WorldWideScience

Sample records for high background levels

  1. Evaluation of High Level Environmental Background Radiation Areas and its Variation in Ramsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyeb Allahverdi Pourfallah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. For most individuals, this exposure exceeds that from all man-made sources combined. Materials and Methods In this study, the annual effective dose in high level environmental background radiation areas (HLEBRAs of northern city of Ramsar in Iran was determined. For dosimetry, a gamma radiation dosimeter was used. Measurements were performed in more than 90 points in five districts with HLEBR around and near hot springs. Results In some areas, the annual effective dose from outdoor external gamma radiation in HLEBRAs (30 mSv/y exceeded the annual effective dose limit for radiation workers. Our results are evident that the population dose from normal background radiation in HLEBRAs is 200 times higher than corresponding values in Ramsar sea shore. To estimate the cosmic ray contribution, dose measurements were performed on the sea surface one km off the sea shore. Conclusion The observed differences over locations and measured doses between this study and the others revealed the dynamic nature of this phenomenon, and necessitate performing the periodic studies in these areas. Moreover, cytogenetic and immunologic researches for studying the long term effects of these high level environmental radiations on the residents of these HLEBRAs are necessary.

  2. Levels of thoron and progeny in high background radiation area of southeastern coast of Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramola, R C; Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S; Sagar, D V; Prasad, G; Shahoo, S K; Ishikawa, T; Omori, Y; Janik, M; Sorimachi, A; Tokonami, S

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to radon, (222)Rn, is assumed to be the most significant source of natural radiation to human beings in most cases. It is thought that radon and its progeny are major factors that cause cancer. The presence of thoron, (220)Rn, was often neglected because it was considered that the quantity of thoron in the environment is less than that of radon. However, recent studies have shown that a high thoron concentration was found in some regions and the exposure to (220)Rn and its progeny can equal or several time exceed that of (220)Rn and its progeny. The results of thoron and its progeny measurements in the houses of high background radiation area (HBRA) of the southeastern coast of Odisha, India presented here. This area is one of the high background radiation areas in India with a large deposit of monazite sand which is the probable source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurement of thoron and its progeny in cement, brick and mud houses in the study area. Thoron concentration was measured using RAD-7 and Raduet. A CR-39 track detector was employed for the measurement of environmental thoron progeny, both in active and passive modes. Thoron and its progeny concentrations were found to be comparatively high in the area. A comparison between the results obtained with various techniques is presented in this paper.

  3. A novel background reduction strategy for high level triggers and processing in gamma-ray Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cabras, G; De Lotto, B; De Maria, M M; De Sabata, F; Mansutti, O; Frailis, M; Persic, M; Bigongiari, C; Doro, M; Mariotti, M; Peruzzo, L; Saggion, A; Scalzotto, V; Paoletti, R; Scribano, A; Turini, N; Moralejo, A; Tescaro, D

    2008-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy is now at the leading edge for studies related both to fundamental physics and astrophysics. The sensitivity of gamma detectors is limited by the huge amount of background, constituted by hadronic cosmic rays (typically two to three orders of magnitude more than the signal) and by the accidental background in the detectors. By using the information on the temporal evolution of the Cherenkov light, the background can be reduced. We will present here the results obtained within the MAGIC experiment using a new technique for the reduction of the background. Particle showers produced by gamma rays show a different temporal distribution with respect to showers produced by hadrons; the background due to accidental counts shows no dependence on time. Such novel strategy can increase the sensitivity of present instruments.

  4. BACKGROUND NOISE LEVELS IN STUDIOS AND AUDITORIA

    OpenAIRE

    James, A.

    1990-01-01

    The specification of background noise levels for auditoria must strike a balance between the lowest possible noise level from services and the need for some "masking" of extraneous sources. Studios are often designed to provide a suitable level of masking, using either aerodynamic or electronically-generated white noise. Data on noise levels in a large number of auditoria have been examined to determine whether a similar process is applicable to these. A wide range of seemingly arbitrary desi...

  5. Role of light and heavy minerals on natural radioactivity level of high background radiation area, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, V; Sundarrajan, M; Suresh, G; Paramasivam, K; Meenakshisundaram, V

    2014-02-01

    Natural radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) concentrations and eight different radiological parameters have been analyzed for the beach sediments of Kerala with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazards. Activity concentrations ((238)U and (232)Th) and all the radiological parameters in most of the sites have higher values than recommended values. The Kerala beach sediments pose significant radiological threat to the people living in the area and tourists going to the beaches for recreation or to the sailors and fishermen involved in their activities in the study area. In order to know the light mineral characterization of the present sediments, mineralogical analysis has been carried out using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique. The eight different minerals are identified and they are characterized. Among the various observed minerals, the minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, kaolinite and calcite are major minerals. The relative distribution of major minerals is determined by calculating extinction co-efficient and the values show that the amount of quartz is higher than calcite and much higher than microcline feldspar. Crystallinity index is calculated to know the crystalline nature of quartz present in the sediments. Heavy mineral separation analysis has been carried out to know the total heavy mineral (THM) percentage. This analysis revealed the presence of nine heavy minerals. The minerals such as monazite, zircon, magnetite and illmenite are predominant. Due to the rapid and extreme changes occur in highly dynamic environments of sandy beaches, quantities of major light and heavy minerals are widely varied from site to site. Granulometric analysis shows that the sand is major content. Multivariate statistical (Pearson correlation, cluster and factor) analysis has been carried out to know the effect of mineralogy on radionuclide concentrations. The present study concluded that heavy minerals induce the (238)U and (232)Th

  6. Features of the gas discharge in the narrow gap micro-pattern gas detectors (MPGD) at a high level of alpha-particles background

    CERN Document Server

    Razin, V I

    2010-01-01

    In given article preliminary results of the research of the electron multiplication in MPGD are presented at a high level of alpha-particles background. This work has expanded borders of understanding of the streamer mode nature. It is seen as a complex from electrostatic and electromagnetic interactions which begin with appearance of the precursor in plasma state. In an inter-electrode gap the plasma oscillations occur, accompanied by longitudinal elastic waves of ionization, which can reach the cathode surface with induced negative charge. With the release of this charge due to previously established conducting channel there is a strong current pulse, accompanied by the emission due to recombination of positive and negative ions and a thin cord or streamer derive. In the aim of the MPGD protection from the spark breakdown at a high level of the alpha-particle background the next gas composition from a buffer, cooling and electronegative components are offered: 70% He +28% CF4 +2% SF6.

  7. High Octane Fuel: Terminal Backgrounder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy sponsored a scoping study to assess the potential of ethanol-based high octane fuel (HOF) to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. When the HOF blend is made with 25%-40% ethanol by volume, this energy efficiency improvement is potentially sufficient to offset the reduced vehicle range often associated with the decreased volumetric energy density of ethanol. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of the fuel supply chain to accommodate more ethanol at fuel terminals. Fuel terminals are midstream in the transportation fuel supply chain and serve to store and distribute fuels to end users. While there are no technical issues to storing more ethanol at fuel terminals, there are several factors that could impact the ability to deploy more ethanol. The most significant of these issues include the availability of land to add more infrastructure and accommodate more truck traffic for ethanol deliveries as well as a lengthy permitting process to erect more tanks.

  8. Measurement of Acceptable Noise Level with Background Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Bahng, Junghwa; Lee, Jae Hee

    2015-09-01

    Acceptable noise level (ANL) is a measure of the maximum background noise level (BNL) that a person is willing to tolerate while following a target story. Although researchers have used various sources of target sound in ANL measures, a limited type of background noise has been used. Extending the previous study of Gordon-Hickey & Moore (2007), the current study determined the effect of music genre and tempo on ANLs as possible factors affecting ANLs. We also investigated the relationships between individual ANLs and the familiarity of music samples and between music ANLs and subjective preference. Forty-one participants were seperated into two groups according to their ANLs, 29 low-ANL listeners and 12 high-ANL listeners. Using Korean ANL material, the individual ANLs were measured based on the listeners' most comfortable listening level and BNL. The ANLs were measured in six conditions, with different music tempo (fast, slow) and genre (K-pop, pop, classical) in a counterbalanced order. Overall, ANLs did not differ by the tempo of background music, but music genre significantly affected individual ANLs. We observed relatively higher ANLs with K-pop music and relatively lower ANLs with classical music. This tendency was similar in both low-ANL and high-ANL groups. However, the subjective ratings of music familiarity and preference affected ANLs differently for low-ANL and high-ANL groups. In contrast to the low-ANL listeners, the ANLs of the high-ANL listeners were significantly affected by music familiarity and preference. The genre of background music affected ANLs obtained using background music. The degree of music familiarity and preference appears to be associated with individual susceptibility to background music only for listeners who are greatly annoyed by background noise (high-ANL listeners).

  9. Measurement of Acceptable Noise Level with Background Music

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Bahng, Junghwa; Lee, Jae Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Acceptable noise level (ANL) is a measure of the maximum background noise level (BNL) that a person is willing to tolerate while following a target story. Although researchers have used various sources of target sound in ANL measures, a limited type of background noise has been used. Extending the previous study of Gordon-Hickey & Moore (2007), the current study determined the effect of music genre and tempo on ANLs as possible factors affecting ANLs. We also investi...

  10. Overcoming High Energy Backgrounds at Pulsed Spallation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Cherkashyna, Nataliia; DiJulio, Douglas D.; Khaplanov, Anton; Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Scherzinger, Julius; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Fissum, Kevin G.; Ansell, Stuart; Iverson, Erik B.; Ehlers, Georg; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Panzner, Tobias; Rantsiou, Emmanouela; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Filges, Uwe; Kittelmann, Thomas; Extegarai, Maddi; Santoro, Valentina; Kirstein, Oliver; Bentley, Phillip M.

    2015-01-01

    Instrument backgrounds at neutron scattering facilities directly affect the quality and the efficiency of the scientific measurements that users perform. Part of the background at pulsed spallation neutron sources is caused by, and time-correlated with, the emission of high energy particles when the proton beam strikes the spallation target. This prompt pulse ultimately produces a signal, which can be highly problematic for a subset of instruments and measurements due to the time-correlated properties, and different to that from reactor sources. Measurements of this background have been made at both SNS (ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN, USA) and SINQ (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland). The background levels were generally found to be low compared to natural background. However, very low intensities of high-energy particles have been found to be detrimental to instrument performance in some conditions. Given that instrument performance is typically characterised by S/N, improvements in backgrounds can both improve instrument pe...

  11. Ppb-level H2S detection for SF6 decomposition based on a fiber-amplified telecommunication diode laser and a background-gas-induced high-Q photoacoustic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xukun; Dong, Lei; Wu, Hongpeng; Ma, Weiguang; Zhang, Lei; Yin, Wangbao; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang; Tittel, Frank K.

    2017-07-01

    A ppb-level hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas sensor for sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) decomposition analysis was developed by means of a background-gas-induced high-Q differential photoacoustic cell (PAC) and a fiber-amplified telecommunication diode laser. The watt-level excitation laser power compensates the sensitivity loss as a result of using a low cost, near-IR laser source. The differential design with a large cylindrical resonator diameter allows the PAC to accommodate the high power beam and maintain a low noise level output. The theory of background-gas-induced high-Q PAC is provided and was verified experimentally. A H2S detection limit (1σ) of 109 ppb in a SF6 buffer gas was achieved for an averaging time of 1 s, which corresponds to a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient of 2.9 × 10-9 cm-1 W Hz-1/2.

  12. Background Radiation Measurements at High Power Research Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Ashenfelter, J; Baldenegro, C X; Band, H R; Barclay, G; Bass, C D; Berish, D; Bowden, N S; Bryan, C D; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, R; Classen, T; Davee, D; Dean, D; Deichert, G; Dolinski, M J; Dolph, J; Dwyer, D A; Fan, S; Gaison, J K; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gilje, K; Glenn, A; Green, M; Han, K; Hans, S; Heeger, K M; Heffron, B; Jaffe, D E; Kettell, S; Langford, T J; Littlejohn, B R; Martinez, D; McKeown, R D; Morrell, S; Mueller, P E; Mumm, H P; Napolitano, J; Norcini, D; Pushin, D; Romero, E; Rosero, R; Saldana, L; Seilhan, B S; Sharma, R; Stemen, N T; Surukuchi, P T; Thompson, S J; Varner, R L; Wang, W; Watson, S M; White, B; White, C; Wilhelmi, J; Williams, C; Wise, T; Yao, H; Yeh, M; Yen, Y -R; Zhang, C; Zhang, X

    2016-01-01

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including $\\gamma$-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. The general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  13. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashenfelter, J. [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Balantekin, B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Baldenegro, C.X. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Band, H.R. [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Barclay, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Bass, C.D. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Le Moyne College, Syracuse, NY 13214 (United States); Berish, D. [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States); Bowden, N.S., E-mail: nbowden@llnl.gov [Nuclear and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Bryan, C.D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Cherwinka, J.J. [Physical Sciences Laboratory, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Chu, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Classen, T. [Nuclear and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Davee, D. [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Dean, D.; Deichert, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Dolinski, M.J. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Dolph, J. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Dwyer, D.A. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fan, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); and others

    2016-01-11

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. The general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  14. EXTRAGALACTIC VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neronov, A. [ISDC Data Center for Astrophysics, Chemin d' Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Semikoz, D. V. [APC, 10 rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2012-09-20

    We study the origin of the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background using the data from the Fermi telescope. To estimate the background level, we count photons at high Galactic latitudes |b| > 60 Degree-Sign . Subtracting photons associated with known sources and the residual cosmic-ray and Galactic diffuse backgrounds, we estimate the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) flux. We find that the spectrum of EGB in the very high energy band above 30 GeV follows the stacked spectrum of BL Lac objects. Large Area Telescope data reveal the positive (1 + z) {sup k}, 1 < k < 4 cosmological evolution of the BL Lac source population consistent with that of their parent population, Fanaroff-Riley type I radio galaxies. We show that EGB at E > 30 GeV could be completely explained by emission from unresolved BL Lac objects if k {approx_equal} 3.

  15. Development of a low-level background gamma-ray spectrometer by KRISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K B; Park, Tae Soon; Lee, Jong Man; Oh, Phil-Je; Lee, Sang-Han

    2008-01-01

    A new low-level background and high-efficiency gamma-ray spectrometric system, to be used mainly for the activity certification of natural-matrix certified reference materials (CRMs) and environmental reference materials (RMs) that has been developed on the grounds of the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS). The spectrometer consists of a low-background high-purity germanium detector with a relative efficiency of 120% and various shielding devices to reduce radiation background. The cabinet-shaped device made of 10ton of shielding materials encloses the germanium detector for protection against background from natural radioactivity and neutrons. Three plates of 50-mm-thick plastic scintillation detectors on top of the passive shielding cabinet suppress cosmogenic background by detecting high-energetic cosmic muons bombarding the germanium detector. The measured background rate of the spectrometer for the energy range 50-3000keV was 1.72s(-1).

  16. High potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperkalemia; Potassium - high; High blood potassium ... There are often no symptoms with a high level of potassium. When symptoms do occur, they may include: Nausea Slow, weak, or irregular pulse Sudden collapse, when the heartbeat gets too ...

  17. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  18. Correlation between work concentration level and background music: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yi-Nuo; Huang, Rong-Hwa; Chiang, Han-Sun

    2009-01-01

    It is a common phenomenon for office workers {to listen to music} while executing daily routines at their desks. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between work concentration level and background music. This research would first follow examples in previous researches, and then explore the influence of background music on participants' scores on attention tests. We hope to gain a preliminary understanding of the possible influence of background music on people's focus and concentration when doing work. Thirty-two college students were separated into three controlled groups; all were given the attention test. Group [a] listened to background music while being tested for 10 minutes; group [b] had no background music at all; and group [c] listened to the music for 10 minutes prior to the attention test. The test was conducted in a "noise free" environment. The means and error rates for each group were then calculated. The findings showed that, in comparison with "no music at all", those who listened to music prior to testing obtained higher scores in attentiveness (most probably a supplemental effect of the music), whereas those who listened to music during attention test showed extremely high level of variation in attention test scoring. Background music does affect people's job-site behavior. In fact, all three test conditions - no background music at all, background music before the work shift, and background music during work - have affected worker performance on different levels.

  19. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  20. MDT Performance in a High Rate Background Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksa, Martin; Hessey, N P; Riegler, W

    1998-01-01

    A Cs137 gamma source with different lead filters in the SPS beam-line X5 has been used to simulate the ATLAS background radiation. This note shows the impact of high background rates on the MDT efficiency and resolution for three kinds of pulse shaping and compares the results with GARFIELD simulations. Furthermore it explains how the performance can be improved by time slewing corrections and double track separation.

  1. The phantom menace. Determination of the true Method Detection Limit (MDL) for background levels of PCDDs, PCDFs, and cPCBs in human serum by high-resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, W.; Welch, S.; DiPietro, E.; Cash, T.; McClure, C.; Needham, L.; Patterson, D. [CDC/ATSDR, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The recent worldwide decline in background serum levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans, and coplanar biphenyls (PCDDs/PCDFs/cPCBs) is unquestionably an important finding. However, as serum levels continue to diminish, our analytical methods for measuring these toxicants will continue to be ''pushed to their limit''. In a previous article, we investigated some of the variables that influence the quantification of ''ultra-trace'' (fg/g) concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs and cPCBs in human serum. In this report, we continue to explore parameters that can affect the determination of the ''true'' detection limit of our method (MDL), using both analytical standards and matrix-based samples.

  2. Estimation of Peak Water Level in Pearl River Estuary under the Background of Sea Level Rise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG; Lan; CHEN; Xiao-hong; ZHUANG; Cheng-bin; CHEN; Dong-wei

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to predict the peak water level in Pearl River Estuary under the background of sea level rise. [Method] The changing trends of peak water level at Denglongshan station and Hengmen station were analyzed firstly on the basis of regression models, and then sea level rise in Pearl River Estuary in 2050 was predicted to estimate the 1-in-50-year peak water level in the same year. [Result] Regression analyses showed that the increasing rate of peak water level over past years was 6.3 mm/a at Denglongshan station and 5.8 mm/a at Hengmen station. In addition, if sea level will rise by 20, 30 and 60 cm respectively in 2050, it was predicted that the 1-in-50-year peak water level will reach 3.04, 3.14 and 3.44 m at Denglongshan station, and 3.19, 3.29 and 3.59 m at Hengmen station separately. [Conclusion] The estimation of peak water level in Pearl River Estuary could provide theoretical references for water resources planning.

  3. Contribution of the first galaxies to the cosmic far-infrared/sub-millimeter background - I. Mean background level

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rossi, María Emilia; Bromm, Volker

    2017-03-01

    We study the contribution of the first galaxies to the far-infrared/sub-millimeter (FIR/sub-mm) extragalactic background light (EBL) by implementing an analytical model for dust emission. We explore different dust models, assuming different grain-size distributions and chemical compositions. According to our findings, observed reradiated emission from dust in dwarf-size galaxies at z ∼ 10 would peak at a wavelength of ∼ 500 μm with observed fluxes of ∼10-3-10-2 nJy, which is below the capabilities of current observatories. In order to be detectable, model sources at these high redshifts should exhibit luminosities of ≳1012 L⊙, comparable to that of local ultraluminous systems. The FIR/sub-mm-EBL generated by primeval galaxies peaks at ∼ 500 μm, with an intensity ranging from ∼10-4 to 10-3 nW m-2 sr-1, depending on dust properties. These values are ∼3-4 orders of magnitude below the absolute measured cosmic background level, suggesting that the first galaxies would not contribute significantly to the observed FIR/sub-mm-EBL. Our model EBL exhibits a strong correlation with the dust-to-metal ratio, where we assume a fiducial value of D = 0.005, increasing almost proportionally to it. Thus, measurements of the FIR/sub-mm-EBL could provide constraints on the amount of dust in the early Universe. Even if the absolute signal from primeval dust emission may be undetectable, it might still be possible to obtain information about it by exploring angular fluctuations at ∼ 500 μm, close to the peak of dust emission from the first galaxies.

  4. Effect of background noise on neuronal coding of interaural level difference cues in rat inferior colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokri, Yasamin; Worland, Kate; Ford, Mark; Rajan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Humans can accurately localize sounds even in unfavourable signal-to-noise conditions. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this, we studied the effect of background wide-band noise on neural sensitivity to variations in interaural level difference (ILD), the predominant cue for sound localization in azimuth for high-frequency sounds, at the characteristic frequency of cells in rat inferior colliculus (IC). Binaural noise at high levels generally resulted in suppression of responses (55.8%), but at lower levels resulted in enhancement (34.8%) as well as suppression (30.3%). When recording conditions permitted, we then examined if any binaural noise effects were related to selective noise effects at each of the two ears, which we interpreted in light of well-known differences in input type (excitation and inhibition) from each ear shaping particular forms of ILD sensitivity in the IC. At high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), in most ILD functions (41%), the effect of background noise appeared to be due to effects on inputs from both ears, while for a large percentage (35.8%) appeared to be accounted for by effects on excitatory input. However, as SNR decreased, change in excitation became the dominant contributor to the change due to binaural background noise (63.6%). These novel findings shed light on the IC neural mechanisms for sound localization in the presence of continuous background noise. They also suggest that some effects of background noise on encoding of sound location reported to be emergent in upstream auditory areas can also be observed at the level of the midbrain. PMID:25865218

  5. Effect of background noise on neuronal coding of interaural level difference cues in rat inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokri, Yasamin; Worland, Kate; Ford, Mark; Rajan, Ramesh

    2015-07-01

    Humans can accurately localize sounds even in unfavourable signal-to-noise conditions. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this, we studied the effect of background wide-band noise on neural sensitivity to variations in interaural level difference (ILD), the predominant cue for sound localization in azimuth for high-frequency sounds, at the characteristic frequency of cells in rat inferior colliculus (IC). Binaural noise at high levels generally resulted in suppression of responses (55.8%), but at lower levels resulted in enhancement (34.8%) as well as suppression (30.3%). When recording conditions permitted, we then examined if any binaural noise effects were related to selective noise effects at each of the two ears, which we interpreted in light of well-known differences in input type (excitation and inhibition) from each ear shaping particular forms of ILD sensitivity in the IC. At high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), in most ILD functions (41%), the effect of background noise appeared to be due to effects on inputs from both ears, while for a large percentage (35.8%) appeared to be accounted for by effects on excitatory input. However, as SNR decreased, change in excitation became the dominant contributor to the change due to binaural background noise (63.6%). These novel findings shed light on the IC neural mechanisms for sound localization in the presence of continuous background noise. They also suggest that some effects of background noise on encoding of sound location reported to be emergent in upstream auditory areas can also be observed at the level of the midbrain.

  6. Radioactivity in the groundwater of a high background radiation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, E I; Kinsara, A A

    2014-11-01

    Natural radioactivity was measured in groundwater samples collected from 37 wells scattered in an inhabited area of high natural background radiation, in a purpose of radiation protection. The study area is adjacent to Aja heights of granitic composition in Hail province, Saudi Arabia. Initial screening for gross α and gross β activities showed levels exceeded the national regulation limits set out for gross α and gross β activities in drinking water. The gross α activity ranged from 0.17 to 5.41 Bq L(-)(1) with an average value of 2.15 Bq L(-)(1), whereas gross β activity ranged from 0.48 to 5.16 Bq L(-)(1), with an average value of 2.60 Bq L(-)(1). The detail analyses indicated that the groundwater of this province is contaminated with uranium and radium ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra were 0.40, 0.77, 0.29 and 0.46 Bq L(-)(1), respectively. The higher uranium content was found in the samples of granitic aquifers, whereas the higher radium content was found in the samples of sandstone aquifers. Based on the obtained results, mechanism of leaching of the predominant radionuclides has been discussed in detail.

  7. Detecting high-$z$ galaxies in the Near Infrared Background

    CERN Document Server

    Yue, Bin; Helgason, Kári

    2015-01-01

    Emission from high-$z$ galaxies must unquestionably contribute to the Near-InfraRed Background (NIRB). However, this contribution has so far proven difficult to isolate even after subtracting resolved galaxies to deep levels. Remaining NIRB fluctuations are dominated by unresolved low-redshift galaxies on small angular scales, and by an unidentified component of unclear origin on large scales ($\\approx 1000"$). In this paper, by analyzing mock maps generated from semi-numerical simulations and empirically determined $L_{\\rm UV} - M_{\\rm h}$ relations, we find that fluctuations associated with galaxies at $5 < z < 10$ amount to several percent of the unresolved NIRB flux. We investigate the properties of this component for different survey areas and limiting magnitudes. In all cases, we show that this signal can be efficiently, and most easily at small angular scales, isolated by cross-correlating the source-subtracted NIRB with Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) detected in the same field by {\\tt HST} surveys....

  8. Educational Background and High School Maths Teachers ‘Specialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin. Wang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Teachers’ Specialism is a world development trend and fashion, but also the needs and the direction of teacher education reform. After the latest curriculum reform, the educational reform and development of math,teachers have become universally concentrated and thoughtful in the field of mathematical education. The study adopting questionnaires and telephone interviews carried out a sample survey to 59 common high school math teachers from 3 provinces, and analyzed the connection between math teachers’ specialism and educational background by the statistical analysis tool SPSS quantitatively and qualitatively. The study shows that both mathematical science knowledge and mathematical educational skills have an obvious connection with the educational background, while there’s little connection between mathematical educational knowledge and the educational background. The study points out a relevant strategy which high school math teachers should attach the same important to pre-job training and post-job training

  9. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  10. Seeking Solution: High-Performance Computing for Science. Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This is the second publication from the Office of Technology Assessment's assessment on information technology and research, which was requested by the House Committee on Science and Technology and the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. The first background paper, "High Performance Computing & Networking for…

  11. Precise muon drift tube detectors for high background rate conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Engl, Albert; Dünnweber, Wolfgang

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS-experiment at the Large H adron Collider consists of drift tube chambers, which provide the precise m easurement of trajec- tories of traversing muons. In order to determine the moment um of the muons with high precision, the measurement of the position of the m uon in a single tube has to be more accurate than σ ≤ 100 m. The large cross section of proton-proton-collisions and th e high luminosity of the accelerator cause relevant background of neutrons and γ s in the muon spectrome- ter. During the next decade a luminosity upgrade [1] to 5 10 34 cm − 2 s − 1 is planned, which will increase the background counting rates consider ably. In this context this work deals with the further development of the existing drift chamber tech- nology to provide the required accuracy of the position meas urement under high background conditions. Two approaches of improving the dri ft tube chambers are described: • In regions of moderate background rates a faster and more lin ear ...

  12. Interval-Valued Model Level Fuzzy Aggregation-Based Background Subtraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiranjeevi, Pojala; Sengupta, Somnath

    2016-07-29

    In a recent work, the effectiveness of neighborhood supported model level fuzzy aggregation was shown under dynamic background conditions. The multi-feature fuzzy aggregation used in that approach uses real fuzzy similarity values, and is robust for low and medium-scale dynamic background conditions such as swaying vegetation, sprinkling water, etc. The technique, however, exhibited some limitations under heavily dynamic background conditions, as features have high uncertainty under such noisy conditions and these uncertainties were not captured by real fuzzy similarity values. Our proposed algorithm is particularly focused toward improving the detection under heavy dynamic background conditions by modeling uncertainties in the data by interval-valued fuzzy set. In this paper, real-valued fuzzy aggregation has been extended to interval-valued fuzzy aggregation by considering uncertainties over real similarity values. We build up a procedure to calculate the uncertainty that varies for each feature, at each pixel, and at each time instant. We adaptively determine membership values at each pixel by the Gaussian of uncertainty value instead of fixed membership values used in recent fuzzy approaches, thereby, giving importance to a feature based on its uncertainty. Interval-valued Choquet integral is evaluated using interval similarity values and the membership values in order to calculate interval-valued fuzzy similarity between model and current. Adequate qualitative and quantitative studies are carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in mitigating heavily dynamic background situations as compared to state-of-the-art.

  13. Background- versus event-level biotic variability: Hyperthermals of the late Paleocene and early Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, S.; Murphy, B. H.; Pälike, H.

    2009-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was an abrupt global warming event 55 million years ago (Ma) which has received much attention in recent years as an analogue for anthropogenic carbon emissions. We now know that the PETM was not unique, but was perhaps the most extreme of a number of abrupt carbon cycle perturbations throughout the late Paleocene and early Eocene. These inferred transient warming events, or ‘hyperthermals’, all have characteristic negative carbon isotope excursions (CIE). Unlike the PETM, it is currently unclear whether there was a significant biotic response to these additional CIEs, and if so, whether the amplitude of response varied systematically with excursion magnitude. Here, we present high-resolution nannofossil records from a two million year interval spanning the Paleocene-Eocene boundary at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1209 in the paleo-subequatorial Pacific. This interval, from ~55 to 53 Ma, includes the PETM, a second hyperthermal named the Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2 or ‘Elmo’), and a further number of smaller excursions. These data allow us to look for common biotic signatures and to document the level of assemblage variability relative to the inferred levels of environmental change associated with each CIE. We use this dataset as a case-study for investigating different statistical means of quantifying and comparing biotic responses to background and event-level perturbation. Preliminary analyses suggest that, as expected, the PETM exhibited the greatest level of assemblage variability, well above background levels, followed in order of CIE magnitude by the ETM2. Several of the smaller excursions have no significant assemblage variability above background levels, pointing to a critical threshold level of environmental perturbation.

  14. High-Energy Neutron Backgrounds for Underground Dark Matter Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Direct dark matter detection experiments usually have excellent capability to distinguish nuclear recoils, expected interactions with Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter, and electronic recoils, so that they can efficiently reject background events such as gamma-rays and charged particles. However, both WIMPs and neutrons can induce nuclear recoils. Neutrons are then the most crucial background for direct dark matter detection. It is important to understand and account for all sources of neutron backgrounds when claiming a discovery of dark matter detection or reporting limits on the WIMP-nucleon cross section. One type of neutron background that is not well understood is the cosmogenic neutrons from muons interacting with the underground cavern rock and materials surrounding a dark matter detector. The Neutron Multiplicity Meter (NMM) is a water Cherenkov detector capable of measuring the cosmogenic neutron flux at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, which has an overburden of 2090 meters water equivalent. The NMM consists of two 2.2-tonne gadolinium-doped water tanks situated atop a 20-tonne lead target. It detects a high-energy (>~ 50 MeV) neutron via moderation and capture of the multiple secondary neutrons released when the former interacts in the lead target. The multiplicity of secondary neutrons for the high-energy neutron provides a benchmark for comparison to the current Monte Carlo predictions. Combining with the Monte Carlo simulation, the muon-induced high-energy neutron flux above 50 MeV is measured to be (1.3 ± 0.2) ~ 10-9 cm-2s-1, in reasonable agreement with the model prediction. The measured multiplicity spectrum agrees well with that of Monte Carlo simulation for multiplicity below 10, but shows an excess of approximately a factor of three over Monte Carlo prediction for multiplicities ~ 10 - 20. In an effort to reduce neutron backgrounds for the dark matter experiment SuperCDMS SNO- LAB, an active neutron veto was developed

  15. Ultra High Energy Comic Rays in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, W-Y Pauchy

    2011-01-01

    We consider the propagation of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR), for energies greater than E > 10^{14} eV but less than E < 10^{26} eV, in the cosmic medium of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). We find that the CMB plays a pivot role in this energy range. As example, the observed "knee(s)" and the "ankle" could be understood in reasonable terms. What we may observe at energy near 10^{25} eV (W^\\pm bursts or Z^0 bursts) is also briefly discussed.

  16. Analysis of selected volatile organic compounds at background level in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntsasa, Napo; Tshilongo, James; Lekoto, Goitsemang

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are measured globally at urban air pollution monitoring and background level at specific locations such as the Cape Point station. The urban pollution monitoring is legislated at government level; however, the background levels are scientific outputs of the World Meteorological Organisation Global Atmospheric Watch program (WMO/GAW). The Cape Point is a key station in the Southern Hemisphere which monitors greenhouse gases and halocarbons, with reported for over the past decade. The Cape Point station does not have the measurement capability VOC's currently. A joint research between the Cape Point station and the National Metrology Institute of South Africa (NMISA) objective is to perform qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds listed in the GAW program. NMISA is responsible for development, maintain and disseminate primary reference gas mixtures which are directly traceable to the International System of Units (SI) The results of some volatile organic compounds which where sampled in high pressure gas cylinders will be presented. The analysis of samples was performed on the gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector and mass selective detector (GC-FID/MSD) with a dedicate cryogenic pre-concentrator system. Keywords: volatile organic compounds, gas chromatography, pre-concentrator

  17. Parental background, early scholastic ability, the allocation into secondary school tracks and language skills at the age of 15 years in a highly differentiated system: a test of the contradictions between a two- or three-level approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dronkers, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently Dunne (2010) and Dronkers, van der Velden & Dunne (2011) introduced a three-level model: countries, schools, and students. They showed that school characteristics like socioeconomic composition and ethnic diversity have substantial effects on achievement levels and also affect the relation

  18. How important is cultural background for the level of intergenerational mobility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnitzlein, Daniel D.

    Using results on brother correlations in permanent earnings for different groups of second generation immigrants based on administrative data from Denmark, this letter analyzes the role of cultural background in the determination of the level of intergenerational mobility. The results indicate th...... that cultural background is not a major determinant of the level of intergenerational economic mobility.......Using results on brother correlations in permanent earnings for different groups of second generation immigrants based on administrative data from Denmark, this letter analyzes the role of cultural background in the determination of the level of intergenerational mobility. The results indicate...

  19. Background field coils for the High Field Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbasnik, J.P.; Cornish, D.N.; Scanlan, R.M.; Jewell, A.M.; Leber, R.L.; Rosdahl, A.R.; Chaplin, M.R.

    1980-09-22

    The High Field Test Facility (HFTF), presently under construction at LLNL, is a set of superconducting coils that will be used to test 1-m-o.d. coils of prototype conductors for fusion magnets in fields up to 12 T. The facility consists of two concentric sets of coils; the outer set is a stack of Nb-Ti solenoids, and the inner set is a pair of solenoids made of cryogenically-stabilized, multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor, developed for use in mirror-fusion magnets. The HFTF system is designed to be parted along the midplane to allow high-field conductors, under development for Tokamak fusion machines, to be inserted and tested. The background field coils were wound pancake-fashion, with cold-welded joints at both the inner and outer diameters. Turn-to-turn insulation was fabricated at LLNL from epoxy-fiberglass strip. The coils were assembled and tested in our 2-m-diam cryostat to verify their operation.

  20. Comparison of selection methods to deduce natural background levels for groundwater units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, J.; Passier, H.F.; Klein, J.

    2008-01-01

    Establishment of natural background levels (NBL) for groundwater is commonly performed to serve as reference when assessing the contamination status of groundwater units. We compare various selection methods to establish NBLs using groundwater quality data forfour hydrogeologically different areas i

  1. Comparison of selection methods to deduce natural background levels for groundwater units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, J.; Passier, H.F.; Klein, J.

    2008-01-01

    Establishment of natural background levels (NBL) for groundwater is commonly performed to serve as reference when assessing the contamination status of groundwater units. We compare various selection methods to establish NBLs using groundwater quality data forfour hydrogeologically different areas

  2. Low level activity determination by means of gamma spectrometry with respect to the natural background fluctuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragounová, Lenka; Rulík, Petr

    2013-11-01

    The determination of low level activities of natural radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series by gamma-spectrometry faces the problem of proper natural background subtraction. Background fluctuation can cause differences in activity determination. Also the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of natural and artificial radionuclides can be influenced by background fluctuation. In this paper, results of the background fluctuation of shielded HPGe detectors with relative efficiency of 50-150% are presented together with the assessment of its influence on the determination of natural and artificial radionuclides. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimation of background noise level on seismic station using statistical analysis for improved analysis accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S. M.; Hahm, I.

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the background noise level of seismic stations in order to collect the observation data of high quality and produce accurate seismic information. Determining of the background noise level was used PSD (Power Spectral Density) method by McNamara and Buland (2004) in this study. This method that used long-term data is influenced by not only innate electronic noise of sensor and a pulse wave resulting from stabilizing but also missing data and controlled by the specified frequency which is affected by the irregular signals without site characteristics. It is hard and inefficient to implement process that filters out the abnormal signal within the automated system. To solve these problems, we devised a method for extracting the data which normally distributed with 90 to 99% confidence intervals at each period. The availability of the method was verified using 62-seismic stations with broadband and short-period sensors operated by the KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration). Evaluation standards were NHNM (New High Noise Model) and NLNM (New Low Noise Model) published by the USGS (United States Geological Survey). It was designed based on the western United States. However, Korean Peninsula surrounded by the ocean on three sides has a complicated geological structure and a high population density. So, we re-designed an appropriate model in Korean peninsula by statistically combined result. The important feature is that secondary-microseism peak appeared at a higher frequency band. Acknowledgements: This research was carried out as a part of "Research for the Meteorological and Earthquake Observation Technology and Its Application" supported by the 2015 National Institute of Meteorological Research (NIMR) in the Korea Meteorological Administration.

  4. A high resolution, low background fast neutron spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Abdurashitov, J N; Kalikhov, A V; Matushko, V L; Shikhin, A A; Yants, V E; Zaborskaia, O S; Adams, J M; Nico, J S; Thompson, A K

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the possibility to create a spectrometer of full absorption based on liquid scintillator doped with enriched sup 6 Li. Of specific interest, the spectrometer will have energy resolution estimated to lie in the range 5-10% for 14 MeV neutrons. It will be sensitive to fluxes from 10 sup - sup 4 to 10 sup 6 cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 above a threshold of 1 MeV in a gamma-background of up to 10 sup 4 s sup - sup 1. The detector's efficiency will be determined by the volume of the scintillator only (approx 3 l) and is estimated to be 0.2-10%. The main reason for the poor resolution of an organic scintillator based spectrometer of full absorption is a non-linear light-yield of the scintillator for recoil protons. The neutron energy is occasionally distributed among recoil protons, and due to non-linear light-yield the total amount of light from all recoil protons ambiguously determines the initial neutron energy. The high-energy resolution will be achieved by compensation of the non-linear light-yield ...

  5. Contribution of the first galaxies to the cosmic far-infrared/sub-millimeter background - I. Mean background level

    CERN Document Server

    De Rossi, Maria Emilia

    2016-01-01

    We study the contribution of the first galaxies to the far-infrared/sub-millimeter (FIR/sub-mm) extragalactic background light (EBL) by implementing an analytical model for dust emission. We explore different dust models, assuming different grain size distributions and chemical compositions. According to our findings, observed re-radiated emission from dust in dwarf-size galaxies at $z \\sim 10$ would peak at a wavelength of $\\sim 500 \\mu {\\rm m}$ with observed fluxes of $\\sim 10^{-3} - 10^{-2}$ nJy, which is below the capabilities of current observatories. In order to be detectable, model sources at these high redshifts should exhibit luminosities of $\\gtrsim 10^{12} L_{\\odot}$, comparable to that of local ultra-luminous systems. The FIR/sub-mm EBL generated by primeval galaxies peaks at $\\sim 500 \\mu {\\rm m}$, with an intensity ranging from $\\sim 10^{-4}$ to $10^{-3} {\\rm nW \\ m^{-2} \\ sr^{-1}}$, depending on dust properties. These values are $\\sim 3 - 4$ orders of magnitude below the absolute measured cosmi...

  6. High Precision Cosmology with the Cosmic Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhang, Marzieh

    In this thesis we investigate the two cosmic epochs of inflation and recombination, through their imprints on the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background radiation. To probe the early universe we develop a map-based maximum-likelihood estimator to measure the amplitude of inflation-induced gravity waves, parametrized by r, from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization maps. Being optimal by construction, the estimator avoids E-B mixing, a possible source of contamination in the tiny B-mode detection, the target of many current and near future CMB experiments. We explore the leakage from the E- to the B-mode of polarization by using this estimator to study the linear response of the B-mode signal at different scales to variations in the E- mode power. Similarly, for various observational cases, we probe the dependence of r measurement on the signal from different scales of E and B polarization. The estimator is used to make forecasts for Spider-like and Planck-like experimental specifications and to investigate the sky-coverage optimization of the Spider-like case. We compare the forecast errors on r to the results from a similar multipole-based estimator which, by ignoring the mode-mixing, sets a lower limit on the achievable error on r. We find that an experiment with Spider-like specifications with fsky ˜ 0:02--0:2 could place a 2sigma r ≈ 0:014 bound (˜ 95% CL), which rises to 0:02 with an ℓ-dependent foreground residual left over from an assumed efficient component separation. For the Planck-like survey, a Galaxy-masked ( fsky = 0:75) sky would give 2sigmar ≈ 0:015, rising to ≈ 0:05 with the foreground residuals. We also use a novel information-based framework to compare how different generations of CMB experiments reveal information about the early universe, through their measurements of r. We also probe the epoch of recombination by investigating possible fluctuations in the free electron fraction Xe

  7. Nature of the Background Ultraviolet Radiation Field at High Redshifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Archana Samantaray; Pushpa Khare

    2000-06-01

    We have tried to determine the flux of the ultraviolet background radiation field from the column density ratios of various ions in several absorption systems observed in the spectra of QSOs. We find that in most cases the flux is considerably higher than what has been estimated to be contributed by the AGNs. The excess flux could originate locally in hot stars. In a few cases we have been able to show that such galactic flux can only contribute a part of the total required flux. The results suggest that the background gets a significant contribution from an unseen QSO population.

  8. Determining the Detection Efficiency and Background Level of ATIC Electron Observation from Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.; Wu, J.; Guzik, T. G.; Wefel, J. P.; Isbert, J.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Christl, M.; Watts, J.; Ahn, H. S.; Kim, K. C.; Seo, E. S.; Wu, J.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Kouznetsov, E. N.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Sokolskaya, N. V.; Panov, A. D.; Zatsepin, V. I.

    2009-01-01

    Observations of Cosmic-ray electrons are difficult due to the large flux of cosmic ray hadrons. The event selection efficiency and background levels can be estimated from flight data for the ATIC instrument. This reduces the dependence upon Monte Carlo simulations, which show differences between different codes, thereby reducing the systematic errors resulting from analyses that only use simulations. This paper discusses some of the methods used in the ATIC analysis to determine the detection efficiency and background level for the flight data.

  9. Examination of background contamination levels for gas counting and AMS target preparation in Trondheim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulliksen, S.; Thomsen, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    conventional gas proportional counting (GPC) system. We have also studied contamination levels of our target preparation for C-14 accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dating in Uppsala. A significant lower background is obtained for Icelandic double spar than for marbles, probably due to a crystal structure...... of the double spar that is more insensitive to contaminating processes. The background for combusted samples is at the same level as for samples of double spar, indicating that additional C-14 contamination due to combustion is negligible. Dates obtained on interstadial samples (T >30 ka BP) by both GPC and AMS...

  10. High level binocular rivalry effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eWolf

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Binocular rivalry (BR occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: 1 BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low levels have access to utrocular information. 2 All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn’t stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. 3 Rivalry is affected by low level attributes, contrast, spatial frequency, brightness, motion. 4 There is limited priming due to suppressed words or pictures. On the other hand, recent studies favor a high level mechanism: 1 Rivalry occurs between patterns, not eyes, as in patchwork rivalry or a swapping paradigm. 2 Attention affects alternations. 3 Context affects dominance. There is conflicting evidence from physiological studies (single cell and fMRI regarding cortical level(s of conscious perception. We discuss the possibility of multiple BR sites and theoretical considerations that rule out this solution.We present new data regarding the locus of the BR switch by manipulating stimulus semantic content or high-level characteristics. Since these variations are represented at higher cortical levels, their affecting rivalry supports high-level BR intervention. In Experiment I, we measure rivalry when one eye views words and the other nonwords and find significantly longer dominance durations for nonwords. In Experiment II, we find longer dominance times for line drawings of simple, structurally impossible figures than for similar, possible objects. In Experiment III, we test the influence of idiomatic context on rivalry between words. Results show that generally words within their idiomatic context have longer mean dominance durations. We conclude that Binocular Rivalry has high-level cortical influences, and may be controlled by a high-level

  11. Large Fluctuations in the High-Redshift Metagalactic Ionizing Background

    CERN Document Server

    D'Aloisio, Anson; Davies, Frederick B; Furlanetto, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that the scatter in opacities among coeval segments of the Lyman-alpha forest increases rapidly at z > 5. In this paper, we assess whether the large scatter can be explained by fluctuations in the ionizing background in the post-reionization intergalactic medium. We find that matching the observed scatter at z ~ 5.5 requires a short spatially averaged mean free path of 3 shorter than direct measurements at z ~ 5.2. We argue that such rapid evolution in the mean free path is difficult to reconcile with our measurements of the global H I photoionization rate, which stay approximately constant over the interval z ~ 4.8 - 5.5. However, we also show that measurements of the mean free path at z > 5 are likely biased towards higher values by the quasar proximity effect. This bias can reconcile the short values of the mean free path that are required to explain the large scatter in opacities. We discuss the implications of this scenario for cosmological reionization. Finally, we invest...

  12. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  13. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...... by other papers. Thus, e.g., none of the original papers introducing the first versions of high-level Petri nets have been included. The introductions to the individual sections mention a number of researchers who have contributed to the development of high-level Petri nets. Detailed references...

  14. Cancer Mortality Among People Living in Areas With Various Levels of Natural Background Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwik Dobrzyński

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many places on the earth, where natural background radiation exposures are elevated significantly above about 2.5 mSv/year. The studies of health effects on populations living in such places are crucially important for understanding the impact of low doses of ionizing radiation. This article critically reviews some recent representative literature that addresses the likelihood of radiation-induced cancer and early childhood death in regions with high natural background radiation. The comparative and Bayesian analysis of the published data shows that the linear no-threshold hypothesis does not likely explain the results of these recent studies, whereas they favor the model of threshold or hormesis. Neither cancers nor early childhood deaths positively correlate with dose rates in regions with elevated natural background radiation.

  15. Educational Background and High School Maths Teachers ‘Specialism

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Wang(Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), D-76128 Karlsruhe, Germany); Chang-huan. Feng

    2009-01-01

    Teachers’ Specialism is a world development trend and fashion, but also the needs and the direction of teacher education reform. After the latest curriculum reform, the educational reform and development of math,teachers have become universally concentrated and thoughtful in the field of mathematical education. The study adopting questionnaires and telephone interviews carried out a sample survey to 59 common high school math teachers from 3 provinces, and analyzed the connection between math...

  16. High temperature internal friction measurements of 3YTZP zirconia polycrystals. High temperature background and creep

    OpenAIRE

    Simas, P.; Castillo-Rodríguez, Miguel; Nó, M. L.; De-Bernardi, S.; Gómez-García, D.; Domínguez-Rodríguez, Alejandro; San Juan, J.

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on the high-temperature mechanic properties of a 3 mol % yttria zirconia polycrystals (3YTZP), fabricated by hot-pressureless sintering. Systematic measurements of mechanical loss as a function of temperature and frequency were performed. An analytical method, based on the generalised Maxwell rheological model, has been used to analyse the high temperature internal friction background (HTB). This method has been previously applied to intermetallic compounds...

  17. Background noise levels and correlation with ship traffic in the Gulf of Catania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Salvatore; Buscaino, Giuseppa; Caruso, Francesco; Chierici, Francesco; Embriaco, Davide; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Grammauta, Roasario; Larosa, Giuseppina; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Riccobene, Giorgio; Sciacca, Virginia; Simeone, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Marinaro, Giuditta

    2015-04-01

    In the last decades the growing interest in the evaluation of the underwater acoustic noise for studies in the fields of geology, biology and high-energy physics is driving the scientific community to collaborate towards a multidisciplinary approach to the topic. In June 2012 in the framework of the European project EMSO, a multidisciplinary underwater observatory, named NEMO-SN1, was installed 25 km off-shore the port of Catania, at a depth of 2100 m and operated until May 2013 by INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) and INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia). NEMO-SN1 hosted aboard geophysical, oceanographic and acoustic sensors: among these a seismic hydrophone model SMID DT-405D(V). In this work, conducted within the activity of the SMO project, the results on the evaluation of the underwater acoustic pollution in the Gulf of Catania through SMID DT-405D(V) recordings are presented. The seismic hydrophone provided a data set of about 11 months of continuous (24/7) recordings. Underwater sounds have been continuously digitized at a sampling frequency of 2 kHz and the acquired data have been stored in 10min long files for off-line analysis. To describe one-year background noise levels, the mean integrated acoustic noise was measured every second (sampling frequency 2000, NFFT 2048) in the 1/3 octave bands with centre frequency 63 Hz and for each 10 minutes-long file the 5th, the 50th and the 98th percentiles were calculated. Measured noise was correlated with the shipping traffic in the area, thanks to the data provided by an AIS receiver installed at the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud. An acoustic noise increment was measured in coincidence with the passing of crafts in the area and it was possible to identify the characteristic spectrum of each ship. A simple model for the estimation of the acoustic noise induced by the ships passing through the area was developed. The model was applied by using AIS data acquired during the operation

  18. RPython high-level synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw; Linczuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The development of FPGA technology and the increasing complexity of applications in recent decades have forced compilers to move to higher abstraction levels. Compilers interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in High-Level Languages (HLLs) and translate it to Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This paper presents a RPython based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler get the configuration parameters and map RPython program to VHDL. Then, VHDL code can be used to program FPGA chips. In comparison of other technologies usage, FPGAs have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of omitting the fetch-decode-execute operations of General Purpose Processors (GPUs), and introduce more parallel computation. This can be exploited by utilizing many resources at the same time. Creating parallel algorithms computed with FPGAs in pure HDL is difficult and time consuming. Implementation time can be greatly reduced with High-Level Synthesis compiler. This article describes design methodologies and tools, implementation and first results of created VHDL backend for RPython compiler.

  19. The CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Deldicque, C; Ero, J; Frühwirth, R; Jeitler, Manfred; Kastner, K; Köstner, S; Neumeister, N; Porth, M; Padrta P; Rohringer, H; Sakulinb, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Walzel, G; Wulz, C E; Lowette, S; Van De Vyver, B; De Lentdecker, G; Vanlaer, P; Delaere, C; Lemaître, V; Ninane, A; van der Aa, O; Damgov, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampen, T; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lehti, S; Nysten, J; Tuominiemi, J; Busson, P; Todorov, T; Schwering, G; Gras, P; Daskalakis, G; Sfyrla, A; Barone, M; Geralis, T; Markou, C; Zachariadou, K; Hidas, P; Banerjee, S; Mazumdara, K; Abbrescia, M; Colaleoa, A; D'Amato, N; De Filippis, N; Giordano, D; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Silvestris, L; Zito, G; Arcelli, S; Bonacorsi, D; Capiluppi, P; Dallavalle, G M; Fanfani, A; Grandi, C; Marcellini, S; Montanari, A; Odorici, F; Travaglini, R; Costa, S; Tricomi, A; Ciulli, a V; Magini, N; Ranieri, R; Berti, L; Biasotto, M; Gulminia, M; Maron, G; Toniolo, N; Zangrando, L; Bellato, M; Gasparini, U; Lacaprara, S; Parenti, A; Ronchese, P; Vanini, S; Zotto, S; Ventura P L; Perugia; Benedetti, D; Biasini, M; Fano, L; Servoli, L; Bagliesi, a G; Boccali, T; Dutta, S; Gennai, S; Giassi, A; Palla, F; Segneri, G; Starodumov, A; Tenchini, R; Meridiani, P; Organtini, G; Amapane, a N; Bertolino, F; Cirio, R; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Pac, Y; Joo, K; Kim, S B; Suwon; Choi, Y I; Yu, I T; Cho, K; Chung, J; Ham, S W; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kim, W; CKim, J; Oh, S K; Park, H; Ro, S R; Son, D C; Suh, J S; Aftab, Z; Hoorani, H; Osmana, A; Bunkowski, K; Cwiok, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, K; Kazana, M; Królikowski, J; Kudla, I; Pietrusinski, M; Pozniak, Krzysztof T; Zabolotny, W M; Zalipska, J; Zych, P; Goscilo, L; Górski, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Almeida, C; Almeida, N; Da Silva, J C; Santos, M; Teixeira, I; Teixeira, J P; Varelaa, J; Vaz-Cardoso, N; Konoplyanikov, V F; Urkinbaev, A R; Toropin, A; Gavrilov, V; Kolosov, V; Krokhotin, A; Oulianov, A; Stepanov, N; Kodolova, O L; Vardanyan, I; Ilic, J; Skoro, G P; Albajar, C; De Troconiz, J F; Calderón, A; López-Virto, M A; Marco, R; Martínez-Rivero, C; Matorras, F; Vila, I; Cucciarelli, S; Konecki, M; Ashby, S; Barney, D; Bartalini, P; Benetta, R; Brigljevic, V; Bruno, G; Cano, E; Cittolin, S; Della Negra, M; de Roeck, A; Favre, P; Frey, A; Funk, W; Futyan, D; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gutleber, J; Hansen, M; Innocente, V; Jacobs, C; Jank, W; Kozlovszky, Miklos; Larsen, H; Lenzi, M; Magrans, I; Mannelli, M; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Mirabito, L; Murray, S J; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Palomares-Espiga, C; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Reynaud, S; Samyn, D; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schwick, C; Sguazzoni, G; Sinanis, N; Sphicas, P; Spiropulu, M; Strandlie, A; Taylor, B G; Van Vulpen, I; Wellisch, J P; Winkler, M; Villigen; Kotlinski, D; Zurich; Prokofiev, K; Speer, T; Dumanoglu, I; Bristol; Bailey, S; Brooke, J J; Cussans, D; Heath, G P; Machin, D; Nash, S J; Newbold, D; Didcot; Coughlan, A; Halsall, R; Haynes, W J; Tomalin, I R; Marinelli, N; Nikitenko, A; Rutherford, S; Seeza, C; Sharif, O; Antchev, G; Hazen, E; Rohlf, J; Wu, S; Breedon, R; Cox, P T; Murray, P; Tripathi, M; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Kreuzer, P; Lindgren, M; Mumford, J; Schlein, P E; Shi, Y; Tannenbaum, B; Valuev, V; Von der Mey, M; Andreevaa, I; Clare, R; Villa, S; Bhattacharya, S; Branson, J G; Fisk, I; Letts, J; Mojaver, M; Paar, H P; Trepagnier, E; Litvine, V; Shevchenko, S; Singh, S; Wilkinson, R; Aziz, S; Bowden, M; Elias, J E; Graham, G; Green, D; Litmaath, M; Los, S; O'Dell, V; Ratnikova, N; Suzuki, I; Wenzel, H; Acosta, D; Bourilkov, D; Korytov, A; Madorsky, A; Mitselmakher, G; Rodríguez, J L; Scurlock, B; Abdullin, S; Baden, D; Eno, S; Grassi, T; Kunori, S; Pavlon, S; Sumorok, K; Tether, S; Cremaldi, L M; Sanders, D; Summers, D; Osborne, I; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Fisher,W C; Mans6, J; Stickland, D P; Tully, C; Wildish, T; Wynhoff, S; Padley, B P; Chumney, P; Dasu, S; Smith, W H; CMS Trigger Data Acquisition Group

    2006-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider at CERN the proton bunches cross at a rate of 40MHz. At the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment the original collision rate is reduced by a factor of O (1000) using a Level-1 hardware trigger. A subsequent factor of O(1000) data reduction is obtained by a software-implemented High Level Trigger (HLT) selection that is executed on a multi-processor farm. In this review we present in detail prototype CMS HLT physics selection algorithms, expected trigger rates and trigger performance in terms of both physics efficiency and timing.

  20. Development of an Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter for Trace Level Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Orrell, John L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Douglas, Matthew; Finn, Erin C.; Fuller, Erin S.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Panisko, Mark E.; Shaff, Sarah M.; Warren, Glen A.; Wright, Michael E.

    2015-09-01

    Low-level liquid scintillation counting (LSC) has been established as one of the radiation detection techniques useful in elucidating environmental processes and environmental monitoring around nuclear facilities. The Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter (ULB-LSC) under construction in the Shallow Underground Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory aims to further reduce the MDAs and/or required sample processing. Through layers of passive shielding in conjunction with an active veto and 30 meters water equivalent overburden, the background reduction is expected to be 10 to 100 times below typical analytic low-background liquid scintillation systems. Simulations have shown an expected background of around 14 counts per day. A novel approach to the light collection will use a coated hollow light guide cut into the inner copper shielding. Demonstration LSC measurements will show low-energy detection, spectral deconvolution, and alpha/beta discrimination capabilities, from trials with standards of tritium, strontium-90, and actinium-227, respectively. An overview of the system design and expected demonstration measurements will emphasize the potential applications of the ULB-LSC in environmental monitoring for treaty verification, reach-back sample analysis, and facility inspections.

  1. Hydrogeochemical characterization and Natural Background Levels in urbanized areas: Milan Metropolitan area (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Although aquifers in densely populated and industrialized areas are extremely valuable and sensitive to contamination, an estimate of the groundwater quality status relative to baseline conditions is lacking for many of them. This paper provides a hydrogeochemical characterization of the groundwater in the Milan metropolitan area, one of the most densely populated areas in Europe. First, a conceptual model of the study area based on the analysis of the spatial distribution of natural chemical species and indicator contaminants is presented. The hydrochemical facies of the study area depend on the lithology of catchments drained by the main contributing rivers and on the aquifer settings. The anthropogenic influence on the groundwater quality of superficial aquifers is studied by means of probability plots, concentration versus depth plots and spatial-temporal plots for nitrate, sulfate and chloride. These allow differentiation of contaminated superficial aquifers from deep confined aquifers with baseline water quality. Natural Background Levels (NBL) of selected species (Cl, Na, NH4, SO4, NO3, As, Fe, Mn and Zn) are estimated by means of the pre-selection (PS) and the component separation (CS) statistical approaches. The NBLs depend on hydrogeological settings of the study area; sodium, chloride, sulfate and zinc NBL values never exceed the environmental water quality standards. NBL values of ammonium, iron, arsenic and manganese exceed the environmental water quality standards in the anaerobic portion of the aquifers. On the basis of observations, a set of criteria and precautions are suggested for adoption with both PS and CS methods in the aquifer characterization of highly urbanized areas.

  2. Impact of elevated CO2 background levels on the host-seeking behaviour of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Shahid; Hill, Sharon Rose; Ignell, Rickard

    2014-02-15

    Mosquitoes rely on carbon dioxide (CO2) to detect and orient towards their blood hosts. However, the variable and rapid fluctuations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations may have an impact on the host-seeking behaviour of mosquitoes. In this study, we analysed the effect of transient elevated background levels of CO2 on the host-seeking behaviour and the physiological characteristics of the CO2-sensitive olfactory receptor neurones (ORNs) in female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. We show that the take-off and source contact behaviour of A. aegypti is impeded at elevated background levels of CO2 as a result of masking of the stimulus signal. The mechanism underlying this masking during take-off behaviour is one of sensory constraint. We show that the net response of the CO2-ORNs regulates this CO2-related behaviour. Since these neurones themselves are not habituated or fatigued by the transient elevation of background CO2, we propose that habituation of second-order neurones in response to the elevated CO2-ORN activity could be one mechanism by which the net response is transduced by the olfactory system. The findings from this study may help to predict future shifts in mosquito-host interactions and consequently to predict vectorial capacity in the light of climate change.

  3. The ALICE high level trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, T.; Grastveit, G.; Helstrup, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Röhrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Tilsner, H.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbø, A.; Vik, T.; Wiebalck, A.; the ALICE Collaboration

    2004-08-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC will implement a high-level trigger system for online event selection and/or data compression. The largest computing challenge is posed by the TPC detector, which requires real-time pattern recognition. The system entails a very large processing farm that is designed for an anticipated input data stream of 25 GB s-1. In this paper, we present the architecture of the system and the current state of the tracking methods and data compression applications.

  4. Microplastic pollution in the Greenland Sea: Background levels and selective contamination of planktivorous diving seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amélineau, F; Bonnet, D; Heitz, O; Mortreux, V; Harding, A M A; Karnovsky, N; Walkusz, W; Fort, J; Grémillet, D

    2016-12-01

    Microplastics have been reported everywhere around the globe. With very limited human activities, the Arctic is distant from major sources of microplastics. However, microplastic ingestions have been found in several Arctic marine predators, confirming their presence in this region. Nonetheless, existing information for this area remains scarce, thus there is an urgent need to quantify the contamination of Arctic marine waters. In this context, we studied microplastic abundance and composition within the zooplankton community off East Greenland. For the same area, we concurrently evaluated microplastic contamination of little auks (Alle alle), an Arctic seabird feeding on zooplankton while diving between 0 and 50 m. The study took place off East Greenland in July 2005 and 2014, under strongly contrasted sea-ice conditions. Among all samples, 97.2% of the debris found were filaments. Despite the remoteness of our study area, microplastic abundances were comparable to those of other oceans, with 0.99 ± 0.62 m(-3) in the presence of sea-ice (2005), and 2.38 ± 1.11 m(-3) in the nearby absence of sea-ice (2014). Microplastic rise between 2005 and 2014 might be linked to an increase in plastic production worldwide or to lower sea-ice extents in 2014, as sea-ice can represent a sink for microplastic particles, which are subsequently released to the water column upon melting. Crucially, all birds had eaten plastic filaments, and they collected high levels of microplastics compared to background levels with 9.99 and 8.99 pieces per chick meal in 2005 and 2014, respectively. Importantly, we also demonstrated that little auks took more often light colored microplastics, rather than darker ones, strongly suggesting an active contamination with birds mistaking microplastics for their natural prey. Overall, our study stresses the great vulnerability of Arctic marine species to microplastic pollution in a warming Arctic, where sea-ice melting is expected to release vast

  5. Impact of fertilizers on background radioactivity level in two newly developed desert areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fawzia

    A survey of soils and plants was carried out to determine the environmental gamma background radiation levels in two newly developed desert areas. The materials and the standards were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy; a shielded high purity germanium detector was used to measure the natural concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K activities in the samples. The radionuclide content in some commercial fertilizers was determined. The results of the analysis of specific activities in the fertilizers under study were 1.27-950.09 Bq/kg for 238U, 0.73-162.16 Bq/kg for 232Th and 10.22-23845.24 Bq/kg for 40K. All natural soil samples showed low-activity concen-trations. The concentrations of 238U (6.13-38.84 Bq/kg) and 232Th (2.58-25.69 Bq/kg) are quite similar, whereas that of 40K (113.91-9314.11 Bq/kg) are much higher for plant samples. Some of the results obtained are larger than the permissible international radioactivity levels. It is suitable in this regard to compare the activity values of the imported fertilizers and that fabricated in Egypt. The absorbed dose rate was found to be 1.91-1027 nGy/h and the radium equivalent activity concentration was 4.02-1840.98 Bq/kg for fertilizer samples. Soil and plant sample results were 11.86-415E29 nGy/h and 24.20-750.52 Bq/kg for the absorbed dose rate and the radium equivalent activity concentration, respectively. Banana plant contains the largest values. This article presents actual data from investigations of the soil-plant transfer of the primordial radionuclides for some fruits growing on these soils. The transfer factors of 0.35-1.821 for 238U, 0.227-0.480 for 232Th and 1.95-31.85 for 40K were obtained. The increase of the transfer of 40K reflects its great uptake to the fruits. Observed soil-plant factors vary widely, mainly as a result of different soil, vegetation types and environmental conditions. Taking into account the transfer factors of 137Cs to plants, the measured activity concentrations of this isotope should not

  6. Leptin levels distribution and ethnic background in two populations from Chile: Caucasian and Mapuche groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bravo, F; Albala, C; Santos, J L; Yañez, M; Carrasco, E

    1998-10-01

    Leptin, the product of the human ob gene is increased in obese individuals, suggesting resistance to its effect. We examined the relationship of serum leptin levels with respect to obesity, gender and insulin levels in two populations with different ethnic compositions in Chile. Leptin and insulin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and correlated with body mass index (BMI), gender and ethnic background. 79 Caucasian subjects from Santiago and 65 Mapuche natives from the Araucania region, Chile, were included in this study. Leptin concentrations in obese subjects were significantly increased in both ethnic groups in relation to lean status: Caucasian and Mapuche obese 19.3 +/- 11.6 and 10.1 +/- 5.8 (P Mapuche lean 10.4 +/- 5.8 and 4.7 +/- 2.9 (P Mapuche and Caucasian groups, similar leptin levels were observed among the males of the two populations in both metabolic states (lean and obese). In contrast, the leptin level distributions between women showed a marked difference, having a minor value in the Mapuche women with a comparable value with the male group in this ethnic population. The leptin concentrations are associated with obesity in both ethnic groups in Chile. However, the leptin levels between the Mapuche natives were significantly decreased compared to the Caucasian group. The gender distribution does not seem to be important in the Mapuche natives. The ethnic composition seems to be important in the leptin distribution in the analysed populations.

  7. On the possibility of tree-level leptogenesis from Kalb-Ramond torsion background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cesare, M; Mavromatos, Nick E; Sarkar, Sarben

    In this work we consider a phenomenological model for leptogenesis in the context of a Standard Model Extension with an axial-like background coupling to fermions that violates both Lorentz and CPT symmetries. The latter is motivated by a background geometry of the early Universe involving a particular kind of torsion, arising from the Kalb-Ramond antisymmetric tensor field which appears in the gravitational multiplet of string theory, although we do not restrict ourselves to this framework. It is shown that leptogenesis can occur even at tree level and with only one generation of right-handed heavy Majorana neutrinos, due to [Formula: see text] and CPT violation introduced by the background geometry. Important issues for the model, including (a) its compatibility with a conventional-like cosmology and (b) current-era phenomenology (characterised by very stringent bounds on the allowed amount of torsion) are pointed out, and potential ways of resolving them, within the framework of string-theory models, are discussed.

  8. On the possibility of tree-level leptogenesis from Kalb-Ramond torsion background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cesare, M.; Sarkar, Sarben [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Mavromatos, Nick E. [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Theory Division, Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    In this work we consider a phenomenological model for leptogenesis in the context of a Standard Model Extension with an axial-like background coupling to fermions that violates both Lorentz and CPT symmetries. The latter is motivated by a background geometry of the early Universe involving a particular kind of torsion, arising from the Kalb-Ramond antisymmetric tensor field which appears in the gravitational multiplet of string theory, although we do not restrict ourselves to this framework. It is shown that leptogenesis can occur even at tree level and with only one generation of right-handed heavy Majorana neutrinos, due to CP and CPT violation introduced by the background geometry. Important issues for the model, including (a) its compatibility with a conventional-like cosmology and (b) current-era phenomenology (characterised by very stringent bounds on the allowed amount of torsion) are pointed out, and potential ways of resolving them, within the framework of string-theory models, are discussed. (orig.)

  9. The ALICE high level trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, T [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Grastveit, G [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Helstrup, H [Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College (Norway); Lindenstruth, V [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Loizides, C [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Roehrich, D [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Skaali, B [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Steinbeck, T [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Stock, R [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Tilsner, H [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Ullaland, K [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Vestboe, A [Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College (Norway); Vik, T [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Wiebalck, A [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC will implement a high-level trigger system for online event selection and/or data compression. The largest computing challenge is posed by the TPC detector, which requires real-time pattern recognition. The system entails a very large processing farm that is designed for an anticipated input data stream of 25 GB s{sup -1}. In this paper, we present the architecture of the system and the current state of the tracking methods and data compression applications.

  10. Radiation and Background Levels in a CLIC Detector due to Beam-Beam Effects Optimisation of Detector Geometries and Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, André; Lohse, Thomas

    2013-01-10

    The high charge density---due to small beam sizes---and the high energy of the proposed CLIC concept for a linear electron--positron collider with a centre-of-mass energy of up to 3~TeV lead to the production of a large number of particles through beam-beam interactions at the interaction point during every bunch crossing (BX). A large fraction of these particles safely leaves the detector. A still significant amount of energy will be deposited in the forward region nonetheless, which will produce secondary particles able to cause background in the detector. Furthermore, some particles will be created with large polar angles and directly cause background in the tracking detectors and calorimeters. The main sources of background in the detector, either directly or indirectly, are the incoherent $mathrm{e}^{+}mathrm{e}^{-}$ pairs and the particles from $gammagamma ightarrow$ hadron events. The background and radiation levels in the detector have to be estimated, to study if a detector is feasible, that can han...

  11. Assessing Natural Background Levels of aquifers in the Metropolitan Area of Milan (Lombardy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni; Frattini, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/CE) requires Member States to evaluate the status of groundwater bodies in order to reach a good water quality for human consumption. One of the preliminary steps for defining the status of groundwater bodies consists in the definition and evaluation of the so-called Natural Background Levels (NBL). The NBL or Baseline level can be defined as "the range of concentration of a given element, isotope or chemical compound in solution, derived entirely from natural, geological, biological or atmospheric sources, under conditions not perturbed by anthropogenic activity" (Edmund and Shand, 2009). The qualitative analysis for a large area (ca 4500 Km2) of the Po Plain around the Milan Metropolitan area (Lombardy, Italy) is presented in this study. Despite the aquifers in the Milan metropolitan area are an incredible groundwater resource for a very large population (3.195.629 inhabitants in the metropolitan area, data at November 2014) and a highly industrialized area, a groundwater baseline characterization is still missing. In order to attain the hydro-geochemical characterization a complete geodatabase was built (120.655 chemical samples from 1980 to 2014). This database has been explored by classical and multivariate statistical analyses to provide relationships among the more influential lithological, hydrogeological and hydro-chemical variables. Finally, the NBLs of different chemical species which may be anthropogenic sensitive (Na, Cl, K, NO3, SO4, NH4, As, Fe, Cr, Fe, Mn, Zn) and for multiple aquifer bodies (phreatic, semi-confined and confined aquifer) are evaluated. Two different approaches are applied: the Pre-Selection method (BRIDGE, 2006) and the Component-Separation method. The first one (PS) consists in the exclusion of samples from the available dataset that could indicate human activities then deriving the NBL as the 90th percentile of the remaining data. The second one (CS) consists in the fitting of

  12. Lowering the background level and the energy threshold of Micromegas x-ray detectors for axion searches

    CERN Document Server

    Iguaz, F J; Aznar, F; Castel, J F; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galan, J; Garcia, J A; Garza, J G; Giomataris, I; Irastorza, I G; Papaevangelou, T; Rodriguez, A; Tomas, A; Vafeiadis, T; Yildiz, S C

    2014-01-01

    Axion helioscopes search for solar axions by their conversion in x-rays in the presence of high magnetic fields. The use of low background x-ray detectors is an essential component contributing to the sensitivity of these searches. In this work, we review the recent advances on Micromegas detectors used in the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) and proposed for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The actual setup in CAST has achieved background levels below 10$^{-6}$ keV$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. This reduction is based on active and passive shielding techniques, the selection of radiopure materials, offline discrimination techniques and the high granularity of the readout. We describe in detail the background model of the detector, based on its operation at CAST site and at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC), as well as on Geant4 simulations. The best levels currently achieved at LSC are low than 10$^{-7}$ keV$^{-1}$ ...

  13. High alcohol consumption causes high IgE levels but not high risk of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Frederikke K; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    disease. Genetically, we explored potential causal relationships between alcohol consumption and IgE levels and allergic disease. RESULTS: The multivariable adjusted odds ratio for IgE levels greater than versus less than 150 kU/L and compared with subjects without allergic disease was 2.3 (95% CI, 2......BACKGROUND: High alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels in observational studies; however, whether high alcohol consumption leads to high IgE levels and allergic disease is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that high alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels...... for the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH-1B; rs1229984) and alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH-1C; rs698). Observationally, we investigated associations between IgE levels and allergic disease (allergic asthma, rhinitis, and eczema) and between alcohol consumption and IgE levels and allergic...

  14. "Gaining Power through Education": Experiences of Honduran Students from High Poverty Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Peter C.; Zempter, Christy; Ngumbi, Elizabeth; Nakama, Yuki; Manley, David; Cox, Haley

    2017-01-01

    This is a study of students from high-poverty backgrounds attending universities in Honduras. Based on a series of individual and focus group interviews, the researchers found students from high-poverty backgrounds face numerous practical challenges in persisting in higher education. Despite these challenges, participants succeeded due to a…

  15. The grey areas in soil pollution risk mapping : The distinction between cases of soil pollution and increased background levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaast, N. van der; Leenaers, H.; Zegwaard, J.

    1998-01-01

    The progress of soil clean up in the Netherlands is severely hindered by the lack of common agreement on how to describe the grey areas of increased background levels of pollutants. In this study practical methods are proposed in which background levels are described as distribution functions within

  16. Neutron detection in a high gamma-ray background with EJ-301 and EJ-309 liquid scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevanato, L., E-mail: luca.stevanato@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Universita di Padova, Fisica ' Galileo Galilei' , Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Cester, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Universita di Padova, Fisica ' Galileo Galilei' , Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Nebbia, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Viesti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Universita di Padova, Fisica ' Galileo Galilei' , Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2012-10-21

    Using a fast digitizer, the neutron-gamma discrimination capability of the new liquid scintillator EJ-309 is compared with that obtained using standard EJ-301. Moreover the capability of both the scintillation detectors to identify a weak neutron source in a high gamma-ray background is demonstrated. The probability of neutron detection is PD=95% at 95% confidence level for a gamma-ray background corresponding to a dose rate of 100 {mu}Sv/h.

  17. The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, B; Cicalo, Corrado; Das, Indranil; de Vaux, Gareth; Fearick, Roger; Lindenstruth, Volker; Marras, Davide; Sanyal, Abhijit; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Staley, Florent; Steinbeck, Timm; Szostak, Artur; Usai, Gianluca; Vilakazi, Zeblon

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger (dHLT) is an on-line processing stage whose primary function is to select interesting events that contain distinct physics signals from heavy resonance decays such as J/psi and Gamma particles, amidst unwanted background events. It forms part of the High Level Trigger of the ALICE experiment, whose goal is to reduce the large data rate of about 25 GB/s from the ALICE detectors by an order of magnitude, without loosing interesting physics events. The dHLT has been implemented as a software trigger within a high performance and fault tolerant data transportation framework, which is run on a large cluster of commodity compute nodes. To reach the required processing speeds, the system is built as a concurrent system with a hierarchy of processing steps. The main algorithms perform partial event reconstruction, starting with hit reconstruction on the level of the raw data received from the spectrometer. Then a tracking algorithm finds track candidates from the recon...

  18. High level white noise generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  19. Neutron induced background gamma activity in low-level Ge-spectroscopy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovančević, N.; Krmar, M.; Mrda, D.; Slivka, J.; Bikit, I.

    2010-01-01

    Two high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors were located in two different passive shields: one in pre-WW II iron and the second in commercial low background lead. Gamma lines emitted after neutron capture, as well as after inelastic scattering on the germanium crystal were detected and then analyzed. The thermal and fast neutron fluxes were calculated and their values were compared for the two different kinds of detector shield. Several materials having different neutron slowing-down properties were packed in Marinelli geometry, positioned on the lead shielded detector and measured for around 10 6 s. The main goal was to estimate a possible influence of the sample on the intensity of the neutron induced Ge gamma lines. On the iron-shielded detector a massive (3 in. thick) NaI Compton suppression system showed a measurable activity from neutron capture and inelastic scattering on sodium and iodine nuclei.

  20. Measured Radiation and Background Levels During Transmission of Megawatt Electron Beams Through Millimeter Apertures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Ricardo [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Balascuta, S. [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Benson, Stephen V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Bertozzi, William [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Boyce, James R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Cowan, Ray [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Evtushenko, Pavel [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Fisher, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ihloff, Ernest E. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kalantarians, Narbe [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kelleher, Aidan Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Krossler, W. J. [William and Mary College, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Legg, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Long, Elena [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Milner, Richard [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Neil, George R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Ou, Longwu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Schmookler, Barack Abraham [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tschalar, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Williams, Gwyn P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Shukui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-off, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW continuous-wave (CW) beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, multipactoring inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation when the machine is tuned for 130 MeV operation.

  1. Measured Radiation and Background Levels During Transmission of Megawatt Electron Beams Through Millimeter Apertures

    CERN Document Server

    Alarcon, R; Benson, S.V.; Bertozzi, W.; Boyce, J.R.; Cowan, R.; Douglas, D.; Evtushenko, P.; Fisher, P.; Ihloff, E.; Kalantarians, N.; Kelleher, A.; Kossler, W.J.; Legg, R.; Long, E.; Milner, R.G.; Neil, G.R.; Ou, L.; Schmookler, B.; Tennant, C.; TschaläR, C.; Williams, G.P.; Zhang, S.

    2013-01-01

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-off, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW continuous-wave (CW) beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, multipactoring inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is ...

  2. Background levels of carbon-13 reduced in breath and stool by new infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutton, T W; Hopkinson, J M; Benton, D A; Klein, P D

    1988-01-01

    Studies of the absorption and bioavailability of nutrients naturally enriched with 13C require accurate measurements of small increases of 13C in respiratory CO2 and stool carbon. The sensitivity of these measurements would be increased if the natural background of 13C in these excreta were reduced. We have developed a 13C-depleted infant formula based on lactose, whey, and casein from New Zealand cows that consume only C3 vegetation naturally low in 13C. This formula, designated CNRC3, was produced by a commercial infant formula manufacturer and was comparable with a 60:40 whey/casein product. To test the ability of the formula to reduce baseline levels of 13C in infant excreta, 10 formula-fed infants 28-60 days old and free of metabolic disorders were enrolled in the 9-day study. Two stool samples were collected daily. Infants received their usual formula on days 1 and 2 and were switched to CNRC3 formula for days 3-9. On days 2 and 9, seven breath samples were collected at 30-min intervals with a face mask. Breath and stool samples were analyzed for 13C content by gas isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Infants consuming their commercial formula had breath delta 13C values of -21.1 +/- 0.6% over the 3-h collection period; stool values were -22.9 +/- 0.4%. After 7 days on the CNRC3 formula, delta 13C values of breath declined by 5.6% to -26.7 +/- 0.7%; stool values declined by 3.0% to -25.6 +/- 0.5%. The reduced background of 13C achieved by the CNRC3 formula can improve resolution of excess 13C from naturally enriched substrates in infant breath by approximately 50% and in stool by approximately 30%.

  3. Conditioning the γ spectrometer for activity measurement at very high background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Wei-Hua; ZHANG Li-Guo; ZHANG Zhao; XIAO Zhi-Gang

    2012-01-01

    The application of a high purity Germanium (HPGe) γ spectrometer in determining the fuel element burnup in a future reactor is studied.The HPGe detector is exposed by a 60Co source with varying irradiation rate from 10× 103 s-1 to 150× 103 s-1 to simulate the input counting rate in real reactor environment.A 137Cs and a 152Eu source are positioned at given distances to generate a certain event rate in the detector with the former being proposed as a labeling nuclide to measure the burnup of a fuel element.It is shown that both the energy resolution slightly increasing with the irradiation rate and the passthrough rate at high irradiation level match the requirement of the real application.The influence of the background is studied in the different parameter sets used in the specially developed procedure of background subtraction.It is demonstrated that with the typical input irradiation rate and 137Cs intensity relevant to a deep burnup situation,the precision of the 137Cs counting rate in the current experiment is consistently below 2.8%,indicating a promising feasibility of utilizing an HPGe detector in the burnup measurement in future bed-like reactors.

  4. Effects of effort and EMG levels on short-latency stretch reflex modulation after varying background muscle contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiso, K; McBride, J M; Finni, T; Komi, P V

    2005-08-01

    It is known that the short-latency stretch reflex (SLSR) is modulated by the background muscle activity when it is elicited at matched torque levels. This study was designed to examine the effects of muscle contraction types before a stretch perturbation on SLSR in the human soleus muscle (SOL) when SLSR was elicited at the same levels of effort and at matched electromyographic (EMG) activity levels. A mechanical stretch perturbation was applied to the calf muscles when the ankle joint reached a ninety degree tibio-tarsal joint angle after the muscles performed an isometric (pre-ISO), shortening (pre-SHO) and lengthening contraction (pre-LEN). Subjects were seated on an ankle ergometer chair and developed 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% ankle joint torque (AJT) of maximum voluntary isometric plantar flexion contraction at 80 degrees in pre-SHO, at 90 degrees in pre-ISO and at 100 degrees in pre-LEN. After that, isometric or dynamic contractions started, and the subjects were asked to maintain effort levels as, needed, to maintain the target torque levels until the end of the stretch. They relaxed their muscles fully after the stretch. This chain of processes was consecutively repeated 10 times. EMG signals obtained from SOL were averaged after they were high-pass filtered and full-wave rectified. Some major findings resulted: (1) there were no differences in SLSR area in the active muscle between pre-ISO and pre-SHO, whereas its waveform was steeper in pre-ISO than in pre-SHO. (2) SLSR p-to-p amplitude and waveform were larger and steeper in the active muscle than in the relaxed one in all conditions, whereas they were independent of the effort levels once the muscle was activated. This led to steady SLSR modulation in response to the background muscle contraction in the active muscle regardless of whether the SLSR was elicited at matched AJT or EMG activity levels. These findings suggest that SLSR is closely related to the muscle spindle sensitivity

  5. Pattern recognition of $^{136}$Xe double beta decay events and background discrimination in a high pressure Xenon TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Cebrian, S; Gomez, H; Herrera, D C; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Luzon, G; Segui, L; Tomas, A

    2013-01-01

    High pressure gas detectors offer advantages for the detection of rare events, where background reduction is crucial. For the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe a high pressure xenon gas Time Projection Chamber (TPC) combines a good energy resolution and a detailed topological information of each event. The ionization topology of the double beta decay event of 136Xe in gaseous xenon has a characteristic shape defined by the two straggling electron tracks ending up in two higher ionization charge density blobs. With a properly pixelized readout, this topological information is invaluable to perform powerful background discrimination. In this study we carry out detailed simulations of the signal topology, as well as the competing topologies from gamma events that typically compose the background at these energies. We define observables based on graph theory concepts and develop automated discrimination algorithms which reduce the background level in around three orders of magnitude while keeping signal eff...

  6. Thermal Infrared Sky Background for a High-Arctic Mountain Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbring, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Nighttime zenith sky spectral brightness in the 3.3 to 20 micron wavelength region is reported for an observatory site nearby Eureka, on Ellesmere Island in the Canadian High Arctic. Measurements derive from an automated Fourier-transform spectrograph which operated continuously there over three consecutive winters. During that time the median through the most transparent portion of the Q window was 460 Jy/square-arcsec, falling below 32 Jy/square-arcsec in N band, and to sub-Jansky levels by M and shortwards; reaching only 36 mJy/square-arcsec within L. Nearly six decades of twice-daily balloonsonde launches from Eureka, together with contemporaneous meteorological data plus a simple model allows characterization of background stability and extrapolation into K band. This suggests the study location has dark skies across the whole thermal infrared spectrum, typically sub-200 micro-Jy/square-arcsec at 2.4 microns. That background is comparable to South Pole, and more than an order of magnitude less than estim...

  7. Thermal Infrared Sky Background for a High-Arctic Mountain Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbring, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Nighttime zenith sky spectral brightness in the 3.3-20 μm wavelength region is reported for an observatory site nearby Eureka on Ellesmere Island in the Canadian High Arctic. Measurements are derived from an automated Fourier-transform spectrograph that operated there continuously over three consecutive winters. During that time, the median through the most transparent portion of the Q window was 460 {Jy} {{arcsec}}-2, falling below 32 {Jy} {{arcsec}}-2 in the N band, and to sub-Jansky levels by M and shortward, reaching only 36 {mJy} {{arcsec}}-2 within L. Nearly six decades of twice-daily balloonsonde launches from Eureka, together with contemporaneous meteorological data plus a simple model, allows characterization of background stability and extrapolation into K band. This suggests that the study location has dark skies across the whole thermal infrared spectrum, typically sub-200 μ {Jy} {{arcsec}}-2 at 2.4 μm. That background is comparable to South Pole and more than an order of magnitude less than estimates for the best temperate astronomical sites, all at much higher elevation. Considerations relevant to future facilities, including for polar transient surveys, are discussed.

  8. On the bremsstrahlung background correction to the high-energy Compton spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Mathur; B L Ahuja

    2005-07-01

    A methodology for bremsstrahlung (BS) background correction to extract a true Compton profile in high-energy Compton scattering experiments is presented. The BS background profiles for Hg, computed within the Born approximation, are estimated for different values of incident energy. It is seen for the first time that the BS background contribution in high-energy Compton profile experiments like those employing third generation synchrotron radiation sources comes out to be significant and non-linear. Further, it is found that the incorporation of BS correction in data reduction of such an experiment performed on Hg at 662 keV energy helps in reconciliation of theory and experiment.

  9. Background Noise Distribution before and afterHigh-Resolution Processing in Ship-borne Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGZhong

    2005-01-01

    When high-resolution algorithm is applied in ship-borne radar~ high-resolution algorithm's nonlinearity and distributional characteristics before highresolution processing determine background clutter's distributional characteristics after high-resolution and detector design afterwards. Because background noise before high-resolution has physical significance, the statistical model of first-order Bragg lines and second order components of sea clutter is put forward. Then by using higher-order cumulative quantity's statistical verification of actually measured data, it is concluded that background noise before high-resolution conforms to normal distribution in ship-borne radar. The non-linearity of high-resolution algorithm determines that background noise after high-resolution processing conforms to non-normal distribution. Non-normal distributed clutter mainly include Weibull, Lognormal and K clutter. Rayleigh clutter can be seen as special case of Weibull clutter. These clutter have differently statistical characteristics and can be discriminated by clutter characteristics recognition. The numerical domain's distribution after high-resolution processing is determined by improved minimum entropy clutter characteristics recognition method based on rule AIC, namely two-parameter domain scanning method. This identification method has higher recognition rate. It is verified that background noise after high-resolution by pre-whitenedMUSIC conforms to lognormal distribution.

  10. Ingestion of polonium ((210)Po) via dietary sources in high background radiation areas of south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Baskaran, Kamesh Viswanathan; Rao, D D; Sathyapriya, R; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Kuruva, Jaya Krishna; Hari, Shanmugamsundaram

    2014-10-01

    To study the distribution of Polonium ((210)Po) activity in dietary sources in the high background radiation zone of Puttetti in southern Tamil Nadu. (210)Po was analyzed in the food materials consumed by the male and female individual representatives living in the high background areas by 24-h Duplicate Diet Study (DDS) and Market Basket Study (MBS). The MBS was performed by collecting the food samples such as, cereals, fruits, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers, other vegetables, fish, meat and milk grown in the high background radiation zone of southern Tamil Nadu as a part of baseline study in this region. The DDS was done by collecting the food materials consumed including the beverages in 24 h from different age groups of male and female individuals living in the village of Puttetti. The intake and ingestion dose of the radionuclide (210)Po was estimated. The average concentration of (210)Po in DDS (n = 33) was found to be 74 mBq.kg(- 1) of fresh weight. The MBS was collected based on food consumption representing more than 85-95% of annual supply, and were divided into eight food groups. The average concentration of (210)Po in the eight food groups namely leafy vegetables was 2176 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 3), vegetables 55 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 10), roots and tubers 251 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 4), fruits 65 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 5), fish 345 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 2), meat food 117 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 3), milk 20 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 1) and cereal 290 (n = 1) mBq.kg(- 1) of fresh weight, respectively. The annual intake and ingestion dose due to (210)Po was estimated by DDS and MBS in adults, adolescents and children. The overall results showed that the MBS was moderately higher than the DDS in all age groups. Moreover, a DDS approach may even be more realistic, as cooked foodstuffs are used for dietary exposure assessment. The study confirms that the current levels of (210)Po do not pose a significant radiological risk to the local inhabitants.

  11. Association between educational level and risk of cancer in HIV-infected individuals and the background population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars H; Dalton, Susanne O

    2015-01-01

    -infected individuals diagnosed (without intravenous drug abuse or hepatitis C infection) (n = 3205), and a background population cohort matched by age, gender, and country of birth (n = 22 435) were analyzed. Educational level (low or high) and cancer events were identified in Danish national registers. Cumulative...... incidences, incidence rate ratios (IRRs), and survival using Kaplan-Meier methods were estimated. RESULTS: Low educational level was associated with increased risk of cancer among HIV-infected individuals compared to population controls: all (adjusted-IRRs: 1.4 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.1-1.7] vs 1.......1 [95% CI, .9-1.2]), tobacco- and alcohol-related (2.1 [95% CI, 1.3-3.4] vs 1.3 [95% CI, 1.1-1.6]), and other (1.7 [95% CI, 1.1-2.8] vs 0.9 [95% CI, .7-1.0]). Educational level was not associated with infection-related or ill-defined cancers. One-year-survival was not associated with educational level...

  12. Attitudes, Values and Background of High School Journalists Compared with the Media Elite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sammye

    To compare attitudes, values, and background of high school journalists with those of the media elite (journalists already working in the media), a survey was administered to 132 public and private high school students attending the Trinity University Journalism Institute during June 5-9, 1983. These students were the editors of their newspapers,…

  13. Background levels of trace elements in rain and river waters in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsumura, Akito [National Inst. of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yamasaki, Shin-ichi

    1998-01-01

    It is important to know the concentrations of trace elements such as uranium, thorium and lanthanoids in river and rain waters for evaluation of various environmental radioactive contaminations and of safety of those elements. Analysis in combination of high resolution-induction combination plasma-mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) and ultrasound nebulizer (USN) has made it possible to detect those element at ng/l levels. A preliminary study on concentrations of those elements was performed to know their natural abundance in those waters. Water samples of 82 rivers in Japan collected from 1989-1991 and of rain collected in Kohtoh district, Tokyo and in Tsukuba city, Ibaraki Prefecture from October, 1991-March, 1993 were filtered and subjected to analyses by HR-ICP-MS and USN with SPEX mix standard. Accuracy was 2-5% (low resolution) and 5-10% (high resolution) and detection limit, 0.0007 ng/l (U)-2 ng/l (Fe). From the upper to down stream of the river, a gradual increase in the concentration of those elements as Li, V, Rb, Cs, Ba, Tl and U was observed, a rapid increase, as NO3-N, NH4-N, Na, K, Ca, Mg, PO4-P, SO4-S, Cl, Co, Zn and heavy rare earth elements, and an unaltered concentration, as Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb, Ga, Bi, Y and middle and light rare earth elements. A great variety in element concentrations was observed in the rain. For lanthanoids, Oddo-Harkins law was observed in both river and rain waters. (K.H.)

  14. An Analysis of Background Factors of School Non-Attendance in Junior High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    神田,信彦; 大木, 桃代

    2001-01-01

    This study explored the background effect of school non-attendance in junior high school students. Two hundred ninety-eight junior high school students completed a questionaire. It was consist of perceived control scale for children and items about their feelings for parents, classmates, teachers, classes, and so on. The results were as follows:(1)Desire for school non-attendance was controlled with High perceived control, perceived affective support from families and friends, and a feeling o...

  15. Low background high efficiency radiocesium detection system based on positron emission tomography technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Ogata, Yoshimune

    2013-09-01

    After the 2011 nuclear power plant accident at Fukushima, radiocesium contamination in food became a serious concern in Japan. However, low background and high efficiency radiocesium detectors are expensive and huge, including semiconductor germanium detectors. To solve this problem, we developed a radiocesium detector by employing positron emission tomography (PET) technology. Because 134Cs emits two gamma photons (795 and 605 keV) within 5 ps, they can selectively be measured with coincidence. Such major environmental gamma photons as 40K (1.46 MeV) are single photon emitters and a coincidence measurement reduces the detection limit of radiocesium detectors. We arranged eight sets of Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) scintillation detectors in double rings (four for each ring) and measured the coincidence between these detectors using PET data acquisition system. A 50 × 50 × 30 mm BGO was optically coupled to a 2 in. square photomultiplier tube (PMT). By measuring the coincidence, we eliminated most single gamma photons from the energy distribution and only detected those from 134Cs at an average efficiency of 12%. The minimum detectable concentration of the system for the 100 s acquisition time is less than half of the food monitor requirements in Japan (25 Bq/kg). These results show that the developed radiocesium detector based on PET technology is promising to detect low level radiocesium.

  16. Low background high efficiency radiocesium detection system based on positron emission tomography technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Ogata, Yoshimune [Department of Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daiko-Minami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan)

    2013-09-15

    After the 2011 nuclear power plant accident at Fukushima, radiocesium contamination in food became a serious concern in Japan. However, low background and high efficiency radiocesium detectors are expensive and huge, including semiconductor germanium detectors. To solve this problem, we developed a radiocesium detector by employing positron emission tomography (PET) technology. Because {sup 134}Cs emits two gamma photons (795 and 605 keV) within 5 ps, they can selectively be measured with coincidence. Such major environmental gamma photons as {sup 40}K (1.46 MeV) are single photon emitters and a coincidence measurement reduces the detection limit of radiocesium detectors. We arranged eight sets of Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BGO) scintillation detectors in double rings (four for each ring) and measured the coincidence between these detectors using PET data acquisition system. A 50 × 50 × 30 mm BGO was optically coupled to a 2 in. square photomultiplier tube (PMT). By measuring the coincidence, we eliminated most single gamma photons from the energy distribution and only detected those from {sup 134}Cs at an average efficiency of 12%. The minimum detectable concentration of the system for the 100 s acquisition time is less than half of the food monitor requirements in Japan (25 Bq/kg). These results show that the developed radiocesium detector based on PET technology is promising to detect low level radiocesium.

  17. $\\gamma$-Ray Absorption at High Redshifts and the $\\gamma$-Ray Background

    CERN Document Server

    Stecker, F W

    1997-01-01

    We present results of a calculation of absorption of 10-500 GeV gamma-rays at high redshifts. This calculation requires the determination of the high- redshift evolution of the full spectral energy distribution of the intergalactic photon field. For this, we have primarily followed the recent analysis of Fall, Charlot and Pei. We give our results for the gamma-ray opacity as a function of redshift out to a redshift of 3. We then give predicted gamma-ray spectra for selected blazars and also extend our results on the background from unresolved blazars to an energy of 500 GeV. Absorption effects are predicted to significantly steepen the background spectrum above 20 GeV. Our absorption calculations can be used to place limits on the redshifts of gamma-ray bursts. Our background calculations can be used to determine the observability of multi-GeV lines from dark matter neutralino particles.

  18. Hawkes process model with a time-dependent background rate and its application to high-frequency financial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Takahiro; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2017-07-01

    A Hawkes process model with a time-varying background rate is developed for analyzing the high-frequency financial data. In our model, the logarithm of the background rate is modeled by a linear model with a relatively large number of variable-width basis functions, and the parameters are estimated by a Bayesian method. Our model can capture not only the slow time variation, such as in the intraday seasonality, but also the rapid one, which follows a macroeconomic news announcement. By analyzing the tick data of the Nikkei 225 mini, we find that (i) our model is better fitted to the data than the Hawkes models with a constant background rate or a slowly varying background rate, which have been commonly used in the field of quantitative finance; (ii) the improvement in the goodness-of-fit to the data by our model is significant especially for sessions where considerable fluctuation of the background rate is present; and (iii) our model is statistically consistent with the data. The branching ratio, which quantifies the level of the endogeneity of markets, estimated by our model is 0.41, suggesting the relative importance of exogenous factors in the market dynamics. We also demonstrate that it is critically important to appropriately model the time-dependent background rate for the branching ratio estimation.

  19. Discrimination against Students with Foreign Backgrounds: Evidence from Grading in Swedish Public High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnerich, Bjorn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    We rigorously test for discrimination against students with foreign backgrounds in high school grading in Sweden. We analyse a random sample of national tests in the Swedish language graded both non-blindly by the student's own teacher and blindly without any identifying information. The increase in the test score due to non-blind grading is…

  20. High-resolution varve studies in Baldeggersee (Switzerland): Project overview and limnological background data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wehrli, B.; Lotter, A.F.; Schaller, T.; Sturm, M.

    1997-01-01

    This introduction to a series of high-resolution varve studies in Baldeggersee provides both an overview of the different subprojects as well as background information on relevant limnologial trends. The project was based on a new method of in-situ freezing of unconsolidated surficial

  1. Discrimination against Students with Foreign Backgrounds: Evidence from Grading in Swedish Public High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnerich, Bjorn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    We rigorously test for discrimination against students with foreign backgrounds in high school grading in Sweden. We analyse a random sample of national tests in the Swedish language graded both non-blindly by the student's own teacher and blindly without any identifying information. The increase in the test score due to non-blind grading is…

  2. High-level language computer architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Yaohan

    1975-01-01

    High-Level Language Computer Architecture offers a tutorial on high-level language computer architecture, including von Neumann architecture and syntax-oriented architecture as well as direct and indirect execution architecture. Design concepts of Japanese-language data processing systems are discussed, along with the architecture of stack machines and the SYMBOL computer system. The conceptual design of a direct high-level language processor is also described.Comprised of seven chapters, this book first presents a classification of high-level language computer architecture according to the pr

  3. Background level and composition of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in creek and subtidal sediments in a rural area of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Jin; An, Soonmo; Kim, Gi Beum

    2014-02-01

    To study background levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Korea, concentrations of PBDEs were measured for creek and subtidal sediments around Goseong Bay. Total concentrations of PBDEs (Σ19PBDE) in creek sediments ranged from 0.18 to 13.95 ng/g dry weight and were about twice those in subtidal sediments. PBDE concentrations were about two orders of magnitude lower than those reported in industrially active regions of Korea and other countries. BDE 209 was a major congener, accounting for 79.0% and 78.5% of total PBDEs in creek and subtidal sediments, respectively. This is consistent with the high consumption of deca-BDE in Korea and the very high octanol-water partition coefficient of deca-BDE. The relative compositions of PBDEs in creek and subtidal sediments were similar. BDE 209 and Σ19PBDE had statistically significant correlations with total organic carbon, the lower brominated congeners had a poor correlation with total organic carbon.

  4. Distribution of background equivalent static wind load on high-rise buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo ZHANG; Ming GU

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the along-wind and cross-wind fluctuating load distributions along the height of high-rise buildings and their correlations are obtained through simultaneous pressure measurements in a wind tunnel.Some typical methods proposed in some relative litera-tures, i.e., load-response correlation (LRC), and quasi-mean load (QML) and gust load envelope (GLE) methods,are verified in terms of their accuracy in describing the background equivalent static wind load distribution on high-rise buildings. Based on the results, formulae of the distribution of background equivalent static load on high-rise buildings with typical shapes are put forward. It is shown that these formulae are of high accuracy and practical use.

  5. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, Jolyon H; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner [Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Simon, Steven L [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wojcik, Andrzej [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Cardis, Elisabeth [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar) and CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica - CIBERESP, Barcelona (Spain); Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot [Radiobiology and Epidemiology Department, Radiological and Human Health Division, Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Hayata, Isamu [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail: jhendry2002uk@yahoo.com

    2009-06-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of {sup 222}Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case-control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case-control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors.

  6. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Jolyon H; Simon, Steven L; Wojcik, Andrzej; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner; Cardis, Elisabeth; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot; Hayata, Isamu

    2009-06-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of (222)Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case-control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case-control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors.

  7. Genome-wide association study of serum minerals levels in children of different ethnic background.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chang

    Full Text Available Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride and phosphorus are the major dietary minerals involved in various biological functions and are commonly measured in the blood serum. Sufficient mineral intake is especially important for children due to their rapid growth. Currently, the genetic mechanisms influencing serum mineral levels are poorly understood, especially for children. We carried out a genome-wide association (GWA study on 5,602 European-American children and 4,706 African-American children who had mineral measures available in their electronic medical records (EMR. While no locus met the criteria for genome-wide significant association, our results demonstrated a nominal association of total serum calcium levels with a missense variant in the calcium -sensing receptor (CASR gene on 3q13 (rs1801725, P = 1.96 × 10(-3 in the African-American pediatric cohort, a locus previously reported in Caucasians. We also confirmed the association result in our pediatric European-American cohort (P = 1.38 × 10(-4. We further replicated two other loci associated with serum calcium levels in the European-American cohort (rs780094, GCKR, P = 4.26 × 10(-3; rs10491003, GATA3, P = 0.02. In addition, we replicated a previously reported locus on 1q21, demonstrating association of serum magnesium levels with MUC1 (rs4072037, P = 2.04 × 10(-6. Moreover, in an extended gene-based association analysis we uncovered evidence for association of calcium levels with the previously reported gene locus DGKD in both European-American children and African-American children. Taken together, our results support a role for CASR and DGKD mediated calcium regulation in both African-American and European-American children, and corroborate the association of calcium levels with GCKR and GATA3, and the association of magnesium levels with MUC1 in the European-American children.

  8. Natural background levels and threshold values of chemical species in three large-scale groundwater bodies in Northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinari, Antonio, E-mail: ant.molinari2002@libero.it [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale, Infrastrutture Viarie e Rilevamento, Piazza L. Da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy); Guadagnini, Laura [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale, Infrastrutture Viarie e Rilevamento, Piazza L. Da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy); Marcaccio, Marco [ARPA Emilia-Romagna, Direzione Tecnica, Largo Caduti del Lavoro, 6-40122 Bologna (Italy); Guadagnini, Alberto [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale, Infrastrutture Viarie e Rilevamento, Piazza L. Da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    We analyze natural background levels (NBLs) and threshold values (TVs) of spatially distributed chemical species (NH{sub 4}, B and As) which may be a potential pressure and concern in three large scale alluvial and fluvio-deltaic aquifers at different depths of the Apennines and Po river plains in Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy. Our results are based on statistical methodologies designed to separate the natural and anthropogenic contributions in monitored concentrations by modeling the empirical distribution of the detected concentration with a mixture of probability density functions. Available chemical observations are taken over a 20 years period and are associated with different depths and cover planar investigation scales of the order of hundreds of kilometers. High concentration values detected for NH{sub 4} and B appear to be related to high natural background levels. Due to interaction with the host rock in different geochemical environments we observed that concentration vary in time and space (including in depth) consistently with the hydrogeochemical features and the occurrence of natural attenuation mechanisms in the analyzed reservoirs. Conversely, estimated As NBLs are not consistent with the conceptual model of the hydrogeochemical behavior of the systems analyzed and experimental evidences of As content in aquifer cores. This is due to the inability of these techniques to incorporate the complex dynamics of the processes associated with the specific hydrogeochemical setting. Statistical analyses performed upon aggregating the concentration data according to different time observation windows allow identifying temporal dynamics of NBLs and TVs of target compounds within the observation time frame. Our results highlight the benefit of a dynamic monitoring process and analysis of well demarcated groundwater bodies to update the associated NBLs as a function of the temporal dependence of natural processes occurring in the subsurface. Monitoring

  9. THE BACKGROUND LEVELS OF HEAVY METALS IN VERTISOLS UNDER MEDITERRANEAN TYPE OF CLIMATE IN THE REGION OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUMHUR AYDINALP

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertisols are important agricultural soils in the region. These soils are under various vegetables, sunflower and wheat cultivation. Fifteen soil sites were selected in this research. This research was carried out to determine background levels of total and DTPA extractable Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, Co, and Cd with some important soil properties.

  10. Acetylene in breath: background levels and real-time elimination kinetics after smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsälä, M; Schmidt, F M; Skyttä, M; Vaittinen, O; Halonen, L

    2010-12-01

    We have measured the acetylene concentration in the exhaled breath of 40 volunteers (31 non-smokers, nine smokers) using near-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The acetylene levels were found to be the same as in ambient air for non-smokers, whereas elevated levels were observed for smokers. Real-time measurements with sub-second time resolution have been applied to measure the elimination kinetics of acetylene in breath after exposure to tobacco smoke. Three exponential time constants can be distinguished from the data and these can be used to define the residence times for different compartments, according to the multi-compartment model of the human body.

  11. Improvement in Background Error Covariances Using Ensemble Forecasts for Assimilation of High-Resolution Satellite Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seung-Woo LEE; Dong-Kyou LEE

    2011-01-01

    Satellite data obtained over synoptic data-sparse regions such as an ocean contribute toward improving the quality of the initial state of limited-area models. Background error covariances are crucial to the proper distribution of satellite-observed information in variational data assimilation. In the NMC (National Meteorological Center) method, background error covariances are underestimated over data-sparse regions such as an ocean because of small differences between different forecast times. Thus, it is necessary to reconstruct and tune the background error covariances so as to maximize the usefulness of the satellite data for the initial state of limited-area models, especially over an ocean where there is a lack of conventional data.In this study, we attempted to estimate background error covariances so as to provide adequate error statistics for data-sparse regions by using ensemble forecasts of optimal perturbations using bred vectors.The background error covariances estimated by the ensemble method reduced the overestimation of error amplitude obtained by the NMC method. By employing an appropriate horizontal length scale to exclude spurious correlations, the ensemble method produced better results than the NMC method in the assimilation of retrieved satellite data. Because the ensemble method distributes observed information over a limited local area, it would be more useful in the analysis of high-resolution satellite data. Accordingly, the performance of forecast models can be improved over the area where the satellite data are assimilated.

  12. Fluctuations in the High-Redshift Lyman-Werner and Lyman-alpha Radiation Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Holzbauer, Lauren N

    2011-01-01

    We use a new method to model fluctuations of the Lyman-Werner (LW) and Lyman-alpha radiation backgrounds at high redshift. At these early epochs the backgrounds are symptoms of a universe newly lit with its first stars. LW photons (11.5-13.6 eV) are of particular interest because they dissociate molecular hydrogen, the primary coolant in the first minihalos. By using a variation of the halo model, we efficiently generate power spectra for any choice of radiation background. We find that the LW power spectrum typically traces the matter power spectrum at large scales but turns over at the scale corresponding to the effective `horizon' of LW photons (~100 comoving Mpc), unless the sources are extremely rare. The series of horizons that characterize the Lyman-alpha flux profile shape the fluctuations of that background in a similar fashion, though those imprints are washed out once one considers fluctuations in the brightness temperature of the 21-cm signal. The Lyman-alpha background strongly affects the redshi...

  13. Automatic unattended sampling and analysis of background levels of C 2;C 5 hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowrer, Jacques; Lindskog, Anne

    As part of the European program for monitoring anthropogenic air pollutants (EUROTRAC), C 2C 5 hydrocarbons (gas phase) are being routinely measured at a background station at Rörvik, Sweden. A 2 ℓ air sample is taken every 4 h, and a compressed air standard and helium blank are analysed daily. The method is based on adsorption of the hydrocarbons onto an active charcoal based adsorbent, desorption/crofocusing onto a capillary trap, and analysis using capillary gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. A Perma Pure dryer is used to remove water from the sample, and hydrocarbons > C 6 are removed using a Tenax adsorbent. The analytical instrument can be left unattended for up to 2 weeks at a time, depending on the consumption of liquid nitrogen and the compressed gases. Baseline or near baseline resolution is obtained for the 23 hydrocarbons monitored in this study. Reproducibility for the C 2C 4 isomers is 1-2%, and 2-15% for the C 5 isomers. The detection limit is 1-7 pptv. Preliminary mean hydrocarbon concentrations are presented for the period 21 February-9 April 1989.

  14. Atmospheric tritium concentrations under influence of AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant (France) and background levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, O; Hébert, D; Solier, L; Maro, D; Pellerin, G; Voiseux, C; Lamotte, M; Laguionie, P

    2017-10-01

    In-air tritium measurements were conducted around the AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant, as well as on other sites that are not impacted by the nuclear industry in northwest of France. The results indicate that the dominant tritium form around the AREVA site is HT (86%). HT and HTO levels are lower than 5 and 1 Bq. m(-3) for hourly samples taken in the plume. No tritiated organic molecules (TOM) were detected. 26 measurement campaigns were performed and links were established between near-field (85)Kr, HT and HTO activities. Environmental measurements are in line with those taken at the discharge stack, and tend to demonstrate that there are no rapid changes in the tritium forms released. Out of the influence of any nuclear activities, the levels measured were below 13 mBq.m(-3) for HT and 5 mBq.m(-3) for HTO (<0.5 Bq. L(-1)). HTO level in air seems to be influenced by HTO activities in surrounding seawater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Contrasting morphology and training background in waterpolo teams of different competitive levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Canossa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to describe and compare the general morphological, somatotype and training background characteristics of Iberian waterpolo players (22 Portuguese and 22 Spanish National Teams players considering their playing positions. The International Working Group of Kinanthropometry guidelines was herein followed, and a somatochart was obtained through specific software (Somatotype, Calculation and Analysis. (c2001 SWEAT technologies. Spanish players train more hours per week (22.8 ±9.5 vs.12.2 ±5.6, are taller (187.4 cm ±6.6 vs.180.3 cm ±5.1, heavier (89.2 kg ±11.6 vs.79.1 kg ±10.0, show higher arm span (195.7 cm ±8.5 vs.185.2 cm ±7.4 and muscle mass percentage (49.0% ± 1.8 vs.46.0% ±6.0, and tend to be more mesomorphic (5.19 ±1.27 vs.4.26 ±1.32 than the Portuguese players. Concerning field positions, Spanish center forward players train more hours per week than the Portuguese (20.2 ±9.1 vs.12.2 ±3.8 and show higher arm span (204.4 cm ±7.3 vs.184.0 cm ±6.5. Spanish goal keepers and outside players show higher muscle mass percentage (49.8% ±1.5 vs.42.2% ±5.2 and 49.4% ±1.5 vs.45.5% ±4.6, respectively than the Portuguese players. These evidences should be taken into account for the improvement of waterpolo sport.

  16. Qualifying plasma diagnostics for a high power microwave background of ECRH heated discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, M.; Baldzuhn, J.; Endler, M.; Laux, M.; Zhang, D.; Laqua, H.P.; Noke, F.; Purps, F.; Ewert, K. [Max-Planck Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Oosterbeek, J.W. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Den Doelch 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Jimenez, R. [Associacion EURATOM/CIEMAT, av. Complutense 22, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    Microwave background radiation resulting from multiple reflected unabsorbed ECRH / ECCD power may cause severe problems for microwave absorbing in-vessel components such as gaskets, bellows, windows, isolators and cable insulations in particular during long pulse operation. For qualifying in-vessel components of W7-X in the environment of an isotropic 140 GHz radiation the Microwave Stray Radiation Launch facility, MISTRAL is operated at IPP. Power flux densities of 10-40 kW/m{sup 2} are obtained with a pulsed power gyrotron launching the microwave via a corrugated transmission line and a vacuum window to the MISTRAL vessel. The focus of the program was on cable isolations as required e.g. for in-vessel magnetic diagnostics. Sufficient shielding is obtained in nearly closed metal pipes only. Cryo pumps require a temperature < 12 K where Hydrogen desorption starts. The cryo pumps are usually shielded from plasma radiation by so called chevron structures. It is investigated whether coating of these chevrons with a microwave absorbing layer yields a sufficient reduction of the stray radiation level to ensure cryo pump operation. Diagnostic windows have been tested also. Although the temperature rise even of uncooled ZnSe and quartz windows at 10 kW/m{sup 2} is uncritical with respect to damage the associated refractive index changes may be too high for some diagnostic purposes e.g. for interferometry. A possible shielding are meshes or {mu}W absorbing coatings. Integrated diagnostic mock-ups such as for the diamagnetic loop, the inner Rogowski coils, Mirnov coils and the bolometer head also have been tested

  17. Fluctuations in radiation backgrounds at high redshift and the first stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzbauer, Lauren Nicole

    The first stars to light up our universe are as yet unseen, but there have been many attempts to elucidate their properties. The characteristics of these stars (`Population/Pop III' stars) that we do know lie mostly within theory; they formed out of metal-free hydrogen and helium gas contained in dark matter minihalos at redshifts z 20-30. The extent to which Pop III star formation reached into later times is unknown. Current and near future instruments are incapable of resolving individual Pop III stars. Consequently, astronomers must devise creative means with which to indirectly predict and measure and their properties. In this thesis, we will investigate a few of those means. We use a new method to model fluctuations of the Lyman-Werner (LW) and Lyman-alpha radiation backgrounds at high redshift. At these early epochs the backgrounds are symptoms of a universe newly lit with its first stars. LW photons (11.5-13.6 eV) are of particular interest because they dissociate molecular hydrogen, the primary coolant in the first minihalos that is necessary for star formation. By using a variation of the `halo model', which describes the spatial distribution and clustering of halos, we can efficiently generate power spectra for these backgrounds. Spatial fluctuations in the LW and (indirectly) the Lyman-alpha BG can tell us about the transition from primordial star formation to a more metal-enriched mode that marks the beginning of the second generation of stars in our Universe. The Near Infrared Background (NIRB) has for some time been considered a potential tool with which to indirectly observe the first stars. Ultraviolet (UV) emission from these stars is redshifted into the NIR band, making the NIRB amenable for hunting Pop III stellar signatures. There have been several measurements of the NIRB and subsequent theoretical studies attempting to explain them in recent years. Though controversial, residual levels of the mean NIRB intensity and anisotropies have been

  18. Survey of Gamma Dose and Radon Exhalation Rate from Soil Surface of High Background Natural Radiation Areas in Ramsar, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Dehghani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radon is a radioactive gas and the second leading cause of death due to lung cancer after smoking. Ramsar is known for having the highest levels of natural background radiation on earth. Materials and Methods: In this research study, 50 stations of high radioactivity areas of Ramsar were selected in warm season of the year. Then gamma dose and radon exhalation rate were measured.Results: Results showed that gamma dose and radon exhalation rate were in the range of 51-7100 nSv/hr and 9-15370 mBq/m2s, respectively.Conclusion: Compare to the worldwide average 16 mBq/m2s, estimated average annual effective of Radon exhalation rate in the study area is too high.

  19. Large Aperture "Photon Bucket" Optical Receiver Performance in High Background Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Hoppe, D.

    2011-01-01

    The potential development of large aperture groundbased "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications, with acceptable performance even when pointing close to the sun, is receiving considerable attention. Sunlight scattered by the atmosphere becomes significant at micron wavelengths when pointing to a few degrees from the sun, even with the narrowest bandwidth optical filters. In addition, high quality optical apertures in the 10-30 meter range are costly and difficult to build with accurate surfaces to ensure narrow fields-of-view (FOV). One approach currently under consideration is to polish the aluminum reflector panels of large 34-meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large FOV generated by state-of-the-art polished aluminum panels with rms surface accuracies on the order of a few microns, corresponding to several-hundred micro-radian FOV, hence generating centimeter-diameter focused spots at the Cassegrain focus of 34-meter antennas. Assuming pulse-position modulation (PPM) and Poisson-distributed photon-counting detection, a "polished panel" photon-bucket receiver with large FOV will collect hundreds of background photons per PPM slot, along with comparable signal photons due to its large aperture. It is demonstrated that communications performance in terms of PPM symbol-error probability in high-background high-signal environments depends more strongly on signal than on background photons, implying that large increases in background energy can be compensated by a disproportionally small increase in signal energy. This surprising result suggests that large optical apertures with relatively poor surface quality may nevertheless provide acceptable performance for deep-space optical communications, potentially enabling the construction of cost-effective hybrid RF/optical receivers in the future.

  20. Bridging the gap between actual and required mathematics background at undergraduate university level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga

    traditional assumptions about the knowledge of entrants to university courses obsolete. According to our experience at the Media Technology Department (Medialogy) in Aalborg University, one area in which this seems to be particularly true is mathematics. Related research has proved that this conclusion...... courses of Medialogy, e.g. computer graphics programming. Moreover, this poor performance in mathematics is one of the main causes for dropout at university level. This paper presents our ongoing research aiming at tackling with this problem by developing dynamic and multimodal media for math- ematics...... teaching and learning which will make mathematics more at- tractive and easier to understand to undergraduate students. These tools realise an interactive educational method by giving mathematics learners opportunities to develop visualization skills, explore mathe- matical concepts, and obtain solutions...

  1. Tritium and 14C background levels in pristine aquatic systems and their potential sources of variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Claval, David; Cossonnet, Catherine; Zebracki, Mathilde; Gairoard, Stéphanie; Radakovitch, Olivier; Calmon, Philippe; Leclerc, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Tritium and (14)C are currently the two main radionuclides discharged by nuclear industry. Tritium integrates into and closely follows the water cycle and, as shown recently the carbon cycle, as does (14)C (Eyrolle-Boyer et al., 2014a, b). As a result, these two elements persist in both terrestrial and aquatic environments according to the recycling rates of organic matter. Although on average the organically bound tritium (OBT) activity of sediments in pristine rivers does not significantly differ today (2007-2012) from the mean tritiated water (HTO) content on record for rainwater (2.4 ± 0.6 Bq/L and 1.6 ± 0.4 Bq/L, respectively), regional differences are expected depending on the biomass inventories affected by atmospheric global fallout from nuclear testing and the recycling rate of organic matter within watersheds. The results obtained between 2007 and 2012 for (14)C show that the levels varied between 94.5 ± 1.5 and 234 ± 2.7 Bq/kg of C for the sediments in French rivers and across a slightly higher range of 199 ± 1.3 to 238 ± 3.1 Bq/kg of C for fish. This variation is most probably due to preferential uptake of some organic carbon compounds by fish restraining (14)C dilution with refractory organic carbon and/or with old carbonates both depleted in (14)C. Overall, most of these ranges of values are below the mean baseline value for the terrestrial environment (232.0 ± 1.8 Bq/kg of C in 2012, Roussel-Debet, 2014a) in relation to dilution by the carbonates and/or fossil organic carbon present in aquatic systems. This emphasises yet again the value of establishing regional baseline value ranges for these two radionuclides in order to account for palaeoclimatic and lithological variations. Besides, our results obtained from sedimentary archive investigation have confirmed the delayed contamination of aquatic sediments by tritium from the past nuclear tests atmospheric fallout, as recently demonstrated from data chronicles (Eyrolle

  2. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  3. High-Level Dialogue on International Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UNHCR

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available UNHCR wishes to bring the following observations andrecommendations to the attention of the High-LevelDialogue (HLD on International Migration and Development,to be held in New York, 14-15 September 2006:

  4. High-level binocular rivalry effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michal; Hochstein, Shaul

    2011-01-01

    Binocular rivalry (BR) occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: (1) BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low-levels have access to utrocular information. (2) All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn't stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. (3) Rivalry is affected by low-level attributes, contrast, spatial frequency, brightness, motion. (4) There is limited priming due to suppressed words or pictures. On the other hand, recent studies favor a high-level mechanism: (1) Rivalry occurs between patterns, not eyes, as in patchwork rivalry or a swapping paradigm. (2) Attention affects alternations. (3) Context affects dominance. There is conflicting evidence from physiological studies (single cell and fMRI) regarding cortical level(s) of conscious perception. We discuss the possibility of multiple BR sites and theoretical considerations that rule out this solution. We present new data regarding the locus of the BR switch by manipulating stimulus semantic content or high-level characteristics. Since these variations are represented at higher cortical levels, their affecting rivalry supports high-level BR intervention. In Experiment I, we measure rivalry when one eye views words and the other non-words and find significantly longer dominance durations for non-words. In Experiment II, we find longer dominance times for line drawings of simple, structurally impossible figures than for similar, possible objects. In Experiment III, we test the influence of idiomatic context on rivalry between words. Results show that generally words within their idiomatic context have longer mean dominance durations. We conclude that BR has high-level cortical influences, and may be controlled by a high-level mechanism.

  5. On the Contribution of Active Galactic Nuclei to the High-Redshift Metagalactic Ionizing Background

    CERN Document Server

    D'Aloisio, Anson; McQuinn, Matthew; Trac, Hy; Shapiro, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the claimed detection of a large population of faint active galactic nuclei (AGN) at high redshift, recent studies have proposed models in which AGN contribute significantly to the z > 4 H I ionizing background. In some models, AGN are even the chief sources of reionization. If correct, these models would make necessary a complete revision to the standard view that galaxies dominated the high-redshift ionizing background. It has been suggested that AGN-dominated models can better account for two recent observations that appear to be in conflict with the standard view: (1) large opacity variations in the z ~ 5.5 H I Lyman-alpha forest, and (2) slow evolution in the mean opacity of the He II Lyman-alpha forest. Large spatial fluctuations in the ionizing background from the brightness and rarity of AGN may account for the former, while the earlier onset of He II reionization in these models may account for the latter. Here we show that models in which AGN emissions source >~ 50 % of the ionizing bac...

  6. High Background Ozone Events in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria Area: Effects from Central American Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, R.; Wang, S. C.; Yang, S.; Wang, Y.; Talbot, R. W.

    2016-12-01

    The policy-relevant background (PRB) ozone is defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as the surface ozone mixing ratio that would occur over the U.S. without North American anthropogenic emission influences. PRB ozone over the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area may be affected by foreign sources due to its unique geographical location and meteorology. Our monitoring data revealed several high ozone events over HGB area which might be caused by Central American fire during the years of 2013-2015. To qualify the effects from Central American fire, we estimated the US, Central American and worldwide background over HGB area during those events using the GEOS-Chem global 3-D model. Anomalies in fire emissions leading to high PRB ozone were mapped through spatiotemporal sampling of the Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN) along background trajectories of air masses affecting the HGB area prior to and during the selected high PRB ozone days. Daily HGB PRB ozone estimated by researchers at the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) was used as the data source to validate model results. Results showed that contribution of emission from Central American to HGB PRB ozone could be tripled during fire events compared to non-impacted fire days. Besides fire emissions from Central American, different types of meteorological events (e.g., cold fronts and thunderstorms) and high local photochemical production (e.g., heat waves and stagnation) are also found associated with high PRB ozone in HGB area during these events. Thus we imply that synthetic contribution from foreign sources and local meteorology to HGB PRB ozone warrants further investigated.

  7. Background and Scattered-Light Subtraction in the High-Resolution Echelle Modes of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howk, J. Christopher; Sembach, Kenneth R.

    2000-05-01

    We present a simple, effective approach for estimating the on-order backgrounds of spectra taken with the highest resolution modes of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Our scheme for determining the on-order background spectrum for STIS E140H and E230H observations uses moderate-order polynomial fits to the interorder scattered light visible in the two-dimensional STIS MAMA images. We present a suite of high-resolution STIS spectra to demonstrate that our background-subtraction routine produces the correct overall zero point as judged by the small residual flux levels in the centers of strongly saturated interstellar absorption lines. Although there are multiple sources of background light in STIS echelle mode data, this simple approach works very well for wavelengths longward of Lyα (λ>~1215 Å). At shorter wavelengths, the smaller order separation and generally lower signal-to-noise ratios of the data can reduce the effectiveness of our background estimation procedure. Slight artifacts in the background-subtracted spectrum can be seen in some cases, particularly at wavelengths of B2B and the GHRS first-order G160M observations of the early-type star HD 218915. We find no significant differences between the GHRS data and the STIS data reduced with our method in either case. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  8. Eating disorder and depressive symptoms in urban high school girls from different ethnic backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisaga, Katarzyna; Whitaker, Agnes; Davies, Mark; Chuang, Shirley; Feldman, Judith; Walsh, B Timothy

    2005-08-01

    This study examined ethnic group differences in the rates of eating disorder symptoms (EDS) and depressive disorder symptoms (DDS) with respect to ethnic identity, relative body weight, and abnormal eating behaviors among adolescent girls. A district-wide sample of high school girls (N = 1445) from different ethnic backgrounds was surveyed. EDS were assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test-26, abnormal eating behaviors with the Eating Behaviors Survey, and DDS with the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Two dimensions of ethnic identity, ethnic identity achievement and other group orientation, were assessed with Multi-Group Ethnic Identity Measure. Hispanic and non-Hispanic white girls had the highest and African-American (AA) and Caribbean girls the lowest rates of EDS. Asian girls reported the highest and AA girls the lowest rates of DDS. Early dieting was associated with EDS and DDS in Caribbean, non-Hispanic white, and mixed background girls. Relative body weight was related to EDS in all ethnic groups except in non-Hispanic white and mixed background girls. The authors did not find an effect of ethnic identity achievement on psychopathology, but there was an effect of other group orientation on both EDS and DDS. Clinicians should inquire about EDS and DDS in girls of all ethnic groups. Prevention efforts to delay unsupervised dieting may protect adolescent girls from the development of EDS and DDS.

  9. A High Spectral Resolution Observation of the Soft X-ray Diffuse Background with Thermal Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    McCammon, D; Apodaca, E; Tiest, W B; Cui, W; Deiker, S W; Galeazzi, M; Juda, M; Lesser, A; Mihara, T; Morgenthaler, J P; Sanders, W T; Zhang, J; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Kelley, R L; Moseley, S H; Mushotzky, R F; Porter, F S; Stahle, C K; Szymkowiak, A E

    2002-01-01

    A high spectral resolution observation of the diffuse X-ray background in the 60 - 1000 eV energy range has been made using an array of thirty-six 1 mm^2 micro-calorimeters flown on a sounding rocket. Detector energy resolution ranged from 5-12 eV FWHM, and a composite spectrum of ~ 1 steradian of the background centered at l = 90, b = +60 was obtained with a net resolution of ~ 9 eV. The target area includes bright 1/4 keV regions, but avoids Loop I and the North Polar Spur. Lines of C VI, O VII, and O VIII are clearly detected with intensities of 5.4 +/- 2.3, 4.8 +/- 0.8, and 1.6 +/- 0.4 photons cm^-2 s^-1 sr^-1, respectively. The oxygen lines alone account for a majority of the diffuse background observed in the ROSAT R4 band that is not due to resolved extragalactic discrete sources. We also have a positive detection of the Fe-M line complex near 70 eV at an intensity consistent with previous upper limits that indicate substantial gas phase depletion of iron. We include a detailed description of the instr...

  10. High background radiation areas of Ram sar in Iran: evaluation of DNA damage by alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoomi, J.R. [Biophysics Department, College of Sciences, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Sh. [Radiation Molecular Genetic Laboratory, National Radiation Protection Department (NRPD), Iranian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (INRA), P.O. Box 14155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amini, M. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Azad University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghiassi-Nejad, M. [Biophysics Department, College of Sciences, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: ghiassi@mailcity.com

    2006-07-01

    The hot springs in special areas in Ram sar, a northern coastal town in Iran, contain {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn. The natural radiation effects, radiosensitivity or adaptive responses, on the inhabitants of high natural radiation in Ram sar were studied. The single cell gel electrophoresis was used to monitor DNA damages. Three groups of volunteers were selected, one from high natural background radiation areas as the case group and two from normal background radiation areas as controls (control 1 and control 2). The latter one had the similar living situation to case group while the other (control 2) had different living situation from the other groups. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNCs) were separated and irradiated by {sup 6}Co source at five different gamma doses. It was found that the spontaneous level of DNA damage and the induced DNA damage in all challenging doses in case group was considerably higher than control groups (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the repair rate in those volunteers, who received less than 10.2 mSv/y was significantly more than the control groups. In the contrary, individuals who live in homes with more than 10.2 mSv/y had incomplete repair. Additionally the plasma and urinary levels of vitamin C were measured spectrophotometrically. Although the concentration of vitamin C of plasma was equal in case and control 1 groups, the urinary level of vitamin C was found to be lower in the case group.

  11. Study of the CMS RPC detector performance in high radiation background conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Miguel Colin, Osvaldo

    2017-01-01

    The RPC system at the CMS Detector is operating successfully from beginning of the data taking. The high instantaneous luminosity causes an extremely high flux of ionizing particles. The long period of operation (Run1 and Run2) in a huge radiation background conditions, gives the opportunity to study the operation capability of the RPCs and also to predict a data-driven extrapolation about the expecting particle rates at HL LHC (High Luminosity) scenario. The obtained results in terms of measured rate, currents and integrated charged will be presented in the poster. When it is possible they will be compared to the relevant results obtained from the dedicated study where a set of test chambers have been irradiated at GIF++ laboratory setup.

  12. PM10 concentration levels at an urban and background site in Cyprus: the impact of urban sources and dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilleos, Souzana; Evans, John S; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K; Kleanthous, Savvas; Schwartz, Joel; Koutrakis, Petros

    2014-12-01

    Air quality in Cyprus is influenced by both local and transported pollution, including desert dust storms. We examined PM10 concentration data collected in Nicosia (urban representative) from April 1, 1993, through December 11, 2008, and in Ayia Marina (rural background representative) from January 1, 1999, through December 31, 2008. Measurements were conducted using a Tapered Element Oscillating Micro-balance (TEOM). PM10 concentrations, meteorological records, and satellite data were used to identify dust storm days. We investigated long-term trends using a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) after controlling for day of week, month, temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity. In Nicosia, annual PM10 concentrations ranged from 50.4 to 63.8 μg/m3 and exceeded the EU annual standard limit enacted in 2005 of 40 μg/m3 every year A large, statistically significant impact of urban sources (defined as the difference between urban and background levels) was seen in Nicosia over the period 2000-2008, and was highest during traffic hours, weekdays, cold months, and low wind conditions. Our estimate of the mean (standard error) contribution of urban sources to the daily ambient PM10 was 24.0 (0.4) μg/m3. The study of yearly trends showed that PM10 levels in Nicosia decreased from 59.4 μg/m3 in 1993 to 49.0 μg/m3 in 2008, probably in part as a result of traffic emission control policies in Cyprus. In Ayia Marina, annual concentrations ranged from 27.3 to 35.6 μg/m3, and no obvious time trends were observed. The levels measured at the Cyprus background site are comparable to background concentrations reported in other Eastern Mediterranean countries. Average daily PM10 concentrations during desert dust storms were around 100 μg/m3 since 2000 and much higher in earlier years. Despite the large impact ofdust storms and their increasing frequency over time, dust storms were responsible for a small fraction of the exceedances of the daily PM10 limit. Implications: This

  13. Constraints on the Extragalactic Background Light from Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Observations of Blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Finke, Justin D.; Razzaque, Soebur

    2009-01-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) from the infrared to the ultraviolet is difficult to measure directly, but can be constrained with a variety of methods. EBL photons absorb gamma-rays from distant blazars, allowing one to use blazar spectra from atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (ACTs) to put upper limits on the EBL by assuming a blazar source spectrum. Here we apply a simple technique, similar to the one developed by Schroedter (2005), to the most recent very-high energy (VHE) gamma-r...

  14. EAP high-level product architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Sarban, Rahimullah

    2013-01-01

    the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach...... of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture....... Initial results from applying the platform on demonstrator design for potential applications are promising. The scope of the article does not include technical details. © 2013 SPIE....

  15. Enhanced trigger for the NIFFTE fissionTPC in presence of high-rate alpha backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundgaard, Jeremy; Niffte Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear physics and nuclear energy communities call for new, high precision measurements to improve existing fission models and design next generation reactors. The Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking experiment (NIFFTE) has developed the fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) to measure neutron induced fission with unrivaled precision. The fissionTPC is annually deployed to the Weapons Neutron Research facility at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center where it operates with a neutron beam passing axially through the drift volume, irradiating heavy actinide targets to induce fission. The fissionTPC was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's TPC lab, where it measures spontaneous fission from radioactive sources to characterize detector response, improve performance, and evolve the design. To measure 244Cm, we've developed a fission trigger to reduce the data rate from alpha tracks while maintaining a high fission detection efficiency. In beam, alphas from 239Pu are a large background when detecting fission fragments; implementing the fission trigger will greatly reduce this background. The implementation of the cathode fission trigger in the fissionTPC will be presented along with a detailed study of its efficiency.

  16. Thunderstorms as probable reason of high background neutron fluxes on L<1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratolyubova-Tsulukidze, L.; Grachev, E.; Grigoryan, O.; Kunitsyn, V.; Kuzhevskiy, B.; Nechaev, O.; Usanova, M.

    In this paper we analyze the neutron emission observations made in the experiment onboard MIR orbital station (1991), ISS (2002) and Colibri-2002 satellite (2002) at the altitude of 400 km. The helium discharge detectors made it possible to detect neutrons with energies ranging from 0.25eV to 1.9MeV. The spatial distribution of high background neutron fluxes has a longitude dependence. These events have been observed at -200 ... 600 and 1350 ...1800 ...- 1350 longitudinal intervals. The most intensive fluxes near the geomagnetic equator were registered in the African region. They are not found to be associated with increases of proton fluxes (Ep >50MeV). As a statistical set, the events appear to coincide with the most active region of atmospheric weather. In this paper we assess the possibility that the occurrence of high background neutron fluxes in the African region is connected with lightning discharges. To observe neutron emission at the altitude of 400 km ~101 0 neutrons are required to be produced by lightning discharge. These theoretical predictions suggest cloud charge values of about 250-300 Coulomb.

  17. Anderson Localization in high temperature QCD: background configuration properties and Dirac eigenmodes

    CERN Document Server

    Cossu, Guido

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the properties of the background gauge field configurations that act as disorder for the Anderson localization mechanism in the Dirac spectrum of QCD at high temperatures. We compute the eigenmodes of the M\\"obius domain-wall fermion operator on configurations generated for the $SU(3)$ gauge theory with two flavors of fermions, in the temperature range $[0.9,1.9]T_c$. We identify the source of localization of the eigenmodes with gauge configurations that are self-dual and support negative fluctuations of the Polyakov loop $P_L$, in the high temperature sea of $P_L\\sim 1$. The dependence of these observations on the boundary conditions of the valence operator is studied. We also investigate the spatial overlap of the left-handed and right-handed projected eigenmodes in correlation with the localization and the corresponding eigenvalue. We discuss an interpretation of the results in terms of monopole-instanton structures.

  18. Classification of high-energy antiprotons on electrons background based on calorimeter data in PAMELA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaeva, O. A.; Alekseev, V. V.; Bogomolov, Yu V.; Lukyanov, A. D.; Malakhov, V. V.; Mayorov, A. G.; Rodenko, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    In modern experimental physics a heterogeneous coordinate-sensitive calorimeters are widely used due to their good characteristics and possibilities to obtain a three-dimensional information of particles interactions. Especially it is important at high-energies when electromagnetic or hadron showers are arise. We propose a quit efficient method to identify antiprotons (positrons) with energies more than 10 GeV on electron (proton) background by calorimeter of such kind. We construct the AdaBoost classifier and SVM to separate particles into two classes, different combinations of energy release along reconstructed particle trajectory were used as feature vector. We test a preliminary version of the method on a calorimeter of the PAMELA magnetic spectrometer. For high-energy particles we got a good quality of classification: it lost about 5 · 10‑2 of antiprotons, and less than 4 · 10‑4 of electrons were classified to antiproton class.

  19. High background noise shapes selective auditory filters in a tropical cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Arne K D; Riede, Klaus; Römer, Heiner

    2011-05-15

    Because of call frequency overlap and masking interference, the airborne sound channel represents a limited resource for communication in a species-rich cricket community like the tropical rainforest. Here we studied the frequency tuning of an auditory neuron mediating phonotaxis in the rainforest cricket Paroecanthus podagrosus, suffering from strong competition, in comparison with the same homologous neuron in two species of European field crickets, where such competition does not exist. As predicted, the rainforest species exhibited a more selective tuning compared with the European counterparts. The filter reduced background nocturnal noise levels by 26 dB, compared with only 16 and 10 dB in the two European species. We also quantified the performance of the sensory filter under the different filter regimes by examining the representation of the species-specific amplitude modulation of the male calling song, when embedded in background noise. Again, the filter of the rainforest cricket performed significantly better in terms of representing this important signal parameter. The neuronal representation of the calling song pattern within receivers was maintained for a wide range of signal-to-noise ratios because of the more sharply tuned sensory system and selective attention mechanisms. Finally, the rainforest cricket also showed an almost perfect match between the filter for sensitivity and the peripheral filter for directional hearing, in contrast to its European counterparts. We discuss the consequences of these adaptations for intraspecific acoustic communication and reproductive isolation between species.

  20. Characteristics of atmospheric carbon monoxide at a high-mountain background station in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Lin, Chia-Ching; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lee, Chung-Te; Schnell, Russell C.; Lang, Patricia M.; Kawasato, Taro; Wang, Jia-Lin

    2014-06-01

    Atmospheric CO were monitored at the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS) with an elevation of 2862 m AMSL from April 2006 to April 2011 by the in-situ non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectrometer and weekly flask sample collections via collaboration with NOAA/ESRL/GMD. In general very coherent results were observed between the two datasets, despite a slight difference between the two. A distinct seasonal pattern of CO was noticed at the LABS with a springtime maximum and a summertime minimum, which was predominately shaped by the long-range transport of biomass burning air masses from Southeast Asia and oceanic influences from the Pacific, respectively. Diurnal cycles were also observed at the LABS, with a maximum in late afternoon and a minimum in early morning. The daytime CO maximum was most likely caused by the up-slope transport of lower elevation air. After filtering out the possibly polluted data points from the entire dataset with a mathematic procedure, the mean background CO level at the LABS was assessed as 129.3 ± 46.6 ppb, compared to 149.0 ± 72.2 ppb prior to the filtering. The cluster analysis of the backward trajectories revealed six possible source regions, which shows that air masses originating from the Westerly Wind Zone were dominated in spring and winter resulting in higher CO concentrations. As a contrast, the oceanic influences from the Pacific were found mostly in summer, contributing a lower seasonal CO concentration throughout a year.

  1. ATLAS MDT chamber behaviour after neutron irradiation and in a high rate background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branchini, Paolo; Di Luise, Silvestro; Graziani, Enrico [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Rome Tre and INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Mazzotta, Concetta; Meoni, Evelin; Morello, Gianfranco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria and INFN Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza, Cosenza (Italy); Passeri, Antonio; Petrucci, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Rome Tre and INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Policicchio, Antonio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria and INFN Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza, Cosenza (Italy)], E-mail: antonio.policicchio@cern.ch; Salvatore, Daniela; Schioppa, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria and INFN Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza, Cosenza (Italy)

    2007-10-21

    Many of the physics processes of interest at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will involve muon production in the final state. The Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers, the precision tracking elements of the ATLAS muon spectrometer, are the main tools for the muon identification and measurement. They will operate in the harsh LHC background environment, mainly due to low energy photons and neutrons which will dominate the counting rate in most areas of the spectrometer, where an overall maximum counting rate of 500Hz/cm{sup 2} is expected. The upgrade to Super-LHC will involve fluxes ten times higher. To study the behaviour of MDT chambers under massive neutron irradiation at the level of Super-LHC, a test was performed at the 'Tapiro' Neutron Facility of the ENEA 'La Casaccia' Research Center.

  2. Temporal variability of the bioaerosol background at a subway station: concentration level, size distribution, and diversity of airborne bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybwad, Marius; Skogan, Gunnar; Blatny, Janet Martha

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring bioaerosol environments may present a challenge to biological detection-identification-monitoring (BIODIM) systems aiming at rapid and reliable warning of bioterrorism incidents. One way to improve the operational performance of BIODIM systems is to increase our understanding of relevant bioaerosol backgrounds. Subway stations are enclosed public environments which may be regarded as potential bioterrorism targets. This study provides novel information concerning the temporal variability of the concentration level, size distribution, and diversity of airborne bacteria in a Norwegian subway station. Three different air samplers were used during a 72-h sampling campaign in February 2011. The results suggested that the airborne bacterial environment was stable between days and seasons, while the intraday variability was found to be substantial, although often following a consistent diurnal pattern. The bacterial levels ranged from not detected to 10(3) CFU m(-3) and generally showed increased levels during the daytime compared to the nighttime levels, as well as during rush hours compared to non-rush hours. The airborne bacterial levels showed rapid temporal variation (up to 270-fold) on some occasions, both consistent and inconsistent with the diurnal profile. Airborne bacterium-containing particles were distributed between different sizes for particles of >1.1 μm, although ∼50% were between 1.1 and 3.3 μm. Anthropogenic activities (mainly passengers) were demonstrated as major sources of airborne bacteria and predominantly contributed 1.1- to 3.3-μm bacterium-containing particles. Our findings contribute to the development of realistic testing and evaluation schemes for BIODIM equipment by providing information that may be used to simulate operational bioaerosol backgrounds during controlled aerosol chamber-based challenge tests with biological threat agents.

  3. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  4. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizon, J.; Gizon, A.; Andre, S.; Genevey, J.; Jastrzebski, J.; Kossakowski, R.; Moszynski, M.; Preibisz, Z.

    1981-07-01

    We report here on the first study of the level structure of /sup 151/Ho. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho have been populated in the /sup 141/Pr + /sup 16/O and /sup 144/Sm + /sup 12/C reactions. The level structure has been established up to 6,6 MeV energy and the spins and parities determined up to 49/2/sup -/. Most of the proposed level configurations can be explained by the coupling of h sub(11/2) protons to fsub(7/2) and/or hsub(9/2) neutrons. An isomer with 14 +- 3 ns half-life and a delayed gamma multiplicity equal to 17 +- 2 has been found. Its spin is larger than 57/2 h units.

  5. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizon, J.; Gizon, A.; Andre, S.; Genevey, J.; Jastrzebski, J.; Kossakowski, R.; Moszynski, M.; Preibisz, Z.

    1981-07-01

    We report here on the first study of the level structure of /sup 151/Ho. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho have been populated in the /sup 141/Pr + /sup 16/O and /sup 144/Sm + /sup 12/C reactions. The level structure has been established up to 6.6 MeV energy and the spins and parities determined up to 49/2/sup -/. Most of the proposed level configurations can be explained by the coupling of hsub(11/2) protons to fsub(7/2) and/or hsub(9/2) neutrons. An isomer with 14 +- 3 ns half-life and a delayed gamma multiplicity equal 17 +- 2 has been found. Its spin is larger than 57/2 h units.

  6. Adolescent gynecomastia is associated with a high incidence of obesity, dysglycemia, and family background of diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Kulshreshtha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gynecomastia during adolescence is common though etiology is not clear. We studied the clinical and hormonal profile of adolescent patients with gynecomastia. Methodology: Patients who had onset of breast development between age 10 and 20 years were included in this study. Their clinical profile, biochemical, and hormonal parameters were studied. Results: Of 94 patients with gynecomastia, 4 had hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, 4 had hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and 1 had fibroadenosis, but in majority (90.4%, no apparent cause for breast enlargement was evident. In the idiopathic group, majority were obese (63%. Fourteen (16% patients had impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. Another twenty patients had subtle abnormalities (high 1 h glucose or glucose peak at 2 h. Twenty-nine percent of lean and 38% of obese patients had mild abnormalities in glucose profile. Sixty percent of patients had family background of diabetes. Obese patients had lower testosterone as compared to lean patients; however, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were similar in the two groups. Conclusion: Gynecomastia during adolescence is associated with obesity, dysglycemia, and family background of diabetes mellitus.

  7. Characterization of a high-temperature superconducting bearing for use in a cosmic microwave background polarimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Hanany, Shaul [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Matsumura, Tomotake [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Johnson, Bradley [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Jones, Terry [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2005-02-01

    We have previously presented a design for a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter in which a cryogenically cooled half-wave plate rotates by means of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bearing. Here, a prototype bearing, consisting of a commercially available ring-shaped permanent magnet and an array of YBCO bulk HTS material, has been constructed. We measured its coefficient of friction and vibrational property as a function of several parameters, including temperature between 15 and 83 K, rotation frequency between 0.3 and 3.5 Hz, levitation distance between 6 and 10 mm and ambient pressure of {approx}10{sup -7} Torr. We concluded that the low rotational drag of the HTS bearing would allow rotations for long periods with minimal input power and negligible wear and tear, thus making this technology suitable for a future satellite mission.

  8. Characterization of a high-temperature superconducting bearing for use in a cosmic microwave background polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Hanany, Shaul; Matsumura, Tomotake; Johnson, Bradley; Jones, Terry

    2005-02-01

    We have previously presented a design for a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter in which a cryogenically cooled half-wave plate rotates by means of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bearing. Here, a prototype bearing, consisting of a commercially available ring-shaped permanent magnet and an array of YBCO bulk HTS material, has been constructed. We measured its coefficient of friction and vibrational property as a function of several parameters, including temperature between 15 and 83 K, rotation frequency between 0.3 and 3.5 Hz, levitation distance between 6 and 10 mm and ambient pressure of {\\sim }10^{- 7} Torr. We concluded that the low rotational drag of the HTS bearing would allow rotations for long periods with minimal input power and negligible wear and tear, thus making this technology suitable for a future satellite mission.

  9. Python based high-level synthesis compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radosław; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a python based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in Python and map it to VHDL. FPGA combines many benefits of both software and ASIC implementations. Like software, the mapped circuit is flexible, and can be reconfigured over the lifetime of the system. FPGAs therefore have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of bypassing the fetch-decode-execute operations of traditional processors, and possibly exploiting a greater level of parallelism. Creating parallel programs implemented in FPGAs is not trivial. This article describes design, implementation and first results of created Python based compiler.

  10. DUACS: Toward High Resolution Sea Level Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugere, Y.; Gerald, D.; Ubelmann, C.; Claire, D.; Pujol, M. I.; Antoine, D.; Desjonqueres, J. D.; Picot, N.

    2016-12-01

    The DUACS system produces, as part of the CNES/SALP project, and the Copernicus Marine Environment and Monitoring Service, high quality multimission altimetry Sea Level products for oceanographic applications, climate forecasting centers, geophysic and biology communities... These products consist in directly usable and easy to manipulate Level 3 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA) and Level 4 products (multiple sensors merged as maps or time series) and are available in global and regional version (Mediterranean Sea, Arctic, European Shelves …).The quality of the products is today limited by the altimeter technology "Low Resolution Mode" (LRM), and the lack of available observations. The launch of 2 new satellites in 2016, Jason-3 and Sentinel-3A, opens new perspectives. Using the global Synthetic Aperture Radar mode (SARM) coverage of S3A and optimizing the LRM altimeter processing (retracking, editing, ...) will allow us to fully exploit the fine-scale content of the altimetric missions. Thanks to this increase of real time altimetry observations we will also be able to improve Level-4 products by combining these new Level-3 products and new mapping methodology, such as dynamic interpolation. Finally these improvements will benefit to downstream products : geostrophic currents, Lagrangian products, eddy atlas… Overcoming all these challenges will provide major upgrades of Sea Level products to better fulfill user needs.

  11. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2014-01-01

    A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and lepton iso...

  12. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Joseph M.; Bickford, Dennis F.; Day, Delbert E.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L.; Marra, Sharon L.; Peeler, David K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Vienna, John D.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  13. Service-oriented high level architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wenguang; Li, Qun; Wang, Weiping; Liu, Xichun

    2009-01-01

    Service-oriented High Level Architecture (SOHLA) refers to the high level architecture (HLA) enabled by Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Web Services etc. techniques which supports distributed interoperating services. The detailed comparisons between HLA and SOA are made to illustrate the importance of their combination. Then several key enhancements and changes of HLA Evolved Web Service API are introduced in comparison with native APIs, such as Federation Development and Execution Process, communication mechanisms, data encoding, session handling, testing environment and performance analysis. Some approaches are summarized including Web-Enabling HLA at the communication layer, HLA interface specification layer, federate interface layer and application layer. Finally the problems of current research are discussed, and the future directions are pointed out.

  14. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Jr, Joseph M; Bickford, Dennis F; Day, Delbert E; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L; Marra, Sharon L; Peeler, David K; Strachan, Denis M; Triplett, Mark B; Vienna, John D; Wittman, Richard S

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  15. Using background air pollutants levels correlation analysis to identify periods of long-range transport of anthropogenic pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkova, Elizaveta S.; Burtseva, Larisa V.; Gromov, Sergey A.; Gromov, Sergey S.

    2017-04-01

    Increasing trends of airborne lead and cadmium at background station within the central region of European Russia have been identified previously (e.g., Gromov & Konkova, 2016). In order to reveal the possible drivers of these trends, a deeper investigation of correlation among these heavy metals (HM) and other co-measured pollutants is done in this study. Based on the data for the 2001-2012 period, calculations have been carried out for the period from 2006 onwards, when the growth of HM concentrations is observed. Pairwise correlations of individual species abundances were derived for the entire time series and subsets for each calendar year, including warm (April to September) and cold seasons (October to March). The calculated values for the seasons and the whole years vary substantially, suggesting that that variable ratios of atmospheric HM emission sources could affect the final air concentrations at measurement site in these periods. To distinguish the events of predominant influence of natural and anthropogenic sources, we assume that correlation between lead and cadmium levels must be greater in the case of natural sources being in effect. High values of the correlation coefficient are expected in cases when HM air abundances are induced by the long-range transport from the regions of anthropogenic sources (co-emission of these metals results from a number of same sources, and both of them are also present on same matrix aerosols). The results demonstrate a substantial correlation between Pb and Cd, with higher values for individual seasons (70% of 0.5 and higher) than for whole years. Higher mass concentrations of airborne dust (TSP) in remote areas are to large extent promoted by large particles blown away from the surface at local surroundings. Captured better by filters, such events could be a particular indicator of local (mostly natural) sources. Low or insignificant correlation with HM indicates prevalence of long-range transport of them and could

  16. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  17. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Agostino, Lorenzo; Beccati, Barbara; Behrens, Ulf; Berryhil, Jeffrey; Biery, Kurt; Bose, Tulika; Brett, Angela; Branson, James; Cano, Eric; Cheung, Harry; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Dahmes, Bryan; Deldicque, Christian; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, Robert; Gutleber, Johannes; Hatton, Derek; Laurens, Jean-Francois; Loizides, Constantin; Ma, Frank; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Meyer, Andreas; Mommsen, Remigius K; Moser, Roland; O'Dell, Vivian; Oh, Alexander; Orsini, Luciano; Patras, Vaios; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schieferdeckerd, Philipp; Schwick, Christoph; Serrano Margaleff, Josep Francesc; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, Sean; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sungho Yoon, Andre; Wittich, Peter; Zanetti, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  18. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  19. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  20. Beryllium natural background concentration and mobility: a reappraisal examining the case of high Be-bearing pyroclastic rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armiento, Giovanna; Bellatreccia, Fabio; Cremisini, Carlo; Della Ventura, Giancarlo; Nardi, Elisa; Pacifico, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Beryllium is widely distributed in soils at low levels, but it can also occur naturally in higher concentrations in a variety of materials exploited for many industrial applications. Beryllium is also one of the most toxic natural elements and is known to be a human carcinogen. A concise account of the literature data on baseline concentrations of Be in soils illustrates the possibility of worldwide presence of areas with a high natural background concentration of Be (up to 300 mg/kg), the crustal abundance of which is generally estimated to be in the range 2-6 mg/kg. Nevertheless, the number of available data is rather limited in comparison with those about other toxic elements such as Pb, Cd and Cr. This has probably caused the choice of low values of concentration level as the reference for the definition of soil contamination: these values are not always realistic and are not applicable to large areas. As a case study, we report and analyse a diffuse, unusually high (up to 80 mg/kg, average approximately 20 mg/kg), natural occurrence of beryllium in loose and poorly consolidated pyroclastic layers related to the Pleistocene activity of the Vico volcano. Additionally, the analysis of Be leachability has been carried out, providing evidence of a not negligible mobility in contrast with the scarce data presented in the literature that usually indicate beryllium as an element with low mobility in oxidising surface environmental conditions. This research marks the beginning of a possible reappraisal of beryllium geochemical behaviour and background levels, providing more realistic reference values for risk assessment and land management.

  1. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved trac...

  2. Fermi-LAT high-z active galactic nuclei and the extragalactic background light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Thomas; Brown, Anthony M.; Chadwick, Paula M.

    2017-10-01

    Observations of distant gamma-ray sources are hindered by the presence of the extragalactic background light (EBL). In order to understand the physical processes that result in the observed spectrum of sources, it is imperative that a good understanding of the EBL is included. In this work, an investigation into the imprint of the EBL on the observed spectra of high-redshift Fermi-LAT active galactic nuclei is presented. By fitting the spectrum below ˜10 GeV, an estimation of the unabsorbed intrinsic source spectrum is obtained; by applying this spectrum to data up to 300 GeV, it is then possible to derive a scaling factor for different EBL models. A second approach uses five sources (PKS 0426-380, 4C +55.17, Ton 116, PG 1246+586 and RBS 1432) that were found to exhibit very high energy (VHE) emission (Eγ > 100 GeV). Through Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that the observation of VHE photons, despite the large distances of these objects, is consistent with current EBL models. Many of these sources would be observable with the upcoming ground-based observatory, the Cherenkov Telescope Array, leading to a better understanding of the EBL.

  3. What is the influence of background noise and exercise on the listening levels of iPod users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, William; Szarko, Ryan; Rieger, Jana

    2009-12-01

    The widespread use of portable listening devices (PLDs) has increased concern about the potential for hearing impairment caused by their use. The current study investigated the effects of external noise and exercise on the use of PLDs. The 24 participants listened to the same song on an iPod during rest-in-quiet, rest-in-noise, and exercise-in-noise conditions. Preferred listening levels (PLLs) were recorded and participants' maximum noise doses were calculated. Participants selected significantly higher listening levels in both noise conditions than in the quiet condition. The variability of volume selection was reduced significantly in the noise conditions. The maximum daily noise dose would have been exceeded by seven participants in the rest-in-noise condition and by eight in the exercise-in-noise condition compared to one participant in the rest-in-quiet condition. These results indicated that increased background noise causes individuals to increase the volume on their PLDs to potentially dangerous levels and that increased noise alone was not the only factor affecting the participants as the addition of exercise induced even further increases in PLLs.

  4. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  5. Proton Affinity Calculations with High Level Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolboe, Stein

    2014-08-12

    Proton affinities, stretching from small reference compounds, up to the methylbenzenes and naphthalene and anthracene, have been calculated with high accuracy computational methods, viz. W1BD, G4, G3B3, CBS-QB3, and M06-2X. Computed and the currently accepted reference proton affinities are generally in excellent accord, but there are deviations. The literature value for propene appears to be 6-7 kJ/mol too high. Reported proton affinities for the methylbenzenes seem 4-5 kJ/mol too high. G4 and G3 computations generally give results in good accord with the high level W1BD. Proton affinity values computed with the CBS-QB3 scheme are too low, and the error increases with increasing molecule size, reaching nearly 10 kJ/mol for the xylenes. The functional M06-2X fails markedly for some of the small reference compounds, in particular, for CO and ketene, but calculates methylbenzene proton affinities with high accuracy.

  6. The high-level trigger of ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilsner, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Steinbeck, T. [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Alt, T.; Aurbakken, K.; Grastveit, G.; Nystrand, J.; Roehrich, D.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbo, A. [Department of Physics, University of Bergen (Norway); Helstrup, H. [Bergen College (Norway); Loizides, C. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Skaali, B.; Vik, T. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway)

    2004-07-01

    One of the main tracking detectors of the forthcoming ALICE Experiment at the LHC is a cylindrical Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with an expected data volume of about 75 MByte per event. This data volume, in combination with the presumed maximum bandwidth of 1.2 GByte/s to the mass storage system, would limit the maximum event rate to 20 Hz. In order to achieve higher event rates, online data processing has to be applied. This implies either the detection and read-out of only those events which contain interesting physical signatures or an efficient compression of the data by modeling techniques. In order to cope with the anticipated data rate, massive parallel computing power is required. It will be provided in form of a clustered farm of SMP-nodes, based on off-the-shelf PCs, which are connected with a high bandwidth low overhead network. This High-Level Trigger (HLT) will be able to process a data rate of 25 GByte/s online. The front-end electronics of the individual sub-detectors is connected to the HLT via an optical link and a custom PCI card which is mounted in the clustered PCs. The PCI card is equipped with an FPGA necessary for the implementation of the PCI-bus protocol. Therefore, this FPGA can also be used to assist the host processor with first-level processing. The first-level processing done on the FPGA includes conventional cluster-finding for low multiplicity events and local track finding based on the Hough Transformation of the raw data for high multiplicity events. (orig.)

  7. The high-level trigger of ALICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilsner, H.; Alt, T.; Aurbakken, K.; Grastveit, G.; Helstrup, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Nystrand, J.; Roehrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbo, A.; Vik, T.

    One of the main tracking detectors of the forthcoming ALICE Experiment at the LHC is a cylindrical Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with an expected data volume of about 75 MByte per event. This data volume, in combination with the presumed maximum bandwidth of 1.2 GByte/s to the mass storage system, would limit the maximum event rate to 20 Hz. In order to achieve higher event rates, online data processing has to be applied. This implies either the detection and read-out of only those events which contain interesting physical signatures or an efficient compression of the data by modeling techniques. In order to cope with the anticipated data rate, massive parallel computing power is required. It will be provided in form of a clustered farm of SMP-nodes, based on off-the-shelf PCs, which are connected with a high bandwidth low overhead network. This High-Level Trigger (HLT) will be able to process a data rate of 25 GByte/s online. The front-end electronics of the individual sub-detectors is connected to the HLT via an optical link and a custom PCI card which is mounted in the clustered PCs. The PCI card is equipped with an FPGA necessary for the implementation of the PCI-bus protocol. Therefore, this FPGA can also be used to assist the host processor with first-level processing. The first-level processing done on the FPGA includes conventional cluster-finding for low multiplicity events and local track finding based on the Hough Transformation of the raw data for high multiplicity events. PACS: 07.05.-t Computers in experimental physics - 07.05.Hd Data acquisition: hardware and software - 29.85.+c Computer data analysis

  8. ACCURATE DETECTION OF HIGH-SPEED MULTI-TARGET VIDEO SEQUENCES MOTION REGIONS BASED ON RECONSTRUCTED BACKGROUND DIFFERENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wentao; Li Xiaofeng; Li Zaiming

    2001-01-01

    The paper first discusses shortcomings of classical adjacent-frame difference. Sec ondly, based on the image energy and high order statistic(HOS) theory, background reconstruction constraints are setup. Under the help of block-processing technology, background is reconstructed quickly. Finally, background difference is used to detect motion regions instead of adjacent frame difference. The DSP based platform tests indicate the background can be recovered losslessly in about one second, and moving regions are not influenced by moving target speeds. The algorithm has important usage both in theory and applications.

  9. High-Redshift Star Formation in a Time-Dependent Lyman-Werner Background

    CERN Document Server

    Visbal, Eli; Terrazas, Bryan; Bryan, Greg L; Barkana, Rennan

    2014-01-01

    The first generation of stars produces a background of Lyman-Werner (LW) radiation which can photo-dissociate molecular hydrogen, increasing the mass of dark matter halos required to host star formation. Previous studies have determined the critical mass required for efficient molecular cooling with a constant LW background. However, the true background is expected to increase rapidly at early times. Neglecting this evolution could underestimate star formation in small halos that may have started to cool in the past when the LW intensity was much lower. Background evolution is a large source of uncertainty in pre-reionization predictions of the cosmological 21cm signal, which can be observed with future radio telescopes. To address this, we perform zero-dimentional one-zone calculations that follow the density, chemical abundances, and temperature of gas in the central regions of dark matter halos, including hierarchical growth and an evolving LW background. We begin by studying the physics of halos subjected...

  10. A Flat Universe from High-Resolution Maps of the Cosmic MicrowaveBackground Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Bernardis, P.; Ade, P.A.R.; Bock, J.J.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill,J.; Boscaleri, A.; Coble, K.; Crill, B.P.; De Gasperis, G.; Farese, P.C.; Ferreira, P.G.; Ganga, K.; Giacometti, M.; Hivon, E.; Hristov, V.V.; Iacoangeli, A.; Jaffe, A.H.; Lange, A.E.; Martinis, L.; Masi, S.; Mason,P.; Mauskopf, P.D.; Melchiorri, A.; Miglio, L.; Montroy, T.; Netterfield,C.B.; Pascale, E.; Piacentini, F.; Pogosyan, D.; Prunet, S.; Rao, S.; Romeo, G.; Ruhl, J.E.; Scaramuzzi, F.; Sforna, D.; Vittorio, N.

    2000-04-28

    The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73 K Cosmic Microwave Background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total energy density and curvature of the universe. Here we report the first images of resolved structure in the microwave background anisotropies over a significant part of the sky. Maps at four frequencies clearly distinguish the microwave background from foreground emission. We compute the angular power spectrum of the microwave background, and find a peak at Legendre multipole {ell}{sub peak} = (197 {+-} 6), with an amplitude DT{sub 200} = (69 {+-} 8){mu}K. This is consistent with that expected for cold dark matter models in a flat (euclidean) Universe, as favored by standard inflationary scenarios.

  11. Radio-loud AGNs at high redshifts and the cosmic microwave background

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, G; Tavecchio, F; Haardt, F; Sbarrato, T

    2013-01-01

    We discuss how the interaction between the electrons in a relativistic jet and the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) affects the observable properties of radio-loud AGN at early epochs. At high z the magnetic energy density in the radio lobes of powerful radio-loud quasars can be exceeded by the energy density of the CMB (because of its (1+z)^4 dependance). In this case, relativistic electrons cool preferentially by scattering off CMB photons, rather than by synchrotron. Thus, sources sharing the same intrinsic properties have different extended radio and X-ray luminosities when located at different z: more distant sources are less luminous in radio and more luminous in X-rays than their closer counterparts. Instead, in compact regions where the local magnetic field still exceeds the CMB in terms of energy density, synchrotron radiation would be unaffected by the presence of the CMB. Such regions include the compact inner jet and the so-called hot spots in the radio lobes. The decrease in radio luminosity is ...

  12. High-impedence NbSi TES sensors for studying the cosmic microwave background radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Nones, Claudia; Benoit, Alain; Bergé, Laurent; Bideau, Aurelien; Camus, Philippe; Dumoulin, Louis; Monfardini, Alessandro; Rigaut, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are crucial in cosmology, because any proposed model of the universe must account for the features of this radiation. Of all CMB measurements that the scientific community has not yet been able to perform, the CMB B-mode polarization is probably the most challenging from the instrumental point of view. The signature of primordial gravitational waves, which give rise to a B-type polarization, is one of the goals in cosmology today and amongst the first objectives in the field. For this purpose, high-performance low-temperature bolometric cameras, made of thousands of pixels, are currently being developed by many groups, which will improve the sensitivity to B-mode CMB polarization by one or two orders of magnitude compared to the Planck satellite HFI detectors. We present here a new bolometer structure that is able to increase the pixel sensitivities and to simplify the fabrication procedure. This innovative device replaces delicate membrane-based s...

  13. Experimental test of the background rejection, through imaging capability, of a highly segmented AGATA germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doncel, M., E-mail: doncel@usal.e [Laboratorio de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain); Recchia, F. [INFN sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Quintana, B. [Laboratorio de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain); Gadea, A. [IFIC Valencia, Valencia (Spain); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Farnea, E. [INFN sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2010-10-21

    The development of highly segmented germanium detectors as well as the algorithms to identify the position of the interaction within the crystal opens the possibility to locate the {gamma}-ray source using Compton imaging algorithms. While the Compton-suppression shield, coupled to the germanium detector in conventional arrays, works also as an active filter against the {gamma} rays originated outside the target, the new generation of position sensitive {gamma}-ray detector arrays has to fully rely on tracking capabilities for this purpose. In specific experimental conditions, as the ones foreseen at radioactive beam facilities, the ability to discriminate background radiation improves the sensitivity of the gamma spectrometer. In this work we present the results of a measurement performed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) aiming the evaluation of the AGATA detector capabilities to discriminate the origin of the {gamma} rays on an event-by-event basis. It will be shown that, exploiting the Compton scattering formula, it is possible to track back {gamma} rays coming from different positions, assigning them to specific emitting locations. These imaging capabilities are quantified for a single crystal AGATA detector.

  14. Radionuclides and radiation indices of high background radiation area in Chavara-Neendakara placer deposits (Kerala, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Thomas Derin

    Full Text Available The present paper describes a detailed study on the distribution of radionuclides along Chavara - Neendakara placer deposit, a high background radiation area (HBRA along the Southwest coast of India (Kerala. Judged from our studies using HPGe gamma spectrometric detector, it becomes evident that Uranium ((238U, Thorium ((232Th and Potassium ((40K are the major sources for radioactivity prevailing in the area. Our statistical analyses reveal the existence of a high positive correlation between (238U and (232Th, implicating that the levels of these elements are interdependent. Our SEM-EDAX analyses reveal that titanium (Ti and zircon (Zr are the major trace elements in the sand samples, followed by aluminum, copper, iron, ruthenium, magnesium, calcium, sulphur and lead. This is first of its kind report on the radiation hazard indices on this placer deposit. The average absorbed dose rates (9795 nGy h(-1 computed from the present study is comparable with the top-ranking HBRAs in the world, thus offering the Chavara-Neendakara placer the second position, after Brazil; pertinently, this value is much higher than the World average. The perceptibly high absorbed gamma dose rates, entrained with the high annual external effective dose rates (AEED and average annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE values existing in this HBRA, encourage us to suggest for a candid assessment of the impact of the background radiation, if any, on the organisms that inhabit along this placer deposit. Future research could effectively address the issue of the possible impact of natural radiation on the biota inhabiting this HBRA.

  15. The ARES High-level Intermediate Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Nicholas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The LLVM intermediate representation (IR) lacks semantic constructs for depicting common high-performance operations such as parallel and concurrent execution, communication and synchronization. Currently, representing such semantics in LLVM requires either extending the intermediate form (a signi cant undertaking) or the use of ad hoc indirect means such as encoding them as intrinsics and/or the use of metadata constructs. In this paper we discuss a work in progress to explore the design and implementation of a new compilation stage and associated high-level intermediate form that is placed between the abstract syntax tree and when it is lowered to LLVM's IR. This highlevel representation is a superset of LLVM IR and supports the direct representation of these common parallel computing constructs along with the infrastructure for supporting analysis and transformation passes on this representation.

  16. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2016-01-01

    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabili- ties of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a stream- lined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable out- put rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and ...

  17. Limitations of STIRAP-like population transfer in extended systems: the three-level system embedded in a web of background states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubetz, Werner

    2012-12-14

    This paper presents a systematic numerical investigation of background state participation in STIRAP (stimulated Raman-adiabatic passage) population transfer among vibrational states, focusing on the consequences for the robustness of the method. The simulations, which are performed over extended grids in the parameter space of the Stokes- and pump pulses (frequencies, field strengths, and pulse lengths), involve hierarchies of (3 + N)-level systems of increasing complexity, ranging from the standard three-level STIRAP setup, (N = 0) in Λ-configuration, up to N = 446. A strongly coupled three-level core system is selected from the full Hamiltonian of the double-well HCN∕HNC system, and the couplings connecting this core system to the remaining states are (re-) parameterized in different ways, from very weak to very strong. The systems so obtained represent a three-level system embedded in various ways in webs of cross-linked vibrational background states and incorporate typical molecular properties. We first summarize essential properties of population transfer in the standard three-level system and quantify the robustness of the method and its dependence on the pulse parameters. Against these reference results, we present results obtained for four (3 + 446)-level systems and several subsystems. For pulse lengths of at most few picoseconds the intrinsic robustness of STIRAP with respect to variations in the field strength disappears as soon as the largest core-background couplings exceed about one tenth of the STIRAP couplings. In such cases robustness with respect to variations in the field strength is entirely lost, since at higher field strengths, except for irregularly spaced narrow frequency ranges, transfer probabilities are strongly reduced. STIRAP-like population transfer is maintained, with some restrictions, at low field strengths near the onset of adiabatic transfer. The suppression of STIRAP is traced back to different mechanisms based on a

  18. Background observations on the SMM high energy monitor at energies greater than 10 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    The background rate in any gamma ray detector on a spacecraft in near-earth orbit is strongly influenced by the primary cosmic ray flux at the spacecraft's position. Although the direct counting of the primary cosmic rays can be rejected by anticoincident shields, secondary production cannot be. Secondary production of gamma rays and neutrons in the instrument, the spacecraft, and the earth's atmospheric are recorded as background. A 30 day data base of 65.5 second records has been used to show that some of the background rates observed on the Gamma Ray Spectrometer can be ordered to a precision on the order of 1 percent This ordering is done with only two parameters, namely the cosmic ray vertical cutoff rigidity and the instrument's pointing angle with respect to the earth's center. This result sets limits on any instrumental instability and also on any temporal or spatial changes in the background radiation field.

  19. The functions of culture background knowledge in improving English reading in high school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌日乐

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that by strengthening awareness of students 'background knowledge can improve students'reading results .By testing ex-periments, surveys, all the data collected were analyzed . Experimental tests and surveys which are carried out in all the students . And contrast the Chinese culture and foreign culture;through all of the things found background knowledge can promote the sustainable develop -ment of the students'English reading , so there are many important practical significances and values to explore .

  20. High Prevalence of Smoking in the Roma Population Seems to Have No Genetic Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiatal, Szilvia; Tóth, Réka; Moravcsik-Kornyicki, Ágota; Kósa, Zsigmond; Sándor, János; McKee, Martin; Ádány, Róza

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of smoking in Romani of both genders is significantly higher than in the general population. Our aim was to determine whether a genetic susceptibility contributes to the high prevalence of smoking among Roma in a study based on data collected from cross-sectional surveys. Twenty single nucleotide polymorphisms known to be closely related to smoking behavior were investigated in DNA samples of Hungarian Roma (N = 1273) and general (N = 2388) populations. Differences in genotype and allele distribution were investigated. Genetic risk scores (GRSs) were generated to estimate the joint effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes COMT, CHRNA3/4/5, CYP2A6, CTNNA3, DRD2, MAOA, KCNJ6, AGPHD1, ANKK1, TRPC7, GABRA4, and NRXN1. The distribution of scores in study populations was compared. Age, gender, and body mass index were considered as confounding factors. Difference in allele frequencies between the study populations remained significant for 16 polymorphisms after multiple test correction (p smoking behavior of the Roma population could not be accounted for by genetic susceptibility; therefore, interventions aimed at smoking prevention and cessation should focus on cultural and environmental factors. This is the first study designed to determine whether genetic background exists behind the harmful behavior of the smoking of the Roma population. Although the frequencies of susceptible and protective alleles strongly differ between the Hungarian Roma and general populations, it is shown that calculated GRSs being significantly higher in the general population, which do not support the hypothesis on the genetic susceptibility of the Roma population. Interventions aimed at smoking cessation in the Roma population should preferentially target cultural and environmental factors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  1. Multilocus spacer analysis revealed highly homogeneous genetic background of Asian type of Borrelia miyamotoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhacheva, Tatyana A; Salikhova, Irina I; Kovalev, Sergey Y

    2015-04-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi, a member of the relapsing fever group borreliae, was first isolated in Japan and subsequently found in Ixodes ticks in North America, Europe and Russia. Currently, there are three types of B. miyamotoi: Asian or Siberian (transmitted mainly by Ixodes persulcatus), European (Ixodesricinus) and American (Ixodesscapularis and Ixodespacificus). Despite the great genetic distances between B. miyamotoi types, isolates within a type are characterised by an extremely low genetic variability. In particular, strains of B. miyamotoi of Asian type, isolated in Russia from the Baltic sea to the Far East, have been shown to be identical based on the analysis of several conventional genetic markers, such as 16S rRNA, flagellin, outer membrane protein p66 and glpQ genes. Thus, protein or rRNA - coding genes were shown not to be informative enough in studying genetic diversity of B. miyamotoi within a type. In the present paper, we have attempted to design a new multilocus technique based on eight non-coding intergenic spacers (3686bp in total) and have applied it to the analysis of intra-type genetic variability of В. miyamotoi detected in different regions of Russia and from two tick species, I. persulcatus and Ixodespavlovskyi. However, even though potentially the most variable loci were selected, no genetic variability between studied DNA samples was found, except for one nucleotide substitution in two of them. The sequences obtained were identical to those of the reference strain FR64b. Analysis of the data obtained with the GenBank sequences indicates a highly homogeneous genetic background of B. miyamotoi from the Baltic Sea to the Japanese Islands. In this paper, a hypothesis of clonal expansion of B. miyamotoi is discussed, as well as possible mechanisms for the rapid dissemination of one B. miyamotoi clone over large distances.

  2. High-impedance NbSi TES sensors for studying the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nones, C.; Marnieros, S.; Benoit, A.; Bergé, L.; Bideaud, A.; Camus, P.; Dumoulin, L.; Monfardini, A.; Rigaut, O.

    2012-12-01

    Precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are crucial in cosmology because any proposed model of the universe must account for the features of this radiation. The CMB has a thermal blackbody spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K, i.e. the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9-mm wavelength. Of all CMB measurements that the scientific community has not yet been able to perform, the CMB B-mode polarization is probably the most challenging from the instrumental point of view. The signature of primordial gravitational waves, which give rise to a B-type polarization, is one of the goals in cosmology today and amongst the first objectives in the field. For this purpose, high-performance low-temperature bolometric cameras, made of thousands of pixels, are currently being developed by many groups, which will improve the sensitivity to B-mode CMB polarization by one or two orders of magnitude compared to the Planck satellite HFI detectors. We present here a new bolometer structure that is able to increase the pixel sensitivities and to simplify the fabrication procedure. This innovative device replaces delicate membrane-based structures and eliminates the mediation of phonons: the incoming energy is directly captured and measured in the electron bath of an appropriate sensor and the thermal decoupling is achieved via the intrinsic electron-phonon decoupling of the sensor at very low temperature. Reported results come from a 204-pixel array of NbxSi1-x transition edge sensors with a meander structure fabricated on a 2-inch silicon wafer using electron-beam co-evaporation and a cleanroom lithography process. To validate the application of this device to CMB measurements, we have performed an optical calibration of our sample in the focal plane of a dilution cryostat test bench. We have demonstrated a light absorption close to 20% and an optical noise equivalent power of about 7×10-16 W/√Hz, which is highly

  3. Reliability-Centric High-Level Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Tosun, S; Arvas, E; Kandemir, M; Xie, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Importance of addressing soft errors in both safety critical applications and commercial consumer products is increasing, mainly due to ever shrinking geometries, higher-density circuits, and employment of power-saving techniques such as voltage scaling and component shut-down. As a result, it is becoming necessary to treat reliability as a first-class citizen in system design. In particular, reliability decisions taken early in system design can have significant benefits in terms of design quality. Motivated by this observation, this paper presents a reliability-centric high-level synthesis approach that addresses the soft error problem. The proposed approach tries to maximize reliability of the design while observing the bounds on area and performance, and makes use of our reliability characterization of hardware components such as adders and multipliers. We implemented the proposed approach, performed experiments with several designs, and compared the results with those obtained by a prior proposal.

  4. An accurate measurement of the anisotropies and mean level of the Cosmic Infrared Background at 100 and 160 um

    CERN Document Server

    Pénin, Aurélie; Noriega-Crepo, Alberto; Grain, Julien; Miville-Deschênes, Marc-Antoine; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Martin, Peter; Blagrave, Kevin; Lockman, Felix J

    2011-01-01

    The anisotropies of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) are a powerful tool to study the evolution of galaxies and large-scale structures. However one of the main limitations to an accurate measurement is the contamination by Galactic dust emission. Our goal is to show that we can remove the Galactic cirrus contamination using HI data, and thus measure accurately the clustering of starburst galaxies in the CIB. We use observations of the extragalactic N1 field at far-infrared (100 and 160 um) and radio (21 cm) wavelengths. We compute the correlation between dust emission, as traced by far-infrared observations, and HI gas, and derive dust emissivities which enable us to subtract the cirrus emission from the far-infrared maps. We then derive the power spectrum of the CIB anisotropies and its mean level. We compute dust emissivities for each of the HI-velocity components. Using IRIS/IRAS data at 100 um, we demonstrate that we can use the measured emissivities to determine and remove the cirrus contribution to ...

  5. Combining natural background levels (NBLs) assessment with indicator kriging analysis to improve groundwater quality data interpretation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducci, Daniela; de Melo, M Teresa Condesso; Preziosi, Elisabetta; Sellerino, Mariangela; Parrone, Daniele; Ribeiro, Luis

    2016-11-01

    The natural background level (NBL) concept is revisited and combined with indicator kriging method to analyze the spatial distribution of groundwater quality within a groundwater body (GWB). The aim is to provide a methodology to easily identify areas with the same probability of exceeding a given threshold (which may be a groundwater quality criteria, standards, or recommended limits for selected properties and constituents). Three case studies with different hydrogeological settings and located in two countries (Portugal and Italy) are used to derive NBL using the preselection method and validate the proposed methodology illustrating its main advantages over conventional statistical water quality analysis. Indicator kriging analysis was used to create probability maps of the three potential groundwater contaminants. The results clearly indicate the areas within a groundwater body that are potentially contaminated because the concentrations exceed the drinking water standards or even the local NBL, and cannot be justified by geogenic origin. The combined methodology developed facilitates the management of groundwater quality because it allows for the spatial interpretation of NBL values.

  6. Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays, The Diffuse High Energy Gamma Ray Background and Anti-protons

    CERN Document Server

    Eichler, David; Gavish, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Theories for the origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR) may imply a significant diffuse background in secondary $\\gamma$-rays from the pair cascads the UHECR initiate when interacting with background light. It is shown that, because the spectrum of these secondary $\\gamma$-rays is softer than the measured diffuse $\\gamma$-ray background in the 10-1000 GeV range, the addition of a hard component from the decay of TeV dark matter particles, subject to the implied constraints on its parameters, improves the fit. It is further argued that any compact astrophysical source of $\\bar p$s is unlikely to be as strong as decay of TeV dark matter particles, given bounds set by neutrino observations. The diffuse $\\gamma$-ray background presently sets the strongest lower bound on the lifetime of TeV dark matter particles, and hence on attendant anti-proton production, and further identification of other contributors to this background will further tighten these constraints.

  7. Development of an underground low background instrument for high sensitivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, E.; Hahn, I. S.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, Y. D.; Lee, M. H.; Leonard, D. S.; Park, Su Yeon

    2016-05-01

    The Center for Underground Physics has developed in collaboration with CANBERRA a low background instrument composed of 14 HPGe detectors divided in two arrays facing each other. The performance and the background of a single detector of the array have been studied in order to improve the array final configuration. An accurate material selection, through the measurements of building material samples and Monte Carlo simulations based on Geant4, has been performed to reach the lowest possible intrinsic background. Alternative materials and configurations have been considered for the final design of the array simulating the expected intrinsic background of the instrument considering the needed changes. The expected sensitivity of the improved array configuration, concerning the low background material selection for rare events physics experiments, has been evaluated through Monte Carlo simulations considering 232Th concentration in a Copper sample. Since the array can also be used for rare decays searches, the expected sensitivity on the 156Dy resonant double electron capture has thus been calculated.

  8. Epidemiology of high-level parvovirus B19 viraemia among Dutch blood donors, 2003-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Kooistra; H.J. Mesman; M. de Waal; M.H.G.M. Koppelman; H.L. Zaaijer

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Plasma derivatives and blood components with low levels of parvovirus B19 (B19) seem not infectious, but recently infected, highly viraemic donors may transmit B19. We studied the incidence of high-level B19 viraemia (B19 DNA > 106 IU/ml) in 6 center dot 5 million Dutch blo

  9. Development of High Pressure Xe Scintillation Proportional Counter for Experiments in "Low-Background" Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Akimov, D.Yu.; Burenkov, A. A; Churakov, D. L.; Kuzichev, V. F.; Morgunov, V. L.; Smirnov, G. N.; Solovov, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    Characteristics of a scintillation proportional counter with WLS fiber optics readout is described. The possibility of detection of the proportional scintillation signal produced by the single electron of primary ionization is shown. The counter can be applied for the experiments in "low--background" physics which require a low energy threshold.

  10. Low-Background Experiments with High Pressure Gas Scintillation Proportional Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Akimov, D.Yu.; Burenkov, A. A; Kuzichev, V. F.; Morgunov, V. L.; Solovov, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    A scintillation proportional counter with wavelength shifting fiber readout filled with Xe or Kr under a pressure of up to 20 atm is proposed for the low-background experiments on search for dark matter of the Universe and 2K-decay of 78 Kr.

  11. Role of Family Background, Student Behaviors, and School-Related Beliefs in Predicting High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alyssa K.; Bonitz, Verena S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors' purpose was to test a parsimonious model derived from social cognitive career theory (R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) and expectancy value theory (J. S. Eccles & A. Wigfield, 2002) that integrates groups of variables (demographic background, student behaviors, and school-related beliefs) with the goal of…

  12. Concentration of trace metals in sediments and soils from protected lands in south Florida: background levels and risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Joffre E; Fernandez, Adolfo M; Gonzalez-Caccia, Valentina; Gardinali, Piero R

    2013-08-01

    A comprehensive environmental evaluation was completed on 20 metals: two reference metals (Fe, Al) and several minor trace metals (As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) for surface soils and sediments collected from 50 sites in Everglades National Park (ENP), the coastal fringes of Biscayne National Park (BNP), and Big Cypress National Preserve. Samples were prepared by acid digestion (EPA3050) and analyzed by ICP/MS detection (EPA6020). Although no widespread contamination was detected across the two parks and one preserve, there were some specific areas where metal concentrations exceeded Florida's ecological thresholds, suggesting that some metals were of concern. A screening-level evaluation based on a proposed effect index grouped trace metals by their potential for causing negligible, possible, and probable effects on the biota. For example, Cu in BNP and Cr and Pb in ENP were considered of concern because their adverse effect likelihood to biota was assessed as probable; consequently, these trace metals were selected for further risk characterization. Also, stations were ranked based on a proposed overall contamination index that showed that: site BB10 in BNP and sites E3 and E5 in ENP had the highest scores. The first site was located in a marina in BNP, and the other two sites were along the eastern boundary of ENP adjacent to current or former agricultural lands. An assessment tool for south Florida protected lands was developed for evaluating impacts from on-going Everglades restoration projects and to assist State and Federal agencies with resource management. The tool consists of enrichment plots and statistically derived background concentrations based on soil/sediment data collected from the two national parks and one preserve. Finally, an equally accurate but much simplified approach is offered for developing enrichment plots for other environmental settings.

  13. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government`s system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government`s program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project.

  14. An ultra compact on-beam 3He polarizer for separation of incoherent background in high Q-range SANS

    CERN Document Server

    Babcock, Earl; Salhi, Zahir

    2012-01-01

    Incoherent background can create an intrinsic problem for standard small angle neutron scattering measurements. Biological samples contain hydrogen which is a strong incoherent scatterer thus creating an intrinsic source of background that makes determination of the coherent scattering parameters difficult in special situations. This can especially be true for the Q-range from around 0.1-0.5 {\\AA}-1 where improper knowledge of the background level can lead to ambiguity in determination of the samples structure parameters. Polarization analysis is a way of removing this ambiguity by allowing one to distinguish the coherent from incoherent scattering, even when the coherent scattering is only a small fraction of the total scattered intensity. 3He spin filters are ideal for accomplishing this task because they permit the analysis of large area and large divergence scattered neutron beams without adding to detector background or changing the prorogation of the scatter neutron beam. This rapid note describes a des...

  15. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, N; Eifert, T; Fischer, G; George, S; Haller, J; Höcker, A; Masik, J; Zur Nedden, M; Pérez-Réale, V; Risler, C; Schiavi, C; Stelzer, J; Wu, X; International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    2008-01-01

    The High Level Trigger (HLT) of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider receives events which pass the LVL1 trigger at ~75 kHz and has to reduce the rate to ~200 Hz while retaining the most interesting physics. It is a software trigger and performs the reduction in two stages: the LVL2 trigger and the Event Filter (EF). At the heart of the HLT is the Steering software. To minimise processing time and data transfers it implements the novel event selection strategies of seeded, step-wise reconstruction and early rejection. The HLT is seeded by regions of interest identified at LVL1. These and the static configuration determine which algorithms are run to reconstruct event data and test the validity of trigger signatures. The decision to reject the event or continue is based on the valid signatures, taking into account pre-scale and pass-through. After the EF, event classification tags are assigned for streaming purposes. Several powerful new features for commissioning and operation have been added: co...

  16. Physical exertion may cause high troponin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agewall, Stefan; Tjora, Solve

    2011-11-15

    It is important to measure troponin levels when acute myocardial infarct is suspected. Many other factors that affect the heart can cause an increase in troponin levels, for example extreme physical exertion. Recent studies have shown that more normal physical activity can also lead to increase in troponin levels in healthy individuals.

  17. Background radiation dose-rates to non-human biota in a high mountain habitat in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, J.E.; Gelsvik, R.; Kålås, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Determination of background radiation dose-rates is important in the process of assessing risks to the environment from exposure to human activities both in terms of deriving the incremental dose-rate and as a point of reference for evaluating the significance of the exposure level. A consideration...

  18. Human serum levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Uyghurs from Sinkiang-Uighur Autonomous Region, China: background levels study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael; Xian, Hong; Elder, Keith; Rodemich, Eugene; Bao, Jia; Jin, Yi-He; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2015-03-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), are a family of commonly used industrial chemicals whose persistence and ubiquity in blood samples of humans and wildlife have become a growing concern. Despite PFOS and PFOA having been found in human blood and tissue samples from occupationally exposed workers and the general worldwide population, little systematic knowledge has accrued with respect to exposure levels in Uyghurs in the Sinkiang-Uighur Autonomous Region of China, which is predominantly agricultural and pastoral. Our goal was to provide background data for biological monitoring in the general population of this region. In this study, 110 self-reported healthy human serum samples were collected from nonoccupationally exposed Uyghurs volunteers and analyzed by microbore HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Among the 110 blood specimens, PFOS was detected in 102 samples (93%) and ranged from the lower limit of quantification of 0.01 to 22.63 μg/L with a median of 1.93 μg/L (interquartile range 1.00-3.43 μg/L). The median was higher among males (2.39 μg/L; interquartile range 1.23-4.40 μg/L) than that among females (1.20 μg/L; interquartile range 0.83-2.77 μg/L). No significant difference was observed with respect to age. The concentration of PFOA was lower than that of PFOS and was found only in seven samples (6%) at concentrations above the limit of quantification. This study is the first investigation to reveal serum PFOS and PFOA levels in the general population of Uyghurs. PFOS and PFOA concentrations found in the present investigation were lower than those found in recent studies consisting of subjects from different geographic locations (PFOS 5.0-44.7 μg/L, PFOA 1.5-10 μg/L).

  19. The Influence of the Family Background on the Higher Education Choices:Based on the Survey in Five Senior High Schools in Different Economic Development Level in Yunnan%家庭背景对学生高等教育选择的影响--以云南不同经济发展水平地州市5所中学为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建新; 王晓艳

    2014-01-01

    家庭经济收入水平、父母期望、父母职业及学历,作为家庭背景的重要因素对子女教育选择产生着主要影响。以云南省不同经济发展水平地州市的5所高中890名高三学生为研究样本,研究显示:高中毕业后上大学依然是高三学生的主流分流意向,家庭经济收入水平对高三学生高等教育选择影响较小;社会资助等渠道可以解决了上大学的费用问题,但学生担心上大学是“高成本”“高就业风险”的风险投资而选择放弃高考;家庭中父母亲对子女的学历期望对孩子的高等教育选择影响较大,就职业及学历而言,父亲对孩子的影响比母亲大。“没钱也要上且能上大学”暗示教育分流不合理让社会分工失灵,“能上大学也不上”暗示高等教育的社会流动功能无处发挥。高等教育机会公平需要政府的政策保障,让低收入群体的文凭发挥功效;父母高期望还需妙招指导孩子才能成才。%Family income,parental expectations,parents’occupations and their formal schooling back-ground are some of the important factors of family background which have a profound effect on a family’s educa-tion choices for its children.Based on the research sample of 890 grade-three students of senior high schools (SHSs)from 5 high schools of 5 areas with different economic development levels in Yunnan Province,the present paper shows,the mainstream of the choices for the grade-three students of the SHSs is still going to college,and family income level has little influence on the choices of higher education(HE)for the students of SHSs;by means of social support,the students can solve the problem of HE expenses,but they choose to give up the national university admission (the NUAE )worrying that the university is a risky investment of “high cost”and “high risk of unemployment;”the parental expectations of their children’s higher education have a

  20. Characterization of gaseous detectors at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility: GEM performance in presence of high background radiation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2097588

    Muon detection is an efficient tool to recognize interesting physics events over the high background rate expected at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The muon systems of the LHC experiments are based on gaseous ionization detectors. In view of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade program, the increasing of background radiation could affect the gaseous detector performance, especially decreasing the efficiency and shortening the lifetime through ageing processes. The effects of charge multiplication, materials and gas composition on the ageing of gaseous detectors have been studied for decades, but the future upgrade of LHC requires additional studies on this topic. At the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++), a radioactive source of cesium-137 with an activity of 14 TBq is used to reproduce reasonably well the expected background radiation at HL-LHC. A muon beam has been made available to study detector performance. The characterization of the beam trigger will be discussed in the present w...

  1. Study on spatial resolution of micromegas as a neutron detector under condition of high neutron flux and γ ray background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-Xin; ZHANG Yi; WANG Ji-Jin; HU Bi-Tao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper Micromegas has been designed to detect neutrons. The simulation of the spatial reso-lution of Micromegas as neutron detector is carried out by GEANT4 toolkit. The neutron track reconstruction method based on the time coincidence technology is employed in the present work. The influence of the flux of incident 14 MeV neutron and high gamma background on the spatial resolution is carefully studied. Our results show that the spatial resolution of the detector is sensitive to the neutron flux, but insensitive to the intensity of γ background if the neutron track reconstruction method proposed by our group is used. The γ insensitivity makes it possible for us to use the Micromegas detector under condition which has high γ-rays background.

  2. Adaptive response of blood lymphocytes of inhabitants residing in high background radiation areas of ramsar- micronuclei, apoptosis and comet assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Shahla; Taghavi-Dehaghani, Mahnaz; Gharaati, Mohammad R; Masoomi, Reza; Ghiassi-Nejad, Mehdi

    2006-11-01

    The hot springs in certain areas of Ramsar contain (226)Ra and (222)Rn. The effects of natural radiation on the inhabitants of these areas and the inhabitant's radiosensitivity or adaptive responses were studied. One group of volunteers from areas with high natural background radiation and another group from areas with normal background radiation were chosen as the case and control group respectively. The frequency of micronuclei, apoptosis, and DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured following gamma irradiation (4 Gy). The incidence of micronuclei in the case group was significantly lower than that in the control group while their frequency of apoptosis was higher (P sites, the individuals in the case group are more sensitive and susceptible to DNA damage. The results of micronuclei, apoptosis and repair studies suggest that an adaptive response might be induced in people residing in areas with high background radiation.

  3. The Hard VHE Gamma-ray Emission in High-Redshift TeV Blazars: Comptonization of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation in an Extended Jet?

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Markus; Finke, Justin D

    2008-01-01

    Observations of very-high-energy (VHE, E > 250 GeV) gamma-ray emission from several blazars at z > 0.1 have placed stringent constraints on the elusive spectrum and intensity of the intergalactic infrared background radiation (IIBR). Correcting their observed VHE spectrum for gamma-gamma absorption even by the lowest plausible level of the IIBR provided evidence for a very hard (photon spectral index Gamma_{ph} 4 X 10^6) on kiloparsec scales along the jet.

  4. Probing the High-Redshift Universe Using Fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave and Infrared Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, Joseph Michael

    Background (CIB) continues to be one of the best probes of physics at the early stages of the universe. If the CMB were a purely Gaussian field, all statistical information would be contained in the power spectrum or two-point correlation function. However, non-Gaussianities ensure that new physics may be extracted from higher n-point correlation functions including the bispectrum and trispectrum of the CMB. In this thesis discuss new estimators we have formulated to probe primordial non-Gaussianity in the bispectrum and trispectrum of CMB data and the constraints we have made using WMAP data while discussing implications for inflationary models. I discuss how these same methods may be used to probe CMB Lensing. Finally, I discuss how upcoming measurements of near and far-infrared CIB fluctuations may be used to constrain the redshift of reionization and clustering of various populations of galaxies. Some preliminary results involving CANDELS, Spitzer SDWFS, CIBER and Herschel datasets is presented.

  5. X-ray detection with Micromegas with background levels below 10$^{-6}$ keV$^{-1}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$

    CERN Document Server

    Aune, S; Calvet, D.; Dafni, T.; Diago, A.; Druillole, F.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J.A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J.G.; Geralis, T.; Giomataris, I.; Gómez, H.; González-Díaz, D.; Herrera, D.C.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jourde, D.; Luzón, G.; Mirallas, H.; Mols, J.P.; Papaevangelou, T.; Rodríguez, A.; Seguí, L.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Yildiz, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    Micromegas detectors are an optimum technological choice for the detection of low energy x-rays. The low background techniques applied to these detectors yielded remarkable background reductions over the years, being the CAST experiment beneficiary of these developments. In this document we report on the latest upgrades towards further background reductions and better understanding of the detectors' response. The upgrades encompass the readout electronics, a new detector design and the implementation of a more efficient cosmic muon veto system. Background levels below 10$^{-6}$keV$^{-1}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ have been obtained at sea level for the first time, demonstrating the feasibility of the expectations posed by IAXO, the next generation axion helioscope. Some results obtained with a set of measurements conducted in the x-ray beam of the CAST Detector Laboratory will be also presented and discussed.

  6. Statistics of high-level scene context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Michelle R

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT IS CRITICAL FOR RECOGNIZING ENVIRONMENTS AND FOR SEARCHING FOR OBJECTS WITHIN THEM: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48, 167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell et al., 2008). From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed "things" in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human scene categorization is discussed. Of the three levels, ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature), and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. However, certain objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help the visual cognition community to design experiments guided by statistics

  7. Absorption of High Energy $\\gamma$ Rays by Interactions With Starlight Photons in Extragalactic Space at High Redshifts and the High Energy $\\gamma$-Ray Background

    CERN Document Server

    Salamon, M H

    1998-01-01

    We calculate the absorption of 10-500 GeV gamma-rays at high redshifts. This calculation requires the determination of the high-redshift evolution of the intergalactic starlight photon field, including its IR-UV spectral energy distribution. To estimate this evolution, we have followed a recent analysis of Fall, Charlot and Pei which gives results consistent with recent data. We give our results for the gamma-ray opacity as a function of redshift out to a redshift of 3. We also give predicted gamma-ray spectra for selected blazars and give an extragalactic unresolved blazar background spectrum up to 500 GeV. Our results indicate that this background should steepen significantly above 20 GeV owing to intergalactic absorption. Future observations of this steepening would provide a test for the blazar background origin hypothesis. We have used our results to discuss upper limits on the redshifts of gamma-ray bursts. We note that the 17 Feb. 1994 burst observed by EGRET must have originated at a redshift less tha...

  8. Progress in the High Level Trigger Integration

    CERN Multimedia

    Cristobal Padilla

    2007-01-01

    During the week from March 19th to March 23rd, the DAQ/HLT group performed another of its technical runs. On this occasion the focus was on integrating the Level 2 and Event Filter triggers, with a much fuller integration of HLT components than had been done previously. For the first time this included complete trigger slices, with a menu to run the selection algorithms for muons, electrons, jets and taus at the Level-2 and Event Filter levels. This Technical run again used the "Pre-Series" system (a vertical slice prototype of the DAQ/HLT system, see the ATLAS e-news January issue for details). Simulated events, provided by our colleagues working in the streaming tests, were pre-loaded into the ROS (Read Out System) nodes. These are the PC's where the data from the detector is stored after coming out of the front-end electronics, the "first part of the TDAQ system" and the interface to the detectors. These events used a realistic beam interaction mixture and had been subjected to a Level-1 selection. The...

  9. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  10. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  11. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  12. Statistics of High-level Scene Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R. Greene

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Context is critical to our ability to recognize environments and to search for objects within them: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48,167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell, Torralba, Muphy & Freeman, 2008. From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed things in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human rapid scene categorization is discussed. Ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature, and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. Some objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help researchers in visual cognition design new data

  13. The public health implications of farming cattle in areas with high background concentrations of vanadium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gummow, B.; Botha, C.J.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Forty-two adult Brahman-cross cattle farmed extensively in two groups, immediately adjacent to and 2 km from a vanadium processing plant respectively, were slaughtered over a 5 year period at a nearby abattoir. Cattle were being exposed to vanadium at close to no-adverse-effect levels. The dose of

  14. Constraining Dark Matter and Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray Sources with Fermi-LAT Diffuse Gamma Ray Background

    CERN Document Server

    Kalashev, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    We use the recent measurement of the isotropic $\\gamma$-ray background (IGRB) by Fermi LAT and analysis of the contribution of unresolved point $\\gamma$-ray sources to IGRB to build constraints on the models of ultra-high cosmic rays (UHECR) origin. We also calculate the minimal expected diffuse $\\gamma$-ray flux produced by UHECR interactions with an interstellar photon background. Finally, for the subclass of dark matter (DM) models with decaying weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP), we build constraints on the particle decay time using minimal expected contributions to the IGRB from unresolved point $\\gamma$-ray sources and UHECR.

  15. Using the Crab Nebula as a high precision calibrator for Cosmic Microwave Background polarimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, Jonathan; Leon, David

    2016-01-01

    The polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) provides a plethora of information about the early universe. Most notably, gravitational waves from the Inflationary epoch (the leading explanation of the origin of the universe) create a unique CMB polarization $B$-mode signal. An unambiguous detection of the inflationary $B$-mode signal would be a window into the physics of the universe as it was $10^{-36}$ seconds after the Big Bang, at energy scales many orders of magnitude larger than what the LHC can produce. However, there are several instrumental and astrophysical sources that can obfuscate the inflationary $B$-mode signal. One of the most difficult parameters to calibrate for CMB telescopes is the absolute orientation of the antenna's polarization sensitive axis. A miscalibration of the polarization orientation rotates the much brighter $E$-mode signal, producing a false $B$-mode signal. The current best uncertainty on polarization orientation in the CMB community is $0.5^\\circ$, set from extr...

  16. Food and Nutrition Curriculum Guide for Florida. Elementary Level, Middle/Junior High Level, Senior High Level, Post-Secondary Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Myrna P.; Baum, Rosemere

    This curriculum guide contains competency-based curricula suggested for teaching foods and nutrition courses on the elementary, middle/junior high school, senior high school, and postsecondary levels in Florida. For each level, concepts and subconcepts are presented, referenced to competencies or terminal performance objectives. For each…

  17. High level secretion of cellobiohydrolases by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlgren Simon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main technological impediment to widespread utilization of lignocellulose for the production of fuels and chemicals is the lack of low-cost technologies to overcome its recalcitrance. Organisms that hydrolyze lignocellulose and produce a valuable product such as ethanol at a high rate and titer could significantly reduce the costs of biomass conversion technologies, and will allow separate conversion steps to be combined in a consolidated bioprocess (CBP. Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for CBP requires the high level secretion of cellulases, particularly cellobiohydrolases. Results We expressed various cellobiohydrolases to identify enzymes that were efficiently secreted by S. cerevisiae. For enhanced cellulose hydrolysis, we engineered bimodular derivatives of a well secreted enzyme that naturally lacks the carbohydrate-binding module, and constructed strains expressing combinations of cbh1 and cbh2 genes. Though there was significant variability in the enzyme levels produced, up to approximately 0.3 g/L CBH1 and approximately 1 g/L CBH2 could be produced in high cell density fermentations. Furthermore, we could show activation of the unfolded protein response as a result of cellobiohydrolase production. Finally, we report fermentation of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel™ to ethanol by CBH-producing S. cerevisiae strains with the addition of beta-glucosidase. Conclusions Gene or protein specific features and compatibility with the host are important for efficient cellobiohydrolase secretion in yeast. The present work demonstrated that production of both CBH1 and CBH2 could be improved to levels where the barrier to CBH sufficiency in the hydrolysis of cellulose was overcome.

  18. High-level Behavior Representation Languages Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Newell, A. (1980). The keystroke-level model for user performance time with interactive systems. Communications of the ACM , 23(7), 396-410. Cohen, M. A... ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI󈧊. New York, NY: ACM . Howes, A., Lewis, R. L., Vera, A., & Richardson, J. (2005...modeling made easy. In Proceedings of CHI 2004 (Vienna, Austria, April 2004), 455-462. New York, NY: ACM . Jones, R. M., Crossman, J. A. L., Lebiere, C

  19. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    OpenAIRE

    Jolyon H Hendry; Simon, Steven L.; Wojcik, Andrzej; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner; Cardis, Elisabeth; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot; Hayata, Isamu

    2009-01-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of 222Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations li...

  20. Using the Crab Nebula as a high precision calibrator for cosmic microwave background polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Jonathan; Leon, David; Keating, Brian

    2016-03-01

    The polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provides a plethora of information about the early universe. Most notably, gravitational waves from the Inflationary epoch (the leading explanation of the origin of the universe) create a unique CMB polarization B-mode signal. An unambiguous detection of the Inflationary B-mode signal would be a window into the physics of the universe as it was 10-36s after the Big Bang, at energy scales many orders of magnitude larger than what the LHC can produce. However, there are several instrumental and astrophysical sources that can obfuscate the Inflationary B-mode signal. One of the most difficult parameters to calibrate for CMB telescopes is the absolute orientation of the antenna’s polarization sensitive axis. A miscalibration of the polarization orientation rotates the much brighter E-mode signal, producing a false B-mode signal. The current best uncertainty on polarization orientation in the CMB community is 0.5∘, set from extrapolating IRAM measurements of the Crab Nebula supernova remnant at 90 GHz to 150 GHz, where the CMB signals peak. This accuracy is not sufficient to convincingly detect B-modes predicted by currently allowable models of Inflation. We suggest to precisely measure the Crab Nebula’s polarization, which can be calibrated absolutely to 0.1∘ from measurements of the polarized emission of Mars, and use these data to calibrate current and upcoming CMB experiments. In addition to Inflationary B-modes, more precise calibration will allow us to better constrain the sum of the neutrino masses and set limits on exotic physics such as parity violation through cosmic polarization rotation.

  1. Globalism on the High School Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presutti, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the International Sibling Program at Lewiston-Porter High School in Youngstown, New York. Notes that 10 "sibling schools" in eight countries participate by exchanging faculty and students. Suggests that the program has given students, staff, and the community many opportunities to interact with the real world. (RS)

  2. RADIU-226 CONTENT IN SOIL OF THE HIGH NATURAL BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA OF RAMSAR (IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Khademi

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a high natural radiation area in the northern part of Iran (Ramsar is proved. Ra 226 in soil is measured. The results are: minimum 23.5 pCi/g and maximum 999 pCi/g soil. Environmental radioactivity is from 0.1 to 5 mr/h.

  3. Cancer mortality in the high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China during the period between 1979 and 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Zufan [Ministry of Health, Beijing (China). Lab. of Industrial Hygiene; Zha Yongru; Akiba, Suminori (and others)

    2000-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate cancer risk associated with the low-level radiation exposure of an average annual effective dose of 6.4 mSv (including internal exposure) in the high background-radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang, China. The mortality survey consisted of two steps, i.e., the follow-up of cohort members and the ascertainment of causes of death. The cohort members in HBRA were divided into three dose-groups on the basis of environmental dose-rates per year. The mortality experiences of those three dose groups were compared with those in the residents of control areas by means of relative risk (RR). During the period 1987-1995, we observed 926,226 person-years by following up 106,517 subjects in the cohort study, and accumulated 5,161 deaths, among which 557 were from cancers. We did not observe an increase in cancer mortality in HBRA (RR=0.96, 96% CI, 0.80 to 1.15). The combined data for the period 1979-95 included 125,079 subjects and accumulated 1,698,316 person-years, observed 10,415 total deaths and 1,003 cancer deaths. The relative risk of all cancers for whole HBRA as compared with the control area was estimated to be 0.99 (95% CI, 0.87 to 1.14). The relative risks of cancers of the stomach, colon, liver, lung, bone, female breast and thyroid within whole HBRA were less than one, while the risks for leukemia, cancers of the nasopharynx, esophagus, rectum, pancreas, skin, cervix uteri, brain and central nervous system, and malignant lymphoma were larger than one. None of them were significantly different from RR=1. Neither homogeneity tests nor trend tests revealed any statistically significant relationship between cancer risk and radiation dose. We did not find any increased cancer risk associated with the high levels of natural radiation in HBRA. On the contrary, the mortality of all cancers in HBRA was generally lower than that in the control area, but not statistically significant. (author)

  4. Speech at the High-level Dialogue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu; Hongjun

    2014-01-01

    <正>The commemoration of 2014 International Day of Peace,themed with"A More Secure Asia Aspired by People"is highly relevant.To begin with,I would like to share 3 points on Asian security with you.Firstly,problems in the realm of traditional security are worrying.Outdated security perspectives and security systemic structures left by the cold war are threatening Asian peace and development,yet some countries still believe in backward security

  5. Background data for modulus mapping high-performance polyethylene fiber morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawhecker, Kenneth E; Sandoz-Rosado, Emil J; Stockdale, Taylor A; Laird, Eric D

    2017-02-01

    The data included here provides a basis for understanding "Interior morphology of high-performance polyethylene fibers revealed by modulus mapping" (K.E. Strawhecker, E.J. Sandoz-Rosado, T.A. Stockdale, E.D. Laird, 2016) [1], in specific: the multi-frequency (AMFM) atomic force microscopy technique and its application to ultra-high-molecular-weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers. Furthermore, the data suggests why the Hertzian contact mechanics model can be used within the framework of AMFM theory, simple harmonic oscillator theory, and contact mechanics. The framework is first laid out followed by data showing cantilever dynamics, force-distance spectra in AC mode, and force-distance in contact mode using Polystyrene reference and UHMWPE. Finally topography and frequency shift (stiffness) maps are presented to show the cases where elastic versus plastic deformation may have occurred.

  6. Natural radionuclide and radiological assessment of building materials in high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarnegin, Elham; Moghaddam, Masoud Vahabi; Fathabadi, Nasrin

    2013-04-01

    Building materials, collected from different sites in Ramsar, a northern coastal city in Iran, were analyzed for their natural radionuclide contents. The measurements were carried out using a high resolution high purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer system. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K content varied from below the minimum detection limit up to 86,400 Bqkg(-1), 187 Bqkg(-1), and 1350 Bqkg(-1), respectively. The radiological hazards incurred from the use of these building materials were estimated through various radiation hazard indices. The result of this survey shows that values obtained for some samples are more than the internationally accepted maximum limits and as such, the use of them as a building material pose significant radiation hazard to individuals.

  7. Background data for modulus mapping high-performance polyethylene fiber morphologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth E. Strawhecker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The data included here provides a basis for understanding “Interior morphology of high-performance polyethylene fibers revealed by modulus mapping” (K.E. Strawhecker, E.J. Sandoz-Rosado, T.A. Stockdale, E.D. Laird, 2016 [1], in specific: the multi-frequency (AMFM atomic force microscopy technique and its application to ultra-high-molecular-weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE fibers. Furthermore, the data suggests why the Hertzian contact mechanics model can be used within the framework of AMFM theory, simple harmonic oscillator theory, and contact mechanics. The framework is first laid out followed by data showing cantilever dynamics, force-distance spectra in AC mode, and force-distance in contact mode using Polystyrene reference and UHMWPE. Finally topography and frequency shift (stiffness maps are presented to show the cases where elastic versus plastic deformation may have occurred.

  8. Masking of earthquake triggering behavior by a high background rate and implications for epidemic-type aftershock sequence inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, S.; Naylor, M.; Main, I. G.; Christie, M.

    2011-03-01

    We examine the effects of the spontaneous background event rate and aftershock triggering characteristics on the temporal statistics of seismicity in the epidemic-type aftershock sequence model. Recent work has shown that the earthquake interevent time distribution is generally bimodal: a superposition of a gamma component from triggered aftershocks at short time intervals and an exponential component at longer intervals from spontaneous events and the overlapping of independent aftershock sequences. The relative size of these two components varies between catalogs, so there is no simple, universal scaling; at the extreme of high spontaneous rate, e.g., in large regions, the high probability of temporally overlapping aftershock sequences causes the exponential component to dominate. Here we further explore the effects of both the spontaneous rate and the aftershock triggering parameters. We show that the analytical theory of Saichev and Sornette (2007), although valid under their assumptions, gives the impression of a more "universal" behavior if used outside its stated range of applicability. We also show that within the high-overlap (high-spontaneous rate) regime, a maximum likelihood inversion of the model's temporal parameters is both less accurate and biased; specifically, the background rate is systematically overestimated. This has implications on the suitable range of region sizes for which parameter inversion may be reliable and must therefore be taken into account in any inversion for temporal variations in background rate in time-dependent hazard calculation.

  9. Cloning, high-level expression, purification and characterization of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cloning, high-level expression, purification and characterization of a staphylokinase variant, SakøC, ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Hence in this study, we reported the cloning, high-level expression, purification and characterization of ...

  10. Spatial and depth wise characterization of radionuclides and minerals in various beach sediments from high background radiation area, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, V; Sundarrajan, M; Paramasivam, K; Suresh, G

    2014-11-04

    The activity concentrations ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) and mineralogical characterization of different layer (upper surface, first, second and third feet) Kerala beach sediments have been assessed with an aim of evaluating the radioactivity content profile, its relation to specific minerals and their distributions (spatial and depth wise). The eight different radiological indices are calculated for all samples and compared with either recommended values or the world average values of radioactivity content of the three primordial radionuclides to assess the complete radiological profile of the sediments. The radioactivity study suggests that the average specific activities of radionuclides ((238)U and (232)Th) are higher than the world average values as given in UNSCEAR reports and all radiological parameters in all layer samples are more than the recommended safety levels. These results are on the expected lines since the samples are from a well-known high background radiation area. Using FTIR, mineralogical characteristics of the sediments were analyzed and the extinction coefficient is calculated to find the relative distribution of major minerals. The calculated values show that the amount of major minerals decreases in the order of quartz>calcite>kaolinite>microcline feldspar in all layers. To confirm the results obtained from FTIR, XRD analysis was also carried out. The observations made through the XRD technique are matched with FTIR observations. Statistical analyses (cluster and factor analysis) are carried out to assess the relation between the radionuclides and minerals, and also assess their distribution patterns in different layers. The analyses suggest that the concentration of (40)K may have a strong association with the light mineral calcite and also suggest that spatial distributions of (40)K and calcite are almost similar in every layer. The concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and absorbed dose rate are evenly distributed (spatial) and other

  11. KamLAND-PICO dark matter search project Low background test by highly radiopure NaI(Tl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, Kenichi; Ejiri, Hiroyasu; Hazama, Ryuta; Ikeda, Haruo; Imagawa, Kyoshiro; Inoue, Kunio; Kozlov, Alexandre; Orito, Reiko; Shima, Tatsushi; Takemoto, Yasuhiro; Umehara, Saori; Yasuda, Kensuke; KamLAND-PICO Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    KamLAND-PICO aims to search for WIMPs dark matter by means of highly radiopure NaI(Tl) scintillator. The impurities in NaI(Tl) has been successfully reduced by chemical processing of raw NaI(Tl) powder. The intensity of alpha ray was observed and the contamination in 210Pb has been dramatically reduced to about 60 μBq/kg. The present status of low background measurement will be reported.

  12. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Exley

    Full Text Available The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD value of 51.0 (33.0 μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  13. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  14. A new method of reconstructing very-high-energy gamma-ray spectra: the Template Background Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, M V; Kosack, K; Raue, M; Rowell, G

    2014-01-01

    Very-high-energy (VHE, E>0.1 TeV) gamma-ray emission regions with angular extents comparable to the field-of-view of current imaging air-Cherenkov telescopes (IACT) require additional observations of source-free regions to estimate the background contribution to the energy spectrum. This reduces the effective observation time and deteriorates the sensitivity. A new method of reconstructing spectra from IACT data without the need of additional observations of source-free regions is developed. Its application is not restricted to any specific IACT or data format. On the basis of the template background method, which defines the background in air-shower parameter space, a new spectral reconstruction method from IACT data is developed and studied, the Template Background Spectrum (TBS); TBS is tested on published H.E.S.S. data and H.E.S.S. results. Good agreement is found between VHE gamma-ray spectra reported by the H.E.S.S. collaboration and those re-analysed with TBS. This includes analyses of point-like sourc...

  15. Readers' background characteristics and their feedback on documents: the influence of gender and educational level on evaluation results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Menno; Schellens, Peter Jan

    2001-01-01

    What is the influence of demographic variables such as gender and educational level on the reader feedback collected under the plus-minus method? To answer this question, an analysis was made of the problems detected in four public information brochures. The average amount of feedback per participan

  16. DESIRE FOR LEVELS. Background study for the policy document "Setting Environmental Quality Standards for Water and Soil"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent D; Aldenberg T; Canton JH; van Gestel CAM; Slooff W

    1990-01-01

    The report provides scientific support for setting environmental quality objectives for water, sediment and soil. Quality criteria are not set in this report. Only options for decisions are given. The report is restricted to the derivation of the 'maximally acceptable risk' levels (MAR)

  17. High-level microsatellite instability in appendiceal carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Melissa W; Galbincea, John; Mansfield, Paul F; Fournier, Keith F; Royal, Richard E; Overman, Michael J; Rashid, Asif; Abraham, Susan C

    2013-08-01

    High-level microsatellite instability (MSI-high) is found in approximately 15% of all colorectal adenocarcinomas (CRCs) and in at least 20% of right-sided cancers. It is most commonly due to somatic hypermethylation of the MLH1 gene promoter region, with familial cases (Lynch syndrome) representing only 2% to 3% of CRCs overall. In contrast to CRC, MSI-high in appendiceal adenocarcinomas is rare. Only 4 MSI-high appendiceal carcinomas and 1 MSI-high appendiceal serrated adenoma have been previously reported, and the prevalence of MSI in the appendix is unknown. We identified 108 appendiceal carcinomas from MD Anderson Cancer Center in which MSI status had been assessed by immunohistochemistry for the DNA mismatch-repair proteins MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 (n=83), polymerase chain reaction (n=7), or both (n=18). Three cases (2.8%) were MSI-high, and 1 was MSI-low. The 3 MSI-high cases included: (1) a poorly differentiated nonmucinous adenocarcinoma with loss of MLH1/PMS2 expression, lack of MLH1 promoter methylation, and lack of BRAF gene mutation, but no detected germline mutation in MLH1 from a 39-year-old man; (2) an undifferentiated carcinoma with loss of MSH2/MSH6, but no detected germline mutation in MSH2 or TACSTD1, from a 59-year-old woman; and (3) a moderately differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma arising in a villous adenoma with loss of MSH2/MSH6 expression, in a 38-year-old man with a strong family history of CRC who declined germline testing. When the overall group of appendiceal carcinomas was classified according to histologic features and precursor lesions, the frequencies of MSI-high were: 3 of 108 (2.8%) invasive carcinomas, 3 of 96 (3.1%) invasive carcinomas that did not arise from a background of goblet cell carcinoid tumors, and 0 of 12 (0%) signet ring and mucinous carcinomas arising in goblet cell carcinoid tumors. These findings, in conjunction with the previously reported MSI-high appendiceal carcinomas, highlight the low prevalence of MSI

  18. A Spectral Feature of High-Redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts Probing the Earliest Starlight Background Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Z G

    2002-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their afterglows at high redshifts have been widely believed to be detectable. Here we analyze a new feature of the MeV spectra of high-redshift GRBs, which is unlikely to appear in low-redshift GRBs. We generally discuss high-energy emission above a few decades of GeV due to synchrotron self-Compton scattering in the internal shock model. Our discussion seems to be supported by the high-energy spectra of several low-redshift GRBs. However, if GRBs originate at high redshifts (e.g., $z\\ge 6$), such photons cannot be detected because they may collide with cosmic optical and ultraviolet background photons, leading to electron/positron pair production. We show that inverse-Compton scattering of the resulting electron/positron pairs off cosmic microwave background photons will produce an additional multi-MeV component, resulting thus in a spectral "bump". We also derive the scattered photon spectrum of such a bump, $\

  19. High levels of serum hyaluronic acid in adults with dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Ausciutti Victorino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background / objectives. Hyaluronic acid (HA is rarely described in dermatomyositis (DM. Thus, we determined any clinical association of serum levels of hyaluronic acid (HA in patients with dermatomyositis (DM. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional single-center analysis 75 DM and 75 healthy individuals, during the period from January 2012 to July 2013. An anti-HA antibody assay was performed using specific ELISA/EIA kits, according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Results. The patients with DM and control subjects had comparable demographic distributions (p>0.05. The median time duration between disease diagnosis and initial symptoms was 6.0 [3.0-12.0] months, with a median DM disease duration of 4.0 [1.0-7.0] years. The median level of serum HA was significantly increased in patients with DM compared to the control group [329.0 (80.0-958.0 vs. 133.0 (30.0-262.0 ng/mL, respectively; p0.05. Serum HA also did not correlate with gender, ethnicity, auto-antibodies or drug use (p>0.05, but did correlate with cutaneous features, such as photosensitivity (p=0.001, “shawl” sign (p=0.018, “V-neck” sign (p=0.005 and cuticular hypertrophy (p=0.014. Conclusions. A high level of serum AH was observed in DM compared to healthy individuals. In DM, HA did not correlate to demographic, auto-antibodies and therapy parameters. However, HA correlated specifically with some cutaneous features, suggesting that this glycosaminoglycan could be involved in modulating cutaneous inflammation in this population. More studies are necessary to understand the correlation between AH and patients with DM.

  20. Improved background rejection in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments using a magnetic field in a high pressure xenon TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Renner, J; Hernando, J A; Imzaylov, A; Monrabal, F; Muñoz, J; Nygren, D; Gomez-Cadenas, J J

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the application of an external magnetic field could lead to an improved background rejection in neutrinoless double-beta (0nbb) decay experiments using a high pressure xenon (HPXe) TPC. HPXe chambers are capable of imaging electron tracks, a feature that enhances the separation between signal events (the two electrons emitted in the 0nbb decay of 136Xe) and background events, arising chiefly from single electrons of kinetic energy compatible with the end-point of the 0nbb decay (Qbb ). Applying an external magnetic field of sufficiently high intensity (in the range of 0.5-1 Tesla for operating pressures in the range of 5-15 atmospheres) causes the electrons to produce helical tracks. Assuming the tracks can be properly reconstructed, the sign (direction) of curvature can be determined at several points along these tracks, and such information can be used to separate signal (0nbb) events containing two electrons producing a track with two different directions of curvature from background (s...

  1. Influence of the thorium decay series on the background of high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bučar, K; Korun, M; Vodenik, B

    2012-06-01

    The background induced by the members of the thorium decay sequence in six high-resolution, gamma-ray spectrometers was analyzed. For the analysis, the count rates in the peaks of the background spectra, normalized to the unit of emission probability and detection probability, were used. The energy dependence of these normalized count rates carries information about the location of the sources of contamination. The contributions of the detector contamination, the contamination of the shielding material and the radiation penetrating the shield were calculated. The comparison of these contributions among the spectrometers pointed to the weaknesses of some shields, making such a comparison a useful tool for assessing the effectiveness of the shields.

  2. Determination of environmental radioactivity (238U, 232Th and 40K) and indoor natural background radiation level in Chennai city (Tamilnadu State), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babai, K S; Poongothai, S; Punniyakotti, J

    2013-01-01

    An extensive study on the determination of the natural radioactivity ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) levels in soil samples of Chennai city, India has been undertaken and the results of the same are compared with the levels reported in other Indian cities as well as other parts of the world. The radioactivity content in the soil samples, the absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, internal and external hazard indices were calculated and compared with UNSCEAR 2000 recommended values. In addition to the above, mapping of indoor natural background gamma radiation levels has been made using thermo luminescent dosemeters throughout Chennai city and the same are reported.

  3. Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deva Jayanthi, D., E-mail: d.devajayanthi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Women' s Christian College, Nagercoil 629001 (India); Maniyan, C.G. [Environmental Assessment Division, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Perumal, S. [Department of Physics and Research Centre, S.T.Hindu College, Nagercoil 629002 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv. -- Highlights: {yields} The effective dose received by the villages of Natural High Background Area (NHBRA) such as Enayam, Midalam and Mel Midalam is high when compared with other study areas. {yields} The high dose indicates higher concentration of radioactive nuclides like Thorium and Uranium in the soil. {yields} As radiation is harmful to human life, the external and internal doses can be reduced by removing the monazite content present in the soil by mineral separation. {yields} Contribution from vegetables, fruits, fish and other non vegetarian items are also being examined. {yields} These results along with other socio-economic factors can throw considerable light on the epidemiological impacts due to low levels of chronic exposure.

  4. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste from...

  5. A High-Voltage Level Tolerant Transistor Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne Johan; Geelen, Godefridus Johannes Gertrudis Maria

    2001-01-01

    A high-voltage level tolerant transistor circuit, comprising a plurality of cascoded transistors, including a first transistor (T1) operatively connected to a high-voltage level node (3) and a second transistor (T2) operatively connected to a low-voltage level node (2). The first transistor (T1) con

  6. Assessment of background levels of trace metals in water and soil from a remote region of Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Munir H; Iqbal, Javed; Shaheen, Nazia; Khan, Nadeem; Choudhary, Muhammad Aziz; Akhter, Gulraiz

    2012-03-01

    Selected trace metals were estimated by atomic absorption spectrometry in the water and soil samples collected from the remote region of Himalaya. The soil samples were analysed for soluble and acid extractable fraction of trace metals. In water samples, Ca, Na, Mg and K emerged as dominant contributors, whereas, Ca, Na, K, Mg, Fe and Pb were estimated at comparatively higher levels in the water extract of the soil. In case of acid extract of the soil samples, Ca, K, Fe, Mg, Mn and Na were found at elevated concentrations. Based on mean levels of the metals, following decreasing concentration order was observed in water samples: Ca > Na > Mg > K > Pb > Co > Cu > Zn > Mn > Cr > Fe > Cd > Li, however, in the acid extract of the soil, following order was noted: Ca > K > Fe > Mg > Mn > Na > Pb > Zn > Cr > Li > Cu > Co > Cd. The correlation study revealed appreciably diverse mutual relationships of trace metals in the water and soil samples. The multivariate cluster analyses exhibited divergent apportionment of trace metals in water and soil samples. Among the trace metals, Cd, Pb, Li, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn and Co exhibited extreme to significant anthropogenic enrichment in the soil samples, while the rest of the metals were mostly contributed by the natural processes.

  7. EUVE GO Survey: High Levels of User Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroozas, B. A.

    2000-12-01

    This paper describes the results of a detailed customer survey of Guest Observers (GOs) for NASA's Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) astronomy satellite observatory. The purpose of the research survey was to (1) measure the levels of GO customer satisfaction with respect to EUVE observing services, and (2) compare the observing experiences of EUVE GOs with their experiences using other satellite observatories. This survey was conducted as a business research project -- part of the author's graduate work as an MBA candidate. A total sample of 38 respondents, from a working population of 101 "active" EUVE GOs, participated in this survey. The results, which provided a profile of the "typical" EUVE GO, showed in a statistically significant fashion that these GOs were more than satisfied with the available EUVE observing services. In fact, the sample GOs generally rated their EUVE observing experiences to be better than average as compared to their experiences as GOs on other missions. These relatively high satisfaction results are particularly pleasing to the EUVE Project which, given its significantly reduced staffing environment at U.C. Berkeley, has continued to do more with less. This paper outlines the overall survey process: the relevant background and previous research, the survey design and methodology, and the final results and their interpretation. The paper also points out some general limitations and weaknesses of the study, along with some recommended actions for the EUVE Project and for NASA in general. This work was funded by NASA/UCB Cooperative Agreement NCC5-138.

  8. Investigation of association between high background radiation exposure with trace element concentrations’ (Copper, Zinc, Iron and Magnesium of hot springs workers blood in Mahalat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Shahbazi-Gahrouei

    2014-10-01

    change the concentrations of body trace elements, which are important from biological points of view. In this study increases in average concentrations of Zn and Fe and decreases in Cu of employee was observed compared to control group. The genetic diversity, nutritional factors and case sensitivity may be important factors in this regards. This study showed that the lifelong exposure to high background levels of radiation can affect the trace element concentrations and each value of radiation doses can be dangerous.

  9. [Eating Disorders in Female High School Students: Educational and Migration Background, School-Related Stress and Performance-Orientated Classes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüttner, M

    2016-11-15

    Background: Many adolescents and young adults, especially young females, suffer from eating disorders or problematic nutrition behavior. Children and adolescents with migration background as well as from a lower social class are more likely to have eating disorders 1. Although schools are an important context in these age groups, there is a lack of scientific inquiry concerning the relationship between schooling and eating disorders. The present study investigates the relationship between performance-related stress at school and eating disorders while controlling for personnel and familial resources. Method: Interview data on the 7(th) grade high school students from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS)* starting cohort 3 are used. The dependent variable is based on the SCOFF questionnaire. Logistic regressions are calculated using information from students and parents. Performance-related stress at school is operationalized by the negative deviation of realistic from idealistic educational aspirations (EA) and unfulfilled social expectations (SE), performance-oriented class climate is operationalized by students' perception of the performance-orientation of the teacher (PT) and the expectations of classmates (EC). Results: The results point towards an increased risk of suffering from an eating disorder due to performance-related school stress (EA: AME: 0.18; pstudents, attention should be paid to performance-orientation experienced at school and in the social background, and improved individual support for disadvantaged students should be made available. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. The thickness design of unintentionally doped GaN interlayer matched with background doping level for InGaN-based laser diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the internal optical loss of InGaN laser diodes, an unintentionally doped GaN (u-GaN interlayer is inserted between InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region and Al0.2Ga0.8N electron blocking layer. The thickness design of u-GaN interlayer matching up with background doping level for improving laser performance is studied. It is found that a suitably chosen u-GaN interlayer can well modulate the optical absorption loss and optical confinement factor. However, if the value of background doping concentration of u-GaN interlayer is too large, the output light power may decrease. The analysis of energy band diagram of a LD structure with 100 nm u-GaN interlayer shows that the width of n-side depletion region decreases when the background concentration increases, and may become even too small to cover whole MQW, resulting in a serious decrease of the output light power. It means that a suitable interlayer thickness design matching with the background doping level of u-GaN interlayer is significant for InGaN-based laser diodes.

  11. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. METHODS A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. RESULTS From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. CONCLUSION Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  12. Characteristics and background level detection of atmospheric CO2 at GAW Global Station Zugspitze-Schneefernerhaus based on 35 years of continuous observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Ries, Ludwig; Trickl, Thomas; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    35 years (1981-2015) continuous measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) at Zugspitze mountain station about 90 km south of Munich, Germany are investigated in this study. For the first 21 years (1981-2001) observation was conducted at Zugspitze summit (ZUG, 2962 m a.s.l.), while CO2 measurement was performed at Zugspitze Schneefernerhaus Environment Research Station (ZSF, 2671 m a.s.l.) since 2002. The mean annual growth rate is 1.58 ± 1.25 ppm per year during the first 21 years from 1981 to 2001 at ZUG, and 2.07 ± 1.12 ppm per year for the last 15 years from 2002 to 2015 at ZSF. The average seasonal peak-to-peak amplitude increases slightly from 11.60 ± 2.62 ppm (ZUG, 1981-2001) to 12.61 ± 1.90 ppm (ZSF, 2002-2015). Regarding CO2 weekly cycle, clear differences are found during weekends between ZUG and ZSF, while weekdays perform similar. As a high altitude observatory situated remotely from urban areas, CO2 concentration at both ZUG and ZSF can still be influenced and contaminated by local/regional anthropogenic and biogenic sources and sinks. In order to remove the external influences and extract the real "background" level of CO2 from measured data sets, a novel and efficient data selection method based on diurnal variation is performed. Performance of data selection is intensively discussed and compared with synoptical data as well as simultaneous radon measurement. Besides, nine months of parallel atmospheric CO2 measurements at the Zugspitze ridge right above ZSF (2825 m a.s.l.) are also included for a short-term comparison with measured CO2 at ZSF for the same period. Acknowledgement to Dr. H.E. Scheel from KIT Institute (former IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen for his highly qualitative measurement of data until 2001 on Zugspitze summit (ZUG). Throughout a very long time Dr. Scheel has accompanied the program on Zugspitze summit with his high level expertise and responsiveness.

  13. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  14. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  15. [Monitoring Atmospheric CO2 and delta(13)C (CO2) Background Levels at Shangdianzi Station in Beijing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling-ju; Zhou, Ling-xi; Liu, Li-xin; Zhang, Gen

    2016-04-15

    The study presented time series of atmospheric CO2 concentrations from flask sampling at SDZ regional station in Beijing during 2007 and 2013, together with delta(13)CO2) values during 2009 and 2013. The "representative data" of CO2 and delta(13)C (CO2) were selected from the complete data for further analysis. Annual CO2 concentrations increased from 385.6 x 10(-6) in 2007 to 398.1 x 10(-6) in 2013, with an average growth rate of 2.0 x 10(-6) a(-1), while the delta(13)C values decreased from -8.38% per hundred in 2009 to -8.52% per hundred in 2013, with a mean growth rate of -0.03% per hundred x a(-1). The absolute increase of CO2 from 2007 to 2008 reached the lowest level during 2007 and 2013, possibly due to relatively less carbon emissions during the 2008 Olympic Games period. The peak-to-peak amplitudes of atmospheric CO2 and delta(13)C seasonal variations were 23. 9 x 10 -6 and 1. 03%o, respectively. The isotopic signatures of CO2 sources/sinks were also discussed in this study. The delta8 value for heating season I (Jan. 01-Mar. 14) was -21.30% per hundred, while -25.39% per hundred for heating season 11 (Nov. 15-Dec.31) , and for vegetative season (Mar. 15-Nov. 14) the delta(bio) value was estimated to be -21.28% per hundred, likely suggesting the significant impact of fossil fuel and corn straw combustions during winter heating season and biological activities during vegetative season.

  16. Practical Use of High-level Petri Net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The aim of the workshop is to bring together researchers and practitioners with interests in the use of high-level nets and their tools for practical applications. A typical paper is expected to report on a case study where high-level Petri nets and their tools have been used in practice. We also...... welcome papers describing a tool, a methodology, or other developments that have proved successful to make high-level Petri nets more applicable in practice....

  17. Sex differences in aggression among children of low and high gender inequality backgrounds: a comparison of gender role and sexual selection theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivette, Amy E; Eisner, Manuel; Malti, Tina; Ribeaud, Denis

    2014-01-01

    It is well understood in aggression research that males tend to exhibit higher levels of physical aggression than females. Yet there are still a number of gaps in our understanding of variation in sex differences in children's aggression, particularly in contexts outside North America. A key assumption of social role theory is that sex differences vary according to gender polarization, whereas sexual selection theory accords variation to the ecological environment that consequently affects male competition [Archer, J. (2009). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 249-311; Kenrick, D., & Griskevicious, V. (2009). More holes in social roles [Comment]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 283-285]. In the present paper, we explore these contradicting theoretical frameworks by examining data from a longitudinal study of a culturally diverse sample of 863 children at ages 7-13 in Zurich, Switzerland. Making use of the large proportion of children from highly diverse immigrant background we compare the size of the sex difference in aggression between children whose parents were born in countries with low and with high levels of gender inequality. The results show that sex differences in aggression are generally larger among children with parents from high gender inequality backgrounds. However, this effect is small in comparison to the direct effect of a child's biological sex. We discuss implications for future research on sex differences in children's aggression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Background CO2 levels and error analysis from ground-based solar absorption IR measurements in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylon, Jorge L.; Stremme, Wolfgang; Grutter, Michel; Hase, Frank; Blumenstock, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    In this investigation we analyze two common optical configurations to retrieve CO2 total column amounts from solar absorption infrared spectra. The noise errors using either a KBr or a CaF2 beam splitter, a main component of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), are quantified in order to assess the relative precisions of the measurements. The configuration using a CaF2 beam splitter, as deployed by the instruments which contribute to the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON), shows a slightly better precision. However, we show that the precisions in XCO2 ( = 0.2095 ṡ size: .7em; color: #68;">Total Column CO2size: .7em; color: #68;">Total Column O2) retrieved from > 96 % of the spectra measured with a KBr beam splitter fall well below 0.2 %. A bias in XCO2 (KBr - CaF2) of +0.56 ± 0.25 ppm was found when using an independent data set as reference. This value, which corresponds to +0.14 ± 0.064 %, is slightly larger than the mean precisions obtained. A 3-year XCO2 time series from FTIR measurements at the high-altitude site of Altzomoni in central Mexico presents clear annual and diurnal cycles, and a trend of +2.2 ppm yr-1 could be determined.

  19. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1980 to 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1980 to 1995, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  20. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1995 to 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1995 to 2000, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  1. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2005 to 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2005 to 2009, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  2. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2000 to 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2000 to 2005, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  3. High temporal resolution measurements of ozone precursors in a rural background station. A two-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazo, M; Durana, N; Alonso, L; Gómez, M C; García, J A; Ilardia, J L; Gangoiti, G; Iza, J

    2008-01-01

    We present a very complete database of individual non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) measurements with high temporal resolution (hourly) in a rural background atmosphere. We show their use to characterize the biogenic NMHC as well as to identify the transport and impact of anthropogenic NMHC on rural areas. In January 2003 an automatic GC-FID analyzer of volatile organic compounds between 2 and 10 carbon atoms (C2-C10 VOCs) was placed in the centre of the Valderejo Natural Park in northern Iberia (42.87 degrees N, 3.22 degrees W), far away from important cities. The system operated continuously until December 2004. Data coverage was higher than 70% for a total of 59 VOC of both anthropogenic and biogenic origin, with detection limits in the range of pptv. Our results allow for the description of the behaviour of these compounds, in order to identify external impacts arriving to the sampling site which has been recognized to be highly representative of a rural background atmosphere. Biogenic VOC concentrations have been compared also with the calculated emissions, using Guenther's algorithm, and the discrepancies interpreted in terms of the different reactivity of such compounds.

  4. Evidence for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Australian indigenous peoples: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Jasmine G.; O’Dea, Kerin; Karen Z Walker

    2014-01-01

    Background Low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are a strong, independent, but poorly understood risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although this atherogenic lipid abnormality has been widely reported in Australia’s Indigenous peoples, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, the evidence has not come under systematic review. This review therefore examines published data for Indigenous Australians reporting 1) mean HDL-C levels for both sexes and 2) factors...

  5. High-temperature expansion of the one-loop free energy of a scalar field on a curved background

    CERN Document Server

    Kalinichenko, I S

    2013-01-01

    The high-temperature expansion of the one-loop contribution to the free energy of a scalar field on a stationary gravitational background is derived. The explicit expressions for the divergent and finite parts of the high-temperature expansion in a three-dimensional space without boundaries are obtained. These formulas generalize the known one for the static spacetime. In particular, for a massless conformal scalar field, the leading correction to the Planck law proportional to the temperature squared turns out to be nonzero due to the non-static nature of the metric. The explicit expression for the so-called energy-time anomaly is found. The interrelation between this anomaly and the conformal (trace) anomaly is established.

  6. High-temperature expansion of the one-loop free energy of a scalar field on a curved background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinichenko, I. S.; Kazinski, P. O.

    2013-04-01

    The complete form of the high-temperature expansion of the one-loop contribution to the free energy of a scalar field on a stationary gravitational background is derived. The explicit expressions for the divergent and finite parts of the high-temperature expansion in a three-dimensional space without boundaries are obtained. These formulas generalize the known one for the stationary spacetime. In particular, we confirm that for a massless conformal scalar field the leading correction to the Planck law proportional to the temperature squared turns out to be nonzero due to the nonstatic nature of the metric. The explicit expression for the so-called energy-time anomaly is found. The interrelation between this anomaly and the conformal (trace) anomaly is established. The natural simplest Lagrangian for the “Killing vector field” is given.

  7. Evaluation of DNA damage in the root cells of Allium cepa seeds growing in soil of high background radiation areas of Ramsar - Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saghirzadeh, M. [Department of Basic Science, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gharaati, M.R. [Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Sh. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Radiation Applications Research School, Tehran 11365-3486 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: smohammadi@aeoi.org.ir; Ghiassi-Nejad, M. [Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Plants are unique in their ability to serve as in situ monitors for environmental genotoxins. We have used the alkaline comet assay for detecting induced DNA damage in Allium cepa to estimate the impact of high levels of natural radiation in the soils of inhabited zones of Ramsar. The average specific activity of natural radionuclides measured in the soil samples for {sup 226}Ra was 12,766 Bq kg{sup -1} whereas in the control soils was in the range of 34-60 Bq kg{sup -1}. A positive strong significant correlation of the DNA damage in nuclei of the root cells of A. cepa seeds germinated in the soil of high background radiation areas with {sup 226}Ra specific activity of the soil samples was observed. The results showed high genotoxicity of radioactively contaminated soils. Also the linear increase in the DNA damage indicates that activation of repair enzymes is not triggered by exposure to radiation in HBRA.

  8. An extremely simple method for fabricating 3D protein microarrays with an anti-fouling background and high protein capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhifeng; Ma, Yuhong; Zhao, Changwen; Chen, Ruichao; Zhu, Xing; Zhang, Lihua; Yan, Xu; Yang, Wantai

    2014-07-21

    Protein microarrays have become vital tools for various applications in biomedicine and bio-analysis during the past decade. The intense requirements for a lower detection limit and industrialization in this area have resulted in a persistent pursuit to fabricate protein microarrays with a low background and high signal intensity via simple methods. Here, we report on an extremely simple strategy to create three-dimensional (3D) protein microarrays with an anti-fouling background and a high protein capacity by photo-induced surface sequential controlled/living graft polymerization developed in our lab. According to this strategy, "dormant" groups of isopropyl thioxanthone semipinacol (ITXSP) were first introduced to a polymeric substrate through ultraviolet (UV)-induced surface abstraction of hydrogen, followed by a coupling reaction. Under visible light irradiation, the ITXSP groups were photolyzed to initiate surface living graft polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl methacrylate (PEGMMA), thus introducing PEG brushes to the substrate to generate a full anti-fouling background. Due to the living nature of this graft polymerization, there were still ITXSP groups on the chain ends of the PEG brushes. Therefore, by in situ secondary living graft cross-linking copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), we could finally plant height-controllable cylinder microarrays of a 3D PEG network containing reactive epoxy groups onto the PEG brushes. Through a commonly used reaction of amine and epoxy groups, the proteins could readily be covalently immobilized onto the microarrays. This delicate design aims to overcome two universal limitations in protein microarrays: a full anti-fouling background can effectively eliminate noise caused by non-specific absorption and a 3D reactive network provides a larger protein-loading capacity to improve signal intensity. The results of non-specific protein absorption tests

  9. Process for solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Wayne A.

    1978-01-01

    The addition of a small amount of reducing agent to a mixture of a high-level radioactive waste calcine and glass frit before the mixture is melted will produce a more homogeneous glass which is leach-resistant and suitable for long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste products.

  10. Interventions for Individuals With High Levels of Needle Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Taddio, Anna; Antony, Martin M.; Asmundson, Gordon J.G.; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Chambers, Christine T.; Shah, Vibhuti

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of exposure-based psychological and physical interventions for the management of high levels of needle fear and/or phobia and fainting in children and adults. Design/Methods: A systematic review identified relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of children, adults, or both with high levels of needle fear, including phobia (if not available, then populations with other specific phobias were included). Critically important outcomes were self-reported fear specific to the feared situation and stimulus (psychological interventions) or fainting (applied muscle tension). Data were pooled using standardized mean difference (SMD) or relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. Results: The systematic review included 11 trials. In vivo exposure-based therapy for children 7 years and above showed benefit on specific fear (n=234; SMD: −1.71 [95% CI: −2.72, −0.7]). In vivo exposure-based therapy with adults reduced fear of needles posttreatment (n=20; SMD: −1.09 [−2.04, −0.14]) but not at 1-year follow-up (n=20; SMD: −0.28 [−1.16, 0.6]). Compared with single session, a benefit was observed for multiple sessions of exposure-based therapy posttreatment (n=93; SMD: −0.66 [−1.08, −0.24]) but not after 1 year (n=83; SMD: −0.37 [−0.87, 0.13]). Non in vivo e.g., imaginal exposure-based therapy in children reduced specific fear posttreatment (n=41; SMD: −0.88 [−1.7, −0.05]) and at 3 months (n=24; SMD: −0.89 [−1.73, −0.04]). Non in vivo exposure-based therapy for adults showed benefit on specific fear (n=68; SMD: −0.62 [−1.11, −0.14]) but not procedural fear (n=17; SMD: 0.18 [−0.87, 1.23]). Applied tension showed benefit on fainting posttreatment (n=20; SMD: −1.16 [−2.12, −0.19]) and after 1 year (n=20; SMD: −0.97 [−1.91, −0.03]) compared with exposure alone. Conclusions: Exposure-based psychological interventions and applied muscle tension show

  11. Variations in voice level and fundamental frequency with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance while wearing hearing protectors: A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouserhal, Rachel E.; MacDonald, Ewen; Falk, Tiago H.;

    2016-01-01

    concern for people wearing hearing protection devices (HPD). Although practical, radio communication is cumbersome, as it does not distinguish designated receivers. A smarter radio communication protocol must be developed to alleviate this problem. Thus, it is necessary to model speech production in noise...... while wearing HPDs. Such a model opens the door to radio communication systems that distinguish receivers and offer more efficient communication between persons wearing HPDs. Design: This paper presents the results of a pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of occluding the ear on changes...... in voice level and fundamental frequency in noise and with varying talker-to-listener distance. Study sample: Twelve participants with a mean age of 28 participated in this study. Results: Compared to existing data, results show a trend similar to the open ear condition with the exception of the occluded...

  12. Floorplan-Driven Multivoltage High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwu Xing

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As the semiconductor technology advances, interconnect plays a more and more important role in power consumption in VLSI systems. This also imposes a challenge in high-level synthesis, in which physical information is limited and conventionally considered after high-level synthesis. To close the gap between high-level synthesis and physical implementation, integration of physical synthesis and high-level synthesis is essential. In this paper, a technique named FloM is proposed for integrating floorplanning into high-level synthesis of VLSI system with multivoltage datapath. Experimental results obtained show that the proposed technique is effective and the energy consumed by both the datapath and the wires can be reduced by more than 40%.

  13. Correlation of low levels of nitrite and high levels of fetal hemoglobin in patients with sickle cell disease at baseline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcielle Bruna Dias Elias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is a hemoglobinopathy characterized by hemolytic anemia, increased susceptibility to infections and recurrent vaso-occlusive crises that reduces the quality of life of sufferers. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation of the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, malonaldehyde and nitrite to fetal hemoglobin in patients with sickle cell disease not under treatment with hydroxyurea in outpatients at a university hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: Forty-four patients diagnosed with sickle cell disease were enrolled at baseline. Diagnosis was confirmed by evaluating the beta globin gene using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The concentration of fetal hemoglobin was obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum levels of nitrite, malonaldehyde and lactate dehydrogenase were measured by biochemical methods. RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase, nitrite and malonaldehyde were observed in patients with sickle cell disease compared to a control group. The study of the correlation between fetal hemoglobin levels and these variables showed a negative correlation with nitrite levels. No correlation was found between fetal hemoglobin and malonaldehyde or lactate dehydrogenase. When the study population was stratified according to fetal hemoglobin levels, a decrease in the levels of nitrite was observed with higher levels of fetal hemoglobin (p-value = 0.0415. CONCLUSION: The results show that, similar to fetal hemoglobin levels, the concentration of nitrite can predict the clinical course of the disease, but should not be used alone as a modulator of prognosis in patients with sickle cell disease.

  14. A Survey of Aichi Institute of Technology Students' English Backgrounds, Self-evaluated Language Levels and Opinions Toward English Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    KELLY, Lawrence E.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of Aichi Institute of Technology students on their experiences in learning English was carried out. A questionnaire was given to the 1991-1992 freshman class (1,332 students). This questionnaire asked about high school background, current English study efforts, selfevaluation of language skills, desire to continue learning English, opinions toward English, and self-evaluation of English progress during the school year. The answers were recorded on optical card reader mark sheets and ...

  15. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  16. Trace metal variability in coastal waters of San Jorge Bay, Antofagasta, Chile: An environmental evaluation and statistical approach to propose local background levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, J; Román, D; Guiñez, M; Rivera, L; Ávila, J; Cortés, P; Castillo, A

    2015-11-15

    Between 2008 and 2011, twelve metals from 384 coastal waters samples from San Jorge Bay (Antofagasta, northern Chile) were collected and analyzed. The goal was to evaluate the quality of the bay's water bodies according to the current Chilean Quality Guideline and to establish background levels for these metals. The result suggests that the coastal waters of San Jorge Bay are of very good quality suitable for recreational activities involving human body contact. The natural background thresholds established for this bay were significantly lower than primary and secondary water quality guidelines. The distribution of Cu, Zn and Pb, along the bay's coastline provides evidence of the effects of industrial activity. Both situations suggest that the threshold indicated in the environmental guidelines of the Chilean legislation may be overestimated and do not represent pollution-free environments.

  17. High Overtone Quasinormal Modes of Analog Black Holes and the Small Scale Structure of the Background Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Daghigh, Ramin G

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to build a foundation for, and explore the possibility of, using high overtone quasinormal modes of analog black holes to probe the small scale (microscopic) structure of a background fluid in which an analog black hole is formed. This may provide a tool to study the small scale structure of some interesting quantum systems such as Bose-Einstein condensates. In order to build this foundation, we first look into the hydrodynamic case where we calculate the high overtone quasinormal mode frequencies of a 3+1 dimensional canonical non-rotating acoustic black hole. The leading order calculations have been done earlier in the literature. Here, we obtain the first order correction. We then analyze the high overtone quasinormal modes of acoustic black holes in a Bose-Einstein condensate using the linearized Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We point out that at the high overtone quasinormal mode limit, the only term that is important in the linearized Gross-Pitaevskii equation is the quantum poten...

  18. The assessment of cytotoxic T cell and natural killer cells activity in residents of high and ordinary background radiation areas of Ramsar-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Borzoueisileh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effective radiation dose of human from natural sources is about 2.4 mSv/y and the dose limit for radiation workers is 20 mSv/y. Ramsar, a city in Iran, has been the subject of concern in the last forty years for a high level of radiation measured in some spots as high as 260 mSv/y. Carcinogenesis is one of the most studied effects of radiation especially in high doses. Recent studies showed that the high level of natural radiation received by inhabitants of this area, paradoxically don′t have significant health effect. Natural killer (NK cells and cytotoxic T cells are the most important cells in tumor immune surveillance and CD107a is a widely expressed intracellular protein located in the lysosomal/endosomal membrane. CD107a transiently located on the cell membrane can be used as a marker of CD8 + T cell degranulation following stimulation. It is also expressed, to a lower extent, on activated NK cells. In this study, 60 healthy people were selected randomly and their consent obtained and confounding factors such as sex, age, life-styles was matched then the count of activated NK and CD8 + cells was compared in high and normal background radiation areas inhabitants of Ramsar. After filling the questionnaire and measurement of background radiation, blood samples of 30 healthy people from each region were analyzed immediately by means of flowcytometry. The leukocytes and their subsets were not significantly different between two groups and the count of active cells was higher in control group. The result shows that the changes in immune system occur due to radiation and maybe it is as a result of higher radiosensitivity of activated cells.

  19. Variations in voice level and fundamental frequency with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance while wearing hearing protectors: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouserhal, Rachel E; Macdonald, Ewen N; Falk, Tiago H; Voix, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    Speech production in noise with varying talker-to-listener distance has been well studied for the open ear condition. However, occluding the ear canal can affect the auditory feedback and cause deviations from the models presented for the open-ear condition. Communication is a main concern for people wearing hearing protection devices (HPD). Although practical, radio communication is cumbersome, as it does not distinguish designated receivers. A smarter radio communication protocol must be developed to alleviate this problem. Thus, it is necessary to model speech production in noise while wearing HPDs. Such a model opens the door to radio communication systems that distinguish receivers and offer more efficient communication between persons wearing HPDs. This paper presents the results of a pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of occluding the ear on changes in voice level and fundamental frequency in noise and with varying talker-to-listener distance. Twelve participants with a mean age of 28 participated in this study. Compared to existing data, results show a trend similar to the open ear condition with the exception of the occluded quiet condition. This implies that a model can be developed to better understand speech production for the occluded ear.

  20. Background Checks for all Gun Buyers and Gun Violence Restraining Orders: State Efforts to Keep Guns from High-Risk Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Jon S; Alcorn, Ted; Horwitz, Joshua

    2017-03-01

    There were more than 36,000 firearm-related deaths in the U.S. in 2015. Under federal law, a background check is required only for gun purchases from licensed dealers. Research suggests that some persons prohibited from owning a gun turn to private sellers, including those identified online, to attempt to obtain a firearm. State-level approaches to make it more difficult for high-risk persons to purchase or possess firearms include universal background check (UBC) and gun violence restraining order (GVRO) laws. UBC laws, on the books in 18 states as of the end of 2016, can reduce both homicide and suicide rates. After Colorado adopted a UBC law in 2013, the number of background checks conducted by private sellers for sales occurring at places other than gun shows steadily increased. GVRO laws give law enforcement and families the authority to petition a court to temporarily remove firearms from an individual who presents a danger to himself or others during times of crisis, regardless of whether that person has been diagnosed with a mental illness. California enacted a GVRO law in 2014. Data are emerging to suggest the effectiveness of GVRO-type laws at averting suicides and providing an entryway to services.

  1. Confirmation of the association between high levels of immunoglobulin E food sensitization and eczema in infancy : an international study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, D. J.; Hosking, C. S.; de Benedictis, F. M.; Oranje, A. P.; Diepgen, T. L.; Bauchau, V.

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies of Australian infants have reported that more than 80% of those with moderate atopic eczema (AE) have high levels of IgE food sensitization (IgE-FS) that are commonly associated with IgE food allergy. Objectives To explore the relationship between high levels of IgE-FS and AE in a

  2. Determining the background levels of bismuth in tissues of wild game birds: a first step in addressing the environmental consequences of using bismuth shotshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, R; Tsuji, L J S; Gough, W A; Karagatzides, J D; Perera, D; Nieboer, E

    2004-11-01

    Bismuth shotshells have been approved as a "nontoxic" alternative to lead in North America. Approval was based on a limited number of studies; even background levels of bismuth in wildfowl were unknown. We report on the concentration of bismuth (and lead) in muscle and liver tissues of wildfowl (Anas platyrhynchos, Anas acuta, Anas crecca, Branta canadensis, Chen caerulescens) harvested with lead shotshell. Average liver-bismuth levels detected in the present study (e.g., teal, 0.05 microg/g dw; mallard, 0.09 microg/g dw) suggest analytical error in other studies examining the effects of bismuth in birds. Significant positive relationships between bismuth- and lead-tissue levels for muscle when all species were combined (and for B. canadensis and C. caerulescens separately) can be explained by noting that bismuth is a contaminant of lead. Thus, more research is recommended to confirm the appropriateness of bismuth as a "nontoxic" shot alternative.

  3. Estimation of background CO2 concentrations at the high alpine station Schneefernerhaus by atmospheric observations and inverse modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giemsa, Esther; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Ries, Ludwig; Frank, Gabriele; Hachinger, Stephan; Meyer-Arnek, Julian

    2016-04-01

    In order to estimate the influence of Central European CO2 emissions, a new method to retrieve background concentrations based on statistics of radon-222 and backward trajectories is developed and applied to the CO2 observations at the alpine high-altitude research station Schneefernerhaus (2670 m a.s.l.). The reliable identification of baseline conditions is important for perceiving changes in time as well as in the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and thereby assessing the efficiency of existing mitigation strategies. In the particular case of Central Europe, the analysis of background concentrations could add further insights on the question why background CO2 concentrations increased in the last few decades, despite a significant decrease in the reported emissions. Ongoing effort to define the baseline conditions has led to a variety of data selection techniques. In this diversity of data filtering concepts, a relatively recent data selection method effectively appropriates observations of radon-222 to reliably and unambiguously identify baseline air masses. Owing to its relatively constant emission rate from the ice-free land surface and its half-life of 3.8 days that is solely achieved through radioactive decay, the tropospheric background concentration of the inert radioactive gas is low and temporal variations caused by changes in atmospheric transport are precisely detectable. For defining the baseline air masses reaching the high alpine research station Schneefernerhaus, an objective analysis approach is applied to the two-hourly radon records. The CO2 values of days by the radon method associated with prevailing atmospheric background conditions result in the CO2 concentrations representing the least land influenced air masses. Additionally, three-dimensional back-trajectories were retrieved using the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) FLEXPART driven by analysis fields of the Global Forecast System (GFS) produced by the National Centers

  4. Change in ethnic identity across the high school years among adolescents with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R; Baldelomar, Oscar A; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2010-06-01

    Changes in adolescents' ethnic identity (e.g., exploration, belonging) were examined over the 4 years of high school. Results from 541 adolescents (51% female) with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds suggest that, as a group, adolescents do not report developmental changes in their ethnic exploration and belonging over time. Yet, within-person analyses of change reveal that individual adolescents exhibited substantial fluctuation in ethnic identity across the years, and this fluctuation was associated with concurrent changes in family cohesion, proportion of same-ethnic peers, and ethnic centrality. The discussion focuses on the value of examining intraindividual change over at least several years in order to more fully understand processes of ethnic identity development during adolescence.

  5. Revisiting the Contributions of Supernova and Hypernova Remnants to the Diffuse High-Energy Backgrounds: Constraints on Very High Redshift Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Di; Mészáros, Peter; Murase, Kohta; Dai, Zi-Gao

    2016-08-01

    Star-forming and starburst galaxies are considered one of the viable candidate sources of the high-energy cosmic neutrino background detected in IceCube. We revisit contributions of supernova remnants (SNRs) and hypernova remnants (HNRs) in such galaxies to the diffuse high-energy neutrino and gamma-ray backgrounds, in light of the latest Fermi data above 50 GeV. We also take into account possible time-dependent effects of the cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration during the SNR evolution. CRs accelerated by the SNR shocks can produce high-energy neutrinos up to ˜100 TeV energies, but CRs from HNRs can extend the spectrum up to PeV energies. We show that, only if HNRs are dominant over SNRs, the diffuse neutrino background above 100 TeV can be explained without contradicting the gamma-ray data. However, the neutrino data around 30 TeV remain unexplained, which might suggest a different population of gamma-ray dark CR sources. We also consider possible contributions of Pop-III HNRs up to z ≲ 10 and show that they are not constrained by the gamma-ray data and thus could contribute to the diffuse high-energy backgrounds if their explosion energy reaches {{ E }}{POP - {III}}˜ \\text{a few}× {10}53 erg. More conservatively, our results suggest that the explosion energy of Pop-III HNRs is {{ E }}{POP - {III}}≲ 7× {10}53 erg.

  6. The effect of high altitude on nasal nitric oxide levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altundag, Aytug; Salihoglu, Murat; Cayonu, Melih; Cingi, Cemal; Tekeli, Hakan; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether nasal nitric oxide (nNO) levels change in relation to high altitude in a natural setting where the weather conditions were favorable. The present study included 41 healthy volunteers without a history of acute rhinosinusitis within 3 weeks and nasal polyposis. The study group consisted of 31 males (76 %) and 10 females (24 %) and the mean age of the study population was 38 ± 10 years. The volunteers encamped for 2 days in a mountain village at an altitude of 1,500 m above sea level (masl) and proceeded to highlands at an altitude of 2,200 masl throughout the day. The measurements of nNO were done randomly, either first at the mountain village or at sea level. Each participant had nNO values both at sea level and at high altitude at the end of the study. The nNO values of sea level and high altitude were compared to investigate the effect of high altitude on nNO levels. The mean of average nNO measurements at the high altitude was 74.2 ± 41 parts-per-billion (ppb) and the mean of the measurements at sea level was 93.4 ± 45 ppb. The change in nNO depending on the altitude level was statistically significant (p high altitude even if the weather conditions were favorable, such as temperature, humidity, and wind.

  7. Levels od PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in the blood of the non-occupationally exposed residents living in the vicinity of a chemical plant, comparison with a background level for the Czech population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerna, M.; Kratenova, J.; Maly, M.; Volf, J.; Smid, J.; Zejglicova, K. [National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic); Bajgar, L.; Kozak, J. [Regional Inst. of Public Health, Central Bohemia (Czech Republic); Crhova, S.; Grabic, R. [Inst. of Public Health, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2004-09-15

    The Czech Republic ranks among to the countries with a relatively high body burden of PCBs that used to be produced in former Czechoslovakia, more precisely in Slovakia, until 1984 when the production was abolished. In 1994, nation-wide Environmental Health Monitoring System was implemented in the Czech Republic. Indicator PCB congeners and selected chlorinated pesticides started to be monitored in human body fluids and tissues of the Czech population. The indicator PCB levels in breast milk samples showed a significant downward trend in time with regional inter- and intra-individual variability. However, to measure the population body burden of dioxins, blood is considered to be more appropriate than other body fluids. Little has been known about body burden of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in the Czech population. Sporadic data are only available on level of dioxins in the breast milk, or for several pooled blood samples analyzed within the Environmental Health Monitoring System. More than 35 years ago, approximately 80 Czech workers were occupationally exposed to 2,3,7,8- TCDD in a chemical factory producing chlorinated herbicides and pesticides in Central Bohemia. Still in 1996, they showed a mean 2,3,7,8-TCDD plasma level of 256 pg/g fat. It was supposed that also the residents living surrounding the plant might be at increased exposure risk. The objective of this study was (a) to investigate concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs/PCBs in blood samples from non-occupationally exposed residents living in the vicinity of a chemical plant and (b) to compare the results with the background concentrations available for PCDDs/PCDFs/PCBs in blood samples from the evidently non-exposed Czech population.

  8. Revisiting the Contributions of Supernova and Hypernova Remnants to the Diffuse High-Energy Backgrounds: Constraints on Very-High-Redshift Injections

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Di; Murase, Kohta; Dai, Zi-gao

    2016-01-01

    Star-forming and starburst galaxies are considered as one of the viable candidate sources of the high-energy cosmic neutrino background detected in IceCube. We revisit contributions of supernova remnants (SNRs) and hypernova remnants (HNRs) in such galaxies to the diffuse high-energy neutrino and gamma-ray backgrounds, in light of the latest Fermi data above 50GeV. We also take into account possible time dependent effects of the cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration during the SNR evolution. CRs accelerated by the SNR shocks can produce high-energy neutrinos up to $\\sim100$ TeV energies, but CRs from HNRs can extend the spectrum up to PeV energies. We show that, only if HNRs are dominant over SNRs, the diffuse neutrino background above 100 TeV can be explained without contradicting the gamma-ray data. However, the neutrino data around 30 TeV remain unexplained, which might suggest a different population of gamma-ray dark CR sources. Alternatively, we consider possible contributions of Pop-III HNRs up to $z\\lesssim10$,...

  9. Examination of Libby, Montana, Fill Material for Background Levels of Amphibole from the Rainy Creek Complex Using Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David T.; Langer, William H.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Meeker, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    Natural background levels of Libby-type amphibole in the sediment of the Libby valley in Montana have not, up to this point, been determined. The purpose of this report is to provide the preliminary findings of a study designed by both the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and performed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The study worked to constrain the natural background levels of fibrous amphiboles potentially derived from the nearby Rainy Creek Complex. The material selected for this study was sampled from three localities, two of which are active open-pit sand and gravel mines. Seventy samples were collected in total and examined using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer. All samples contained varying amounts of feldspars, ilmenite, magnetite, quartz, clay minerals, pyroxene minerals, and non-fibrous amphiboles such as tremolite, actinolite, and magnesiohornblende. Of the 70 samples collected, only three had detectable levels of fibrous amphiboles compatible with those found in the rainy creek complex. The maximum concentration, identified here, of the amphiboles potentially from the Rainy Creek Complex is 0.083 percent by weight.

  10. The Reliability of Highly Elevated CA 19-9 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Osswald

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available CA 19-9 is used as a tumour marker of the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, extremely elevated CA 19-9 levels are found also in patients with benign diseases. Cholestasis was present in 97.1 % of patients with high elevated CA 19-9, independent of their primary disease. 50% of patients with non-malignant diseases and increased CA 19-9 levels showed liver cirrhosis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis and/or hepatitis. In 8.8% no explanation was found for the extremely high CA 19-9 level. The results provide evidence of different factors influencing the CA 19-9 level.

  11. Understanding how roadside concentrations of NOx are influenced by the background levels, traffic density, and meteorological conditions using Boosted Regression Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayegh, Arwa; Tate, James E.; Ropkins, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) is a major component of photochemical smog and its constituents are considered principal traffic-related pollutants affecting human health. This study investigates the influence of background concentrations of NOx, traffic density, and prevailing meteorological conditions on roadside concentrations of NOx at UK urban, open motorway, and motorway tunnel sites using the statistical approach Boosted Regression Trees (BRT). BRT models have been fitted using hourly concentration, traffic, and meteorological data for each site. The models predict, rank, and visualise the relationship between model variables and roadside NOx concentrations. A strong relationship between roadside NOx and monitored local background concentrations is demonstrated. Relationships between roadside NOx and other model variables have been shown to be strongly influenced by the quality and resolution of background concentrations of NOx, i.e. if it were based on monitored data or modelled prediction. The paper proposes a direct method of using site-specific fundamental diagrams for splitting traffic data into four traffic states: free-flow, busy-flow, congested, and severely congested. Using BRT models, the density of traffic (vehicles per kilometre) was observed to have a proportional influence on the concentrations of roadside NOx, with different fitted regression line slopes for the different traffic states. When other influences are conditioned out, the relationship between roadside concentrations and ambient air temperature suggests NOx concentrations reach a minimum at around 22 °C with high concentrations at low ambient air temperatures which could be associated to restricted atmospheric dispersion and/or to changes in road traffic exhaust emission characteristics at low ambient air temperatures. This paper uses BRT models to study how different critical factors, and their relative importance, influence the variation of roadside NOx concentrations. The paper

  12. High-level waste immobilization program: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, W.R.

    1979-09-01

    The High-Level Waste Immobilization Program is providing technology to allow safe, affordable immobilization and disposal of nuclear waste. Waste forms and processes are being developed on a schedule consistent with national needs for immobilization of high-level wastes stored at Savannah River, Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley, New York. This technology is directly applicable to high-level wastes from potential reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The program is removing one more obstacle previously seen as a potential restriction on the use and further development of nuclear power, and is thus meeting a critical technological need within the national objective of energy independence.

  13. Ultra high vacuum high precision low background setup with temperature control for thermal desorption mass spectroscopy (TDA-MS) of hydrogen in metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzlikin, Sergiy V; Borodin, S; Vogel, D; Rohwerder, M

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a newly developed UHV-based high precision low background setup for hydrogen thermal desorption analysis (TDA) of metallic samples is presented. Using an infrared heating with a low thermal capacity enables a precise control of the temperature and rapid cool down of the measurement chamber. This novel TDA-set up is superior in sensitivity to almost every standard hydrogen analyzer available commercially due to the special design of the measurement chamber, resulting in a very low hydrogen background. No effects of background drift characteristic as for carrier gas based TDA instruments were observed, ensuring linearity and reproducibility of the analysis. This setup will prove to be valuable for detailed investigations of hydrogen trapping sites in steels and other alloys. With a determined limit of detection of 5.9×10(-3)µg g(-1) hydrogen the developed instrument is able to determine extremely low hydrogen amounts even at very low hydrogen desorption rates. This work clearly demonstrates the great potential of ultra-high vacuum thermal desorption mass spectroscopy instrumentation.

  14. Background sources at PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, High Low

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), daily, high low water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services...

  16. Burning high-level TRU waste in fusion fission reactors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shen, Yaosong

    2016-01-01

    .... A new method of burning high-level transuranic (TRU) waste combined with Thorium–Uranium (Th–U) fuel in the subcritical reactors driven by external fusion neutron sources is proposed in this paper...

  17. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-14

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment.

  18. Glucose level regulation via integral high-order sliding modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorel, Lela

    2011-04-01

    Diabetes is a condition in which the body either does not produce enough insulin, or does not properly respond to it. This causes the glucose level in blood to increase. An algorithm based on Integral High-Order Sliding Mode technique is proposed, which keeps the normal blood glucose level automatically releasing insulin into the blood. The system is highly insensitive to inevitable parametric and model uncertainties, measurement noises and small delays.

  19. Sensitivity to Antibiotics of Bacteria Exposed to Gamma Radiation Emitted from Hot Soils of the High Background Radiation Areas of Ramsar, Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Zarei, Samira; Taheri, Mohammad; Tajbakhsh, Saeed; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Ranjbar, Sahar; Momeni, Fatemeh; Masoomi, Samaneh; Ansari, Leila; Movahedi, Mohammad Mehdi; Taeb, Shahram; Zarei, Sina; Haghani, Masood

    2017-04-01

    Over the past several years our laboratories have investigated different aspects of the challenging issue of the alterations in bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics induced by physical stresses. To explore the bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in samples of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium), Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae after exposure to gamma radiation emitted from the soil samples taken from the high background radiation areas of Ramsar, northern Iran. Standard Kirby-Bauer test, which evaluates the size of the zone of inhibition as an indicator of the susceptibility of different bacteria to antibiotics, was used in this study. The maximum alteration of the diameter of inhibition zone was found for K. pneumoniae when tested for ciprofloxacin. In this case, the mean diameter of no growth zone in non-irradiated control samples of K. pneumoniae was 20.3 (SD 0.6) mm; it was 14.7 (SD 0.6) mm in irradiated samples. On the other hand, the minimum changes in the diameter of inhibition zone were found for S. typhimurium and S. aureus when these bacteria were tested for nitrofurantoin and cephalexin, respectively. Gamma rays were capable of making significant alterations in bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. It can be hypothesized that high levels of natural background radiation can induce adaptive phenomena that help microorganisms better cope with lethal effects of antibiotics.

  20. Probing high energy levels of lanthanide ions - experiment and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijzel, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopy of lanthanide ions. High-resolution emission and excitation spectra were recorded to investigate the VUV energy levels of lanthanide ions in fluoride and phosphate host lattices. A parameterized model for the calculation of the energy-level

  1. Exceedance probability map: a tool helping the definition of arsenic Natural Background Level (NBL) within the Drainage Basin to the Venice Lagoon (NE Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Libera, Nico; Fabbri, Paolo; Mason, Leonardo; Piccinini, Leonardo; Pola, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic groundwater contamination affects worldwide shallower groundwater bodies. Starting from the actual knowledges around arsenic origin into groundwater, we know that the major part of dissolved arsenic is naturally occurring through the dissolution of As-bearing minerals and ores. Several studies on the shallow aquifers of both the regional Venetian Plain (NE Italy) and the local Drainage Basin to the Venice Lagoon (DBVL) show local high arsenic concentration related to peculiar geochemical conditions, which drive arsenic mobilization. The uncertainty of arsenic spatial distribution makes difficult both the evaluation of the processes involved in arsenic mobilization and the stakeholders' decision about environmental management. Considering the latter aspect, the present study treats the problem of the Natural Background Level (NBL) definition as the threshold discriminating the natural contamination from the anthropogenic pollution. Actually, the UE's Directive 2006/118/EC suggests the procedures and criteria to set up the water quality standards guaranteeing a healthy status and reversing any contamination trends. In addition, the UE's BRIDGE project proposes some criteria, based on the 90th percentile of the contaminant's concentrations dataset, to estimate the NBL. Nevertheless, these methods provides just a statistical NBL for the whole area without considering the spatial variation of the contaminant's concentration. In this sense, we would reinforce the NBL concept using a geostatistical approach, which is able to give some detailed information about the distribution of arsenic concentrations and unveiling zones with high concentrations referred to the Italian drinking water standard (IDWS = 10 µg/liter). Once obtained the spatial information about arsenic distribution, we can apply the 90th percentile methods to estimate some Local NBL referring to every zones with arsenic higher than IDWS. The indicator kriging method was considered because it

  2. Nuclear Level Density at High Spin and Excitation Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.N. Behkami; Z. Kargar

    2001-01-01

    The intensive studies of equilibrium processes in heavy-ion reaction have produced a need for information on nuclear level densities at high energies and spins. The Fermi gas level density is often used in investigation of heavy-ion reaction studies. Some papers have claimed that nuclear level densities might deviate substantially from the Fermi gas predications at excitations related to heavy-ion reactions. The formulae of calculation of the nuclear level density based on the theory of superconductivity are presented, special attention is paid to the dependence of the level density on the angular momentum. The spin-dependent nuclear level density is evaluated using the pairing interaction. The resulting level density for an average spin of 52h is evaluated for 155Er and compared with experimental data. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory is obtained.``

  3. High level resistance to aminoglycosides in enterococci from Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ballaa, S R; Qadri, S M; Al-Ballaa, S R; Kambal, A M; Saldin, H; Al-Qatary, K

    1994-07-01

    Enterococci with high level of aminoglycosides resistance are being reported from different parts of the world with increasing frequency. Treatment of infections caused by such isolates is associated with a high incidence of failure or relapse. This is attributed to the loss of the synergetic effect of aminoglycosides and cell wall active agents against isolates exhibiting this type of resistance. To determine the prevalence of enterococci with high level resistance to aminoglycosides in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 241 distinct clinical isolates were examined by disk diffusion method using high content aminoglycosides disks. Seventy-four isolates (30%) were resistant to one or more of the aminoglycosides tested. The most common pattern of resistance was that to streptomycin and kanamycin. Of the 241 isolates tested, 29 (12%) were resistant to high levels of gentamicin, 35 (15%) to tobramycin, 65 (27%) to kanamycin and 53 (22%) to streptomycin. The highest rate of resistance to a high level of gentamicin was found among enterococcal blood isolates (30%). Eighteen of the isolates were identified as Enterococcus faecium, 13 (72%) of these showed high level resistance to two or more of the aminoglycosides tested.

  4. Face Tracking with Low-level and High-level Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUDong; LIStan; LIUZhengkai

    2005-01-01

    Face Tracking is an important and difficult vision task. In this paper, the high-level frontal face detector information and the low-level color information are fused iteratively. With the multi-step fusion schemes, better face tracking performance is achieved, as demonstrated by the exhaustive experiments.

  5. The sleep of elite athletes at sea level and high altitude: a comparison of sea-level natives and high-altitude natives (ISA3600)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D; Schmidt, Walter F; Aughey, Robert J; Bourdon, Pitre C; Soria, Rudy; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben M; Hammond, Kristal; Kley, Marlen; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Gore, Christopher J; Sargent, Charli

    2013-01-01

    Background Altitude exposure causes acute sleep disruption in non-athletes, but little is known about its effects in elite athletes. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of altitude on two groups of elite athletes, that is, sea-level natives and high-altitude natives. Methods Sea-level natives were members of the Australian under-17 soccer team (n=14). High-altitude natives were members of a Bolivian under-20 club team (n=12). Teams participated in an 18-day (19 nights) training camp in Bolivia, with 6 nights at near sea level in Santa Cruz (430 m) and 13 nights at high altitude in La Paz (3600 m). Sleep was assessed on every day/night using activity monitors. Results The Australians’ sleep was shorter, and of poorer quality, on the first night at altitude compared with sea level. Sleep quality returned to normal by the end of the first week at altitude, but sleep quantity had still not stabilised at its normal level after 2 weeks. The quantity and quality of sleep obtained by the Bolivians was similar, or greater, on all nights at altitude compared with sea level. The Australians tended to obtain more sleep than the Bolivians at sea level and altitude, but the quality of the Bolivians’ sleep tended to be better than that of the Australians at altitude. Conclusions Exposure to high altitude causes acute and chronic disruption to the sleep of elite athletes who are sea-level natives, but it does not affect the sleep of elite athletes who are high-altitude natives. PMID:24282197

  6. An overview of very high level software design methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asdjodi, Maryam; Hooper, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Very High Level design methods emphasize automatic transfer of requirements to formal design specifications, and/or may concentrate on automatic transformation of formal design specifications that include some semantic information of the system into machine executable form. Very high level design methods range from general domain independent methods to approaches implementable for specific applications or domains. Applying AI techniques, abstract programming methods, domain heuristics, software engineering tools, library-based programming and other methods different approaches for higher level software design are being developed. Though one finds that a given approach does not always fall exactly in any specific class, this paper provides a classification for very high level design methods including examples for each class. These methods are analyzed and compared based on their basic approaches, strengths and feasibility for future expansion toward automatic development of software systems.

  7. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage.

  8. High-level trigger system for the LHC ALICE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramm, R.; Helstrup, H.; Lien, J.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Roehrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Ullaland, K.; Vestboe, A. E-mail: vestbo@fi.uib.no; Wiebalck, A

    2003-04-21

    The central detectors of the ALICE experiment at LHC will produce a data size of up to 75 MB/event at an event rate {<=}200 Hz resulting in a data rate of {approx}15 GB/s. Online processing of the data is necessary in order to select interesting (sub)events ('High Level Trigger'), or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques. Processing this data requires a massive parallel computing system (High Level Trigger System). The system will consist of a farm of clustered SMP-nodes based on off-the-shelf PCs connected with a high bandwidth low latency network.

  9. High-level trigger system for the LHC ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bramm, R; Lien, J A; Lindenstruth, V; Loizides, C; Röhrich, D; Skaali, B; Steinbeck, T M; Stock, Reinhard; Ullaland, K; Vestbø, A S; Wiebalck, A

    2003-01-01

    The central detectors of the ALICE experiment at LHC will produce a data size of up to 75 MB/event at an event rate less than approximately equals 200 Hz resulting in a data rate of similar to 15 GB/s. Online processing of the data is necessary in order to select interesting (sub)events ("High Level Trigger"), or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques. Processing this data requires a massive parallel computing system (High Level Trigger System). The system will consist of a farm of clustered SMP-nodes based on off- the-shelf PCs connected with a high bandwidth low latency network.

  10. High-level trigger system for the LHC ALICE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramm, R.; Helstrup, H.; Lien, J.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Röhrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbø, A.; Wiebalck, A.; ALICE Colloboration

    2003-04-01

    The central detectors of the ALICE experiment at LHC will produce a data size of up to 75 MB/ event at an event rate ⩽200 Hz resulting in a data rate of ˜15 GB/ s. Online processing of the data is necessary in order to select interesting (sub)events ("High Level Trigger"), or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques. Processing this data requires a massive parallel computing system (High Level Trigger System). The system will consist of a farm of clustered SMP-nodes based on off-the-shelf PCs connected with a high bandwidth low latency network.

  11. Influence of high-fluorine environmental background on crops and human health in hot spring-type fluorosis-diseased areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN De; WU Daishe; LI Ping; WANG Tengsheng; CHEN Chengguang; WANG Wuyi

    2008-01-01

    Drinking water-type fluorosis is the most harmful endemic disease in China with the largest number of sufferers. Although the implementation of the policy to alter water sources to lower fluoride level has effectively controlled the spread of this kind of endemic disease, its prevalence could not thoroughly be stopped because the high-fluoride environmental background in these endemically diseased areas could still do harm to human health through food chain. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a more deep-going study on the drinking water-type fluorosis. To investigate the effect of high fluorine environmental background on crops and human health in the hot spring-type fluorosis-diseased areas, local water, paddy soil, rice, whole vegetables and soils around their roots were sampled for analysis. The results were compared with those of the control groups in fluorosis-free areas which are similar to the fluorosis-diseased areas both in natural background and in social background. It is indicated that rice and vegetables can accumulate water-soluble fluorine either in soils or in irrigating water, and different crops have different abilities of fixing fluorine. The contents of fluorine in different parts of vegetables in the fluorosis-diseased and fluorosis-free areas were statistically categorized. The results showed that the fluorine contents of roots, tubers, leaves and flowers of vegetables in the fluorosis-diseased areas are 3.56, 1.17, 3.07 and 3.23 mg/kg, respectively. However, comparisons showed that in the fluorosis-free areas, the fluorine contents are 2.17, 0.70, 1.91 and 2.52 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, different parts of a crop also show significantly different fluorine fixation abilities. It is demonstrated that the fluorine contents of the strongly metabolic parts are relatively high. For example, the fluorine contents of roots, leaves and flowers of vegetables are much higher than those of stems. The fluorine fixation ability of seeds is very

  12. [Changes in the chromatin structure of lymphoid cells under the influence of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation against the background of inflammatory process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapeev, A B; Romanova, N A; Chemeris, N K

    2011-01-01

    Using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis technique (comet assay), changes in chromatin structure of peripheral blood leukocytes and peritoneal neutrophils have been studied in mice exposed to low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2, 20 min at 1 h after induction of inflammation) against the background of the systemic inflammatory process. It was revealed that the exposure of mice with the developing inflammation leads to a pronounced decrease in the level of DNA damage to peripheral blood leukocytes and peritoneal neutrophils. It is supposed that the changes in the chromatin structure of lymphoid cells have a genoprotective character in the inflammatory process and can underlie the mechanisms of realization of antiinflammatory effects of the electromagnetic radiation.

  13. Extragalactic Backgrounds in the Far UV and Exploring Star Formation at High Redshifts with Gamma-ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2006-01-01

    The determination of the intergalactic photon densities from the FIR to the UV which is produced by stellar emission and dust reradiation at various redshifts can provide an independent measure of the star formation history of the universe. Using recent Spitzer and GALEX data in conjunction with other observational inputs, Stecker, Malkan and Scully have calculated the intergalactic photon density as a function of both energy and redshift for 0 < zeta < 6 for photon energies from 0.003 eV to the Lyman limit cutoff at 13.6 eV in a ACDM universe with Omega(sub Lambda) = 0.7 and Omega(sub m) = 0.3. Their results are based on backwards evolution models for galaxies which were developed by Malkan and Stecker previously. The calculated background SEDs at zeta = 0 are in good agreement with the present observational data and limits. The calculated intergalactic photon densities as a function of redshift were used to predict to extend the absorption of high energy 7-rays in intergalactic space from sources such as blazars and quasars, this absorption being produced by interactions the y-rays with the intergalactic FIR-UV photons having the calculated densities. The results are in excellent agreement with absorption features found in the low gamma-ray spectra of Mkn 421, Mkn 501 at, zeta = 0.03 and PKS

  14. Portable High Sensitivity and High Resolution Sensor to Determine Oxygen Purity Levels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this Phase I STTR project is to develop a highly sensitive oxygen (O2) sensor, with high accuracy and precision, to determine purity levels of high...

  15. White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei that have received fucoidan exhibit a defense against Vibrio alginolyticus and WSSV despite their recovery of immune parameters to background levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Kitikiew, Suwaree; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2016-12-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei receiving fucoidan at 2, 6, and 10 μg g(-1) after 0-144 h or 0-120 h were examined for immune parameters (haemograms, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, and superoxide dismutase activity), proliferation of haemocyte in the haematopoietic tissue (HPT), gene expression, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to Vibrio alginolyticus. Immune parameters and mitotic index of HPT increased after 3-24 h, reached their maxima after 48-72 h, and returned to background values after 144 h. Transcripts of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), prophenoloxidase (proPO) I, proPO II, astakine, and haemocyte homeostasis-associated protein (HHAP) were up-regulated to a maximum after 48-72 h and returned to background values after 144 h. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to V. alginolyticus increased after 12 h, reached its maximum after 48 h, and continued to remain higher after 120 h. In another experiment, shrimp receiving fucoidan after 48 h and 144 h were respectively challenged with V. alinolyticus at 6 × 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp(-1) or challenged with WSSV at 1.2 × 10(5) copies shrimp(-1) and then placed in seawater. The survival rate of shrimp receiving fucoidan was significantly higher than in controls. In conclusion, shrimp receiving fucoidan showed a proliferation of HPT, increased immune parameters, and up-regulated transcripts of LGBP, PX, proPO I, proPO II, astakine, and HHAP after 48 h. Shrimp receiving fucoidan exhibited a defense against V. alginolyticus and WSSV, even after immune parameters recovered to background levels.

  16. Motivation of Dutch high school students from various backgrounds for applying to study medicine: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Isik, Ulviye; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2017-06-02

    To explore high school students' motivation for applying to study medicine and the factors that influence this. To find explanations for under-representation of minority students in medical education, descriptions of motivation of students with different background characteristics were compared. Qualitative phenomenological study using semistructured one-on-one interviews. One predominantly white and one mixed high school in a large multicultural city in the Netherlands. The study was conducted in March-December 2015. Twenty-four high school students, purposively sampled for demographic characteristics. The analysis consisted of the coding of data using a template based on the motivation types (autonomous and controlled motivation) described by self-determination theory and open coding for factors that influence motivation. The main reasons for pursuing a medical career pertained to autonomous motivation (interest in science and helping people), but controlled motivation (eg, parental pressure, prestige) was also mentioned. Experiences with healthcare and patients positively influenced students' autonomous motivation and served as a reality check for students' expectations. Having to go through a selection process was an important demotivating factor, but did not prevent most students from applying. Having medical professionals in their network also sparked students' interest, while facilitating easier access to healthcare experiences. The findings showed a complex interplay between healthcare experiences, growing up in a medical family, selection processes and motivation. Healthcare experiences, often one of the selection criteria, help students to form autonomous motivation for studying medicine. However, such experiences as well as support in the selection process seem unequally accessible to students. As a result, under-represented students' motivation decreases. Medical schools should be aware of this and could create opportunities to acquire healthcare

  17. Effect of high fluoride and high fat on serum lipid levels and oxidative stress in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hui; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high fluoride and high fat on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rabbits. A factorial experimental design was used, with two factors (fluoride and fat) and three levels. Seventy-two male rabbits were randomly assigned into nine groups according to initial weight and serum lipid levels. The rabbits were fed with basic feed, moderate fat feed or high fat feed and drank tap water, fluoridated water at levels of 50 and 100mgfluorion/L freely. Biological materials were collected after 5 months, and serum lipid, T-AOC, LPO, and MDA levels were then measured. Using these data, the separate and interactive effects of high fluoride and high fat were analyzed. High fluoride and high fat both increased serum levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly (Pfluoride and high fat (Pfluoride and high fat had different effects on TG levels: high fat significantly increased TG levels (Pfluoride had nothing to do with TG levels (P>0.05). High fat significantly elevated LPO and MDA levels and lowered T-AOC levels in serum (Pfluoride significantly increased LPO and MDA levels in serum (Pfluoride on these indexes. In summary, high fluoride and high fat increased serum TC and LDL-C levels individually and synergistically, and this would cause and aggravate hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. At the same time, high fluoride and high fat both made the accumulation of product of oxidative stress in experimental animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhalation exposures due to radon and thoron ((222)Rn and (220)Rn): Do they differ in high and normal background radiation areas in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rosaline; Sapra, B K; Prajith, R; Rout, R P; Jalaluddin, S; Mayya, Y S

    2015-09-01

    In India, High Background Radiation Areas (HBRAs) due to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil (thorium and, to a lesser extent, uranium), are located along some parts of the coastal tracts viz. the coastal belt of Kerala, Tamilnadu and Odisha. It is conjectured that these deposits will result in higher emissions of radon isotopes ((222)Rn and (220)Rn) and their daughter products as compared to Normal Background Radiation Areas (NBRAs). While the annual external dose rates contributed by gamma radiations in these areas are about 5-10 times higher, the extent of increase in the inhalation dose rates attributable to (222)Rn and (220)Rn and their decay products is not well quantified. Towards this, systematic indoor surveys were conducted wherein simultaneous measurements of time integrated (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay product concentrations was carried out in around 800 houses in the HBRAs of Kerala and Odisha to estimate the inhalation doses. All gas measurements were carried out using pin-hole cup dosimeters while the progeny measurements were with samplers and systems based on the Direct radon/thoron Progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). To corroborate these passive measurements of decay products concentrations, active sampling was also carried out in a few houses. The results of the surveys provide a strong evidence to conclude that the inhalation doses due to (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay products in these HBRAs are in the same range as observed in the NBRAs in India.

  19. High circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in centenarians are not associated with increased production in T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandmand, Marie; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Kemp, Kåre

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aging is characterized by increased inflammatory activity reflected by increased plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines, concomitant with an altered cytokine profile of T lymphocytes. High plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha are strongly associated with morbidity an...

  20. VHDL Specification Methodology from High-level Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmohammed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Design complexity has been increasing exponentially this last decade. In order to cope with such an increase and to keep up designers' productivity, higher level specifications were required. Moreover new synthesis systems, starting with a high level specification, have been developed in order to automate and speed up processor design. This study presents a VHDL specification methodology aimed to extend structured design methodologies to the behavioral level. The goal is to develop VHDL modeling strategies in order to master the design and analysis of large and complex systems. Structured design methodologies are combined with a high-level synthesis system, a VHDL based behavioral synthesis tool, in order to allow hierarchical design and component re-use.

  1. Determining the background levels of bismuth in tissues of wild game birds: a first step in addressing the environmental consequences of using bismuth shotshells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasinghe, R.; Tsuji, L.J.S.; Gough, W.A.; Karagatzides, J.D.; Perera, D.; Nieboer, E

    2004-11-01

    Bismuth shotshells have been approved as a 'nontoxic' alternative to lead in North America. Approval was based on a limited number of studies; even background levels of bismuth in wildfowl were unknown. We report on the concentration of bismuth (and lead) in muscle and liver tissues of wildfowl (Anas platyrhynchos, Anas acuta, Anas crecca, Branta canadensis, Chen caerulescens) harvested with lead shotshell. Average liver-bismuth levels detected in the present study (e.g., teal, 0.05 {mu}g/g dw; mallard, 0.09 {mu}g/g dw) suggest analytical error in other studies examining the effects of bismuth in birds. Significant positive relationships between bismuth- and lead-tissue levels for muscle when all species were combined (and for B. canadensis and C. caerulescens separately) can be explained by noting that bismuth is a contaminant of lead. Thus, more research is recommended to confirm the appropriateness of bismuth as a 'nontoxic' shot alternative.

  2. Transition to Kindergarten: Negative Associations between the Emotional Availability in Mother-Child Relationships and Elevated Cortisol Levels in Children with an Immigrant Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickmeyer, Constanze; Lebiger-Vogel, Judith; Leuzinger-Bohleber, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Background: The transition to child care is a challenging time in a child's life and leads to elevated levels of cortisol. These elevations may be influenced by the quality of the mother-child relationship. However, remarkably little is known about cortisol production in response to the beginning of child care among children-at-risk such as children with an immigrant background. However, attending kindergarten or any other child day-care institution can for example have a compensating effect on potential language deficits thus improving the educational opportunities of these children. Method: Data of a subsample of N = 24 "hard-to-reach" mother-child dyads was collected in the context of the psychoanalytic early prevention project FIRST STEPS. The project focuses on the earliest integration of children with an immigrant background by supporting parenting capacities in the critical phase of migration and early parenthood. Children's hair cortisol concentration (HCC) was assessed 1 week before (mean age = 38.77 months) and 3 months after kindergarten entry (mean age = 42.26 months). Hair analysis was conducted for both times of measurement, reflecting the first 3 months after kindergarten entry and 3 months prior. Furthermore, the emotional quality of the mother-child relationship was assessed with the help of the Emotional Availability Scales (EAS; Biringen, 2008) shortly before kindergarten entry when the children were about 3 years old (mean age = 37.2). Results and Conclusion: Children's mean cumulated HCC was higher after kindergarten entry than before. The increase correlated negatively with several dimensions of the EAS. Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that particularly responsive children and children who had experienced less intrusive mother-child relationships demonstrated lower elevations in HCC after kindergarten entry. Furthermore, a decreased EA score was found in all EA dimensions, besides the dimension "mother's non-hostility," indicating

  3. Transition to Kindergarten: Negative Associations between the Emotional Availability in Mother–Child Relationships and Elevated Cortisol Levels in Children with an Immigrant Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Rickmeyer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The transition to child care is a challenging time in a child’s life and leads to elevated levels of cortisol. These elevations may be influenced by the quality of the mother–child relationship. However, remarkably little is known about cortisol production in response to the beginning of child care among children-at-risk such as children with an immigrant background. However, attending kindergarten or any other child day-care institution can for example have a compensating effect on potential language deficits thus improving the educational opportunities of these children.Method: Data of a subsample of N = 24 “hard-to-reach” mother–child dyads was collected in the context of the psychoanalytic early prevention project FIRST STEPS. The project focuses on the earliest integration of children with an immigrant background by supporting parenting capacities in the critical phase of migration and early parenthood. Children’s hair cortisol concentration (HCC was assessed 1 week before (mean age = 38.77 months and 3 months after kindergarten entry (mean age = 42.26 months. Hair analysis was conducted for both times of measurement, reflecting the first 3 months after kindergarten entry and 3 months prior. Furthermore, the emotional quality of the mother–child relationship was assessed with the help of the Emotional Availability Scales (EAS; Biringen, 2008 shortly before kindergarten entry when the children were about 3 years old (mean age = 37.2.Results and Conclusion: Children’s mean cumulated HCC was higher after kindergarten entry than before. The increase correlated negatively with several dimensions of the EAS. Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that particularly responsive children and children who had experienced less intrusive mother–child relationships demonstrated lower elevations in HCC after kindergarten entry. Furthermore, a decreased EA score was found in all EA dimensions, besides the dimension

  4. Transition to Kindergarten: Negative Associations between the Emotional Availability in Mother–Child Relationships and Elevated Cortisol Levels in Children with an Immigrant Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickmeyer, Constanze; Lebiger-Vogel, Judith; Leuzinger-Bohleber, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Background: The transition to child care is a challenging time in a child’s life and leads to elevated levels of cortisol. These elevations may be influenced by the quality of the mother–child relationship. However, remarkably little is known about cortisol production in response to the beginning of child care among children-at-risk such as children with an immigrant background. However, attending kindergarten or any other child day-care institution can for example have a compensating effect on potential language deficits thus improving the educational opportunities of these children. Method: Data of a subsample of N = 24 “hard-to-reach” mother–child dyads was collected in the context of the psychoanalytic early prevention project FIRST STEPS. The project focuses on the earliest integration of children with an immigrant background by supporting parenting capacities in the critical phase of migration and early parenthood. Children’s hair cortisol concentration (HCC) was assessed 1 week before (mean age = 38.77 months) and 3 months after kindergarten entry (mean age = 42.26 months). Hair analysis was conducted for both times of measurement, reflecting the first 3 months after kindergarten entry and 3 months prior. Furthermore, the emotional quality of the mother–child relationship was assessed with the help of the Emotional Availability Scales (EAS; Biringen, 2008) shortly before kindergarten entry when the children were about 3 years old (mean age = 37.2). Results and Conclusion: Children’s mean cumulated HCC was higher after kindergarten entry than before. The increase correlated negatively with several dimensions of the EAS. Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that particularly responsive children and children who had experienced less intrusive mother–child relationships demonstrated lower elevations in HCC after kindergarten entry. Furthermore, a decreased EA score was found in all EA dimensions, besides the dimension “mother’s non

  5. Web Based Technologies to Support High Level Process Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sharmila

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the uses of Web based Technologies to support High Level Process Maturity in an organization. It also provides an overview of CMMI, focusing on the importance of centralized data storage and data access for sustaining high maturity levels of CMMI. Further, elaboration is made on the web based technology, stressing that change over to Web Based Application is extremely helpful to maintain the centralized data repository, to collect data for process capability baseline, and to track process performance management, with reduced maintenance effort and ease of data access. A case study analysis of advantages of adopting Web Based Technology is also narrated. Finally the paper concludes that the sustenance of High level Process maturity can be achieved by adopting web application technology.

  6. Theory and Methods for Supporting High Level Military Decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Gompert, and Kugler, 1996; Davis, 2002a). The relationship between defense applications and finance is more metaphorical than mathematical. A...be summarized as the fractal problem: • • 62 Theory and Methods for Supporting High-Level Military Decisionmaking Describing objectives...strategies, tactics, and tasks is a fractal matter—i.e., the concepts apply and are needed at each level, whether that of the president, the theater commander

  7. Building high-level features using large scale unsupervised learning

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Quoc V; Devin, Matthieu; Corrado, Greg; Chen, Kai; Ranzato, Marc'Aurelio; Dean, Jeff; Ng, Andrew Y

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of building detectors for high-level concepts using only unsupervised feature learning. For example, we would like to understand if it is possible to learn a face detector using only unlabeled images downloaded from the internet. To answer this question, we trained a simple feature learning algorithm on a large dataset of images (10 million images, each image is 200x200). The simulation is performed on a cluster of 1000 machines with fast network hardware for one week. Extensive experimental results reveal surprising evidence that such high-level concepts can indeed be learned using only unlabeled data and a simple learning algorithm.

  8. Sterilization, high-level disinfection, and environmental cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2011-03-01

    Failure to perform proper disinfection and sterilization of medical devices may lead to introduction of pathogens, resulting in infection. New techniques have been developed for achieving high-level disinfection and adequate environmental cleanliness. This article examines new technologies for sterilization and high-level disinfection of critical and semicritical items, respectively, and because semicritical items carry the greatest risk of infection, the authors discuss reprocessing semicritical items such as endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors, endocavitary probes, prostate biopsy probes, tonometers, laryngoscopes, and infrared coagulation devices. In addition, current issues and practices associated with environmental cleaning are reviewed.

  9. High Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  10. Final report on cermet high-level waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobisk, E.H.; Quinby, T.C.; Aaron, W.S.

    1981-08-01

    Cermets are being developed as an alternate method for the fixation of defense and commercial high level radioactive waste in a terminal disposal form. Following initial feasibility assessments of this waste form, consisting of ceramic particles dispersed in an iron-nickel base alloy, significantly improved processing methods were developed. The characterization of cermets has continued through property determinations on samples prepared by various methods from a variety of simulated and actual high-level wastes. This report describes the status of development of the cermet waste form as it has evolved since 1977. 6 tables, 18 figures.

  11. Transmission Level High Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Gary [SuperPower, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2016-10-05

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of utilizing high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials in a Transmission Level Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) application. During the project, the type of high temperature superconducting material used evolved from 1st generation (1G) BSCCO-2212 melt cast bulk high temperature superconductors to 2nd generation (2G) YBCO based high temperature superconducting tape. The SFCL employed SuperPower's “Matrix” technology that offers modular features to enable scale up to transmission voltage levels. The SFCL consists of individual modules that contain elements and parallel inductors that assist in carrying the current during the fault. A number of these modules are arranged in an m x n array to form the current limiting matrix.

  12. Transmission Level High Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Gary [SuperPower, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2016-10-05

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials in a Transmission Level Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) application. During the project, the type of high-temperature superconducting material used evolved from 1st generation (1G) BSCCO-2212 melt cast bulk high-temperature superconductors to 2nd generation (2G) YBCO-based high-temperature superconducting tape. The SFCL employed SuperPower's “Matrix” technology, that offers modular features to enable scale up to transmission voltage levels. The SFCL consists of individual modules that contain elements and parallel inductors that assist in carrying the current during the fault. A number of these modules are arranged in an m x n array to form the current-limiting matrix.

  13. Online pattern recognition for the ALICE high level trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Bramm, R; Lien, J A; Lindenstruth, V; Loizides, C; Röhrich, D; Skaali, B; Steinbeck, T M; Stock, Reinhard; Ullaland, K; Vestbø, A S; Wiebalck, A

    2003-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger system needs to reconstruct events online at high data rates. Focusing on the Time Projection Chamber we present two pattern recognition methods under investigation: the sequential approach (cluster finding, track follower) and the iterative approach (Hough Transform, cluster assignment, re-fitting). The implementation of the former in hardware indicates that we can reach the designed inspection rate for p-p collisions of 1 kHz with 98% efficiency.

  14. Online pattern recognition for the ALICE high level trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramm, R.; Helstrup, H.; Lien, J.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C. E-mail: loizides@ikf.uni-frankfurt.de; Rohrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Ullaland, K.; Vestboe, A.; Wiebalck, A

    2003-04-21

    The ALICE High Level Trigger system needs to reconstruct events online at high data rates. Focusing on the Time Projection Chamber we present two pattern recognition methods under investigation: the sequential approach (cluster finding, track follower) and the iterative approach (Hough Transform, cluster assignment, re-fitting). The implementation of the former in hardware indicates that we can reach the designed inspection rate for p-p collisions of 1 kHz with 98% efficiency.

  15. Translation of a High-Level Temporal Model into Lower Level Models: Impact of Modelling at Different Description Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    2001-01-01

    the existences in time can be mapped precisely and consistently securing a consistent handling of the temporal properties. We translate the high level temporal model into an entity-relationship model, with the information in a two-dimensional graph, and finally we look at the translations into relational...

  16. Biosorption of cadmium by Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 strain, a novel biosorbent isolated from hot-spring waters in high background radiation areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoudzadeh, Nasrin [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zakeri, Fardideh [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); National Radiation Protection Department - Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lotfabad, Tayebe bagheri [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharafi, Hakimeh [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Masoomi, Fatemeh; Zahiri, Hoseein Shahbani; Ahmadian, Gholamreza [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari, E-mail: Akbari@nigeb.ac.ir [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolation and characterization of a novel cadmium-biosorbent (Brevundimonas sp. ZF12) from high background radiation areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 caused 50% removal of cadmium at the concentration level of 250 ppm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solution pH values used for the reusability study have powerful desorptive features to recover Cd ions sorbed onto the biomass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first study carried out so far for the cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by a novel biosorbent Brevundimonas sp. ZF12. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In our opinion, the isolate can be an attractive alternative to remove the cadmium-containing wastewaters. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to screen cadmium biosorbing bacterial strains isolated from soils and hot-springs containing high concentrations of radium ({sup 226}Ra) in Ramsar using a batch system. Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 strain isolated from the water with high {sup 226}Ra content caused 50% removal of cadmium at a concentration level of 250 ppm. The biosorption equilibrium data are fitted well by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption follows pseudo second-order model. The effect of different physico-chemical parameters like biomass concentration, pH, cadmium concentration, temperature and contact time on cadmium sorption was also investigated using FTIR, SEM and XRD analytical techniques. A high desorption efficiency (above 90%) was obtained using a pH range of 2.0-4.0. Reusability of the biomass was examined under consecutive biosorption-desorption cycles repeated thrice. In conclusion, Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 is proposed as an excellent cadmium biosorbent that may have important applications in Cd removal from wastewaters.

  17. High-Level Development of Multiserver Online Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Glinka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiplayer online games with support for high user numbers must provide mechanisms to support an increasing amount of players by using additional resources. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the practically proven multiserver distribution mechanisms, zoning, instancing, and replication, and the tasks for the game developer implied by them. We propose a novel, high-level development approach which integrates the three distribution mechanisms seamlessly in today's online games. As a possible base for this high-level approach, we describe the real-time framework (RTF middleware system which liberates the developer from low-level tasks and allows him to stay at high level of design abstraction. We explain how RTF supports the implementation of single-server online games and how RTF allows to incorporate the three multiserver distribution mechanisms during the development process. Finally, we describe briefly how RTF provides manageability and maintenance functionality for online games in a grid context with dynamic resource allocation scenarios.

  18. Typewriter Modifications for Persons Who Are High-Level Quadriplegics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reagan, James R.; And Others

    Standard, common electric typewriters are not completely suited to the needs of a high-level quadriplegic typing with a mouthstick. Experiences show that for complete control of a typewriter a mouthstick user needs the combined features of one-button correction, electric forward and reverse indexing, and easy character viewing. To modify a…

  19. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Towse, D.F.

    1979-03-07

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized. (JRD)

  20. High-Level Overview of Data Needs for RE Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Anthony

    2016-12-22

    This presentation provides a high level overview of analysis topics and associated data needs. Types of renewable energy analysis are grouped into two buckets: First, analysis for renewable energy potential, and second, analysis for other goals. Data requirements are similar but and they build upon one another.

  1. Reachability Trees for High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Jensen, Arne M.; Jepsen, Leif Obel;

    1986-01-01

    the necessary analysis methods. In other papers it is shown how to generalize the concept of place- and transition invariants from place/transition nets to high-level Petri nets. Our present paper contributes to this with a generalization of reachability trees, which is one of the other important analysis...

  2. High-level manpower movement and Japan's foreign aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, K

    1992-01-01

    "Japan's technical assistance programs to Asian countries are summarized. Movements of high-level manpower accompanying direct foreign investments by private enterprise are also reviewed. Proposals for increased human resources development include education and training of foreigners in Japan as well as the training of Japanese aid experts and the development of networks for information exchange."

  3. High level cognitive information processing in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnden, John A.; Fields, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    Two related research efforts were addressed: (1) high-level connectionist cognitive modeling; and (2) local neural circuit modeling. The goals of the first effort were to develop connectionist models of high-level cognitive processes such as problem solving or natural language understanding, and to understand the computational requirements of such models. The goals of the second effort were to develop biologically-realistic model of local neural circuits, and to understand the computational behavior of such models. In keeping with the nature of NASA's Innovative Research Program, all the work conducted under the grant was highly innovative. For instance, the following ideas, all summarized, are contributions to the study of connectionist/neural networks: (1) the temporal-winner-take-all, relative-position encoding, and pattern-similarity association techniques; (2) the importation of logical combinators into connection; (3) the use of analogy-based reasoning as a bridge across the gap between the traditional symbolic paradigm and the connectionist paradigm; and (4) the application of connectionism to the domain of belief representation/reasoning. The work on local neural circuit modeling also departs significantly from the work of related researchers. In particular, its concentration on low-level neural phenomena that could support high-level cognitive processing is unusual within the area of biological local circuit modeling, and also serves to expand the horizons of the artificial neural net field.

  4. High-level expression, purification, polyclonal antibody preparation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. High-level expression ... resistance severely compromises effective therapeutic options. ... In the present study, we first report the expression of the oprD ... databases of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) ..... assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature.

  5. Murine erythrocytes contain high levels of lysophospholipase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Roelofsen, B.; Sanderink, G.; Middelkoop, E.; Hamer, R.

    1984-01-01

    Murine erythrocytes were found to be unique in the high levels of lysophospholipase activity in the cytosol of these cells. The specific activity of the enzyme in the cytosol of the murine cells is 10-times higher than in the cytosol of rabbit erythrocytes and approximately three orders of magnitude

  6. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Mindfulness on Perceived Levels of Stress among school-children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Costello

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are at increased risk of experiencing stress and associated social-emotional difficulties and behavioural problems, which can undermine academic performance and lead to school drop-out. Previous studies investigating the effects of mindfulness have evidenced positive outcomes among children pertaining to enhanced well-being, school-based competence and decreased levels of stress and anxiety. However, these studies have typically examined teacher’s perceptions of change or quantitative outcomes without consideration of children’s experiences. The present study employs an interpretative qualitative approach to gain a greater understanding of children’s experiences of mindfulness in dealing with stress. A 5-week school-based mindfulness program was performed with 63 primary school children at risk of social exclusion in education. Interviews were undertaken with 16 children and 2 teachers. Thematic analysis identified five key themes labelled conceptualisation of stress, awareness, self-regulation, classroom regulations and addressing future stress. Quantitative measures of children’s perceived stress levels evaluated at baseline and follow-up also revealed significant reductions post intervention. These findings offer support for the incorporation of mindfulness interventions into the school curriculum, as a means of empowering children to address stress in their lives and improving full participation in the education system.

  7. The Athena Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Luigi; Lotti, Simone; Macculi, Claudio; Molendi, Silvano; Eraerds, Tanja; Laurent, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Estimating, reducing and controlling the residual particle background is fundamental for achieving the objectives of several science topics of Athena, in particular those connected with background dominated observations of faint and/or diffuse sources. This requires assessing the particle environment in L2, propagating the various particle components throughout the mirror, spacecraft, and instruments via proper modelling and simulations of various physical processes, implementing design and h/w measures at instrument and mission level to reduce the un-rejected background and identifying proper calibration methods to control the background variations. Likewise, an adequate knowledge of the XRB, made of components that may vary spatially or temporally, is required as well. Here we will review the present status of the background knowledge, and summarize the activities on-going within Athena at various levels.

  8. Detection of high risk campylobacteriosis clusters at three geographic levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Weisent

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and many other developed countries. Understanding the spatial distribution of this disease and identifying high-risk areas is vital to focus resources for prevention and control measures. In addition, determining the appropriate scale for geographical analysis of surveillance data is an area of concern to epidemiologists and public health officials. The purpose of this study was to (i compare standardized risk estimates for campylobacteriosis in Tennessee over three distinct geographical scales (census tract, zip code and county subdivision, and (ii identify and investigate high-risk spatial clustering of campylobacteriosis at the three geographical scales to determine if clustering is scale dependent. Significant high risk clusters (P <0.05 were detected at all three spatial scales. There were overlaps in regions of high-risk and clusters at all three geographic levels. At the census tract level, spatial analysis identified smaller clusters of finer resolution and detected more clusters than the other two levels. However, data aggregation at zip code or county subdivision yielded similar findings. The importance of this line of research is to create a framework whereby economically efficient disease control strategies become more attainable through improved geographical precision and risk detection. Accurate identification of disease clusters for campylobacteriosis can enable public health personnel to focus scarce resources towards prevention and control programmes on the most at-risk populations. Consistent results at multiple spatial levels highlight the robustness of the geospatial techniques utilized in this study. Furthermore, analyses at the zip code and county subdivision levels can be useful when address level information (finer resolution data are not available. These procedures may also be used to help identify regionally specific risk factors for

  9. Investigation of the Effects of Facility Background Pressure on the Performance and Voltage-Current Characteristics of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Spektor, Rostislav

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate In-Space Propulsion Technology office is sponsoring NASA Glenn Research Center to develop a 4 kW-class Hall thruster propulsion system for implementation in NASA science missions. A study was conducted to assess the impact of varying the facility background pressure on the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc) thruster performance and voltage-current characteristics. This present study evaluated the HiVHAc thruster performance in the lowest attainable background pressure condition at NASA GRC Vacuum Facility 5 to best simulate space-like conditions. Additional tests were performed at selected thruster operating conditions to investigate and elucidate the underlying physics that change during thruster operation at elevated facility background pressure. Tests were performed at background pressure conditions that are three and ten times higher than the lowest realized background pressure. Results indicated that the thruster discharge specific impulse and efficiency increased with elevated facility background pressure. The voltage-current profiles indicated a narrower stable operating region with increased background pressure. Experimental observations of the thruster operation indicated that increasing the facility background pressure shifted the ionization and acceleration zones upstream towards the thruster's anode. Future tests of the HiVHAc thruster are planned at background pressure conditions that are expected to be two to three times lower than what was achieved during this test campaign. These tests will not only assess the impact of reduced facility background pressure on thruster performance, voltage-current characteristics, and plume properties; but will also attempt to quantify the magnitude of the ionization and acceleration zones upstream shifting as a function of increased background pressure.

  10. Low-level versus high-level placement of gold plates in the upper eyelid in patients with facial palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Tarek A; El-Minawi, Hisham M; El-Shazly, Malak I

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lagophthalmos is a condition that results from facial paralysis causing functional as well as esthetic problems. This condition can be treated by a range of techniques, including tarsorrhaphy, facial slings, and canthopexies. Gold plates provide a solution for temporary or permanent lagophthalmos resulting from facial paralysis. This study discusses the use of gold plates in the treatment of lagophthalmos but with the introduction of gold plates in two different positions in the upper lids. Methods: Group 1 (38 eyes) had a low level of placement (2 mm from the lid margin) of gold plates, while Group 2 (23 eyes) had a high level of placement (5 mm from the lid margin). Results: Noticeable bulge was seen in 18.4% of Group 1 eyes compared with 13% in Group 2, and migration of the plate occurred in 2.6% and 0% of eyes in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, as well as ptosis (7.8% and 4.3%) and conjunctival perforation (0% and 4.3%). The degree of improvement of eyelid closure, keratopathy, and visual acuity were the same for both techniques. Conclusion: Placement of gold plates at a higher level could avoid some of the drawbacks of lower level placement of these plates, such as upper eyelid bulge and ptosis, especially given the thinning of the eyelids and orbicularis muscles that occurs in facial palsy. PMID:21760718

  11. Aftershocks are well aligned with the background stress field, contradicting the hypothesis of highly-heterogeneous crustal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that the crustal stress field contains small-length-scale heterogeneity of much larger amplitude than the uniform background stress. This model predicts that earthquake focal mechanisms should reflect the loading stress rather than the uniform background stress. So, if the heterogeneous stress hypothesis is correct, focal mechanisms before and after a large earthquake should align with the tectonic loading and the earthquake-induced static stress perturbation, respectively. However, I show that the off-fault triggered aftershocks of the 1992 M7.3 Landers, California, earthquake align with the same stress field as the pre-Landers mechanisms. The aftershocks occurred on faults that were well oriented for failure in the pre-Landers stress field and then loaded by the Landers-induced static stress change. Aftershocks in regions experiencing a 0.05 to 5 MPa coseismic differential stress change align with the modeled Landers-induced static stress change, implying that they were triggered by the stress perturbation. Contrary to the heterogeneous stress hypothesis, these triggered aftershocks are also well aligned with the pre-Landers stress field obtained from inverting the pre-Landers focal mechanisms. Therefore, the inverted pre-Landers stress must represent the persistent background stress field. Earthquake focal mechanisms provide an unbiased sample of the spatially coherent background stress field, which is large relative to any small-scale stress heterogeneity. The counterexample provided by the Landers earthquake is strong evidence that the heterogeneous stress model is not widely applicable.

  12. Lumbar disc herniation at high levels : MRI and clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paek, Chung Ho; Kwon, Soon Tae; Lee, Jun Kyu; Ahn, Jae Sung; Lee, Hwan Do; Chung, Yon Su; Jeong, Ki Ho; Cho, Jun Sik [Chungnam National Univ. College of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    To assess the frequency, location, associated MR findings, and clinical symptoms of the high level lumbar disc herniation(HLDH). A total of 1076 patients with lunbar disc herniation were retrospectively reviewed. MR images of 41 of these with HLDH(T12-L1, L1-2, L2-3) were analysed in terms of frequency, location, and associated MR findings, and correlated with clinical symptoms of HLDH. The prevalence of HLDH was 3.8%(41/1076). HLDH was located at T12-L1 level in four patients(10%), at L1-2 level in 14(34%), at L2-3 level in 21(51%), and at both L1-2 and L2-3 levels in two. The age of patients ranged from 20 to 72 years (mean, 44), and there were 26 men and 16 women. In 11(27%), whose mean age was 32 years, isolated disc herniation was limited to these high lumbar segments. The remaining 30 patients had HLDH associated with variable involvement of the lower lumbar segments. Associated lesions were as follow : lower level disc herniation(14 patients, 34%); apophyseal ring fracture(8 patients, 19%); Schmorl's node and spondylolisthesis (each 6 patients, each 14%); spondylolysis(3 patients, 7%); and retrolisthesis(2 patients, 5%). In 20 patients(49%) with HLDH(n=41), there was a previous history of trauma. Patients with HLDH showed a relatively high incidence of associated coexisting abnormalities such as lower lumbar disc herniation, apophyseal ring fracture, Schmorl's node, spondylolysis, and retrolisthesis. In about half of all patients with HLDH there was a previous history of trauma. The mean age of patients with isolated HLDH was lower; clinical symptoms of the condition were relatively nonspecific and their incidence was low.

  13. Exploring the MIS M2 glaciation occurring during a warm and high atmospheric CO2 Pliocene background climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ning; Ramstein, Gilles; Dumas, Christophe; Contoux, Camille; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Sepulchre, Pierre; Zhang, Zhongshi; De Schepper, Stijn

    2017-08-01

    Prior to the Northern Hemisphere glaciation around ∼2.7 Ma, a large global glaciation corresponding to a 20 to 60 m sea-level drop occurred during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) M2 (3.312-3.264 Ma), interrupted the period of global warmth and high CO2 concentration (350-450 ppmv) of the mid Piacenzian. Unlike the late Quaternary glaciations, the M2 glaciation only lasted 50 kyrs and occurred under uncertain CO2 concentration (220-390 ppmv). The mechanisms causing the onset and termination of the M2 glaciation remain enigmatic, but a recent geological hypothesis suggests that the re-opening and closing of the shallow Central American Seaway (CAS) might have played a key role. In this article, thanks to a series of climate simulations carried out using a fully coupled Atmosphere Ocean General Circulation Model (GCM) and a dynamic ice sheet model, we show that re-opening of the shallow CAS helps precondition the low-latitude oceanic circulation and affects the related northward energy transport, but cannot alone explain the onset of the M2 glaciation. The presence of a shallow open CAS, together with favourable orbital parameters, 220 ppmv of CO2 concentration, and the related vegetation and ice sheet feedback, led to a global ice sheet build-up producing a global sea-level drop in the lowest range of proxy-derived estimates. More importantly, our results show that the simulated closure of the CAS has a negligible impact on the NH ice sheet melt and cannot explain the MIS M2 termination.

  14. Mass Spectrometric Determination of Uranium and Thorium in High Radiopurity Polymers Using Ultra Low Background Electroformed Copper Crucibles for Dry Ashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnquist, Isaac J; Hoppe, Eric J; Bliss, Mary; Grate, Jay W

    2017-03-07

    A rapid new method for determining the U and Th mass concentrations in high radiopurity plastics is described, consisting of (1) dry ashing the plastic sample and tracers in low mass crucibles made of ultra low background electroformed copper (ULB EF-Cu) foil cut and folded into boats, (2) dissolving both the ash and the boat in acid, (3) performing a column separation to remove copper, and (4) determining the elements of interest by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. This method was demonstrated on both unfluorinated and fluorinated plastics, demonstrating high tracer recoveries and detection limits to pg/g (i.e., parts per trillion) levels or below, corresponding to μBq/kg of material. Samples of biomedical polyester (Max-Prene 955) and a fluoropolymer (polyvinylidene fluoride, PVDF) were analyzed in powder raw material forms as well as solids in the form of pellets or injection molded parts. The polyester powder contained 6 pg/g and 2 pg/g for (232)Th and (238)U, respectively. These levels correspond to 25 and 25 μBq/kg radioactivity, respectively. Determinations on samples of PVDF powder were typically below 1 pg/g for (232)Th and 2 pg/g for (238)U, corresponding to 4 and 25 μBq/kg radioactivity, respectively. The use of low mass ULB EF-Cu boats for dry ashing successfully overcame the problem of crucible-generated contaminants in the analysis; absolute detection limits, calculated as 3 × standard deviation of the process blanks, were typically 20-100 fg within a sample set. Complete dissolution of the ash and low mass boat provided high tracer recoveries and provides a convincing method to recover both the tracer and sample isotopes when full equilibration of tracer isotopes with sample isotopes is not possible prior to beginning chemical sample processing on solids.

  15. Mass Spectrometric Determination of Uranium and Thorium in High Radiopurity Polymers Using Ultra Low Background Electroformed Copper Crucibles for Dry Ashing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnquist, Isaac J.; Hoppe, Eric J.; Bliss, Mary; Grate, Jay W.

    2017-02-21

    A rapid new method for determining the U and Th mass concentrations in high radiopurity plastics is described, consisting of 1) dry ashing the plastic sample and tracers in low mass crucibles made of ultra low background electroformed copper (ULB EF-Cu) foil cut and folded into boats, 2) dissolving both the ash and the boat in acid, 3) performing a column separation to remove copper, and 4) determining the elements of interest by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. This method was demonstrated on both unfluorinated and fluorinated plastics, demonstrating high tracer recoveries and detection limits to pg/g (i.e., parts per trillion) levels or below, corresponding to μBq/kg of material. Samples of biomedical polyester (Max-Prene® 955) and a fluoropolymer (polyvinylidene fluoride, PVDF) were analyzed in powder raw material forms as well as solids in the form of pellets or injection molded parts. The polyester powder contained 6 pg/g and 2 pg/g for Th and U respectively. These levels correspond to 25 and 25 μBq/kg radioactivity, respectively. Determinations on samples of PVDF powder were typically below 1 pg/g for Th and 2 pg/g for U, corresponding to 4 and 25 μBq/kg radioactivity, respectively. The use of low mass ULB EF-Cu boats for dry ashing successfully overcame the problem of crucible-generated contaminants in the analysis; absolute detection limits, calculated as 3 × standard deviation of the process blanks, were typically 20-100 fg within a sample set. Complete dissolution of the ash and low mass boat provided high tracer recoveries, and provides a convincing method to recover both the tracer and sample isotopes when full equilibration of tracer isotopes with sample isotopes is not possible prior to beginning chemical sample processing on solids.

  16. High-Level Information Fusion Management and Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Blasch, Erik; Lambert, Dale

    2012-01-01

    High-level information fusion is the ability of a fusion system to capture awareness and complex relations, reason over past and future events, utilize direct sensing exploitations and tacit reports, and discern the usefulness and intention of results to meet system-level goals. This authoritative book serves a practical reference for developers, designers, and users of data fusion services that must relate the most recent theory to real-world applications. This unique volume provides alternative methods to represent and model various situations and describes design component implementations o

  17. Design and Prototyping of the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.A.C.Bogaerts

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines the desgn and prototyping of the ATLAS High Level Trigger(HLT)wihch is a combined effort of the Data Collection HLT and PESA(Physics and Event Selection Architecture)subgroups within the ATLAS TDAQ collaboration.Two important issues,alresdy outlined in the ATLAS HLT,DAQ and DCS Technical Proposal [1] will be highlighted:the treatment of the LVL2 Trigger and Event Filter as aspects of a general HLT with a view to easier migration of algorthms between the two levels;unification of the selective data collection for LVL2 and Event Building.

  18. High levels of molecular chlorine in the Arctic atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jin; Huey, L. Gregory; Liu, Zhen; Tanner, David J.; Cantrell, Chris A.; Orlando, John J.; Flocke, Frank M.; Shepson, Paul B.; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Hall, Samuel R.; Ullmann, Kirk; Beine, Harry J.; Wang, Yuhang; Ingall, Ellery D.; Stephens, Chelsea R.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Apel, Eric C.; Riemer, Daniel; Fried, Alan; Mauldin, Roy L.; Smith, James N.; Staebler, Ralf M.; Neuman, J. Andrew; Nowak, John B.

    2014-02-01

    Chlorine radicals can function as a strong atmospheric oxidant, particularly in polar regions, where levels of hydroxyl radicals are low. In the atmosphere, chlorine radicals expedite the degradation of methane and tropospheric ozone, and the oxidation of mercury to more toxic forms. Here we present direct measurements of molecular chlorine levels in the Arctic marine boundary layer in Barrow, Alaska, collected in the spring of 2009 over a six-week period using chemical ionization mass spectrometry. We report high levels of molecular chlorine, of up to 400 pptv. Concentrations peaked in the early morning and late afternoon, and fell to near-zero levels at night. Average daytime molecular chlorine levels were correlated with ozone concentrations, suggesting that sunlight and ozone are required for molecular chlorine formation. Using a time-dependent box model, we estimate that the chlorine radicals produced from the photolysis of molecular chlorine oxidized more methane than hydroxyl radicals, on average, and enhanced the abundance of short-lived peroxy radicals. Elevated hydroperoxyl radical levels, in turn, promoted the formation of hypobromous acid, which catalyses mercury oxidation and the breakdown of tropospheric ozone. We therefore suggest that molecular chlorine exerts a significant effect on the atmospheric chemistry of the Arctic.

  19. High taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota by Ligase Detection Reaction - Universal Array approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitali Beatrice

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Affecting the core functional microbiome, peculiar high level taxonomic unbalances of the human intestinal microbiota have been recently associated with specific diseases, such as obesity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and intestinal inflammation. Results In order to specifically monitor microbiota unbalances that impact human physiology, here we develop and validate an original DNA-microarray (HTF-Microbi.Array for the high taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota. Based on the Ligase Detection Reaction-Universal Array (LDR-UA approach, the HTF-Microbi.Array enables specific detection and approximate relative quantification of 16S rRNAs from 30 phylogenetically related groups of the human intestinal microbiota. The HTF-Microbi.Array was used in a pilot study of the faecal microbiota of eight young adults. Cluster analysis revealed the good reproducibility of the high level taxonomic microbiota fingerprint obtained for each of the subject. Conclusion The HTF-Microbi.Array is a fast and sensitive tool for the high taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota in terms of presence/absence of the principal groups. Moreover, analysis of the relative fluorescence intensity for each probe pair of our LDR-UA platform can provide estimation of the relative abundance of the microbial target groups within each samples. Focusing the phylogenetic resolution at division, order and cluster levels, the HTF-Microbi.Array is blind with respect to the inter-individual variability at the species level.

  20. Liquid high-level waste storage - can we tolerate it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P. [Terramares Group (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    High-level radioactive waste from reprocessing is stored at British Nuclear Fuel`s Sellafield site in High Active Storage Tanks (HAST`s), which require constant cooling and ventilation. The author argues that, containing as they do, about 100 times the caesium 137 released during the Chernobyl accident, these containment tanks represent an unacceptably high risk of a major release of caesium 137, a volatile gamma-emitter with a half-life of about 30 years. It is readily transferred into food chains and difficult to remove from soils, tarmac and concrete. Still worse, it is argued, are the tens of thousands of cancers and other biological radiation effects likely to occur as a result of such a release. He argues for the vitrification of all such highly active liquid wastes, which would slow further reprocessing down to accommodate the current backlog. (UK).

  1. Associations between delayed completion of high school and educational attainment and symptom levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melkevik, Ole; Hauge, Lars Johan; Bendtsen, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression among adults with lower educational attainment. Delayed completion of high school (HS) is common and represents a potentially complicating factor in the relationship between educational attainment and anxiety and depression...... depression and anxiety and interacts with later educational attainment in predicting symptom levels of anxiety. Individuals with a combination of delayed HS completion and lower educational attainment had particularly high symptom levels of anxiety....

  2. The High Level Trigger of the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Xuyang

    2016-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger, a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. In this poster we will present the performance with the specific algorithms developed to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up and bunch crossing rate using 13 TeV data during 2015, and prospects for improvements brought to both L1T and HLT strategies to meet the new challenges for 2016 scenarios with a peak instantaneous luminosity of $1.2 \\times 10^{34} $cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ and 30 pileup events.

  3. High asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels in patients with brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengeloglu, Zafer; Sünnetcioglu, Mahmut; Tosun, Mehmet; Kücükbayrak, Abdülkadir; Ceylan, Mehmet Resat; Baran, Ali Irfan; Karahocagil, Mustafa; Akdeniz, Hayrettin

    2014-02-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is the main endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and is considered to be associated with endothelial dysfunction. Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp., can manifest as vasculopathy. The present study was performed to investigate the relationship between ADMA and brucellosis. Serum samples from 39 patients with an accurate diagnosis of brucellosis and from 18 healthy control individuals were included in this study. ADMA levels were significantly higher in the patient group than the controls (P brucellosis and high levels of ADMA. In conclusion, ADMA levels should be tested in brucellosis cases and that further studies to clarify the mechanism underlying the association between ADMA and brucellosis are required.

  4. Mammut: High-level management of system knobs and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sensi, Daniele; Torquati, Massimo; Danelutto, Marco

    Managing low-level architectural features for controlling performance and power consumption is a growing demand in the parallel computing community. Such features include, but are not limited to: energy profiling, platform topology analysis, CPU cores disabling and frequency scaling. However, these low-level mechanisms are usually managed by specific tools, without any interaction between each other, thus hampering their usability. More important, most existing tools can only be used through a command line interface and they do not provide any API. Moreover, in most cases, they only allow monitoring and managing the same machine on which the tools are used. MAMMUT provides and integrates architectural management utilities through a high-level and easy-to-use object-oriented interface. By using MAMMUT, is possible to link together different collected information and to exploit them on both local and remote systems, to build architecture-aware applications.

  5. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  6. Sundance: High-Level Software for PDE-Constrained Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Long

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sundance is a package in the Trilinos suite designed to provide high-level components for the development of high-performance PDE simulators with built-in capabilities for PDE-constrained optimization. We review the implications of PDE-constrained optimization on simulator design requirements, then survey the architecture of the Sundance problem specification components. These components allow immediate extension of a forward simulator for use in an optimization context. We show examples of the use of these components to develop full-space and reduced-space codes for linear and nonlinear PDE-constrained inverse problems.

  7. High precision modeling at the 10^{-20} level

    CERN Document Server

    Andres, M; Costea, A; Hackmann, E; Herrmann, S; Lämmerzahl, C; Nesemann, L; Rievers, B; Stephan, E P

    2011-01-01

    The requirements for accurate numerical simulation are increasing constantly. Modern high precision physics experiments now exceed the achievable numerical accuracy of standard commercial and scientific simulation tools. One example are optical resonators for which changes in the optical length are now commonly measured to 10^{-15} precision. The achievable measurement accuracy for resonators and cavities is directly influenced by changes in the distances between the optical components. If deformations in the range of 10^{-15} occur, those effects cannot be modeled and analysed any more with standard methods based on double precision data types. New experimental approaches point out that the achievable experimental accuracies may improve down to the level of 10^{-17} in the near future. For the development and improvement of high precision resonators and the analysis of experimental data, new methods have to be developed which enable the needed level of simulation accuracy. Therefore we plan the development o...

  8. RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2010-09-07

    High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

  9. Storage of High Level Nuclear Waste in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar P. F. Möller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear energy is very often used to generate electricity. But first the energy must be released from atoms what can be done in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. Nuclear power plants use nuclear fission to produce electrical energy. The electrical energy generated in nuclear power plants does not produce polluting combustion gases but a renewable energy, an important fact that could play a key role helping to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and tackling global warming especially as the electricity energy demand rises in the years ahead. This could be assumed as an ideal win-win situation, but the reverse site of the medal is that the production of high-level nuclear waste outweighs this advantage. Hence the paper attempt to highlight the possible state-of-art concepts for the safe and sustaining storage of high-level nuclear waste in Germany.

  10. Altitudinal Levels and Altitudinal Limits in High Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias Kuhle

    2007-01-01

    In lowlands climate-specific processes due to weathering and erosion are dominant, whilst the geomorphology of mountains is dependent on the geologic-tectonic structure, i.e., the energy of erosion that increases according to the vertical. The expression "extremely high mountains" has been established as the extreme of a continuous mountain classification. It has to be understood in terms of geomorphology, glaciology and vegetation.Correspondence of the planetary and hypsometric change of forms is of great value as synthetic explanation. It is confirmed with regard to vegetation,periglacial geomorphology and glaciology. Due to the world-wide reconstruction of the snowline its paleoclimatic importance increases, too. Apart from lower limits the periglacial and glacial altitudinal levels also show zones of optimum development and climatic upper limits in the highest mountains of the earth. According to the proportion of the altitudinal levels a classification as to arid, temperate and humid high mountains has been carried out.

  11. Management of data quality of high level waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, W.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    Over the past 10 years, the Hanford Site has been transitioning from nuclear materials production to Site cleanup operations. High-level waste characterization at the Hanford Site provides data to support present waste processing operations, tank safety programs, and future waste disposal programs. Quality elements in the high-level waste characterization program will be presented by following a sample through the data quality objective, sampling, laboratory analysis and data review process. Transition from production to cleanup has resulted in changes in quality systems and program; the changes, as well as other issues in these quality programs, will be described. Laboratory assessment through quality control and performance evaluation programs will be described, and data assessments in the laboratory and final reporting in the tank characterization reports will be discussed.

  12. A high resolution water level forecast for the German Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehüser, Sebastian; Dangendorf, Sönke; Arns, Arne; Jensen, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Many coastal regions worldwide are potentially endangered by storm surges which can cause disastrous damages and loss of life. Due to climate change induced sea level rise, an accumulation of such events is expected by the end of the 21th century. Therefore, advanced storm surge warnings are needed to be prepared when another storm surge hits the coast. In the shallow southeastern North Sea these storm surge warnings are nowadays routinely provided for selected tide gauge locations along a coastline through state-of-the-art forecast systems, which are based on a coupled system of empirical tidal predictions and numerical storm surge forecasts. Along the German North Sea coastline, the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency in cooperation with the German Weather Service is responsible for the storm surge warnings. They provide accurate, high frequency and real-time water level forecasts for up to six days ahead at selected tide gauge sites via internet, telephone and broadcast. Since water levels along the German North Sea coastline are dominated by shallow water effects and a very complex bathymetric structure of the seabed, the pointwise forecast is not necessarily transferable to un-gauged areas between the tide gauges. Here we aim to close this existing gap and develop water level forecasts with a high spatial (continuously with a resolution of at least 1 kilometer) as well as a high temporal (at least 15-minute values) resolution along the entire German North Sea coastline. We introduce a new methodology for water level forecasts which combines empirical or statistical and numerical models. While the tidal forecast is performed by non-parametric interpolation techniques between un-gauged and gauged sites, storm surges are estimated on the basis of statistical/empirical storm surge formulas taken from a numerical model hindcast. The procedure will be implemented in the operational mode forced with numerical weather forecasts.

  13. High-level waste management technology program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. A new mouse model for marfan syndrome presents phenotypic variability associated with the genetic background and overall levels of Fbn1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L Lima

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease of connective tissue caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 encoding gene FBN1. Patients present cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal manifestations, and although being fully penetrant, MFS is characterized by a wide clinical variability both within and between families. Here we describe a new mouse model of MFS that recapitulates the clinical heterogeneity of the syndrome in humans. Heterozygotes for the mutant Fbn1 allele mgΔloxPneo, carrying the same internal deletion of exons 19-24 as the mgΔ mouse model, present defective microfibrillar deposition, emphysema, deterioration of aortic wall and kyphosis. However, the onset of a clinical phenotypes is earlier in the 129/Sv than in C57BL/6 background, indicating the existence of genetic modifiers of MFS between these two mouse strains. In addition, we characterized a wide clinical variability within the 129/Sv congenic heterozygotes, suggesting involvement of epigenetic factors in disease severity. Finally, we show a strong negative correlation between overall levels of Fbn1 expression and the severity of the phenotypes, corroborating the suggested protective role of normal fibrillin-1 in MFS pathogenesis, and supporting the development of therapies based on increasing Fbn1 expression.

  15. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  16. Case for retrievable high-level nuclear waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseboom, Eugene H.

    1994-01-01

    Plans for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository have called for permanently closing and sealing the repository soon after it is filled. However, the hydrologic environment of the proposed site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, should allow the repository to be kept open and the waste retrievable indefinitely. This would allow direct monitoring of the repository and maintain the options for future generations to improve upon the disposal methods or use the uranium in the spent fuel as an energy resource.

  17. High-level Component Interfaces for Collaborative Development: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Marlowe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Software development has rapidly moved toward collaborative development models where multiple partners collaborate in creating and evolving software intensive systems or components of sophisticated ubiquitous socio-technical-ecosystems. In this paper we extend the concept of software interface to a flexible high-level interface as means for accommodating change and localizing, controlling and managing the exchange of knowledge and functional, behavioral, quality, project and business related information between the partners and between the developed components.

  18. Hanford long-term high-level waste management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodrich, D.D.

    1976-06-24

    An overview of the Hanford Long-Term High-Level Waste Management Program is presented. Four topics are discussed: first, the kinds and quantities of waste that will exist and are included in this program; second, how the plan is structured to solve this problem; third, the alternative waste management methods being considered; and fourth, the technology program that is in progress to carry out this plan. (LK)

  19. Nuclear reactor high-level waste: origin and safe disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chua, C.; Tsipis, K. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

    High-level waste (HLW) is a natural component of the nuclear fuel cycle. Because of its radioactivity, HLW needs to be handled with great care. Different alternatives for permanently storing HLW are evaluated. Studies have shown that the disposal of HLW is safest when the waste is first vitrified before storage. Simple calculations show that vitrified HLW that is properly buried in deep, carefully chosen crystalline rock structures poses insignificant health risks. (author).

  20. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, P.F.

    1999-05-24

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments.

  1. Execution of a High Level Real-Time Language

    OpenAIRE

    Luqi; Berzins, Valdis

    1988-01-01

    Prototype System Description Language (PSDL) is a high level real-time language with special features for hard real-time system specification and design. It can be used to firm up requirements through execution of its software prototypes The language is designed based on a real-time model merging data and control flow and its implementation is beyond conventional compiler technology because of the need to meet real-time constraints. In this paper we describe and illustrate our research result...

  2. Learning high-level features for chord recognition using Autoencoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongthongloa, Vilailukkana; Kamonsantiroj, Suwatchai; Pipanmaekaporn, Luepol

    2016-07-01

    Chord transcription is valuable to do by itself. It is known that the manual transcription of chords is very tiresome, time-consuming. It requires, moreover, musical knowledge. Automatic chord recognition has recently attracted a number of researches in the Music Information Retrieval field. It has known that a pitch class profile (PCP) is the commonly signal representation of musical harmonic analysis. However, the PCP may contain additional non-harmonic noise such as harmonic overtones and transient noise. The problem of non-harmonic might be generating the sound energy in term of frequency more than the actual notes of the respective chord. Autoencoder neural network may be trained to learn a mapping from low level feature to one or more higher-level representation. These high-level representations can explain dependencies of the inputs and reduce the effect of non-harmonic noise. Then these improve features are fed into neural network classifier. The proposed high-level musical features show 80.90% of accuracy. The experimental results have shown that the proposed approach can achieve better performance in comparison with other based method.

  3. Design of secure operating systems with high security levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING SiHan; SHEN ChangXiang

    2007-01-01

    Numerous Internet security incidents have shown that support from secure operating systems is paramount to fighting threats posed by modern computing environments. Based on the requirements of the relevant national and international standards and criteria, in combination with our experience in the design and development of the ANSHENG v4.0 secure operating system with high security level (hereafter simply referred to as ANSHENG OS), this paper addresses the following key issues in the design of secure operating systems with high security levels: security architecture, security policy models, and covert channel analysis. The design principles of security architecture and three basic security models: confidentiality,integrity, and privilege control models are discussed, respectively. Three novel security models and new security architecture are proposed. The prominent features of these proposals, as well as their applications to the ANSHENG OS, are elaborated.Cover channel analysis (CCA) is a well-known hard problem in the design of secure operating systems with high security levels since to date it lacks a sound theoretical basis and systematic analysis approach. In order to resolve the fundamental difficulties of CCA, we have set up a sound theoretical basis for completeness of covert channel identification and have proposed a unified framework for covert channel identification and an efficient backward tracking search method. The successful application of our new proposals to the ANSHENG OS has shown that it can help ease and speedup the entire CCA process.

  4. High Levels of Molecular Chlorine found in the Arctic Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, J.; Huey, L. G.; Liu, Z.; Tanner, D.; Cantrell, C. A.; Orlando, J. J.; Flocke, F. M.; Shepson, P. B.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Hall, S. R.; Beine, H.; Wang, Y.; Ingall, E. D.; Thompson, C. R.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Apel, E. C.; Fried, A.; Mauldin, L.; Smith, J. N.; Staebler, R. M.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Chlorine radicals are a strong atmospheric oxidant, particularly in polar regions where levels of hydroxyl radicals can be quite low. In the atmosphere, chlorine radicals expedite the degradation of methane and tropospheric ozone and the oxidation of mercury to more toxic forms. Here, we present direct measurements of molecular chlorine levels in the Arctic marine boundary layer in Barrow, Alaska, collected in the spring of 2009 over a six-week period using chemical ionization mass spectrometry. We detected high levels of molecular chlorine of up to 400 pptv. Concentrations peaked in the early morning and late afternoon and fell to near-zero levels at night. Average daytime molecular chlorine levels were correlated with ozone concentrations, suggesting that sunlight and ozone are required for molecular chlorine formation. Using a time-dependent box model, we estimated that the chlorine radicals produced from the photolysis of molecular chlorine on average oxidized more methane than hydroxyl radicals and enhanced the abundance of short-lived peroxy radicals. Elevated hydroperoxyl radical levels, in turn, promoted the formation of hypobromous acid, which catalyzed mercury oxidation and the breakdown of tropospheric ozone. Therefore, we propose that molecular chlorine exerts a significant effect on the atmospheric chemistry in the Arctic. While the formation mechanisms of molecular chlorine are not yet understood, the main potential sources of chlorine include snowpack, sea salt, and sea ice. There is recent evidence of molecular halogen (Br2 and Cl2) formation in the Arctic snowpack. The coverage and composition of the snow may control halogen chemistry in the Arctic. Changes of sea ice and snow cover in the changing climate may affect air-snow-ice interaction and have a significant impact on the levels of radicals, ozone, mercury and methane in the Arctic troposphere.

  5. Musical Instrument Choice and Playing History in Post-Secondary Level Music Students: Some Descriptive Data, Some Causes and Some Background Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Simy Meng-Yu; Howard, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Why do musicians specialize in the specific instruments that they do? Research has shown effects of such factors as the perceived masculinity/femininity of instruments and musician's personality but there are little background data on other factors. The present study had two major aims. The first aim was to gather some useful background data on…

  6. Spatial and Temporal Characterization of Femtosecond Pulses at High-Numerical Aperture Using Collinear, Background-Free, Third-Harmonic Autocorrelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fittinghoff, D N; der Au, J A; Squier, J A

    2004-08-09

    We show that a simple plane wave analysis can be used even under tight focusing conditions to predict the dependence of third-harmonic generation on the polarization state of the incident beam. Exploiting this fact, we then show that circularly polarized beams may be used to spatially characterize the beam focus and temporally characterize ultrashort pulses in high numerical aperture systems by experimentally demonstrating, for the first time, novel collinear, background-free, third-harmonic intensity autocorrelations in time and space in a high numerical aperture microscope. We also discuss the possibility of using third harmonic generation with circularly polarized beams for background-free collinear frequency resolved optical gating.

  7. High-Level Synthesis: Productivity, Performance, and Software Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FPGAs are an attractive platform for applications with high computation demand and low energy consumption requirements. However, design effort for FPGA implementations remains high—often an order of magnitude larger than design effort using high-level languages. Instead of this time-consuming process, high-level synthesis (HLS tools generate hardware implementations from algorithm descriptions in languages such as C/C++ and SystemC. Such tools reduce design effort: high-level descriptions are more compact and less error prone. HLS tools promise hardware development abstracted from software designer knowledge of the implementation platform. In this paper, we present an unbiased study of the performance, usability and productivity of HLS using AutoPilot (a state-of-the-art HLS tool. In particular, we first evaluate AutoPilot using the popular embedded benchmark kernels. Then, to evaluate the suitability of HLS on real-world applications, we perform a case study of stereo matching, an active area of computer vision research that uses techniques also common for image denoising, image retrieval, feature matching, and face recognition. Based on our study, we provide insights on current limitations of mapping general-purpose software to hardware using HLS and some future directions for HLS tool development. We also offer several guidelines for hardware-friendly software design. For popular embedded benchmark kernels, the designs produced by HLS achieve 4X to 126X speedup over the software version. The stereo matching algorithms achieve between 3.5X and 67.9X speedup over software (but still less than manual RTL design with a fivefold reduction in design effort versus manual RTL design.

  8. Interaction between High-Level and Low-Level Image Analysis for Semantic Video Object Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cavallaro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The task of extracting a semantic video object is split into two subproblems, namely, object segmentation and region segmentation. Object segmentation relies on a priori assumptions, whereas region segmentation is data-driven and can be solved in an automatic manner. These two subproblems are not mutually independent, and they can benefit from interactions with each other. In this paper, a framework for such interaction is formulated. This representation scheme based on region segmentation and semantic segmentation is compatible with the view that image analysis and scene understanding problems can be decomposed into low-level and high-level tasks. Low-level tasks pertain to region-oriented processing, whereas the high-level tasks are closely related to object-level processing. This approach emulates the human visual system: what one “sees” in a scene depends on the scene itself (region segmentation as well as on the cognitive task (semantic segmentation at hand. The higher-level segmentation results in a partition corresponding to semantic video objects. Semantic video objects do not usually have invariant physical properties and the definition depends on the application. Hence, the definition incorporates complex domain-specific knowledge and is not easy to generalize. For the specific implementation used in this paper, motion is used as a clue to semantic information. In this framework, an automatic algorithm is presented for computing the semantic partition based on color change detection. The change detection strategy is designed to be immune to the sensor noise and local illumination variations. The lower-level segmentation identifies the partition corresponding to perceptually uniform regions. These regions are derived by clustering in an N-dimensional feature space, composed of static as well as dynamic image attributes. We propose an interaction mechanism between the semantic and the region partitions which allows to

  9. Ultrasonic level sensors for liquids under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Mazel, D. S.; Hodges, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    An ultrasonic level sensor of novel design continuously measures the level of a liquid subjected to a high pressure (up to about 40 MPa), as is sometimes required for the effective transfer of the liquid. The sensor operates as a composite resonator fabricated from a standard high-pressure plug. A flat-bottom hole is machined into the plug along its center line. An ultrasonic transducer is bonded rigidly to the interior surface of the bottom wall, while the exterior surface is in contact with the liquid. Although the bottom wall is designed to satisfy the pressure code, it is still sufficiently thin to permit ready excitation of the axisymmetric plate modes of vibration. The liquid level is measured by a conventional pulse-echo technique. A prototype sensor was tested successfully in a 2300-l water vessel at pressures up to about 37 MPa. A spectral analysis of the transmitted pulse reveals that the flexural, extensional, thickness-shear, and radial plate modes are excited into vibration, but none of these appears to be significantly affected by the pressurization of the liquid.

  10. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Configuration and Steering

    CERN Document Server

    Stelzer, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    In March 2010 the four LHC experiments saw the first proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV. Still within the year a collision rate of nearly 10 MHz is expected. At ATLAS, events of potential interest for ATLAS physics are selected by a three level trigger system, with a final recording rate of about 200 Hz. The first level (L1) is implemented in customized hardware, the two levels of the high level trigger (HLT) are software triggers. Within the ATLAS physics program more than 500 trigger signatures are defined. The HLT tests each signature on each L1-accepted event, the test outcome is recorded for later analysis. The HLT-Steering is responsible for this. It foremost ensures the independent test of each signature, guarantying unbiased trigger decisions. Yet, to minimize data readout and execution time, cached detector data and once-calculated trigger objects are reused to form the decision. Some signature tests are performed only on a scaled-down fraction of candidate events, in order to reduce the output rate a...

  11. Resolution and Efficiency of Monitored Drift-Tube Chambers with Final Read-out Electronics at High Background Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Dubbert, J; Kortner, O; Kroha, H; Manz, A; Mohrdieck-Möck, S; Rauscher, F; Richter, R; Staude, A; Stiller, W

    2003-01-01

    The performance of a monitored drift-tube chamber for ATLAS with the final read-out electronics was tested at the Gamma Irradiation facility at CERN under varyin photon irradiation rates of up to 990~Hz\\,cm$^{-2}$ which corresponds to 10 times the highest background rate expected in ATLAS. The signal pulse-height measurement of the final read-out electronics was used to perform time-slewing corrections. The corrections improve the average single-tube resolution from 106~$\\mu$m to 89~$\\mu$m at the nominal discriminator threshold of 44~mV without irradiation, and from 114~$\\mu$m to 89~$\\mu$m at the maximum nominal irradiation rate in ATLAS of 100~Hz\\,cm$^{-2}$. The reduction of the threshold from 44~mV to 34~mV and the time-slewing corrections lead to an average single-tube resolution of 82~$\\mu$m without photon background and of 89~$\\mu$m at 100~Hz\\,cm$^{-2}$. The measured muon detection efficiency agrees with the expectation for the final read-out electronics.

  12. Engineering Escherichia coli for high-level production of propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akawi, Lamees; Srirangan, Kajan; Liu, Xuejia; Moo-Young, Murray; Perry Chou, C

    2015-07-01

    Mounting environmental concerns associated with the use of petroleum-based chemical manufacturing practices has generated significant interest in the development of biological alternatives for the production of propionate. However, biological platforms for propionate production have been limited to strict anaerobes, such as Propionibacteria and select Clostridia. In this work, we demonstrated high-level heterologous production of propionate under microaerobic conditions in engineered Escherichia coli. Activation of the native Sleeping beauty mutase (Sbm) operon not only transformed E. coli to be propionogenic (i.e., propionate-producing) but also introduced an intracellular "flux competition" between the traditional C2-fermentative pathway and the novel C3-fermentative pathway. Dissimilation of the major carbon source of glycerol was identified to critically affect such "flux competition" and, therefore, propionate synthesis. As a result, the propionogenic E. coli was further engineered by inactivation or overexpression of various genes involved in the glycerol dissimilation pathways and their individual genetic effects on propionate production were investigated. Generally, knocking out genes involved in glycerol dissimilation (except glpA) can minimize levels of solventogenesis and shift more dissimilated carbon flux toward the C3-fermentative pathway. For optimal propionate production with high C3:C2-fermentative product ratios, glycerol dissimilation should be channeled through the respiratory pathway and, upon suppressed solventogenesis with minimal production of highly reduced alcohols, the alternative NADH-consuming route associated with propionate synthesis can be critical for more flexible redox balancing. With the implementation of various biochemical and genetic strategies, high propionate titers of more than 11 g/L with high yields up to 0.4 g-propionate/g-glycerol (accounting for ~50 % of dissimilated glycerol) were achieved, demonstrating the

  13. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved.

  14. Quasimonomorphic Mononucleotide Repeats for High-Level Microsatellite Instability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Buhard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite instability (MSI analysis is becoming more and more important to detect sporadic primary tumors of the MSI phenotype as well as in helping to determine Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC cases. After some years of conflicting data due to the absence of consensus markers for the MSI phenotype, a meeting held in Bethesda to clarify the situation proposed a set of 5 microsatellites (2 mononucleotide repeats and 3 dinucleotide repeats to determine MSI tumors. A second Bethesda consensus meeting was held at the end of 2002. It was discussed here that the 1998 microsatellite panel could underestimate high-level MSI tumors and overestimate low-level MSI tumors. Amongst the suggested changes was the exclusive use of mononucleotide repeats in place of dinucleotide repeats. We have already proposed a pentaplex MSI screening test comprising 5 quasimonomorphic mononucleotide repeats. This article compares the advantages of mono or dinucleotide repeats in determining microsatellite instability.

  15. Distribution of levels in high-dimensional random landscapes

    CERN Document Server

    Kabluchko, Zakhar

    2010-01-01

    We prove empirical central limit theorems for the distribution of levels of various random fields defined on high-dimensional discrete structures as the dimension of the structure goes to $\\infty$. The random fields considered include costs of assignments, lengths of Hamiltonian cycles and spanning trees, energies of directed polymers, locations of particles in the branching random walk, as well as energies in the Sherrington--Kirkpatrick and Edwards--Anderson models. The distribution of levels in all models listed above is shown to be essentially the same as in a stationary Gaussian process with regularly varying non-summable covariance function. This type of behavior is different from the Brownian bridge-type limit known for independent or stationary weakly dependent sequences of random variables.

  16. Background level of risk and the survival of predator-naive prey: can neophobia compensate for predator naivety in juvenile coral reef fishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Maud C O; McCormick, Mark I; Meekan, Mark G; Chivers, Douglas P

    2015-01-22

    Neophobia--the generalized fear response to novel stimuli--provides the first potential strategy that predator-naive prey may use to survive initial predator encounters. This phenotype appears to be highly plastic and present in individuals experiencing high-risk environments, but rarer in those experiencing low-risk environments. Despite the appeal of this strategy as a 'solution' for prey naivety, we lack evidence that this strategy provides any fitness benefit to prey. Here, we compare the relative effect of environmental risk (high versus low) and predator-recognition training (predator-naive versus predator-experienced individuals) on the survival of juvenile fish in the wild. We found that juveniles raised in high-risk conditions survived better than those raised in low-risk conditions, providing the first empirical evidence that environmental risk, in the absence of any predator-specific information, affects the way naive prey survive in a novel environment. Both risk level and experience affected survival; however, the two factors did not interact, indicating that the information provided by both factors did not interfere or enhance each other. From a mechanistic viewpoint, this indicates that the combination of the two factors may increase the intensity, and hence efficacy, of prey evasion strategies, or that both factors provide qualitatively separate benefits that would result in an additive survival success.

  17. Apolipoprotein A-II Influences Apolipoprotein E-Linked Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Women with High Levels of HDL Cholesterol and C-Reactive Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corsetti, James P.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Sparks, Charles E.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In a previous report by our group, high levels of apolipoprotein E (apoE) were demonstrated to be associated with risk of incident cardiovascular disease in women with high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the setting of both low (designated as HR1 subjects) and high (designated as

  18. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  19. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation.

  20. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation.

  1. Stagnation Region Heat Transfer Augmentation at Very High Turbulence Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, Forrest [University of North Dakota; Kingery, Joseph E. [University of North Dakota

    2015-06-17

    A database for stagnation region heat transfer has been extended to include heat transfer measurements acquired downstream from a new high intensity turbulence generator. This work was motivated by gas turbine industry heat transfer designers who deal with heat transfer environments with increasing Reynolds numbers and very high turbulence levels. The new mock aero-combustor turbulence generator produces turbulence levels which average 17.4%, which is 37% higher than the older turbulence generator. The increased level of turbulence is caused by the reduced contraction ratio from the liner to the exit. Heat transfer measurements were acquired on two large cylindrical leading edge test surfaces having a four to one range in leading edge diameter (40.64 cm and 10.16 cm). Gandvarapu and Ames [1] previously acquired heat transfer measurements for six turbulence conditions including three grid conditions, two lower turbulence aero-combustor conditions, and a low turbulence condition. The data are documented and tabulated for an eight to one range in Reynolds numbers for each test surface with Reynolds numbers ranging from 62,500 to 500,000 for the large leading edge and 15,625 to 125,000 for the smaller leading edge. The data show augmentation levels of up to 136% in the stagnation region for the large leading edge. This heat transfer rate is an increase over the previous aero-combustor turbulence generator which had augmentation levels up to 110%. Note, the rate of increase in heat transfer augmentation decreases for the large cylindrical leading edge inferring only a limited level of turbulence intensification in the stagnation region. The smaller cylindrical leading edge shows more consistency with earlier stagnation region heat transfer results correlated on the TRL (Turbulence, Reynolds number, Length scale) parameter. The downstream regions of both test surfaces continue to accelerate the flow but at a much lower rate than the leading edge. Bypass transition occurs

  2. High level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal a global challenge

    CERN Document Server

    PUSCH, R; NAKANO, M

    2011-01-01

    High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Disposal, A Global Challenge presents the most recent information on proposed methods of disposal for the most dangerous radioactive waste and for assessing their function from short- and long-term perspectives. It discusses new aspects of the disposal of such waste, especially HLW.The book is unique in the literature in making it clear that, due to tectonics and long-term changes in rock structure, rock can serve only as a ""mechanical support to the chemical apparatus"" and that effective containment of hazardous elements can only be managed by properly des

  3. High level trigger online calibration framework in ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bablok, S R; Djuvsland, Oe; Kanaki, K; Nystrand, J; Richter, M; Roehrich, D; Skjerdal, K; Ullaland, K; Oevrebekk, G; Larsen, D; Alme, J [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Alt, T; Lindenstruth, V; Steinbeck, T M; Thaeder, J; Kebschull, U; Boettger, S; Kalcher, S; Lara, C; Panse, R [Kirchhoff Institute of Physics, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: Sebastian.Bablok@uib.no (and others)

    2008-07-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is designed to perform event analysis of heavy ion and proton-proton collisions as well as calibration calculations online. A large PC farm, currently under installation, enables analysis algorithms to process these computationally intensive tasks. The HLT receives event data from all major detectors in ALICE. Interfaces to the various other systems provide the analysis software with required additional information. Processed results are sent back to the corresponding systems. To allow online performance monitoring of the detectors an interface for visualizing these results has been developed.

  4. FPGA Co-processor for the ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Grastveit, G; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Roehrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Tilsner, H.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbo, A.; Vik, T.

    2003-01-01

    The High Level Trigger (HLT) of the ALICE experiment requires massive parallel computing. One of the main tasks of the HLT system is two-dimensional cluster finding on raw data of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), which is the main data source of ALICE. To reduce the number of computing nodes needed in the HLT farm, FPGAs, which are an intrinsic part of the system, will be utilized for this task. VHDL code implementing the Fast Cluster Finder algorithm, has been written, a testbed for functional verification of the code has been developed, and the code has been synthesized

  5. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

    2014-10-01

    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  6. High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

    1983-05-01

    High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included.

  7. High Level Synthesis for Loop-Based BIST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓维; 张英相

    2000-01-01

    Area and test time are two major overheads encountered during data path high level synthesis for BIST. This paper presents an approach to behavioral synthesis for loop-based BIST. By taking into account the requirements of the BIST scheme during behavioral synthesis processes, an area optimal BIST solution can be obtained. This approach is based on the use of test resources reusability that results in a fewer number of registers being modified to be test registers. This is achieved by incorporating self-testability constraints during register assignment operations. Experimental results on benchmarks are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  8. Combinatorial polarization, code loops, and codes of high level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vojtěchovský

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We first find the combinatorial degree of any map f:V→F, where F is a finite field and V is a finite-dimensional vector space over F. We then simplify and generalize a certain construction, due to Chein and Goodaire, that was used in characterizing code loops as finite Moufang loops that possess at most two squares. The construction yields binary codes of high divisibility level with prescribed Hamming weights of intersections of codewords.

  9. Characterizing speed-independence of high-level designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kishinevsky, Michael; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    types, and internal as well as external non-determinism. This makes it possible to verify the speed-independence of a design without providing an explicit realization of the environment. The verification can be done mechanically. A number of experimental designs have been verified including a speed......This paper characterizes the speed-independence of high-level designs. The characterization is a condition on the design description ensuring that the behavior of the design is independent of the speeds of its components. The behavior of a circuit is modeled as a transition system, that allows data...

  10. Corrosion and failure processes in high-level waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahidhara, R.K.; Elleman, T.S.; Murty, K.L. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1992-11-01

    A large amount of radioactive waste has been stored safely at the Savannah River and Hanford sites over the past 46 years. The aim of this report is to review the experimental corrosion studies at Savannah River and Hanford with the intention of identifying the types and rates of corrosion encountered and indicate how these data contribute to tank failure predictions. The compositions of the High-Level Wastes, mild steels used in the construction of the waste tanks and degradation-modes particularly stress corrosion cracking and pitting are discussed. Current concerns at the Hanford Site are highlighted.

  11. Does Blood Urea Nitrogen Level Predict Severity and High-Risk Endoscopic Lesions in Patients with Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Naamani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB is a serious medical condition requiring prompt resuscitation and early endoscopic therapy in those with high-risk endoscopic lesions (HRLs. There are little or no data correlating sole blood urea nitrogen (BUN level with the severity of nonvariceal UGIB or the presence of HRLs in the adult population.

  12. Online Pattern Recognition for the ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Lindenstruth, V; Röhrich, D; Skaali, B; Steinbeck, T M; Stock, Reinhard; Tilsner, H; Ullaland, K; Vestbø, A S; Vik, T

    2004-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger has to process data online, in order to select interesting (sub)events, or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques.Focusing on the main data source, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), we present two pattern recognition methods under investigation: a sequential approach "cluster finder" and "track follower") and an iterative approach ("track candidate finder" and "cluster deconvoluter"). We show, that the former is suited for pp and low multiplicity PbPb collisions, whereas the latter might be applicable for high multiplicity PbPb collisions, if it turns out, that more than 8000 charged particles would have to be reconstructed inside the TPC. Based on the developed tracking schemes we show, that using modeling techniques a compression factor of around 10 might be achievable

  13. Online Pattern Recognition for the ALICE High Level Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Rohrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Tilsner, H.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbo, A.; Vik, T.

    2004-06-01

    The ALICE high level trigger has to process data online, in order to select interesting (sub)events, or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques. Focusing on the main data source, the time projection chamber (TPC), we present two pattern recognition methods under investigation: a sequential approach (cluster finder and track follower) and an iterative approach (track candidate finder and cluster deconvoluter). We show, that the former is suited for pp and low multiplicity PbPb collisions, whereas the latter might be applicable for high multiplicity PbPb collisions of dN/dy>3000. Based on the developed tracking schemes we show that using modeling techniques, a compression factor of around 10 might be achievable.

  14. High Level Trigger System for the ALICE Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U.Frankenfeld; H.Helstrup; 等

    2001-01-01

    The ALICE experiment [1] at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at CERN will detect up to 20,000 particles in a single Pb-Pb event resulting in a data rate of -75 MByte/event,The event rate is limited by the bandwidth of the data storage system.Higher rates are possible by selecting interesting events and subevents (High Level trigger) or compressing the data efficiently with modeling techniques.Both require a fast parallel pattern recognition.One possible solution to process the detector data at such rates is a farm of clustered SMP nodes,based on off-the-shelf PCs,and connected by a high bandwidt,low latency network.

  15. Psilocybin impairs high-level but not low-level motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Olivia L; Pettigrew, John D; Burr, David C; Alais, David; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2004-08-26

    The hallucinogenic serotonin(1A&2A) agonist psilocybin is known for its ability to induce illusions of motion in otherwise stationary objects or textured surfaces. This study investigated the effect of psilocybin on local and global motion processing in nine human volunteers. Using a forced choice direction of motion discrimination task we show that psilocybin selectively impairs coherence sensitivity for random dot patterns, likely mediated by high-level global motion detectors, but not contrast sensitivity for drifting gratings, believed to be mediated by low-level detectors. These results are in line with those observed within schizophrenic populations and are discussed in respect to the proposition that psilocybin may provide a model to investigate clinical psychosis and the pharmacological underpinnings of visual perception in normal populations.

  16. High levels of mannose-binding lectin are associated with lower pulse wave velocity in uraemic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mads; Bay, Jakob T; Clausen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    -concentration below or above the median concentration. These groups were comparable regarding age, BMI, and duration of ESRD. PWV was significantly lower in the group with high MBL levels compared to the group with low MBL levels and trends toward better AIX and higher insulin sensitivity (ISI) was also seen......BACKGROUND: Uraemia is associated with a highly increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) has been shown to be involved in cardiovascular pathophysiology and a protective effect of MBL is suggested. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a potential impact...... in the group with high MBL levels. No difference was seen in FMD and NID. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of MBL are associated with lower PWV and the use of antihypertensive drugs in a cohort of patients with ESRD awaiting kidney transplantation suggesting a beneficial role of high levels of MBL on arterial...

  17. Salivary fluoride levels after use of high-fluoride dentifrice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Glauber Campos; Cruz, Priscila Figueiredo; Bohn, Ana Clarissa Cavalcante Elvas; de Moura, Marcoeli Silva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate salivary fluoride (F) availability after toothbrushing with a high-F dentifrice. Twelve adult volunteers took part in this crossover and blind study. F concentration in saliva was determined after brushing with a high-F dentifrice (5000 µg F/g) or with a conventional F concentration dentifrice (1100 µg F/g) followed by a 15 mL distilled water rinse. Samples of nonstimulated saliva were collected on the following times: before (baseline), and immediately after spit (time = 0) and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. F analysis was performed with a fluoride-sensitive electrode and the area under curve of F salivary concentration × time (µg F/mL × min(-1)) was calculated. At baseline, no significant difference was found among dentifrices (P > 0.05). After brushing, both dentifrices caused an elevated fluoride level in saliva; however salivary F concentration was significantly higher at all times, when high-F dentifrice was used (P dentifrices (P dentifrice enhanced the bioavailability of salivary F, being an option for caries management in patients with high caries risk.

  18. Low-level versus high-level placement of gold plates in the upper eyelid in patients with facial palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shazly MI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tarek A Amer1, Hisham M El-Minawi1, Malak I El-Shazly21Department of Plastic Surgery, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Cairo University, Cairo, EgyptBackground: Lagophthalmos is a condition that results from facial paralysis causing functional as well as esthetic problems. This condition can be treated by a range of techniques, including tarsorrhaphy, facial slings, and canthopexies. Gold plates provide a solution for temporary or permanent lagophthalmos resulting from facial paralysis. This study discusses the use of gold plates in the treatment of lagophthalmos but with the introduction of gold plates in two different positions in the upper lids.Methods: Group 1 (38 eyes had a low level of placement (2 mm from the lid margin of gold plates, while Group 2 (23 eyes had a high level of placement (5 mm from the lid margin.Results: Noticeable bulge was seen in 18.4% of Group 1 eyes compared with 13% in Group 2, and migration of the plate occurred in 2.6% and 0% of eyes in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, as well as ptosis (7.8% and 4.3% and conjunctival perforation (0% and 4.3%. The degree of improvement of eyelid closure, keratopathy, and visual acuity were the same for both techniques.Conclusion: Placement of gold plates at a higher level could avoid some of the drawbacks of lower level placement of these plates, such as upper eyelid bulge and ptosis, especially given the thinning of the eyelids and orbicularis muscles that occurs in facial palsy.Keywords: lagophthalmos, tarsorrhaphy, gold plates, keratopathy

  19. The CMS High Level Trigger System: Experience and Future Development

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Bowen, Matthew; Branson, James G; Bukowiec, Sebastian; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, J A; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Flossdorf, Alexander; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, R; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen; Holzner, André; Y L Hwong; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, R K; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, M; Spataru, A C; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2012-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC features a two-level trigger system. Events accepted by the first level trigger, at a maximum rate of 100 kHz, are read out by the Data Acquisition system (DAQ), and subsequently assembled in memory in a farm of computers running a software high-level trigger (HLT), which selects interesting events for offline storage and analysis at a rate of order few hundred Hz. The HLT algorithms consist of sequences of offline-style reconstruction and filtering modules, executed on a farm of 0(10000) CPU cores built from commodity hardware. Experience from the operation of the HLT system in the collider run 2010/2011 is reported. The current architecture of the CMS HLT, its integration with the CMS reconstruction framework and the CMS DAQ, are discussed in the light of future development. The possible short- and medium-term evolution of the HLT software infrastructure to support extensions of the HLT computing power, and to address remaining performance and maintenance issues, are discussed.

  20. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernadzikowski, T. A.; Allender, J. S.; Butler, J. L.; Gordon, D. E.; Gould, Jr., T. H.; Stone, J. A.

    1982-03-01

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms.

  1. Burning high-level TRU waste in fusion fission reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yaosong

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the concept of actinide burning instead of a once-through fuel cycle for disposing spent nuclear fuel seems to get much more attention. A new method of burning high-level transuranic (TRU) waste combined with Thorium-Uranium (Th-U) fuel in the subcritical reactors driven by external fusion neutron sources is proposed in this paper. The thorium-based TRU fuel burns all of the long-lived actinides via a hard neutron spectrum while outputting power. A one-dimensional model of the reactor concept was built by means of the ONESN_BURN code with new data libraries. The numerical results included actinide radioactivity, biological hazard potential, and much higher burnup rate of high-level transuranic waste. The comparison of the fusion-fission reactor with the thermal reactor shows that the harder neutron spectrum is more efficient than the soft. The Th-U cycle produces less TRU, less radiotoxicity and fewer long-lived actinides. The Th-U cycle provides breeding of 233U with a long operation time (>20 years), hence significantly reducing the reactivity swing while improving safety and burnup.

  2. High-level expressing YAC vector for transgenic animal bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Y; Miwa, M; Takahashi, R; Kodaira, K; Hirabayashi, M; Suzuki, T; Ueda, M

    1999-04-01

    The position effect is one major problem in the production of transgenic animals as mammary gland bioreactors. In the present study, we introduced the human growth hormone (hGH) gene into 210-kb human alpha-lactalbumin position-independent YAC vectors using homologous recombination and produced transgenic rats via microinjection of YAC DNA into rat embryos. The efficiency of producing transgenic rats with the YAC vector DNA was the same as that using plasmid constructs. All analyzed transgenic rats had one copy of the transgene and produced milk containing a high level of hGH (0.25-8.9 mg/ml). In transgenic rats with the YAC vector in which the human alpha-lactalbumin gene was replaced with the hGH gene, tissue specificity of hGH mRNA was the same as that of the endogenous rat alpha-lactalbumin gene. Thus, the 210-kb human alpha-lactalbumin YAC is a useful vector for high-level expression of foreign genes in the milk of transgenic animals.

  3. ATW system impact on high-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, E.D.

    1992-12-01

    This report discusses the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept which aims at destruction of key long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste (HLW), both fission products and actinides. This focus makes it different from most other transmutation concepts which concentrate primarily on actinide burning. The ATW system uses an accelerator-driven, sub-critical assembly to create an intense thermal neutron environment for radionuclide transmutation. This feature allows rapid transmutation under low-inventory system conditions, which in turn, has a direct impact on the size of chemical separations and materials handling components of the system. Inventories in ATW are factors of eight to thirty times smaller than reactor systems of equivalent thermal power. Chemical separations systems are relatively small in scale and can be optimized to achieve high decontamination factors and minimized waste streams. The low-inventory feature also directly impacts material amounts remaining in the system at its end of life. In addition to its low-inventory operation, the accelerator-driven neutron source features of ATW are key to providing a sufficient level of neutrons to allow transmutation of long-lived fission products.

  4. VITRIFICATION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Peeler, D.

    2009-06-17

    The objective of this study was to experimentally measure the properties and performance of a series of glasses with compositions that could represent high level waste Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) as vitrified at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility. These data were used to guide frit optimization efforts as the SB5 composition was finalized. Glass compositions for this study were developed by combining a series of SB5 composition projections with a group of candidate frits. The study glasses were fabricated using depleted uranium and their chemical compositions, crystalline contents and chemical durabilities were characterized. Trevorite was the only crystalline phase that was identified in a few of the study glasses after slow cooling, and is not of concern as spinels have been shown to have little impact on the durability of high level waste glasses. Chemical durability was quantified using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). All of the glasses had very acceptable durability performance. The results of this study indicate that a frit composition can be identified that will provide a processable and durable glass when combined with SB5.

  5. Studies of ATM for ATLAS high level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Bystrický, J; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents some of the conclusions of our studies on ATM and Fast Ethernet in the ATLAS level-2 trigger Pilot project. We describe the general concept and principles of our data collection and event building scheme that could be transposed to various experiments in high energy and nuclear physics. To validate the approach in view of ATLAS High Level Triggers, we assembled a testbed composed of up to 48 computers linked by a 7.5 Gbit/s ATM switch. This modular switch is used as a single entity or is split into several smaller interconnected switches. This allows studying how to construct a large network from smaller units. Alternatively, the ATM network can be replaced by Fast Ethernet. We detail the operation of the system and present series of performance measurements made with event building traffic pattern. We extrapolate these results to show how today's commercial networking components could be used to build a 1000-port network adequate for ATLAS needs. Finally, we list the benefits and the limi...

  6. Studies of ATM for ATLAS high-level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Bystrický, J; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents some of the conclusions of our studies on asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) and fast Ethernet in the ATLAS level-2 trigger pilot project. We describe the general concept and principles of our data-collection and event-building scheme that could be transposed to various experiments in high-energy and nuclear physics. To validate the approach in view of ATLAS high-level triggers, we assembled a testbed composed of up to 48 computers linked by a 7.5-Gbit/s ATM switch. This modular switch is used as a single entity or is split into several smaller interconnected switches. This allows study of how to construct a large network from smaller units. Alternatively, the ATM network can be replaced by fast Ethernet. We detail the operation of the system and present series of performance measurements made with event-building traffic pattern. We extrapolate these results to show how today's commercial networking components could be used to build a 1000-port network adequate for ATLAS needs. Lastly, we li...

  7. Risk Estimation with Epidemiologic Data When Response Attenuates at High-Exposure Levels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyle Steenland; Ryan Seals; Mitch Klein; Jennifer Jinot; Henry D. Kahn

    2011-01-01

    Background: In occupational studies, which are commonly used for risk assessment for environmental settings, estimated exposure-response relationships often attenuate at high exposures. Relative risk (RR...

  8. Engineering neural systems for high-level problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Jared; Reggia, James

    2016-07-01

    There is a long-standing, sometimes contentious debate in AI concerning the relative merits of a symbolic, top-down approach vs. a neural, bottom-up approach to engineering intelligent machine behaviors. While neurocomputational methods excel at lower-level cognitive tasks (incremental learning for pattern classification, low-level sensorimotor control, fault tolerance and processing of noisy data, etc.), they are largely non-competitive with top-down symbolic methods for tasks involving high-level cognitive problem solving (goal-directed reasoning, metacognition, planning, etc.). Here we take a step towards addressing this limitation by developing a purely neural framework named galis. Our goal in this work is to integrate top-down (non-symbolic) control of a neural network system with more traditional bottom-up neural computations. galis is based on attractor networks that can be "programmed" with temporal sequences of hand-crafted instructions that control problem solving by gating the activity retention of, communication between, and learning done by other neural networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that it can be applied successfully to solve sequential card matching problems, using both human performance and a top-down symbolic algorithm as experimental controls. Solving this kind of problem makes use of top-down attention control and the binding together of visual features in ways that are easy for symbolic AI systems but not for neural networks to achieve. Our model can not only be instructed on how to solve card matching problems successfully, but its performance also qualitatively (and sometimes quantitatively) matches the performance of both human subjects that we had perform the same task and the top-down symbolic algorithm that we used as an experimental control. We conclude that the core principles underlying the galis framework provide a promising approach to engineering purely neurocomputational systems for problem

  9. Myocytes oxygenation and high energy phosphate levels during hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nurulqadr Jameel

    Full Text Available Decrease of ambient oxygen level has been used in myocytes culture experiments in examining the responsiveness to stress secondary to hypoxia. However, none of these studies measure the myocytes oxygenation levels resulting in ambiguity as to whether there is insufficient oxygen delivery. This study examined the hypothesis that at a basal myocardial work state, adequate myocyte oxygenation would be maintained until extremely low arterial pO2 levels were reached. Myocyte pO2 values in normal dogs were calculated from the myocardial deoxymyoglobin (Mb- δ levels using (1H-spectroscopy (MRS and were normalized to Mb-δ obtained after complete LAD occlusion. During Protocol 1 (n = 6, Mb-δ was measured during sequential reductions of the oxygen fraction of inspired gas (FIO2 from 40, 21, 15, 10, and 5%, while in protocol 2 (n = 10 Mb-δ was measured at FIO2 of 3%. Protocol 3 (n = 9 evaluated time course of Mb-δ during prolonged exposure to FIO2 of 5%. Myocardial blood flow (MBF was measured with microspheres and high energy phosphate (HEP levels were determined with (31P-MRS. MVO2 progressively increased in response to the progressive reduction of FIO2 that is accompanied by increased LV pressure, heart rate, and MBF. Mb-δ was undetectable during FIO2 values of 21, 15, 10, and 5%. However, FIO2 of 3% or prolonged exposure to FIO2 of 5% caused progressive increases of Mb-δ which were associated with decreases of PCr, ATP and the PCr/ATP ratio, as well as increases of inorganic phosphate. The intracellular PO2 values for 20% reductions of PCr and ATP were approximately 7.4 and 1.9 mmHg, respectively. These data demonstrate that in the in vivo system over a wide range of FIO2 and arterial pO2 levels, the myocyte pO2 values remain well above the K(m value with respect to cytochrome oxidase, and oxygen availability does not limit mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation at 5% FIO2.

  10. Implications of high level pseudogene transcription in Mycobacterium leprae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Norman E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mycobacterium leprae genome has less than 50% coding capacity and 1,133 pseudogenes. Preliminary evidence suggests that some pseudogenes are expressed. Therefore, defining pseudogene transcriptional and translational potentials of this genome should increase our understanding of their impact on M. leprae physiology. Results Gene expression analysis identified transcripts from 49% of all M. leprae genes including 57% of all ORFs and 43% of all pseudogenes in the genome. Transcribed pseudogenes were randomly distributed throughout the chromosome. Factors resulting in pseudogene transcription included: 1 co-orientation of transcribed pseudogenes with transcribed ORFs within or exclusive of operon-like structures; 2 the paucity of intrinsic stem-loop transcriptional terminators between transcribed ORFs and downstream pseudogenes; and 3 predicted pseudogene promoters. Mechanisms for translational "silencing" of pseudogene transcripts included the lack of both translational start codons and strong Shine-Dalgarno (SD sequences. Transcribed pseudogenes also contained multiple "in-frame" stop codons and high Ka/Ks ratios, compared to that of homologs in M. tuberculosis and ORFs in M. leprae. A pseudogene transcript containing an active promoter, strong SD site, a start codon, but containing two in frame stop codons yielded a protein product when expressed in E. coli. Conclusion Approximately half of M. leprae's transcriptome consists of inactive gene products consuming energy and resources without potential benefit to M. leprae. Presently it is unclear what additional detrimental affect(s this large number of inactive mRNAs has on the functional capability of this organism. Translation of these pseudogenes may play an important role in overall energy consumption and resultant pathophysiological characteristics of M. leprae. However, this study also demonstrated that multiple translational "silencing" mechanisms are present

  11. High-Voltage-Input Level Translator Using Standard CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Jeremy A.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Vo, Tuan A.; Blalock, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    proposed integrated circuit would translate (1) a pair of input signals having a low differential potential and a possibly high common-mode potential into (2) a pair of output signals having the same low differential potential and a low common-mode potential. As used here, "low" and "high" refer to potentials that are, respectively, below or above the nominal supply potential (3.3 V) at which standard complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits are designed to operate. The input common-mode potential could lie between 0 and 10 V; the output common-mode potential would be 2 V. This translation would make it possible to process the pair of signals by use of standard 3.3-V CMOS analog and/or mixed-signal (analog and digital) circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. A schematic of the circuit is shown in the figure. Standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry cannot withstand input potentials greater than about 4 V. However, there are many applications that involve low-differential-potential, high-common-mode-potential input signal pairs and in which standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry, which is relatively inexpensive, would be the most appropriate circuitry for performing other functions on the integrated-circuit chip that handles the high-potential input signals. Thus, there is a need to combine high-voltage input circuitry with standard low-voltage CMOS circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. The proposed circuit would satisfy this need. In the proposed circuit, the input signals would be coupled into both a level-shifting pair and a common-mode-sensing pair of CMOS transistors. The output of the level-shifting pair would be fed as input to a differential pair of transistors. The resulting differential current output would pass through six standoff transistors to be mirrored into an output branch by four heterojunction bipolar transistors. The mirrored differential current would be converted back to potential by a pair of diode-connected transistors

  12. Tracking and flavour tagging selection in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Calvetti, Milene; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In high-energy physics experiments, track based selection in the online environment is crucial for the efficient real time selection of the rare physics process of interest. This is of particular importance at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where the increasingly harsh collision environment is challenging the experiments to improve the performance of their online selection. Principal among these challenges is the increasing number of interactions per bunch crossing, known as pileup. In the ATLAS experiment the challenge has been addressed with multiple strategies. Firstly, specific trigger objects have been improved by building algorithms using detailed tracking and vertexing in specific detector regions to improve background rejection without loosing signal efficiency. Secondly, since 2015 all trigger areas have benefited from a new high performance Inner Detector (ID) software tracking system implemented in the High Level Trigger. Finally, performance will be further enhanced in future by the installation...

  13. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Garza, J G; Aznar, F.; Calvet, D.; Castel, J.F.; Christensen, F.E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Decker, T.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J.A.; Giomataris, I.; Hill, R.M.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jakobsen, A.C.; Jourde, D.; Mirallas, H.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Ruz, J.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as ...

  14. High-level fluorescence labeling of gram-positive pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aymanns

    Full Text Available Fluorescence labeling of bacterial pathogens has a broad range of interesting applications including the observation of living bacteria within host cells. We constructed a novel vector based on the E. coli streptococcal shuttle plasmid pAT28 that can propagate in numerous bacterial species from different genera. The plasmid harbors a promoterless copy of the green fluorescent variant gene egfp under the control of the CAMP-factor gene (cfb promoter of Streptococcus agalactiae and was designated pBSU101. Upon transfer of the plasmid into streptococci, the bacteria show a distinct and easily detectable fluorescence using a standard fluorescence microscope and quantification by FACS-analysis demonstrated values that were 10-50 times increased over the respective controls. To assess the suitability of the construct for high efficiency fluorescence labeling in different gram-positive pathogens, numerous species were transformed. We successfully labeled Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus aureus strains utilizing the EGFP reporter plasmid pBSU101. In all of these species the presence of the cfb promoter construct resulted in high-level EGFP expression that could be further increased by growing the streptococcal and enterococcal cultures under high oxygen conditions through continuous aeration.

  15. High-level waste tank farm set point document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, J.A. III

    1995-01-15

    Setpoints for nuclear safety-related instrumentation are required for actions determined by the design authorization basis. Minimum requirements need to be established for assuring that setpoints are established and held within specified limits. This document establishes the controlling methodology for changing setpoints of all classifications. The instrumentation under consideration involve the transfer, storage, and volume reduction of radioactive liquid waste in the F- and H-Area High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Farms. The setpoint document will encompass the PROCESS AREA listed in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (DPSTSA-200-10 Sup 18) which includes the diversion box HDB-8 facility. In addition to the PROCESS AREAS listed in the SAR, Building 299-H and the Effluent Transfer Facility (ETF) are also included in the scope.

  16. Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste - Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Junghans, Arnd; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Kögler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralf; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In a fast neutron spectrum essentially all long-lived actinides (e.g. Plutonium) undergo fission and thus can be transmuted into generally short lived fission products. Innovative nuclear reactor concepts e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS) are currently in development that foresee a closed fuel cycle. The majority of the fissile nuclides (uranium, plutonium) shall be used for power generation and only fission products will be put into final disposal that needs to last for a historical time scale of only 1000 years. For the transmutation of high-level radioactive waste a lot of research and development is still required. One aspect is the precise knowledge of nuclear data for reactions with fast neutrons. Nuclear reactions relevant for transmutation are being investigated in the framework of the european project ERINDA. First results from the new neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf will be presented.

  17. Intermittent Testing and Training for High-Level Football Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen

    Football is the most popular sport in the world, played by over 400 million men and women. In addition to the wide range of sport-specific technical and tactical skills needed, several physical components have been shown to be necessary to perform at a high level. The present PhD thesis is based...... on four articles that focus on physical testing and training for elite and sub-elite football players.The first article (Study I) aims to identify and establish aerobic capacities and anthropometric characteristics of elite female football players with the use of laboratory tests, and to examine whether...... with other field tests the Yo-Yo IR2 has become an important tool for monitoring the physical fitness of football players. However, the burden of testing, for players (physically and mentally) and the coaching staff (time consuming), is large and there is a probability that the tests may contain overlapping...

  18. High level architecture evolved modular federation object model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenguang; Xu Yongping; Chen Xin; Li Qun; Wang Weiping

    2009-01-01

    To improve the agility, dynamics, composability, reusability, and development efficiency restricted by monolithic federation object model (FOM), a modular FOM is proposed by high level architecture (HLA) evolved product development group. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of HLA evolved modular FOM. In particular, related concepts, the overall impact on HLA standards, extension principles, and merging processes are discussed. Also permitted and restricted combinations, and merging rules are provided, and the influence on HLA interface specification is given. The comparison between modular FOM and base object model (BOM) is performed to illustrate the importance of their combination. The applications of modular FOM are summarized. Finally, the significance to facilitate compoable simulation both in academia and practice is presented and future directions are pointed out.

  19. High-level theoretical rovibrational spectroscopy of HCS+ isotopologues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, B.; Sebald, P.

    2016-12-01

    In this work the rovibrational spectrum of the HCS+ molecular cation is revisited through high-level electronic structure and variational rovibrational calculations. A local potential energy function is built from explicitly correlated coupled-cluster results, incorporating corrections for core-valence, scalar relativistic and higher-order excitation effects. The computed spectroscopic parameters, based on variational calculations with Watson's isomorphic Hamiltonian for linear molecules lead to a nearly perfect agreement with experimentally reported values (Rosenbaum et al., 1989). Furthermore, the documented Fermi resonance within the (0,00, 1) / (0,20, 0) and (1,00, 1) / (1,20, 0) pairs of states is clarified. Based on a newly developed electric dipole moment function transition dipole moments of fundamental transitions are predicted for the most important isotopologues.

  20. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  1. FADO 2.0: A high level tagging language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C. M. L.; Pimenta, M.; Varela, J.; Souza, J.

    1989-12-01

    FADO 2.0 is a high language, developed in the context of the 4th level trigger of the DELPHI data acquisition project at CERN, that provides a simple and consice way to define physics criteria for event tagging. Its syntax is based on mathematical logic and set theory, as it was found the most appropriate framework to describe the properties of single HEP events. The language is one of the components of the FADO tagging system. The system also implements implicity a mechanism to selectively reconstruct the event data that are needed to fulfil the physics criteria, following the speed requirements of the online data-acquisition system. A complete programming environment is now under development, which will include a syntax directed editor, and incremental compiler, a debugger and a configurer. This last tool can be used to transport the system into the context of other HEP applications, namely offline event selection and filtering.

  2. High-Level Language Production in Parkinson's Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori J. P. Altmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses impairments of high-level, complex language production in Parkinson's disease (PD, defined as sentence and discourse production, and situates these impairments within the framework of current psycholinguistic theories of language production. The paper comprises three major sections, an overview of the effects of PD on the brain and cognition, a review of the literature on language production in PD, and a discussion of the stages of the language production process that are impaired in PD. Overall, the literature converges on a few common characteristics of language production in PD: reduced information content, impaired grammaticality, disrupted fluency, and reduced syntactic complexity. Many studies also document the strong impact of differences in cognitive ability on language production. Based on the data, PD affects all stages of language production including conceptualization and functional and positional processing. Furthermore, impairments at all stages appear to be exacerbated by impairments in cognitive abilities.

  3. Extending Java for High-Level Web Service Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2003-01-01

    We incorporate innovations from the project into the Java language to provide high-level features for Web service programming. The resulting language, JWIG, contains an advanced session model and a flexible mechanism for dynamic construction of XML documents, in particular XHTML. To support program...... development we provide a suite of program analyses that at compile time verify for a given program that no runtime errors can occur while building documents or receiving form input, and that all documents being shown are valid according to the document type definition for XHTML 1.0.We compare JWIG...... with Servlets and JSP which are widely used Web service development platforms. Our implementation and evaluation of JWIG indicate that the language extensions can simplify the program structure and that the analyses are sufficiently fast and precise to be practically useful....

  4. High level radioactive waste vitrification process equipment component testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemens, D.H.; Heath, W.O.; Larson, D.E.; Craig, S.N.; Berger, D.N.; Goles, R.W.

    1985-04-01

    Remote operability and maintainability of vitrification equipment were assessed under shielded-cell conditions. The equipment tested will be applied to immobilize high-level and transuranic liquid waste slurries that resulted from plutonium production for defense weapons. Equipment tested included: a turntable for handling waste canisters under the melter; a removable discharge cone in the melter overflow section; a thermocouple jumper that extends into a shielded cell; remote instrument and electrical connectors; remote, mechanical, and heat transfer aspects of the melter glass overflow section; a reamer to clean out plugged nozzles in the melter top; a closed circuit camera to view the melter interior; and a device to retrieve samples of the glass product. A test was also conducted to evaluate liquid metals for use in a liquid metal sealing system.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories' new high level acoustic test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J. D.; Hendrick, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    A high intensity acoustic test facility has been designed and is under construction at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. The chamber is designed to provide an acoustic environment of 154dB (re 20 {mu}Pa) overall sound pressure level over the bandwidth of 50 Hz to 10,000 Hz. The chamber has a volume of 16,000 cubic feet with interior dimensions of 21.6 ft {times} 24.6 ft {times} 30 ft. The construction of the chamber should be complete by the summer of 1990. This paper discusses the design goals and constraints of the facility. The construction characteristics are discussed in detail, as are the acoustic performance design characteristics. The authors hope that this work will help others in designing acoustic chambers. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Respiratory physiology: adaptations to high-level exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Donald C

    2012-05-01

    Most exercise scientists would agree that the physiological determinants of peak endurance performance include the capacity to transport oxygen to the working muscle, diffusion from the muscle to the mitochondria, energy production and force generation, all influenced by signals from the central nervous system. In general, the capacity of the pulmonary system far exceeds the demands required for ventilation and gas exchange during exercise. Endurance training induces large and significant adaptations within the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and haematological systems. However, the structural and functional properties of the lung and airways do not change in response to repetitive physical activity and, in elite athletes, the pulmonary system may become a limiting factor to exercise at sea level and altitude. As a consequence to this respiratory paradox, highly trained athletes may develop intrathoracic and extrathoracic obstruction, expiratory flow limitation, respiratory muscle fatigue and exercise-induced hypoxaemia. All of these maladaptations may influence performance.

  7. Reprogrammable Controller Design From High-Level Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmohammed

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing techniques in high-level synthesis mostly assume a simple controller architecture model in the form of a single FSM. However, in reality more complex controller architectures are often used. On the other hand, in the case of programmable processors, the controller architecture is largely defined by the available control-flow instructions in the instruction set. With the wider acceptance of behavioral synthesis, the application of these methods for the design of programmable controllers is of fundamental importance in embedded system technology. This paper describes an important extension of an existing architectural synthesis system targeting the generation of ASIP reprogrammable architectures. The designer can then generate both style of architecture, hardwired and programmable, using the same synthesis system and can quickly evaluate the trade-offs of hardware decisions.

  8. The ALICE High Level Trigger: status and plans

    CERN Document Server

    Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Gorbunov, Sergey; Breitner, Timo; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lindenstruth, Volker; Berzano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is an online reconstruction, triggering and data compression system used in the ALICE experiment at CERN. Unique among the LHC experiments, it extensively uses modern coprocessor technologies like general purpose graphic processing units (GPGPU) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) in the data flow. Realtime data compression is performed using a cluster finder algorithm implemented on FPGA boards. These data, instead of raw clusters, are used in the subsequent processing and storage, resulting in a compression factor of around 4. Track finding is performed using a cellular automaton and a Kalman filter algorithm on GPGPU hardware, where both CUDA and OpenCL technologies can be used interchangeably. The ALICE upgrade requires further development of online concepts to include detector calibration and stronger data compression. The current HLT farm will be used as a test bed for online calibration and both synchronous and asynchronous processing frameworks already before t...

  9. High Level Control Applications for SOLEIL Commissioning and Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Nadolski, Laurent S; Ho, Katy; Leclercq, Nicolas; Ounsy, Majid; Petit, Sylvain

    2005-01-01

    The SOLEIL control system, namely TANGO developed in collaboration with ESRF, is now mature and stable. TANGO has also been chosen now by several other laboratories. High-level control applications implemented in the control room for the storage ring, the two transfer lines, and the booster will be described in this paper. Three kinds of tools for commissioning are used. First the generic TANGO tools (alarms, simple graphical control applications), which allow us to control in a simple way any TANGO Device Server. Secondly a Matlab Middle Layer (adapted from ALS and SPEAR3): Matlab is fully interconnected with TANGO; it is used primarily for writing Physics control applications. Finally Globalscreen, a commercial SCADA software devoted for building operation applications has been selected (panels for controlling or displaying setpoint, readback values, status of equipments). In addition an overview of the historical and short-term databases for the accelerators will be given. They have been developed in house...

  10. High level architecture evolved modular federation object model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wenguang; Chen, Xin; Li, Qun; Wang, Weiping

    2009-01-01

    To improve the agility, dynamics, composability, reusability, and development efficiency restricted by monolithic Federation Object Model (FOM), a modular FOM was proposed by High Level Architecture (HLA) Evolved product development group. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of HLA Evolved modular FOM. In particular, related concepts, the overall impact on HLA standards, extension principles, and merging processes are discussed. Also permitted and restricted combinations, and merging rules are provided, and the influence on HLA interface specification is given. The comparison between modular FOM and Base Object Model (BOM) is performed to illustrate the importance of their combination. The applications of modular FOM are summarized. Finally, the significance to facilitate composable simulation both in academia and practice is presented and future directions are pointed out.

  11. Simulation Modeling of Space Missions Using the High Level Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rabelo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an environment being developed to model a mission of the Space Launch System (SLS and the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV being launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC to the International Space Station (ISS. Several models representing different phases of the mission such as the ground operations processes, engineered systems, and range components such as failure tree, blast, gas dispersion, and debris modeling are explained. These models are built using different simulation paradigms such as continuous, system dynamics, discrete-event, and agent-based simulation modeling. The High Level Architecture (HLA is the backbone of this distributed simulation. The different design decisions and the information fusion scheme of this unique environment are explained in detail for decision-making. This can also help in the development of exploration missions beyond the International Space Station.

  12. Commissioning of the ATLAS high-level trigger with single beam and cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Özcan, V Erkcan

    2010-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the two general-purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Using fast reconstruction algorithms, its trigger system needs to efficiently reject a huge rate of background events and still select potentially interesting ones with good efficiency. After a first processing level using custom electronics, the trigger selection is made by software running on two processor farms, designed to have a total of around two thousand multi-core machines. This system is known as the High Level Trigger (HLT). To reduce the network data traffic and the processing time to manageable levels, the HLT uses seeded, step-wise reconstruction, aiming at the earliest possible rejection of background events. The recent LHC startup and short single-beam run provided a "stress test" of the trigger. Following this period, ATLAS continued to collect cosmic-ray events for detector alignment and calibration purposes. These running periods allowed strict tests of the HLT reconstruction and selection algorithms as we...

  13. Automatic run-configuration of the ALICE High Level Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, Timm [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, University Frankfurt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) uses a pipelined and component based approach for data reconstruction and analysis. Processing components push data to the next step in the processing chain via a common interface. Data flow components transport data between nodes and merge different parts of data belonging to the same event. In order for this to work, a configuration for a processing chain has to be created before the start of a run. A repository of XML files is used to automate this, with each file holding the necessary configuration for one component, including its parents components that provide its input data. The ALICE Experiment Control System (ECS) provides a number of configuration parameters to the HLT, including an identifier for the trigger menu with the algorithms to run, a list of participating detectors, and a list of active input DDLs providing data from the detectors to DAQ and HLT. From these parameters an HLT configuration is determined fully automatically including determination of the full parent hierarchy from the top-level trigger and output components to the components receiving the data from the detector, without any manual intervention or configuration.

  14. Hemipelvectomy: high-level amputation surgery and prosthetic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdek, Matthew T; Kralovec, Michael E; Andrews, Karen L

    2014-07-01

    The hemipelvectomy, most commonly performed for pelvic tumor resection, is one of the most technically demanding and invasive surgical procedures performed today. Adequate soft tissue coverage and wound complications after hemipelvectomy are important considerations. Rehabilitation after hemipelvectomy is optimally managed by a multidisciplinary integrated team. Understanding the functional outcomes for this population assists the rehabilitation team to counsel patients, plan goals, and determine discharge needs. The most important rehabilitation goal is the optimal restoration of the patient's functional independence. Factors such as age, sex, etiology, level of amputation, and general health play important roles in determining prosthetic use. The three main criteria for successful prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with high-level amputation are comfort, function, and cosmesis. Recent advances in hip and knee joints have contributed to increased function. Prosthetic use after hemipelvectomy improves balance and decreases the need for a gait aid. Using a prosthesis helps maintain muscle strength and tone, cardiovascular health, and functional mobility. With new advances in prosthetic components, patients are choosing to use their prostheses for primary mobility.

  15. The LHCb Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger Processing Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, M.; Gaspar, C.; Jost, B.; Neufeld, N.

    2015-12-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN collects collisions of particle bunches at 40 MHz. After a first level of hardware trigger with an output rate of 1 MHz, the physically interesting collisions are selected by running dedicated trigger algorithms in the High Level Trigger (HLT) computing farm. This farm consists of up to roughly 25000 CPU cores in roughly 1750 physical nodes each equipped with up to 4 TB local storage space. This work describes the LHCb online system with an emphasis on the developments implemented during the current long shutdown (LS1). We will elaborate the architecture to treble the available CPU power of the HLT farm and the technicalities to determine and verify precise calibration and alignment constants which are fed to the HLT event selection procedure. We will describe how the constants are fed into a two stage HLT event selection facility using extensively the local disk buffering capabilities on the worker nodes. With the installed disk buffers, the CPU resources can be used during periods of up to ten days without beams. These periods in the past accounted to more than 70% of the total time.

  16. Pupil dilation dynamics track attention to high-level information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia E Kang

    Full Text Available It has long been thought that the eyes index the inner workings of the mind. Consistent with this intuition, empirical research has demonstrated that pupils dilate as a consequence of attentional effort. Recently, Smallwood et al. (2011 demonstrated that pupil dilations not only provide an index of overall attentional effort, but are time-locked to stimulus changes during attention (but not during mind-wandering. This finding suggests that pupil dilations afford a dynamic readout of conscious information processing. However, because stimulus onsets in their study involved shifts in luminance as well as information, they could not determine whether this coupling of stimulus and pupillary dynamics reflected attention to low-level (luminance or high-level (information changes. Here, we replicated the methodology and findings of Smallwood et al. (2011 while controlling for luminance changes. When presented with isoluminant digit sequences, participants' pupillary dilations were synchronized with stimulus onsets when attending, but not when mind-wandering. This replicates Smallwood et al. (2011 and clarifies their finding by demonstrating that stimulus-pupil coupling reflects online cognitive processing beyond sensory gain.

  17. Deep level defects in high temperature annealed InP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Zhiyuan; ZHAO Youwen; ZENG Yiping; DUAN Manlong; LIN Lanying

    2004-01-01

    Deep level defects in high temperature annealed semi-conducting InP have been studied by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). There is obvious difference in the deep defects between as-grown InP, InP annealed in phosphorus ambient and iron phosphide ambient, as far as their quantity and concentration are concerned. Only two defects at 0.24 and 0.64 eV can be detected in InP annealed iniron phosphide ambient,while defects at 0.24, 0.42, 0.54 and 0.64 eV have been detected in InP annealed in phosphorus ambient, in contrast to two defects at 0.49 and 0.64 eV or one defect at 0.13eV in as-grown InP. A defect suppression phenomenon related to iron diffusion process has been observed. The formation mechanism and the nature of the defects have been discussed.

  18. American High School Students from Different Ethnic Backgrounds: The Role of Parents and the Classroom in Achievement Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-In

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between ethnically diverse US high school students' (N = 331) perceptions of their parents' or classroom's motivating factors and their achievement motivation in their math class, connecting achievement goal orientation and self-determination theories. Two hypothesized path models were…

  19. American High School Students from Different Ethnic Backgrounds: The Role of Parents and the Classroom in Achievement Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-In

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between ethnically diverse US high school students' (N = 331) perceptions of their parents' or classroom's motivating factors and their achievement motivation in their math class, connecting achievement goal orientation and self-determination theories. Two hypothesized path models were…

  20. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Mindfulness on Perceived Levels of Stress among School-Children from Lower Socioeconomic Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Elizabeth; Lawler, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are at increased risk of experiencing stress and associated social-emotional difficulties and behavioural problems, which can undermine academic performance and lead to school drop-out. Previous studies investigating the effects of mindfulness have evidenced positive outcomes among children pertaining…

  1. The Correlation between Sex, Age, Educational Background, and Hours of Service on Vigilance Level of ATC Officers in Air Nav Surabaya, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Lalu Muhammad; Suwandi, Tjipto; Hamidah

    2016-01-01

    The vigilance of an Air Traffic Control (ATC) officer determines aviation safety. The number of aviation accidents tends to be increasing in recent years. Aviation accidents may be caused by human errors (i.e. errors made by pilot or ATC officer) or unsafe work condition. Sex, age, educational background, and hours of service might affect…

  2. High estradiol levels improve false memory rates and meta-memory in highly schizotypal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Sophie; Hausmann, Markus; Weis, Susanne

    2015-10-30

    Overconfidence in false memories is often found in patients with schizophrenia and healthy participants with high levels of schizotypy, indicating an impairment of meta-cognition within the memory domain. In general, cognitive control is suggested to be modulated by natural fluctuations in oestrogen. However, whether oestrogen exerts beneficial effects on meta-memory has not yet been investigated. The present study sought to provide evidence that high levels of schizotypy are associated with increased false memory rates and overconfidence in false memories, and that these processes may be modulated by natural differences in estradiol levels. Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, it was found that highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol produced significantly fewer false memories than those with low estradiol. No such difference was found within the low schizotypy participants. Highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol were also less confident in their false memories than those with low estradiol; low schizotypy participants with high estradiol were more confident. However, these differences only approached significance. These findings suggest that the beneficial effect of estradiol on memory and meta-memory observed in healthy participants is specific to highly schizotypal individuals and might be related to individual differences in baseline dopaminergic activity.

  3. Commissioning of the ATLAS High Level Trigger with Single LHC Beam and Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Padilla, C

    2010-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the two general-purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Using fast reconstruction algorithms, its trigger system needs to efficiently reject a huge rate of background events and still select potentially interesting ones with good efficiency. After a fist processing level using custom electronics, the trigger selection is made by software running on two processor farms, designed to have a total of around two thousand multi-core machines in a system called High Level Trigger (HLT). The recent LHC startup and short single-beam run provided a “stress test” of the trigger. Following this period, ATLAS continued to collect cosmic-ray events for detector alignment and calibration purposes. These running periods allowed testing the HLT in different running conditions. This paper focuses on the experience gained in running the trigger in the fast-changing environment of the detector commissioning.

  4. Obese rats exhibit high levels of fat necrosis and isoprostanes in taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pereda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a prognostic factor for severity in acute pancreatitis in humans. Our aim was to assess the role of oxidative stress and abdominal fat in the increased severity of acute pancreatitis in obese rats. METHODOLOGY: Taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis was performed in lean and obese Zucker rats. Levels of reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, L-cysteine, cystine, and S-adenosylmethionine were measured in pancreas as well as the activities of serine/threonine protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A and tyrosin phosphatases. Isoprostane, malondialdehyde, triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels and lipase activity were measured in plasma and ascites. Lipase activity was measured in white adipose tissue with and without necrosis and confirmed by western blotting. FINDINGS: Under basal conditions obese rats exhibited lower reduced glutathione levels in pancreas and higher triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in plasma than lean rats. S-adenosyl methionine levels were markedly increased in pancreas of obese rats. Acute pancreatitis in obese rats led to glutathione oxidation and lower reduced glutathione levels in pancreas together with decreased activities of redox-sensitive phosphatases PP1, and PP2A. S-adenosyl methionine levels decreased but cystine levels increased markedly in pancreas upon pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis triggered an increase in isoprostane levels in plasma and ascites in obese rats. Free fatty acid levels were extremely high in pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid from obese rats and lipase was bound with great affinity to white adipose tissue, especially to areas of necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that oxidative stress occurs locally and systemically in obese rats with pancreatitis favouring inactivation of protein phosphatases in pancreas, which would promote up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the increase of isoprostanes which might cause powerful pulmonary and renal

  5. Review of high-level waste form properties. [146 bibliographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    This report is a review of waste form options for the immobilization of high-level-liquid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. This review covers the status of international research and development on waste forms as of May 1979. Although the emphasis in this report is on waste form properties, process parameters are discussed where they may affect final waste form properties. A summary table is provided listing properties of various nuclear waste form options. It is concluded that proposed waste forms have properties falling within a relatively narrow range. In regard to crystalline versus glass waste forms, the conclusion is that either glass of crystalline materials can be shown to have some advantage when a single property is considered; however, at this date no single waste form offers optimum properties over the entire range of characteristics investigated. A long-term effort has been applied to the development of glass and calcine waste forms. Several additional waste forms have enough promise to warrant continued research and development to bring their state of development up to that of glass and calcine. Synthetic minerals, the multibarrier approach with coated particles in a metal matrix, and high pressure-high temperature ceramics offer potential advantages and need further study. Although this report discusses waste form properties, the total waste management system should be considered in the final selection of a waste form option. Canister design, canister materials, overpacks, engineered barriers, and repository characteristics, as well as the waste form, affect the overall performance of a waste management system. These parameters were not considered in this comparison.

  6. Inversion Approach to Validate Mercury Emissions Based on Background Air Monitoring at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (3580 m).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzler, Basil; Bogdal, Christian; Henne, Stephan; Obrist, Daniel; Steinbacher, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2017-03-07

    The reduction of emissions of mercury is a declared aim of the Minamata Convention, a UN treaty designed to protect human health and the environment from adverse effects of mercury. To assess the effectiveness of the convention in the future, better constraints about the current mercury emissions is a premise. In our study, we applied a top-down approach to quantify mercury emissions on the basis of atmospheric mercury measurements conducted at the remote high altitude monitoring station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland. We established the source-receptor relationships and by the means of atmospheric inversion we were able to quantify spatially resolved European emissions of 89 ± 14 t/a for elemental mercury. Our European emission estimate is 17% higher than the bottom-up emission inventory, which is within stated uncertainties. However, some regions with unexpectedly high emissions were identified. Stationary combustion, in particular in coal-fired power plants, is found to be the main responsible sector for increased emission estimates. Our top-down approach, based on measurements, provides an independent constraint on mercury emissions, helps to improve and refine reported emission inventories, and can serve for continued assessment of future changes in emissions independent from bottom-up inventories.

  7. Spent nuclear fuel project high-level information management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Main, G.C.

    1996-09-13

    This document presents the results of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) Information Management Planning Project (IMPP), a short-term project that identified information management (IM) issues and opportunities within the SNFP and outlined a high-level plan to address them. This high-level plan for the SNMFP IM focuses on specific examples from within the SNFP. The plan`s recommendations can be characterized in several ways. Some recommendations address specific challenges that the SNFP faces. Others form the basis for making smooth transitions in several important IM areas. Still others identify areas where further study and planning are indicated. The team`s knowledge of developments in the IM industry and at the Hanford Site were crucial in deciding where to recommend that the SNFP act and where they should wait for Site plans to be made. Because of the fast pace of the SNFP and demands on SNFP staff, input and interaction were primarily between the IMPP team and members of the SNFP Information Management Steering Committee (IMSC). Key input to the IMPP came from a workshop where IMSC members and their delegates developed a set of draft IM principles. These principles, described in Section 2, became the foundation for the recommendations found in the transition plan outlined in Section 5. Availability of SNFP staff was limited, so project documents were used as a basis for much of the work. The team, realizing that the status of the project and the environment are continually changing, tried to keep abreast of major developments since those documents were generated. To the extent possible, the information contained in this document is current as of the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. Programs and organizations on the Hanford Site as a whole are trying to maximize their return on IM investments. They are coordinating IM activities and trying to leverage existing capabilities. However, the SNFP cannot just rely on Sitewide activities to meet its IM requirements

  8. On forbidden high-energy electrons as a source of background in X-ray and gamma-ray observations

    CERN Document Server

    Suvorova, Alla V

    2014-01-01

    The study is devoted to a problem of electron-induced contaminant to X-ray and gamma-ray astrophysical measurements on board low-orbiting satellites. We analyzed enhancements of electron fluxes in energy range 100 - 300 keV observed at equatorial and low latitudes by a fleet of NOAA/POES low-orbiting satellites over the time period from 2003 to 2005. It was found that 100-300 keV electron fluxes in the forbidden zone below the inner radiation belt enhanced by several orders of magnitude during geomagnetic storms and/or under strong compressions of the magnetosphere. The enhancements are related to high substorm activity and occurred at any local time. Intense fluxes of the energetic electrons in the forbidden zone can be considered as an essential contaminant to X-ray and gamma-ray measurements at low-latitude and low-altitude orbits.

  9. Electromagnetic analysis of a superconducting transformer for high current characterization of cable in conduit conductors in background magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangyang; Tan, Yunfei; Fang, Zhen; Jiang, Donghui; Chen, Zhiyou; Chen, Wenge; Kuang, Guangli

    2017-10-01

    A large cable-in-conduit-conductor (CICC) test facility has been designed and fabricated at the High Magnetic Field Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CHMFL) in order to meet the test requirement of the conductors which are applied to the future fusion reactor. The critical component of the test facility is an 80 kA superconducting transformer which consists of a multi-turn primary coil and a minor-turn secondary coil. As the current source of the conductor samples, the electromagnetic performance of the superconducting transformer determines the stability and safety of the test facility. In this paper, the key factors and parameters, which have much impact on the performance of the transformer, are analyzed in detail. The conceptual design and optimizing principles of the transformer are discussed. An Electromagnetic-Circuit coupled model built in ANSYS Multiphysics is successfully used to investigate the electromagnetic characterization of the transformer under the dynamic operation condition.

  10. Energy Levels of Highly Ionized Ar ⅩⅣ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Zhang; LI Ping; DENG Xiao-Hui

    2006-01-01

    With the Breit interaction and quantum electrodynamics corrections considered, relativistic configuration interaction calculations have been carried out in the extended optimal level scheme using multi-configuration Dirac-Fock wave functions on the 204 energy levels and electric dipole transitions of Ar ⅩⅣ. The results of electric dipole transitions are in good agreement with experiments. Among the energy levels calculated, the lowest 125 levels are in good agreement with available experimental and other theoretical ones, and the other 79 levels are new ones obtained by the present work. This wide range of atomic energy levels is useful in astrophysics and plasma physics.

  11. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  12. High-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Chiou, Shue-Shian

    2015-02-20

    High level disinfection (HLD) of the gastrointestinal (GI) endoscope is not simply a slogan, but rather is a form of experimental monitoring-based medicine. By definition, GI endoscopy is a semicritical medical device. Hence, such medical devices require major quality assurance for disinfection. And because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods, such as liquid chemical germicide, must be used rather than steam sterilization. In summarizing guidelines for infection prevention and control for GI endoscopy, there are three important steps that must be highlighted: manual washing, HLD with automated endoscope reprocessor, and drying. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because compared to any other medical device, the GI endoscope is associated with more outbreaks linked to inadequate cleaning or disinfecting during HLD. Both experimental evaluation on the surveillance bacterial cultures and in-use clinical results have shown that, the monitoring of the stringent processes to prevent and control infection is an essential component of the broader strategy to ensure the delivery of safe endoscopy services, because endoscope reprocessing is a multistep procedure involving numerous factors that can interfere with its efficacy. Based on our years of experience in the surveillance of culture monitoring of endoscopic reprocessing, we aim in this study to carefully describe what details require attention in the GI endoscopy disinfection and to share our experience so that patients can be provided with high quality and safe medical practices. Quality management encompasses all aspects of pre- and post-procedural care including the efficiency of the endoscopy unit and reprocessing area, as well as the endoscopic procedure itself.

  13. Background independence in a background dependent renormalization group

    CERN Document Server

    Labus, Peter; Slade, Zoë H

    2016-01-01

    Within the derivative expansion of conformally reduced gravity, the modified split Ward identities are shown to be compatible with the flow equations if and only if either the anomalous dimension vanishes or the cutoff profile is chosen to be power law. No solutions exist if the Ward identities are incompatible. In the compatible case, a clear reason is found for why Ward identities can still forbid the existence of fixed points; however, for any cutoff profile, a background independent (and parametrisation independent) flow equation is uncovered. Finally, expanding in vertices, the combined equations are shown generically to become either over-constrained or highly redundant beyond the six-point level.

  14. Visual search for real world targets under conditions of high target-background similarity: Exploring training and transfer in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neider, Mark B; Boot, Walter R; Kramer, Arthur F

    2010-05-01

    Real world visual search tasks often require observers to locate a target that blends in with its surrounding environment. However, studies of the effect of target-background similarity on search processes have been relatively rare and have ignored potential age-related differences. We trained younger and older adults to search displays comprised of real world objects on either homogenous backgrounds or backgrounds that camouflaged the target. Training was followed by a transfer session in which participants searched for novel camouflaged objects. Although older adults were slower to locate the target compared to younger adults, all participants improved substantially with training. Surprisingly, camouflage-trained younger and older adults showed no performance decrements when transferred to novel camouflage displays, suggesting that observers learned age-invariant, generalizable skills relevant for searching under conditions of high target-background similarity. Camouflage training benefits at transfer for older adults appeared to be related to improvements in attentional guidance and target recognition rather than a more efficient search strategy.

  15. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Infrastructure, Performance and Future Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Winklmeier, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) is a distributed real-time software system that performs the final online selection of events produced during proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is designed as a two-stage event filter running on a farm of commodity PC hardware. Currently the system consists of about 850 multi-core processing nodes that will be extended incrementally following the increasing luminosity of the LHC to about 2000 nodes depending on the evolution of the processor technology. Due to the complexity and similarity of the algorithms a large fraction of the software is shared between the online and offline event reconstruction. The HLT Infrastructure serves as the interface between the two domains and provides common services for the trigger algorithms. The consequences of this design choice will be discussed and experiences from the operation of the ATLAS HLT during cosmic ray data taking and first beam in 2008 will be presented. Since the event processing time at the HL...

  16. The GRAVITY instrument software/high-level software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Leonard; Wieprecht, Ekkehard; Ott, Thomas; Kok, Yitping; Yazici, Senol; Anugu, Narsireddy; Dembet, Roderick; Fedou, Pierre; Lacour, Sylvestre; Ott, Jürgen; Paumard, Thibaut; Lapeyrere, Vincent; Kervella, Pierre; Abuter, Roberto; Pozna, Eszter; Eisenhauer, Frank; Blind, Nicolas; Genzel, Reinhard; Gillessen, Stefan; Hans, Oliver; Haug, Marcus; Haussmann, Frank; Kellner, Stefan; Lippa, Magdalena; Pfuhl, Oliver; Sturm, Eckhard; Weber, Johannes; Amorim, Antonio; Brandner, Wolfgang; Rousselet-Perraut, Karine; Perrin, Guy S.; Straubmeier, Christian; Schöller, Markus

    2014-07-01

    GRAVITY is the four-beam, near-infrared, AO-assisted, fringe tracking, astrometric and imaging instrument for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). It is requiring the development of one of the most complex instrument software systems ever built for an ESO instrument. Apart from its many interfaces and interdependencies, one of the most challenging aspects is the overall performance and stability of this complex system. The three infrared detectors and the fast reflective memory network (RMN) recorder contribute a total data rate of up to 20 MiB/s accumulating to a maximum of 250 GiB of data per night. The detectors, the two instrument Local Control Units (LCUs) as well as the five LCUs running applications under TAC (Tools for Advanced Control) architecture, are interconnected with fast Ethernet, RMN fibers and dedicated fiber connections as well as signals for the time synchronization. Here we give a simplified overview of all subsystems of GRAVITY and their interfaces and discuss two examples of high-level applications during observations: the acquisition procedure and the gathering and merging of data to the final FITS file.

  17. The ALICE High Level Trigger: status and plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Rohr, David; Gorbunov, Sergey; Breitner, Timo; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lindenstruth, Volker; Berzano, Dario

    2015-12-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is an online reconstruction, triggering and data compression system used in the ALICE experiment at CERN. Unique among the LHC experiments, it extensively uses modern coprocessor technologies like general purpose graphic processing units (GPGPU) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) in the data flow. Realtime data compression is performed using a cluster finder algorithm implemented on FPGA boards. These data, instead of raw clusters, are used in the subsequent processing and storage, resulting in a compression factor of around 4. Track finding is performed using a cellular automaton and a Kalman filter algorithm on GPGPU hardware, where both CUDA and OpenCL technologies can be used interchangeably. The ALICE upgrade requires further development of online concepts to include detector calibration and stronger data compression. The current HLT farm will be used as a test bed for online calibration and both synchronous and asynchronous processing frameworks already before the upgrade, during Run 2. For opportunistic use as a Grid computing site during periods of inactivity of the experiment a virtualisation based setup is deployed.

  18. Psychological stress in high level sailors during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Segato

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the psychological stress present in elite sailors in a competition. Based on a descriptive field research, 31 elite sailors volunteered to participate. They answered the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988 and also specific questions on self-control, sources and strategies of coping. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential (Student t test and Pearson's correlation statistics. These athletes revealed low and moderate scores (M = 20.00, DP = 6.83 of stress originated from both intrinsic (ship troubles, team disorders and extrinsic (study, working and training, family and financial problems sources. The group reported good stress control during competition through the use of cognitive (avoidance and somatic (listening music, resting/sleeping, talk to friends strategies. It is important that sailors are able to control and cope with high levels of psychological stress and to understand how to proceed when under unstable and unexpected situations that arise during competition.

  19. Psychological stress in high level sailors during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Segato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the psychological stress present in elite sailors in a competition. Based on a descriptive field research, 31 elite sailors volunteered to participate. They answered the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988 and also specific questions on self-control, sources and strategies of coping. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential (Student t test and Pearson's correlation statistics. These athletes revealed low and moderate scores (M = 20.00, DP = 6.83 of stress originated from both intrinsic (ship troubles, team disorders and extrinsic (study, working and training, family and financial problems sources. The group reported good stress control during competition through the use of cognitive (avoidance and somatic (listening music, resting/sleeping, talk to friends strategies. It is important that sailors are able to control and cope with high levels of psychological stress and to understand how to proceed when under unstable and unexpected situations that arise during competition.

  20. Exercise responses in patients with chronically high creatine kinase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christopher B; Dolezal, Brett A; Neufeld, Eric V; Shieh, Perry; Jenner, John R; Riley, Marshall

    2017-08-01

    Elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) is often taken to reflect muscle disease, but many individuals have elevated CK without a specific diagnosis. How elevated CK reflects muscle metabolism during exercise is not known. Participants (46 men, 48 women) underwent incremental exercise testing to assess aerobic performance, cardiovascular response, and ventilatory response. Serum lactate, ammonia, and CK were measured at rest, 4 minutes into exercise, and 2 minutes into recovery. High-CK and control subjects demonstrated similar aerobic capacities and cardiovascular responses to incremental exercise. Those with CK ≥ 300 U/L exhibited significantly higher lactate and ammonia levels after maximal exercise, together with increased ventilatory responses, whereas those with CK ≥200 U/L but ≤ 300 U/L did not. We recommend measurement of lactate and ammonia profiles during a maximal incremental exercise protocol to help identify patients who warrant muscle biopsy to rule out myopathy. Muscle Nerve 56: 264-270, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. First online experiences with the ALICE high level trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, T.; Kisel, I.; Lindenstruth, V.; Painke, F.; Peschek, J.; Steinbeck, T.M.; Thaeder, J. [Kirchhoff Inst. of Physics, Ruprecht-Karls-Univ. Heidelberg (Germany); Bablok, S.; Haaland, Oe.; Richter, M.; Roehrich, D.; Oevrebek, G. [Inst. for Physics and Technology, Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Popescu, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    During the second half of 2006 the commissioning of the ALICE TPC has been performed using both cosmic and laser events. During this commissioning the high level trigger was operational with real data for the first time. Five Linux PCs were used to receive data from six TPC readout partitions from one sector under test. On the PCs the readout of the data was performed using the software components and PCI hardware to be used during ALICE running. After readout online event reconstruction involving cluster-finding and tracking of trajectories in the examined sector was then performed. Raw data as well as the reconstructed data were then sent to an online event display. This was then used to show the reconstructed events in different views. Included were a full 3D view of the detector, different raw data displays, and some histograms. In this talk we will present some of the experiences made during this first operational use of the ALICE HLT. (orig.)

  2. Commissioning and first experiences of the ALICE High Level Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, Timm M, E-mail: timm.steinbeck@kip.uni-heidelberg.d [Kirchhoff Institute of Physics, University Heidelberg, im Neuenheimer Feld 227, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-04-01

    For the ALICE heavy-ion experiment a large computing cluster will be used to perform the last triggering stages in the High Level Trigger (HLT). For the first year of operation the cluster consisted of about 100 multi-processing nodes with 4 or 8 CPU cores each, to be increased to more than 1000 nodes for the coming years of operation. During the commissioning phases of the detector, the preparations for first LHC beam, as well as during the periods of first LHC beam, the HLT has been used extensively already to reconstruct, compress, and display data from the different detectors. For example the HLT has been used to compress Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) data by a factor of 15, lossless, on the fly at a rate of more than 800 Hz. For ALICE's Time Projection Chamber (TPC) detector the HLT has been used to reconstruct tracks online and show the reconstructed tracks in an online event display. The event display can also display online reconstructed data from the Dimuon and Photon Spectrometer (PHOS) detectors. For the latter detector a first selection mechanism has also been put into place to select only events for forwarding to the online display in which data has passed through the PHOS detector. In this contribution we will present experiences and results from these commissioning phases.

  3. An FPGA based Preprocessor for the ALICE high level trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, T.; Lindenstruth, V.; Painke, F.; Peschek, J.; Steinbeck, T.M. [Kirchhoff Inst. of Physics, Ruprecht-Karls-Univ., Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The H-RORC (High Level Trigger ReadOut Receiver Card) is an FPGA based PCI card designed to receive raw detector data from ALICE, transfer it into the online processing framework of the HLT cluster farm and transmit the processed data out of the HLT to the DAQ. Each RORC can be equipped with two optical receiver/transmitter units and transfer up to 400 Mbyte/s via PCI. For online processing in hardware the Virtex4 LX40 FPGA is supported by four independent modules of fast DDR-SDRAM providing up to 512 Mbyte total storage at a bandwidth of 2.3 Gbyte/s and two fast serial, full-duplex links which can be used as an direct interconnect in order to exchange data between several RORCs. In replay mode the onboard memory can be loaded with real or simulated events thus giving a real-time test-bench for the HLT framework. A special configuration scheme suits the requirements of a cluster environment and allows a safe and remote upgrade of the firmware. The H-RORC was used successfully in the first time run of the HLT during the TPC commissioning 2006. (orig.)

  4. High Level Trigger Applications for the ALICE Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, M.; Aamodt, K.; Alt, T.; Bablok, S.; Cheshkov, C.; Hille, P. T.; Lindenstruth, V.; Ovrebekk, G.; Ploskon, M.; Popescu, S.; Rohrich, D.; Steinbeck, T. M.; Thader, J.

    2008-02-01

    For the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN/Geneva, a high level trigger system (HLT) for online event selection and data compression has been developed and a computing cluster of several hundred dual-processor nodes is being installed. A major system integration test was carried out during the commissioning of the time projection chamber (TPC), where the HLT also provides a monitoring system. All major parts like a small computing cluster, hardware input devices, the online data transportation framework, and the HLT analysis could be tested successfully. A common interface for HLT processing components has been designed to run the components from either the online or offline analysis framework without changes. The interface adapts the component to the needs of the online processing and allows the developer to use the offline framework for easy development, debugging, and benchmarking. Following this approach, results can be compared directly. For the upcoming commissioning of the whole detector, the HLT is currently prepared to run online data analysis for the main detectors, e.g., the inner tracking system (ITS), the TPC, and the transition radiation detector (TRD). The HLT processing capability is indispensable for the photon spectrometer (PHOS), where the online pulse shape analysis reduces the data volume by a factor 20. A common monitoring framework is in place and detector calibration algorithms have been ported to the HLT. The paper describes briefly the architecture of the HLT system. It focuses on typical applications and component development.

  5. Commissioning and first experiences of the ALICE High Level Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeck, Timm M.; Alice Hlt Collaboration

    2010-04-01

    For the ALICE heavy-ion experiment a large computing cluster will be used to perform the last triggering stages in the High Level Trigger (HLT). For the first year of operation the cluster consisted of about 100 multi-processing nodes with 4 or 8 CPU cores each, to be increased to more than 1000 nodes for the coming years of operation. During the commissioning phases of the detector, the preparations for first LHC beam, as well as during the periods of first LHC beam, the HLT has been used extensively already to reconstruct, compress, and display data from the different detectors. For example the HLT has been used to compress Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) data by a factor of 15, lossless, on the fly at a rate of more than 800 Hz. For ALICE's Time Projection Chamber (TPC) detector the HLT has been used to reconstruct tracks online and show the reconstructed tracks in an online event display. The event display can also display online reconstructed data from the Dimuon and Photon Spectrometer (PHOS) detectors. For the latter detector a first selection mechanism has also been put into place to select only events for forwarding to the online display in which data has passed through the PHOS detector. In this contribution we will present experiences and results from these commissioning phases.

  6. Seasonal changes in stress indicators in high level football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faude, O; Kellmann, M; Ammann, T; Schnittker, R; Meyer, T

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed at describing changes in stress and performance indicators throughout a competitive season in high level football. 15 players (19.5±3.0 years, 181±5 cm, 75.7±9.0 kg) competing under professional circumstances were tested at baseline and 3 times during the season 2008/09 (in-season 1, 2, 3). Testing consisted of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (Total Stress and Recovery score), vertical jump tests (counter movement and drop jump (DJ)), and a maximal ramp-like running test. Average match exposure was higher during a 3-weeks period prior to in-season 3 compared to in-season 1 and 2 (1.5 vs. 1 h/week, p=0.05). Total Stress score was elevated at in-season 1 and 2 compared to baseline (pcorrelated with the corresponding changes in Total Stress score (r=-0.55 and r=-0.61, pstress and a lack of recovery towards the end of a season might be indicated by psychometric deteriorations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Isherwood, D.; Towse, D.F.; Dayem, N.L.

    1979-04-03

    The NRC is developing a framework of regulations, criteria, and standards. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory provides broad technical support to the NRC for developing this regulatory framework, part of which involves site suitability criteria for solidified high-level wastes (SHLW). Both the regulatory framework and the technical base on which it rests have evolved in time. This document is the second report of the technical support project. It was issued as a draft working paper for a programmatic review held at LLL from August 16 to 18, 1977. It was printed and distributed solely as a briefing document on preliminary methodology and initial findings for the purpose of critical review by those in attendance. These briefing documents are being reprinted now in their original formats as UCID-series reports for the sake of the historical record. Analysis results have evolved as both the models and data base have changed. As a result, the methodology, models, and data base in this document are severely outmoded.

  8. THE HIGH LEVEL ACCESSION DIALOGUE FOR MACEDONIA: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Karadjoski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategic goals for the Republic of Macedonia is membership in the European Union. At the end of 2011, the Commission launched a so-called High Level Accession Dialogue for Macedonia, with a possibility to start the negotiations after the fulfillment of the Dialogue goals and benchmarks. For these reasons, the main goal of this paper will be to give an answer of the dilemma whether the Accession Dialogue for Macedonia is an accelerator of the entrance in the European Union, or is just a sophisticated tool for delay of the start of the negotiations for final accession. The expected results will correspond with the future EU plans for Macedonia, but also for the other Western Balkan countries, i.e. we will try to examine whether these countries have a realistic perspective for entrance in the European Union, or they are just a “declarative décor” for the vocabulary of the Brussels diplomats and member countries representatives. That will help to determine i.e. to try to predict the next steps of these countries, connected with the European integration, regardless of the actual constellation in the European Union concerning the Enlargement policy. The descriptive method, content analyses method, comparative method, but also the inductive and deductive methods will be used in this paper.

  9. Multiple Word-Length High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coussy Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Digital signal processing (DSP applications are nowadays widely used and their complexity is ever growing. The design of dedicated hardware accelerators is thus still needed in system-on-chip and embedded systems. Realistic hardware implementation requires first to convert the floating-point data of the initial specification into arbitrary length data (finite-precision while keeping an acceptable computation accuracy. Next, an optimized hardware architecture has to be designed. Considering uniform bit-width specification allows to use traditional automated design flow. However, it leads to oversized design. On the other hand, considering non uniform bit-width specification allows to get a smaller circuit but requires complex design tasks. In this paper, we propose an approach that inputs a C/C++ specification. The design flow, based on high-level synthesis (HLS techniques, automatically generates a potentially pipeline RTL architecture described in VHDL. Both bitaccurate integer and fixed-point data types can be used in the input specification. The generated architecture uses components (operator, register, etc. that have different widths. The design constraints are the clock period and the throughput of the application. The proposed approach considers data word-length information in all the synthesis steps by using dedicated algorithms. We show in this paper the effectiveness of the proposed approach through several design experiments in the DSP domain.

  10. Multiple Word-Length High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Heller

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing (DSP applications are nowadays widely used and their complexity is ever growing. The design of dedicated hardware accelerators is thus still needed in system-on-chip and embedded systems. Realistic hardware implementation requires first to convert the floating-point data of the initial specification into arbitrary length data (finite-precision while keeping an acceptable computation accuracy. Next, an optimized hardware architecture has to be designed. Considering uniform bit-width specification allows to use traditional automated design flow. However, it leads to oversized design. On the other hand, considering non uniform bit-width specification allows to get a smaller circuit but requires complex design tasks. In this paper, we propose an approach that inputs a C/C++ specification. The design flow, based on high-level synthesis (HLS techniques, automatically generates a potentially pipeline RTL architecture described in VHDL. Both bitaccurate integer and fixed-point data types can be used in the input specification. The generated architecture uses components (operator, register, etc. that have different widths. The design constraints are the clock period and the throughput of the application. The proposed approach considers data word-length information in all the synthesis steps by using dedicated algorithms. We show in this paper the effectiveness of the proposed approach through several design experiments in the DSP domain.

  11. Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, J.E. (compiler)

    1984-08-01

    The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90/sup 0/C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations.

  12. High Galactic latitude polarized emission at 1.4 GHz and implications for cosmic microwave background observations

    CERN Document Server

    Carretti, E; Sault, R J; Cortiglioni, S; Poppi, S

    2005-01-01

    We analyse the polarized emission at 1.4 GHz in a 3x3 deg^2 area at high Galactic latitude (b ~ -40deg). The region, centred in (RA=5h, Dec=-49deg), was observed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array radio-interferometer, whose 3-30 arcmin angular sensitivity range allows the study of scales appropriate for CMB Polarization (CMBP) investigations. The angular behavior of the diffuse emission is analysed through the E- and B-mode power spectra. These follow a power law $C^X_l \\propto l^{\\beta_X}$ with slopes \\beta_E = -1.97 \\pm 0.08 and \\beta_B = -1.98 \\pm 0.07. The emission is found to be about a factor 25 fainter than in Galactic plane regions. The comparison of the power spectra with other surveys indicates that this area is intermediate between strong and negligible Faraday rotation effects. A similar conclusion can be reached by analysing both the frequency and Galactic latitude behaviors of the diffuse Galactic emission of the 408-1411 MHz Leiden survey data. We present an analysis of the Faraday rot...

  13. Process Design Concepts for Stabilization of High Level Waste Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. R. Thomas; A. K. Herbst

    2005-06-01

    The current baseline assumption is that packaging ¡§as is¡¨ and direct disposal of high level waste (HLW) calcine in a Monitored Geologic Repository will be allowed. The fall back position is to develop a stabilized waste form for the HLW calcine, that will meet repository waste acceptance criteria currently in place, in case regulatory initiatives are unsuccessful. A decision between direct disposal or a stabilization alternative is anticipated by June 2006. The purposes of this Engineering Design File (EDF) are to provide a pre-conceptual design on three low temperature processes under development for stabilization of high level waste calcine (i.e., the grout, hydroceramic grout, and iron phosphate ceramic processes) and to support a down selection among the three candidates. The key assumptions for the pre-conceptual design assessment are that a) a waste treatment plant would operate over eight years for 200 days a year, b) a design processing rate of 3.67 m3/day or 4670 kg/day of HLW calcine would be needed, and c) the performance of waste form would remove the HLW calcine from the hazardous waste category, and d) the waste form loadings would range from about 21-25 wt% calcine. The conclusions of this EDF study are that: (a) To date, the grout formulation appears to be the best candidate stabilizer among the three being tested for HLW calcine and appears to be the easiest to mix, pour, and cure. (b) Only minor differences would exist between the process steps of the grout and hydroceramic grout stabilization processes. If temperature control of the mixer at about 80„aC is required, it would add a major level of complexity to the iron phosphate stabilization process. (c) It is too early in the development program to determine which stabilizer will produce the minimum amount of stabilized waste form for the entire HLW inventory, but the volume is assumed to be within the range of 12,250 to 14,470 m3. (d) The stacked vessel height of the hot process vessels

  14. HO-1 Upregulation Attenuates Adipocyte Dysfunction, Obesity, and Isoprostane Levels in Mice Fed High Fructose Diets

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    Zeid Khitan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fructose metabolism is an unregulated metabolic pathway and excessive fructose consumption is known to activate ROS. HO-1 is a potent antioxidant gene that plays a key role in decreasing ROS and isoprostanes. We examined whether the fructose-mediated increase in adipocyte dysfunction involves an increase in isoprostanes and that pharmacological induction of HO-1 would decrease both isoprostane levels and adipogenesis. Methods and Results. We examined the effect of fructose, on adipogenesis in human MSCs in the presence and absence of CoPP, an inducer of HO-1. Fructose increased adipogenesis and the number of large lipid droplets while decreasing the number of small lipid droplets (P<0.05. Levels of heme and isoprostane in fructose treated MSC-derived adipocytes were increased. CoPP reversed these effects and markedly increased HO-1 and the Wnt signaling pathway. The high fructose diet increased heme levels in adipose tissue and increased circulating isoprostane levels (P<0.05 versus control. Fructose diets decreased HO-1 and adiponectin levels in adipose tissue. Induction of HO-1 by CoPP decreased isoprostane synthesis (P<0.05 versus fructose. Conclusion. Fructose treatment resulted in increased isoprostane production and adipocyte dysfunction, which was reversed by the increased expression of HO-1.

  15. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: background, design and conceptual model of FINALE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi;

    2010-01-01

    A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high...... physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers) characterized by high...... physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence....

  16. Neuromuscular onset succession of high level gymnasts during dynamic leg acceleration phases on high bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Laßberg, Christoph; Rapp, Walter; Mohler, Betty; Krug, Jürgen

    2013-10-01

    In several athletic disciplines there is evidence that for generating the most effective acceleration of a specific body part the transfer of momentum should run in a "whip-like" consecutive succession of body parts towards the segment which shall be accelerated most effectively (e.g. the arm in throwing disciplines). This study investigated the question how this relates to the succession of neuromuscular activation to induce such "whip like" leg acceleration in sports like gymnastics with changed conditions concerning the body position and momentary rotational axis of movements (e.g. performing giant swings on high bar). The study demonstrates that during different long hang elements, performed by 12 high level gymnasts, the succession of the neuromuscular activation runs primarily from the bar (punctum fixum) towards the legs (punctum mobile). This demonstrates that the frequently used teaching instruction, first to accelerate the legs for a successful realization of such movements, according to a high level kinematic output, is contradictory to the neuromuscular input patterns, being used in high level athletes, realizing these skills with high efficiency. Based on these findings new approaches could be developed for more direct and more adequate teaching methods regarding to an earlier optimization and facilitation of fundamental movement requirements.

  17. Reusable, Extensible High-Level Data-Distribution Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark; Zima, Hans; Diaconescua, Roxana

    2007-01-01

    A framework for high-level specification of data distributions in data-parallel application programs has been conceived. [As used here, distributions signifies means to express locality (more specifically, locations of specified pieces of data) in a computing system composed of many processor and memory components connected by a network.] Inasmuch as distributions exert a great effect on the performances of application programs, it is important that a distribution strategy be flexible, so that distributions can be adapted to the requirements of those programs. At the same time, for the sake of productivity in programming and execution, it is desirable that users be shielded from such error-prone, tedious details as those of communication and synchronization. As desired, the present framework enables a user to refine a distribution type and adjust it to optimize the performance of an application program and conceals, from the user, the low-level details of communication and synchronization. The framework provides for a reusable, extensible, data-distribution design, denoted the design pattern, that is independent of a concrete implementation. The design pattern abstracts over coding patterns that have been found to be commonly encountered in both manually and automatically generated distributed parallel programs. The following description of the present framework is necessarily oversimplified to fit within the space available for this article. Distributions are among the elements of a conceptual data-distribution machinery, some of the other elements being denoted domains, index sets, and data collections (see figure). Associated with each domain is one index set and one distribution. A distribution class interface (where "class" is used in the object-oriented-programming sense) includes operations that enable specification of the mapping of an index to a unit of locality. Thus, "Map(Index)" specifies a unit, while "LocalLayout(Index)" specifies the local address

  18. HIGH BLOOD LEVELS PROCALCITONIN AS SYSTEMIC IMFLAMATORY RESPONSE SYNDROME PREDICTOR IN SEVERE AND MODERATE HEAD INJURY

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    B. Sinaga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNumerous studies have shown that procalcitonin (PCT was not related to degree of trauma. High PCT serum levels have been found in patients with bacterial or fungal infection and also in acute phase of trauma. Currently, there has been no research discussed about changes in serum levels of PCT in particular head injuries and severe head injuries. Moderate and severe head injuries were common trauma cases in Emergency Room (ER and had high mortality rate. Based on Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, moderate and severe head injuries were scored between 3 and 13. This research aim to determine whether high blood levels PCT can be used as a predictor of the occurrence of SIRS. Method: A cohort prospective study was applied in this research to determine high blood levels of PCT as a predictor for SIRS in moderate and severe head injury. This study was conducted from June 2013 - August 2013 at Sanglah General Hospital with 40 research subjects. Data was presented in tables and analyzed with Chi Square test at 95% CI and p <0.05% was considered significant. Results: From the 40 samples, there were 34 males (85% and 6 females (15%, 18 samples (45% had moderate head injury and 22 samples (65% had severe head injury. One sample (2.5 % was 0-10 years old, 15 samples (37.5% were 10-20 years old, 13 samples (32.5% were 20-40 years old, 7 samples (17.5% were 40-60 years old and 4 samples (10% were>60 years old. PCT levels in the blood obtained on day first were normal in 6 samples (15% and elevated in 34 samples (85%, SIRS (+ were found in 35 samples (87.5% and 5 samples (12.5% were SIRS (-. Using bivariate analysis between PCT levels and SIRS showed p = 0.000 (p < 0.05, and multivariate analysis of the control variables showed no significant correlation between variables with PCT levels. Conclusion: From 40 samples moderate head injury and severe head injury, there were 34 samples (85% with elevated PCT level on the first day, while 35 samples (87.5% had SIRS

  19. Preparation for high-acuity clinical placement: confidence levels of final-year nursing students

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    Porter J

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Joanne Porter, Julia Morphet, Karen Missen, Anita Raymond School of Nursing and Midwifery, Monash University, Churchill, VIC, Australia Aim: To measure final-year nursing students’ preparation for high-acuity placement with emphasis on clinical skill performance confidence. Background: Self-confidence has been reported as being a key component for effective clinical performance, and confident students are more likely to be more effective nurses. Clinical skill performance is reported to be the most influential source of self-confidence. Student preparation and skill acquisition are therefore important aspects in ensuring students have successful clinical placements, especially in areas of high acuity. Curriculum development should aim to assist students with their theoretical and clinical preparedness for the clinical environment. Method: A modified pretest/posttest survey design was used to measure the confidence of third-year undergraduate nursing students (n = 318 for placement into a high-acuity clinical setting. The survey comprised four questions related to clinical placement and prospect of participating in a cardiac arrest scenario, and confidence rating levels of skills related to practice in a high-acuity setting. Content and face validity were established by an expert panel (α = 0.90 and reliability was established by the pilot study in 2009. Comparisons were made between confidence levels at the beginning and end of semester. Results: Student confidence to perform individual clinical skills increased over the semester; however their feelings of preparedness for high-acuity clinical placement decreased over the same time period. Reported confidence levels improved with further exposure to clinical placement. Conclusion: There may be many external factors that influence students’ perceptions of confidence and preparedness for practice. Further research is recommended to identify causes of poor self-confidence in final-year nursing

  20. The influence of high and low levels of estrogen on diurnal urine regulation in young women

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    Bie Peter

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex hormones have a pronounced effect on arginine vasopressin (AVP, and therefore on the diurnal water homeostasis. Low and high levels of plasma-estradiol as seen in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle may therefore alter the diurnal regulation of urine production. Furthermore the structural resemblance of oxytocin to vasopressin has led to speculations about the possible antidiuretic properties of oxytocin under normal physiological conditions. To elucidate the influence of high and low p-estradiol on the regulation of the diurnal urine production, 15 normal menstruating women (21–33 y underwent two circadian in-patient investigations, both situated in follicular phase. Methods Admitting the participants solely in the follicular phase resulted in high and low plasma-estradiol whereas plasma-progesterone was similar. Urine and blood samples were taken at predetermined time points to determine plasma AVP, plasma oxytocin, plasma aldosterone, plasma natriuretic peptide (ANP, urinary solute excretions, and urinary excretions of prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2 and aquaporin-2 (AQP-2. Blood pressure was measured every hour. Results Plasma AVP, plasma aldosterone and plasma ANP were unaffected by the different levels of estradiol. All had marked circadian variations whereas oxytocin did not display any circadian rhythm. High estradiol resulted in lower p-osmolality and p-sodium reflecting the downward resetting of the osmoreceptors. Oxytocin did not correlate with either diuresis or urine osmolality. The diurnal urine production was similar in the two groups as were urine osmolality, excretion of PGE-2 and AQP-2. AQP-2 does not have a circadian rhythm and is not significantly correlated to either AVP or oxytocin under normal physiological conditions. Conclusion High and low level of estradiol has no influence on the circadian rhythm of AVP or the subsequent urine production. High p-estradiol resets the osmoreceptors for AVP