive review of information contained in the 2016 BNA, a review of Emergency Planning Hazards Assessments, a review of building construction, occupancy, fire protection features, dispatch records, LLNL alarm system records, fire department training records, and fire department policies and procedures. The 2013 BNA was approved by NNSA’s Livermore Field Office on January 22, 2014.

  11. Baseline patient characteristics and mortality associated with longitudinal intervention compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Julia Y; Ten Have, Thomas R; Bogner, Hillary R; Elliott, Michael R

    2007-12-10

    Lin et al. (http://www.biostatsresearch.com/upennbiostat/papers/, 2006) proposed a nested Markov compliance class model in the Imbens and Rubin compliance class model framework to account for time-varying subject noncompliance in longitudinal randomized intervention studies. We use superclasses, or latent compliance class principal strata, to describe longitudinal compliance patterns, and time-varying compliance classes are assumed to depend on the history of compliance. In this paper, we search for good subject-level baseline predictors of these superclasses and also examine the relationship between these superclasses and all-cause mortality. Since the superclasses are completely latent in all subjects, we utilize multiple imputation techniques to draw inferences. We apply this approach to a randomized intervention study for elderly primary care patients with depression.

  12. Baseline projections of transportation energy consumption by mode: 1981 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, M; Bunch, J; Vyas, A; Kaplan, M; Knorr, R; Mendiratta, V; Saricks, C

    1982-04-01

    A comprehensive set of activity and energy-demand projections for each of the major transportation modes and submodes is presented. Projections are developed for a business-as-usual scenario, which provides a benchmark for assessing the effects of potential conservation strategies. This baseline scenario assumes a continuation of present trends, including fuel-efficiency improvements likely to result from current efforts of vehicle manufacturers. Because of anticipated changes in fuel efficiency, fuel price, modal shifts, and a lower-than-historic rate of economic growth, projected growth rates in transportation activity and energy consumption depart from historic patterns. The text discusses the factors responsible for this departure, documents the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the modal projections, and compares the projections with other efforts.

  13. Social Baseline Theory: The Social Regulation of Risk and Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, James A.; Sbarra, David A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe Social Baseline Theory (SBT), a perspective that integrates the study of social relationships with principles of attachment, behavioral ecology, cognitive neuroscience, and perception science. SBT suggests the human brain expects access to social relationships that mitigate risk and diminish the level of effort needed to meet a variety of goals. This is accomplished in part by incorporating relational partners into neural representations of the self. By contrast, decreased access to relational partners increases cognitive and physiological effort. Relationship disruptions entail re-defining the self as independent, which implies greater risk, increased effort, and diminished well being. The ungrafting of the self and other may mediate recovery from relationship loss. PMID:25825706

  14. Waste Assessment Baseline for the IPOC Second Floor, West Wing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, Samuel A [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Waste Management and Pollution Prevention

    2015-04-01

    Following a building-wide waste assessment in September, 2014, and subsequent presentation to Sandia leadership regarding the goal of Zero Waste by 2025, the occupants of the IPOC Second Floor, West Wing contacted the Materials Sustainability and Pollution Prevention (MSP2) team to guide them to Zero Waste in advance of the rest of the site. The occupants are from Center 3600, Public Relations and Communications , and Center 800, Independent Audit, Ethics and Business Conduct . To accomplish this, MSP2 conducted a new limited waste assessment from March 2-6, 2015 to compare the second floor, west wing to the building as a whole. The assessment also serves as a baseline with which to mark improvements in diversion in approximately 6 months.

  15. Adapting a Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillator for Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Doeleman, Sheperd; Rogers, Alan; Hartnett, John; Tobar, Michael; Nand, Nitin; 10.1086/660156

    2011-01-01

    Extension of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) to observing wavelengths shorter than 1.3mm provides exceptional angular resolution (~20 micro arcsec) and access to new spectral regimes for the study of astrophysical phenomena. To maintain phase coherence across a global VLBI array at these wavelengths requires that ultrastable frequency references be used for the heterodyne receivers at all participating telescopes. Hydrogen masers have traditionally been used as VLBI references, but atmospheric turbulence typically limits (sub) millimeter VLBI coherence times to ~1-30 s. Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators (CSO) have better stability than Hydrogen masers on these time scale and are potential alternatives to masers as VLBI references. Here, We describe the design, implementation and tests of a system to produce a 10 MHz VLBI frequency standard from the microwave (11.2 GHz) output of a CSO. To improve long-term stability of the new reference, the CSO was locked to the timing signal from the Global Positionin...

  16. Updated results of the OPERA long baseline neutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chukanov, Artem

    2012-01-01

    The OPERA neutrino detector built in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory is designed to detect (mu) -> (tau) oscillations in direct appearance mode. The hybrid apparatus consists of an emulsion/lead target complemented by electronic detectors. It is placed in the long-baseline CERN to Gran Sasso neutrino beam (CNGS) 730 km away from the source. The experimental setup and ancillary facilities used to extract data recorded in the emulsion will be described, with the special procedures used to locate the interactions vertices and detect short decay topologies. OPERA is taking data since 2008. A first (tau) interaction candidate was already published in 2010. An improved analysis scheme associated with a more detailed simulation has been developed and new results with increased statistics will be presented.

  17. Baseline concentration of Polonium-210 ((210)Po) in tuna fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Feroz; Wesley, S Godwin

    2016-06-15

    Several species of tuna fish were analyzed for (210)Po content in their edible muscle tissues. This study was carried out as a part of baseline data generation around a large nuclear power plant situated at Kudankulam, southeast coast of India. The concentration of (210)Po in the muscle tissue ranged from 40.9±5.2 to 92.5±7.9Bq/kg of fresh fish, and the highest activity was recorded for the tuna Euthynnus affinis and the lowest for Auxis thazard. The committed effective dose to the local residents was calculated to be 62.7-141.8μSvyear(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Short-baseline neutrino oscillations, Planck, and IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, John F; Shoemaker, Ian M

    2016-01-01

    We examine a framework with light new physics, which couples to the Standard Model only via neutrino mixing. Taking the hints from the short-baseline anomalies seriously and combining them with modern cosmological data and recent IceCube measurements, we obtain surprisingly effective constraints on the hidden force: keV $\\lesssim M \\lesssim0.3$ GeV for the mediator mass and $g_{h}>10^{-6}-10^{-3}$ for the coupling constant. Flavor equilibration between the hidden and active neutrinos can be delayed until temperatures of $\\sim 1$ MeV, but not below $\\sim 100$ keV. This scenario can be tested with next-generation Cosmic Microwave Background, IceCube, and oscillation experiments.

  19. Sandia National Laboratories, California proposed CREATE facility environmental baseline survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catechis, Christopher Spyros

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Environmental Programs completed an environmental baseline survey (EBS) of 12.6 acres located at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) in support of the proposed Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology and Education (CREATE) Facility. The survey area is comprised of several parcels of land within SNL/CA, County of Alameda, California. The survey area is located within T 3S, R 2E, Section 13. The purpose of this EBS is to document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property; identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property; develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks; and ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property.

  20. Measurement of western U.S. baseline ozone from the surface to the tropopause and assessment of downwind impact regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, O. R.; Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Brioude, J.; Angevine, W.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T. R.; Pollack, I.; Cullis, P. D.; Ives, M. A.; Tarasick, D. W.; Al-Saadi, J.; Stajner, I.

    2011-11-01

    Since 1997, baseline ozone monitoring from the surface to the tropopause along the U.S. west coast has been limited to the weekly ozonesondes from Trinidad Head, California. To explore baseline ozone at other latitudes, an ozonesonde network was implemented during spring 2010, including four launch sites along the California coast. Modeling indicated that North American pollution plumes impacted the California coast primarily below 3 km, but had no measurable impact on the average coastal ozone profiles. Vertical and latitudinal variation in free tropospheric baseline ozone appears to be partly explained by polluted and stratospheric air masses that descend isentropically along the west coast. Above 3 km, the dominant sources of ozone precursors were China and international shipping, while international shipping was the greatest source below 2 km. Approximately 8-10% of the baseline ozone that enters California in the 0-6 km range impacts the surface of the USA, but very little reaches the eastern USA. Within California, the major impact of baseline ozone above 2 km is on the high elevation terrain of eastern California. Baseline ozone below 2 km has its strongest impact on the low elevation sites throughout the state. To quantify ozone production within California we compared inland ozone measurements to baseline measurements. For average daytime conditions, we found no enhancements of lower tropospheric ozone in the northern Central Valley, but enhancements of 12-23% were found in the southern Central Valley. Enhancements above Joshua Tree were greater, 33-41%, while the greatest enhancements occurred over the LA Basin, 32-63%.

  1. Design and baseline characteristics of the LANDMARK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Hiroaki; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Hirakata, Hideki; Kaneda, Hideaki; Kagimura, Tatsuo; Akizawa, Tadao

    2017-06-01

    Calcium (Ca)-based phosphate (P) binders, compared to non-Ca-based P binders, contribute to vascular calcification, which is associated with cardiovascular events. The LANDMARK study is a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel comparative study of lanthanum carbonate (LC) and calcium carbonate (CC) in hemodialysis patients. Stable hemodialysis patients with intact parathyroid hormone ≤240 pg/mL meeting ≥1 of the following criteria (age >65 years, postmenopause, diabetes mellitus) were randomized into the LC and CC groups. LC group patients initially received LC 750 mg/day or the previously used dose and were titrated up to a maximum 2250 mg/day to achieve serum P levels of 3.5-6.0 mg/dL. CC group patients received CC 3 g/day or the previously used dose and were titrated to achieve the same P range. If the target serum P level was not achieved, non-Ca-based P binders (other than LC) could also be added. The primary endpoint is survival time free of cardiovascular events, including cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke, and unstable angina. Overall, 2309 patients were allocated to the LC (N = 1154) or CC group (N = 1155). At baseline, the mean age was 68.4 years, 40.4 % were women, 55.9 % had diabetes, 18.3 % had a history of ischemic heart disease, and 13.9 % had cerebrovascular disease. A total of 184 patients (8.4 %) had undergone coronary intervention procedures. Baseline characteristics were well balanced between groups. The LANDMARK study will determine whether LC, a non-Ca-based P binder, reduces cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in chronic hemodialysis patients.

  2. Automated baseline change detection -- Phases 1 and 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byler, E.

    1997-10-31

    The primary objective of this project is to apply robotic and optical sensor technology to the operational inspection of mixed toxic and radioactive waste stored in barrels, using Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD), based on image subtraction. Absolute change detection is based on detecting any visible physical changes, regardless of cause, between a current inspection image of a barrel and an archived baseline image of the same barrel. Thus, in addition to rust, the ABCD system can also detect corrosion, leaks, dents, and bulges. The ABCD approach and method rely on precise camera positioning and repositioning relative to the barrel and on feature recognition in images. The ABCD image processing software was installed on a robotic vehicle developed under a related DOE/FETC contract DE-AC21-92MC29112 Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) and integrated with the electronics and software. This vehicle was designed especially to navigate in DOE Waste Storage Facilities. Initial system testing was performed at Fernald in June 1996. After some further development and more extensive integration the prototype integrated system was installed and tested at the Radioactive Waste Management Facility (RWMC) at INEEL beginning in April 1997 through the present (November 1997). The integrated system, composed of ABCD imaging software and IMSS mobility base, is called MISS EVE (Mobile Intelligent Sensor System--Environmental Validation Expert). Evaluation of the integrated system in RWMC Building 628, containing approximately 10,000 drums, demonstrated an easy to use system with the ability to properly navigate through the facility, image all the defined drums, and process the results into a report delivered to the operator on a GUI interface and on hard copy. Further work is needed to make the brassboard system more operationally robust.

  3. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program seventh quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F.W.

    1974-07-30

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1976 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. All of the baseline vehicles are now operational and are performing Program tests. Vehicle tests completed in this quarter include noise reduction, heater, air conditioning, and underhood temperature evaluations. Testing was completed on the original endurance engine. Test cell evaluation of the government furnished combustor (Solar) has commenced. Vendor A and Vendor B ceramic regenerator cores were rig tested with an improved elastomeric drive. Vendor A cores with the elastomeric drive are being engine tested. Ceramic regenerator seal wear test rig results are showing promise of achieving a low friction, non-nickel-oxide rubbing surface. The first preprototype integrated control system was delivered and placed in operation on a baseline engine in a test cell. Six ribbed compressor turbine wheels made of IN 792/Hf by the AiResearch Airefrac process were received. Rig testing of the variable inlet guide Vanes was completed and engine testing initiated. Vehicle evaluations of the torque converter lock-up were completed . Specifications for the Upgraded Engine aerodymanic components were made. A subcontract is currently being arranged with Mechanical Technology Inc. (MTI) for design and development of the upgraded engine gas generator bearings and shaft system. An initial feasibility study for gas bearings was completed. Analytical design of the upgraded engine power turbine reduction gears and bearings has commenced. Engine and vehicle accessory drive studies for the upgraded engine are well underway.

  4. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program eighth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, C.E.

    1974-10-31

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. Major preparations for engine heat balance tests by NASA were completed. EPA laboratories completed Baseline vehicle emissions, noise, and odor tests. Assembly of the program endurance engine is nearing completion. Test cell evaluation of the government furnished combustor (Solar) verified steady state emissions to be extremely low. Initial engine tests of Vendor A ceramic regenerator cores with an elastomeric drive verified performance predictions. Efforts towards developing a non-nickel oxide regenerator seal show extreme sensitivity to porosity differences between cores of different suppliers. All three preprototype integrated control systems were built. Modifications are being worked out to achieve a stable low speed operation. Two prototype compressor turbine wheels made from the reuseable pattern process are being inspected and processed for testing. The engine housing modified for operation at higher cycle temperatures and pressures was received. The baseline engine converted to free rotor is completing test cell check out. The modified vehicle is ready for engine installation. The upgraded engine characterization was updated to include the latest information on V.I.G.V., rotors, and bearings. The upgraded engine housing is being modeled physically and analytically for design and stress studies. An accessory drive system for the upgraded engine was selected, and a final layout is in process.

  5. High Accuracy Reference Network (HARN), Closed survey control network (between Order C class 1 and B depending on length of baseline) of 98 monumented points in Scott County - adjustment performed in NAD 1983/1996 HARN (conus), Published in 2005, Scott County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This High Accuracy Reference Network (HARN) dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2005. It is described as 'Closed survey...

  6. Investigation of neutrino oscillations in the T2k long-baseline accelerator experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izmaylov, A. O., E-mail: izmaylov@inr.ru; Yershov, N. V.; Kudenko, Yu. G.; Matveev, V. A.; Mineev, O. V.; Musienko, Yu. V.; Khabibulliun, M. M.; Khotjantsev, A. N.; Shaykhiev, A. T. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-15

    High-sensitivity searches for transitions of muon neutrinos to electron neutrinos are the main task of the T2K (Tokai-to-Kamioka) second-generation long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment. The present article is devoted to describing basic principles of T2K, surveying experimental apparatuses that it includes, and considering in detail the muon-range detector (SMRD) designed and manufactured by a group of physicists from the Institute of Nuclear Research (Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow). The results of the first measurements with a neutrino beam are presented, and plans for the near future are discussed.

  7. Optimizing the θ 23 octant search in long baseline neutrino experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, C. R.; Maalampi, J.; Pulido, J.; Vihonen, S.

    2017-09-01

    Determination of the θ 23 octant will be an important goal for the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments, as it will show whether the true value of θ 23 lies in the high octant, θ 23 > 45°, or in the low octant, θ 23 terms of baseline length and beam sharing and use the LBNO setup as our benchmark. We also show the interference on the octant determination that arises from the unconstrained CP violation angle δ CP. In our results, we show the impact of matter effects on the octant determination potential and establish a connection between the beam sharing and mass hierarchy.

  8. Background parenchymal enhancement on baseline screening breast MRI: impact on biopsy rate and short-interval follow-up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hambly, Niamh M

    2011-01-01

    Background parenchymal enhancement on breast MRI refers to normal enhancement of the patient\\'s fibroglandular tissue. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of background parenchymal enhancement on short-interval follow-up, biopsy, and cancer detection rate on baseline screening MRI in a high-risk group.

  9. Lichen bioindication of biodiversity, air quality, and climate: baseline results from monitoring in Washington, Oregon, and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah. Jovan

    2008-01-01

    Lichens are highly valued ecological indicators known for their sensitivity to a wide variety of environmental stressors like air quality and climate change. This report summarizes baseline results from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Lichen Community Indicator covering the first full cycle of data collection (...

  10. Circumstellar disks and planets. Science cases for next-generation optical/infrared long-baseline interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Sebastian; Alexander, Richard; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Creech-Eakman, Michelle; Duchene, Gaspard; Dutrey, Anne; Mordasini, Christophe; Pantin, Eric; Pont, Frederic; Pott, Joerg-Uwe; Tatulli, Eric; Testi, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    We present a review of the interplay between the evolution of circumstellar disks and the formation of planets, both from the perspective of theoretical models and dedicated observations. Based on this, we identify and discuss fundamental questions concerning the formation and evolution of circumstellar disks and planets which can be addressed in the near future with optical and infrared long-baseline interferometers. Furthermore, the importance of complementary observations with long-baseline (sub)millimeter interferometers and high-sensitivity infrared observatories is outlined.

  11. The full blood count as a biomarker of outcome and toxicity in ipilimumab-treated cutaneous metastatic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoja, Leila; Atenafu, Eshetu G; Templeton, Arnoud; Qye, Ye; Chappell, Mary Anne; Saibil, Sam; Hogg, David; Butler, Marcus O; Joshua, Anthony M

    2016-10-01

    Ipilimumab produces durable responses in some metastatic melanoma patients. Neutrophil, platelet, and eosinophil to lymphocyte ratios (NLR, PLR, and ELR) may be associated with the immune response in cancer thereby acting as biomarkers of toxicity and efficacy in ipilimumab-treated patients. Data were collected on clinical characteristics and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), NLR, PLR, and ELR at baseline, post cycle 2 and at the end of treatment for 183 patients treated with ipilimumab between 2008 and 2015 at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre. Associations between clinical characteristics, LDH, NLR, PLR, and ELR with toxicity or survival outcomes of progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed using univariable and multivariable analysis. Prognostic models of outcome at each time point were determined. Of the 183 patients included, the median age was 58, 85% had M1c disease, 58% were performance status 1, and 64% received ipilimumab as second line therapy. Median follow up was 7.5 months (range: 0.3-49.5), median PFS was 2.8 months (95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.8-3.2), and median OS was 9.6 months (95% CI: 7.9-13.2). Prognostic factors for OS by multivariable analysis were LDH and NLR at all-time points. Prognostic models using LDH (× 2 upper limit of normal) and NLR 4) differentiated patients into high, moderate, and low risk of death prior to or on ipilimumab treatment (P < 0.0001 for each model). No factors were associated with toxicity. Prognostic models based on NLR and LDH values at baseline and on treatment differentiate patients into good, intermediate, and poor prognostic groups and may be relevant in patient management.

  12. Baseline distribution and correlation analysis of hsCRP in an insurance applicant population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Kenneth J; Williams, David S; White, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Many clinical studies have shown that baseline levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in apparently healthy men and women are highly predictive of future risk of heart attack, stroke, sudden cardiac death, and the development of peripheral arterial disease. This paper presents an analysis of the baseline characteristics of our prospective study cohort. The intent of our prospective study is to determine whether hsCRP can be used to better classify risk for life insurance applicants already at risk for cardiovascular events, as well as those who are not. The possibility that low levels of hsCRP levels in otherwise healthy applicants might be associated with more favorable cardiovascular risk could allow this test to be used to more precisely stratify risk in the standard-or-better underwriting classifications. In this preliminary analysis, high sensitivity CRP appears to be weakly correlated with BMI, and perhaps triglyceride level in this cohort of insurance applicants. Somewhat surprisingly, in contrast to many published reports, hsCRP was not found to be correlated with other lipid measures (TC, HDL, LDL), dysmetabolic markers or smoking classification during the underwriting process. We plan to analyze mortality results as they evolve in the future.

  13. Hyper-Temporal C-Band SAR for Baseline Woody Structural Assessments in Deciduous Savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Main

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Savanna ecosystems and their woody vegetation provide valuable resources and ecosystem services. Locally calibrated and cost effective estimates of these resources are required in order to satisfy commitments to monitor and manage change within them. Baseline maps of woody resources are important for analyzing change over time. Freely available, and highly repetitive, C-band data has the potential to be a viable alternative to high-resolution commercial SAR imagery (e.g., RADARSAT-2, ALOS2 in generating large-scale woody resources maps. Using airborne LiDAR as calibration, we investigated the relationships between hyper-temporal C-band ASAR data and woody structural parameters, namely total canopy cover (TCC and total canopy volume (TCV, in a deciduous savanna environment. Results showed that: the temporal filter reduced image variance; the random forest model out-performed the linear model; while the TCV metric consistently showed marginally higher accuracies than the TCC metric. Combinations of between 6 and 10 images could produce results comparable to high resolution commercial (C- & L-band SAR imagery. The approach showed promise for producing a regional scale, locally calibrated, baseline maps for the management of deciduous savanna resources, and lay a foundation for monitoring using time series of data from newer C-band SAR sensors (e.g., Sentinel1.

  14. Multifrequency VLBA polarimetry of the high-redshift GPS quasar OQ172

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Jiang, D. R.; Gu, Minfeng; Gurvits, L. I.

    2017-07-01

    Multifrequency Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) polarimetry observation of the GHz-peaked spectrum (GPS) quasar OQ172 (J1445+0958) has been performed at 1.6, 2.2, 4.8, 8.3 and 15.3 GHz in 2005. Core-jet structures are detected in all bands with the jet strongly bent at about 3 mas from the core. The radio emission of the source is polarized at all five bands. We study the Faraday rotation in the core and jet components at all five bands, and find good linear fits of Faraday rotation in the core and jet components at 4.8 and 8.3 GHz. At these two frequencies, the rotation measure (RM) is ˜ 2000 rad m- 2 in the core and ˜ 700 rad m- 2 in the inner jet components and continues to decrease at the outer jet parts. We find that the depolarization at 4.8 and 8.3 GHz might be caused by the internal medium in the source. We investigate consistency of the turnover spectra of VLBI components with the synchrotron self-absorption and free-free absorption models. Although these two models cannot be easily distinguished due to the lack of low-frequency data, the physical parameters can be constrained for each model. We find that the large width of the [O III]_{5007} line is likely caused by a jet interaction with a narrow line region (NLR) medium. The jet bending, significant RM variations, Faraday depolarization, spectral turnover and broad line width of [O III]_{5007} could be closely related, likely caused by the same nucleus medium, presumably NLR.

  15. DiFX: A Software Correlator for Very Long Baseline Interferometry Using Multiprocessor Computing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deller, A. T.; Tingay, S. J.; Bailes, M.; West, C.

    2007-03-01

    We describe the development of an FX-style correlator for very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), implemented in software and intended to run in multiprocessor computing environments, such as large clusters of commodity machines (Beowulf clusters) or computers specifically designed for high-performance computing, such as multiprocessor shared-memory machines. We outline the scientific and practical benefits for VLBI correlation, these chiefly being due to the inherent flexibility of software and the fact that the highly parallel and scalable nature of the correlation task is well suited to a multiprocessor computing environment. We suggest scientific applications where such an approach to VLBI correlation is most suited and will give the best returns. We report detailed results from the Distributed FX (DiFX) software correlator running on the Swinburne supercomputer (a Beowulf cluster of ~300 commodity processors), including measures of the performance of the system. For example, to correlate all Stokes products for a 10 antenna array with an aggregate bandwidth of 64 MHz per station, and using typical time and frequency resolution, currently requires an order of 100 desktop-class compute nodes. Due to the effect of Moore's law on commodity computing performance, the total number and cost of compute nodes required to meet a given correlation task continues to decrease rapidly with time. We show detailed comparisons between DiFX and two existing hardware-based correlators: the Australian Long Baseline Array S2 correlator and the NRAO Very Long Baseline Array correlator. In both cases, excellent agreement was found between the correlators. Finally, we describe plans for the future operation of DiFX on the Swinburne supercomputer for both astrophysical and geodetic science.

  16. Fort Irwin Integrated Resource Assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, E.E.; Keller, J.M.; Dittmer, A.L.; Hadley, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at Fort Irwin, a US Army Forces Command facility near Barstow, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Integrated Resource Assessment. The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Irwin. This is part of a model program that PNL has designed to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This program (1) identifies and evaluates all cost-effective energy projects; (2) develops a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) targets 100% of the financing required to implement energy efficiency projects. PNL applied this model program to Fort Irwin. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, propane gas, and vehicle fuel use for a typical operating year. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Irwin by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for all energy use among buildings, utilities, and applicable losses.

  17. Investigation of Baseline Antioxidant Enzyme Expression in Pocillopora damicornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J.; Richmond, R. H.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and valuable ecosystems in the world. Vital for maintaining ecological balance in coastal tropical environments, they also stand as the foundation for enormous cultural and economic resources. However, the continued degradation of coral reefs around the world, particularly within NOAA's Hawaii Marine Sanctuary, is an alarming call for action towards the identification of stressors and subsequent rehabilitation of these national treasures. Aligned with the goals of NOAA's National Marine Sanctuary to protect areas of the marine environment that are of special national significance to cultural, scientific, educational, and ecological values, this research targets addressing and standardizing antioxidant enzyme stress levels in Hawaiian coral over reproductive cycles in order to increase management aptitude and efficiency. By developing a greater understanding for biochemical biomarkers of stress in corals, specifically through the study of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity and expression, my research will aid in the adaptation and further development of biochemical tests to understand baseline thresholds of stress on coral reefs within Sanctuary waters. Slight, but significant variations in enzyme expression over reproductive time points alert us to modifications that must be made to consider fluctuating levels of coral susceptibility when sampling corals under stress. These findings will be applied to diagnostic tests describing the effect of different chemical pollutants on coral health in order to identify ecological issues and expand the knowledge of local communities and NOAA, so that steps can be taken to mitigate human Sanctuary impacts.

  18. A Survey of Astronomical Research: A Baseline for Astronomical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Russo, P.; Cárdenas-Avendaño, A.

    2013-12-01

    Measuring scientific development is a difficult task. Different metrics have been put forward to evaluate scientific development; in this paper we explore a metric that uses the number of peer-reviewed, and when available non-peer-reviewed, research articles as an indicator of development in the field of astronomy. We analyzed the available publication record, using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/NASA Astrophysics Database System, by country affiliation in the time span between 1950 and 2011 for countries with a gross national income of less than 14,365 USD in 2010. This represents 149 countries. We propose that this metric identifies countries in "astronomical development" with a culture of research publishing. We also propose that for a country to develop in astronomy, it should invest in outside expert visits, send its staff abroad to study, and establish a culture of scientific publishing. Furthermore, we propose that this paper may be used as a baseline to measure the success of major international projects, such as the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

  19. Accelerator-based Short-baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gollapinni, Sowjanya

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, several experiments have reported anomalous results that could be hinting at the exciting possibility of sterile neutrino states in the $eV^{2}$ mass scale. Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) are a particularly promising technology to explore this physics due to their fine-grained tracking and exceptional calorimetric capabilities. The MicroBooNE experiment, a 170 ton LArTPC scheduled to start taking data very soon with Fermilab's Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB), will combine LArTPC development with the main physics goal of understanding the low-energy electromagnetic anomaly seen by the MiniBooNE experiment. Looking towards the future, MicroBooNE will become a part of the \\textit{short-baseline neutrino} program which expands the physics capabilities of the BNB in many important ways by adding additional LArTPC detectors to search for light sterile neutrinos and bring a definitive resolution to the set of existing experimental anomalies. This paper will give an overview of...

  20. Thermographic patterns of the upper and lower limbs: baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Alfred; Formosa, Cynthia; Cassar, Kevin; Camilleri, Kenneth P; De Raffaele, Clifford; Mizzi, Anabelle; Azzopardi, Carl; Mizzi, Stephen; Falzon, Owen; Cristina, Stefania; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To collect normative baseline data and identify any significant differences between hand and foot thermographic distribution patterns in a healthy adult population. Design. A single-centre, randomized, prospective study. Methods. Thermographic data was acquired using a FLIR camera for the data acquisition of both plantar and dorsal aspects of the feet, volar aspects of the hands, and anterior aspects of the lower limbs under controlled climate conditions. Results. There is general symmetry in skin temperature between the same regions in contralateral limbs, in terms of both magnitude and pattern. There was also minimal intersubject temperature variation with a consistent temperature pattern in toes and fingers. The thumb is the warmest digit with the temperature falling gradually between the 2nd and the 5th fingers. The big toe and the 5th toe are the warmest digits with the 2nd to the 4th toes being cooler. Conclusion. Measurement of skin temperature of the limbs using a thermal camera is feasible and reproducible. Temperature patterns in fingers and toes are consistent with similar temperatures in contralateral limbs in healthy subjects. This study provides the basis for further research to assess the clinical usefulness of thermography in the diagnosis of vascular insufficiency.

  1. Thermographic Patterns of the Upper and Lower Limbs: Baseline Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Gatt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To collect normative baseline data and identify any significant differences between hand and foot thermographic distribution patterns in a healthy adult population. Design. A single-centre, randomized, prospective study. Methods. Thermographic data was acquired using a FLIR camera for the data acquisition of both plantar and dorsal aspects of the feet, volar aspects of the hands, and anterior aspects of the lower limbs under controlled climate conditions. Results. There is general symmetry in skin temperature between the same regions in contralateral limbs, in terms of both magnitude and pattern. There was also minimal intersubject temperature variation with a consistent temperature pattern in toes and fingers. The thumb is the warmest digit with the temperature falling gradually between the 2nd and the 5th fingers. The big toe and the 5th toe are the warmest digits with the 2nd to the 4th toes being cooler. Conclusion. Measurement of skin temperature of the limbs using a thermal camera is feasible and reproducible. Temperature patterns in fingers and toes are consistent with similar temperatures in contralateral limbs in healthy subjects. This study provides the basis for further research to assess the clinical usefulness of thermography in the diagnosis of vascular insufficiency.

  2. Short baseline neutrino oscillations: when entanglement suppresses coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Boyanovsky, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    For neutrino oscillations to take place the entangled quantum state of a neutrino and a charged lepton produced via charged current interactions must be disentangled. Implementing a non-perturbative Wigner-Weisskopf method we obtain the correct \\emph{entangled} quantum state of neutrinos and charged leptons from the (two-body) decay of a parent particle. The source lifetime and disentanglement length scale lead to a suppression of the oscillation probabilities in short-baseline experiments. The suppression is determined by $\\pi\\, L_d/L_{osc}$ where $L_d$ is the \\emph{smallest} of the decay length of the parent particle or the disentanglement length scale. For $L_d \\geq L_{osc}$ coherence and oscillations are suppressed. These effects are more prominent in \\emph{short base line experiments} and at low neutrino energy. We obtain the corrections to the appearance and disappearance probabilities modified by both the lifetime of the source and the disentanglement scale and discuss their implications for accelerato...

  3. Future Long-Baseline Neutrino Facilities and Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Diwan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the ongoing effort in the US, Japan, and Europe of the scientific community to study the location and the detector performance of the next-generation long-baseline neutrino facility. For many decades, research on the properties of neutrinos and the use of neutrinos to study the fundamental building blocks of matter has unveiled new, unexpected laws of nature. Results of neutrino experiments have triggered a tremendous amount of development in theory: theories beyond the standard model or at least extensions of it and development of the standard solar model and modeling of supernova explosions as well as the development of theories to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe. Neutrino physics is one of the most dynamic and exciting fields of research in fundamental particle physics and astrophysics. The next-generation neutrino detector will address two aspects: fundamental properties of the neutrino like mass hierarchy, mixing angles, and the CP phase, and low-energy neutrino astronomy with solar, atmospheric, and supernova neutrinos. Such a new detector naturally allows for major improvements in the search for nucleon decay. A next-generation neutrino observatory needs a huge, megaton scale detector which in turn has to be installed in a new, international underground laboratory, capable of hosting such a huge detector.

  4. A very simple baseline restorer for nuclear applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaboldi, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    We present a series of Baseline Restorer circuits (BLR) all based on a very simple and compact configuration. The circuits are able to withstand signals shaped as fast as 10ns or as slow as hundreds of ms. These BLRs are improved versions of an already existing solution that has shown outstanding performances. We have now introduced new features to the original configuration capable of improving the operation of the stationary condition of the stage that precedes the BLR output. This way the response of the circuit to the incoming signal is further improved. In addition, special attention has been paid to obtain large speed of response. Signal rates as large as 10MHz with large pile-up percentage are easily supported. This property is particularly suitable for the next generation of experiments at the large hadron colliders at CERN. One version of the described BLRs is presently used in the analog section of the trigger system of the experiment CUORICINO, an array consisting of 70 large mass bolometric detect...

  5. Scientific Opportunities with the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C; Andrews, M; Anghel, I; Arrieta-Diaz, E; Artuso, M; Asaadi, J; Bai, X; Baird, M; Balantekin, B; Baller, B; Baptista, B; Barker, D; Barletta, W; Barr, G; Bashyal, A; Bass, M; Bellini, V; Berger, B E; Bergevin, M; Berman, E; Berns, H; Bernstein, A; Bernstein, R; Bhatnagar, V; Bhuyan, B; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Blaufuss, E; Bleakley, B; Blucher, E; Blusk, S; Bocean, V; Bolton, T; Breedon, R; Brandt, A; Bromberg, C; Brown, R; Buchanan, N; Bugg, B; Camilleri, L; Carr, R; Carminati, G; Cavanna, F; Chen, A; Chen, H; Chen, K; Cherdack, D; Chi, C; Childress, S; Choudhary, B; Christofferson, C; Church, E; Cline, D; Coan, T; Coelho, J; Coleman, S; Conrad, J; Convery, M; Corey, R; Corwin, L; Davies, G S; Dazeley, S; de Gouvea, A; de Jong, J K; Escobar, C; De, K; Demuth, D; Diwan, M; Djurcic, Z; Dolph, J; Drake, G; Duyang, H; Dye, S; Edmunds, D; Elliott, S; Eno, S; Enomoto, S; Farbin, A; Falk, L; Felde, J; Feyzi, F; Fields, L; Fleming, B; Fowler, J; Fox, W; Friedland, A; Fujikawa, B; Gallagher, H; Gandhi, R; Garvey, G; Gehman, V M; Geronimo, G; Gill, R; Goodman, M C; Goon, J; Graham, M; Gran, R; Grant, C; Greenlee, H; Greenler, L; Guarino, V; Guardincerri, E; Guenette, R; Habib, S; Habig, A; Hackenburg, R W; Hahn, A; Haines, T; Handler, T; Hans, S; Hartnell, J; Harton, J; Hatcher, R; Hatzikoutelis, A; Hays, S; Hazen, E; Headley, M; Heavey, A; Heeger, K; Heise, J; Hellauer, R; Himmel, A; Hogan, M; Holin, A; Horton-Smith, G; Howell, J; Hurh, P; Huston, J; Hylen, J; Imlay, R; Insler, J; Isvan, Z; Jackson, C; Jaffe, D; James, C; Johnson, M; Johnson, R; Johnson, S; Johnston, W; Johnstone, J; Jones, B; Jostlein, H; Junk, T; Kadel, R; Karagiorgi, G; Kaspar, J; Katori, T; Kayser, B; Kearns, E; Keener, P; Kettell, S H; Kirby, M; Klein, J; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kropp, W; Kudryavtsev, V A; Kumar, A; Kumar, J; Kutter, T; Lande, K; Lane, C; Lang, K; Lanni, F; Lanza, R; Latorre, T; La Zia, F; Learned, J; Lee, D; Lee, K; Li, S; Li, Y; Li, Z; Libo, J; Linden, S; Ling, J; Link, J; Littenberg, L; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Losecco, J; Louis, W; Lundberg, B; Lundin, T; Maesano, C; Magill, S; Mahler, G; Malys, S; Mammoliti, F; Mandal, S; Mann, A; Mantsch, P; Marchionni, A; Marciano, W; Mariani, C; Maricic, J; Marino, A; Marshak, M; Marshall, J; Matsuno, S; Mauger, C; Mayer, N; McCluskey, E; McDonald, K; McFarland, K; McKee, D; McKeown, R; McTaggart, R; Mehdiyev, R; Mei, D; Meng, Y; Mercurio, B; Messier, M D; Metcalf, W; Meyhandan, R; Milincic, R; Miller, W; Mills, G; Mishra, S; Sher, S Moed; Mokhov, N; Montanari, D; Moore, C D; Morfin, J; Morse, W; Mufson, S; Muller, D; Musser, J; Naples, D; Napolitano, J; Newcomer, M; Niner, E; Norris, B; Olson, T; Page, B; Pakvasa, S; Paley, J; Palamara, O; Paolone, V; Papadimitriou, V; Park, S; Parsa, Z; Paulos, B; Partyka, K; Pavlovic, Z; Perch, A; Perkin, J D; Peeters, S; Petti, R; Plunkett, R; Polly, C; Pordes, S; Potenza, R; Prakash, A; Prokofiev, O; Perdue, G; Qian, X; Raaf, J L; Radeka, V; Rajendran, R; Rakhno, I; Rameika, R; Ramsey, J; Rebel, B; Rescia, S; Reitzner, D; Richardson, M; Riesselman, K; Robinson, M; Ronquest, M; Rosen, M; Rosenfeld, C; Rucinski, R; Sahijpal, S; Sahoo, H; Samios, N; Sanchez, M C; Schellman, H; Schmitt, R; Schmitz, D; Schneps, J; Scholberg, K; Seibert, S; Shaevitz, M; Shanahan, P; Sharma, R; Shaw, T; Simos, N; Singh, V; Sinnis, G; Sippach, W; Skwarnicki, T; Smy, M; Sobel, H; Soderberg, M; Sondericker, J; Sondheim, W; Spooner, N J C; Stancari, M; Stancu, I; Stefanik, A; Stewart, J; Stone, S; Strait, J; Strait, M; Striganov, S; Sullivan, G; Suter, L; Svoboda, R; Szczerbinska, B; Szydagis, M; Szelc, A; Talaga, R; Tamsett, M; Tariq, S; Tayloe, R; Taylor, C; Taylor, D; Teymourian, A; Themann, H; Thiesse, M; Thomas, J; Thompson, L F; Thomson, M; Thorn, C; Tian, X; Tiedt, D; Toki, W; Tolich, N; Tripathi, M; Tropin, I; Tzanov, M; Urheim, J; Usman, S; Vagins, M; Van Berg, R; Van de Water, R; Varner, G; Vaziri, K; Velev, G; Viren, B; Wachala, T; Wahl, D; Waldron, A; Walter, C W; Wang, H; Wang, W; Warner, D; Wasserman, R; Watson, B; Weber, A; Wei, W; Wendell, R; Wetstein, M; White, A; White, H; Whitehead, L; Whittington, D; Willhite, J; Willis, W; Wilson, R J; Winslow, L; Worcester, E; Wyman, T; Xin, T; Yarritu, K; Ye, J; Yu, J; Yeh, M; Yu, B; Zeller, G; Zhang, C; Zimmerman, E D; Zwaska, R

    2013-01-01

    In this document, we describe the wealth of science opportunities and capabilities of LBNE, the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment. LBNE has been developed to provide a unique and compelling program for the exploration of key questions at the forefront of particle physics. Chief among the discovery opportunities are observation of CP symmetry violation in neutrino mixing, resolution of the neutrino mass hierarchy, determination of maximal or near-maximal mixing in neutrinos, searches for nucleon decay signatures, and detailed studies of neutrino bursts from galactic supernovae. To fulfill these and other goals as a world-class facility, LBNE is conceived around four central components: (1) a new, intense wide-band neutrino source at Fermilab, (2) a fine-grained `near' neutrino detector just downstream of the source, (3) the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota at an optimal distance (~1300 km) from the neutrino source, and (4) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC...

  6. Fort Stewart integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.M.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-08-01

    This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at Fort Stewart, a US Army Forces Command facility located near Savannah, Georgia. This is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Integrated Resource Assessment. The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Stewart. PNL, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), has designed a model program applicable to the federal sector for this purpose. The model program (1) identifies and evaluates all cost-effective energy projects; (2) develops a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) targets 100% of the financing required to implement energy efficiency projects. PNL applied this model program to Fort Stewart. The analysis examines the characteristics of electric, natural gas, oil, propane, and wood chip use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. The results include energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Stewart by building type, fuel type, and energy end use. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for the distribution of all major energy uses and losses among buildings, utilities, and central systems.

  7. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek scabbling technology was tested at Florida International University (FIU) and is being evaluated as a baseline technology. This report evaluates it for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek concrete scabbling system consisted of the MOOSE, SQUIRREL-I, and SQUIRREL-III scabblers. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross-section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 318 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation conducted during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure was minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended. Because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place, results may be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other areas of concern were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  8. Biodiversity baseline of the French Guiana spider fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedel, Vincent; Rheims, Christina; Murienne, Jérôme; Brescovit, Antonio Domingos

    2013-01-01

    The need for an updated list of spiders found in French Guiana rose recently due to many upcoming studies planned. In this paper, we list spiders from French Guiana from existing literature (with corrected nomenclature when necessary) and from 2142 spiders sampled in 12 sites for this baseline study. Three hundred and sixty four validated species names of spider were found in the literature and previous authors' works. Additional sampling, conducted for this study added another 89 identified species and 62 other species with only a genus name for now. The total species of spiders sampled in French Guiana is currently 515. Many other Morphospecies were found but not described as species yet. An accumulation curve was drawn with seven of the sampling sites and shows no plateau yet. Therefore, the number of species inhabiting French Guiana cannot yet be determined. As the very large number of singletons found in the collected materials suggests, the accumulation curve indicates nevertheless that more sampling is necessary to discover the many unknown spider species living in French Guiana, with a focus on specific periods (dry season and wet season) and on specific and poorly studied habitats such as canopy, inselberg and cambrouze (local bamboo monospecific forest).

  9. A Survey of Astronomical Research: An Astronomy for Development Baseline

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, V A R M; Cardenas-Avendano, A

    2013-01-01

    Measuring scientific development is a difficult task. Different metrics have been put forward to evaluate scientific development; in this paper we explore a metric that uses the number of peer-reviewed research research articles as an indicator of development in the field of astronomy. We analyzed the available publication record, using the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Database System, by country affiliation in the time span between 1950 and 2011 for countries with a Gross National Income of less than 14,365 USD in 2010. This represents 149 countries. We propose that this metric identifies countries in `astronomy development' with a culture of research publishing. We also propose that for a country to develop astronomy it should invest in outside expert visits, send their staff abroad to study and establish a culture of scientific publishing. Furthermore, we propose that this paper may be used as a baseline to measure the success of major international projects, such as the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

  10. National INFOSEC technical baseline: multi-level secure systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J P

    1998-09-28

    The purpose of this report is to provide a baseline description of the state of multilevel processor/processing to the INFOSEC Research Council and at their discretion to the R&D community at large. From the information in the report, it is hoped that the members of the IRC will be aware of gaps in MLS research. A primary purpose is to bring IRC and the research community members up to date on what is happening in the MLS arena. The review will attempt to cover what MLS products are still available, and to identify companies who still offer MLS products. We have also attempted to identify requirements for MLS by interviewing senior officers of the Intelligence community as well as those elements of DoD and DOE who are or may be interested in procuring MLS products for various applications. The balance of the report consists of the following sections; a background review of the highlights of the developments of MLS, a quick summary of where we are today in terms of products, installations, and companies who are still in the business of supplying MLS systems [or who are developing MLS system], the requirements as expressed by senior members of the Intelligence community and DoD and DOE, issues and unmet R&D challenges surrounding MLS, and finally a set of recommended research topics.

  11. Transuranic waste baseline inventory report. Revision No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Report (TWBIR) establishes a methodology for grouping wastes of similar physical and chemical properties from across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) transuranic (TRU) waste system into a series of {open_quotes}waste profiles{close_quotes} that can be used as the basis for waste form discussions with regulatory agencies. The purpose of Revisions 0 and 1 of this report was to provide data to be included in the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) performance assessment (PA) processes for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Revision 2 of the document expanded the original purpose and was also intended to support the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) requirement for providing the total DOE TRU waste inventory. The document included a chapter and an appendix that discussed the total DOE TRU waste inventory, including nondefense, commercial, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)-contaminated, and buried (predominately pre-1970) TRU wastes that are not planned to be disposed of at WIPP.

  12. GPS survey in long baseline neutrino-oscillation measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Noumi, H; Inagaki, T; Hasegawa, T; Katoh, Y; Kohama, M; Kurodai, M; Kusano, E; Maruyama, T; Minakawa, M; Nakamura, K; Nishikawa, K; Sakuda, M; Suzuki, Y; Takasaki, M; Tanaka, K H; Yamanoi, Y; 10.1109/TNS.2004.836042

    2004-01-01

    We made a series of surveys to obtain neutrino beam line direction toward SuperKamiokande (SK) at a distance of 250 km for the long- baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at KEK. We found that the beam line is directed to SK within 0.03 mr and 0.09 mr (in sigma) in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. During beam operation, we monitored the muon distribution from secondary pions produced at the target and collected by a magnetic horn system. We found that the horn system functions like a lens of a point-to- parallel optics with magnification of approximately -100 and the focal length of 2.3 m. Namely, a small displacement of the primary beam position at the target is magnified about a factor -100 at the muon centroid, while the centroid position is almost stable against a change of the incident angle of the primary beam. Therefore, the muon centroid can be a useful monitor of the neutrino beam direction. We could determine the muon centroid within 6 mm and 12 mm in horizontal and vertical ...

  13. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  14. LTC vacuum blasting machine (metal) baseline report: Greenbook (chapter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The LTC coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC coating removal system consisted of several hand tools, a Roto Peen scaler, and a needlegun. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. These hand tools are used with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. The dust exposure was minimal but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  15. 3M heavy duty roto peen: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The heavy-duty roto peen technology is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the human factors assessment for safety and health issues. The heavy-duty roto peen allows for the selective removal of concrete substrates. The peen is a tungsten carbide shot brazed to a hardened steel rivet that is supported by a heavy-duty flexible flap. The shot rivet is kept captive to the tool by mounting the roto peen in a slotted hub. The heavy-duty roto peen is designed to be used with several commercially available pieces of equipment. The equipment being used will determine the width of each pass. The equipment being used with the roto peen is then connected to a vacuum system for dust collection during scabbling. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  16. Education Organization Baseline Control Protection and Trusted Level Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasim A. Al-Hamdani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Many education organizations have adopted for security the enterprise best practices for implementation on their campuses, while others focus on ISO Standard (or/and the National Institution of Standards and Technology.All these adoptions are dependent on IT personal and their experiences or knowledge of the standard. On top of this is the size of the education organizations. The larger the population in an education organization, the more the problem of information and security become very clear. Thus, they have been obliged to comply with information security issues and adopt the national or international standard. The case is quite different when the population size of the education organization is smaller. In such education organizations, they use social security numbers as student ID, and issue administrative rights to faculty and lab managers – or they are not aware of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA – and release some personal information.The problem of education organization security is widely open and depends on the IT staff and their information security knowledge in addition to the education culture (education, scholarships and services has very special characteristics other than an enterprise or comparative organizationThis paper is part of a research to develop an “Education Organization Baseline Control Protection and Trusted Level Security.” The research has three parts: Adopting (standards, Testing and Modifying (if needed.

  17. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program ninth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, C.E.

    1975-01-31

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. NASA completed the first phase of their baseline engine heat balance tests, and an upgraded engine compressor is being scaled for test. EPA completed their report on vehicle tests including emissions and vehicle performance, and a new endurance engine is on test. Significant development progress was made on both fixed and variable geometry combustors. After 45 hours of engine operation with Vendor A ceramic regenerator, no significant deterioration of the matrix, seals, or elastomeric mount was encountered. Ceramic regenerator stress analysis has commenced. Additional developments in non-nickel oxide regenerator rubbing seals are encouraging. The first preprototype integrated control system is in vehicle operation. Control adaptation for variable inlet guide vanes and water injection is progressing. AiRefrac turbine wheels were verified dimensionally and are being processed for engine testing. Water injection tests with a four nozzle system were run, and additional performance documentation of variable inlet guide vanes was obtained. Linerless insulation is on test in the free rotor engine, the new endurance engine, and a performance engine. The free rotor engine completed test cell checkout and was installed in a vehicle. Vehicle checkout, including a preprototype integrated control, is underway. Detailed specifications of the upgraded engine were written.

  18. Neutrino Oscillation Parameter Sensitivity in Future Long-Baseline Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, Matthew [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The study of neutrino interactions and propagation has produced evidence for physics beyond the standard model and promises to continue to shed light on rare phenomena. Since the discovery of neutrino oscillations in the late 1990s there have been rapid advances in establishing the three flavor paradigm of neutrino oscillations. The 2012 discovery of a large value for the last unmeasured missing angle has opened the way for future experiments to search for charge-parity symmetry violation in the lepton sector. This thesis presents an analysis of the future sensitivity to neutrino oscillations in the three flavor paradigm for the T2K, NO A, LBNE, and T2HK experiments. The theory of the three flavor paradigm is explained and the methods to use these theoretical predictions to design long baseline neutrino experiments are described. The sensitivity to the oscillation parameters for each experiment is presented with a particular focus on the search for CP violation and the measurement of the neutrino mass hierarchy. The variations of these sensitivities with statistical considerations and experimental design optimizations taken into account are explored. The effects of systematic uncertainties in the neutrino flux, interaction, and detection predictions are also considered by incorporating more advanced simulations inputs from the LBNE experiment.

  19. Baseline coral disease surveys within three marine parks in Sabah, Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Miller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two of the most significant threats to coral reefs worldwide are bleaching and disease. However, there has been a scarcity of research on coral disease in South-East Asia, despite the high biodiversity and the strong dependence of local communities on the reefs in the region. This study provides baseline data on coral disease frequencies within three national parks in Sabah, Borneo, which exhibit different levels of human impacts and management histories. High mean coral cover (55% and variable disease frequency (mean 0.25 diseased colonies m−2 were found across the three sites. Highest disease frequency (0.44 diseased colonies per m2 was seen at the site closest to coastal population centres. Bleaching and pigmentation responses were actually higher at Sipadan, the more remote, offshore site, whereas none of the other coral diseases detected in the other two parks were detected in Sipadan. Results of this study offer a baseline dataset of disease in these parks and indicate the need for continued monitoring, and suggest that coral colonies in parks under higher anthropogenic stressors and with lower coral cover may be more susceptible to contracting disease.

  20. Baseline donor chronic renal injury confers the same transplant survival disadvantage for DCD and DBD kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmoliaptsis, V; Salji, M; Bardsley, V; Chen, Y; Thiru, S; Griffiths, M H; Copley, H C; Saeb-Parsy, K; Bradley, J A; Torpey, N; Pettigrew, G J

    2015-03-01

    Histological assessment of baseline chronic kidney injury may discriminate kidneys that are suitable for transplantation, but has not been validated for appraisal of donation after circulatory death (DCD) kidneys. 'Time-zero' biopsies for 371 consecutive, solitary, deceased-donor kidneys transplanted at our center between 2006 and 2010 (65.5% DCD, 34.5% donation after brain death [DBD]) were reviewed and baseline chronic degenerative injury scored using Remuzzi's classification. High scores correlated with donor age and extended criteria donors (42% of donors), but the spectrum of scores was similar for DCD and DBD kidneys. Transplant outcomes for kidneys scoring from 0 to 4 were comparable (1 and 3 year graft survival 95% and 92%), but were much poorer for kidneys scoring ≥5, with 1 year graft survival only 73%, and 12.5% suffering primary nonfunction. Critically, high Remuzzi scores conferred the same survival disadvantage for DCD and DBD kidneys. On multi-variable regression analysis, time-zero biopsy score was the only independent predictor for graft survival, whereas one-year graft estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) correlated with donor age and biopsy score. In conclusion, the relationship between severity of chronic kidney injury and transplant outcome is similar for DCD and DBD kidneys. Kidneys with Remuzzi scores of ≤4 can be implanted singly with acceptable results.

  1. Performance of ionospheric maps in support of long baseline GNSS kinematic positioning at low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Sreeja, V.; Aquino, M.; Cesaroni, C.; Spogli, L.; Dodson, A.; De Franceschi, G.

    2016-05-01

    Ionospheric scintillation occurs mainly at high and low latitude regions of the Earth and may impose serious degradation on GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) functionality. The Brazilian territory sits on one of the most affected areas of the globe, where the ionosphere behaves very unpredictably, with strong scintillation frequently occurring in the local postsunset hours. The correlation between scintillation occurrence and sharp variations in the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) in Brazil is demonstrated in Spogli et al. (2013). The compounded effect of these associated ionospheric disturbances on long baseline GNSS kinematic positioning is studied in this paper, in particular when ionospheric maps are used to aid the positioning solution. The experiments have been conducted using data from GNSS reference stations in Brazil. The use of a regional TEC map generated under the CALIBRA (Countering GNSS high-Accuracy applications Limitations due to Ionospheric disturbances in BRAzil) project, referred to as CALIBRA TEC map (CTM), was compared to the use of the Global Ionosphere Map (GIM), provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS). Results show that the use of the CTM greatly improves the kinematic positioning solution as compared with that using the GIM, especially under disturbed ionospheric conditions. Additionally, different hypotheses were tested regarding the precision of the TEC values obtained from ionospheric maps, and its effect on the long baseline kinematic solution evaluated. Finally, this study compares two interpolation methods for ionospheric maps, namely, the Inverse Distance Weight and the Natural Neighbor.

  2. Active galactic nuclei cores in infrared-faint radio sources. Very long baseline interferometry observations using the Very Long Baseline Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Spitler, L. R.; Deller, A. T.; Collier, J. D.; Parker, Q. A.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) form a new class of galaxies characterised by radio flux densities between tenths and tens of mJy and faint or absent infrared counterparts. It has been suggested that these objects are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at significant redshifts (z ≳ 2). Aims: Whereas the high redshifts of IFRS have been recently confirmed based on spectroscopic data, the evidence for the presence of AGNs in IFRS is mainly indirect. So far, only two AGNs have been unquestionably confirmed in IFRS based on very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. In this work, we test the hypothesis that IFRS contain AGNs in a large sample of sources using VLBI. Methods: We observed 57 IFRS with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) down to a detection sensitivity in the sub-mJy regime and detected compact cores in 35 sources. Results: Our VLBA detections increase the number of VLBI-detected IFRS from 2 to 37 and provide strong evidence that most - if not all - IFRS contain AGNs. We find that IFRS have a marginally higher VLBI detection fraction than randomly selected sources with mJy flux densities at arcsec-scales. Moreover, our data provide a positive correlation between compactness - defined as the ratio of milliarcsec- to arcsec-scale flux density - and redshift for IFRS, but suggest a decreasing mean compactness with increasing arcsec-scale radio flux density. Based on these findings, we suggest that IFRS tend to contain young AGNs whose jets have not formed yet or have not expanded, equivalent to very compact objects. We found two IFRS that are resolved into two components. The two components are spatially separated by a few hundred milliarcseconds in both cases. They might be components of one AGN, a binary black hole, or the result of gravitational lensing.

  3. Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree C) for Alaska and Western Canada.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree C) for Alaska and Western Canada. Baseline results for 1961-1990 are derived from Climate Research Unit (CRU)...

  4. Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree F) for Alaska and Western Canada.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree F) for Alaska and Western Canada. Baseline results for 1961-1990 are derived from Climate Research Unit (CRU) TS...

  5. 75 FR 38802 - DCP Raptor Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ...] DCP Raptor Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing June 28, 2010. Take notice that on June 22, 2010, DCP Raptor Pipeline, LLC submitted a baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions...

  6. Should Studies of Diabetes Treatment Stratification Correct for Baseline HbA1c?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus G Jones

    Full Text Available Baseline HbA1c is a major predictor of response to glucose lowering therapy and therefore a potential confounder in studies aiming to identify other predictors. However, baseline adjustment may introduce error if the association between baseline HbA1c and response is substantially due to measurement error and regression to the mean. We aimed to determine whether studies of predictors of response should adjust for baseline HbA1c.We assessed the relationship between baseline HbA1c and glycaemic response in 257 participants treated with GLP-1R agonists and assessed whether it reflected measurement error and regression to the mean using duplicate 'pre-baseline' HbA1c measurements not included in the response variable. In this cohort and an additional 2659 participants treated with sulfonylureas we assessed the relationship between covariates associated with baseline HbA1c and treatment response with and without baseline adjustment, and with a bias correction using pre-baseline HbA1c to adjust for the effects of error in baseline HbA1c.Baseline HbA1c was a major predictor of response (R2 = 0.19,β = -0.44,p<0.001.The association between pre-baseline and response was similar suggesting the greater response at higher baseline HbA1cs is not mainly due to measurement error and subsequent regression to the mean. In unadjusted analysis in both cohorts, factors associated with baseline HbA1c were associated with response, however these associations were weak or absent after adjustment for baseline HbA1c. Bias correction did not substantially alter associations.Adjustment for the baseline HbA1c measurement is a simple and effective way to reduce bias in studies of predictors of response to glucose lowering therapy.

  7. Predictors and longitudinal course of cognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, 10 years after baseline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Sara; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Sørensen, Holger J.

    2016-01-01

    baseline. Uni- and multi-variable regression analyses of potential baseline predictors of 10-year CF were performed. Also, changes in CF and symptomatology between 5 and 10years of follow-up were assessed. FINDINGS: Baseline predictors of impaired CF after 10years included male gender, unemployment, poor...

  8. Baseline predictors of visual acuity and retinal thickness in patients with retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Yoon, Young Hee; Kim, Ha Kyoung; Yoon, Hee Seong; Kang, Se Woong; Kim, June-Gone; Park, Kyu Hyung; Jo, Young Joon; Lee, Dong-Hoon

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the baseline predictors of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT) at 6 months in patients with treatment-naïve branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). This multicenter, interventional case series included 208 BRVO and 123 CRVO patients with follow-up period of 6 months or more. Outcome measures of BCVA (logMAR) included absolute change from baseline and a gain or loss of ≥ 0.3 from baseline. Outcome measures of CRT included absolute change from baseline and a measurement of ≤ 250 µm or ≥ 400 µm at 6 months. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were done to find baseline predictors. For BRVO, younger age, worse baseline BCVA, and shorter duration of symptom were associated with more gain in BCVA. For CRVO, worse baseline BCVA was associated with more gain in BCVA. For CRT outcomes, higher baseline CRT predicted greater decrease at 6 months in both BRVO and CRVO. Younger age and better baseline BCVA were associated with an increased likelihood of measurement of a ≤ 250 µm outcome for BRVO and CRVO, respectively. For CRVO, smoking was associated with greater decrease from baseline and decreased likelihood of measurement of a CRT ≥ 400 µm at 6 months. In conclusion, several baseline factors including age, symptom duration, and baseline BCVA and CRT are associated with BCVA and CRT outcomes at 6 months, which may help to predict disease course for RVO patients.

  9. Postoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio change predicts survival of patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing radiofrequency ablation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqiang Dan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An elevated preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR has been reported to be a prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients after treatment. However, the clinical implication of postoperative NLR change remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2005 to Aug 2008, a cohort of consecutive 178 small HCC patients treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA was retrospectively reviewed. The NLR was recorded within 3 days before and 1 month after RFA. Baseline characteristics, overall survival (OS and recurrence free survival (RFS were compared according to preoperative NLR and/or postoperative NLR change. Prognostic factors were assessed by multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Compared with preoperative NLR level, postoperative NLR decreased in 87 patients and increased in 91 patients after RFA. No significant differences were identified between two groups in commonly used clinic-pathologic features. The 1, 3, 5 years OS was 98.8%, 78.6%, 67.1% for NLR decreased group, and 92.2%, 55.5%, 35.4% for NLR increased group respectively (P<0.001; the corresponding RFS was 94.2%, 65.2%, 33.8% and 81.7%, 46.1%, 12.4% respectively (P<0.001. In subgroup analysis, the survival of patients with lower or higher preoperative NLR can be distinguished more accurate by postoperative NLR change. Multivariate analysis showed that postoperative NLR change, but not preoperative NLR, was an independent prognostic factor for both OS (P<0.001, HR = 2.39, 95%CI 1.53-3.72 and RFS (P = 0.003, HR = 1.69, 95%CI 1.87-8.24. CONCLUSION: The postoperative NLR change was an independent prognostic factor for small HCC patient undergoing RFA, and patients with decreased NLR indicated better survival than those with increased NLR.

  10. Can the detection of misery perfusion in chronic cerebrovascular disease be based on reductions in baseline CBF and vasoreactivity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazawa, Hidehiko; Kobayashi, Masato; Pagani, Marco; Yonekura, Yoshiharu [University of Fukui, Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Matcuoka-cho, Fukui (Japan); Tsuchida, Tatsuro [Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Department of Radiology, Fukui (Japan); Arai, Yoshikazu; Isozaki, Makoto [University of Fukui, Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui (Japan)

    2007-01-15

    The aim of this study was to clarify whether decreases in baseline regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and in residual cerebral vasoreactivity (CVR), assessed by the acetazolamide (ACZ) challenge, can detect misery perfusion in patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and other haemodynamic parameters were measured in 115 patients (64{+-}9 years old) with unilateral cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease (>70% stenosis) using {sup 15}O-gas and water PET. A significant elevation of OEF, by greater than the mean+2SD compared with healthy controls, was defined as misery perfusion. CBF, CVR determined by percent change in CBF after ACZ administration, OEF and other haemodynamic parameters in the territories of the bilateral middle cerebral arteries were analysed. Diagnostic accuracy for the detection of misery perfusion using the criteria determined by baseline CBF and CVR was evaluated in all patients and in only those patients with occlusive lesions. Ten of 24 patients with misery perfusion showed a significant reduction in CVR. Using criteria determined by significant decreases in CVR and baseline CBF, misery perfusion was detected with a sensitivity of 42% and a specificity of 95% in all patients. In patients with occlusive lesions (n=50), sensitivity was higher but specificity was slightly lower. The diagnostic accuracy of the threshold determined by baseline CBF alone was similar in all patients and in only those patients with occlusive lesions, and was higher than that achieved using the asymmetry index of OEF. Reductions in CVR and baseline CBF in the ACZ challenge for CVD would detect misery perfusion with high specificity. Reduction in baseline rCBF is more accurate than reduction in CVR alone for the detection of misery perfusion. (orig.)

  11. Shoulder functional performance status of National Collegiate Athletic Association swimmers: baseline Kerlan-Jobe Orthopedic Clinic scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymore, Lucas; Fronek, Jan

    2015-06-01

    Shoulder trouble, described in the literature as "swimmer's shoulder," has been associated with competitive swimmers. The Kerlan-Jobe Orthopedic Clinic (KJOC) Shoulder and Elbow Score is a validated survey used to define functional and performance measures of the upper extremity in overhead athletes. To date, no study has investigated the baseline functional scores for swimmers actively competing in the sport. To establish a baseline score for National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) swimmers actively competing in the sport. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. After institutional review board approval, the KJOC Shoulder and Elbow Score was administered to 5 NCAA swim teams (N = 99 participants; 46 men, 53 women). The results on 10 specific individual questions and on the total score were calculated according to the survey's original description. The mean scores were calculated for all participants. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine differences between sexes, years swimming, and self-reported injury status. The mean ± SD baseline KJOC score (out of a possible 100) for all participants was 79.0 ± 18.7; the mean score for men was 81.9 ± 15.6 and for women 76.6 ± 20.8. The score for athletes identifying themselves as injured at baseline was 53.9 ± 18.8, compared with 84.4 ± 13.6 for those not reporting as injured (P < .001). Athletes competing ≥11 years had a mean score of 72.0 ± 22.1; those competing ≤10 years scored 86.4 ± 11.4 (P = .007). Baseline scores for swimmers, which were lower than expected, were lower than baseline scores seen in studies of other overhead sports athletes. The data corroborate previous studies identifying swimmers as having a high level of shoulder trouble. Further research is indicated for improving shoulder symptoms and performance in competitive swimmers. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. The transliminal brain at rest: baseline EEG, unusual experiences, and access to unconscious mental activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Jessica I; Green, Deborah L; Stevenson, Jennifer L; Payne, Lisa; Bowden, Edward M; Jung-Beeman, Mark; Kounios, John

    2008-01-01

    Transliminality reflects individual differences in the threshold at which unconscious processes or external stimuli enter into consciousness. Individuals high in transliminality possess characteristics such as magical ideation, belief in the paranormal, and creative personality traits, and also report the occurrence of manic/mystic experiences. The goal of the present research was to determine if resting brain activity differs for individuals high versus low in transliminality. We compared baseline EEG recordings (eyes-closed) between individuals high versus low in transliminality, assessed using The Revised Transliminality Scale of Lange et al. (2000). Identifying reliable differences at rest between high- and low-transliminality individuals would support a predisposition for transliminality-related traits. Individuals high in transliminality exhibited lower alpha, beta, and gamma power than individuals low in transliminality over left posterior association cortex and lower high alpha, low beta, and gamma power over the right superior temporal region. In contrast, when compared to individuals low in transliminality, individuals high in transliminality exhibited greater gamma power over the frontal-midline region. These results are consistent with prior research reporting reductions in left temporal/parietal activity, as well as the desynchronization of right temporal activity in schizotypy and related schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Further, differences between high- and low-transliminality groups extend existing theories linking altered hemispheric asymmetries in brain activity to a predisposition toward schizophrenia, paranormal beliefs, and unusual experiences.

  13. Baseline and Lifetime Assessments for DC745U Elastomeric Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, R S; Chinn, S C; Herberg, J; Harvey, C; Alviso, C; Vance, A; Cohenour, R; Wilson, M; Solyom, D

    2004-12-20

    The silicone elastomer Dow Corning DC 745U is used in two major components in the W80. We have investigated a number of issues concerning this material. Our studies have accomplished a baseline study of the chemical composition of DC745 and LLNL now has a good understanding of the chemical composition of this material. DC745 crystallizes within the system STS. Two potential means identified to mitigate the risk associated with this phenomenon are to (1) change material formulation and (2) predose the parts to {approx} 25 MRad {gamma}-radiation. A candidate material identified by Gordon Spellman has been studied for composition and the lack of crystallization within the STS has been verified. A sensitivity study of the effects of relevant aging mechanisms also has been performed. The extent of aging due to radiation exposure or elevated temperatures is minimal over the expected course of the LEP. In addition, since the DC745 parts are expected to be replaced at rebuild, the aging clock is essentially being reset. No significant aging issues seem likely to develop for these parts. DC745 parts are also subject to permanent deformation in service. Our studies have shown that the deformation is likely due to incomplete mixing of the raw gum stock and the curing agent at production. This results in areas of low crosslink density that are subject to a higher degree of compression set in service. We have identified two production diagnostic tools based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy to prescreen the parts at production at KCP. These studies are concluded with specific recommendation for changes to core surveillance for this part based on the chemical knowledge we have gained from this study.

  14. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Di Massa, F.V.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program`s mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. It will identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Drum by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, central systems, and applicable losses.

  15. Baseline Profile of Soil Samples from Upian River Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilanfranco Caballero TAYONE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mines and Geosciences Bureau (MGB in the Philippines is currently mapping out the entire Davao City Watershed Area (DCWA. There are 8 major watershed areas within DCWA that has been identified by the MGB and the largest is the Davao River Watershed Area (DRWA. A smaller sub-watershed within DRWA, the Upian River Watershed Area (URWA, was proposed of which its boundary and soil profile is yet to be established. This study focused on the analyses of the soil samples from URWA. The results for pH, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, N, P, K, Ca and Mg were then compared to the Bureau of Soil standard for its fertility rating. Analysis of lead (Pb was also included as a pollutant indicator for possible soil contamination. There are 4 sampling sites with unfavorable ratings for pH, 3 for both organic matter and phosphorus, and 2 stations for both nitrogen and calcium. Fertility rating is generally good for cation exchange capacity, potassium and magnesium. The Bureau of Soil has no existing standards for micronutrients. However, all sampling sites were found to be too low with micronutrients according to Gershuny and Smillie. No indication of lead contamination or pollution on all sites as far as natural levels of lead in surface soil is concerned. This study will provide baseline information that is useful to all stakeholders, to the people living near the area, farmers, planners, and resource managers. This can also provide inputs to key government agencies in the Philippines like the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR and the City Planning Office of Davao in formulating policies for sustainable management of the resource upon implementation of their programs and projects. Without the aforementioned information, planners would have difficulty in predicting the impact or recommend best management strategies for a specific land use.

  16. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  17. Preclinical models for neuroblastoma: establishing a baseline for treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Teitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preclinical models of pediatric cancers are essential for testing new chemotherapeutic combinations for clinical trials. The most widely used genetic model for preclinical testing of neuroblastoma is the TH-MYCN mouse. This neuroblastoma-prone mouse recapitulates many of the features of human neuroblastoma. Limitations of this model include the low frequency of bone marrow metastasis, the lack of information on whether the gene expression patterns in this system parallels human neuroblastomas, the relatively slow rate of tumor formation and variability in tumor penetrance on different genetic backgrounds. As an alternative, preclinical studies are frequently performed using human cell lines xenografted into immunocompromised mice, either as flank implant or orthtotopically. Drawbacks of this system include the use of cell lines that have been in culture for years, the inappropriate microenvironment of the flank or difficult, time consuming surgery for orthotopic transplants and the absence of an intact immune system. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we characterize and optimize both systems to increase their utility for preclinical studies. We show that TH-MYCN mice develop tumors in the paraspinal ganglia, but not in the adrenal, with cellular and gene expression patterns similar to human NB. In addition, we present a new ultrasound guided, minimally invasive orthotopic xenograft method. This injection technique is rapid, provides accurate targeting of the injected cells and leads to efficient engraftment. We also demonstrate that tumors can be detected, monitored and quantified prior to visualization using ultrasound, MRI and bioluminescence. Finally we develop and test a "standard of care" chemotherapy regimen. This protocol, which is based on current treatments for neuroblastoma, provides a baseline for comparison of new therapeutic agents. SIGNIFICANCE: The studies suggest that use of both the TH-NMYC model of neuroblastoma and the

  18. Single-baseline RTK GNSS Positioning for Hydrographic Surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin Alkan, Reha; Murat Ozulu, I.; Ilçi, Veli; Kahveci, Muzaffer

    2015-04-01

    Positioning with GNSS technique can be carried out in two ways, absolute and relative. It has been possible to reach a few meters absolute point positioning accuracies in real time after disabling SA permanently in May 2000. Today, accuracies obtainable from absolute point positioning using code observations are not sufficient for most surveying applications. Thus to meet higher accuracy requirements, differential methods using single or dual frequency geodetic-grade GNSS receivers that measure carrier phase have to be used. However, this method requires time-cost field and office works and if the measurement is not carried out with conventional RTK method, user needs a GNSS data processing software to estimate the coordinates. If RTK is used, at least two or more GNSS receivers are required, one as a reference and the other as a rover. Moreover, the distance between the receivers must not exceed 15-20 km in order to be able to rapidly and reliably resolve the carrier phase ambiguities. On the other hand, based on the innovations and improvements in satellite geodesy and GNSS modernization studies occurred within the last decade, many new positioning methods and new approaches have been developed. One of them is Network-RTK (or commonly known as CORS) and the other is Single-baseline RTK. These methods are widely used for many surveying applications in many countries. The user of the system can obtain his/her position within a few cm level of accuracy in real-time with only a single GNSS receiver that has Network RTK (CORS) capability. When compared with the conventional differential and RTK methods, this technique has several significant advantages as it is easy to use and it produces accurate, cost-effective and rapid solutions. In Turkey, establishment of a multi-base RTK network was completed and opened for civilian use in 2009. This network is called CORS-TR and consists of 146 reference stations having about 80-100 km interstation distances. It is possible

  19. The Relationship Between Baseline Blood Pressure and Computed Tomography Findings in Acute Stroke Data From the Tinzaparin in Acute Ischaemic Stroke Trial (TAIST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sare, G.M.; Bath, P.M.W.; Gray, L.J.;

    2009-01-01

    .06-1.17) at baseline, and signs of visible infarction at day 10 (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.00-1.13). A lower SBP was associated with signs of acute infarction (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.99). Hemorrhagic transformation, dense middle cerebral artery sign, mass effect, and cerebral edema at day 10 were not independently...... associated with baseline BP. Conclusion-Although high baseline BP is independently associated with a poor outcome after stroke, this was not shown to be through an association with increased hemorrhagic transformation, cerebral edema, or mass effect; trial design may be suboptimal to detect this. Higher SBP...

  20. Epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Greece: aims, design and baseline characteristics of the ATTICA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysohoou Christina

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to evaluate the levels of several cardiovascular risk factors in Greece we conducted a population-based health and nutrition survey, the "ATTICA study". In this work we present the design and the methodology of the study, as well as the status of various baseline characteristics of the participants. Methods From May 2001 to December 2002 we randomly enrolled 1514 adult men and 1528 adult women, stratified by age – gender (census 2000, from the greater area of Athens. More than 300 demographic, lifestyle, behavioral, dietary, clinical and biochemical variables have been recorded. Results Regarding the frequency of the classical cardiovascular risk factors we observed that 51% of men and 39% of women reported smokers (p Conclusions The prevalence of the common cardiovascular risk factors in our population seems high. As a consequence a considerable proportion of Greek adults are at "high-risk" for future cardiovascular events.