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Sample records for high anxiety group

  1. Anxiety Disorders: Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Research & Practice News Blog Posts Depression and Anxiety Journal Insights E-Newsletter Clinical Practice Reviews, Teaching ... Member Community Professional Main navigation Understand the Facts Anxiety Tips to Mange Anxiety and Stress Symptoms Myths ...

  2. Test anxiety, coping strategies, and perceived health in a group of high school students: a Turkish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysan, F; Thompson, D; Hamarat, E

    2001-12-01

    A group of high school juniors and a group of high school seniors in Izmir, Turkey completed measures of test anxiety, coping skills, and perceived health status both before and after a major exam period. Students with high test anxiety used less effective coping mechanisms and tended to have poorer perceptions of their health. Prior to the exams, juniors displayed higher test anxiety and used less effective coping mechanisms than seniors. After the exam periods, improvements were seen for both age groups on perceived health, but scores of younger students remained significantly higher than scores of seniors on one of the key measures of test anxiety. Results of the study lend support to those of previous studies done in other cultural contexts, and findings have implications for the development of interventions designed to help students cope with stress.

  3. Acceptance and commitment group therapy for health anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Trine

    2013-01-01

    Health anxiety (or hypochondriasis) is prevalent, may be persistent and disabling for the sufferers and associated with high societal costs. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a new third-wave behavioral cognitive therapy that has not yet been tested in health anxiety. 34 consecutive Danish...... patients with severe health anxiety were referred from general practitioners or hospital departments and received a ten session ACT group therapy. Patients were followed-up by questionnaires for 6 months. There were significant reductions in health anxiety, somatic symptoms and emotional distress at 6...

  4. Acceptance and commitment group therapy for health anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Trine

    2013-01-01

    Health anxiety (or hypochondriasis) is prevalent, may be persistent and disabling for the sufferers and associated with high societal costs. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a new third-wave behavioral cognitive therapy that has not yet been tested in health anxiety. 34 consecutive Danish...... patients with severe health anxiety were referred from general practitioners or hospital departments and received a ten session ACT group therapy. Patients were followed-up by questionnaires for 6 months. There were significant reductions in health anxiety, somatic symptoms and emotional distress at 6...... months compared to baseline: a 49% reduction in health anxiety (Whiteley-7 Index), a 47% decrease in emotional distress (SCL-8) and a 40% decrease in somatic symptoms (SCL-90-R). Furthermore, the patients’ perceptions of their illness (IPQ, a condensed Danish version) were significantly more optimistic...

  5. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  6. High Test Anxiety among Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Richard; Evans, Ginger; Ramsey, Gary; Wheeler, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Nursing programs can be highly stressful, and the investigation was undertaken to see if nursing students are more test anxious than students in other fields. The Westside Test Anxiety Scale has administered to 298 nursing students at two colleges, and to a comparison group of 471 high school and college students. Fully 30% of nursing students…

  7. Motivation and Math Anxiety for Ability Grouped College Math Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helming, Luralyn

    2013-01-01

    The author studied how math anxiety, motivation, and ability group interact to affect performance in college math courses. This clarified the effects of math anxiety and ability grouping on performance. It clarified the interrelationships between math anxiety, motivation, and ability grouping by considering them in a single analysis. It introduces…

  8. Group therapy compared with individual desensitization for dental anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, R.; Brødsgaard, I.

    1994-01-01

    Results of group therapy (GT) for extreme dental anxiety were compared with individual treatment (IT). Scales used measured dental anxiety, beliefs or trust in dentists, and fear of the next dentist after specialist treatment which showed reduced dental anxiety and improved dental beliefs compare...

  9. Do High Ability Students Have Mathematics Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Kai Kow Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the level of mathematics anxiety among 116 high ability Secondary Two students. These students were from the top 10% of the Secondary Two students in Singapore. Mathematics Anxiety was measured using the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS) (Fennema & Sherman, 1978) which consisted of twelve items…

  10. Relationship between group cohesion and anxiety in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Carla Chicau; Cid, Luis; Silva, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    Group cohesion in sport is a widely spread theme today. Research has found cohesion to be influenced by several individual and group components. Among the cognitive variables that relate to cohesion we found competitive anxiety. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between task cohesion (ATG-T, and GI-T) and competitive state anxiety (A-state), and also if there would be a relation between cohesion and self-confidence. Participants were 366 football players of both genders male and female, aged between 15 to 23 years old, from Portugal's championships. Cohesion was measured using the Portuguese version of the Group Environment Questionnaire, and to assess competitive anxiety, we used the Portuguese version of the Competition State Anxiety Inventory 2. Our results show that female athletes report experiencing more cognitive anxiety and less self-confidence than male athletes. Only cognitive anxiety relates in a significantly negative way with the perception of cohesion (GI-T e ATG-T) in the total number of participants and in male athletes. Relatively to the somatic anxiety, it only relates negatively with the perception of the integration of the group in the total number of participants and in the male gender.

  11. Adult attachment anxiety: using group therapy to promote change.

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    Marmarosh, Cheri L; Tasca, Giorgio A

    2013-11-01

    Group therapy can facilitate changes for members with greater attachment anxiety who tend to struggle with negative self-perceptions, difficulties regulating emotions, poor reflective functioning, and compromised interpersonal relationships. A clinical example of a therapy group with members who had elevated attachment anxiety and who were diagnosed with binge eating disorder demonstrates how attachment theory can be applied to group treatment. The clinical material from the beginning, middle, and end of group is presented to highlight how attachment anxiety influences members' emotional reactions and behaviors in the group, how group factors facilitate change, and how the leader fosters the development of a secure base within the group. Pre- to posttreatment outcomes indicate positive changes in binge eating, depressive symptoms, and attachment avoidance and anxiety. To facilitate change in individuals with greater attachment anxiety, group therapists may foster a secure base in the group through group cohesion, which will facilitate down regulation of emotions, better reflective functioning, and relationships that are less preoccupied with loss and more secure.

  12. Examining the Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorder-71 as an Assessment Tool for Anxiety in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Deutschman, Amber A. C. G.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The psychometric properties of a questionnaire developed to assess symptoms of anxiety disorders (SCARED-71) were compared between two groups of children: children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and comorbid anxiety disorders (ASD-group; "n" = 115), and children with anxiety disorders (AD-group; "n" = 122).…

  13. Group therapy for anxiety disorders using rational emotive behaviour therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, D; Brunero, S

    1997-12-01

    This paper reports a pilot study designed to investigate Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy in the group treatment of selected clients suffering from anxiety disorders. A convenience sample of 17 clients who completed the treatment programme was selected for the study. Biographical information was sought and data were collected on subject anxiety and depression. Intervention was targeted at identifying and correcting irrational beliefs via the application of a range of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy techniques. Pre- and postintervention data were analysed by two-tailed t-tests for paired samples and found to be significant at P < 0.001. The results suggest that the treatment approach was successful in modifying irrational beliefs and anxiety.

  14. Fear inhibition in high trait anxiety.

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    Kindt, Merel; Soeter, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    Trait anxiety is recognized as an individual risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders but the neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here we test whether trait anxiety is associated with impaired fear inhibition utilizing the AX+/BX- conditional discrimination procedure that allows for the independent evaluation of startle fear potentiation and inhibition of fear. Sixty undergraduate students participated in the study--High Trait Anxious: n = 28 and Low Trait Anxious: n = 32. We replicated earlier findings that a transfer of conditioned inhibition for startle responses requires contingency awareness. However, contrary to the fear inhibition hypothesis, our data suggest that high trait anxious individuals show a normal fear inhibition of conditioned startle responding. Only at the cognitive level the high trait anxious individuals showed evidence for impaired inhibitory learning of the threat cue. Together with other findings where impaired fear inhibition was only observed in those PTSD patients who were either high on hyperarousal symptoms or with current anxiety symptoms, we question whether impaired fear inhibition is a biomarker for the development of anxiety disorders.

  15. Factors Affecting Computer Anxiety in High School Computer Science Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Linda M.; Stephens, Larry

    1989-01-01

    Examines factors related to computer anxiety measured by the Computer Anxiety Index (CAIN). Achievement in two programing courses was inversely related to computer anxiety. Students who had a home computer and had computer experience before high school had lower computer anxiety than those who had not. Lists 14 references. (YP)

  16. Behavior characteristics of the attention network of military personnel with high and low trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yu; Cai, Wenpeng; Dong, Wei; Xiao, Jie; Yan, Jin; Cheng, Qi

    2017-04-01

    Converging evidence reveals significant increase in both state anxiety and trait anxiety during the past 2 decades among military servicemen and servicewomen in China. In the present study, we employed the Chinese version of the State-trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to examine trait and state anxiety in Chinese military servicemen and servicewomen. We further evaluated orienting, alerting and execution inhibition using the attention network test.Healthy military servicemen and servicewomen were recruited for the present study. The STAI was used to measure both state and trait anxiety and the attention network test was done to determine reaction time and accuracy rate.Fifty-seven subjects were eligible for the study. Their mean STAI score was 3.2 ± 2.8 (range, 1-17) and 29 (50.9%) subjects were categorized into the high trait anxiety group and 28 (49.1%) subjects into the low trait anxiety group. The reaction time of the high trait anxiety group to incongruent, congruent, and neutral target was significantly longer than that of the low trait anxiety group (P military service personnel with high trait anxiety requires more time for cognitive processing of external information but exhibits enhanced reaction accuracy rate compared to those with low trait anxiety. Our findings indicate that interventional strategies to improve the psychological wellbeing of military service personnel should be implemented to improve combat mission performance.

  17. Experiencing More Mathematics Anxiety than Expected? Contrasting Trait and State Anxiety in High Achieving Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, A.-L.; Bieg, M.; Goetz, T.; Frenzel, A. C.; Taxer, J.; Zeidner, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mathematics anxiety among high and low achieving students (N = 237, grades 9 and 10) by contrasting trait (habitual) and state (momentary) assessments of anxiety. Previous studies have found that trait anxiety measures are typically rated higher than state measures. Furthermore, the academic self-concept has been identified to…

  18. EEG biofeedback improves attentional bias in high trait anxiety individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Sijuan; Lin, Guiping; Sun, Peng; Wang, Tinghuai

    2013-10-07

    Emotion-related attentional bias is implicated in the aetiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback can obviously improve the anxiety disorders and reduce stress level, and can also enhance attention performance in healthy subjects. The present study examined the effects and mechanisms of EEG biofeedback training on the attentional bias of high trait anxiety (HTA) individuals toward negative stimuli. Event-related potentials were recorded while HTA (n=24) and nonanxious (n=21) individuals performed the color-word emotional Stroop task. During the emotional Stroop task, HTA participants showed longer reaction times and P300 latencies induced by negative words, compared to nonanxious participants.The EEG biofeedback significantly decreased the trait anxiety inventory score and reaction time in naming the color of negative words in the HTA group. P300 latencies evoked by negative stimuli in the EEG biofeedback group were significantly reduced after the alpha training, while no significant changes were observed in the sham biofeedback group after the intervention. The prolonged P300 latency is associated with attentional bias to negative stimuli in the HTA group. EEG biofeedback training demonstrated a significant improvement of negative emotional attentional bias in HTA individuals, which may be due to the normalization of P300 latency.

  19. Correlation among High School Senior Students' Test Anxiety, Academic Performance and Points of University Entrance Exam

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    Karatas, Hakan; Alci, Bulent; Aydin, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure. The aim of this study is to define the correlation among high school senior students' test anxiety, academic performance (GPA) and points of university entrance exam (UEE). The study group of…

  20. Correlation among High School Senior Students' Test Anxiety, Academic Performance and Points of University Entrance Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Hakan; Alci, Bulent; Aydin, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure. The aim of this study is to define the correlation among high school senior students' test anxiety, academic performance (GPA) and points of university entrance exam (UEE). The study group of…

  1. "Tackling Test Anxiety": A Group for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damer, Diana E.; Melendres, Lauren T.

    2011-01-01

    Test anxiety is ubiquitous on college campuses and negatively impacts academic progress as well as overall mental and physical health. Some students develop test anxiety due to poor study skills, while others experience debilitating anxiety despite adequate preparation. In this article, a session-by-session description of a 4-week group…

  2. Fear inhibition in high trait anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, M.; Soeter, M.

    2014-01-01

    Trait anxiety is recognized as an individual risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders but the neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here we test whether trait anxiety is associated with impaired fear inhibition utilizing the AX+/BX- conditional discrimination procedure that allows f

  3. With a little help from my cross-group friend: reducing anxiety in intergroup contexts through cross-group friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Tropp, Linda R

    2008-11-01

    The authors induced cross-group friendship between Latinos/as and Whites to test the effects of cross-group friendship on anxiety in intergroup contexts. Cross-group friendship led to decreases in cortisol reactivity (a hormonal correlate of stress; W. R. Lovallo & T. L. Thomas, 2000) over 3 friendship meetings among participants high in race-based rejection sensitivity (R. Mendoza-Denton, G. Downey, V. J. Purdie, A. Davis, & J. Pietrzak, 2002) and participants high in implicit prejudice (A. G. Greenwald, B. A. Nosek, & M. R. Banaji, 2003). Cross-group partners' prior intergroup contact moderated the relationship between race-based rejection sensitivity and cortisol reactivity. Following the manipulation, participants kept daily diaries of their experiences in an ethnically diverse setting. Implicitly prejudiced participants initiated more intergroup interactions during the diary period after making a cross-group friend. Participants who had made a cross-group friend reported lower anxious mood during the diary period, which compensated for greater anxious mood among participants high in race-based rejection sensitivity. These findings provide experimental evidence that cross-group friendship is beneficial for people who are likely to experience anxiety in intergroup contexts. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Prevention of anxiety and depression in the age group of 75 years and over: a randomised controlled trial testing the feasibility and effectiveness of a generic stepped care programme among elderly community residents at high risk of developing anxiety and depression versus usual care [ISRCTN26474556

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oppen Patricia

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In frail elderly, the effects of depression and anxiety are deep encroaching. Indicated prevention studies, aimed at subjects with subthreshold disorder, have shown that well designed interventions are capable of reducing the incidence of depression and anxiety. In this randomised prevention trial for elderly, living in the community and suffering from subthreshold depression and anxiety, a stepped care programme was put together to be tested versus usual (GP care. Methods/design Design: randomised controlled trial. (See figure 1: organisation chart together with two other projects, this project is part of a national consortium that investigates the prevention of anxiety and depressive disorders in later life using a stepped care programme. The three projects have their own particular focus. This project is aimed at elderly living in the community. Inclusion: subjects with a high risk for depression and anxiety without clinical evidence of these syndromes. The participants are 75 years of age and over and have subthreshold symptoms of depression and or anxiety: they score above the cut-off point on the self-report Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale, but the criteria for a major depressive disorder or anxiety disorder (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder according to a validated interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI are not fulfilled. Outcomes: primary outcome: incidence of a depressive or anxiety disorder over a period of two years (MINI; secondary outcome: a positive influence of the intervention, a stepped care programme, on symptoms of depression and anxiety and on quality of life as assessed with the CES D, the HADS A and the SF36 respectively (i.e. stabilisation or improvement of symptoms [see table 1]. Measurements: Take place at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Trained independent evaluators assess depression and

  5. The Effect of Cooperative Groups on Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batton, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that many students have difficulty with mathematics, which can be attributed to many factors including math anxiety. Students who experience math anxiety have poor attitudes towards mathematics and perform below grade level based on class and statewide assessments. The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study was to…

  6. Performance anxiety at English PBL groups among Taiwanese medical students: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lu, Peih-Ying; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Chiang, Hung-Che; Huang, In-Ting; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2008-03-01

    Students' performance anxiety can impact negatively on the effectiveness of medical education reform, including performance in problem-based learning (PBL) and in using English in discussion. This study aimed to investigate the nature of performance anxiety among Taiwanese medical students in an English-language PBL group. Eighteen Taiwanese, one American and four Asian medical students who were attending an international PBL workshop were enrolled. A questionnaire seeking demographic data and experience in use of PBL and eight questions evaluating performance anxiety were administered. The performance anxiety of Taiwanese medical students was compared to that of the Asians and the one American. Frequencies of each performance anxiety were calculated. The results suggested that the Taiwanese students showed more anxiety than the one student from the United States, but less than other Asian students. The acts of giving a report, being the center of attention, and talking in the PBL group were the most common situations related to anxiety in PBL groups. Using English and working in a new PBL environment are possible sources of anxiety. The presence of anxiety among the Taiwanese medical students in English PBL groups implies the necessity for developing an effective strategy to deal with students' performance anxiety.

  7. Cognitive-behavioral group treatment for perinatal anxiety: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sheryl M; Haber, Erika; Frey, Benicio N; McCabe, Randi E

    2015-08-01

    Along with physical and biological changes, a tremendous amount of upheaval and adjustment accompany the pregnancy and postpartum period of a woman's life that together can often result in what is commonly known as postpartum depression. However, anxiety disorders have been found to be more frequent than depression during pregnancy and at least as common, if not more so, during the postpartum period, e.g., Brockington et al., (Archieves Women's Ment Health 9:253-263, 2006; Wenzel et al. (J Anxiety Disord, 19:295-311, 2005). Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a well-established psychological treatment of choice for anxiety; however, few studies have specifically examined a cognitive-behavioral intervention targeting perinatal anxiety. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral group treatment (CBGT) program specifically tailored to address perinatal anxiety in 10 women who were either pregnant or within 12 months postpartum. Participants were recruited from a women's clinic at an academic hospital setting, with anxiety identified as their principal focus of distress. Following a diagnostic interview confirming a primary anxiety disorder and completion of assessment measures, participants completed a 6-week CBGT program. There was a statistically significant reduction in anxiety and depressive symptoms following the CBGT program (all p anxiety. These findings suggest that CBGT for perinatal anxiety is a promising treatment for both anxiety and depressive symptoms experienced during the perinatal period. Further studies are needed to evaluate the treatment efficacy through larger controlled trials.

  8. Brief parent-child group therapy for childhood anxiety disorders: a developmental perspective on cognitive-behavioral group treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Amitay, Galit; Rosental, Batya; Toren, Paz

    2010-01-01

    The use of cognitive-behavioral group psychotherapy in treating childhood anxiety disorders has become widespread. This paper examines the dynamic processes underlying cognitive-behavioral group treatment for children with anxiety disorders and for their parents, with particular focus on the process of separation-individuation. Both children and their parents were empowered through processes of sub-grouping and thus helped to differentiate and separate. We consider this parallel dynamic process an important factor that can enhance cognitive-behavioral treatment.

  9. Evaluating pharmacological models of high and low anxiety in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Doyle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available New tests of animal affect and welfare require validation in subjects experiencing putatively different states. Pharmacological manipulations of affective state are advantageous because they can be administered in a standardised fashion, and the duration of their action can be established and tailored to suit the length of a particular test. To this end, the current study aimed to evaluate a pharmacological model of high and low anxiety in an important agricultural and laboratory species, the sheep. Thirty-five 8-month-old female sheep received either an intramuscular injection of the putatively anxiogenic drug 1-(m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP; 1 mg/kg; n = 12, an intravenous injection of the putatively anxiolytic drug diazepam (0.1 mg/kg; n = 12, or acted as a control (saline intramuscular injection n = 11. Thirty minutes after the treatments, sheep were individually exposed to a variety of tests assessing their general movement, performance in a ‘runway task’ (moving down a raceway for a food reward, response to startle, and behaviour in isolation. A test to assess feeding motivation was performed 2 days later following administration of the drugs to the same animals in the same manner. The mCPP sheep had poorer performance in the two runway tasks (6.8 and 7.7 × slower respectively than control group; p < 0.001, a greater startle response (1.4 vs. 0.6; p = 0.02, a higher level of movement during isolation (9.1 steps vs. 5.4; p < 0.001, and a lower feeding motivation (1.8 × slower; p < 0.001 than the control group, all of which act as indicators of anxiety. These results show that mCPP is an effective pharmacological model of high anxiety in sheep. Comparatively, the sheep treated with diazepam did not display any differences compared to the control sheep. Thus we suggest that mCPP is an effective treatment to validate future tests aimed at assessing anxiety in sheep, and that future studies should include other subtle indicators of

  10. Acceptance and Commitment Group Therapy (ACT-G) for health anxiety.

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    Eilenberg, Trine

    2016-10-01

    Health anxiety is prevalent (5-9%) in all healthcare settings and in the general population, may have an early onset, and a poor prognosis is seen in severe cases if untreated. Research shows that health anxiety is rarely diagnosed though it causes great suffering for the individual and constitutes a substantial socio-economic burden. Studies have shown that individual cognitive behavioural therapy can relieve health anxiety, but these studies are affected by methodological problems, among others, struggling with patients declining participation, high dropout rates, and some patients not responding to the treatment. Moreover, the impact of health anxiety on sick leave is only scarcely examined. This thesis examines the effect of a new treatment approach, group-based Acceptance & Commitment Therapy (ACT-G) for patients with severe health anxiety in an uncontrolled pilot study and a randomised controlled study (RCT) on ACT-G compared with a 10-month waitlist control condition (paper I and II). Also, the thesis comprises a study on sick leave in patients with health anxiety compared with the general population during a 5-year period and the effect of ACT-G on sick leave. The findings from this study are described in paper III. Patients (age 20-60 years) consecutively referred from general practitioners from Jutland and Funen in the period of March 2010 - April 2012  (approx. 2.5 million citizens) to the Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, were included. The pilot study included 34 patients, the RCT on ACT-G included 126 patients. In the RCT, patients were block-randomised to either ACT-G and received treatment in 7 groups of each 9 patients in the period of December 2010 - October 2012, or to a 10-month waitlist control group. The primary outcome measure was the Whiteley-7 paper and pencil index for illness worrying. The last paper is based on data on sickness-related benefits from the DREAM social register of

  11. Career group counseling in undecided college female seniors' state anxiety and career indecision.

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    Peng, H

    2001-06-01

    A sample of female college seniors experiencing career indecision participated in a career group counseling (n: 16), a wait-list control group (n: 8), and an additional career-counseling group (n: 11). Participants were administered the Career Decision Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory at pretest and posttest. Analysis of covariance of state anxiety scores and career indecision scores yielded significant main effects for treatment. Participants in the career-counseling groups showed a decrease in scores on state anxiety and career indecision. Implications for research and female career group counseling are also discussed.

  12. Comparison of the Effect of Group Transdiagnostic Therapy and Group Cognitive Therapy on Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

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    Abolfazl Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cognitive behavioral interventions based on the transdiagnostic approach for emotional disorders have received useful empirical supports in recent years. Most of the researches on this area have been conducted without any control group. Moreover, little information about comparative effectiveness has reported. The current study was compared transdiagnostic group therapy with classical cognitive group therapy.Methods: Thirty three collages students with anxiety and depressive symptoms participated in eight two-hour sessions in Akhavan Hospital, Tehran, Iran during May and June 2011. The results were analyzed by The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, and Work and Social Adjustment Scale in pre and post intervention.Results: Both groups showed the significant difference in research variables pre and post test. However, there was no significant difference in the results analysis using ACOVAs except for anxiety symptoms.Conclusions: The effectiveness of transdiagnostic group therapy was confirmed in reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms. Implications of the study are discussed.

  13. Anxiety About Foreign Language Learning among High School Women.

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    Ganschow, Leonore; Sparks, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between anxiety and native-language skill and foreign-language aptitude measures among high school foreign-language learners using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS). Findings suggest that skill in one's native language may affect aptitude for learning a foreign language and that the FLCAS may provide an…

  14. A Comparative Study of Mindfulness Efficiency Based on Islamic-Spiritual Schemes and Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Reduction of Anxiety and Depression in Pregnant Women

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    Aslami, Elahe; Alipour, Ahmad; Najib, Fatemeh Sadat; Aghayosefi, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Anxiety and depression during the pregnancy period are among the factors affecting the pregnancy undesirable outcomes and delivery. One way of controlling anxiety and depression is mindfulness and cognitive behavioral therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency of mindfulness based on the Islamic-spiritual schemas and group cognitive behavioral therapy on reduction of anxiety and depression in pregnant women. Methods: The research design was semi-experimental in the form of pretest-posttest using a control group. Among the pregnant women in the 16th to 32nd weeks of pregnancy who referred to the health center, 30 pregnant women with high anxiety level and 30 pregnant women with high depression participated in the research. Randomly 15 participants with high depression and 15 participants with high anxiety were considered in the intervention group under the treatment of mindfulness based on Islamic-spiritual schemes. In addition, 15 participants with high scores regarding depression and 15 with high scores in anxiety were considered in the other group. .The control group consisted of 15 pregnant women with high anxiety and depression. Beck anxiety-depression questionnaire was used in two steps of pre-test and post-test. Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 20, and P≤0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results of multivariate analysis of variance test and tracking Tokey test showed that there was a significant difference between the mean scores of anxiety and depression in the two groups of mindfulness based on spiritual- Islamic scheme (Pdepression scores decreased in the intervention group, but it increased in the control group. Conclusion: Both therapy methods were effective in reduction of anxiety and depression of pregnant women, but the effect of mindfulness based on spiritual- Islamic schemes was more.

  15. Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study Using Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

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    Feeney, Farah; Egan, Sarah; Gasson, Natalie

    2005-01-01

    Depression and anxiety affect up to 50% of people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) (Marsh, 2000; Murray, 1996), however, few studies have examined the effectiveness of psychological treatment. This study examined the effectiveness of group cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in treating depression and anxiety in PD. Four participants, aged between 56…

  16. Hypnosis compared with group therapy and individual desensitization for dental anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod; Abrahamsen, Randi; Brødsgaard, I

    1996-01-01

    Effects of hypnotherapy (HT) and self-hypnosis training on extreme dental anxiety in adults aged 19-65 years were compared with group therapy (GT) and individual desensitization (SD) using scales of dental anxiety, dental beliefs, and fear of a next dentist (after specialist treatment). All...

  17. An Open Trial Investigation of a Transdiagnostic Group Treatment for Children with Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Emily L.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the feasibility and preliminary outcomes associated with a transdiagnostic emotion-focused group protocol for the treatment of anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms in youth. Twenty-two children (ages 7 to 12; M = 9.79) with a principal anxiety disorder and varying levels of comorbid depressive symptoms were…

  18. Social anxiety in high-functioning children and adolescents with Autism and Asperger syndrome.

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    Kuusikko, Sanna; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel; Jussila, Katja; Carter, Alice S; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Pauls, David L; Moilanen, Irma

    2008-10-01

    We examined social anxiety and internalizing symptoms using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C), the Social Anxiety Scale for Children -Revised (SASC-R), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in a sample of fifty-four high-functioning subjects with autism or Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) (M = 11.2 +/- 1.7 years) and 305 community subjects (M = 12.2 +/- 2.2 years). Children and adolescents completed the SPAI-C and SASC-R, and their parents completed the CBCL Internalizing scale. Adolescents with HFA/AS scored higher than the community sample on all measures. Behavioural avoidance and evaluative social anxiety increased by age within the HFA/AS group, whereas behavioural avoidance decreased by age in control participants. Data support that HFA/AS in adolescents may be associated with clinically relevant social anxiety symptoms.

  19. High visual working memory capacity in trait social anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Moriya

    Full Text Available Working memory capacity is one of the most important cognitive functions influencing individual traits, such as attentional control, fluid intelligence, and also psychopathological traits. Previous research suggests that anxiety is associated with impaired cognitive function, and studies have shown low verbal working memory capacity in individuals with high trait anxiety. However, the relationship between trait anxiety and visual working memory capacity is still unclear. Considering that people allocate visual attention more widely to detect danger under threat, visual working memory capacity might be higher in anxious people. In the present study, we show that visual working memory capacity increases as trait social anxiety increases by using a change detection task. When the demand to inhibit distractors increased, however, high visual working memory capacity diminished in individuals with social anxiety, and instead, impaired filtering of distractors was predicted by trait social anxiety. State anxiety was not correlated with visual working memory capacity. These results indicate that socially anxious people could potentially hold a large amount of information in working memory. However, because of an impaired cognitive function, they could not inhibit goal-irrelevant distractors and their performance decreased under highly demanding conditions.

  20. Women With Addictions Report Reduced Anxiety After Group Music Therapy: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke S. Diestelkamp

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Roughly six million females in the USA abuse or are addicted to alcohol. Women are more likely than men to report depression and anxiety as triggers for substance use and relapse, which emphasizes the importance of therapies designed to help women mitigate anxiety.Research supporting music therapy (MT with women with addictions is scarce. In this quasi-experimental investigation, we hoped to learn: (1 What percentage of women with addictive disorders in a 45-minute group MT session will report pre-session anxiety?; and (2 of these, what percentage will report a palpable reduction in their post-session anxiety? We used a single group design: Participants self-reported anxiety before and after each session.Study participants were 53 women in a gender-specific residential program. Voluntary group MT sessions were held twice weekly for 9 weeks. Four MT methods were used: Composition, Receptive (Listening, Improvisation, and Re-Creative (Performing. Of 53 first-session surveys, 39 (73.6% indicated pre-session anxiety. Of these, 33 (84.6% showed a reduction in post-session anxiety. A sign test confirmed an overall reduction in anxiety.Outcomes may have been related to interventions, group cohesion, or other factors. The absence of a comparison group prevents suppositions of causality. Nonetheless, the results present a compelling case for the use of MT with women with anxiety. Because of the link between trauma and addictive disorders, we encourage exploration of the role and benefits of MT within trauma-informed models of addiction treatment.

  1. Early intervention in pregnant women with elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms: efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Antje; Peukert, Judith; Zimmermann, Cornelia; Junge-Hoffmeister, Juliane; Parker, Lisa S; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Weidner, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether a cognitive-behavioral group program among pregnant women with elevated levels of anxiety or depression may reduce anxious and depressive symptoms and has a positive impact on risk factors for anxiety disorders and depression. A total of 753 participants were recruited. After completion of the clinical standardized interview, 160 participants were randomized to an intervention group or a control condition. Psychometric assessments took place at T1 (preintervention), T2 (antenatal follow-up), and T3 (3 months postpartum). Analyses included women who took part in all 3 assessments (intervention group, N = 21; control group, N = 53). The subjective program evaluation by the participants was highly positive, but with the exception of a short-term effect on the quality of an intimate partnership (F1/67 = 4.056; P anxiety or depressive symptoms were not found. However, there was an intervention effect 3 months postpartum for participants with high depressive symptoms at T1 (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of ≥10) (F1/69 = 5.410; P women with rather low levels of anxiety and depression. For women with higher depressive symptoms during pregnancy, a cognitive-behavioral group program may have a positive impact on the course of depressive symptoms during the postpartum period.

  2. The Effects of Transdiagnostic Group CBT for Anxiety on Insomnia Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Sarah Kate; Espejo, Emmanuel P; Balliett, Noelle; Werdowatz, Emily A

    2016-01-01

    Insomnia is a common feature among individuals with anxiety disorders. Studies of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety report moderate effects on concomitant insomnia symptoms, but further research is still needed especially toward understanding how CBT for anxiety renders beneficial effects on insomnia. The current study examined changes in insomnia symptoms reported by 51 Veterans who participated in a group-based transdiagnostic CBT for anxiety intervention. In addition, insomnia symptoms were examined in relation to symptoms of general distress (GD), anhedonic depression (AD), and anxious arousal (AA) pre- to post-treatment. Results revealed a small, though statistically significant (p CBT for anxiety can be largely attributed to changes in AA.

  3. SINGLE-CASE INVESTIGATION OF AN EMOTION-FOCUSED THERAPY GROUP FOR ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adèle Lafrance Robinson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotion-focused therapy (EFT is an evidence-based treatment for depression and trauma and has shown promise for other presentations including anxiety. Minimal research exists investigating the outcomes of emotion-focused therapy in a group setting. The current research presents a mixed-method single-case study of one client’s experiences and outcomes following a nine-week EFT group for depression and anxiety. Weekly measures of session-feelings evaluations were collected. Follow-up measures, including a qualitative interview, were administered one year post-treatment. Pre-, post-, and follow-up measures assessed depression, anxiety, and emotional regulation. Results showed clinically significant improvements in anxiety, depression, and emotional regulation over time. Indirect and direct evidence of client change were detected. Five super-ordinate themes with sub-themes emerged from the qualitative analysis.

  4. Effects of a Collaborative Science Intervention on High Achieving Students' Learning Anxiety and Attitudes toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zuway-R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a collaborative science intervention on high achieving students' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. Thirty-seven eighth-grade high achieving students (16 boys and 21 girls) were selected as an experimental group who joined a 20-week collaborative science intervention, which integrated and utilized…

  5. High anxiety levels are associated with divergent empathising and systemising tendencies

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    Paul A. Strutt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Systemising” and “Empathising” are two cognitive tendencies that individuals rely on to make sense of the world. Systemising involves the observation of environmental contingencies and the consequent formulation of concrete rules to predict events. Empathising is the drive to attribute affective states to others, and to guide responses based on these inferences. High Anxiety is linked to negative, and erroneous, interpretations of social information, and it is possible that the introduction of systems, and therefore predictive utility, might appeal to anxious individuals. It was hypothesised that individuals with high trait anxiety levels would report higher systemising tendencies and lower empathising tendencies than their less anxious peers. A total of 223 participants completed measures of trait anxiety, empathising and systemising tendencies, and autistic traits. Consistent with the hypotheses, individuals with higher levels of trait anxiety demonstrated high systemising tendencies and relatively low empathising tendencies, whilst their less anxious peers demonstrated balanced tendencies in both domains. The High Anxiety group also scored highest on the self-reported measure of autistic traits. This research has identified anxiety as a potential facilitator of divergence in cognitive tendencies, which will be further enhanced by studies in clinical populations.

  6. Mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy and traditional cognitive behavioral group therapy for social anxiety disorder: Mechanisms of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovski, Nancy L; Fleming, Jan E; Hawley, Lance L; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Antony, Martin M

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated mechanisms of change for two group treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD): cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) and mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy (MAGT). Participants were treatment completers (n = 37 for MAGT, n = 32 for CBGT) from a randomized clinical trial. Cognitive reappraisal was the hypothesized mechanism of change for CBGT. Mindfulness and acceptance were hypothesized mechanisms of change for MAGT. Latent difference score (LDS) analysis results demonstrate that cognitive reappraisal coupling (in which cognitive reappraisal is negatively associated with the subsequent rate of change in social anxiety) had a greater impact on social anxiety for CBGT than MAGT. The LDS bidirectional mindfulness model (mindfulness predicts subsequent change in social anxiety; social anxiety predicts subsequent change in mindfulness) was supported for both treatments. Results for acceptance were less clear. Cognitive reappraisal may be a more important mechanism of change for CBGT than MAGT, whereas mindfulness may be an important mechanism of change for both treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Women With Addictions Report Reduced Anxiety After Group Music Therapy: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Diestelkamp, Wiebke S.; Susan C. Gardstrom

    2013-01-01

    Roughly six million females in the USA abuse or are addicted to alcohol. Women are more likely than men to report depression and anxiety as triggers for substance use and relapse, which emphasizes the importance of therapies designed to help women mitigate anxiety.Research supporting music therapy (MT) with women with addictions is scarce. In this quasi-experimental investigation, we hoped to learn: (1) What percentage of women with addictive disorders in a 45-minute group MT session will rep...

  8. Assessment Sleep Quality and its Relationship with Test Anxiety among High School Students in Qom- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman barmeh ziyar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Test anxiety is a special case of a general anxiety which is of particular importance in students, because students will be the future of the country and the society activists. On the other hand, sleep quality and sleep disorders, have correlation with ailments, poor performance, decreased quality of life and increase of associated costs; This study aimed to determine the quality of sleep and its relationship with test anxiety among students in Qom city, Iran. Materials and Methods This study was a cross-sectional study, which was performed among 250 students who were going to pass the exam preparation classes. In order to collect data Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI questionnaires and Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16 with descriptive statistics and statistical methods, independent t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results In this study, 50% of participants were boys (n=125 and 50 percent were girls (n=125. 81.4% of subjects had poor sleep quality and 69.6% had average to high score for test anxiety. Based on the results of anxiety test and sleep quality index there was a significant correlation between anxiety and sleep quality with gender (P=0.003, r=0.447. Conclusion School children had poor sleep quality and high test anxiety, and due to their direct and significant correlation, attention to this category of students, especially for girls, is important. Therefore, anxiety and promoting sleep quality control programs are recommended in this group.

  9. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Anxiety Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Causes & Symptoms Diagnosis & Tests Care & Treatment Lifestyle & Management Other Resources Caregiving How ...

  10. High Current Anxiety Symptoms, But Not a Past Anxiety Disorder Diagnosis, are Associated with Impaired Fear Extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duits, Puck; Cath, Danielle C; Heitland, Ivo; Baas, Johanna M P

    2016-01-01

    Although impaired fear extinction has repeatedly been demonstrated in patients with anxiety disorders, little is known about whether these impairments persist after treatment. The current comparative exploratory study investigated fear extinction in 26 patients treated for their anxiety disorder in the years preceding the study as compared to 17 healthy control subjects. Fear-potentiated startle and subjective fear were measured in a cue and context fear conditioning paradigm within a virtual reality environment. Results indicated no differences in fear extinction between treated anxiety patients and control subjects. However, scores on the Beck Anxiety Inventory across all participants revealed impaired extinction of fear potentiated startle in subjects with high compared to low anxiety symptoms over the past week. Taken together, this exploratory study found no support for impaired fear extinction in treated anxiety patients, and implies that current anxiety symptoms rather than previous patient status determine the success of extinction.

  11. High current anxiety symptoms, but not a past anxiety disorder diagnosis, are associated with impaired fear extinction.

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    Puck eDuits

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although impaired fear extinction has repeatedly been demonstrated in patients with anxiety disorders, little is known about whether these impairments persist after treatment. The current comparative exploratory study investigated fear extinction in 26 patients treated for their anxiety disorder in the years preceding the study as compared to 17 healthy control subjects. Fear-potentiated startle and subjective fear were measured in a cue and context fear conditioning paradigm within a virtual reality environment. Results indicated no differences in fear extinction between treated anxiety patients and control subjects. However, scores on the Beck Anxiety Inventory across all participants revealed impaired extinction of fear potentiated startle in subjects with high compared to low anxiety symptoms over the past week. Taken together, this exploratory study found no support for impaired fear extinction in treated anxiety patients, and implies that current anxiety symptoms rather than previous patient status determine the success of extinction.

  12. Testing the limits of tolerance : How intergroup anxiety amplifies negative and offensive responses to out-group-initiated contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zomeren, Martijn; Fischer, Agneta H.; Spears, Russell

    2007-01-01

    Three studies examine the amplifying effects of intergroup anxiety on individuals' negative and offensive responses to out-group-initiated contact. Because intergroup anxiety typically results in avoidance of the initiation of intergroup contact, these studies explored how intergroup anxiety affecte

  13. High School Students' Time Management Skills in Relation to Research Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcoltekin, Alpturk

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the opinions of high school students relating to time management and present a correlation of their time management skills with demographic variables, as well as examining the relation between their level of research anxiety and time management skills. The study group composed 270 12th-grade students (127 males and…

  14. Group music interventions for dementia-associated anxiety: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing-Randolph, Avis R; Phillips, Linda R; Williams, Ann B

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review examines the few published studies using group music interventions to reduce dementia-associated anxiety, the delivery of such interventions, and proposes changes to nursing curriculum for the future. Literature review. All quantitative studies from 1989 to 2014 were searched in CINAHL and PubMed databases. Only published articles written in English were included. Studies excluded were reviews, non-human subjects, reports, expert opinions, subject age less than 65, papers that were theoretical or philosophical in nature, individual music interventions, case studies, studies without quantification of changes to anxiety, and those consisting of less than three subjects. Components of each study are analyzed and compared to examine the risk for bias. Eight articles met the inclusion criteria for review. Subject dementia severity ranged from mild to severe among studies reviewed. Intervention delivery and group sizes varied among studies. Seven reported decreases to anxiety after a group music intervention. Group music interventions to treat dementia-associated anxiety is a promising treatment. However, the small number of studies and the large variety in methods and definitions limit our ability to draw conclusions. It appears that group size, age of persons with dementia and standardization of the best times for treatment to effect anxiety decreases all deserve further investigation. In addition, few studies have been conducted in the United States. In sum, while credit is due to the nurses and music therapists who pioneered the idea in nursing care, consideration of patient safety and improvements in music intervention delivery training from a healthcare perspective are needed. Finally, more research investigating resident safety and the growth of nursing roles within various types of facilities where anxiety is highest, is necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Anxiety, Depression and Glycemic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Ahmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing anxiety and depression and glycemic control in children with type I diabetes. Methods and Matherials: The study was quasi- experimental with a pre-test, post-test design with control group. For this purpose, 30 children with diabetes were selected from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad. The children were randomly assigned into two experimental group (15 and control group (15. The experimental group was undergone eight 2-hour sessions of cognitive-behavioral training. Before and after the intervention, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, which included four components of social anxiety, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, and separation anxiety, and Children Depression Inventory was administrated in both groups. Results: The findings from the covariance analysis test revealed that depression and anxiety and glycemic control in experimental group was controlled at post-test and depression score in experimental group compared to the control group at post-test was decreased. The findings from the multivariate covariance analysis test between components of, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, separation anxiety, and social anxiety revealed meaningful differences between the two groups in social anxiety post-test score. Conclusions: According to the article, cognitive behavior therapy can be effective for depression, anxiety, and blood sugar control in children.

  16. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Bbehavioral Therapy on Anxiety, Depression and Glycemic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ahmadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing anxiety and depression and glycemic control in children with type I diabetes. The study was quasi- experimental with a pre-test, post-test design with control group. For this purpose, 30 children with diabetes were selected from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad. The children were randomly assigned into two experimental group (15 and control group (15. The experimental group was undergone eight 2-hour sessions of cognitive-behavioral training. Before and after the intervention, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, which included four components of social anxiety, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, and separation anxiety, and Children Depression Inventory was administrated in both groups. The findings from the covariance analysis test revealed that depression and anxiety and glycemic control in experimental group was controlled at post-test and depression score in experimental group compared to the control group at post-test was decreased. The findings from the multivariate covariance analysis test between components of, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, separation anxiety, and social anxiety revealed meaningful differences between the two groups in social anxiety post-test score. Thus, cognitive behavior therapy can be effective for depression, anxiety, and blood sugar control in children.

  17. Evaluation of an integrated group cognitive-behavioral treatment for comorbid mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Irena; Chudzik, Susan M; Boyd, Susan; McCabe, Randi E

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the development and preliminary evaluation of an integrated group cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for comorbid mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. The 12-session, manualized treatment was developed collaboratively by a mental health program in a teaching hospital and a community-based addictions service and administered in both settings. Results from an uncontrolled effectiveness trial of 29 treatment completers suggest that integrated group CBT may reduce stress and alcohol use symptoms and improve substance refusal self-efficacy. Changes in symptoms of anxiety, depression, and drug use were not significant, although the effect size for anxiety reduction was in the medium range. Nonetheless, the clinical significance of treatment effects on mood, anxiety, and substance use symptoms was modest. Changes in coping skills and quality of life were not significant, although medium-to-large effects were observed for changes in several coping skills. Participants reported being highly satisfied with treatment, found the treatment strategies to be useful, and noted an improvement in their functioning, particularly socially. Methodological and sample size limitations warrant more rigorous follow-up investigations of this treatment. Results are considered in the context of the current literature on integrated psychological treatments for these common comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Is it more effective group relaxation than individual to reduce anxiety in specific phobias?

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    Julián Carretero Román

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Relaxation is a standard technique used by nurses to reduce the level of anxiety. It seems that their implementation on a group can bring certain benefits compared with individual relaxation. This outline is intended to raise this hypothesis in caring for individuals diagnosed with specific phobia, by approaching the problem from the cognitive behavioural therapy perspective. In addition, it seeks to evaluate the usefulness of the nurse intervention relaxation to reduce the level of anxiety, in turn comparing the results obtained using an indicator of the scale of results NOC and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale. The phobia is a specific entity underdiagnosed, whose prevalence is about 10%. Those affected can live a really limited and debilitating, deteriorating quality of life. The community mental health nurses are in a unique position to participate in the cognitive behavioural therapy through relaxation, which will allow them to reduce the level of anxiety when people establish contact with the phobic stimulus. Methodology: quasi-experimental study in specific phobia diagnosed, 20 to 40 years old adults attending for the first time to the mental health facility derived from primary care. Both the control group as the pilot will be treated by conducted cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy individualized according to the therapeutic protocol MSC, except in terms of relaxation, which in the experimental group will be conducted at the group level. The effectiveness of treatment will be assessed with the Hamilton anxiety scale and the likert type scale of outcome indicators NOC "stress level" with 3 measurements, before starting, immediately after completing the sessions of relaxation and three months later, checking the decline in the average level of anxiety.

  19. Clinical effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral group treatment program for anxiety disorders: a benchmarking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Tian P S; Boschen, Mark J

    2009-10-01

    Previous research has established efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders, yet it has not been widely assessed in routine community clinic practices. Efficacy research sacrifices external validity to achieve maximum internal validity. Recently, effectiveness research has been advocated as more ecologically valid for assessing routine clinical work in community clinics. Furthermore, there is a lack of effectiveness research in group CBT. This study aims to extend existing research on the effectiveness of CBT from individual therapy into group therapy delivery. It aimed also to examine outcome using not only symptom measures, but also measures of related symptoms, cognitions, and life quality and satisfaction. Results from a cohort of patients with various anxiety disorders demonstrated that treatment was effective in reducing anxiety symptoms to an extent comparable with other effectiveness studies. Despite this, only 43% of individuals showed reliable change, and 17% were 'recovered' from their anxiety symptoms, and the post-treatment measures were still significantly different from the level of anxiety symptoms observed in the general population.

  20. Anxiety (Low Ago Strength) And Intelligence Among Students Of High School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Habibollah

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between anxiety (low ago strength) and intelligence among student's mathematics. All the effects of anxiety were studied within the sample of 112 subjects (boys). 56 of them were regular of students (RS) and 56 were intelligent of students (IS) of high schools. Mean age was (17.1 years), SD (.454) and range age was 16-18 years in 3 classes of regular of high school mathematics was for regular students. For the IS, mean age was (16.75 years), SD (.436) and range age was l6-17 years in 4 classes of students exceptional talent for high school mathematics. The sampling method in this study was the simple randomization method. In this studied, for analysis of method used both descriptive and inference of research, which for description of analysis used Average and analysis of covariance and Variance, also for inference of analysis, used with t-test between two the groups of students. The Cattell of Anxiety Test (1958) (CTAT) has been used in a number of studies for measurement trait anxiety in Iran. In general, the findings were found not statistical significant between the RS and the IS of students in that factorial of low of ago strength (C-). Further research is needed to investigate whether the current findings hold for student populations by others anxiety tests.

  1. Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: An Open Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovski, Nancy L.; Fleming, Jan E.; Rector, Neil A.

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Group Therapy (MAGT) for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is based largely on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes et al., 1999), with enhanced mindfulness mostly from Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT; Segal et al., 2002). The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and initial…

  2. Consensus statement on panic disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballenger, JC; Lecrubier, Y; Nutt, DJ; Baldwin, DS; den Boer, JA; Kasper, S; Shear, MK

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To provide primary care clinicians with a better understanding of management issues in panic disorder and guide clinical practice with recommendations for appropriate pharmacotherapy. Participants: The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C.

  3. Social Skills Training Augments the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, James D.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Myers, Valerie H.; Dalrymple, Kristy; Nolan, Elizabeth M.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) is the most widely researched intervention program for social anxiety disorder (SAD, also known as social phobia), with a number of studies demonstrating its effectiveness. Another common treatment, social skills training (SST), has also been shown to be efficacious for SAD. The present study compared the…

  4. Fears and Related Anxieties across Three Age Groups of Mexican American and White Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The authors compared levels and types of fears and anxieties in a sample of Mexican American children and adolescents with disabilities to a group of White children and adolescents with similar disabilities. Students (N = 238), parents, and teachers completed the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (T. H. Ollendick, 1983) and the Revised…

  5. Hypnosis compared with group therapy and individual desensitization for dental anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod; Abrahamsen, Randi; Brødsgaard, I

    1996-01-01

    experimental groups were demographically comparable and showed reduced anxiety and improved dental beliefs compared with 51 control patients. The 25 HT patients did not differ significantly in numbers of dropouts during training compared with the 30 GT patients or 68 SD patients. For patients completing...

  6. Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: An Open Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovski, Nancy L.; Fleming, Jan E.; Rector, Neil A.

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Group Therapy (MAGT) for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is based largely on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes et al., 1999), with enhanced mindfulness mostly from Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT; Segal et al., 2002). The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and initial…

  7. Evaluating an Anxiety Group for People with Learning Disabilities Using a Mixed Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwood, Hayley; Hewitt, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of group therapy for people with learning disabilities and anxiety management issues is reviewed. People with learning disabilities face increased levels of psychological distress compared to the general population, yet are often faced with a lack of social support and poor coping techniques to manage their distress. A 6-week…

  8. Maladaptive cognitive appraisals in children with high-functioning autism: associations with fear, anxiety and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shilpi; Woolfson, Lisa M; Hunter, Simon C

    2014-04-01

    Despite the well-documented success of cognitive restructuring techniques in the treatment of anxiety disorders, there is still little clarity on which cognitions underpin fear and anxiety in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. This study examined whether certain cognitive appraisals, known to be associated with fear and anxiety in typically developing groups, may help explain these emotions in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. It also investigated relations between these cognitive appraisals and theory of mind. Appraisals, fear and anxiety were assessed using a vignette approach in 22 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders and 22 typically developing children. The two groups differed significantly on all four appraisal types. Anxiety was negatively correlated with future expectancy and positively with problem-focused coping potential in the high-functioning autism spectrum disorder group but was not correlated with appraisals in the typically developing group. The two appraisals associated with fear were emotion-focused coping potential (in the high-functioning autism spectrum disorder group only) and self-accountability (in the typically developing group only). Linear regression analysis found that appraisals of emotion-focused coping potential, problem-focused coping potential and future expectancy were significant predictors of theory-of-mind ability in the high-functioning autism spectrum disorders group. These findings indicate that specific, problematic patterns of appraisal may characterise children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

  9. An effectiveness study of individual vs. group cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wergeland, Gro Janne H; Fjermestad, Krister W; Marin, Carla E; Haugland, Bente Storm-Mowatt; Bjaastad, Jon Fauskanger; Oeding, Kristin; Bjelland, Ingvar; Silverman, Wendy K; Ost, Lars-Göran; Havik, Odd E; Heiervang, Einar R

    2014-06-01

    Conducted a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and compared the relative effectiveness of individual (ICBT) and group (GCBT) treatment approaches for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Referred youth (N = 182, M age = 11.5 years, range 8-15 years, 53% girls) with separation anxiety, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to ICBT, GCBT or a waitlist control (WLC) in community clinics. Pre-, post-, and one year follow-up assessments included youth and parent completed diagnostic interview and symptom measures. After comparing CBT (ICBT and GCBT combined) to WLC, ICBT and GCBT were compared along diagnostic recovery rates, clinically significant improvement, and symptom measures scores using traditional hypothesis tests, as well as statistical equivalence tests. Significantly more youth lost all anxiety disorders after CBT compared to WLC. Full diagnostic recovery rate was 25.3% for ICBT and 20.5% in GCBT, which was not significantly different. There was continued lack of significant differences between ICBT and GCBT at one year follow-up. However, equivalence between GCBT and ICBT could only be demonstrated for clinical severity rating of the principal anxiety disorder and child reported anxiety symptoms post-treatment. Findings support the effectiveness of CBT compared to no intervention for youth with anxiety disorders, with no significant differences between ICBT and GCBT. However, the relatively low recovery rates highlight the need for further improvement of CBT programs and their transportability from university to community settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Group Training of Stress Management vs. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Reducing Depression, Anxiety and Perceived Stress Among HIV-Positive Men

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmati Sabet, Akbar; Khalatbari, Javad; Abbas Ghorbani, Maryam; Haghighi, Mohammad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of group training of stress management with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing depression, anxiety and stress perceived among HIV-positive men. Methods:Inthis semi-experimental study, three groups of HIV-positive men (CBT group, stress management group, and control group) including 15 patients in each group were compared regarding depression, anxiety, and stress using pre-test and post-test tools. Results: Both interventions (CBT and stress ...

  11. Acceptance and commitment group therapy (ACT-G) for health anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilenberg, T; Fink, P; Jensen, J S; Rief, W; Frostholm, L

    2016-01-01

    Severe health anxiety is frequent and costly, yet rarely diagnosed or treated. Earlier treatment studies show problems with recruitment, dropout and recovery. In the current study, the authors aimed to test the effect of acceptance and commitment group therapy (ACT-G) compared to waitlist in patients with severe health anxiety. During March 2010 to April 2012, 126 consecutively referred patients meeting research criteria for severe health anxiety were block-randomized (1:1) to ACT-G or a 10 months' waitlist (Clinicaltrials.gov, no. NCT01158430). Patients allocated to ACT-G were treated in seven groups of nine patients between December 2010 and October 2012 and received nine weekly 3-h group sessions and a booster session consisting of ACT techniques. The primary outcome was decided a priori as the mean change in self-reported illness worry on the Whiteley-7 Index (WI) from baseline to 10 months' follow-up. Secondary outcomes were improvement in emotional distress and health-related quality of life at 10 months' follow-up. Intention-to-treat analysis showed a statistically significant mean difference of 20.5 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.7-29.4, p accepted by the patients. ACT-G seems feasible, acceptable and effective in treating severe health anxiety.

  12. Anxiety and depression in the workplace: effects on the individual and organisation (a focus group investigation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, C; Atkinson, S; Brown, S S; Haslam, R A

    2005-10-01

    While the prevalence of anxiety and depression has increased, little is known of the impact on working life. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of anxiety and depression and the treatment for these conditions on performance and safety in the workplace. Nine focus groups were conducted with employees who had suffered anxiety and depression. A further 3 groups comprised staff from human resources and occupational health. The sample comprised 74 individuals aged 18-60 years, from a range of occupations. Results were presented to a panel of experts to consider the clinical implications. Workers reported that the symptoms and medication impaired work performance, describing accidents which they attributed to their condition/medication. Respondents were largely unprepared for the fact that the medication might make them feel worse initially. Employees were reluctant to disclose their condition to colleagues due to the stigma attached to mental illness. People who had experienced problems with managing their symptoms and medication at work are more likely to volunteer to participate in such a study than those who had a satisfactory experience. Also, the researchers had no background information on severity of mental health problems of participants. Anxiety and depression were associated with impaired work performance and safety. The authors consider the implications for health care and the management of mental health problems at work.

  13. Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21): psychometric analysis across four racial groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Peter J

    2007-09-01

    Growing cross-cultural awareness has led researchers to examine frequently used research instruments and assessment tools in racially diverse populations. The present study was conducted to assess the psychometric characteristics of the 21-item version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21) among different racial groups. The DASS-21 was chosen because it appears to be a reliable and easy to administer measure, ideal for both clinical and research purposes. Results suggest that the internal consistency, and convergent and divergent validity of the DASS-21 are similar across racial groups. Multigroup CFA, however, indicated that item loadings were invariant, while scale covariances were not invariant. This suggests that, although the items may load similarly on the depression, anxiety and stress constructs, these constructs may be differentially inter-related across groups. Implications for application in clinical practice are discussed.

  14. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatalović Vorkapić, Sanja; Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ružić, Klementina

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. Methods. The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users) clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A), Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Their average age was 22. Results. In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. Conclusion. Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.

  15. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatalović Vorkapić Sanja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. METHODS: The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A, Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. Their average age was 22. RESULTS: In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.

  16. DSM-IV-defined anxiety disorder symptoms in a middle-childhood-aged group of Malaysian children using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Atefeh Ahmadi; Mohamed Sharif Mustaffa; Amirmudin Udin; AliAkbar Haghdoost

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pediatric anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorders in the middle-childhood age group. The purpose of this study is to assess anxiety disorder symptoms, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), in a large community sample of low socioeconomic level rural children and to investigate some of the psychometric properties (internal consistency, construct and convergent validity and items rated as often or always...

  17. Effectiveness of Group Training of Assertiveness on Social Anxiety among Deaf and Hard of Hearing Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Hamed; Daramadi, Parviz Sharifi; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Givtaj, Hamed; Sani, Mohammad Reza Mahmoudian

    2017-06-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of assertiveness group training on social anxiety (SAD) between deaf and hearing impaired adolescents. Forty eight (24 deaf and 24 hearing impaired) people participated in this study. First, participants with SAD, i.e. attaining the scores above 40 for Connor's Social Inventory Scale 2000 (SPIN), were selected according to convenience sampling and randomly assigned to two groups, i.e. intervention and control. Then, assertiveness group training was conducted for intervention group within 10 sessions, and immediately after completion of the training sessions, SPIN was re-administered to the two groups. ANCOVA showed that the effectiveness of assertiveness group training on SAD is different between deaf and hearing impaired participants, i.e. assertiveness group training was effective on improvement of SAD in hearing impaired participants but not deaf ones. Therefore, it is recommended to incorporate assertiveness group training in the educational programs developed for adolescents with ear disorders especially hearing impairment.

  18. ANXIETY DISORDERS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Ashwani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with substantial distress, morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiological studies of anxiety disorders provided evidence of their high frequency in the general population worldwide. Anxiety disorders afflict an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States each year. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adults with females showing higher preponderance of 2:1 as compared to males. Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by various combinations of key features - Irritability, fear, Insomnia, Nervousness, Tachycardia, Inability to concentrate, poor coping skills, Palpitation, Sweating, Agoraphobia and Social Withdrawal. The anxiety disorders, including panic disorder (PD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, social anxiety disorder (SAD, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, are among the disabling medical disorders. The neurobiology of anxiety disorders is not fully understood, but several different biologic abnormalities have been implicated in their etiology. The GABA, NE and 5HT systems play crucial roles in mediating the affective circuitry underlying the highly related clinical disorders of anxiety. Anxiety is a common psychiatric condition characterized by unnecessary aggression, poor quality of life, fear, worry, avoidance, and compulsive rituals that are associated with significant distress.

  19. Psychological factors and treatment effectiveness in resistant anxiety disorders in highly comorbid inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ociskova M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Marie Ociskova, Jan Prasko, Klara Latalova, Dana Kamaradova, Ales Grambal Department of Psychiatry, Olomouc University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic Background: Anxiety disorders are a group of various mental syndromes that have been related with generally poor treatment response. Several psychological factors may improve or hinder treatment effectiveness. Hope has a direct impact on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Also, dissociation is a significant factor influencing treatment efficiency in this group of disorders. Development of self-stigma could decrease treatment effectiveness, as well as several temperamental and character traits. The aim of this study was to explore a relationship between selected psychological factors and treatment efficacy in anxiety disorders. Subjects and methods: A total of 109 inpatients suffering from anxiety disorders with high frequency of comorbidity with depression and/or personality disorder were evaluated at the start of the treatment by the following scales: the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and the Temperament and Character Inventory – revised. The participants, who sought treatment for anxiety disorders, completed the following scales at the beginning and end of an inpatient-therapy program: Clinical Global Impression (objective and subjective the Beck Depression Inventory – second edition, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The treatment consisted of 25 group sessions and five individual sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy in combination with pharmacotherapy. There was no randomization to the type of group-therapy program. Results: Greater improvement in psychopathology, assessed by relative change in objective Clinical Global Impression score, was connected with low initial

  20. Reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in high school and college students with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachelka, D; Katz, R C

    1999-09-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure in otherwise capable students. Because test anxiety is common in older students with learning disabilities (LD), it is surprising that little research has been done on ways to reduce the distress these students experience in test situations. In this study, we used a randomized pretest-posttest control group design to examine the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral treatment for reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in a cohort (N = 27) of high school and college students with learning disabilities (LD). All of the students participated voluntarily. They were enrolled in classes for students with learning problems. Before the study began, they complained of test anxiety and showed an elevated score on the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI). Eleven students (85%) completed the 8-week long treatment, which consisted of progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, self-instruction training, as well as training in study and test-taking skills. Results showed significant improvement in the treated group which was not evident in an untreated control group (N = 16). Compared to the control group, the treated group showed significant reductions in test anxiety on the TAI, as well as improvement in study skills and academic self-esteem as measured by the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes, and the school scale of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. These results extend the generality of similar studies on reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in younger students. They also suggest that relief from test anxiety can be expected fairly quickly when cognitive-behavioral methods are used. Additional implications and methodological limitations of the study are discussed.

  1. Clay and Anxiety Reduction: A One-Group, Pretest/Posttest Design with Patients on a Psychiatric Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimport, Elizabeth R.; Hartzell, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists on using clay as an anxiety-reducing intervention with patients in psychiatric hospitals. This article reports on a study that used a one-group, pretest/posttest design with 49 adults in a psychiatric facility who created a clay pinch pot. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used as a pre- and posttest measure.…

  2. Clay and Anxiety Reduction: A One-Group, Pretest/Posttest Design with Patients on a Psychiatric Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimport, Elizabeth R.; Hartzell, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists on using clay as an anxiety-reducing intervention with patients in psychiatric hospitals. This article reports on a study that used a one-group, pretest/posttest design with 49 adults in a psychiatric facility who created a clay pinch pot. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used as a pre- and posttest measure.…

  3. Transdiagnostic group CBT vs. standard group CBT for depression, social anxiety disorder and agoraphobia/panic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse Marie Hemmingsen; Aharoni, Ruth; Pedersen, Morten Hvenegaard

    2017-01-01

    , Social Anxiety Disorder and Agoraphobia/Panic Disorder. In total, 248 patients are recruited from three regional MHS centers across Denmark and included in two intervention arms. The primary outcome is patient-ratings of well-being (WHO Well-being Index, WHO-5), secondary outcomes include level...... Disorders” (UP-CBT) for group delivery in Mental Health Service (MHS), and shown effects comparable to traditional CBT in a naturalistic study. As the use of one manual instead of several diagnosis-specific manuals could simplify logistics, reduce waiting time, and increase therapist expertise compared...

  4. The Effect of English Learning Anxiety on Iranian High-School Students’ English Language Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Atef-Vahid

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored English language learning anxiety among 38 third-year high school students in English classrooms and its relationship with overall English achievement. Students’ foreign language anxiety was surveyed and analyzed using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986 [14] and their English achievement was measured through their final standardized English exam administered by the school. The results showed that although some students felt extremely confident and relaxed, however, one-third of the
    students experienced moderate to high-anxiety levels while learning the English language in class. Correlational analysis revealed that the total FLCAS scores had a significantly moderate negative correlation (r=-.0586, p<.01 with the total final English exams scores of the participants. Anxiety was also analyzed according to the four different variables of anxiety (communication anxiety, test anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, English classroom anxiety which were measured by the FLCAS. The results of the Pearson correlational analysis indicated that English achievement was modestly correlated with all four anxiety variables (p<0.01. Of the four types of anxiety, English Classroom anxiety had the highest correlational value. Finally, possible anxiety provoking factors
    leading to these findings are examined and discussed, and some pedagogical implications are proposed.

  5. High-Stakes Accountability: Student Anxiety and Large-Scale Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Witmer, Sara E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between student anxiety about high-stakes testing and their subsequent test performance. The FRIEDBEN Test Anxiety Scale was administered to 1,134 11th-grade students, and data were subsequently collected on their statewide assessment performance. Test anxiety was a significant predictor of test performance…

  6. How to reduce negative effect of anxiety in senior high English classroom in Guizhou province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jia

    2016-01-01

    This paper mainly concerns on anxiety in English class in Guizhou province. It analyzes three essential reasons which can cause anxiety:Students'(Ss') fear of communication,unsuccessful self-image and anxiety from college entrance examination.The paper focuses on the negative effect of anxiety and try to find some settlements. The study will be helpful for senior high school teachers to make some change in their teaching.

  7. Randomized controlled trial of group cognitive behavioral therapy compared to a discussion group for co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthrich, V M; Rapee, R M; Kangas, M; Perini, S

    2016-03-01

    Co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adults is associated with worse physical and mental health outcomes and poorer response to psychological and pharmacological treatments in older adults. However, there is a paucity of research focused on testing the efficacy of the co-morbid treatment of anxiety and depression in older adults using psychological interventions. Accordingly, the primary objective of the current study was to test the effects of a group cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) program in treating co-morbid anxiety and depression in a sample of older age adults. A total of 133 community-dwelling participants aged ⩾60 years (mean age = 67.35, s.d. = 5.44, male = 59) with both an anxiety disorder and unipolar mood disorder, as assessed on the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule (ADIS), were randomly allocated to an 11-week CBT group or discussion group. Participants with Mini-Mental State Examination scores group × time interaction effects emerged at post-treatment only for diagnostic severity of the primary disorder, mean severity of all anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and all disorders, and recovery rates on primary disorder. Group CBT produced faster and sustained improvements in anxiety and depression on diagnostic severity and recovery rates compared to an active control in older adults.

  8. DSM-IV-defined anxiety disorder symptoms in a middle-childhood-aged group of Malaysian children using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Ahmadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pediatric anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorders in the middle-childhood age group. The purpose of this study is to assess anxiety disorder symptoms, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV, in a large community sample of low socioeconomic level rural children and to investigate some of the psychometric properties (internal consistency, construct and convergent validity and items rated as often or always experienced of the Malay version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale - Child version (SCAS-C. Method Six hundred children aged 9-11 and 424 of their parents completely answered the child or parent versions of the SCAS. Results Results indicated that the internal reliability of subscales were moderate to adequate. Significant correlations between child and parent reports supported the measure's concurrent validity. Additionally, anxiety levels in this Malaysian sample were lower than among South-African children and higher than among their Western peers. There were both similarities and differences between symptom items reported as often or always experienced by Malaysian students and by children from other cultures. Confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence of the existence of five inter-correlated factors for anxiety disorders based on SCAS-C. Conclusion Although some of the instrument's psychometric properties deviated from those observed in some other countries, it nevertheless appears to be useful for assessing childhood anxiety symptoms in this country.

  9. A Comparative Study of Group Behavioral Activation and Cognitive Therapy in Reducing Subsyndromal Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Soleimani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two group treatments, behavioral activation (BA and cognitive therapy (CT, in reducing subsyndromal anxiety and depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian university students.Method: Twenty-seven Iranian university students who scored 18 or higher on the depression subscale and 16 or higher on the anxiety subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42 were randomly assigned into treatment groups. One group received 8 sessions of BA (n = 14, and the other received 8 sessions of group CT (n = 13.Result: Analysis of covariance revealed that the BA group had a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than the CT group. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the levels of anxiety, stress symptoms or functional impairment after treatment.Conclusion: This study found evidence for the effectiveness of BA in reducing anxiety, depressive and stress symptoms and functional impairment compared to CT. BA was more effective than CT in improving depressive symptoms and was as effective as CT in decreasing anxiety, stress and functional impairment. BA is also a cost-effective intervention, particularly in group formats.

  10. Psychological factors and treatment effectiveness in resistant anxiety disorders in highly comorbid inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ociskova, Marie; Prasko, Jan; Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Grambal, Ales

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are a group of various mental syndromes that have been related with generally poor treatment response. Several psychological factors may improve or hinder treatment effectiveness. Hope has a direct impact on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Also, dissociation is a significant factor influencing treatment efficiency in this group of disorders. Development of self-stigma could decrease treatment effectiveness, as well as several temperamental and character traits. The aim of this study was to explore a relationship between selected psychological factors and treatment efficacy in anxiety disorders. A total of 109 inpatients suffering from anxiety disorders with high frequency of comorbidity with depression and/or personality disorder were evaluated at the start of the treatment by the following scales: the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and the Temperament and Character Inventory - revised. The participants, who sought treatment for anxiety disorders, completed the following scales at the beginning and end of an inpatient-therapy program: Clinical Global Impression (objective and subjective) the Beck Depression Inventory - second edition, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The treatment consisted of 25 group sessions and five individual sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy in combination with pharmacotherapy. There was no randomization to the type of group-therapy program. Greater improvement in psychopathology, assessed by relative change in objective Clinical Global Impression score, was connected with low initial dissociation level, harm avoidance, and self-stigma, and higher amounts of hope and self-directedness. Also, individuals without a comorbid personality disorder improved considerably more than comorbid patients. According to backward-stepwise multiple regression, the best

  11. Social physique anxiety and eating attitudes in female athletic and non-athletic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, A M; Prapavessis, H

    2001-12-01

    One purpose of the present study was to compare Social Physique Anxiety (SPA) scores among four different female groups (physique-salient (PS) athletes-aerobics competitors and divers, n = 63; weight-restricted athletes-rowers, n = 60; non-physique-salient (NPS) athletes--soccer, n = 75; and non-athlete students, n = 53). A second purpose of the study was to examine relations between SPA and disturbed eating attitudes among these four groups. Participants completed the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS; Hart, Leary, & Rejeski, 1989) and the Eating Attitude Test (EAT; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979). With respect to purpose one, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) with SPA (i.e., 9-item single factor model of the SPAS) as the dependent measure, failed to reach significance (F (3,184) = 1.61, p> .05). With respect to purpose two, significant relations were found between SPA and EAT scores for all four groups. Inferential comparison of the bivariate correlations (Fisher's Z transformations), however, showed no significant differences between groups. In addition, a moderated regression analysis was computed using EAT scores as the dependent measure. The variables were entered in the following order: SPA, followed by dummy vectors for each sport-type category, and then the interaction term between SPA and the dummy vectors. Results showed that there was no significant interaction effect. Thus, these analyses, taken together. suggest that the type of sport activity does not serve to moderate relations between SPA and disordered eating. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  12. The Development of a Transdiagnostic, Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention for Childhood Anxiety Disorders and Co-Occurring Depression Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Bilek, Emily L.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent and frequently comorbid classes of disorder associated with significant impairment in youth. While current transdiagnostic protocols address a range of potential anxiety and depression symptoms among adult and adolescent populations, there are few similar treatment options for school-aged children with…

  13. The Development of a Transdiagnostic, Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention for Childhood Anxiety Disorders and Co-Occurring Depression Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Bilek, Emily L.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent and frequently comorbid classes of disorder associated with significant impairment in youth. While current transdiagnostic protocols address a range of potential anxiety and depression symptoms among adult and adolescent populations, there are few similar treatment options for school-aged children with…

  14. Asperger syndrome and anxiety disorders (PAsSA) treatment trial: a study protocol of a pilot, multicentre, single-blind, randomised crossover trial of group cognitive behavioural therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Peter E; Murphy, Glynis H; Wilson, Edward; Shepstone, Lee; Fowler, David; Heavens, David; Malovic, Aida; Russell, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A number of studies have established that children, adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) have significant problems with anxiety. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for anxiety in a variety of clinical populations. There is a growing interest in exploring the effectiveness of CBT for people with AS who have mental health problems, but currently there are no known clinical trials involving adults with AS or HFA. Studies with children who have AS have reported some success. The current study aims to examine whether modified group CBT for clinically significant anxiety in an AS population is likely to be efficacious. Methods and analysis This study is a randomised, single-blind crossover trial. At least 36 individuals will be recruited and randomised into a treatment arm or a waiting-list control arm. During treatment, individuals will receive 3 sessions of individual CBT, followed by 21 sessions of group CBT. Primary outcome measures focus on anxiety. Secondary outcome measures focus on everyday social and psychiatric functioning, additional measures of anxiety and fear, depression, health-related quality of life and treatment cost. Assessments will be administered at pregroup and postgroup and at follow-up by researchers who are blinded to group allocation. The trial aims to find out whether or not psychological treatments for anxiety can be adapted and used to successfully treat the anxiety experienced by people with AS. Furthermore, we aim to determine whether this intervention represents good value for money. Ethics and dissemination The trial received a favourable ethical opinion from a National Health Service (NHS) Research Ethics Committee. All participants provided written informed consent. Findings will be shared with all trial participants, and the general public, as well as the scientific community. Trial Registration ISRCTN 30265294 (DOI: 10.1186/ISRCTN30265294), UKCRN

  15. Disability pension and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a prospective comparison of farmers and other occupational groups. The HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Glasscock, David; Krokstad, Steinar

    2015-11-02

    Agriculture has undergone major changes, and farmers have been found to have a high prevalence of depression symptoms. We investigated the risk of work disability in Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups, as well as the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression and future disability pension. We linked working participants of the HUNT2 Survey (1995-97) aged 20-61.9 years, of whom 3495 were farmers and 25,521 had other occupations, to national registry data on disability pension, with follow-up until 31 December 2010. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of disability pension, and to investigate the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression caseness at baseline (score on the anxiety or depression subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) ≥8) and disability pension. Farmers had a twofold increased risk of disability pension (age-adjusted and sex-adjusted HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.80 to 2.38) compared with higher grade professionals. Farmers with symptoms of depression caseness had a 53% increased risk of disability pension (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.87) compared with farmers below the cut-off point of depression caseness symptoms, whereas farmers with symptoms of anxiety caseness had a 51% increased risk (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.86). Farmers have an increased risk of disability pension compared with higher grade professionals, but the risk is lower than in most other manual occupational groups. Farmers who report high levels of depression or anxiety symptoms are at substantially increased risk of future work disability, and the risk increase appears to be fairly similar across most occupational groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Anxiety and compliance among women at high risk for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, N M; Wellisch, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between symptoms of depression and general anxiety, patient's feelings of vulnerability to cancer, the anxiety experienced specifically in relation to various cancer-screeningprocedures, and compliance with these procedures among women atfamilial risk for breast cancer The data were obtained from 430 patients from the High Risk Clinic at the UCLA Revlon Breast Center who completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and answered questions about their perceived vulnerability to breast cancer; the anxiety they experienced regarding undergoing pap smear tests, mammograms, and breast self-examinations (BSEs); and their compliance with these cancer-screening procedures. Correlations were used to estimate the association between feelings of anxiety and compliance. We found that women attending programs targeting those at familial risk for breast cancer suffer from significant symptoms of general anxiety. General anxiety was found to be related to anxiety regarding specific screening practices but not to women's perceived vulnerability to cancer In general, neither general nor screening-specific anxiety were found to be related to patients 'compliance with screening practices; however, significant associations were found between patient's feelings of anxiety regarding BSEs and their actual performing them. BSE appears to be the only procedure for which compliance is negatively associated with procedure-specific anxiety. We offer possible explanations for this relation and discuss the possible psychological impact that recommendations regarding BSEs may have on highly anxious at-risk women.

  17. [A cross-sectional study of trait-anxiety in a group of 111 intellectually gifted children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénolé, F; Louis, J; Creveuil, C; Montlahuc, C; Baleyte, J-M; Fourneret, P; Revol, O

    2013-09-01

    Intellectually gifted children are often thought to display a high risk for psychopathology. However, this assertion has received only few direct arguments to date, and there is in fact a lack of knowledge on this subject. The aim of this study was to compare trait-anxiety - which is considered as a sensitive and early indicator of psychoaffective difficulties in children - in intellectually gifted children to the norm. One hundred and eleven children aged 8 to 12 and with an intellectual quotient (IQ) higher than 129 participated in the study. They were recruited in a hospital department of child and adolescent psychiatry and through psychologists' private practice, where they attended consultation because of academic underachievement and/or social maladjustment. All the children were examined by trained psychiatrists and psychologists: none had a present or past medical or psychiatric condition and, additionally, none had an elevated score on the French version of the Children's Depressive Rating Scale Revised (Moor & Mack, 1982). Parents filled in a questionnaire for the collection of socio-demographic data and children answered the French version of the Revised-Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (R-CMAS; Reynolds, 1999), a 37-items self-assessment of trait-anxiety, the psychometric properties of which have been validated in children with high IQ. Mean scores and subscores on the R-CMAS in the whole studied group and as a function of gender and age were compared to French normative data (Reynolds, 1999) by calculation of 95% confidence intervals; subgroups were compared using Student's t-tests. Proportions of children who's score and subscores exceeded anxiety cut-off norms were compared to normative data using chi-square tests. Statistical significance was considered at the Pgiftedness constitutes a risk factor for psychopathology. The studied group was a clinical one, which could limit the generalisation of the results. However, mental disorders were ruled out

  18. A Cost of Illness Study of Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders and Comorbid Anxiety Disorders as Compared to Clinically Anxious and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensel, Francisca J.; Dirksen, Carmen D.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The study's aim was to estimate the societal costs of children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid anxiety disorder(s) (ASD + AD-group; n = 73), and to compare these costs to children with anxiety disorders (AD-group; n = 34), and typically developing children (controls; n = 87). Mean total costs for the ASD + AD-group amounted €17,380 per…

  19. A Cost of Illness Study of Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders and Comorbid Anxiety Disorders as Compared to Clinically Anxious and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensel, Francisca J.; Dirksen, Carmen D.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The study's aim was to estimate the societal costs of children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid anxiety disorder(s) (ASD + AD-group; n = 73), and to compare these costs to children with anxiety disorders (AD-group; n = 34), and typically developing children (controls; n = 87). Mean total costs for the ASD + AD-group amounted €17,380 per…

  20. Parent and child perspectives on the nature of anxiety in children and young people with autism spectrum disorders: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsivadjian, Ann; Knott, Fiona; Magiati, Iliana

    2012-03-01

    Anxiety disorders are common among children and young people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Despite growing knowledge about the prevalence, phenomenology and treatment of anxiety disorders, relatively little is understood about the nature and impact of anxiety in this group and little is known about autism-specific factors that may have a role in the increased prevalence of anxiety disorders. In this exploratory study, we report on a series of five focus groups with 17 parents of children and adolescents with ASD and anxiety. Across groups, parents gave strikingly similar descriptions of the triggers and behavioural signs associated with anxiety. Another consistent finding was that many parents reported that their children had great difficulty expressing their worries verbally and most showed their anxiety through changes in their behaviour. The impact of anxiety was reported to often be more substantial than the impact of ASD itself. The implications of the focus group findings are discussed in relation to existing literature.

  1. High trait anxiety: a challenge for disrupting fear memory reconsolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Marieke Soeter; Merel Kindt

    2013-01-01

    Disrupting reconsolidation may be promising in the treatment of anxiety disorders but the fear-reducing effects are thus far solely demonstrated in the average organism. A relevant question is whether disrupting fear memory reconsolidation is less effective in individuals who are vulnerable to develop an anxiety disorder. By collapsing data from six previous human fear conditioning studies we tested whether trait anxiety was related to the fear-reducing effects of a pharmacological agent targ...

  2. Influence of age on reactivity to diverse emotional challenges in low- and high-anxiety rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana C; Gomes, Margareth Z; Brandão, Marcus L

    2011-02-01

    Studies have revealed that the extent of reactivity of high-anxiety rats to diverse challenges is different than low-anxiety rats and have provided important insights into the psychopathology of anxiety. Various factors intervene to allow defensive mechanisms to react to diverse threatening challenges, including ontogeny and the nature of the emotional challenge (e.g., conditioned vs. unconditioned). The present study investigated the extent to which a particular type of fear extrapolates to other emotional responses to diverse threatening challenges. Groups of 30- and 60-day-old rats were assigned to low freezing behavior (LFB) and high freezing behavior (HFB) groups using the contextual fear conditioning paradigm and subjected to either the fear-potentiated startle (FPS) test, novelty-induced ultrasound vocalizations (USVs) or elevated plus-maze (EPM) tests. At 30 days of age, HFB rats exhibited greater FPS than LFB rats. In contrast, prior selection of HFB and LFB did not affect the performance of 30-day-old animals in the EPM and novelty-induced USVs. Sixty-day-old animals exhibited a performance deficit in all three tests. These data suggest that the performance of young rats in animal models of anxiety parallels their selection as LFB and HFB in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm. However, the increased fear-like behavior exhibited by the 60-day-old HFB rats may elicit performance deficits in conditioned and unconditioned fear tests. These results suggest that the interaction between hyperanxiety and age may cause a performance deficit despite the animals' increased fear-like behavior when facing emotional challenges, thus resembling psychiatric patients in many respects. Copyright © 2010 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The course of the working alliance during virtual reality and exposure group therapy for social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Irene; Tully, Erin C; Anderson, Page L

    2015-03-01

    Psychoanalytic theory and some empirical research suggest the working alliance follows a "rupture and repair" pattern over the course of therapy, but given its emphasis on collaboration, cognitive behavioral therapy may yield a different trajectory. The current study compares the trajectory of the working alliance during two types of cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder - virtual reality exposure therapy (VRE) and exposure group therapy (EGT), one of which (VRE) has been proposed to show lower levels of working alliance due to the physical barriers posed by the technology (e.g. no eye contact with therapist during exposure). Following randomization, participants (N = 63) diagnosed with social anxiety disorder received eight sessions of manualized EGT or individual VRE and completed a standardized self-report measure of working alliance after each session. Hierarchical linear modeling showed overall high levels of working alliance that changed in rates of growth over time; that is, increases in working alliance scores were steeper at the beginning of therapy and slowed towards the end of therapy. There were no differences in working alliance between the two treatment groups. Results neither support a rupture/repair pattern nor the idea that the working alliance is lower for VRE participants. Findings are consistent with the idea that different therapeutic approaches may yield different working alliance trajectories.

  4. Group metacognitive therapy for repetitive negative thinking in primary and non-primary generalized anxiety disorder: an effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Peter M; Erceg-Hurn, David M; Anderson, Rebecca A; Campbell, Bruce N C; Swan, Amanda; Saulsman, Lisa M; Summers, Mark; Nathan, Paula R

    2015-04-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common and highly comorbid anxiety disorder characterized by repetitive negative thinking (RNT). Treatment trials tend to exclude individuals with non-primary GAD, despite this being a common presentation in real world clinics. RNT is also associated with multiple emotional disorders, suggesting that it should be targeted regardless of the primary disorder. This study evaluated the acceptability and effectiveness of brief group metacognitive therapy (MCT) for primary or non-primary GAD within a community clinic. Patients referred to a specialist community clinic attended six, two-hour weekly sessions plus a one-month follow-up (N=52). Measures of metacognitive beliefs, RNT, symptoms, positive and negative affect, and quality of life were completed at the first, last, and follow-up sessions. Attrition was low and large intent-to-treat effects were observed on most outcomes, particularly for negative metacognitive beliefs and RNT. Treatment gains increased further to follow-up. Benchmarking comparisons demonstrated that outcomes compared favorably to longer disorder-specific protocols for primary GAD. No control group or independent assessment of protocol adherence. Brief metacognitive therapy is an acceptable and powerful treatment for patients with primary or non-primary GAD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Group schema therapy versus group cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder with comorbid avoidant personality disorder: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljé, Astrid; Greeven, Anja; van Giezen, Anne; Korrelboom, Kees; Arntz, Arnoud; Spinhoven, Philip

    2016-10-08

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) with comorbid avoidant personality disorder (APD) has a high prevalence and is associated with serious psychosocial problems and high societal costs. When patients suffer from both SAD and APD, the Dutch multidisciplinary guidelines for personality disorders advise offering prolonged cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Recently there is increasing evidence for the effectiveness of schema therapy (ST) for personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder and cluster C personality disorders. Since ST addresses underlying personality characteristics and maladaptive coping strategies developed in childhood, this treatment might be particularly effective for patients with SAD and comorbid APD. To our knowledge, there are no studies comparing CBT with ST in this particular group of patients. This superiority trial aims at comparing the effectiveness of these treatments. As an additional goal, predictors and underlying mechanisms of change will be explored. The design of the study is a multicentre two-group randomized controlled trial (RCT) in which the treatment effect of group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) will be compared to that of group schema therapy (GST) in a semi-open group format. A total of 128 patients aged 18-65 years old will be enrolled. Patients will receive 30 sessions of GCBT or GST during a period of approximately 9 months. Primary outcome measures are the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Self-Report (LSAS-SR) for social anxiety disorder and the newly developed Avoidant Personality Disorder Severity Index (AVPDSI) for avoidant personality disorder. Secondary outcome measures are the MINI section SAD, the SCID-II section APD, the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI-2), the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (IDS-SR), the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and the Acceptance and Action

  6. Psychosocial stress but not exercise increases cortisol and reduces state anxiety levels in school classes - results from a stressor applicable in large group settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Müller-Alcazar, Anett; Jäger, Anika; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Both, psychosocial stress and exercise in the past have been used as stressors to elevate saliva cortisol and change state anxiety levels. In the present study, high-school students at the age of 14 were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: (1) an exercise group (n = 18), that was running 15 minutes at a medium intensity level of 65-75% HRmax, (2) a psychosocial stress group (n = 19), and (3) a control group (n = 18). The psychosocial stress was induced to the students by completing a standardized intelligence test under the assumption that their IQ scores would be made public in class. Results display that only psychosocial stress but not exercise was able to significantly increase cortisol levels but decreased cognitive state anxiety in adolescents. The psychosocial stress protocol applied here is proposed for use in future stress studies with children or adolescents in group settings, e.g., in school.

  7. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder in Children and Adolescent: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesibe Olgun Kaval

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to review the articles on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for the treatment of social anxiety disorder in children and adolescents. In this systematic review, articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (March have been searched in the national and international databases. 20 studies that were met the search criteria were examined in terms of research method, therapy characteristics and results. The findings of the articles revealed that cognitive behavioral group therapy is effective for symptoms of social anxiety and the problems that accompany social anxiety (depression, anxiety, etc. in children and adolescents. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 3-22

  8. The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Italian Adolescent Populations: Construct Validation and Group Discrimination in Community and Clinical Eating Disorders Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, M Assunta; Volpato, Chiara; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Cipresso, Pietro

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety in situations where one's overall appearance (including body shape) may be negatively evaluated is hypothesized to play a central role in Eating Disorders (EDs) and in their co-occurrence with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Three studies were conducted among community (N = 1995) and clinical (N = 703) ED samples of 11- to 18-year-old Italian girls and boys to (a) evaluate the psychometric qualities and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of the Social Appearance Anxiety (SAA) Scale (SAAS) and (b) determine to what extent SAA or other situational domains of social anxiety related to EDs distinguish adolescents with an ED only from those with SAD. Results upheld the one-factor structure and ME/I of the SAAS across samples, gender, age categories, and diagnostic status (i.e., ED participants with and without comorbid SAD). The SAAS demonstrated high internal consistency and 3-week test-retest reliability. The strength of the inter-relationships between SAAS and measures of body image, teasing about appearance, ED symptoms, depression, social anxiety, avoidance, and distress, as well as the ability of SAAS to discriminate community adolescents with high and low levels of ED symptoms and community participants from ED participants provided construct validity evidence. Only SAA strongly differentiated adolescents with any ED from those with comorbid SAD (23.2 %). Latent mean comparisons across all study groups were performed and discussed.

  9. The Prevention of Depression and Anxiety in a Sample of High-Risk Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Keith S.; Hopkins, Jamie Ahnberg; Fata, Ladan; Scherrer, Martin; Allan, Lauren C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) techniques in preventing depression and anxiety in a group of adolescent high school students with elevated risk for developing emotional disorders. Students were screened using a measure of depression severity and clinical interview. Following screening procedures,…

  10. Title: The Comparison of Anxiety Sensitivity and Happiness in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients with Normal Matched Group in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The purpose of this study was the comparison of anxiety sensitivity and happiness between patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS and normal matched group. Materials & Methods: The Subjects were 35 (21 females and 14 male IBS patients diagnosed by gastroenterologist and 35 (25 female and 10 males normal matched group all in 14– 63 old age. Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI-R, Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ, and a checklist applied as measures of anxiety sensitivity, happiness and demographic information. Results: Data analysis indicates that IBS patients significantly are higher than matched group in fear of publicly observable symptoms (P= 0.032, fear of cardiovascular symptoms (P= 0.01, fear of gastrointestinal symptoms (P= 0.001, fear of dissociative and neurological symptoms (P= 0.018, & general anxiety sensitivity (P= 0.003, and lower in joy (P= 0.005, control (P= 0.008, self- esteem (P= 0.001 calm (P= 0.006 and general happiness (P= 0.001. Although no significant differences were found in life satisfaction (P= 0.083 & efficacy (P= 0.09, fear of respiratory symptoms (P= 0.067, and fear of cognitive control deficiency (p= 0.097. Conclusion: As a psychological variable anxiety sensitivity can predict treatment seeking of IBS patient, and happiness negatively influenced by both anxiety sensitivity and IBS.

  11. The personality profile of police recruits who are high on anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgert van Jaarsveld

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of the study was to determine the personality profile of police recruits who are high on anxiety. A secondary objective was to determine whether there are gender and ethnic differences in the levels of anxiety of those police recruits. To investigate the stated objectives the NEO Personality Inventory, Locus of Control Inventory and the IPAT Anxiety Scale were applied to 487 police recruits. Complete records were obtained for 259 participants. In comparing the personality profiles of participants who are high on anxiety and those who are low, it turned out that the biggest differences were in respect of Neuroticism, External Locus of Control and Agreeableness.

  12. A HOLISTIC GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC INTERVENTION FOR THE TREATMENT OF IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME AND ITS COMORBID DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Stuart

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to ascertain the effects of a holistic short-term group intervention in the treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (/BS with comorbid depression and anxiety. The sample consisted of 24 South African women who had been diagnosed with severe IBS. Furthermore, each participant had to have associated moderate to severe depression and anxiety. The group design was a pre-test, post-test control group design where the experimental group (n = 12 received group intervention and the members of the control group (n = 12 received no intervention until after completion of the research. All the participants completed the Functional Bowel Disorder Severity Index and the Depression and Anxiety subscales of the Personality Assessment Inventory before commencement of group therapy for Group 1 and one month after completion of this intervention. The effect of the intervention was determined by utilising comparative statistics. The findings indicate that holistic short-term group therapy results in significant improvement in terms of depreSSion and anxiety scores, but that IBS symptom severity remains unchanged. It is recommended that further research be conducted to ascertain whether holistic group therapy of a longer duration has a greater impact on the IBS symptom severity.

  13. The effective comparison between emotion-focused cognitive behavioral group therapy and cognitive behavioral group therapy in children with separation anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Afrooz; Neshat-Doost, Hamid Taher; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Ahmady, Mozhgan Kar; Amiri, Shole

    2014-03-01

    Emotion-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (ECBT) is a new form of CBT with emotion regulation components. This form of treatment is suggested to be employed to improve dysregulation of anxiety and other kind of emotions in anxious children. This study observed and compared the effectiveness of CBT and ECBT on anxiety symptoms; sadness and anger management; and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD). This study is a randomized clinical trial. Subjects were 30 children from 9 to 13-years-old (15 girls and 15 boys) with diagnosis of SAD, being randomly assigned to CBT, ECBT, and control groups (five girls and five boys in each group). Subject children in CBT group participated in 10-h weekly sessions within Coping Cat manual; whereas, subject children in ECBT group contributed in 12-h weekly sessions within ECBT. The control group received no treatment. The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED; child and parent forms), Children's Emotion Management Scale (CEMS; anger and sadness forms), and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) tests administered to all subjects in pretest, posttest, and the follow-up measurement (3 months later). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) repeated measure and Kruskal-Wallis were applied to analyze data by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software package (v. 20). CBT and ECBT; demonstrated no significant difference in reducing separation anxiety and total anxiety symptoms from parent and children's reports. ECBT effectively increased anger coping and decreased negative cognitive strategies and dysregulation of anger in children, both in posttest and follow-up. Also, ECBT reduced sadness dysregulation and increased sadness coping, though these significant advantages were lost in 3 months later follow-up. CBT reduced negative cognitive strategies in follow-up and increased sadness coping in posttest. None of treatments affected on anger and

  14. Acceptance and commitment therapy for perinatal mood and anxiety disorders: development of an inpatient group intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacquisti, Alexa; Cohen, Matthew J; Schiller, Crystal Edler

    2017-06-10

    Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for childbearing women. Current treatments, such as cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy, have demonstrated modest success in addressing perinatal psychiatric symptoms; however, additional treatment options are needed to address the limitations of current approaches, particularly for women experiencing moderate to severe perinatal mental illness during pregnancy or postpartum. We discuss the use of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) as a promising treatment approach that may be uniquely suited for perinatal women due to its emphasis of values, mindfulness, and acceptance; these psychological constructs notably address the significant psychiatric and behavioral health condition comorbidity, somatic symptoms, and stigma associated with perinatal mood and anxiety disorders. In addition, we describe the development of a four-session ACT-based group intervention at the Perinatal Psychiatry Inpatient Unit at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Sessions focus on core ACT processes of acceptance, cognitive defusion, present-moment awareness, value identification, and goal setting, and we describe how each of these processes is relevant to the perinatal population. Implications for future clinical applications and research investigations are discussed.

  15. Associations between delayed completion of high school and educational attainment and symptom levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melkevik, Ole; Hauge, Lars Johan; Bendtsen, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression among adults with lower educational attainment. Delayed completion of high school (HS) is common and represents a potentially complicating factor in the relationship between educational attainment and anxiety and depression...... depression and anxiety and interacts with later educational attainment in predicting symptom levels of anxiety. Individuals with a combination of delayed HS completion and lower educational attainment had particularly high symptom levels of anxiety....

  16. Effectiveness of group training based on acceptance and commitment therapy on anxiety and depression of women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohabbat-Bahar, Sahar; Maleki-Rizi, Fatemeh; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women that as a sudden event has profound effects on all aspects of patients' lives. Psychosocial interventions may play important roles in reducing anxiety and depression among breast-cancer survivors. Therefore, group training based on acceptance and commitment therapy may help women to cope better with their condition, and decrease their anxiety and depression. In a quasi-experimental study, 30 patients with breast cancer were selected by convenience sampling method and randomly assigned to 2 experimental and control groups. The experimental group attended acceptance and commitment training classes for 8 weeks continuously (each class lasting 90 minutes). Participants in both the experimental and control groups completed Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BHI-II) as a pretest and posttest. Analysis of Covariance was used as the statistical method. In acceptance and commitment group training, anxiety and depression significantly decreased (pacceptance and commitment therapy is an effective method in reducing anxiety and depression. Hence psychological interventions can be used to reduce psychological difficulties of women with breast cancer.

  17. Rejected! Cognitions of rejection and intergroup anxiety as mediators of the impact of cross-group friendships on prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Fiona Kate; Louis, Winnifred R; Hewstone, Miles

    2009-09-01

    In a sample of White Australians (N=273), cross-group friendship with Aboriginal Australians was associated with reduced cognitions of rejection and intergroup anxiety, and these variables fully mediated the effect of cross-group friendship on conversational avoidance of sensitive intergroup topics, active avoidance of the outgroup, and old-fashioned prejudice. The novel mediator proposed here, cognitions of rejection, predicted intergroup anxiety, and also predicted the three outcome variables via intergroup anxiety. Over and above its indirect effects via anxiety, cognitions of rejection directly predicted both conversational and active avoidance, suggesting that whilst the cognitive and affective mediators are linked, they predict intergroup outcomes in different ways. The results demonstrate the beneficial impact of cross group friendship in reducing prejudice and avoidance by diminishing cognitions of rejection and intergroup anxiety. We also highlight that individuals without cross-group friends may perceive the outgroup as rejecting, feel anxious about cross-group interaction, and desire both conversational and physical avoidance of the outgroup.

  18. Parent and Child Perspectives on the Nature of Anxiety in Children and Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsivadjian, Ann; Knott, Fiona; Magiati, Iliana

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are common among children and young people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Despite growing knowledge about the prevalence, phenomenology and treatment of anxiety disorders, relatively little is understood about the nature and impact of anxiety in this group and little is known about autism-specific factors that may have a…

  19. The Influence of Personality and Chronotype on Distance Learning Willingness and Anxiety among Vocational High School Students in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Randler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies related to distance learning. Willingness and anxiety are important variables for distance learning. Recent research has shown that anxiety and willingness towards distance learning are moderated by personality. This study sought to investigate whether distance learning willingness and distance learning anxiety are associated with age, gender, occupation, chronotype and personality in a Turkish vocational high school students sample. Two measures of individual differences were implemented: chronotype (morningness/eveningness preference and BIG-5 dimensions (agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and openness. Seven hundred and sixty-nine vocational high school students from Turkey filled out a self-administered questionnaire. Evening types, older, and female students had higher distance learning willingness scores than morning types, younger, and male students. No significant difference was found between chronotype groups with respect to distance learning anxiety. Furthermore, extraverted students reported a lower distance learning anxiety. Openness to experience was associated with high distance learning willingness. We conclude that evening types may benefit from distance learning more than other types.

  20. Measurement equivalence of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS® Anxiety short forms in ethnically diverse groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A. Teresi

    2016-03-01

    methods: fearful, anxious, worried, hard to focus, uneasy and tense. However, the NCDIF was not above threshold and the impact of DIF on the scale was trivial. No items showed high magnitude DIF for gender. Two items showed slightly higher magnitude for age (although not above the cutoff: worried and fearful. The scale level impact was trivial. Only one item showed DIF with the Wald test after the Bonferroni correction for the language comparisons: “I felt fearful”. Two additional items were flagged in sensitivity analyses after Bonferroni correction, anxious and many situations made me worry. The latter item also showed DIF of higher magnitude, with an NCDIF value (0.144 above threshold. Individual impact was relatively small. Conclusions: Although many items from the PROMIS short form anxiety measures were flagged with DIF, item level magnitude was low and scale level DIF impact was minimal; however, three items: anxious, worried and many situations made me worry might be singled out for further study. It is concluded that the PROMIS Anxiety short form evidenced good psychometric properties, was relatively invariant across the groups studied, and performed well among ethnically diverse subgroups of Blacks, Hispanic, White non-Hispanic and Asians/Pacific Islanders. In general more research with the Asians/Pacific Islanders group is needed. Further study of subgroups within these broad categories is recommended.

  1. Effect of spiritual therapy on blood pressure, anxiety and quality of life in patients with high blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: High blood pressure is the most important risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of spiritual therapy on blood pressure, anxiety and quality of life in patients with high blood pressure. Method: This study was quasi-experimentalwith apretest-posttest and control group design. The sample consisted of 30 patients with high blood pressure refering to Kangavar Healthcare center that were selected through convenience sampling and...

  2. Group cognitive behavioral therapy targeting intolerance of uncertainty: a randomized trial for older Chinese adults with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chen; Zhihui, Yang

    2016-09-03

    China has entered the aging society, but the social support systems for the elderly are underdeveloped, which may make the elderly feel anxiety about their health and life quality. Given the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in the elderly, it is very important to pay more attention to the treatment for old adults. Although cognitive behavioral therapy targeting intolerance of uncertainty (CBT-IU) has been applied to different groups of patients with GAD, few studies have been performed to date. In addition, the effects of CBT-IU are not well understood, especially when applied to older adults with GAD. Sixty-three Chinese older adults with a principal diagnosis of GAD were enrolled. Of these, 32 were randomized to receive group CBT-IU (intervention group) and 31 were untreated (control group). GAD and related symptoms were assessed using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Chinese Version, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Why Worry-II scale, Cognitive Avoidance Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale across the intervention. The changes between pre and after the intervention were collected, as well as the six-month follow-up. F test and repeated-measures ANOVA were conducted to analyze the data. Compared to control group, the measures' scores of experimental group decreased significantly after the intervention and six-month follow-up. Besides the main effects for time and group were significant, the interaction effect for group × time was also significant. These results indicated the improvement of the CBT-IU group and the persistence of effect after six months. Group CBT-IU is effective in Chinese older adults with GAD. The effects of CBT-IU on GAD symptoms persist for at least six months after treatment.

  3. Reconsidering Co-Morbid Traits in Explanatory Models of High Dental Anxiety Using a Comparison of Psychiatric and Normal Patient Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod; Jensen, Christina Gundlev; Andersen, Line Bæk

    2016-01-01

    .) versus lower or no anxiety. Patients with psychiatric diagnoses were three times more likely to have high DA and nearly two times more likely to have avoided dental treatment >2 yr.; 25.9% reported extreme DA, compared to 9.3% of controls. Models of high general fear levels, predisposing anxiety......Explanatory models of co-morbid traits related to dental anxiety (DA) as described in the literature were tested and relative strengths analyzed in two groups of Danish adults, one with psychiatric diagnoses (n = 108) and the other healthy incoming patients at a large dental school teaching clinic...... (n = 151). Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and self-report measures representing three co-morbidity explanatory models, 1) presence of other fears; 2) anxiety sensitivity and 3) feelings of vulnerability specific to dental treatment, were collected in subscales of a 53-item questionnaire. Other items...

  4. High trait anxiety: a challenge for disrupting fear memory reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

    2013-01-01

    Disrupting reconsolidation may be promising in the treatment of anxiety disorders but the fear-reducing effects are thus far solely demonstrated in the average organism. A relevant question is whether disrupting fear memory reconsolidation is less effective in individuals who are vulnerable to develop an anxiety disorder. By collapsing data from six previous human fear conditioning studies we tested whether trait anxiety was related to the fear-reducing effects of a pharmacological agent targeting the process of memory reconsolidation--n = 107. Testing included different phases across three consecutive days each separated by 24 h. Fear responding was measured by the eye-blink startle reflex. Disrupting the process of fear memory reconsolidation was manipulated by administering the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol HCl either before or after memory retrieval. Trait anxiety uniquely predicted the fear-reducing effects of disrupting memory reconsolidation: the higher the trait anxiety, the less fear reduction. Vulnerable individuals with the propensity to develop anxiety disorders may need higher dosages of propranolol HCl or more retrieval trials for targeting and changing fear memory. Our finding clearly demonstrates that we cannot simply translate observations from fundamental research on fear reduction in the average organism to clinical practice.

  5. Randomized Trial of Group Music Therapy With Chinese Prisoners: Impact on Anxiety, Depression, and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi-Jing; Hannibal, Niels; Gold, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of group music therapy on improving anxiety, depression, and self-esteem in Chinese prisoners. Two-hundred male prisoners were randomly assigned to music therapy (n = 100) or standard care (n = 100). The music therapy had 20 sessions of group therapy compared with standard care. Anxiety (State and Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI]), depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]), and self-esteem (Texas Social Behavior Inventory [TSBI], Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory [RSI]) were measured by standardized scales at baseline, mid-program, and post-program. Data were analyzed based on the intention to treat principle. Compared with standard care, anxiety and depression in the music therapy condition decreased significantly at mid-test and post-test; self-esteem improved significantly at mid-test (TSBI) and at post-test (TSBI, RSI). Improvements were greater in younger participants (STAI-Trait, RSI) and/or in those with a lower level of education (STAI-State, STAI-Trait). Group music therapy seems to be effective in improving anxiety, depression, and self-esteem and was shown to be most beneficial for prisoners of younger age or with lower education level.

  6. Group acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for bipolar disorder and co-existing anxiety - an open pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankowski, Sara; Adler, Mats; Andersson, Gerhard; Lindefors, Nils; Svanborg, Cecilia

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have supported acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for reducing impairment related to various chronic conditions. ACT may possibly be beneficial for bipolar disorder (BD) with co-existing anxiety, which is associated with a poorer treatment outcome. Efforts are needed to identify suitable psychological interventions for BD and co-existing anxiety. In this open clinical trial, we included 26 patients with BD type 1 or 2 at an outpatient psychiatric unit specializing in affective disorders. The intervention consisted of a 12-session manualized group treatment that included psychoeducation, mindfulness, engaging in values-based behaviour, cognitive defusion, acceptance and relapse prevention modules. Participants completed four self-report questionnaires covering anxiety symptoms (Beck Anxiety Inventory - BAI), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory - BDI-II), quality of life (Quality of Life Inventory - QOLI) and psychological flexibility (Acceptance and Action Questionnaire - AAQ-2) before, during and after the treatment. At post-treatment, the participants reported significant improvements in all outcome measures, with large effects (Cohen's d between 0.73 and 1.98). The mean reduction in anxiety symptoms was 45%. At post-treatment, 96% of the patients were classified as responders on at least one of the outcome measures. A limitation is that the trial is uncontrolled. The results suggest that ACT has the potential to be an effective treatment for BD patients with co-existing anxiety. Further randomized studies are warranted.

  7. The crossroads of anxiety: distinct neurophysiological maps for different symptomatic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerez M

    2016-01-01

    sample size for statistical analysis.Results: The nonparametric analysis correctly classified 81% of the sample. Dysrhythmic patterns, decreased delta, and increased beta differentiated AD from controls. Shorter ERP latencies were found in several individual patients, mostly from the OCD group. Hyperactivities were found at the right frontorbital-striatal network in OCD and at the panic circuit in PD.Conclusions: Our findings support diffuse cortical instability in AD in general, with individual differences in information processing deficits and regional hyperactivities in OCD and PD. Study limitations and the rationale behind the variable selection and combination strategy will be discussed before addressing the therapeutic implications of our findings. Keywords: anxiety disorders, dysrhythmic, epileptiform, ERP, EEG, LORETA

  8. Evaluating High School Students' Anxiety and Self-Efficacy towards Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimen, Osman; Yilmaz, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety and self-efficacy are among the factors that impact students' performance in biology. The current study aims to investigate high school students' perception of biology anxiety and self-efficacy, in relation to gender, grade level, interest in biology, negative experience associated with biology classes, and teachers' approaches in the…

  9. Utilization of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) to Reduce Test Anxiety in High Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Marie Elaine

    2013-01-01

    There are many reasons a person may fail a high stakes test such as the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN®). Sleep deprivation, illness, life stressors, knowledge deficit, and test anxiety are some of the common explanations. A student with test anxiety may feel threatened by this evaluation process. This…

  10. Evaluating High School Students' Anxiety and Self-Efficacy towards Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimen, Osman; Yilmaz, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety and self-efficacy are among the factors that impact students' performance in biology. The current study aims to investigate high school students' perception of biology anxiety and self-efficacy, in relation to gender, grade level, interest in biology, negative experience associated with biology classes, and teachers' approaches in the…

  11. Heightened Test Anxiety among Young Children: Elementary School Students' Anxious Responses to High-Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segool, Natasha K.; Carlson, John S.; Goforth, Anisa N.; von der Embse, Nathan; Barterian, Justin A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored differences in test anxiety on high-stakes standardized achievement testing and low-stakes testing among elementary school children. This is the first study to directly examine differences in young students' reported test anxiety between No Child Left Behind (NCLB) achievement testing and classroom testing. Three hundred…

  12. Brief Report: The Assessment of Anxiety in High-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan W.; Schry, Amie R.; Maddox, Brenna B.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety may exacerbate interpersonal difficulties and contribute to secondary behavioral problems in adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD). This study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties and construct validity of measures of anxiety with a sample (n = 30) of adolescents with HFASD and comorbid anxiety…

  13. Response to induced relaxation during pregnancy: comparison of women with high versus low levels of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Judith; Urech, Corinne; Fink, Nadine; Bitzer, Johannes; Hoesli, Irene

    2011-03-01

    Relaxation exercises have become a standard intervention for individuals with anxiety disorders but little is known about their potential for anxiety relief during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine psychoendocrine (i) baseline differences and (ii) changes after a standardized relaxation period in pregnant women with high versus low levels of anxiety. Thirty-nine third-trimester high and low anxious pregnant women performed active or passive relaxation while levels of anxiety, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) system activity were assessed before and after the relaxation period. In women with high levels of trait anxiety, state anxiety (F(1,36) = 8.3, p = .007) and negative affect (F(1,36) = 7.99, p = .008) as well as ACTH (F(1,35) = 9.24, p = .002) remained elevated over the entire course of the experimental procedure, the last indicating increased HPA axis activity. In addition, norepinephrine showed a constricted decrease of relaxation reflecting lower response of the SAM-system (F(1,37) = 4.41, p = .043). Although relaxation exercises have become a standard intervention for individuals with anxiety, pregnant women with high levels of trait anxiety benefited less than women with low levels from a single standardized relaxation period.

  14. High Magnitude of Social Anxiety Disorder in School Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindie Mekuria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Social phobia is the most prevalent and chronic type of anxiety disorder worldwide and it affects occupational, educational, and social affairs of the individual. Social phobia is also known for its association with depression and substance use disorder. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of social phobia among high school students in Ethiopia. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted among 386 randomly selected students. Data were collected using pretested and self-administered questionnaire. Social phobia was assessed by using Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data with 95% confidence interval and variables with p value less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results. From 386 study participants, 106 (27.5% of them were positive for social phobia. Being female (AOR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.82–5.27, current alcohol drinking (AOR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.03–2.98, poor social support (AOR = 2.40; 95% CI: 1.17–4.92, and living with single parent (AOR = 5.72; 95% CI: 2.98–10.99 were significantly associated with social phobia. Conclusion. The proportion of social phobia was higher compared to previous evidences. School-based youth-friendly mental health services might be helpful to tackle this problem.

  15. Transdiagnostic group behavioral activation and exposure therapy for youth anxiety and depression: Initial randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Brian C; Crocco, Sofia T; Esseling, Petra; Areizaga, Margaret J; Lindner, Alison M; Skriner, Laura C

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are debilitating and commonly co-occurring in young adolescents, yet few interventions are designed to treat both disorder classes together. Initial efficacy is presented of a school-based transdiagnostic group behavioral activation therapy (GBAT) that emphasizes anti-avoidance in vivo exposure. Youth (N = 35; ages 12-14; 50.9% male) were randomly assigned to either GBAT (n = 21) or WL (n = 14) after completing a double-gated screening process. Multi-reporter, multi-domain outcomes were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and four-month follow-up (FU). GBAT was associated with greater posttreatment remission rates than WL in principal diagnosis (57.1% vs. 28.6%; X1(2) = 2.76, p = .09) and secondary diagnosis (70.6% vs. 10%; X1(2) = 9.26, p = .003), and greater improvement in Clinical Global Impairment - Severity ratings, B = -1.10 (0.42), p = .01. Symptom outcomes were not significantly different at posttreatment. GBAT produced greater posttreatment behavioral activation (large effect size) and fewer negative thoughts (medium effect), two transdiagnostic processes, both at the trend level. Most outcomes showed linear improvement from pretreatment to FU that did not differ depending on initial condition assignment. Sample size was small, but GBAT is a promising transdiagnostic intervention for youth anxiety and unipolar mood disorders that can feasibly and acceptably be applied in school settings.

  16. EFL Speaking Anxiety among Senior High School Students and Policy Recommendations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amirul Mukminin; Masbirorotni Masbirorotni; Noprival Noprival; Sutarno Sutarno; Nelly Arif; Maimunah Maimunah

    2015-01-01

    ...’ English language speaking anxiety at senior high schools in Jambi, Indonesia. The purpose of this paper was to report some of findings from the qualitative interview data on the sources of senior high school students...

  17. Gender Differences and Foreign Language Reading Anxiety of High School Learners in an Iraqi EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulateef Sabti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades Investigation of foreign language anxiety generally has progressively caught the attention of numerous investigators in the area of foreign language. Yet, anxiety variable that affects the students’ acquisition of particular language skills for instance, reading specifically have actually seldom been investigated in the context of EFL Arab learners in particular with Iraqi students. So, the study aimed to investigate the influence of anxiety variable towards reading comprehension of Iraqi high school learners. This study also sought to examine the gender differences towards reading language anxiety. Quantitative approach was applied in this research, which involved 20 Iraqi students of a high school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The respondents comprised 10 males and 10 females with ages between 16 years and 18 years. This study made use of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS. The results of the study showed that both male and female participants had a high level of anxiety towards the reading comprehension. Furthermore, the analysis revealed that gender played a slight role in the results of the study. Female students showed a slightly higher level of anxiety towards the reading comprehension than their male counterparts. Iraqi learners need to be exposed to the four skills of English language generally and the reading skill in particular. This exposure makes the learners aware of the four skills (Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking that need to be acquired and also to decrease the rate of anxiety variable in addition to its influence on their performance.

  18. EFL Speaking Anxiety among Senior High School Students and Policy Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Amirul Mukminin; Masbirorotni Masbirorotni; Noprival Noprival; Sutarno Sutarno; Nelly Arif; Maimunah Maimunah

    2015-01-01

    This report drew on a larger study which was to describe and understand the sources of senior high school students’ English language speaking anxiety at senior high schools in Jambi, Indonesia. The purpose of this paper was to report some of findings from the qualitative interview data on the sources of senior high school students’ English language speaking anxiety at one senior high school in Jambi, Indonesia. Data were collected through demographic profiles and semi-structured interview wit...

  19. Effectiveness of Compassionate Mind Training on Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Criticism in a Group of Iranian Depressed Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Noorbala

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of compassionate mind training (CMT on symptoms of depression and anxiety in Iranian depressed sufferers .Method:Nineteen depressed patients aged 20 to 40 (Beck Depression Inventory value≥20 were randomly assigned into two groups. The experimental group participated in 12 sessions of group therapy based on Paul Gilbert’s manual of CMT. The control group was given no intervention. The participants were assessed by Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, Anxiety Scale (AS, and Levels of Self-Criticism (LSCS questionnaires at the beginning and immediately after the intervention. To follow-up the therapeutic effect of CMT, the three questionnaires were answered again by participants two months after the end of the intervention. Data were analyzed by independent samples ttest. Results:The results revealed that CMT significantly decreases depression (P<0.05 and anxiety score (P<0.05 in the follow-up study, but not immediately after the intervention. Although CMT decreased selfcriticism, this effect was marginally insignificant.Conclusion:The findings indicated that CMT could alleviatedepression and anxiety in a group of Iranian depressed patients.

  20. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy for youths with anxiety disorders in the community: effectiveness in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Maria Augusta Mansur; Salum, Giovanni A; Jarros, Rafaela Behs; Isolan, Luciano; Davis, Roberta; Knijnik, Daniela; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Heldt, Elizeth

    2013-05-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is established as a first line treatment for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, there is little evidence about the effectiveness of CBT protocols in cases identified in the community in low and middle income countries (LaMICs). To evaluate the effectiveness of group CBT protocol for youths with anxiety disorders identified in a community sample in LaMICs. A total of 14 sessions of group CBT for youths and 2 concurrent sessions for parents based on Kendall's Coping Cat program were offered. Participants were selected from a cross-sectional community study; 45 subjects fulfilled inclusion criteria and 28 agreed to participate in the open clinical trial. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated with standard clinical, self- and parent-rated measures of anxiety, depression, externalizing symptoms and quality of life (QoL). Twenty youths completed the protocol. All scales showed an improvement of anxiety and reduction in externalizing symptoms over time, with a moderate to large effect size (d = 0.59 to 2.06; p effective in treating anxiety disorders in youths. Results encourage further randomized clinical trials using CBT protocols adapted and developed to be used in LaMICs.

  1. Social Anxiety and Alcohol Use across the University Years: Adaptive and Maladaptive Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Christina A.; Willoughby, Teena

    2016-01-01

    University/college can be a challenging time as students face developmental tasks such as building new social networks and achieving academically. Social anxiety may be disadvantageous in this setting given that social situations often include drinking and individuals with social anxiety tend to self-medicate through alcohol use. However, findings…

  2. Social Anxiety and Alcohol Use across the University Years: Adaptive and Maladaptive Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Christina A.; Willoughby, Teena

    2016-01-01

    University/college can be a challenging time as students face developmental tasks such as building new social networks and achieving academically. Social anxiety may be disadvantageous in this setting given that social situations often include drinking and individuals with social anxiety tend to self-medicate through alcohol use. However, findings…

  3. Do mothers with high sodium levels in their breast milk have high depression and anxiety scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serim Demirgoren, Burcu; Ozbek, Aylin; Ormen, Murat; Kavurma, Canem; Ozer, Esra; Aydın, Adem

    2017-04-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the possible association of high breast milk sodium levels with postpartum depression and anxiety. Methods A total of 150 mothers and their healthy, exclusively breastfed newborns aged 8 to 15 days were recruited. Mothers were asked to complete scales for evaluation of postnatal depression and anxiety following an interview for consent and sociodemographic data collection. Breast milk samples were obtained to measure sodium and potassium (K) levels. Results Forty-nine mothers had higher than expected breast milk Na concentrations and a high Na/K ratio. These mothers scored significantly higher on the scales of postnatal depression and state anxiety ( P = 0.018 and P = 0.048, respectively). Conclusions This study shows that compared to normal breast milk Na levels and Na/K ratio, high breast milk Na and high Na/K ratio, with possible serious consequences in infants, are associated with maternal depressive and anxious symptoms in the postpartum period.

  4. Manipulating Attention to Nonemotional Distractors Influences State Anxiety: A Proof-of-Concept Study in Low- and High-Anxious College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Jason S; Moran, Tim P; Leber, Andrew B

    2015-11-01

    Anxious individuals have difficulty inhibiting attention to salient, but nonemotional, distracting stimuli. The exact nature of this relationship remains unclear, however. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that increasing attention to salient, but nonemotional, distracting stimuli would lead to increases in state anxiety by manipulating attentional strategies during a visual search task. We randomly assigned students low and high in trait anxiety to either a 1-session singleton detection training group or a feature search group. Singleton detection training increases distraction by salient, nonemotional stimuli whereas feature search training protects attention against distracting stimuli. Findings revealed that singleton detection training not only increased distraction by salient, nonemotional stimuli but also increased state anxiety. Moreover, this increase in state anxiety was most pronounced among high trait-anxious individuals. In contrast, feature search training protected attention against distracting stimuli and against increases in state anxiety, particularly in the high trait-anxious individuals. Together, the current findings provide initial support for the notion that distraction by salient, nonemotional stimuli can increase state anxiety levels. Furthermore, these results suggest that individuals already vulnerable to experience anxiety are most likely to be affected by distraction by salient, nonemotional stimuli, and that training anxious individuals to focus on specific shape features may be a viable attention modification intervention.

  5. Comparing the Math Anxiety of Secondary School Female Students in Groups (Science and Mathematical Physics) Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Khatoon; Pourrazavy, Zinat alsadat

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is comparing math anxiety of secondary school female students in groups (Science and Mathematical Physics) Public Schools, district 2, city of Sari. The purpose of the research is applied research, it is a development branch, and in terms of the nature and method, it is a causal-comparative research. The statistical…

  6. A validation study of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in different groups of Dutch subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, P; Ormel, J; Sloekers, PPA; Kempen, GIJM; Speckens, AEM; VanHemert, AM; van Hemert, A.M.

    Background. Research on the dimensional structure and reliability of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and its relationship with age is scarce. Moreover, its efficacy in determining the presence of depression in different patient groups has been questioned. Methods. Psychometric

  7. Group schema therapy versus group cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder with comorbid avoidant personality disorder : Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baljé, A.; Greeven, A.; van Giezen, A.; Korrelboom, K.; Arntz, A.; Spinhoven, P.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) with comorbid avoidant personality disorder (APD) has a high prevalence and is associated with serious psychosocial problems and high societal costs. When patients suffer from both SAD and APD, the Dutch multidisciplinary guidelines for personality disorders

  8. Group schema therapy versus group cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder with comorbid avoidant personality disorder : Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baljé, A.; Greeven, A.; van Giezen, A.; Korrelboom, C.W.; Arntz, A.; Spinhoven, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Social anxiety disorder (SAD) with comorbid avoidant personality disorder (APD) has a high prevalence and is associated with serious psychosocial problems and high societal costs. When patients suffer from both SAD and APD, the Dutch multidisciplinary guidelines for personality disorders

  9. Group Delay of High Q Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahramzy, Pevand; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2013-01-01

    become an issue, when working with high Q antennas, because of the steep phase shift over the frequency. In this paper, it is measured how large group delay variations can become, when going from a low Q antenna to a high Q antenna. The group delay of a low Q antenna is shown to be around 1.3 ns, whereas...... a high Q antenna has group delay of around 22 ns. It is due to this huge group delay variation characteristics of high Q antennas, that signal distortion might occur in the radio system with high Q antennas....

  10. Individual differences at high perceptual load: the relation between trait anxiety and selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Naomi; Bredemeier, Keith

    2011-06-01

    Attentional control theory (Eysenck et al., 2007) posits that taxing attentional resources impairs performance efficiency in anxious individuals. This theory, however, does not explicitly address if or how the relation between anxiety and attentional control depends upon the perceptual demands of the task at hand. Consequently, the present study examined the relation between trait anxiety and task performance using a perceptual load task (Maylor & Lavie, 1998). Sixty-eight male college students completed a visual search task that indexed processing of irrelevant distractors systematically across four levels of perceptual load. Results indicated that anxiety was related to difficulty suppressing the behavioural effects of irrelevant distractors (i.e., decreased reaction time efficiency) under high, but not low, perceptual loads. In contrast, anxiety was not associated with error rates on the task. These findings are consistent with the prediction that anxiety is associated with impairments in performance efficiency under conditions that tax attentional resources.

  11. Integrating Research, Theory-Building, Training, and Practice in CBT Group Therapy for Children and Adolescents with anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thastum, Mikael

    This presentation will describe how the model developed in Esben Hougaard's Adult CBT Therapy Program at Aarhus University - which integrates research, theory-building, training, and practice - has beenadapted to work with children and adolescents with anxiety disorders and their parents. The res......This presentation will describe how the model developed in Esben Hougaard's Adult CBT Therapy Program at Aarhus University - which integrates research, theory-building, training, and practice - has beenadapted to work with children and adolescents with anxiety disorders and their parents...... centers (n=40); (c) an open study with both group-based and case-based analyses of case-formulation-focused CBT for non-responding clients and their families (n = 20); (d) an explorative study of the treatment program for children with ADHD and comorbid anxiety disorder (n = 12); and (e) etiological...

  12. Social Anxiety and Mental Health Service Use Among Asian American High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Chad; Masia Warner, Carrie; Okazaki, Sumie; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Sanchez, Amanda; Esseling, Petra; Lynch, Chelsea

    2015-10-01

    Asian American adults endorse more symptoms of social anxiety (SA) on self-report measures than European Americans, but demonstrate lower prevalence rates of SA disorder in epidemiological studies. These divergent results create ambiguity concerning the mental health needs of Asian Americans. The present study is the first to investigate this issue in adolescents through assessment of self-reported SA in Asian American high school students. Parent and self-ratings of impairment related to SA and self-reported mental health service use for SA were also measured. Asian American students endorsed a greater number of SA symptoms and scored in the clinical range more frequently than other ethnic groups. Also, Asian American and Latino students endorsed more school impairment related to SA than other ethnic groups. No differences in parent-reported impairment or service utilization were identified. Implications for future research and treatment for SA among Asian American adolescents are discussed.

  13. High trait anxiety: a challenge for disrupting fear memory reconsolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeter, M.; Kindt, M.

    2013-01-01

    Disrupting reconsolidation may be promising in the treatment of anxiety disorders but the fear-reducing effects are thus far solely demonstrated in the average organism. A relevant question is whether disrupting fear memory reconsolidation is less effective in individuals who are vulnerable to

  14. The Relative Efficacy of Negative Practice and Anxiety Management Training in the Treatment of Mathematics Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streim, Leonard; O'Brien, Richard M.

    Mathematics anxiety involves feelings of tension and stress that interfere with the solving of mathematical problems in academic and daily life situations. To investigate the relative effectiveness of group negative practice and group anxiety management training in reducing mathematics anxiety, 72 math-anxious high school students were divided…

  15. A randomized, controlled trial of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and sertraline versus a waitlist control group for anxiety disorders in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurmans, Josien; Comijs, Hannie; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Gundy, Chad M M; Weijnen, Ingrid; van den Hout, Marcel; van Dyck, Richard

    2006-03-01

    This study is the first to investigate the relative effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) compared with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI; sertraline) in a randomized, controlled trial on the treatment of anxiety disorders in older adults. Eighty-four patients 60 years of age and over with a principal diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, or social phobia were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 15 sessions of CBT, pharmacologic treatment with an SSRI (sertraline; maximum dosage 150 mg), or a waitlist control group. Participants completed measures of primary outcome (anxiety) and coexistent worry and depressive symptoms at baseline, posttreatment, and at three-month follow up. Attrition rates were high in both treatment groups. Consequently, findings are based on a relatively small sample of completers (N = 52). Although both CBT and sertraline led to significant improvement in anxiety, worry, and depressive symptoms both at posttreatment and at three-month follow up, sertraline showed superior results on worry symptoms. Effect size estimates for CBT were in the small to medium range both at posttreatment (mean d = 0.42) and at three-month follow up (mean d = 0.35), whereas effect sizes for sertraline fell into the large range (posttreatment mean d = 0.94 and three-month follow up mean d = 1.02). The waitlist condition showed virtually no effects (posttreatment mean d = .03). Our findings strongly suggest that the pharmacologic treatment of late-life anxiety with SSRIs has not been given the proper attention in research to date.

  16. The effective comparison between emotion-focused cognitive behavioral group therapy and cognitive behavioral group therapy in children with separation anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Afshari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (ECBT is a new form of CBT with emotion regulation components. This form of treatment is suggested to be employed to improve dysregulation of anxiety and other kind of emotions in anxious children. This study observed and compared the effectiveness of CBT and ECBT on anxiety symptoms; sadness and anger management; and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial. Subjects were 30 children from 9 to 13-years-old (15 girls and 15 boys with diagnosis of SAD, being randomly assigned to CBT, ECBT, and control groups (five girls and five boys in each group. Subject children in CBT group participated in 10-h weekly sessions within Coping Cat manual; whereas, subject children in ECBT group contributed in 12-h weekly sessions within ECBT. The control group received no treatment. The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED; child and parent forms, Children′s Emotion Management Scale (CEMS; anger and sadness forms, and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ tests administered to all subjects in pretest, posttest, and the follow-up measurement (3 months later. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA repeated measure and Kruskal-Wallis were applied to analyze data by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software package (v. 20. Results: CBT and ECBT; demonstrated no significant difference in reducing separation anxiety and total anxiety symptoms from parent and children′s reports. ECBT effectively increased anger coping and decreased negative cognitive strategies and dysregulation of anger in children, both in posttest and follow-up. Also, ECBT reduced sadness dysregulation and increased sadness coping, though these significant advantages were lost in 3 months later follow-up. CBT reduced negative cognitive strategies in follow-up and increased sadness coping

  17. Intervening variables in group-based acceptance & commitment therapy for severe health anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilenberg, Trine; Hoffmann, Ditte; Jensen, Jens S; Frostholm, Lisbeth

    2017-05-01

    The present study is based on a previously reported successful randomized controlled trial (RCT) on Acceptance and Commitment Group therapy (ACT-G) for severe health anxiety (HA) and investigates intervening variables of ACT for HA. The process primarily targeted by ACT is psychological flexibility (PF). No randomized study has yet examined the possible intervening variables of ACT for HA. 126 patients diagnosed with severe HA were enrolled in the RCT of which 107 were included in the analyses. The outcome measure was illness worry (Whiteley Index) and included process variables were PF and facets of mindfulness. Statistically significant indirect effects (IE) of ACT-G on the outcome of illness worry 6 months after treatment were found for PF (IE = -5.5, BCa 99% CI -12.3;-1.2) and one mindfulness subscale, namely 'non-react' (IE = -6.5 BCa 99% CI -15.3: 1.0). In line with the ACT model of change, PF may have a small to moderate IE on decrease in illness worry. Of the mindfulness scales, only 'non-react' showed a significant IE. Although tentative, due to no active comparison control condition, these results support that PF is a intervening variable in ACT treatment aimed at reducing illness worry in patients with severe HA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in quality of life following group CBT for anxiety and depression in a psychiatric outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Tian Po; McAlinden, Niamh May

    2014-12-30

    The present study examined the relationship between quality of life and symptom change following group CBT treatment for anxiety or depression in a psychiatric hospital outpatient setting. One hundred seventy seven outpatients undergoing eight sessions of group CBT for anxiety (n=124) or mood disorders (n=53) participated. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (Zung-SRDS), Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) were administered at baseline and post-treatment. Additionally, the QOLI and SWLS scores of those who achieved reliable improvement or clinically significant symptom change were compared to those who experienced no reliable symptom improvement. There were significant changes across the QOLI, SWLS, BAI and Zung-SRDS outcome measures between baseline and post-treatment, with moderate to very large effect sizes observed. Patients with reliable or clinically significant change in their symptoms experienced significant increases in QOLI and SWLS scores when compared to those whose symptoms did not change reliably. Overall, in a psychiatric hospital outpatient setting, group CBT appeared to be successful in increasing quality of life and satisfaction with life in addition to reducing anxiety and depression symptoms.

  19. Sexual satisfaction, anxiety, depression and quality of life among Turkish colorectal cancer patients [Izmir Oncology Group (IZOG) study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Murat; Ulger, Eda; Alacacioglu, Ahmet; Kucukzeybek, Yuksel; Yildiz, Yasar; Bayoglu, Vedat; Gumus, Zehra; Yildiz, Ibrahim; Salman, Tarık; Varol, Umut; Ayakdas, Semra; Tarhan, Mustafa Oktay

    2015-07-01

    Determination of psychological problems will shed light on the terms of solution and provide support to patients about these problems will ensure the patients' coherence to the treatment and will enhance the benefits they receive from treatment. In this study, we aimed to determine these psychosocial problems and the interactions with each other in colon cancer patients. In this study, 105 patients with colorectal cancer were included. The forms consist of sociodemographic features, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer Questionnaires Quality of Life-C30 and Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction questionnaires. Male patients had significantly higher European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer Questionnaires Quality of Life-C30 function scales and global quality-of-life scores than female patients. Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction scores of female patients were significantly higher than that of male patients. European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer Questionnaires Quality of Life-C30 function scales and global quality-of-life scores of the patients with high depression scores were significantly lower, conversely symptom scale scores of the patients with high depression scores were significantly higher than that of the patients with low depression scores. Patients with low anxiety scores had significantly higher European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer Questionnaires Quality of Life-C30 function scales and global quality-of-life scores than the patients with high anxiety scores. Symptom scale scores of the patients with high anxiety scores were significantly higher than that of the patients with low anxiety scores. The scores of Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction except premature ejaculation and vaginismus were significantly higher in patients with high anxiety scores and a significant difference was determined in touch

  20. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  1. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  2. Behavioral Indexes of Test Anxiety in Mathematics among Senior High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL MACÍAS-MARTÍNEZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of Mathematics has been and is still a source of frustration and anxiety for a large number of students. The purpose of this study was to inquire systematically upon levels of test anxiety through behavioral and physiological procedures before and after a Math test, in 205 senior high school students. Academic worries were assessed by means of a computerized task based on the emotional version of the Stroop paradigm designed ex profeso to measure school anxiety (Hernández-Pozo, Macías & Torres, 2004. The Stroop task was administered, along with recordings of blood pressure and pulse, before and after the first Math test of the course. Academic general scores were inverse to the behavioral anxiety level, however the best Math scores were associated to middle levels of behavioral anxiety. Contradictory findings between academic performance in Math and global score, and the apparent lack of gender difference in anxiety measured through behavioral procedures suggests the need to review the generality of previous assertions relating academic performance inversely with levels of anxiety of high school students.

  3. Mindfulness, anxiety, and high-stakes mathematics performance in the laboratory and classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, David B; DeCaro, Marci S; Ralston, Patricia A S

    2015-12-01

    Mindfulness enhances emotion regulation and cognitive performance. A mindful approach may be especially beneficial in high-stakes academic testing environments, in which anxious thoughts disrupt cognitive control. The current studies examined whether mindfulness improves the emotional response to anxiety-producing testing situations, freeing working memory resources, and improving performance. In Study 1, we examined performance in a high-pressure laboratory setting. Mindfulness indirectly benefited math performance by reducing the experience of state anxiety. This benefit occurred selectively for problems that required greater working memory resources. Study 2 extended these findings to a calculus course taken by undergraduate engineering majors. Mindfulness indirectly benefited students' performance on high-stakes quizzes and exams by reducing their cognitive test anxiety. Mindfulness did not impact performance on lower-stakes homework assignments. These findings reveal an important mechanism by which mindfulness benefits academic performance, and suggest that mindfulness may help attenuate the negative effects of test anxiety.

  4. Anxiety Levels in Adolescents Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.; Maloney, Kristy; Meyer, Crystal; Qualls, Constance Dean

    2007-01-01

    High levels of anxiety can negatively affect the lives of children and adolescents. Thirty-six adolescents who stutter and 36 adolescents who do not stutter were administered standardized scales for anxiety and self-esteem. Significant differences were found for the total T-scores for "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale" for the two groups,…

  5. Behavioral Indexes of Test Anxiety in Mathematics among Senior High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    DANIEL MACÍAS-MARTÍNEZ; MARÍA DEL ROCÍO HERNÁNDEZ-POZO

    2008-01-01

    The study of Mathematics has been and is still a source of frustration and anxiety for a large number of students. The purpose of this study was to inquire systematically upon levels of test anxiety through behavioral and physiological procedures before and after a Math test, in 205 senior high school students. Academic worries were assessed by means of a computerized task based on the emotional version of the Stroop paradigm designed ex profeso to measure school anxiety (Hernández-Pozo, Mací...

  6. An evaluation of the effects of diagnostic composition on individual treatment outcome within transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral group therapy for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Lance D; Norton, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Recently, studies have supported the efficacy of treating anxiety disorders utilizing a transdiagnostic, or non-diagnosis-specific, framework (Erickson, D. H. (2003). Group cognitive behavioural therapy for heterogeneous anxiety disorders. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 32, 179-186; Garcia, M. S. (2004). Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural group therapy in patients with anxiety disorders. Psychology in Spain, 8, 89-97; Norton, P. J., & Hope, D. A. (2005). Preliminary evaluation of a broad-spectrum cognitive-behavioral group therapy for anxiety. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 36, 79-97). Transdiagnostic group treatment packages focus on the common aspects inherent across the anxiety disorders such as behavioral and cognitive avoidance, and faulty cognitive appraisals of threat potential or meaning (Barlow, D. H., Allen, L. B., & Choate, M. L. (2004). Toward a unified treatment for emotional disorders. Behavior Therapy, 35, 205-230). Although research supports the overall efficacy of transdiagnostic cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders (Norton, P. J., & Philipp, L. M. (2008). Transdiagnostic approaches to the treatment of anxiety disorders: A quantitative review. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice and Training, 45, 214-226), the effect of diagnostically mixed group composition on individual outcomes is less clear. This study investigated the relationship between group composition and treatment outcome within diagnostically heterogeneous groups with the purpose of determining if diagnostic heterogeneity differentially impacted treatment outcome for 84 individuals during a 12-week transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral group anxiety treatment program (Norton, P. J. (2012a). Group cognitive-behavioral therapy of anxiety: A transdiagnostic treatment manual. New York: Guilford). The diagnostic makeup of the treatment group was examined at the beginning of treatment and at the end of treatment, and the results indicated

  7. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement.

  8. Anxiety and stress among anaesthesiology and critical care residents during high-fidelity simulation sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Christian; Rimmelé, Thomas; Duclos, Antoine; Prieto, Nathalie; Cejka, Jean-Christophe; Carry, Pierre-Yves; Grousson, Sébastien; Friggeri, Arnaud; Secco, Julien; Bui-Xuan, Bernard; Lilot, Marc; Lehot, Jean-Jacques

    2016-12-01

    High-fidelity simulation (HFS) calls heavily upon cognitive capacities and generates stress and anxiety. The objectives of this prospective, observational study were to assess trait anxiety and fear of negative evaluation (FNE) in anaesthesiology and critical care residents and appraise their state anxiety levels and cardiovascular responses during HFS training sessions. First-year anaesthesiology and critical care residents completed the French-Canadian adaptation of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (IASTA Y-1: state anxiety, IASTA Y-2: trait anxiety) and the French adaptation of the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE). Their heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were assessed before and after the training session. Twenty-three residents (8 women, 15 men) were included in the study. IASTA Y-1 and Y-2 scores were low (respectively 40.2±9.9 and 39.7±8) and FNE scores were moderate (16.7±5.5). HR measurements before and after the training sessions were significantly higher than at rest (respectively 78±19, 80±17 and 63±9b/min; Panxiety and FNE. HFS training increased their HR but not their BP. Their state anxiety also remained low. Several differences between individuals were noted, particularly between men and women. Copyright © 2016 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. High Current Anxiety Symptoms, But Not a Past Anxiety Disorder Diagnosis, are Associated with Impaired Fear Extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duits, P.; Cath, D.C.; Heitland, I.; Baas, J.M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Although impaired fear extinction has repeatedly been demonstrated in patients with anxiety disorders, little is known about whether these impairments persist after treatment. The current comparative exploratory study investigated fear extinction in 26 patients treated for their anxiety disorder in

  10. Relationships between depression, anxiety, and pain in a group of university music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wristen, Brenda W; Fountain, Sarah E

    2013-09-01

    There is emerging interest in studying the incidence of music-related injuries and problems among students. The current study drew on a data set collected from 287 music majors and minors at a large US midwestern university school of music in order to determine if correlations existed between anxiety and/or depression and the reported presence of physical pain, and to understand the nature of any such relationships. Physical pain symptoms were scored on a scale of 0 (none) to 10 (excruciating) and summed across 21 body regions. Depression and anxiety symptoms were scored as none (0), mild (1), moderate (2), or severe (3), and each summed across either 13 symptoms for depression or 8 symptoms for anxiety. The potential linear relationship among these variables was evaluated using F-tests (as part of ANOVAs) and linear regression parameter estimation techniques. The explanatory value of these relationships was evaluated using R² values. Results indicate a clear positive linear relationship between both depression and pain, and anxiety and pain. However, the presence of depression and/or anxiety symptoms was insufficient to explain variability in pain scores of these participants.

  11. [Study of influential factors about trait coping style and the correlation between it and anxiety and depression in different student groups in Bengbu district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ying; Tao, Fangbiao; Yao, Rongying; Zhang, Qin; Fu, Lianguo; Han, Hui

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the coping style and their influential factors in different student groups. Use stratified and random cluster sampling to collect 7315 students in seven high school and mid-schools in Bengbu district. The valid questionnaires were 7104. In these students, there were 1919 junior schools students, 1865 high school students, and boys were 3533, girls were 3571. Age from 12 to 22. The questionnaires which contained demographic characteristics, family factors and multidimensional sub-health questionnaire of adolescents (MSQA) were used to test these students. The single factor analysis and Regression analysis were analyzed by SPSS (statistical package for social science) 13.0. There were significance difference between positive coping style, negative coping style and fathers' and mothers' education (P parents' expectations (P < 0.01). The patients' education, friends, characters and coping style were positively correlated (P < 0.01). There were correlation between coping styles and anxiety and depression (P < 0.01). There were positive correlation between passive coping style and anxiety and depression (P < 0.01), and there were negative correlation between active coping style (P < 0.01). There was relationship between patients' education, friends, characters and adolescents' coping style, and there were high correlation between coping style and anxiety and depression. Enhance capacity to respond actively and cultivate optimistic attitude of learning were help to maintain and improve their positive coping style.

  12. Piloting a Coping Skills Group Intervention to Reduce Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Patients Awaiting Kidney or Liver Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Julie Anne; Miner, Dee; Remtulla, Tasneem; Miller, Janet; Zanussi, Lauren W

    2017-02-01

    The authors evaluated the use of a coping skills group (CSG) therapy intervention to decrease depression and anxiety and increase healthy coping skills in a population of kidney and liver transplant candidates. The study, using a pre-posttest design, piloted a CSG with a convenience sample of 41 consenting participants on a waiting list or in workup for kidney or liver transplant. Two transplant social workers led five eight-week closed psychoeducational groups. Coping skills, depression symptoms, and anxiety symptoms were assessed preintervention, postintervention, and at follow-up one month later. Results suggest that the CSG group created significant changes in some coping areas, such as decreasing the use of denial and self-blame and increasing the use of acceptance, religion, and instrumental supports. In this study, instrumental supports are strategies such as seeking assistance, finding information, or asking for advice about what to do. The effects on instrumental supports did not sustain at the one-month follow-up. Anxiety and depression scores were significantly reduced, and these changes were sustained at one-month follow-up. This study supports the use of a group-based psychosocial intervention for the pretransplant population and will be most relevant to social workers practicing in the transplant field. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  13. The prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a group of 1,940 Serbian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simić-Vukomanović, Ivana; Mihajlović, Goran; Kocić, Sanja; Djonović, Nela; Banković, Dragić; Vukomanović, Vladimir; Djukić-Dejanović, Slavica

    2016-02-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM. Mental health of university students is under increasing concern worldwide, because they face challenges which predisposes them to depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to identify demographic and socioeconomic variables associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms among university students. This cross-sectional study on 1,940 university students was performed using a questionnaire including demographic and socioeconomic variables, Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in students was 23.6%, while the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 33.5%. The depressive symptoms were significantly related to the study year (p = 0.002), type of faculty (p = 0.014), satisfaction with college major choice (p students (odds ratio--OR = 1.791, 95% confidence interval--CI = 1.351-2.374), older students (OR = 1.110, 95% CI = 1.051-1.172), students who reported low family economic situation (OR = 2.091, 95% CI = 1.383-3.162), not owning the room (OR = 1.512, 95%CI = 1.103-2.074), dissatisfaction with graduate education (OR = 1.537, 95% CI = 1.165-2.027) were more likely toshow depressive symptoms. The anxiety symptoms were significantly related to study year (p = 0.034), type of faculty(p students (OR = 1.901, 95% CI =1.490-2.425), and students who reported parents high expectations of academic success (OR = 1.290, 95% CI =1.022-1.630) were more likely to show anxiety symptoms. This is one of the largest study examining mental disorders in a sample of university students in Serbia. These findings underscore the importance of early detections of mental problems and prevention interventions in university students.

  14. The Effectiveness of Cognitive- behavioral Techniques Training on Procrastination, Stress, Anxiety and Depression of High School Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sA hasar

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: training of cognitive-behavioral techniques reduced procrastination, anxiety and stress in experimental group in comparison with control group but it did not have meaningful effect on control group depression

  15. Group Differences in Test-Taking Behaviour: An Example from a High-Stakes Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Eklöf, Hanna; Lyrén, Per-Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether different groups of test-takers vary in their reported test-taking behaviour in a high-stakes test situation. A between-group design (N = 1129) was used to examine whether high and low achievers, as well as females and males, differ in their use of test-taking strategies, and in level of reported test anxiety and…

  16. Group Differences in Test-Taking Behaviour: An Example from a High-Stakes Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Eklöf, Hanna; Lyrén, Per-Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether different groups of test-takers vary in their reported test-taking behaviour in a high-stakes test situation. A between-group design (N = 1129) was used to examine whether high and low achievers, as well as females and males, differ in their use of test-taking strategies, and in level of reported test anxiety and…

  17. The Attentional Blink Paradigm in Individuals with High and Low Levels of Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Kathleen Skinner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The attentional biases of individuals with high and low levels of depression and anxiety were tested using the Attentional Blink paradigm. A rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task was used to detect biases in identification of emotionally valenced target images. The independent variables were depression, anxiety, lag of target stimulus, and emotional valence of target images. The dependent variables were accuracy, reaction times, and pupil dilation. As predicted, attentional biases were found for symptoms of both depression and anxiety, independently and co-morbidly, for dependent variables. The data suggest that there are both differences and similarities in the effects of symptoms of anxiety and depression on attentional biases around emotional stimuli.

  18. Different patterns of respiration in rat lines selectively bred for high or low anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Carnevali

    Full Text Available In humans, there is unequivocal evidence of an association between anxiety states and altered respiratory function. Despite this, the link between anxiety and respiration has been poorly evaluated in experimental animals. The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that genetic lines of rats that differ largely in their anxiety level would display matching alterations in respiration. To reach this goal, respiration was recorded in high-anxiety behavior (HAB, n = 10 and low-anxiety behavior (LAB, n = 10 male rats using whole-body plethysmography. In resting state, respiratory rate was higher in HABs (85 ± 2 cycles per minute, cpm than LABs (67 ± 2 cpm, p<0.05. During initial testing into the plethysmograph and during a restraint test, HAB rats spent less time at high-frequency sniffing compared to LAB rats. In addition, HAB rats did not habituate in terms of respiratory response to repetitive acoustic stressful stimuli. Finally, HAB rats exhibited a larger incidence of sighs during free exploration of the plethysmograph and under stress conditions. We conclude that: i HAB rats showed respiratory changes (elevated resting respiratory rate, reduced sniffing in novel environment, increased incidence of sighs, and no habituation of the respiratory response to repetitive stimuli that resemble those observed in anxious and panic patients, and ii respiratory patterns may represent a promising way for assessing anxiety states in preclinical studies.

  19. A pilot study of clonazepam versus psychodynamic group therapy plus clonazepam in the treatment of generalized social anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knijnik, Daniela Z.; Blanco, Carlos; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Moraes, Carolina U.; Mombach, Clarissa; Almeida, Ellen; Pereira, Marília; Strapasson, Atahualpa; Manfro, Gisele G.; Eizirik, Cláudio L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Both Psychodynamic Group Therapy (PGT) and clonazepam are used as treatment strategies in reducing symptoms of generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD). However, many individuals remain symptomatic after treatment with PGT or clonazepam. Method Fifty-eight adult outpatients with a diagnosis of GSAD according to DSM-IV were randomized to 12 weeks PGT plus clonazepam or clonazepam. The Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) Scale was the primary efficacy measure. Secondary efficacy measures included the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) total score, the World Health Organization Instrument to Assess Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL-Bref) Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results CGI-I data from 57 patients (intent-to-treat population) showed that patients who received PGT plus clonazepam presented significantly greater improvement than those who received clonazepam (p=0.033). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the secondary efficacy measures. Conclusion/Discussion Our study suggests that the combination of PGT with clonazepam may be a promising strategy for the treatment of GSAD, regarding gains in the global functioning. However the present study failed to detect more specific changes in social anxiety symptomatology between the two groups. PMID:18774274

  20. Changes in threat-related cognitions and experiential avoidance in group-based transdiagnostic CBT for anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Emmanuel P; Gorlick, Amanda; Castriotta, Natalie

    2017-03-01

    Group-based Transdiagnostic Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TCBT) for anxiety disorders aims to target common factors to produce beneficial effects on multiple anxiety disorders at once. While there is growing evidence that various anxiety disorders can be effectively treated by this approach, the common factors contributing to these treatment effects are not well delineated. In a sample of 48 Veterans who completed Group-based TCBT, the current study examined change in threat perception and change in experiential avoidance pre to post-treatment and as potential mediators of changes in negative affect and personalized fear ratings. Results indicated that both threat perception and experiential avoidance were significantly reduced during treatment. Additionally, reductions in both threat perception and experiential avoidance significantly predicted reductions in negative affect and fear ratings. When change in threat perception and change in experiential avoidance were examined simultaneously, both remained significant predictors of changes in negative affect though only experiential avoidance predicted changes in fear ratings. Thus, both reductions in threat perception and experiential avoidance may mediate the broad treatment effects observed in group-based TCBT. Directions for future research are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. High frequency group pulse electrochemical machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gaoyang; ZHANG Zhijing; ZHANG Weimin; TANG Xinglun

    2007-01-01

    In the process of machining ultrathin metal structure parts,the signal composition of high frequency group pulse,the influence of frequency to reverse current,and the design of the cathode in high frequency group pulse electrochemical machining (HGPECM) are discussed.The experiments on process were carried out.Results indicate that HGPECM can greatly improve the characteristics of the inter-electrode gap flow field,reduce electrode passivation,and obtain high machining quality.The machining quality is obviously improved by increasing the main pulse frequency.The dimensional accuracy reaches 30-40 pro and the roughness attained is at 0.30-0.35 μm.High frequency group pulse electrochemical machining can be successfully used in machining micro-parts.

  2. Stress, anxiety, depression and migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacogne, C; Lacoste, J P; Guillibert, E; Hugues, F C; Le Jeunne, C

    2003-07-01

    This study investigated the intensity of stress, anxiety and depression in a sample of 141 migraineurs compared with a control group of 109 non-migraine workers matched for age and sex. Stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results indicated that stress and anxiety were higher in the migraine group than in the control group and above the clinical level. Depression scores remained low in both groups, under clinical relevance. Stress is a primordial factor in the triggering and perpetuation of migraine attacks. The high score of the items 'morning fatigue', 'intrusive thoughts about work', 'feeling under pressure', 'impatience', and 'irritability' of the stress questionnaire in the migraineurs is particularly significant in the intensive stress response. It seems necessary to manage stress to improve the daily life of migraineurs and to study the link between stress, anxiety and migraine.

  3. Race and Ethnic Group Differences in Comorbid Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Chronic Medical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Daphne C; Assari, Shervin; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2015-09-01

    This study tested whether race and ethnic group differences exist for lifetime major depressive disorder and/or general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions. Data from the National Survey of American Life, which included 3570 African American, 1438 Caribbean Black, and 891 non-Hispanic White adults were analyzed. Outcomes included at least one and multiple chronic medical conditions, from a list of 14 medical conditions (e.g., arthritis, cancer, diabetes, kidney disease, stroke, heart disease, etc.). Logistic regressions were fitted to data to determine how the association between major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, and one or more chronic medical conditions vary across race and ethnicity. Lifetime major depressive disorder (but not lifetime general anxiety disorder) was associated with at least one chronic medical condition among African Americans and Caribbean Blacks, but not non-Hispanic Whites. Lifetime major depressive disorder was similarly associated with multiple chronic medical conditions among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites. For Caribbean Blacks, stronger associations were found between major depressive disorder and general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions compared to African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Findings suggest that race and ethnicity may shape the links between comorbid psychiatric disorders and chronic medical conditions. Mental health screening of individuals with chronic medical conditions in primary health-care settings may benefit from tailoring based on race and ethnicity. More research is needed to understand why associations between physical and mental health vary among race and ethnic groups.

  4. The lived experience of anxiety among late adolescents during high school: an interpretive phenomenological inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Diana R; Ray, Susan L; Evans, Marilyn

    2013-09-01

    To gain an understanding of everyday anxiety among late adolescents during high school. An interpretive phenomenological approach was utilized. A purposive sample of eight males and females in late adolescence with everyday anxiety were interviewed. Individual interviews were conducted. Data analysis was undertaken throughout the research study by utilizing a thematic analysis of text in which themes emerged to understand the lived experience of everyday anxiety among late adolescents during high school. The study revealed themes reflective of the lived body in time and space and in relation with others. The three themes were (a) the embodied experience of anxiety with the subtheme of the body and mind responds; (b) feeling uncomfortable in the lived space of school with the subthemes of the lived relations of bullying, the internal/external space of isolation, and the constant pressure to perform well; and (c) life at home with the subthemes of the lived space of home, the lived relations of pressure from parents, and life will get better. Nurses need to provide holistic care for late adolescents experiencing everyday anxiety by focusing on healing the whole person through the unity of body, mind, emotion, spirit, and environment.

  5. Anxiety, Motivation and Autonomy in Iranian High School Students: A Quantitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sanadgol

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Research in the series of second language learning certify that both cognitive and affective factors within a language learner affect the level of success that will be achieved in learning a second language. This study was an attempt to investigate the relationship among three factors of anxiety, motivation, and autonomy. To this purpose, 207 students were invited from Golestan high school in Ramian, in the north of Iran. Their age ranged from 18 to 22 years. In one session they filled out the anxiety questionnaire, in the next session they completed the motivation questionnaire, and in the third session they answered the items in the autonomy questionnaire. At the end of the term their final scores were recorded.  Analysis of the results showed that there was a meaningful relationship between anxiety and motivation, but there was no relationship between anxiety and autonomy, and no relationship autonomy and motivation. Both high-stakeholders and low-stakeholder may benefit from the findings of this study. Keywords: motivation; anxiety; autonomy; EFL learners

  6. A Survey of the Correlation between Language Anxiety and Senior High School Student’s Oral English Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴安; 甘田

    2014-01-01

    Language anxiety is a kind of apprehension occurs when student need to perform oral English.Many researchers agree that language anxiety is an important factor in English learning.This thesis is going to test 80 students from Bordertown high school,Hunan Province,to uncover the English learning situation of senior high school students,to survey the correlation between language anxiety and oral English performance,and to give inspiration for senior middle school English teaching.

  7. A comparative study of obsessive beliefs in obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorder patients and a normal group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Shams

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD posit that specific kinds of dysfunctional beliefs underlie the development of this disorder. The aim of present study was to determine whether these beliefs are endorsed more strongly by OCD patients than by those with other anxiety disorders and by community samples. A battery of questionnaires, including the OBQ-44, MOCI, BDI-II, BAI, STAI, used to assess obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression and anxiety in 39 OCD patients (OC, 46 anxious patients (AC and 41 community controls (CC. Compared to CCs and ACs, OC patients more strongly endorsed beliefs related to importance and control of thoughts. Both OC and AC patients scored higher than CC participants did on belief domains about responsibility/threat estimation and perfectionism/certainty. Therefore, the domain that seems to be specific to OCD is a set of beliefs that revolves around the contention that it is possible and necessary to control one's thoughts. Results regarding group differences on particular items of the OBQ-44 indicated that 21 items discriminated between the OC and CC groups and 7 items discriminated between the OC and AC groups, suggesting that these items are more specific to the OC group. Additional research warranted because it is plausible that these cognitive factors relate differently to OCD phenomena across different cultures.

  8. The Effectiveness of Assertiveness Training on the Levels of Stress, Anxiety, and Depression of High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Rabiei, Leili; Afzali, Seyed Mohammad; Hamidizadeh, Saeed; Masoudi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a transition period from childhood to early adulthood. Because of the immense pressure imposed on adolescents due to the complications and ambiguities of this transition, their level of excitement increases and sometimes it appears in the form of sensitivity and intense excitement. This study aimed at determining the effectiveness of assertiveness training on the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression of high school students. This quasi-experimental study was conducted on high school students of Isfahan in academic year 2012 - 13. A total of 126 second grade high school students were collected according to simple random sampling method and divided into two groups: experimental with 63 participants and control with the same number. Data gathering instruments included a demographic questionnaire, Gambill-Richey assertiveness scale, and depression anxiety stress scales (DASS-21). Assertiveness training was carried out on the experimental group in 8 sessions; after 8 weeks, posttest was carried out on both groups. Statistical tests such as independent t test, repeated measures ANOVA, Chi-square test, and the Mann-Whitney test were used to interpret and analyze the data. The Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests did not show significant statistical differences between the two groups in terms of demographic variables (P ≥ 0.05). Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant difference between the mean scores for assertiveness before (100.23 ± 7.37), immediately after (101.57 ± 16.06), and 2 months after (100.77 ± 12.50) the intervention in the control group. However, the same test found a significant difference between the mean score for assertiveness in the experimental group before (101.6 ± 9.1), immediately after (96.47 ± 10.84), and 2 months after (95.41 ± 8.37) implementing the training program (P = 0.002). The independent t test showed no significant difference in the mean score for anxiety and stress between two groups before the

  9. The prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a group of 1,940 Serbian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić-Vukomanović Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Mental health of university students is under increasing concern worldwide, because they face challenges which predisposes them to depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to identify demographic and socioeconomic variables associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms among university students. Methods. This cross-sectional study on 1,940 university students was performed using a questionnaire including demographic and socioeconomic variables, Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Results. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in students was 23.6%, while the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 33.5%. The depressive symptoms were significantly related to the study year (p = 0.002, type of faculty (p = 0.014, satisfaction with college major choice (p < 0.001, satisfaction with grade point average (p < 0.001. Female students (odds ratio - OR = 1.791, 95% confidence interval - CI = 1.351-2.374, older students (OR = 1.110, 95% CI = 1.051-1.172, students who reported low family economic situation (OR = 2.091, 95% CI = 1.383-3.162, not owning the room (OR = 1.512, 95% CI = 1.103-2.074, dissatisfaction with graduate education (OR = 1.537, 95% CI = 1.165-2.027 were more likely to show depressive symptoms. The anxiety symptoms were significantly related to study year (p = 0.034, type of faculty (p < 0.001, family economic situation (p = 0.011, college residence (p = 0.001 satisfaction with the college major choice (p = 0.001, and satisfaction with graduate education (p < 0.001. Female students (OR = 1.901, 95% CI = 1.490-2.425, and students who reported parents high expectations of academic success (OR = 1.290, 95% CI = 1.022-1.630 were more likely to show anxiety symptoms. Conclusion. This is one of the largest study examining mental disorders in a sample of university students in Serbia. These findings underscore the importance of early detections of mental problems and prevention interventions in university

  10. Music Performance Anxiety Scale for High School Students: Validity and Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Palancı

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a Music Performance Anxiety Scale (MPAS for high school students, and to conduct a validity and reliability study. In this respect, a scale will be developed to be used for high school students (adolescents, and differences between the genders will be examined. The study was conducted on 546 high school students. Of these students, 185 (33.9% were male, 361 (66.1% were female, and the average age was 16.81 with the ages ranging from 15 to 20. Correlational values of the scale items among themselves and with item totals were examined as a preliminary analysis. As a result of the EFA’s principal components technique, promax rotation technique and the analyses, a construct with three factors explaining a total of 42.74% of the total variance was attained. The structure attained was validated by CFA, and fit indices were found to be within the acceptance interval. In the reliability study, Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency coefficient was calculated as .86 for the entire scale, 27% for the lower-upper group comparison and test-retest analyses were conducted. The t-test was performed to attain the difference between genders. As a result of the study, a valid and reliable scale was seen to have been developed and a difference between the genders was apparent.

  11. Internet based self-help therapy versus waitlist control group for persons with anxiety disorders: A randomised feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Morten Munthe; Lindschou, Jane; Gluud, Christian

    ) FearFighter or B) waitlist control group. Participants are persons with a diagnosis of social phobia, agora phobia, phobia or panic disorder. The intervention with FearFighter is a nine step cognitive behavioural self-help therapy program delivered over the internet over nine weeks. Participants...... mental disorders, national authorities call for more evidence based on randomised clinical trials. Objective: To investigate if persons with an anxiety disorder treated in the IBT program FearFighter will improve and recover. Method: A randomised feasibility study with 64 participants allocated to A...

  12. Reanalysis of SCOR and anxiety measures in the Israeli High-Risk Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelmass, S; Faber, N; Ingraham, L J; Frenkel, E; Nathan, M; Mirsky, A F; Ben Shakhar, G

    1995-01-01

    In an earlier study, skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) and anxiety measures obtained when the subjects of the Israeli High-Risk Study were 11 years old were analyzed, using adult diagnostic information, when the subjects were 26 years old. The present study considers similar data obtained from most of this sample when the subjects were 16 years old. As in the earlier analysis, those subjects who would receive a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis at 26 had higher anxiety ratings at age 16. Nondiagnosed index subjects also had significantly higher anxiety ratings than the nondiagnosed controls. The subjects who would receive affective spectrum diagnoses at age 26 had the most hyporesponsive SCORs, as predicted, while the subjects who would later be diagnosed in the schizophrenia spectrum had an unexpected hyperresponsive SCOR to the dishabituation tone in a habituation series. Further consideration of the long-term stability of SCORs seems necessary; they may be related to the developing psychopathological processes.

  13. Job Satisfaction, Anxiety Level and Associated Factors in a Group of Residents in a University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Yaşan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In present study, we aimed to research the job satisfaction among the residents at Dicle University Medical Faculty Hospital, some factors affecting this and some psychological effects of not being pleased with their jobs. With respect to this aim, socio demographic data form, Minnesota Job Satisfaction, Beck Anxiety Inventory, State Trait Anger Scale were given to 140 residents at University who accepted to join this study and were collected the following day. In study, 35 percent of the participants having joined the study weren’t pleased with their works. The number of satisfied residents was higher among the willingly choice making residents in favour of their Works(34.8% than the participants who were unwilling to choice the department (65.2% they are working now (x2:11.046, p<0.01. Beck anxiety results were found to be much higher in the residents who were not pleased with their workers than the workers pleased with their works. Finally, there are some factors determining the job satisfaction. There is relationship between job satisfaction and mental health. Because this can give rise to negative effects on the performance of the work, it is required that some solution ways be found in order to increase the work contention.

  14. The Effect of Participation in Support Groups on Depression, Anxiety and Stress in Family Caregivers of People with Alzheimers: Randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Taati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine the effect of participation in support groups on the depression, anxiety and stress level of caregivers of patients with Alzheimer. This study was a single blind randomized clinical controlled trial (RCT with 80 family caregivers of people with Alzheimer’s (per group=40. The intervention group participated in eight sessions 1.5- 2 hours in support groups. The tool used in this study was the DASS-21 questionnaire for measuring depression, anxiety and stress level of the caregivers, analysis of parametric data, using SPSS version 21. Findings showed, participation in support groups showed no significant difference on depression, anxiety and stress in family caregivers of Alzheimer patients in the control group and the intervention group. Given that caring for these patients by their family members are very sensitive and costly issues for policy makers and health service providers, community and families of these patients.

  15. Effects of Group Drumming Interventions on Anxiety, Depression, Social Resilience and Inflammatory Immune Response among Mental Health Service Users.

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    Daisy Fancourt

    Full Text Available Growing numbers of mental health organizations are developing community music-making interventions for service users; however, to date there has been little research into their efficacy or mechanisms of effect. This study was an exploratory examination of whether 10 weeks of group drumming could improve depression, anxiety and social resilience among service users compared with a non-music control group (with participants allocated to group by geographical location. Significant improvements were found in the drumming group but not the control group: by week 6 there were decreases in depression (-2.14 SE 0.50 CI -3.16 to -1.11 and increases in social resilience (7.69 SE 2.00 CI 3.60 to 11.78, and by week 10 these had further improved (depression: -3.41 SE 0.62 CI -4.68 to -2.15; social resilience: 10.59 SE 1.78 CI 6.94 to 14.24 alongside significant improvements in anxiety (-2.21 SE 0.50 CI -3.24 to -1.19 and mental wellbeing (6.14 SE 0.92 CI 4.25 to 8.04. All significant changes were maintained at 3 months follow-up. Furthermore, it is now recognised that many mental health conditions are characterised by underlying inflammatory immune responses. Consequently, participants in the drumming group also provided saliva samples to test for cortisol and the cytokines interleukin (IL 4, IL6, IL17, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP 1. Across the 10 weeks there was a shift away from a pro-inflammatory towards an anti-inflammatory immune profile. Consequently, this study demonstrates the psychological benefits of group drumming and also suggests underlying biological effects, supporting its therapeutic potential for mental health.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01906892.

  16. Meaningful Hope for Teachers in Times of High Anxiety and Low Morale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Carrie; Stitzlein, Sarah Marie

    2011-01-01

    Many teachers struggle to maintain or build hope among themselves and their students in today's climate of high anxiety and low morale. This article describes and responds to those challenging conditions. It offers teachers and scholars of education a philosophically sophisticated and feasible understanding of hope. This notion of hope is grounded…

  17. Unforgiving Confucian Culture: A Breeding Ground for High Academic Achievement, Test Anxiety and Self-Doubt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Lazar

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews findings from several studies that contribute to our understanding of cross-cultural differences in academic achievement, anxiety and self-doubt. The focus is on comparisons between Confucian Asian and European regions. Recent studies indicate that high academic achievement of students from Confucian Asian countries is…

  18. Anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craske, Michelle G; Stein, Murray B; Eley, Thalia C; Milad, Mohammed R; Holmes, Andrew; Rapee, Ronald M; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-05-04

    Anxiety disorders constitute the largest group of mental disorders in most western societies and are a leading cause of disability. The essential features of anxiety disorders are excessive and enduring fear, anxiety or avoidance of perceived threats, and can also include panic attacks. Although the neurobiology of individual anxiety disorders is largely unknown, some generalizations have been identified for most disorders, such as alterations in the limbic system, dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and genetic factors. In addition, general risk factors for anxiety disorders include female sex and a family history of anxiety, although disorder-specific risk factors have also been identified. The diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders varies for the individual disorders, but are generally similar across the two most common classification systems: the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition (ICD-10). Despite their public health significance, the vast majority of anxiety disorders remain undetected and untreated by health care systems, even in economically advanced countries. If untreated, these disorders are usually chronic with waxing and waning symptoms. Impairments associated with anxiety disorders range from limitations in role functioning to severe disabilities, such as the patient being unable to leave their home.

  19. High phobic anxiety is related to lower leukocyte telomere length in women.

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    Olivia I Okereke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic psychological distress has been linked to shorter telomeres, an indication of accelerated aging. Yet, little is known about relations of anxiety to telomeres. We examined whether a typically chronic form of anxiety--phobic anxiety--is related to telomere length. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Relative telomere lengths (RTLs in peripheral blood leukocytes were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction among 5,243 women (aged 42-69 years who: were participants in the Nurses' Health Study; were controls in prior case-control studies of telomeres and disease, or randomly selected healthy participants in a cognitive function sub-study; had completed the Crown-Crisp phobic index proximal to blood collection. Adjusted least-squares mean RTLs (z-scores were calculated across phobic categories. Higher phobic anxiety was generally associated with lower RTLs (age-adjusted p-trend = 0.09; this association was similar after adjustment for confounders--paternal age-at-birth, smoking, body mass index (BMI and physical activity (p-trend = 0.15. Notably, a threshold was identified. Among women with Crown-Crisp<6 points, the multivariable-adjusted least-squares mean RTL z-score = 0.02 standard units; however, among the most phobic women (Crown-Crisp ≥ 6, the multivariable-adjusted least-squares mean RTL z-score = -0.09 standard units (mean difference = -0.10 standard units; p = 0.02. The magnitude of this difference was comparable to that for women 6 years apart in age. Finally, effect modification by BMI, smoking and paternal age was observed: associations were stronger among highly phobic women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2, without smoking history, or born to fathers aged ≥ 40 years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this large, cross-sectional study high phobic anxiety was associated with shorter telomeres. These results point toward prospective investigations relating anxiety to telomere length change.

  20. High anxiety is a predisposing endophenotype for loss of control over cocaine, but not heroin, self-administration in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilleen, Ruth; Pelloux, Yann; Mar, Adam C

    2012-01-01

    RATIONALE: Although high anxiety is commonly associated with drug addiction, its causal role in this disorder is unclear. OBJECTIVES: In light of strong evidence for dissociable neural mechanisms underlying heroin and cocaine addiction, the present study investigated whether high anxiety predicts...

  1. Comorbid ADHD and anxiety affect social skills group intervention treatment efficacy in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M; Polacek, Carol; McMahon, Michele; Dygert, Karen; Spenceley, Laura; Dygert, Lindsay; Miller, Laura; Faisal, Fatima

    2011-01-01

    To assess the influence of psychiatric comorbidity on social skill treatment outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A community sample of 83 children (74 males, 9 females) with an ASD (mean age = 9.5 yr; SD = 1.2) and common comorbid disorders participated in 10-week social skills training groups. The first 5 weeks of the group focused on conversation skills and the second 5 weeks focused on social problem solving skills. A concurrent parent group was also included in the treatment. Social skills were assessed using the Social Skills Rating System. Ratings were completed by parents at pre- and posttreatment time periods. Children with ASD and children with an ASD and comorbid anxiety disorder improved in their parent reported social skills. Children with ASD and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder failed to improve. Psychiatric comorbidity affects social skill treatment gains in the ASD population.

  2. The Intervening Role of Alexithymia in the Relationship between Attachment Styles and Test Anxiety among Gifted High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Sepahvand, Esfandiar; Zakiei, Ali; Rafieian, Keivan; Roumani, Saeid; Komasi, Saeid; Reshadat, Soheyla

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the importance of test anxiety among gifted students, the present study was conducted to assess the intervening role of alexithymia in the relationship between test anxiety and attachment styles. Methods By means of simple random sampling, 300 participants were selected out of all the students at two high schools in Khorramabad, which are affiliated with the Iranian National Organization for Development of Exceptional Talents (SAMPAD). Test anxiety, alexithymia, and attachmen...

  3. The role of trait anxiety in induction of state anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovilović Snežana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The reported study had the following goals: to determine psychometric characteristics of a new instrument purpoting to measure trait anxiety - AT29, to explore the effectiveness of a mood induction procedure in eliciting state anxiety, and to determine the role of trait anxiety, as measured by AT29, in responding to mood induction. AT29 was administered as a part of a larger test battery to 232 psychology students during a mass testing session. After three weeks, 90 students were randomly selected to participate in the second, experimental phase of the study. These selected participants were randomly assigned to two groups: experimental (mood-induction group in which participants watched a video clip with a fear-inducing content and control group in which participants watched a neutral video clip of the same duration as the fear-inducing clip. State anxiety was measured in both groups using the STAI-S questionnaire right before and after mood induction. It was demonstrated that there is a significant association between trait anxiety as measured by AT29 and state anxiety obtained at both measurement occasionsbefore and after mood induction. Following fear induction, the experimental group demonstrated higher state anxiety scores. However, the interaction between group membership and trait anxiety was not significant. Potential explanations regarding the lack of effect of trait anxiety on state anxiety in this mood induction experiment were discussed as well as some recommendations for future research. Additionally, the results suggested that AT29 has very good psychometric characteristics: high internal consistency and test-retest reliability (.96 and .86 respectively, as well as good divergent and convergent validity.

  4. Integrating Research, Theory-Building, Training, and Practice in CBT Group Therapy for Children and Adolescents with anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thastum, Mikael

    This presentation will describe how the model developed in Esben Hougaard's Adult CBT Therapy Program at Aarhus University - which integrates research, theory-building, training, and practice - has beenadapted to work with children and adolescents with anxiety disorders and their parents. The res......This presentation will describe how the model developed in Esben Hougaard's Adult CBT Therapy Program at Aarhus University - which integrates research, theory-building, training, and practice - has beenadapted to work with children and adolescents with anxiety disorders and their parents....... The resulting Youth CBT Therapy Program at Aarhus is organized around a short-term, 10-session, evidence-based, manualized, family-based, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group program, called "Cool Kids" for children and "Chilled Adolescents" for adolescents, and derived from Ronald Rapee's work in Australia....... A distinctive aspect of the work of the Youth CBT Therapy Program is their incorporation of a case-study perspective into a series of group designs, including:(a) a randomized treatment vs. waitlist-control efficacy study (n=120); (b) an open, naturalistic effectiveness study of the program in two mental health...

  5. High Current Anxiety Symptoms, But Not a Past Anxiety Disorder Diagnosis, are Associated with Impaired Fear Extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Puck eDuits; Danielle C. eCath; Ivo eHeitland; Johanna M. P. eBaas

    2016-01-01

    Although impaired fear extinction has repeatedly been demonstrated in patients with anxiety disorders, little is known about whether these impairments persist after treatment. The current comparative exploratory study investigated fear extinction in 26 patients treated for their anxiety disorder in the years preceding the study as compared to 17 healthy control subjects. Fear-potentiated startle and subjective fear were measured in a cue and context fear conditioning paradigm within a virtual...

  6. Effectiveness of group cognitive–behavioral treatment for childhood anxiety disorders in community clinics: benchmarking against an efficacy trial at a university clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Hjalti; Arendt, Kristian Bech; Jørgensen, Lisbeth

    Service in Denmark. Method: Psychologists and psychiatrists from three Child and Adolescent Psychiatry clinics and four community bases School Counselling Services are trained and supervised in a manualized group CBT treatment program (Cool Kids) for Childhood anxiety. Ninety-six children with anxiety...... with the children and their parents at pre- and post-treatment and at 3-month follow-up (ADIS-C/P: Silverman & Nelles, 1988), as well as by self-report child and parent scales pre- and post-treatment, and at 3- and 12 month follow-ups. Parents’ symptoms of anxiety and depression are also measured. Results...... in Denmark (Arendt & Thastum, 2013). Objective: To evaluate the outcomes of evidence based, manualized group cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) for children and adolescent with anxiety disorders, when delivered in an outpatient Child and Adolescent Psychiatry or in a community based School Counselling...

  7. Fears and Related Anxieties in Chinese High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2008-01-01

    Chinese students from different high school settings face unique academic and emotional challenges. They are in a very vulnerable position due to high parent and teacher expectations and pressure to succeed in college entrance examinations and honour the family and the school. They are also vulnerable due to possible inappropriate parenting…

  8. Fears and Related Anxieties in Chinese High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2008-01-01

    Chinese students from different high school settings face unique academic and emotional challenges. They are in a very vulnerable position due to high parent and teacher expectations and pressure to succeed in college entrance examinations and honour the family and the school. They are also vulnerable due to possible inappropriate parenting…

  9. The Relationship between Anxiety and Repetitive Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J.; Glod, M.; Connolly, B.; McConachie, H.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are vulnerable to anxiety. Repetitive behaviours are a core feature of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and have been associated with anxiety. This study examined repetitive behaviours and anxiety in two groups of children with autism spectrum disorder, those with high anxiety and those with lower levels of…

  10. A social work study for comparison of thought action–fusion and anxiety sensitivity among normal student versus obsessive compulsive symptom in high school Esfahan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Niknejadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare thought – action fusion and anxiety sensitivity among girls and boys adolescents having obsessive–compulsive symptoms in clinical and nonclinical extent. The survey selects 384 high school students in city of Esfahan, Iran and distributes a questionnaire among them. All questions are designed in Likert scale and participants are divided into two groups of with and without OCD. The results show that there is a significant and positive difference in thought – action fusion and anxiety sensitivity among girls and boys adolescents having or symptoms in clinical and nonclinical l extent (P<0.01.

  11. Group cognitive behaviour therapy for adults with Asperger syndrome and anxiety or mood disorder: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Lunsky, Yona

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with Asperger syndrome are at increased risk for mental health problems compared with the general population, especially with regard to mood and anxiety disorders. Generic mental health services are often ill-equipped to offer psychotherapeutic treatments to this population, and specialized supports are difficult to find. This case series used a manualized cognitive behaviour therapy group programme (Mind Over Mood) with three adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome, who were each unable to access psychotherapy through mainstream mental health services. This review highlights the benefits of a cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) group approach for adults with Asperger syndrome and suggests some potential modifications to traditional CBT provision.  © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Stuttering and social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaimaat, Floris W; Vanryckeghem, Martine; Van Dam-Baggen, Rien

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of social anxiety in adults who stutter. This was done by administering the Inventory of Interpersonal Situations (IIS) (Van Dam-Baggen & Kraaimaat, 1999), a social anxiety inventory, to a group of 89 people who stuttered and 131 people who did not stutter. Two components of social anxiety were measured by the ISS, the extent to which emotional tension or discomfort is perceived in social situations and the frequency with which social responses are executed. The people who stuttered displayed significantly higher levels of emotional tension or discomfort in social situations. They also reported a significantly lower frequency of social responses compared to their nonstuttering peers. In addition, about 50% of the scores of the people who stuttered fell within the range of a group of highly socially anxious psychiatric patients. The results of the study suggest that the measurement of social anxiety is an important element in the assessment of adults who stutter. The reader will learn about and be able to describe (1) the IIS as an assessment procedure for evaluating social anxiety, (2) the level of discomfort expressed by adult stutterers in social situations, and (3) the effect of social anxiety on stutterers' responsiveness in social situations.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy vs. cognitive behavioral group therapy for social anxiety disorder: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Andersson, Gerhard; Rück, Christian; Lindefors, Nils

    2011-11-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is highly prevalent and associated with a substantial societal economic burden, primarily due to high costs of productivity loss. Cognitive behavior group therapy (CBGT) is an effective treatment for SAD and the most established in clinical practice. Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has demonstrated efficacy in several trials in recent years. No study has however investigated the cost-effectiveness of ICBT compared to CBGT from a societal perspective, i.e. an analysis where both direct and indirect costs are included. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of ICBT compared to CBGT from a societal perspective using a prospective design. We conducted a randomized controlled trial where participants with SAD were randomized to ICBT (n=64) or CBGT (n=62). Economic data were assessed at pre-treatment, immediately following treatment and six months after treatment. Results showed that the gross total costs were significantly reduced at six-month follow-up, compared to pre-treatment in both treatment conditions. As both treatments were equivalent in reducing social anxiety and gross total costs, ICBT was more cost-effective due to lower intervention costs. We conclude that ICBT can be more cost-effective than CBGT in the treatment of SAD and that both treatments reduce societal costs for SAD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Anxiety, life style and obstetric history of women working in a high-fashion clothing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouri, S; Di Giampaolo, L; Toto, E; Cerrone, T; Boscolo, P

    2001-01-01

    Women with a mean age of 38 years (range 20-62) were employed in an industry producing clothes of high fashion. A part of them (n = 210) performed their activities with hands and others (n = 90) utilising machines with more repetitive procedures. All the recruited women answered to a questionnaire including the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) test, working activities, lifestyle and obstetric history. There was no relation between obstetric history and working activities. The group of women with age ranging from 35 to 42 years showed the score of the STAI higher than that of the younger women and slightly lower than that of the subjects with older age. This may depend on the "healthy worker effect" in the old subjects able to continue their job. The scores of the STAI were also slightly influenced by the repetitive tasks utilising machines. On the whole, the working activity of women had beneficial effect on their role inside the family and in the social life.

  15. A Test of the Tripartite Model of Anxiety and Depression in Elementary and High School Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Heather A. K.; Mash, Eric J.

    2004-01-01

    The applicability of the tripartite model of emotion, which distinguishes the shared aspect of depression and anxiety, negative affect (NA), from their respective specific components of low positive affect (PA) and physiological hyperarousal (PH), was examined in 472 elementary and high school students. The relations among depression, anxiety, and…

  16. Test Anxiety Associated with High-Stakes Testing among Elementary School Children: Prevalence, Predictors, and Relationship to Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segool, Natasha Katherine

    2009-01-01

    The current study explored differences in test anxiety on high-stakes standardized achievement testing and classroom testing among elementary school children. This is the first study to directly examine differences in student test anxiety across two testing conditions with different stakes among young children. Three hundred and thirty-five…

  17. Efficacy of group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkowski, Sarah; Schwartze, Dominique; Strauss, Bernhard; Burlingame, Gary M; Barth, Jürgen; Rosendahl, Jenny

    2016-04-01

    Group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD) is an established treatment supported by findings from primary studies and earlier meta-analyses. However, a comprehensive summary of the recent evidence is still pending. This meta-analysis investigates the efficacy of group psychotherapy for adult patients with SAD. A literature search identified 36 randomized-controlled trials examining 2171 patients. Available studies used mainly cognitive-behavioral group therapies (CBGT); therefore, quantitative analyses were done for CBGT. Medium to large positive effects emerged for wait list-controlled trials for specific symptomatology: g=0.84, 95% CI [0.72; 0.97] and general psychopathology: g=0.62, 95% CI [0.36; 0.89]. Group psychotherapy was also superior to common factor control conditions in alleviating symptoms of SAD, but not in improving general psychopathology. No differences appeared for direct comparisons of group psychotherapy and individual psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy. Hence, group psychotherapy for SAD is an efficacious treatment, equivalent to other treatment formats.

  18. An Analysis of Effective Learning Strategies to Lower Foreign Language Anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhi-min; YIN Qing; MEI Qiong-hui

    2014-01-01

    Foreign language anxiety is generally considered to have negative effects on second acquisition. The selected participants were from 147 freshmen in Yunnan Normal University. The questionnaires conclude Hortwitz’s FLCAS and Oxford’s SILL. 10 participants from high-anxiety and low-anxiety groups were randomly selected for an in-depth qualitative study. The findings indicate that students with low anxiety use more frequently affective, meta-cognitive, memory strategies to lower anxiety than highly anxious ones.

  19. The Effects of Waiting for Treatment: A Meta-Analysis of Waitlist Control Groups in Randomized Controlled Trials for Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Christiane; Stadter, Katja; Stark, Rudolf; Leichsenring, Falk

    2016-07-22

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a highly prevalent mental disorder. However, little is known about how SAD changes in subjects who do not receive treatment. Waitlist control groups (WLCGs) are frequently included in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the treatment of mental disorders. Data from WLCGs are of value as they provide information on the untreated short-term course of a disorder and may serve as disorder-specific norms of change (benchmarks) against which treatment outcomes of SAD can be compared. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis focusing on the effects occurring in WLCGs of RCTs for SAD. Our study was conducted along the PRISMA guidelines. Thirty RCTs (total n = 2460) comprising 30 WLCGs and 47 treatment groups were included. Mean waiting time was 10.6 weeks. The pooled effect of waiting on SAD measures was g = 0.128 (95% CI: 0.057-0.199). Effects regarding other forms of anxiety, depression and functioning were of similarly small size. In contrast, change in the treatment groups was large, both within (g = 0.887) and between groups (g = 0.860). Our results show that for SAD, changes occurring in WLCGs of RCTs are small. The findings may serve as benchmarks in pilot studies of a new treatment or as an additional comparison in studies comparing two active treatments. For psychotherapy research in general, the small effect sizes found in WLCGs confirm that testing a treatment against a waiting list is not a very strict test. Further research on WLCGs in specific mental disorders is required, for example examining the expectancies of patients randomized to waiting. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message In clinical practice, patients suffering from a mental disorder often have to wait for treatment. By analyzing data from waitlist control groups we can gain estimates of symptom change that occur during waiting. It could be seen that waiting for treatment only results in a negligible effect. Thus, in the

  20. EFL Speaking Anxiety among Senior High School Students and Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Mukminin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This report drew on a larger study which was to describe and understand the sources of senior high school students’ English language speaking anxiety at senior high schools in Jambi, Indonesia. The purpose of this paper was to report some of findings from the qualitative interview data on the sources of senior high school students’ English language speaking anxiety at one senior high school in Jambi, Indonesia. Data were collected through demographic profiles and semi-structured interview with senior high school students. The demographic data were analysed descriptively while the interview data were transcribed and analysed line by line to generate and develop codes and themes. An analysis of the interview data revealed that five major themes were related to students’ English language speaking anxiety, including (1 low speaking skill due to lack of vocabulary and grammar, (2 fear of negative responses from others, (3 low self-esteem to speak in English, (4 fear of being evaluated by teachers, and (5 cultural influences to speak English due to a more teacher-centred style. Suggestions and policy implications are also discussed.

  1. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Reduction of Craving, Depression and Anxiety Symptoms among the Opiate Abusers Under MMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshtwh Momeni

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of cognitive behavior group therapy on reduction of craving, depression and anxiety symptoms among the Opiate abusers under MMT. Method: In this experimental research, 36 addicts on MMT were selected between the entire opiate addicts referred to Iranian national center for addiction studies (INCAS by convenience sampling and were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. In experimental group, cognitive behavior group therapy was performed in 8 sessions, one each week. Sessions were performed for craving, depression and anxiety management. Data was gathered by demographic questionnaire, scale of relapse predicts craving assessment, BDI-II and BAI for depression and anxiety symptoms assessment. The data was analyzed, independent and paired samples t test. Results: Data analysis revealed that craving index was decreased in post- test and follow-up and it was statistically significant. Also beck depression and anxiety symptoms were decreased significantly in post-test and follow-up. Conclusion: The results show that cognitive-behavior group therapy was efficient on reduction of drug craving, depression, and anxiety symptoms in post-test and follow-up, and it can apply as a method of treatment.

  2. Comparison of Depression and Anxiety between Unmarried Female Youth in Two Groups of Induced Abortion and None-Induced Abortion in Yibin City of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-zhong WU; Lin LUO; Wei-dong CAI; Lun ZHANG; Qi-fu FAN

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To explore the risk factors influencing the mental status of unmarried female youth.Methods A cross-sectional survey and a qualitative interview were adopted. 1 200unmarried female volunteers (600 with IA) who aged 15-29 years in Yibin city were investigated, and 8 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 8 in-depth interviews were conducted. Except the investigation of subject's personal information, econ-socio status,sexual behavior, contraception and reproductive health problems they face, two selfreporting scales, CES-D and SAS were used for assessment of depression and anxiety of the subjects.Results 1) Depression and anxiety among unmarried female youth investigated in current study are relatively common. Proportions of the females with depression and anxiety to the total sample are 27.4% and 33.4%, respectively; 2) Depression and anxiety of the females with IA are more serious than that of the female without IA.Proportions of unmarried females with IA have depression and anxiety to the total unmarried females with IA are 3.45 times and 2.61 times that of unmarried females without IA have depression and anxiety to the total unmarried females without IA,respectively; 3) IA is one of the key risk factors influencing depression and anxiety of unmarried female youth. Other risk factors are lack on basic knowledge about sex/STD/HIV/AIDS, reproductive tract infections, relatively lower income, age at sex debut is relatively younger, etc. In addition, multiple sex partners and repeat pregnancies were risk factors influencing anxiety of unmarried female youth.Conclusion Depession and anxiety was more popular in unmarried females with IA.Intervention for improving mental health of unmarried females should be developred.

  3. Learning strategies, test anxiety and academic success of primary and high- school students at biology class

    OpenAIRE

    Stražar, Klavdija

    2016-01-01

    The extent of learning success of students in school depends upon many factors, among them are having a significant impact learning strategies and influence of test anxiety. Test anxiety refers to the anxiety that occurs in individuals in situations of assessment and evaluation in school. Anxiety in humans is expressed as a long-lasting feeling of anxiety, tension and discomfort that occurs without a specific reason. Persons who are experiencing feelings of anxiety find it difficult to face a...

  4. The People with Asperger syndrome and anxiety disorders (PAsSA) trial: a pilot multicentre, single-blind randomised trial of group cognitive-behavioural therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Peter E; Murphy, Glynis H; Shepstone, Lee; Wilson, Edward C F; Fowler, David; Heavens, David; Malovic, Aida; Russell, Alexandra; Rose, Alice; Mullineaux, Louise

    2016-03-01

    There is a growing interest in using cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) with people who have Asperger syndrome and comorbid mental health problems. To examine whether modified group CBT for clinically significant anxiety in an Asperger syndrome population is feasible and likely to be efficacious. Using a randomised assessor-blind trial, 52 individuals with Asperger syndrome were randomised into a treatment arm or a waiting-list control arm. After 24 weeks, those in the waiting-list control arm received treatment, while those initially randomised to treatment were followed up for 24 weeks. The conversion rate for this trial was high (1.6:1), while attrition was 13%. After 24 weeks, there was no significant difference between those randomised to the treatment arm compared with those randomised to the waiting-list control arm on the primary outcome measure, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety. Trials of psychological therapies with this population are feasible. Larger definitive trials are now needed. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) licence.

  5. The People with Asperger syndrome and anxiety disorders (PAsSA) trial: a pilot multicentre, single-blind randomised trial of group cognitive–behavioural therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Glynis H.; Shepstone, Lee; Wilson, Edward C.F.; Fowler, David; Heavens, David; Malovic, Aida; Russell, Alexandra; Rose, Alice; Mullineaux, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in using cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) with people who have Asperger syndrome and comorbid mental health problems. Aims To examine whether modified group CBT for clinically significant anxiety in an Asperger syndrome population is feasible and likely to be efficacious. Method Using a randomised assessor-blind trial, 52 individuals with Asperger syndrome were randomised into a treatment arm or a waiting-list control arm. After 24 weeks, those in the waiting-list control arm received treatment, while those initially randomised to treatment were followed up for 24 weeks. Results The conversion rate for this trial was high (1.6:1), while attrition was 13%. After 24 weeks, there was no significant difference between those randomised to the treatment arm compared with those randomised to the waiting-list control arm on the primary outcome measure, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety. Conclusions Trials of psychological therapies with this population are feasible. Larger definitive trials are now needed. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) licence. PMID:27703772

  6. Effectiveness of group cognitive–behavioral treatment for childhood anxiety disorders in community clinics: benchmarking against an efficacy trial at a university clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Hjalti; Arendt, Kristian Bech; Jørgensen, Lisbeth

    Background: The efficacy of a group cognitive behavioural therapy program (Cool Kids) of childhood anxiety has been demonstrated in a university-clinic setting in Australia (Hudson et al., 2009) and findings from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) at a University-clinic supports its efficacy...... Service in Denmark. Method: Psychologists and psychiatrists from three Child and Adolescent Psychiatry clinics and four community bases School Counselling Services are trained and supervised in a manualized group CBT treatment program (Cool Kids) for Childhood anxiety. Ninety-six children with anxiety...... disorders aged between 7 - 14 are expected to be included, equally divided between Psychiatric clinics (n = 48) and School Counselling services (n =48). The treatment consists of 10 2-hour group sessions with 5-6 children and their parents. Results are measured by independent diagnostic interviews...

  7. Personal constructs of anxiety under the 1,5-benzodiazepine derivative clobazam related to trait-anxiety levels of the personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, A C; Kentridge, R

    1982-01-01

    In an initial interview, 20 volunteer subjects provided 32 personal constructs of anxiety, using Kelly's repertory grid technique. The bipolar ends of the anxiety constructs were then separated by 10-point rating scales. Subjects could then indicate the degree of anxiety feeling on their own personal constructs. The 20 subjects were divided into high and low trait-anxiety sub-groups, on the basis of Speilberger trait-anxiety (personality) scores. Subjects were administered acute single doses of 20 mg clobazam or matching placebo, in a counterbalanced double-blind design. Anxiety levels on the individual personal constructs of anxiety were measured 2 h after drug administration. There was a significant ANOVA interaction effect between drug condition and trait-anxiety. Of the ten subjects in the high trait-anxiety sub-group, eight demonstrated reduced levels of personal construct anxiety under clobazam (three significantly). In contrast, of the ten subjects in the low trait-anxiety sub-group, nine demonstrated increased levels of personal construct anxiety (eight significantly). The present results are discussed in relation to previous similar findings. Clobazam and other benzodiazepine derivatives (such as diazepam) are effective anxiolytics with the clinically anxious and with normal volunteers having high trait-anxiety personalities. However, normal subjects with low trait-anxiety personalities often produce paradoxical increases in anxiety feelings.

  8. Improvement of the symptoms of anxiety and anxiety sensitivity through the application of a mindfulness meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Yagüe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a training program mindfulness to reduce anxiety levels. The sample consisted of 20 participants suffering from anxiety and high scores on ASI-3 and subscale of anxiety from SCL-90. A quasi-experimental comparison group design with pretest-posttest measurement with an experimental group and a control group with 10 participants each group was performed. As instruments of assessment questionnaires ASI-3, MAAS, and SCL-90 were used. Statistical analyzes show a reduction in all in dimensions of anxiety sensitivity factor and anxiety subscale of the SCL-90 once the interventions as well as improvement in the ability to be present or mindfulness measured by the MAAS scale. The results are consistent with other research which has show the effectiveness of mindfulness techniques in improving the symptoms of anxiety

  9. Cerebellar Neural Circuits Involving Executive Control Network Predict Response to Group Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MinlanYuan; Meng, Yajing; Zhang, Yan; Nie, Xiaojing; Ren, Zhengjia; Zhu, Hongru; Li, Yuchen; Lui, Su; Gong, Qiyong; Qiu, Changjian; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-02

    Some intrinsic connectivity networks including the default mode network (DMN) and executive control network (ECN) may underlie social anxiety disorder (SAD). Although the cerebellum has been implicated in the pathophysiology of SAD and several networks relevant to higher-order cognition, it remains unknown whether cerebellar areas involved in DMN and ECN exhibit altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with cortical networks in SAD. Forty-six patients with SAD and 64 healthy controls (HC) were included and submitted to the baseline resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Seventeen SAD patients who completed post-treatment clinical assessments were included after group cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). RsFC of three cerebellar subregions in both groups was assessed respectively in a voxel-wise way, and these rsFC maps were compared by two-sample t tests between groups. Whole-brain voxel-wise regression was performed to examine whether cerebellar connectivity networks can predict response to CBT. Lower rsFC circuits of cerebellar subregions compared with HC at baseline (p circuits involving DMN and ECN are possible neuropathologic mechanisms of SAD. Stronger pretreatment cerebellar rsFC circuits involving ECN suggest potential neural markers to predict CBT response.

  10. Mathematics teaching experiences of elementary preservice teachers with high and low mathematics anxiety during student teaching: A multiple case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Leslie Deanna

    This study investigated the teaching experiences of six elementary preservice teachers (EPTs), three with high mathematics anxiety and three with low mathematics anxiety, during their student teaching semester. The EPTs were selected from an initial pool of 121 EPTs who took the Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Scale. The cases were compared in a cross case analysis to highlight mathematics teaching experiences among EPTs. Data sources included EPT and researcher journal entries, interview transcripts, pre-lesson surveys, field notes, lesson plans, and artifacts of observed lessons. Data were coded using Shulman's content knowledge, Graeber's mathematics pedagogical content knowledge, and mathematics anxiety characteristics. Findings revealed both similarities and differences across EPTs as related to four major categories: (a) planning and resources used, (b) role of the cooperating teacher, (c) content knowledge, and (d) pedagogical content knowledge. All EPTs used mostly direct instruction and relied on the course textbook and their respective cooperating teacher as their primary resources for planning. Additionally, across participants, the cooperating teacher influenced EPTs' perceptions of students and teaching. Also, EPTs with high mathematics anxiety were weaker with respect to content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. Findings suggest a need to re-design methods courses to address improving the pedagogical content knowledge of EPTs with mathematics anxiety. Findings also suggest a need to develop content specific mathematics courses for EPTs to improve their content knowledge. Future studies could include a longitudinal study to follow highly anxious EPTs who take content specific elementary mathematics courses to observe their content knowledge and mathematics anxiety.

  11. Pattern of structural brain changes in social anxiety disorder after cognitive behavioral group therapy: a longitudinal multimodal MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, V R; Brühl, A B; Weidt, S; Delsignore, A; Rufer, M; Jäncke, L; Herwig, U; Hänggi, J

    2016-12-06

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fears of social and performance situations. Cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) has in general positive effects on symptoms, distress and avoidance in SAD. Prior studies found increased cortical volumes and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in SAD compared with healthy controls (HCs). Thirty-three participants diagnosed with SAD attended in a 10-week CBGT and were scanned before and after therapy. We applied three neuroimaging methods-surface-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging and network-based statistics-each with specific longitudinal processing protocols, to investigate CBGT-induced structural brain alterations of the gray and white matter (WM). Surface-based morphometry revealed a significant cortical volume reduction (pre- to post-treatment) in the left inferior parietal cortex, as well as a positive partial correlation between treatment success (indexed by reductions in Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale) and reductions in cortical volume in bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Diffusion tensor imaging analysis revealed a significant increase in FA in bilateral uncinate fasciculus and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Network-based statistics revealed a significant increase of structural connectivity in a frontolimbic network. No partial correlations with treatment success have been found in WM analyses. For, we believe, the first time, we present a distinctive pattern of longitudinal structural brain changes after CBGT measured with three established magnetic resonance imaging analyzing techniques. Our findings are in line with previous cross-sectional, unimodal SAD studies and extent them by highlighting anatomical brain alterations that point toward the level of HCs in parallel with a reduction in SAD symptomatology.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 6 December 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.217.

  12. Comparison of EEG propagation speeds under emotional stimuli on smartphone between the different anxiety states

    OpenAIRE

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Muramatsu, Ayumi; Hayashi, Takuto; Urata, Tatsuya; Taya, Masato; Mizuno-Matsumoto, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of different anxiety states on information processing as measured by an electroencephalography (EEG) using emotional stimuli on a smartphone. Twenty-three healthy subjects were assessed for their anxiety states using The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and divided into two groups: low anxiety (I, II) or high anxiety (III and IV, V). An EEG was performed while the participant was presented with emotionally laden audiovisual stimuli (resting, pleasant...

  13. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. METHODS: The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191...

  14. Using effort-reward imbalance theory to understand high rates of depression and anxiety among clergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; Miles, Andrew; Toth, Matthew; Adams, Christopher; Smith, Bruce W; Toole, David

    2013-12-01

    The clergy occupation is unique in its combination of role strains and higher calling, putting clergy mental health at risk. We surveyed all United Methodist clergy in North Carolina, and 95% (n = 1,726) responded, with 38% responding via phone interview. We compared clergy phone interview depression rates, assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), to those of in-person interviews in a representative United States sample that also used the PHQ-9. The clergy depression prevalence was 8.7%, significantly higher than the 5.5% rate of the national sample. We used logistic regression to explain depression, and also anxiety, assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. As hypothesized by effort-reward imbalance theory, several extrinsic demands (job stress, life unpredictability) and intrinsic demands (guilt about not doing enough work, doubting one's call to ministry) significantly predicted depression and anxiety, as did rewards such as ministry satisfaction and lack of financial stress. The high rate of clergy depression signals the need for preventive policies and programs for clergy. The extrinsic and intrinsic demands and rewards suggest specific actions to improve clergy mental health.

  15. Anxiety in preoperative anesthetic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela Millán, Jaquelyn; Barrera Serrano, José René; Ornelas Aguirre, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Preoperative anxiety is a common and poorly evaluated condition in patients who will undergo an anesthetic and surgical intervention. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anxiety in a group of patients undergoing elective surgery, as assessed by the Amsterdam Anxiety Preoperative and Information (AAPI) scale. We studied 135 patients scheduled for elective surgery applying the AAPI scale 24 h before the surgical procedure to evaluate the presence of anxiety and patient characteristics. A descriptive analysis with mean +/- standard deviation for categorical variables was done. For intragroup differences, chi(2) test was used. Pearson correlation for the association between anxiety and postoperative complications was carried out. A value of p =0.05 was considered significant. One hundred six patients were surgically treated, 88% were female (average age 44 +/- 12 years). Some degree of preoperative anxiety was present in 72 patients (76%; p = 0.001) with a grade point average on the AAPI scale equal to 17 +/- 7 points, of which 95 (70%, OR = 5.08; p = 0.002) were females. Results of this study suggest the presence of high levels of preoperative anxiety in patients scheduled for elective surgery. The origin of the anxiety appears to be related to many factors that can be evaluated in pre-anesthetic consultation. Further study is needed to prevent the presence of this disorder.

  16. The Effectiveness of Group Training of CBT-Based Stress Management on Anxiety, Psychological Hardiness and General Self-Efficacy Among University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla Jafar, Hamdam; Salabifard, Seddigheh; Mousavi, Seyedeh Maryam; Sobhani, Zahra

    2015-09-28

    Admission to university is a very sensitive period of life for efficient, active, and young workforces in any country, and it is mostly associated with many changes in social and human relationships. These changes lead to anxiety in students. Moreover, humans need certain functions in order to adaptively deal with different life situations and challenges. By training stress management, these functions can help human acquire the required abilities. The present study was aimed at investigating the effectiveness of stress management training in anxiety, psychological hardiness, and general self-efficacy among university students. The study was a quasi-experimental intervention (pretest-posttest-follow-up) including a control group, it was a fundamental applied study. The statistical population consisted of all students of Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran. Convenient sampling was employed to select 30 students who were divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). Before stress management training, both groups filled out Beck Anxiety Inventory, Long and Goulet scale of psychological hardiness, and General Self-efficacy Scale (GSE-10). Afterwards, the experimental group was provided with stress management training. And after the experiment, the abovementioned questionnaires and scales were responded by the two groups. Finally the collected data were analyzed and compared using one-way MANOVA. The results of MANOVA indicated that there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of anxiety, hardiness, and general self-efficacy (pstress management among university students cause anxiety to drop; moreover, it enhances their psychological hardiness and self-efficacy. In regard with the role and importance of stress management, training this skill should be included in educational plans of university.

  17. Animal Rights Groups Target High School Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Two groups leading the charge against dissection are People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) and the Student Action Corps for Animals (SACA). Protests by student and community members remain the movement's strongest weapon. (MLF)

  18. Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Interpersonal Problems and Psychological Flexibility in Female High School Students With Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadeh, Sayedeh Monireh; Kazemi-Zahrani, Hamid; Besharat, Mohammad Ali

    2015-07-12

    Social anxiety is a psychological disorder which has devastative and pernicious effects on interpersonal relationships and one's psychological flexibility. The aim of this research was to determine the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on interpersonal problems and psychological flexibility in female high school students with social anxiety disorder. With a semi-experimental design, the subjects were assessed using the Social Anxiety Scale and clinical interview. The statistical population of the research was high school female students studying in 5 areas of Isfahan. 30 individuals were purposively selected as the sample. The subjects of the research were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy was given in 10 sessions of 90 minutes in the experimental group and the control group did not receive any treatment. Pre-test and post-test scores of Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and Acceptance and Action Questionnaire were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance & the results showed that after the intervention, there was a significant difference between the scores of the subjects in the experimental and control groups. This means that Acceptance and Commitment Therapy can influence interpersonal problems and their six dimensions and psychological flexibility as well.

  19. Preoperative anxiety-an important but neglected issue: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teena Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is an emotional state characterized by apprehension and fear resulting from the anticipation of a threatening event. The incidence of preoperative anxiety ranges from 11% to 80% in adult patients and also varies among different surgical groups. Preoperative anxiety may lead to various problems and a wide range of physiological and psychological responses. A variety of objective and subjective methods are available for measuring preoperative anxiety. Every patient scheduled for surgery should be assessed for the presence of anxiety in their routine preoperative anesthesia assessment, and counseling should be done by anesthesiologist in patients with a high level of anxiety. Surgery information reduces anxiety in the preoperative period.

  20. Can a Targeted, Group-Based CBT Intervention Reduce Depression and Anxiety and Improve Self-Concept in Primary-Age Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Cunningham, Enda

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examined the impact of a 10 session, group-based, early-intervention cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme (Cool Connections) on anxiety, depression and self-concept in nine 8-11 year old pupils in Northern Ireland. The intervention was facilitated by a teacher, education welfare officer and two classroom assistants, with…

  1. Sunspot Group Development in High Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Muraközy, J; Ludmány, A

    2014-01-01

    The Solar and Heliospheric Obseratory/Michelson Doppler Imager--Debrecen Data (SDD) sunspot catalogue provides an opportunity to study the details and development of sunspot groups on a large statistical sample. The SDD data allow, in particular, the differential study of the leading and following parts with a temporal resolution of 1.5 hours. In this study, we analyse the equilibrium distance of sunspot groups as well as the evolution of this distance over the lifetime of the groups and the shifts in longitude associated with these groups. We also study the asymmetry between the compactness of the leading and following parts, as well as the time-profiles for the development of the area of sunspot groups. A logarithmic relationship has been found between the total area and the distance of leading-following parts of active regions (ARs) at the time of their maximum area. In the developing phase the leading part moves forward; this is more noticeable in larger ARs. The leading part has a higher growth rate than...

  2. Effect of Verbal Empathy and Touch on Anxiety Relief in Patients Undergoing Flexible Bronchoscopy: Can Empathy Reduce Patients' Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Patients undergoing flexible bronchoscopy usually experience anxiety before and during the procedure. We performed this study to investigate whether verbal empathy and intentional touch from a bronchoscopist could reduce anxiety in patients undergoing flexible bronchoscopy. We conducted a prospective randomized trial in a university-affiliated hospital. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: a control group, a verbal empathy group, or a verbal empathy and touch group. The staff pulmonologist performing bronchoscopy expressed verbal empathy and used touch by speaking to the patient (using predefined short statements) and making eye contact, and by laying his/her left hand on the patient's right shoulder. We assessed the level of patient anxiety with a visual analog scale before and after the intervention. Participants were 267 patients with a median age of 65 years; 62.2% were men. Although there were no differences in changes in anxiety between the three groups, subgroup analysis of the visual analog scale including participants with higher baseline anxiety (empathy and touch group participants with anxiety ≥60 mm; empathy group and empathy and touch group participants with anxiety ≥70 mm) showed a larger reduction in anxiety than the control group. Verbal empathy and touch given by a bronchoscopist before bronchoscopy reduced anxiety in patients with high baseline anxiety levels. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Predictors of Biased Self-perception in Individuals with High Social Anxiety: The Effect of Self-consciousness in the Private and Public Self Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Henrik; Plummer, Alice; Wells, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    "Biased self-perception," the tendency to perceive one's social performance as more negative than observers do, is characteristic of socially anxious individuals. Self-attention processes are hypothesised to underlie biased self-perception, however, different models emphasise different aspects of self-attention, with attention to the public aspects of the self being prominent. The current study aimed to investigate the relative contribution of two types of dispositional self-attention; public- and private self-consciousness to biased self-perception in a high (n = 48) versus a low (n = 48) social anxiety group undergoing an interaction task. The main finding was that private self-consciousness explained substantial and unique variance in biased negative self-perception in individuals with high social anxiety, while public self-consciousness did not. This relationship was independent of increments in state anxiety. Private self-consciousness appeared to have a specific association with bias related to overestimation of negative social performance rather than underestimation of positive social performance. The implication of this finding is that current treatment models of Social anxiety disorder might include broader aspects of self-focused attention, especially in the context of formulating self-evaluation biases.

  4. Predictors of Biased Self-perception in Individuals with High Social Anxiety: The Effect of Self-consciousness in the Private and Public Self Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Nordahl

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available “Biased self-perception,” the tendency to perceive one’s social performance as more negative than observers do, is characteristic of socially anxious individuals. Self-attention processes are hypothesised to underlie biased self-perception, however, different models emphasise different aspects of self-attention, with attention to the public aspects of the self being prominent. The current study aimed to investigate the relative contribution of two types of dispositional self-attention; public- and private self-consciousness to biased self-perception in a high (n = 48 versus a low (n = 48 social anxiety group undergoing an interaction task. The main finding was that private self-consciousness explained substantial and unique variance in biased negative self-perception in individuals with high social anxiety, while public self-consciousness did not. This relationship was independent of increments in state anxiety. Private self-consciousness appeared to have a specific association with bias related to overestimation of negative social performance rather than underestimation of positive social performance. The implication of this finding is that current treatment models of Social anxiety disorder might include broader aspects of self-focused attention, especially in the context of formulating self-evaluation biases.

  5. Comparison of EEG propagation speeds under emotional stimuli on smartphone between the different anxiety states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya eAsakawa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was evaluated difference anxiety states at information processing in the electroencephalography (EEG under emotional stimuli for smartphone. Twenty-three healthy subjects were assessed for their anxiety states using The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI and divided to two groups: low anxiety (I, II or high anxiety (III and IV, V group. EEG was measured under emotionally audio-visual stimuli (resting and pleasant, unpleasant sessions and emotionally sentence stimuli (pleasant sentence, unpleasant sentence sessions using emotionally audio-visual stimuli and emotionally sentence stimuli and analyzed using propagation speed analysis. The propagation speed of the low anxiety group at medial coronal in resting stimuli for all time was higher than those of high anxiety group, and that of the low anxiety group at medial sagittal in unpleasant stimuli for 60-150 seconds and those in unpleasant stimuli for 0-30, 60-150 seconds was higher than those of high anxiety group. The propagation speed for 150 seconds of all stimuli in the low anxiety group had a significantly higher than propagation speed for that in the high anxiety group. These events suggest that information processes concerning the emotional stimuli in the brain is differ based on the anxiety state of the subject.

  6. The Effects of Expressive Writing on General and Mathematics Anxiety for a Sample of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Claudia L.; Brown, Nina W.; Myran, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Ninety-three (n = 93) students in grades 9-12 who failed the Virginia Standards of Learning mathematics test were placed into experimental and control groups. Pre and posttest measures for general and mathematics anxiety, and physical symptoms of stress were administered. The Expressive Writing intervention was used with both groups where the…

  7. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders : A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Cath, Danielle C.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive

  8. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders : A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Cath, Danielle C.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive comorbidit

  9. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders : A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Cath, Danielle C.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive comorbidit

  10. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Internet- vs. group-based cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder: 4-year follow-up of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Erik; El Alaoui, Samir; Lindefors, Nils; Andersson, Erik; Rück, Christian; Ghaderi, Ata; Kaldo, Viktor; Lekander, Mats; Andersson, Gerhard; Ljótsson, Brjánn

    2014-08-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is common, debilitating and associated with high societal costs. The disorder can be effectively treated with Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT), but no previous study has investigated the long-term clinical or health economic effects of ICBT for SAD in comparison to an evidence-based control treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ICBT compared to cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) four years post-treatment. We conducted a 4-year follow-up study of participants who had received ICBT or CBGT for SAD within the context of a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial. The cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted taking a societal perspective. Participants in both treatment groups made large improvements from baseline to 4-year follow-up on the primary outcome measure (d = 1.34-1.48) and the 95% CI of the mean difference on the primary outcome was well within the non-inferiority margin. ICBT and CBGT were similarly cost-effective and both groups reduced their indirect costs. We conclude that ICBT for SAD yields large sustainable effects and is at least as long-term effective as CBGT. Intervention costs of both treatments are offset by net societal cost reductions in a short time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anxiety status affects nicotine- and baclofen-induced locomotor activity, anxiety, and single-trial conditioned place preference in male adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Adriana M; McDonald, Craig G; Smith, Robert F

    2014-09-01

    Adolescents have an increased vulnerability to nicotine and anxiety may play a role in the development of nicotine abuse. One possible treatment for anxiety disorders and substance abuse is the GABAB agonist, baclofen. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of anxiety-like behavior on single-trial nicotine conditioned place preference in adolescent rats, and to assess the action of baclofen. Baclofen was shown to have effects on locomotor and anxiety-like behavior in rats divided into high-anxiety and low-anxiety groups. Baclofen decreased locomotor behavior in high-anxiety rats. Baclofen alone failed to produce differences in anxiety-like behavior, but nicotine and baclofen + nicotine administration were anxiolytic. High- and low-anxiety groups also showed differences in single-trial nicotine-induced place preference. Only high-anxiety rats formed place preference to nicotine, while rats in the low-anxiety group formed no conditioned place preference. These results suggest that among adolescents, high-anxiety individuals are more likely to show preference for nicotine than low-anxiety individuals.

  12. Effectiveness of music interventions for women with high anxiety during coronary angiographic procedures: a randomized controlled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Ulrica

    2012-06-01

    The purpose was to investigate if women with high pre-procedural anxiety reported higher degree of relaxation and comfort if listening to music during coronary angiographic procedures. A prospective randomized controlled trial was used included 68 patients undergoing coronary angiography and/or PCI. The women were allocated to receive calming music and standard care or standard care only. Relaxation, environmental sound and discomfort associated with lying still were assessed. There was significantly more positive impression of the sound environment and less discomfort associated with lying still in women listening to music in comparison to women who received only standard care. No effect in relaxation was found.

  13. Epilepsy and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly de Albuquerque

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed 155 subjects with STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: 75 epileptic patients and 80 normal subjects used as a control group. A higher trait-anxiety score (chronic anxiety than that of controls was found for the epileptic group. For the epileptic group higher levels of the A-trait occurred in patients with EEG abnormalities with left temporal localization. We have also observed that the shorter the epilepsy lasts (less than two years, the higher the trait-anxiety levels. Convulsions and awareness loss during epileptic seizures do not modify state and trait-anxiety scores.

  14. Amygdalar activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors produces anti- and pro-conflict effects depending upon animal sex in a sexually dimorphic conditioned conflict-based anxiety model

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesús-Burgos, María I.; González-García, Stephanie; Cruz-Santa, Yanira; Pérez-Acevedo, Nivia L.

    2016-01-01

    Women are more susceptible than men to develop anxiety disorders, however, the mechanisms involved are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), a target for anxiety disorders, and whether estradiol may modulate conflict-based anxiety in female rats by using the Vogel Conflict Test (VCT). We used ovariectomized female rats with high (OVX + EB) and low (OVX) estradiol levels and intact male rats to evaluate sex differences. Infusion of (S)-3,5-Dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), a group I mGluR agonist, into the basolateral amygdala, a region involved in anxiety-responses, statistically increased the number of shocks in OVX, but not OVX + EB female rats at 0.1, nor at 1.0 μM. In contrast, DHPG statistically decreased the number of shocks in male rats at 1.0 μM only. DHPG (0.1 μM) increased the number of recoveries in OVX, but not OVX + EB or male rats. Sex differences were detected for the number of shocks, recoveries and punished licks, where female rats displayed more conflict than male rats. Western blot analyses showed that protein expression of mGluR1, but not mGluR5 was higher in OVX + EB > OVX > male rats in the amygdala, whereas no significant differences were detected in the hippocampus, olfactory bulb and/or the periaqueductal gray. Therefore, DHPG produced paradoxical effects that are sex dependent; producing anxiolytic-like effects in female rats, while anxiogenic-like effects in male rats according to the VCT. These results highlight the importance of including female experimental models to underpin the neural circuitry of anxiety according to sex and for the screening of novel anxiolytic compounds. PMID:26777900

  15. Amygdalar activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors produces anti- and pro-conflict effects depending upon animal sex in a sexually dimorphic conditioned conflict-based anxiety model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesús-Burgos, María I; González-García, Stephanie; Cruz-Santa, Yanira; Pérez-Acevedo, Nivia L

    2016-04-01

    Women are more susceptible than men to develop anxiety disorders, however, the mechanisms involved are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), a target for anxiety disorders, and whether estradiol may modulate conflict-based anxiety in female rats by using the Vogel Conflict Test (VCT). We used ovariectomized female rats with high (OVX+EB) and low (OVX) estradiol levels and intact male rats to evaluate sex differences. Infusion of (S)-3,5-Dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), a group I mGluR agonist, into the basolateral amygdala, a region involved in anxiety-responses, statistically increased the number of shocks in OVX, but not OVX+EB female rats at 0.1, nor at 1.0 μM. In contrast, DHPG statistically decreased the number of shocks in male rats at 1.0 μM only. DHPG (0.1 μM) increased the number of recoveries in OVX, but not OVX+EB or male rats. Sex differences were detected for the number of shocks, recoveries and punished licks, where female rats displayed more conflict than male rats. Western blot analyses showed that protein expression of mGluR1, but not mGluR5 was higher in OVX+EB>OVX>male rats in the amygdala, whereas no significant differences were detected in the hippocampus, olfactory bulb and/or the periaqueductal gray. Therefore, DHPG produced paradoxical effects that are sex dependent; producing anxiolytic-like effects in female rats, while anxiogenic-like effects in male rats according to the VCT. These results highlight the importance of including female experimental models to underpin the neural circuitry of anxiety according to sex and for the screening of novel anxiolytic compounds.

  16. Mechanisms of change during group metacognitive therapy for repetitive negative thinking in primary and non-primary generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Peter M; Erceg-Hurn, David M; Anderson, Rebecca A; Campbell, Bruce N C; Nathan, Paula R

    2015-10-01

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a transdiagnostic process that serves to maintain emotional disorders. Metacognitive theory suggests that positive and negative metacognitive beliefs guide the selection of RNT as a coping strategy which, in turn, increases psychological distress. The aim of this study was to test the indirect effect of metacognitive beliefs on psychological distress via RNT. Patients (N=52) with primary and non-primary generalized anxiety disorder attended a brief, six-week group metacognitive therapy program and completed measures of metacognitive beliefs, RNT, and symptoms at the first and final treatment sessions, and at a one-month follow-up. Prospective indirect effects models found that negative metacognitive beliefs (but not positive metacognitive beliefs) had a significant indirect effect on psychological distress via RNT. As predicted by metacognitive theory, targeting negative metacognitions in treatment appears to reduce RNT and, in turn, emotional distress. Further research using alternative measures at multiple time points during therapy is required to determine whether the absence of a relationship with positive metacognitive beliefs in this study was a consequence of (a) psychometric issues, (b) these beliefs only being relevant to a subgroup of patients, or (c) a lack of awareness early in treatment.

  17. Comparison of EEG propagation speeds under emotional stimuli on smartphone between the different anxiety states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Muramatsu, Ayumi; Hayashi, Takuto; Urata, Tatsuya; Taya, Masato; Mizuno-Matsumoto, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of different anxiety states on information processing as measured by an electroencephalography (EEG) using emotional stimuli on a smartphone. Twenty-three healthy subjects were assessed for their anxiety states using The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and divided into two groups: low anxiety (I, II) or high anxiety (III and IV, V). An EEG was performed while the participant was presented with emotionally laden audiovisual stimuli (resting, pleasant, and unpleasant sessions) and emotionally laden sentence stimuli (pleasant sentence, unpleasant sentence sessions) and EEG data was analyzed using propagation speed analysis. The propagation speed of the low anxiety group at the medial coronal for resting stimuli for all time segments was higher than those of high anxiety group. The low anxiety group propagation speeds at the medial sagittal for unpleasant stimuli in the 0-30 and 60-150 s time frames were higher than those of high anxiety group. The propagation speeds at 150 s for all stimuli in the low anxiety group were significantly higher than the correspondent propagation speeds of the high anxiety group. These events suggest that neural information processes concerning emotional stimuli differ based on current anxiety state.

  18. Mathematics anxiety in secondary students in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Steve

    2009-02-01

    Whatever the changes that are made to the mathematics curriculum in England, there will always remain a problem with mathematics anxiety. Maths anxiety is rarely facilitative. This study examined aspects of mathematics in secondary schools and how students rated them as sources of anxiety. Over 2000 students in independent and mainstream schools in England completed a 20-item questionnaire designed to investigate maths anxiety levels. The same questionnaire was given to over 440 dyslexic males in specialist schools within the same age range. The results showed that examinations and tests create high levels of anxiety in approximately 4% of students. The results suggest that certain aspects and topics in the maths curriculum, such as long division, cause similar levels of anxiety for students in all year groups in secondary schools.

  19. Anxiety and performance: Perceptual-motor behavior in high-pressure contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuys, A.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2017-01-01

    When the pressure is on and anxiety levels increase it is not easy to perform well. In search of mechanisms explaining the anxiety-performance relationship, we revisit the integrated model of anxiety and perceptual-motor performance [1] and provide a critical review of contemporary literature. While

  20. Chronic high fat feeding increases anxiety-like behaviour and reduces transcript abundance of glucocorticoid signalling genes in the hippocampus of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanathan, Shathveekan; Thavartnam, Kabriya; Arif, Shahneen; Elegino, Trisha; McGowan, Patrick O

    2015-06-01

    The consumption of diets high in saturated fats and obesity have been associated with impaired physical and mental health. Previous studies indicate that chronic high fat diet consumption leads to systemic inflammation in humans and non-human animal models. Studies in non-human animals suggest that altered physiological responses to stress are also a consequence of high fat diet consumption. Glucocorticoid signalling mechanisms may link immune and stress-related pathways in the brain, and were shown to be significantly altered in the brains of female rat offspring of mothers exposed to chronic high fat diet during pregnancy and lactation. For adult females, the consequence of chronic high fat diet consumption on these signalling pathways and their relationship to stress-related behaviour is not known. In this study, we examined the effects of chronic consumption of a high fat diet compared to a low fat control diet among adult female Long Evans rats. We found significant differences in weight gain, caloric intake, anxiety-related behaviours, and glucocorticoid-related gene expression over a 10-week exposure period. As expected, rats in the high fat diet group gained the most weight and consumed the greatest number of calories. Rats in the high fat diet group showed significantly greater levels of anxiety-related behaviour in the Light Dark and Open Field tasks compared to rats in the low fat diet group. Rats consuming high fat diet also exhibited reduced transcript abundance in the hippocampus of stress-related mineralocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor genes, as well as nuclear factor kappa beta gene expression, implicated in inflammatory processes. Together, these data indicate that chronic high fat diet consumption may increase anxiety-like behaviour at least in part via alterations in glucocorticoid signalling mechanisms in limbic brain regions.

  1. The prevalence and correlates of adult separation anxiety disorder in an anxiety clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Renate

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD has been identified recently, but there is a paucity of data about its prevalence and associated characteristics amongst anxiety patients. This study assessed the prevalence and risk factor profile associated with ASAD in an anxiety clinic. Methods Clinical psychologists assigned 520 consecutive patients to DSM-IV adult anxiety subcategories using the SCID. We also measured demographic factors and reports of early separation anxiety (the Separation Anxiety Symptom Inventory and a retrospective diagnosis of childhood separation anxiety disorder. Other self-report measures included the Adult Separation Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (ASA-27, the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS-21, personality traits measured by the NEO PI-R and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. These measures were included in three models examining for overall differences and then by gender: Model 1 compared the conventional SCID anxiety subtypes (excluding PTSD and OCD because of insufficient numbers; Model 2 divided the sample into those with and without ASAD; Model 3 compared those with ASAD with the individual anxiety subtypes in the residual group. Results Patients with ASAD had elevated early separation anxiety scores but this association was unique in females only. Except for social phobia in relation to some comparisons, those with ASAD recorded more severe symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, higher neuroticism scores, and greater levels of disability. Conclusions Patients with ASAD attending an anxiety clinic are highly symptomatic and disabled. The findings have implications for the classification, clinical identification and treatment of adult anxiety disorders.

  2. High School Transfer Students: A Group Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valine, Warren J.; Amos, Louise Cleary

    1973-01-01

    A counselor's awareness of many incidents of adjustment problems among new students in a large and impersonal high school prompted an effort to make changes in the situation; the resulting program, designed to help new students is described in this article. (Author)

  3. Anxiety Disorders: Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  4. In-Group Ostracism Increases High-Fidelity Imitation in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Jones, Rachel E; Whitehouse, Harvey; Legare, Cristine H

    2016-01-01

    The Cyberball paradigm was used to examine the hypothesis that children use high-fidelity imitation as a reinclusion behavior in response to being ostracized by in-group members. Children (N = 176; 5- to 6-year-olds) were either included or excluded by in- or out-group members and then shown a video of an in-group or an out-group member enacting a social convention. Participants who were excluded by their in-group engaged in higher-fidelity imitation than those who were included by their in-group. Children who were included by an out-group and those who were excluded by an out-group showed no difference in imitative fidelity. Children ostracized by in-group members also displayed increased anxiety relative to children ostracized by out-group members. The data are consistent with the proposal that high-fidelity imitation functions as reinclusion behavior in the context of in-group ostracism.

  5. Should Test Anxiety Be Measured Differently for Males and Females? Examination of Measurement Bias across Gender on Measures of Test Anxiety for Middle and High School, and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined measurement invariance across gender and gender differences on two measures of test anxiety developed for U.S. middle and high school, and college students. It was hypothesized that measurement invariance and gender differences would be found on the two measures of test anxiety, suggesting no separate scoring system is…

  6. High intelligence prevents the negative impact of anxiety on working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuderski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Using a large sample and the confirmatory factor analysis, the study investigated the relationships between anxiety, working memory (WM) and (fluid) intelligence. The study showed that the negative impact of anxiety on WM functioning diminishes with increasing intelligence, and that anxiety can significantly affect WM only in people below average intelligence. This effect could not be fully explained by the sheer differences in WM capacity (WMC), suggesting the importance of higher-level cognition in coping with anxiety. Although intelligence moderated the impact of anxiety on WM, it was only weakly related to anxiety. In contrast to previous studies, anxiety explained the substantial amount of WMC variance (17.8%) in less intelligent participants, but none of the variance in more intelligent ones. These results can be explained in terms of either increased motivation of intelligent but anxious people to cope with a WM task, or their ability to compensate decrements in WM.

  7. Anxiety and Depression in Adolescents With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Karen Ling; Lam, David; Tsui, Sarah; Ngan, Mary; Tsang, Brian; Lai, Tai Sum; Lam, Siu Man

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined anxiety and depression in adolescents with epilepsy and the association of these disorders with seizure-related and sociodemographic variables. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was administered to 140 children with epilepsy and 50 children with asthma aged 10 to 18 years attending mainstream schools. Adolescents with epilepsy had significantly higher scores on the depression subscale than those with asthma (5.2 ± 3.3 vs 4.2 ± 3.2, P = .032). Anxiety subscale scores and the frequency of anxiety and depression in both the epilepsy and asthma groups were not statistically significant. In the epilepsy group, 32.8% had anxiety and 22.1% had depression. Factors associated with anxiety were older age at the time of the study and polytherapy (2 or more antiepileptic drugs). Adolescents who had been seizure-free for 12 months or more at time of the study were less likely to experience anxiety. Factors associated with depression were medical comorbidities, female gender, frequent seizures, and younger age of seizure onset. A common risk factor for both anxiety and depression was the duration of epilepsy. Anxiety and depression were also highly associated with each other. Affective disorders are common in epilepsy and screening for psychiatric symptoms is required.

  8. Anxiety disorders in dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anxiety, as a primary symptom, includes all conditions of indefinite fear and psychic disorders dominated by fear. All dialysis patients suffer from anxiety as an independent phenomenon, or as part of another disease. Material and Methods. This study included 753 patients on chronic hemodialysis in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H in the period 1999-2004. The patients were divided into two groups: the first group included 348 patients with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN, and the control group included 405 patients with other diagnoses causing renal insufficiency (N18. The study was designed as a comparative cross sectional study, and patients were tested using questionnaires assessing anxiety, depression and general mental health status. Statistical analysis was done using standard descriptive and analytical methods. Results. Socio-demographic data showed highly significant differences between BEN and N18 in relation to place of residence (urban/rural (c2 = 23.970 p<0.01; in the incidence of renal comorbidity (c2 = 23.970 p<0.01; familial renal comorbidity (c2 = 23.970 p<0.01; and migrations (c2 = 4.874 p<0.01. Beck Anxiety Inventory Scores were highly significantly different between the two groups p<0.001, in regard to the incidence and variables. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale demonstrated a group significance p<0.001, and variables pointed to somatization, general anxiety and depression. This was confirmed by mini-mental state examination pointing to generalmental weakness. Conclusion. Anxiety appeared in all tested dialysis patients. It may be independent, somatized as part of another mental disorder or reinforced by a cognitive damage. Structured anxiety and depression result in pre-suicidal risk. .

  9. Changes on auditory physiology in response to the inactivation of amygdala nuclei in high anxiety rats expressing learned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Manoel Jorge

    2013-06-13

    The inferior colliculus (IC) is primarily involved in the processing of acoustic stimuli, including those emitted by prey and predators. The role of the central nucleus of the IC (CIC) in fear and anxiety has been suggested based on electrophysiological, behavioral and immunohistochemical studies. The reactivity of high-anxiety rats (HA) to diverse challenges is different from low-anxiety ones (LA). In humans and laboratory animals, pathological anxiety is often accompanied by heightened vigilance and alertness, hyperactivity of the amygdala (AM), and increased amplitude of the auditory evoked potentials (AEP) from the IC. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the inactivation of the central (CEA) and basolateral (BLA) nuclei of the amygdala, after local infusions of the full GABAA agonist muscimol (1nmol/0.2μl), on the AEP elicited in the CIC of rats tested under a learned fear state. Our results showed that both BLA and CEA inactivation change the expression of conditioned fear, in a paradigm using the context as the conditioned stimulus (CS). These changes are correlated to the innate anxiety levels of the animals. It is supposed that this shortcoming is in addition to the imbalance between the regulatory role of the top-down and bottom-up processes in the control of anxiety.

  10. High energy flare physics group summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. M.; Kurfess, J. D.

    1989-01-01

    The contributions of the High Energy Flare Physics Special Session in the American Astronomical Society Solar Physics Division Meeting are reviewed. Oral and poster papers were presented on observatories and instruments available for the upcoming solar maximum. Among these are the space-based Gamma Ray Observatory, the Solar Flare and Cosmic Burst Gamma Ray Experiment on the Ulysses spacecraft, the Soft X Ray Telescope on the spacecraft Solar-A, and the balloon-based Gamma Ray Imaging Device. Ground based observatories with new capabilities include the BIMA mm-wave interferometer (Univ. of California, Berkeley; Univ. of Illinois; Univ. of Maryland), Owens Valley Radio Observatory and the Very Large Array. The highlights of the various instrument performances are reported and potential data correlations and collaborations are suggested.

  11. Smoking Rates Still High in Some Racial Groups, CDC Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160256.html Smoking Rates Still High in Some Racial Groups, CDC ... lot of progress in getting Americans to stop smoking, some groups still have high smoking rates, a ...

  12. Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Test Anxiety KidsHealth > For Teens > Test Anxiety Print A A ... with their concentration or performance. What Is Test Anxiety? Test anxiety is actually a type of performance ...

  13. Grape powder intake prevents ovariectomy-induced anxiety-like behavior, memory impairment and high blood pressure in female Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Patki

    Full Text Available Diminished estrogen influence at menopause is reported to be associated with cognitive decline, heightened anxiety and hypertension. While estrogen therapy is often prescribed to overcome these behavioral and physiological deficits, antioxidants which have been shown beneficial are gaining nutritional intervention and popularity. Therefore, in the present study, utilizing the antioxidant properties of grapes, we have examined effect of 3 weeks of grape powder (GP; 15 g/L dissolved in tap water treatment on anxiety-like behavior, learning-memory impairment and high blood pressure in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Four groups of female Wistar rats were used; sham control, sham-GP treated, OVX and OVX+GP treated. We observed a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in OVX rats as compared to sham-controls. Furthermore, ovariectomy increased anxiety-like behavior and caused learning and memory impairment in rats as compared to sham-controls. Interestingly, providing grape powder treated water to OVX rats restored both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, decreased anxiety-like behavior and improved memory function. Moreover, OVX rats exhibited an impaired long term potentiation which was restored with grape powder treatment. Furthermore, ovariectomy increased oxidative stress in the brain, serum and urine, selectively decreasing antioxidant enzyme, glyoxalase-1 protein expression in the hippocampus but not in the cortex and amygdala of OVX rats, while grape powder treatment reversed these effects. Other antioxidant enzyme levels, including manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD and Cu/Zn SOD remained unchanged. We suggest that grape powder by regulating oxidative stress mechanisms exerts its protective effect on blood pressure, learning-memory and anxiety-like behavior. Our study is the first to examine behavioral, biochemical, physiological and electrophysiological outcome of estrogen depletion in rats and to test protective role

  14. Auricular Acupuncture Versus Progressive Muscle Relaxation in Patients with Anxiety Disorders or Major Depressive Disorder: A Prospective Parallel Group Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas de Lorent

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although acupuncture treatment is increasingly in demand among psychiatric patients, to date no studies have investigated the effectiveness of auricular acupuncture (AA in treating anxiety disorders or major depressive disorder. Thus, this study aimed to compare the effectiveness of AA versus progressive muscle relaxation (PMR, a standardized and accepted relaxation method. We examined 162 patients with a primary diagnosis of anxiety disorder or major depressive disorder, and each patient chose between treatment with AA, executed according to the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association protocol, and treatment with PMR. Each group had treatments twice a week for 4 weeks. Before and after treatment, each participant rated four items on a visual analog scale: anxiety, tension, anger/aggression, and mood. Statistical analyses were performed with the original visual analog scale scores and the Change-Intensity Index, an appropriate indicator of the difference between two values of a variable. Our results show that treatment with AA significantly decreased tension, anxiety, and anger/aggression throughout the 4 weeks, but did not elevate mood. Between AA and PMR, no statistically significant differences were found at any time. Thus, we suggest that both AA and PMR may be useful, equally-effective additional interventions in the treatment of the above-mentioned disorders.

  15. Auricular Acupuncture Versus Progressive Muscle Relaxation in Patients with Anxiety Disorders or Major Depressive Disorder: A Prospective Parallel Group Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorent, Lukas; Agorastos, Agorastos; Yassouridis, Alexander; Kellner, Michael; Muhtz, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    Although acupuncture treatment is increasingly in demand among psychiatric patients, to date no studies have investigated the effectiveness of auricular acupuncture (AA) in treating anxiety disorders or major depressive disorder. Thus, this study aimed to compare the effectiveness of AA versus progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), a standardized and accepted relaxation method. We examined 162 patients with a primary diagnosis of anxiety disorder or major depressive disorder, and each patient chose between treatment with AA, executed according to the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association protocol, and treatment with PMR. Each group had treatments twice a week for 4 weeks. Before and after treatment, each participant rated four items on a visual analog scale: anxiety, tension, anger/aggression, and mood. Statistical analyses were performed with the original visual analog scale scores and the Change-Intensity Index, an appropriate indicator of the difference between two values of a variable. Our results show that treatment with AA significantly decreased tension, anxiety, and anger/aggression throughout the 4 weeks, but did not elevate mood. Between AA and PMR, no statistically significant differences were found at any time. Thus, we suggest that both AA and PMR may be useful, equally-effective additional interventions in the treatment of the above-mentioned disorders.

  16. A Comparative Study of Foreign Language Anxiety and Motivation of Academic- and Vocational-Track High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-ju; Chen, Chien-wei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate EFL learner language anxiety and learning motivation of high school students. Subjects included 155 students from the same private senior high school in central Taiwan, 60 in academic track and 95 in vocational track. The majority of the participants started taking English lessons either before entering elementary…

  17. The Predictors of Success in Turkish High School Placement Exams: Exam Prep Courses, Perfectionism, Parental Attitudes and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basol, Gülsah; Zabun, Engin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine to what extent the following four variables explain K-8 students' SBS success levels; these variables being attendance to private SBS preperation courses, multidimensional perfectionism, parental attitude types, and test anxiety. SBS is a nationwide, high stake, high school placement test taken by…

  18. Consistent group selection in high-dimensional linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Fengrong; 10.3150/10-BEJ252

    2010-01-01

    In regression problems where covariates can be naturally grouped, the group Lasso is an attractive method for variable selection since it respects the grouping structure in the data. We study the selection and estimation properties of the group Lasso in high-dimensional settings when the number of groups exceeds the sample size. We provide sufficient conditions under which the group Lasso selects a model whose dimension is comparable with the underlying model with high probability and is estimation consistent. However, the group Lasso is, in general, not selection consistent and also tends to select groups that are not important in the model. To improve the selection results, we propose an adaptive group Lasso method which is a generalization of the adaptive Lasso and requires an initial estimator. We show that the adaptive group Lasso is consistent in group selection under certain conditions if the group Lasso is used as the initial estimator.

  19. High Phobic Anxiety Is Related to Lower Leukocyte Telomere Length in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Okereke, Olivia I.; Jennifer Prescott; Wong, Jason Y.Y.; Jiali Han; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Immaculata De Vivo

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic psychological distress has been linked to shorter telomeres, an indication of accelerated aging. Yet, little is known about relations of anxiety to telomeres. We examined whether a typically chronic form of anxiety--phobic anxiety--is related to telomere length. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Relative telomere lengths (RTLs) in peripheral blood leukocytes were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction among 5,243 women (aged 42-69 years) who: were parti...

  20. Deconstructing Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David William

    2008-01-01

    Recent changes to educational policy which have focused attention on the use of high stakes testing as performance and accountability measures have renewed interest in test anxiety both in the UK and the USA. The aim of this paper is to provide a critical examination of the test anxiety construct, and explore the ways in which test anxiety is…

  1. Impact of trait anxiety on psychological well-being in men with prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikiya Taoka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of the present study was to determine state anxiety following radical treatment for localized prostate cancer (PCa, and the impact of trait anxiety on psychological well-being in affected patients. Material and Methods The present study was a cross-sectional survey of 70 men with localized PCa performed between February 2012 and July 2012. Of those, 21, 25, and 24 patients were treated by radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP, permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB, and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT, respectively. State anxiety, trait anxiety, and general health were assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and 8 Items Short Form Health Survey (SF-8. Results The rate of very high and high state anxiety in patients who received RRP was 47.6%, while that in patients who received PPB and EBRT was 40.0% and 37.5%, respectively. In contrast, the rate of very high and high trait anxiety in the RRP group was much lower (23.7%. Trait anxiety showed a high correlation with state anxiety and the mental health component summary of SF-8 (correlation coefficient=0.715, -0.504. Conclusions Trait anxiety was associated with the degree of state anxiety regarding treatments for PCa, followed by change in state anxiety, which might have effects on psychological well-being. Information regarding state anxiety as a consequence of treatments and trait anxiety measurement tool are important considerations for treatment decision-making in newly diagnosed PCa patients.

  2. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Elementary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Gül Kapçı

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study examined the effectiveness of a school-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT program for school aged children with high levels of anxiety symptoms. Method: The study design was a randomized controlled trial (RCT comparing CBT to a waitlist-control condition. A total of 61 children (37 girls and 24 boys; age range 8-13 with high scores on either self-report or parental reports of anxiety participated in the study. The treatment group received 10 weekly sessions over three months that was administered using the Cool Kids treatment manual (Lyneham 2003. Outcome measures included parent-rated scales of anxiety and anxiety interference, and child self-report scales of anxiety, anxiety interference, depression and self-esteem. Both study groups were comparable at baseline for clinical and demographic variables. A mixed design ANOVA with pre-post treatment as within and CBT vs waitlist groups as between group variable was used for statistical analysis. Results: At post-test, CBT group had lower scores on anxiety, interference of anxiety and depression scales and higher scores on self-esteem scales of scholastic competence, social acceptance and behavioral conduct, but not physical appearance and athletic ability compared to the waitlist control group. Conclusions: The study presents empirical evidence for the effectiveness of a school based CBT Cool Kids program for reducing anxiety symptoms and increasing self-esteem in elementary school children. Future studies may examine the durability of treatment gains

  3. Psychological intervention reduces self-reported performance anxiety in high school music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Alice M; Osborne, Margaret S; Wilson, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) can be distressing for many young people studying music, and may negatively impact upon their ability to cope with the demands and stressors of music education. It can also lead young people to give up music or to develop unhealthy coping habits in their adult music careers. Minimal research has examined the effectiveness of psychological programs to address MPA in young musicians. Sixty-two adolescents were pseudo-randomized to a cognitive behavioral (CB) group-delivered intervention or a waitlist condition. The intervention consisted of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and relaxation techniques, identification of strengths, goal-setting, imagery and visualization techniques to support three solo performances in front of judges. Significant reductions in self-rated MPA were found in both groups following the intervention and compared to their baseline MPA. This reduction was maintained at 2-months follow-up. There appeared to be inconsistent effects of the intervention upon judge-rated MPA, however the presence of floor effects precluded meaningful reductions in MPA. There appeared to be no effect of the intervention upon judge-rated performance quality. This study highlights the potential for group-based CB programs to be delivered within school music curricula to help young musicians develop skills to overcome the often debilitating effects of MPA.

  4. Psychological intervention reduces self-reported performance anxiety in high school music students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M Braden

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Music performance anxiety (MPA can be distressing for many young people studying music, and may negatively impact upon their ability to cope with the demands and stressors of music education. It can also lead young people to give up music or to develop unhealthy coping habits in their adult music careers. Minimal research has examined the effectiveness of psychological programs to address MPA in young musicians. Sixty-two adolescents were pseudo-randomised to a cognitive behavioural (CB group-delivered intervention or a waitlist condition. The intervention consisted of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and relaxation techniques, identification of strengths, goal-setting, imagery and visualisation techniques to support three solo performances in front of judges. Significant reductions in self-rated MPA were found in both groups following the intervention and compared to their baseline MPA. This reduction was maintained at two-months follow-up. There appeared to be inconsistent effects of the intervention upon judge-rated MPA, however the presence of floor effects precluded meaningful reductions in MPA. There appeared to be no effect of the intervention upon judge-rated performance quality. This study highlights the potential for group-based CB programs to be delivered within school music curricula to help young musicians develop skills to overcome the often debilitating effects of MPA.

  5. Social anxiety disorder in genuine halitosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitsu Takashi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a possibility that genuine halitosis patients' anxiety do not recover after oral malodor treatment due to their social anxiety disorder. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of social anxiety disorder on the level of anxiety in genuine halitosis patients before and after treatment for oral malodor. Methods The subjects were 262 genuine halitosis patients who visited the Fresh Breath Clinic from March, 2008 to October, 2009. The subjects who had score 2 or higher by the organoleptic test were diagnosed as genuine halitosis patients. Gas chromatography (GC was conducted before and after oral malodor treatment for the oral malodor measurement. Based on their risk of social anxiety disorder, subjects were divided into low- and high-risk groups using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS. The questions related to oral malodor and the clinical oral examination were both conducted before oral malodor treatment. The level of anxiety before and after oral malodor treatment was evaluated using the Visual Analogue Scale of Anxiety (VAAS. Results More than 20% of subjects had a score of 60 or more on the LSAS (high LSAS group. The mean age and the percentage of females were significantly higher in the high LSAS group compared to the low LSAS group. The high LSAS group was more likely to have problems associated with oral malodor and to adopt measures against oral malodor compared to the low LSAS group. The mean concentrations of H2S and CH3SH by GC significantly decreased after the oral malodor treatment in both LSAS groups. VAAS scores also significantly decreased after treatment in both LSAS groups. The logistic regression analysis indicated that the high LSAS group had a 2.28 times higher risk of having a post-VAAS score of 50 or more compared to the low LSAS group. Conclusions This study revealed that genuine halitosis patients with a strong trait of social anxiety disorder have difficulty

  6. Short-term intensive psychodynamic group therapy versus cognitive-behavioral group therapy in day treatment of anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive or personality disorders: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszek, Hubert; Holas, Paweł; Wyrzykowski, Tomasz; Lorentzen, Steinar; Kokoszka, Andrzej

    2015-07-29

    Psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral group therapies are frequently applied in day hospitals for the treatment of anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive or personality disorders in Poland and other Eastern European countries. Yet there is not enough evidence as to their effectiveness in this environment; this study addresses this gap. The aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness of these two kinds of day treatment care consisting of intensive, short-term group psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral therapy, for patients with anxiety disorders and/or comorbid depressive or personality disorders. Our objectives are to: 1) show the effectiveness of each treatment in a day-care setting relative to the wait-list control group; 2) demonstrate the relative short- and long-term effectiveness of the two active treatments; 3) carry out a preliminary examination of the predictors and moderators of treatment response; 4) carry out a preliminary examination of the mediators of therapeutic change; and 5) compare the impact of both methods of treatment on the outcome of the measures used in this study. In this randomized controlled trial, a total of 199 patients with anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive and/or personality disorders will be assigned to one of three conditions: 1) psychodynamic group therapy; 2) cognitive-behavioral group therapy; or 3) wait-list control group. The therapy will last 12 weeks. Both treatments will be manualized (the manuals will address comorbidity). Primary outcome measures will include self-reported symptoms of anxiety, observer-rated symptoms of anxiety, global improvement, and recovery rate. Secondary outcome measures will include the number of pathological personality traits, depression, self-esteem, defense mechanisms, beliefs about self and others, interpersonal problems, object relations, parental bonding, meta-cognition, and quality of life. Measures will be taken at baseline, post-treatment, and at six months following

  7. Nicotine modulation of fear memories and anxiety: Implications for learning and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Gould, Thomas J

    2015-10-15

    Anxiety disorders are a group of crippling mental diseases affecting millions of Americans with a 30% lifetime prevalence and costs associated with healthcare of $42.3 billion. While anxiety disorders show high levels of co-morbidity with smoking (45.3% vs. 22.5% in healthy individuals), they are also more common among the smoking population (22% vs. 11.1% in the non-smoking population). Moreover, there is clear evidence that smoking modulates symptom severity in patients with anxiety disorders. In order to better understand this relationship, several animal paradigms are used to model several key symptoms of anxiety disorders; these include fear conditioning and measures of anxiety. Studies clearly demonstrate that nicotine mediates acquisition and extinction of fear as well as anxiety through the modulation of specific subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in brain regions involved in emotion processing such as the hippocampus. However, the direction of nicotine's effects on these behaviors is determined by several factors that include the length of administration, hippocampus-dependency of the fear learning task, and source of anxiety (novelty-driven vs. social anxiety). Overall, the studies reviewed here suggest that nicotine alters behaviors related to fear and anxiety and that nicotine contributes to the development, maintenance, and reoccurrence of anxiety disorders.

  8. Testing a Model of Teaching for Anxiety and Success for English Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önem, Evrim; Ergenç, Iclal

    2013-01-01

    Much research has shown that there is a negative relationship between high levels of anxiety and success for English language teaching. This paper aimed to test a model of teaching for anxiety and success in English language teaching to affect anxiety and success levels at the same time in a control-experiment group with pre- and post-test study…

  9. Depression Begets Depression: Comparing the Predictive Utility of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms to Later Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Feng, Xin; Hipwell, Alison; Klostermann, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: The high comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders, especially among females, has called into question the independence of these two symptom groups. It is possible that childhood anxiety typically precedes depression in girls. Comparing of the predictive utility of symptoms of anxiety with the predictive utility of symptoms…

  10. Eating-related anxiety in individuals with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, C M; Thuras, P; Peterson, C B; Lampert, J; Miller, D; Crow, S J

    2011-12-01

    Although previous research has supported the importance of anxiety as an etiological and maintenance factor for eating disorders, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. The role of anxiety in the context of eating behavior is especially unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify anxiety-eliciting eating situations and anxiety management strategies patients use to mitigate anxiety experienced in the context of eating as determined by diagnostic groups and symptom patterns. Fifty-three eating disorder outpatients were administered the Eating and Anxiety Questionnaire (EAQ) and the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale. Ratings indicated significant anxiety in most eating situations, whereas management strategies were more limited yet regularly employed. Factor analysis of the EAQ revealed a 6-factor solution for anxiety management strategies and a 4-factor solution for anxiety-eliciting situations. These results indicate patients with eating disorders report high levels of anxiety associated with eating behaviors but utilize limited yet consistent anxiety management strategies. Effective intervention strategies for managing eating-related anxiety should be incorporated into treatment and may need to be specified for different diagnostic subgroups.

  11. Heritability of major depressive and comorbid anxiety disorders in multi-generational families at high risk for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, Guia; Gameroff, Marc J; Warner, Virginia; Talati, Ardesheer; Glatt, Charles E; Wickramaratne, Priya; Weissman, Myrna M

    2016-12-01

    Family studies have shown that MDD is highly transmittable but have not studied its heritability. Twin studies show heritability of about 40% and do not include anxiety disorders. We assessed heritability of MDD and comorbid anxiety disorders in a multigenerational study of family members at high risk for MDD. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that examined clinical subtypes of MDD defined by early and late age of onset would be under relatively stronger genetic control than broadly defined DSM-IV MDD. The first generation with moderate to severe MDD was recruited from an ambulatory psychiatric treatment setting, and their descendants in the second, third, and fourth generation, were interviewed by clinicians up to six times during a 30-year period. Lifetime rates of MDD and anxiety disorders were collected for 545 participants from 65 multigenerational families. The heritability (h(2) ) of MDD in this high risk sample was estimated at 67%. Anxiety and sequential comorbidity of anxiety disorders and MDD revealed h(2) of 49% and 53%, respectively, and strong positive genetic correlation (rhog  = 0.92, P = 7.3 × 10(-7) ). Early onset MDD did not appear to be under greater genetic control than broadly defined DSM-IV MDD. Individuals who are direct descendants of subjects ascertained for moderate to severe MDD have strong genetic vulnerability to develop anxiety or MDD. Our findings support family based studies as appropriate and useful design to understand the heritability of common disorders such as MDD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Sirtuin 1 and 7 mediate resveratrol-induced recovery from hyper-anxiety in high-fructose-fed prediabetic rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B RAGHUNATH REDDY; SWATI MAITRA; PRIYA JHELUM; K PRAVEEN KUMAR; PANKAJ K BAGUL; GAGANDEEP KAUR; SANJAY K BANERJEE; ARVIND KUMAR; SUMANA CHAKRAVARTY

    2016-09-01

    Hyperglycaemia in diabetes is either caused by reduced availability of insulin (type 1 diabetes, T1D) or insulinresistance to the cells (type 2 diabetes, T2D). In recent years, the prevalence of T2D has increased to an alarmingproportion, encompassing 95% of the total diabetic burden, probably due to economy-driven changes in lifestyle.Recent epidemiological studies show comorbid depression, anxiety and related mental illness. To explore themolecular mechanisms underlying this comorbid conditions, we used Sprague–Dawley rats on high-fructose dietfor 8 weeks to induce prediabetic condition. Rats with this metabolic syndrome also showed hyper-anxiety when theywere subjected to anxiety-related behavioural assays. Rats were administered with resveratrol, an activator of sirtuins,and metformin, a standard antidiabetic drug, simultaneously with fructose. We observed that resveratrol was moreeffective in protecting from both the metabolic (prediabetic) and affective (anxiety) disorders than metformin.Molecular studies showed that recovery was associated with the upregulation of few nuclear sirtuins that actepigenetically – Sirt 1 and 7, which were significantly attenuated in the striatum of prediabetic rats. In conclusion,our study showed that hyper-anxiety associated with prediabetic condition is ameliorated by resveratrol throughmodulation of sirtuins, which is more or less similar to metformin.

  13. Anxiety mediates the effect of acute stress on working memory performance when cortisol levels are high: a moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Anna; Pulvers, Kim; Spady, Thomas J; Kliebenstein, Alexa; Bachand, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety is an aversive emotional state characterized by perceived uncontrollability and hypervigilance to threat that can frequently cause disruptions in higher-order cognitive processes like working memory. The attentional control theory (ACT) predicts that anxiety negatively affects the working memory system. This study tested the association between anxiety and working memory after the addition of stress and measured the glucocorticoid, cortisol. To better understand this relationship, we utilized a moderated mediation model. Undergraduate students from a public university (N = 103) self-reported their anxiety levels. Participants first completed a short-term memory test. During and after a forehead cold pressor task (stress vs. control procedure) participants completed a working memory test. Salivary cortisol was taken at baseline and after the last working memory test. Overall, acute stress had no effect on working memory. However, we found that anxiety levels mediated the influence of condition (stressed vs. control) on working memory, but only among those individuals who had high cortisol levels after exposure to acute stress, supporting a moderated mediation model. These results imply that activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis was necessary for working memory impairment in anxious individuals. These results provide support for the ACT.

  14. The Influence of Mathematics Anxiety in Middle and High School Students Math Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mutawah, Masooma Ali

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has been the focus of much psychological and educational research in the past few years, there are many international studies showing that mathematics anxiety is an influence on student's achievements in school, but little research has been done about this issue in Bahrain. Bahrain is a country in the Arabian Gulf region, its economic…

  15. Direct and indirect predictors of social anxiety: The role of anxiety sensitivity, behavioral inhibition, experiential avoidance and self-consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayiotou, Georgia; Karekla, Maria; Panayiotou, Margarita

    2014-11-01

    Using mediated and moderated regression, this study examined the hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity, the tendency to be concerned about anxiety symptoms, and behavioral inhibition, the tendency to withdraw from novel and potentially dangerous stimuli, predict social anxiety indirectly through experiential avoidance as measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II and self-consciousness, as measured by the Self-Consciousness Scale. Behavioral inhibition and anxiety sensitivity are operationalized as temperamental traits, while experiential avoidance and self-consciousness are seen as learned emotion regulation strategies. Study 1 included college student groups from Cyprus scoring high and low on social anxiety (N=64 and N=63) as measured by the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory. Study 2 examined a random community sample aged 18-65 (N=324) treating variables as continuous and using the Psychiatric Disorders Screening Questionnaire to screen for social anxiety. Results suggest that experiential avoidance, but not self-consciousness mediates the effects of anxiety sensitivity on predicting social anxiety status, but that behavioral inhibition predicts social anxiety directly and not through the proposed mediators. Moderation effects were not supported. Overall, the study finds that social anxiety symptomatology is predicted not only by behavioral inhibition, but also anxiety sensitivity, when individuals take actions to avoid anxious experiences. Modifying such avoidant coping approaches may be more beneficial for psychological treatments than attempts to change long-standing, temperamental personality traits.

  16. Development of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention Program to Treat Anxiety and Social Deficits in Teens with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan W.; Albano, Anne Marie; Johnson, Cynthia R.; Kasari, Connie; Ollendick, Thomas; Klin, Ami; Oswald, Donald; Scahill, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety is a common co-occurring problem among young people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Characterized by deficits in social interaction, communication problems, and stereotyped behavior and restricted interests, this group of disorders is more prevalent than previously realized. When present, anxiety may compound the social deficits of…

  17. Anxiety during pregnancy and autonomic nervous system activity: A longitudinal observational and cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Taeko; Tamakoshi, Koji; Tanabe, Keiko

    2017-08-01

    To assess the longitudinal change in autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity during pregnancy and the association between anxiety during pregnancy and ANS activity. Pregnant Japanese women with a singleton fetus and normal pregnancy were recruited (n=65). ANS activity and anxiety were measured using a self-rating questionnaire at approximately 20, 30, and 36weeks of gestation. Very low (VLF) and high (HF) frequency bands of heart rate variability spectrums were used. Anxiety was assessed using the Japanese version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. A score of 45 or more on trait-anxiety and the other represent the trait-anxiety group and the non- trait-anxiety group, respectively. The state-anxiety group and the non-state-anxiety group were defined in the same manner. Longitudinal observation of individual pregnant women indicated the significant increasing trend (p=0.002) of VLF power and the significant decreasing trend (p<0.001) of HF power during 20 to 36 gestation weeks. Compared with the non-trait-anxiety group, the trait-anxiety group had significantly lower VLF values at 20 gestational weeks (p=0.033) and had significantly lower HF values at 30 and 36 gestational weeks (p=0.015 and p=0.044, respectively). The increasing rate of VLF from 20 to 36 gestational weeks was higher among the trait-anxiety group. The same associations were observed between the state-anxiety and non-state-anxiety groups at 20 gestational weeks. Anxiety during pregnancy decreased heart rate variability. Anxiety in second trimester pregnancy promoted a subsequent increase in sympathetic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sport-related performance anxiety in young female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Omar, Hatim; Terry, Marisa

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of anxiety disorders in adolescents range from 6% to 20%, and it is much higher for anxiety symptoms not meeting criteria for a specific anxiety disorder. The prevalence is much higher in females. Athletes participating in sports experience different levels of stress from competitive sports. For most young athletes (generally 13 to 24 years old, i.e., high-school and college age group) sport participation is reported to be no more stressful than many other activities of daily student or work life in general where competition is involved and performance is measured. Some level of sport related performance anxiety is considered to be normal and healthy; however, extreme anxiety in athletes can be detrimental in these performance situations. A number of factors may contribute to the development, severity, and persistence of performance anxiety related to sport participation. This article reviews the definitions, theories, clinical presentation, evaluation, and management principles of performance anxiety symptoms in young athletes.

  19. Efficacy of Management Skills Group Training for Mothers on Self-Esteem and Anxiety of Their Children With Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narguesse Saliminia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has a profound impact on lives of thousands of children and their families. Objectives Aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of training for mothers, on these children. Materials and Methods In this quasi-experimental research, 30 mothers were randomly divided into control and experimental groups and the experimental group received Barkley management skills training in 9 sessions. Results Findings showed that anxiety in children of trained mothers was decreased and self-esteem was increased. Conclusions The training program for mothers can be an effective method for treatment of psychological disorders in children with ADHD.

  20. Building and Sustaining Hope. A Response to "Meaningful Hope for Teachers in a Time of High Anxiety and Low Morale"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytten, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, I respond to Carrie Nolan and Sarah M. Stitzlein's article "Meaningful Hope for Teachers in a Time of High Anxiety and Low Morale" and support their argument for meaningful hope grounded in pragmatist philosophy. I agree that while hope is routinely called for in the educational literature, it is often done so in superficial and…

  1. Self-Concealment, Social Network Sites Usage, Social Appearance Anxiety, Loneliness of High School Students: A Model Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Ugur; Çolak, Tugba Seda

    2016-01-01

    This study was tested a model for explain to social networks sites (SNS) usage with structural equation modeling (SEM). Using SEM on a sample of 475 high school students (35% male, 65% female) students, model was investigated the relationship between self-concealment, social appearance anxiety, loneliness on SNS such as Twitter and Facebook usage.…

  2. Low vagally-mediated heart rate variability and increased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias in rats bred for high anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevali, Luca; Trombini, Mimosa; Graiani, Gallia; Madeddu, Denise; Quaini, Federico; Landgraf, Rainer; Neumann, Inga D; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2014-04-10

    In humans, there is a documented association between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Putative underlying mechanisms may include an impairment of the autonomic nervous system control of cardiac function. The primary objective of the present study was to characterize cardiac autonomic modulation and susceptibility to arrhythmias in genetic lines of rats that differ largely in their anxiety level. To reach this goal, electrocardiographic recordings were performed in high-anxiety behavior (HAB, n=10) and low-anxiety behavior (LAB, n=10) rats at rest, during stressful stimuli and under autonomic pharmacological manipulations, and analyzed by means of time- and frequency-domain indexes of heart rate variability. During resting conditions, HAB rats displayed a reduced heart rate variability, mostly in terms of lower parasympathetic (vagal) modulation compared to LAB rats. In HAB rats, this relatively low cardiac vagal control was associated with smaller heart rate responsiveness to acute stressors compared to LAB counterparts. In addition, beta-adrenergic pharmacological stimulation induced a larger incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in HABs compared to LABs. At sacrifice, a moderate increase in heart-body weight ratio was observed in HAB rats. We conclude that high levels of anxiety-related behavior in rats are associated with signs of i) impaired autonomic modulation of heart rate (low vagally-mediated heart rate variability), ii) poor adaptive heart rate responsiveness to stressful stimuli, iii) increased arrhythmia susceptibility, and iv) cardiac hypertrophy. These results highlight the utility of the HAB/LAB model for investigating the mechanistic basis of the comorbidity between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease.

  3. Measuring preoperative anxiety in patients with intracranial tumors: the Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Simone; Kaup, Lea; Mehdorn, Hubertus Maximilian

    2011-10-01

    Preoperative anxiety is a major problem in patients with brain tumors and is of high clinical relevance. However, to date no instruments have been validated for the assessment of preoperative anxiety for this patient group. The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) has shown promising results for the assessment of preoperative anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine its psychometric properties and the optimal cutoff score for patients with intracranial tumors to make it applicable in the neurosurgical setting. The sample totaled 180 neurosurgical patients with intracranial tumors. Patients were administered the APAIS along with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as the gold standard against which the APAIS was compared. Patients scoring 11 or above in the anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were defined as clinical cases having anxiety. The psychometric properties of the APAIS were evaluated for a postulated 2-factor structure, Cronbach α, and correlations. The postulated 2-factor structure could not be replicated. Instead, we found a 3-factor solution (anxiety about the operation, anxiety about the anesthesia, information requirement). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve ranged from ≥0.65 to ≥0.77. Optimal cutoff scores were calculated. The cutoff score for the anxiety scale was ≥10 for the whole sample and men only, and was ≥11 for women only. Analysis of the psychometric properties yielded satisfactory results (eg. Cronbach α for the anxiety scale >0.84). Despite its brevity, the APAIS is valid and recommendable for the assessment of preoperative anxiety in patients with intracranial tumors. As this is the first validation study focusing on patients with severe diseases and major surgeries, we recommend the application of our cutoff scores also for patients similar to our study population with regard to disease and surgery severity.

  4. Examination of Science and Math Course Achievements of Vocational High School Students in the Scope of Self-Efficacy and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Mehmet; Geban, Ömer

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to predict physics, chemistry, and biology and math course achievements of vocational high school students according to the variables of student self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, state anxiety and trait anxiety. Study data were collected using a questionnaire administered to the students of a vocational high school…

  5. To what extent does the anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) detect specific types of anxiety disorder in primary care? A psychometric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Anxiety scales may help primary care physicians to detect specific anxiety disorders among the many emotionally distressed patients presenting in primary care. The anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) consists of an admixture of symptoms of specific anxiety disorders. The research questions were: (1) Is the anxiety scale unidimensional or multidimensional? (2) To what extent does the anxiety scale detect specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders? (3) Which cut-off points are suitable to rule out or to rule in (which) anxiety disorders? Methods We analyzed 5 primary care datasets with standardized psychiatric diagnoses and 4DSQ scores. Unidimensionality was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). We examined mean scores and anxiety score distributions per disorder. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points. Results Total n was 969. CFA supported unidimensionality. The anxiety scale performed slightly better in detecting patients with panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and specific phobia. ROC-analysis suggested that ≥4 was the optimal cut-off point to rule out and ≥10 the cut-off point to rule in anxiety disorders. Conclusions The 4DSQ anxiety scale measures a common trait of pathological anxiety that is characteristic of anxiety disorders, in particular panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, OCD and PTSD. The anxiety score detects the latter anxiety disorders to a slightly greater extent than GAD and specific phobia, without being able to distinguish between the different anxiety disorder types. The cut-off points ≥4 and ≥10 can be used to separate distressed patients in three groups with a relatively low, moderate and high probability of having one or more anxiety disorders. PMID:24761829

  6. Meditation therapy for anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisanaprakornkit, T; Krisanaprakornkit, W; Piyavhatkul, N; Laopaiboon, M

    2006-01-25

    transcendental meditation showed a reduction in anxiety symptoms and electromyography score comparable with electromyography-biofeedback and relaxation therapy. Another study compared Kundalini Yoga (KY), with Relaxation/Mindfulness Meditation. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale showed no statistically significant difference between groups. The overall dropout rate in both studies was high (33-44%). Neither study reported on adverse effects of meditation. The small number of studies included in this review do not permit any conclusions to be drawn on the effectiveness of meditation therapy for anxiety disorders. Transcendental meditation is comparable with other kinds of relaxation therapies in reducing anxiety, and Kundalini Yoga did not show significant effectiveness in treating obsessive-compulsive disorders compared with Relaxation/Meditation. Drop out rates appear to be high, and adverse effects of meditation have not been reported. More trials are needed.

  7. Attention network functioning in children with anxiety disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and non-clinical anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogg, K; Salum, G A; Bradley, B P; Gadelha, A; Pan, P; Alvarenga, P; Rohde, L A; Pine, D S; Manfro, G G

    2015-01-01

    Research with adults suggests that anxiety is associated with poor control of executive attention. However, in children, it is unclear (a) whether anxiety disorders and non-clinical anxiety are associated with deficits in executive attention, (b) whether such deficits are specific to anxiety versus other psychiatric disorders, and (c) whether there is heterogeneity among anxiety disorders (in particular, specific phobia versus other anxiety disorders). We examined executive attention in 860 children classified into three groups: anxiety disorders (n = 67), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 67) and no psychiatric disorder (n = 726). Anxiety disorders were subdivided into: anxiety disorders excluding specific phobia (n = 43) and specific phobia (n = 21). The Attention Network Task was used to assess executive attention, alerting and orienting. Findings indicated heterogeneity among anxiety disorders, as children with anxiety disorders (excluding specific phobia) showed impaired executive attention, compared with disorder-free children, whereas children with specific phobia showed no executive attention deficit. Among disorder-free children, executive attention was less efficient in those with high, relative to low, levels of anxiety. There were no anxiety-related deficits in orienting or alerting. Children with ADHD not only had poorer executive attention than disorder-free children, but also higher orienting scores, less accurate responses and more variable response times. Impaired executive attention in children (reflected by difficulty inhibiting processing of task-irrelevant information) was not fully explained by general psychopathology, but instead showed specific associations with anxiety disorders (other than specific phobia) and ADHD, as well as with high levels of anxiety symptoms in disorder-free children.

  8. Overlay Share Mesh for Interactive Group Communication with High Dynamic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yan-hua; CAI Yun-ze; XU Xiao-ming

    2007-01-01

    An overlay share mesh infrastructure is presented for high dynamic group communication systems, such as distributed interactive simulation (DIS) and distributed virtual environments (DVE). Overlay share mesh infrastructure can own better adapting ability for high dynamic group than tradition multi-tree multicast infrastructure by sharing links among different groups. The mechanism of overlay share mesh based on area of interest (AOI) was discussed in detail in this paper. A large number of simulation experiments were done and the permance of mesh infrastructure was studied. Experiments results proved that overlay mesh infrastructure owns better adaptability than traditional multi-tree infrastructure for high dynamic group communication systems.

  9. Symptom provocation in dental anxiety using cross-phobic video stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueken, Ulrike; Hoyer, Jürgen; Siegert, Jens; Gloster, Andrew T; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    Although video stimulation has been successfully employed in dental phobia, conclusions regarding the specificity of reactions are limited. A novel, video-based paradigm using cross-phobic video stimulation was validated based on subjective and autonomic responses. Forty subjects were stratified according to dental anxiety as measured by the Dental Fear Survey (DFS) using a median-split procedure (high-DFS and low-DFS groups). Anxiety stimuli comprised dental-anxiety scenes and non-dental-anxiety control scenes (snake stimuli). Neutral scenes were tailored to each anxiety stimulus. Dental, but not snake, stimuli were rated as more anxiety provoking only in the high-DFS group. Elevated skin-conductance amplitudes were observed in the high-DFS group for dental anxiety vs. neutral videos, but not for snake anxiety vs. neutral videos. State and trait anxiety and autonomic reactivity were correlated according to expectations. Using cross-phobic video stimulation, it was demonstrated that phobogenic reactions in dental anxiety are specific to the respective stimulus material and do not generalize to other non-dental-anxiety control conditions. The validation of the paradigm may support and stimulate future research on the characterization of dental anxiety on different response systems, including its underlying neural substrates. © 2011 Eur J Oral Sci.

  10. The efficacy of attendance and semi-attendance group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on the anxiety disorders of adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasi, Afsaneh; Arman, Soroor; Maracy, Mohamad Reza

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are one of the most psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents that can cause long life functional disability. The first line treatment for this disorder is cognitive behavioral therapy that has primary, secondary and tertiary preventive effect, but is expensive and long time. Today there is some effort to find short term, group, semi-attendance and low cost therapies. METHODS: Subjects were 42 girls (12- 17 y) with at least one anxiety disorder according to DSM-IV-TR with their parents who were divided into two groups randomly: group A which participated in 8 sessions and group B which participated in 4 sessions and the contents of sessions 3, 4, 6, and 7 were recorded on a CD for them. The tests used in this study were: SCARED, CATS, CAIS-C, CAIS-P, conducted before (T0), just after (T1) and three months after the treatment (T2). The collected data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance test using SPSS software package, version 15.0. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between efficacy of semi-attendance group CBT and attendance group CBT in T0, T1 and T2 according to 4 tests (p = 0.311). The difference between the scores of these tests between T0 andT1 and T0 and T2 was significant in both groups (p < 0.001) but the difference between T1 and T2 was not significant. (p = 0.771). CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of semi-attendance group CBT and attendance group CBT is similar and would sustain after 3 months. PMID:21526093

  11. The efficacy of attendance and semi-attendance group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT on the anxiety disorders of adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Karbasi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety disorders are one of the most psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents that can cause long life functional disability. The first line treatment for this disorder is cognitive behavioral therapy that has primary, secondary and tertiary preventive effect, but is expensive and long time. Today there is some effort to find short term, group, semi-attendance and low cost therapies. Methods: Subjects were 42 girls (12- 17 y with at least one anxiety disorder according to DSM-IV-TR with their parents who were divided into two groups randomly: group A which participated in 8 sessions and group B which participated in 4 sessions and the contents of sessions 3, 4, 6, and 7 were recorded on a CD for them. The tests used in this study were: SCARED, CATS, CAIS-C, CAIS-P, conducted before (T0, just after (T1 and three months after the treatment (T2. The collected data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance test using SPSS software package, version 15.0. Results: There was no significant difference between efficacy of semi-attendance group CBT and attendance group CBT in T0, T1 and T2 according to 4 tests (p = 0.311. The difference between the scores of these tests between T0 andT1 and T0 and T2 was significant in both groups (p < 0.001 but the difference between T1 and T2 was not significant. (p = 0.771. Conclusions: The efficacy of semi-attendance group CBT and attendance group CBT is similar and would sustain after 3 months.

  12. Research on High Examinees' Test Anxiety%高考生考试焦虑状况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雅菊

    2011-01-01

    Test anxiety directly affect high examinees' normal exertion, and the physical and mental health level, the test anxiety intervention is the important content for the mental-health-education work. In the study, 488 senior students were assessed with SRITA. The result show that sex, family origin, art and science have certain influence to the senior students' test anxiety, the intervention and coaching to the high examinees' test anxiety should be given pertinently.%考试焦虑直接影响考生的正常发挥和身心健康水平,对考试焦虑的干预是学校心理健康教育工作的重要内容.本研究采用考试焦虑自我检测表对488名高三学生进行问卷调查,结果表明,不同性别、家庭来源和文理科的高考生考试焦虑的来源及水平有所不同,要有针对性地对高考生的考试焦虑给予相应的干预和辅导.

  13. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anxiety Disorders KidsHealth > For Teens > Anxiety Disorders A A ... Do en español Trastornos de ansiedad What Is Anxiety? Liam had always looked out for his younger ...

  14. Abnormal Axon Reflex-Mediated Sweating Correlates with High State of Anxiety in Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kijima

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the number of study subjects was little, abnormal AXR sweating in patients with AD was observed. Correlative analysis suggests possible involvement of continuous anxiety and the immune system in such abnormal sudomotor function.

  15. Anxiety and performance: perceptual-motor behavior in high-pressure contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Oudejans, Raôul Rd

    2017-08-01

    When the pressure is on and anxiety levels increase it is not easy to perform well. In search of mechanisms explaining the anxiety-performance relationship, we revisit the integrated model of anxiety and perceptual-motor performance (Nieuwenhuys and Oudejans, 2012) and provide a critical review of contemporary literature. While there is increasing evidence that changes in attentional control affect the execution of goal-directed action, based on our model and emerging evidence from different scientific disciplines, we argue for a more integrated, process-based approach. That is, anxiety can affect performance on different levels of operational control (i.e., attentional, interpretational, physical) and - moving beyond the execution of action - have implications for different aspects of perceptual-motor behavior, including situational awareness and decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Trait anxiety affects decision-making differently in healthy men and women: towards gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, L; van der Knaap, L J; van de Loo, A J A E; van der Weerd, C M M; Ohl, F; van den Bos, R

    2010-05-01

    Excessive levels of trait anxiety are a risk factor for psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and substance abuse. High trait anxiety has been associated with altered cognitive functioning, in particular with an attentional bias towards aversive stimuli. Decision-making is a crucial aspect of cognitive functioning that relies on the correct processing and control of emotional stimuli. Interestingly, anxiety and decision-making share underlying neural substrates, involving cortico-limbic pathways, including the amygdala, striatum and medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between trait anxiety, measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and complex decision-making, measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, in healthy male and female volunteers. The main focus of this study was the inclusion of gender as a discriminative factor. Indeed, we found distinct gender-specific effects of trait anxiety: in men, both low and high anxiety groups showed impaired decision-making compared to medium anxiety individuals, whereas in women only high anxiety individuals performed poorly. Furthermore, anxiety affected decision-making in men early in the task, i.e. the exploration phase, as opposed to an effect on performance in women during the second part of the test, i.e. the exploitation phase. These findings were related to different profiles of trait anxiety in men and women, and were independent of performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and cortisol levels. Our data show gender-specific effects of trait anxiety on emotional decision-making. We suggest gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety to exist, that differentially affect cognitive functioning.

  17. The Prevalence of Internet Addiction and its Association with Depression, Anxiety, and Stress, among High-School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Batool Gholamian; Hossein Shahnazi; Akbar Hassanzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Internet is an integral part of our everyday life. Aside from its positive effects, what have garnered researchers’ attention are its adverse side effects and adolescents’ addiction to it. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction and its relationship to anxiety, stress, and depression among Iranian high-school students in Shahr-e Kord, Iran. Materials and Methods The current cross-sectional study was conducted on 417high-school boys and girls ...

  18. The Effect of Voice Thread® Integration on High School Students' Anxiety and Oral Proficiency in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Melanie Gail

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the asynchronous voice-conferencing technology, "Voice Thread"®, on the anxiety and oral proficiency of high school students in their third year of studying Spanish as a foreign language. In this quasi-experimental study students' foreign language anxiety levels and oral proficiency…

  19. Effect of Social Familiarity on Salivary Cortisol and Self-Reports of Social Anxiety and Stress in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Putnam, Susan K.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Nida, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of social familiarity on salivary cortisol and social anxiety/stress for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. The relationship between self-reported social anxiety/stress and salivary cortisol was also examined. Participants interacted with a familiar peer on one occasion and an…

  20. The Assessment of the Anxiety of High School Students Who Are Learning Turkish as a Foreign Language in Turkey in Term of Certain Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçer, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the anxiety connected with target language of the high school students who are learning Turkish as a foreign language in terms of certain variables. The study used FLCAS--Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale that was developed by Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope (1986) and was made validity and reliability by…

  1. Effect of Social Familiarity on Salivary Cortisol and Self-Reports of Social Anxiety and Stress in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Putnam, Susan K.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Nida, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of social familiarity on salivary cortisol and social anxiety/stress for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. The relationship between self-reported social anxiety/stress and salivary cortisol was also examined. Participants interacted with a familiar peer on one occasion and an…

  2. The Prevalence of Internet Addiction and its Association with Depression, Anxiety, and Stress, among High-School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Gholamian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Internet is an integral part of our everyday life. Aside from its positive effects, what have garnered researchers’ attention are its adverse side effects and adolescents’ addiction to it. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction and its relationship to anxiety, stress, and depression among Iranian high-school students in Shahr-e Kord, Iran. Materials and Methods The current cross-sectional study was conducted on 417high-school boys and girls in Shahr-e Kord in 2016. In order to gather data, a two-section questionnaire was applied. It included personal information and Young’s Internet Addiction Test, which explored the status of Internet addiction, and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales 21 (DASS-21, which investigated anxiety, stress, and depression among the students. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 software. Results As for the prevalence of Internet addiction, 69.5% of the students were normal users, 27.6% had a mild addiction to the Internet, and 2.9% were severely addicted to the Internet. The results revealed that the mean score of anxiety, depression, and stress among the Internet Addiction was significantly higher than that among the normal Internet users (P< 0.001. Conclusion Given the prevalence of Internet addiction among students in this study which is similar to some Europe countries and its significant association with anxiety, stress, and depression, it appears necessary to plan to take interventional measures and educate students about the optimal use of the Internet.

  3. Science anxiety and social cognitive factors predicting STEM career aspirations of high school freshmen in general science class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skells, Kristin Marie

    Extant data was used to consider the association between science anxiety, social cognitive factors and STEM career aspirations of high school freshmen in general science classes. An adapted model based on social cognitive career theory (SCCT) was used to consider these relationships, with science anxiety functioning as a barrier in the model. The study assessed the following research questions: (1) Do social cognitive variables relate in the expected way to STEM career aspirations based on SCCT for ninth graders taking general science classes? (2) Is there an association between science anxiety and outcomes and processes identified in the SCCT model for ninth graders taking general science classes? (3) Does gender moderate these relationships? Results indicated that support was found for many of the central tenants of the SCCT model. Science anxiety was associated with prior achievement, self-efficacy, and science interest, although it did not relate directly to STEM career goals. Gender was found to moderate only the relationship between prior achievement and science self-efficacy.

  4. Exercise as Treatment for Anxiety: Systematic Review and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonerock, Gregory L.; Hoffman, Benson M.; Smith, Patrick J.; Blumenthal, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise has been shown to reduce symptoms of anxiety, but few studies have studied exercise in individuals pre-selected because of their high anxiety. Purpose To review and critically evaluate studies of exercise training in adults with either high levels of anxiety or an anxiety disorder. Methods We conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in which anxious adults were randomized to an exercise or non-exercise control condition. Data were extracted concerning anxiety outcomes and study design. Existing meta-analyses were also reviewed. Results Evidence from 12 RCTs suggested benefits of exercise, for select groups, similar to established treatments and greater than placebo. However, most studies had significant methodological limitations, including small sample sizes, concurrent therapies, and inadequate assessment of adherence and fitness levels. Conclusions Exercise may be a useful treatment for anxiety, but lack of data from rigorous, methodologically sound RCTs precludes any definitive conclusions about its effectiveness. PMID:25697132

  5. High-dose corticosterone after fear conditioning selectively suppresses fear renewal by reducing anxiety-like response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Xing, Xiaoli; Liang, Jing; Bai, Yunjing; Lui, Zhengkui; Zheng, Xigeng

    2014-09-01

    Exposure therapy is widely used to treat anxiety disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, preventing the return of fear is still a major challenge after this behavioral treatment. An increasing number of studies suggest that high-dose glucocorticoid treatment immediately after trauma can alleviate the symptoms of PTSD in humans. Unknown is whether high-dose glucocorticoid treatment following fear conditioning suppresses the return of fear. In the present study, a typical fear renewal paradigm (AAB) was used, in which the fear response to an auditory cue can be restored in a novel context (context B) when both training and extinction occur in the same context (context A). We trained rats for auditory fear conditioning and administered corticosterone (CORT; 5 and 25mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle with different delays (1 and 24h). Forty-eight hours after drug injection, extinction was conducted with no drug in the training context, followed by a test of tone-induced freezing behavior in the same (AAA) or a shifted (AAB) context. Both immediate and delayed administration of high-dose CORT after fear conditioning reduced fear renewal. To examine the anxiolytic effect of CORT, independent rats were trained for cued or contextual fear conditioning, followed by an injection of CORT (5 and 25mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle at a 1 or 24h delay. One week later, anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) before and after fear expression. We found that high-dose CORT decreased anxiety-like behavior without changing tone- or context-induced freezing. These findings indicate that a single high-dose CORT administration given after fear conditioning may selectively suppress fear renewal by reducing anxiety-like behavior and not by altering the consolidation, retrieval, or extinction of fear memory.

  6. Anxiety and anger immediately prior to myocardial infarction and long-term mortality: Characteristics of high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeijers, Loes; Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Muller, James E; Kop, Willem J; Mittleman, Murray A

    2017-02-01

    Acute high levels of anger and anxiety are associated with an elevated risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in the following two hours. MIs preceded by these acute negative emotions may also have a poor long-term prognosis, but information about high-risk patients is lacking. We examined whether young age and female sex are associated with MIs that are preceded by negative emotions and whether age and sex moderate the subsequent increased mortality risk following MI preceded by negative emotions. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study (N=2176, mean age=60.1±12.3years, 29.2% women). Anxiety and anger immediately prior to (0-2h) MI and the day before (24-26h) MI were assessed using a structured interview. Subsequent 10-year all-cause mortality was determined using the US National Death Index. Anxiety during the 0-2h pre-MI period was associated with younger age (OR=0.98,95% CI=0.96-0.99 per year) and female sex (OR=1.50,95% CI=1.11-2.02). Anger in the 0-2h pre-MI period was also associated with younger age (OR=0.95,95% CI=0.94-0.96) but not with sex (OR=0.93,95% CI=0.67-1.28). During follow-up, 580 (26.7%) patients died. Mortality rate was higher if MI occurred immediately after high anxiety, particularly in patients ≥65years (HR=1.80,95% CI=1.28-2.54) vs. younger patients (HR=0.87,95% CI=0.55-1.40; p-interaction=0.015). Other interactions with sex or anger were not significant. Patients with high anxiety or anger levels in the critical 2-hour period prior to MI are younger than those without such emotional precipitants. In addition, pre-MI anxiety is associated with an elevated 10-year mortality risk in patients aged ≥65years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. What's the Worry with Social Anxiety? Comparing Cognitive Processes in Children with Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Cate S; Donovan, Caroline L; Spence, Susan H; March, Sonja; Holmes, Monique C

    2016-12-05

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) in children is often comorbid with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We investigated whether worry, intolerance of uncertainty, beliefs about worry, negative problem orientation and cognitive avoidance, that are typically associated with GAD, are present in children with SAD. Participants included 60 children (8-12 years), matched on age and gender. Groups included children: with primary GAD and without SAD (GAD); with primary SAD and without GAD (SAD); and without an anxiety disorder (NAD). GAD and SAD groups scored significantly higher than the NAD group on worry, intolerance of uncertainty, negative beliefs about worry and negative problem orientation, however, they did not score differently from each other. Only the GAD group scored significantly higher than the NAD group on cognitive avoidance. These findings further understanding of the structure of SAD and suggest that the high comorbidity between SAD and GAD may be due to similar underlying processes within the disorders.

  8. The relationship between alexithymia, anxiety, depression, and internet addiction severity in a sample of Italian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimeca, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonio; Cava, Lucia; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna; Zoccali, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess whether Internet addiction (IA) severity was related to alexithymia scores among high school students, taking into account the role of gender differences and the possible effect of anxiety, depression, and age. Participants in the study were 600 students (ages ranging from 13 to 22; 48.16% girls) recruited from three high schools in two cities from Southern Italy. Participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Internet Addiction Test, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and the Hamilton Depression Scale. The findings of the study showed that IA scores were associated with alexithymia scores, over and above the effect of negative emotions and age. Students with pathological levels of alexithymia reported higher scores on IA severity. In particular, results showed that difficulty in identifying feelings was significantly associated with higher scores on IA severity. No effect of gender was found. Implications for clinicians were discussed.

  9. The Relationship between Alexithymia, Anxiety, Depression, and Internet Addiction Severity in a Sample of Italian High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Scimeca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess whether Internet addiction (IA severity was related to alexithymia scores among high school students, taking into account the role of gender differences and the possible effect of anxiety, depression, and age. Participants in the study were 600 students (ages ranging from 13 to 22; 48.16% girls recruited from three high schools in two cities from Southern Italy. Participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Internet Addiction Test, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and the Hamilton Depression Scale. The findings of the study showed that IA scores were associated with alexithymia scores, over and above the effect of negative emotions and age. Students with pathological levels of alexithymia reported higher scores on IA severity. In particular, results showed that difficulty in identifying feelings was significantly associated with higher scores on IA severity. No effect of gender was found. Implications for clinicians were discussed.

  10. [Girls are more successful than boys at the university. Gender group differences in models integrating motivational and aggressive components correlated with Test-Anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, A-M; Hoyois, Ph; Cadot, M; Nahama, V; Petit, F; Ansseau, M

    2004-01-01

    performance value were scored higher in women, self-confidence and procrastination higher in men. Because TASTE didn't discriminate the different components of motivation (performance value referred to intrinsic and extrinsic motivations without precise distinction) we decided to use the MPS (Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale) which gave the opportunity to distinguish SOP (Self Oriented Perfectionism) ie, the self-imposed unrealistic standards with inability to accept faults in order to know and master a subject, that corresponded to intrinsic motivation; SPP (Socially Prescribed Perfectionism) ie, the exaggerated expectancies of others which are subjectively believed as imposed and uncontrollable leading to anxiety, feelings of failure or helplessness, that corresponded to extrinsic motivation; POO (Perfectionism Oriented to Others) ie, the unrealistic demands expected from significant others, which especially characterized males. We assumed that women attached more importance to succeed and submitted more to society exigencies. That way extrinsic and intrinsic motivations were probably more combined unlike men who, dreading a loss of self esteem, tried to avoid failure responsibility in using self handicapping or aggressive behaviours, so separating motivation in an extrinsic part turned to performance value and an intrinsic one more concerned by self confidence and sense of competence with the result that the motivational balance was surely disrupted in case of high competition leading to failure or avoidance. In another previous study we established a structural model illustrating, according to gender, correlations between anxiety, sense of incompetence, self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism. Self-oriented perfectionism was less correlated to socially prescribed perfectionism in boys than in girls; furthermore especially by those who had never failed, it was negatively correlated to sense of incompetence, thus leading to lower scores of

  11. Depression, anxiety, stress and substance use in medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing causes mental health problems in medical students. Students themselves perceive ... possible consequence of high levels of depression, anxiety and stress in this population group. .... antidepressants progressing from semesters 3 to 5,.

  12. E-mail support as an adjunct to cognitive-behavioral group therapy for social anxiety disorder: Impact on dropout and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsignore, Aba; Rufer, Michael; Emmerich, Juliane; Weidt, Steffi; Brühl, Annette Beatrix; Moergeli, Hanspeter

    2016-10-30

    The present study evaluates the impact of semi-individualized e-mail support as an adjunct to cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) on dropout and outcome. The effectiveness of additional semi-individualized e-mail support was evaluated for the whole sample and for a subsample of patients at risk of dropping out of therapy. A total of 91 patients with SAD were allocated either to the intervention condition (CBGT with e-mail support), or to the control condition (CBGT without e-mail support). Anxiety symptoms, depression, global symptomatology and life satisfaction were assessed at pretreatment, post-treatment and follow-up (3, 6 and 12 months). From pre-treatment to post-treatment, both groups improved significantly on all symptom measures. Therapy gains were maintained at the 1-year follow-up. Subsample analyses showed that CBGT+e-mail was more effective than CGBT alone in reducing symptom severity among patients missing at least two therapy sessions. Additionally, in this subgroup, those receiving additional e-mail support showed a tendency towards lower dropout rates. Based on the results of this study, semi-individualized e-mail support between sessions seems to enhance the effectiveness of CBGT for SAD patients at risk of dropping out of treatment and should be considered as an additional tool in clinical practice.

  13. Parental responsibility beliefs: associations with parental anxiety and behaviours in the context of childhood anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetroaia, Adela; Hill, Claire; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-12-01

    High levels of parental anxiety are associated with poor treatment outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. Associated parental cognitions and behaviours have been implicated as impediments to successful treatment. We examined the association between parental responsibility beliefs, maternal anxiety and parenting behaviours in the context of childhood anxiety disorders. Anxious and non-anxious mothers of 7-12 year old children with a current anxiety disorder reported their parental responsibility beliefs using a questionnaire measure. Parental behaviours towards their child during a stressor task were measured. Parents with a current anxiety disorder reported a greater sense of responsibility for their child's actions and wellbeing than parents who scored within the normal range for anxiety. Furthermore, higher parental responsibility was associated with more intrusive and less warm behaviours in parent-child interactions and there was an indirect effect between maternal anxiety and maternal intrusive behaviours via parental responsibility beliefs. The sample was limited to a treatment-seeking, relatively high socio-economic population and only mothers were included so replication with more diverse groups is needed. The use of a range of stressor tasks may have allowed for a more comprehensive assessment of parental behaviours. The findings suggest that parental anxiety disorder is associated with an elevated sense of parental responsibility and may promote parental behaviours likely to inhibit optimum child treatment outcomes. Parental responsibility beliefs may therefore be important to target in child anxiety treatments in the context of parental anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Group Lasso for high dimensional sparse quantile regression models

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Kengo

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the statistical properties of the group Lasso estimator for high dimensional sparse quantile regression models where the number of explanatory variables (or the number of groups of explanatory variables) is possibly much larger than the sample size while the number of variables in "active" groups is sufficiently small. We establish a non-asymptotic bound on the $\\ell_{2}$-estimation error of the estimator. This bound explains situations under which the group Lasso estimator is potentially superior/inferior to the $\\ell_{1}$-penalized quantile regression estimator in terms of the estimation error. We also propose a data-dependent choice of the tuning parameter to make the method more practical, by extending the original proposal of Belloni and Chernozhukov (2011) for the $\\ell_{1}$-penalized quantile regression estimator. As an application, we analyze high dimensional additive quantile regression models. We show that under a set of primitive regularity conditions, the group Lasso estimator c...

  15. Psycho Education Program for Prevention of Test Anxiety on 8th Grade Students to Reduce Anxiety and Indecisiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Kaya

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of psycho-education program on reducing the test anxiety and personal indecisiveness. The study was carried out with a group of ten 8th class volunteer students whose test anxiety scores were high. The test anxiety which is one of the study's variables was tested with Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) that is adapted to Turkish by Öner (1990). Besides, Personal Indecisiveness Scale (PIS) that was developed by Bacanli (2000) was applied. The Psyco-education...

  16. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce anxiety, claustrophobia, sedation and non-completion rates of patients undergoing high technology medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Zachary; Jordan, Zoe

    2012-01-01

    Advanced, high technology medical imaging, such as Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), have seen significant increases in their use. A number of interventions have been developed with the aim of reducing anxiety, fear and claustrophobia prior to and during imaging. To determine the effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve the patient experience of high technology medical imaging. Any patients who have undergone high technology (MRI, CT, PET, Nuclear medicine and SPECT) imaging in a medical imaging department. Interventional scans were not considered for inclusion.Considered interventions were: MRI scanner designs, quieter machines, information, psychological support, anxiety reduction protocols, mock MRI, team training, prone scanning, audiovisual (AV) systems, cognitive behavioural therapies, fragrance administration, guided imagery, patient positioning devices and paediatric preparation booklets.Experimental and observational studies were included in the review.Primary patient outcomes:Secondary patient outcome measures included: SEARCH STRATEGY: A comprehensive, three-step search strategy conducted during August to October 2011 aimed to find both published and unpublished English language studies across 14 major databases. No time restrictions. Retrieved papers were assessed by two independent reviewers prior to inclusion in the review using standardised critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI). Data was extracted from papers included in the review using the standardised data extraction tool from JBI-MAStARI. Quantitative data was, where possible pooled in statistical meta-analysis using JBI-MAStARI. All results were subject to double data entry. Thirty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria and were considered to be of suitable methodological

  17. Are amino groups advantageous to insensitive high explosives (IHEs)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xia; Wen, Yushi; Xiang, Bin; Long, Xinping; Zhang, Chaoyang

    2012-10-01

    There is usually a contradiction between increasing energy densities and reducing sensitivities of explosives. The explosives with both high energy densities and low sensitivities, or the so-called insensitive high explosives (IHEs), are desirable in most cases. It seems from applied explosives that amino groups are advantageous to IHE but the amount of amino groups contained IHEs is very limited. To make this clear, we present systemic examinations of the effects on the two properties stressed in IHEs after introducing amino groups to different molecular skeletons. As a result, the amino groups on resonant sites to nitro groups in conjugated systems can improve distinctly sensitivities and change energy densities in terms of oxygen balance; while the amino groups in unconjugated systems can hardly increase energy densities and usually cause increased sensitivities. It agrees well with a fact that almost all the molecules of applied amino group contained explosives possess conjugated skeletons. We therefore confirm that if amino groups are introduced resonantly to a nitro group in a conjugated system and the introduction improves OB, they are advantageous to IHEs.

  18. PRX-00023, a selective serotonin 1A receptor agonist, reduces ultrasonic vocalizations in infant rats bred for high infantile anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Susan A; Aviles, Jessica A; Gannon, Kimberly S; Branscomb, Aron; Shacham, Sharon

    2009-11-01

    To address the development of early anxiety disorders across the lifespan, the High USV line of rats was bred based on rates of infant ultrasonic vocalization in the 40-50 kHz range of predominant frequencies (USV) to maternal separation at postnatal day (P) 10. In this study, rates of USV in High line infants (pups: Postnatal Day 11+/-1) were compared to those of randomly-bred controls in response to EPIX compound PRX-00023, a unique serotonin (5-HT) agonist, acting exclusively at the 5-HT1A receptor, or buspirone, a nonspecific 5HT1A agonist. After testing, pups were examined for sedation and other drug-related effects. The results indicated that all doses of buspirone reduced USV rates in isolation, consistent with other reports. PRX-00023 significantly reduced USV rates at the lowest doses (0.01-0.05 mg/kg). None of the PRX-00023 doses produced sedation, whereas all but the lowest dose of buspirone (0.1 mg/kg) produced sedation effects. The results suggest that this compound alleviates infantile anxiety-like behavior with great specificity in rats bred for high anxiety/depressive phenotypes by selectively targeting 5-HT1A receptors, possibly by both pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms.

  19. Differences of Anxiety Levels between Students of Natural Sciences and Social Studies Major Based on School Environmental Factors in Senior High Schools with Rintisan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Arviana Adamantina Putri; Leonardo Lubis; Tatang Muchtar Sutaryan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Senior High Schools with Rintisan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional (RSBI) scheme are senior high schools that pilot international standards in learning methods and high curriculum targets. This factor may lead to a rise of anxiety amongst students, both for students in Natural Sciences major and Social Studies major. There are three factors which cause anxiety in the school environment, namely: dissatisfaction towards the curriculum, the teacher, and the school management. Metho...

  20. Statistics Anxiety and Instructor Immediacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructor immediacy and statistics anxiety. It was predicted that students receiving immediacy would report lower levels of statistics anxiety. Using a pretest-posttest-control group design, immediacy was measured using the Instructor Immediacy scale. Statistics anxiety was…

  1. Statistics Anxiety and Instructor Immediacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructor immediacy and statistics anxiety. It was predicted that students receiving immediacy would report lower levels of statistics anxiety. Using a pretest-posttest-control group design, immediacy was measured using the Instructor Immediacy scale. Statistics anxiety was…

  2. Anxiety, Motivation and Autonomy in Iranian High School Students: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanadgol, Fatemeh; Abdolmanafi-Rokni, Seyed Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Research in the series of second language learning certify that both cognitive and affective factors within a language learner affect the level of success that will be achieved in learning a second language. This study was an attempt to investigate the relationship among three factors of anxiety, motivation, and autonomy. To this purpose, 207…

  3. Psychodynamic Treatment for Separation Anxiety in a Treatment Nonresponder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Fredric N; Milrod, Barbara L

    2015-10-01

    Separation anxiety, long an area of interest for psychoanalysts, has been included in DSM-5 among general "anxiety disorders" that span across age groups. The syndrome of separation anxiety has been shown to correlate with nonresponse to treatments for anxiety and mood disorders (Milrod et al. 2014). It is therefore of public health importance to develop targeted treatments for this syndrome. Some psychoanalysts have suggested that brief psychoanalytic interventions may be of particular value in addressing separation anxiety. Our clinical work with patients with anxiety disorders with high levels of separation anxiety indicates that they have such intense anger and ambivalence in fraught intimate relationships that they feel stuck and helpless, almost eliminating more positive feelings. This ambivalence and associated unconscious conflicts inevitably emerge in the therapeutic relationship and can threaten to disrupt treatment efforts. We propose a set of focused psychodynamic psychotherapeutic interventions to address separation anxiety, developed as part of Panic-Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy-eXtended Range (PFPP-XR; Busch et al. 2012). We present a case from our research study of treatment nonresponders with anxiety disorders and separation anxiety. The patient was successfully treated with PFPP-XR in a 21-session treatment.

  4. Anxiety and Epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Andrew A; Singh, Rumani; Hunter, Richard G

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent psychiatric disorders often comorbid with depression and substance abuse. Twin studies have shown that anxiety disorders are moderately heritable. Yet, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have failed to identify gene(s) significantly associated with diagnosis suggesting a strong role for environmental factors and the epigenome. A number of anxiety disorder subtypes are considered "stress related." A large focus of research has been on the epigenetic and anxiety-like behavioral consequences of stress. Animal models of anxiety-related disorders have provided strong evidence for the role of stress on the epigenetic control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and of stress-responsive brain regions. Neuroepigenetics may continue to explain individual variation in susceptibility to environmental perturbations and consequently anxious behavior. Behavioral and pharmacological interventions aimed at targeting epigenetic marks associated with anxiety may prove fruitful in developing treatments.

  5. Midazolam treatment before re-exposure to contextual fear reduces freezing behavior and amygdala activity differentially in high- and low-anxiety rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórzewska, Anna; Lehner, Małgorzata; Wisłowska-Stanek, Aleksandra; Turzyńska, Danuta; Sobolewska, Alicja; Krząścik, Paweł; Płaźnik, Adam

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of benzodiazepine (midazolam) administration on rat conditioned fear responses and on local brain activity (c-Fos and CRF expressions) of low- (LR) and high- (HR)anxiety rats after the first and second contextual fear test sessions. The animals were divided into LR and HR groups based on the duration of their conditioned freezing response in the first contextual fear test. The fear-re-conditioned LR and HR animals (28 days later) had increased freezing durations compared with those durations during the first conditioned fear test. These behavioral effects were accompanied by increased c-Fos expression in the medial amygdala (MeA), the basolateral amygdala (BLA), and the paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei and elevated CRF expression in the MeA. All these behavioral and immunochemical effects of fear re-conditioning were stronger in the LR group compared with the effects in the HR group. Moreover, in the LR rats, the re-conditioning led to decreased CRF expression in the primary motor cortex (M1) and to increased CRF expression in the BLA. The pretreatment of rats with midazolam before the second exposure to the aversive context significantly attenuated the conditioned fear response, lowered the serum corticosterone concentration, decreased c-Fos and CRF expressions in the MeA and in the BLA, and increased CRF complex density in M1 area only in the LR group. These studies have demonstrated that LR rats are more sensitive to re-exposure to fear stimuli and that midazolam pretreatment was associated with modified brain activity in the amygdala and in the prefrontal cortex in this group of animals. The current data may facilitate a better understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for individual differences in the psychopathological processes accompanying some anxiety disorders characterized by stronger reactivity to re-exposure to stressful challenges, e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder.

  6. Differences of Anxiety Levels between Students of Natural Sciences and Social Studies Major Based on School Environmental Factors in Senior High Schools with Rintisan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arviana Adamantina Putri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Senior High Schools with Rintisan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional (RSBI scheme are senior high schools that pilot international standards in learning methods and high curriculum targets. This factor may lead to a rise of anxiety amongst students, both for students in Natural Sciences major and Social Studies major. There are three factors which cause anxiety in the school environment, namely: dissatisfaction towards the curriculum, the teacher, and the school management. Methods: This study used retrospective cohort design. Subjects were selected using the convenience sampling method. Natural Sciences students (n=32 and Social Studies students (n=14 had their anxiety level measured using the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. The dissatisfaction towards the school environment factors was assessed using a school evaluation questionnaire. Results: The anxiety measurement showed that students in both Natural Sciences and Social Studies major experienced severe anxiety (Natural Sciences vs. Social Studies: 75% vs. 86%. The study results based on the school evaluation questionnaire showed dissatisfactions towards the three school environmental factors (curriculum factor, Natural Sciences vs. Social Studies: 59% vs. 64%; teacher factor, Natural Sciences vs. Social Studies: 3% vs. 43%; school management factor, Natural Sciences vs. Social Studies: 3% vs. 14%. The chi-square test results showed that the difference in the anxiety levels between the students of Natural Sciences and Social Studies majors was insignificant (p>0.05. Conclusions: Students of Natural Sciences and Social Studies majors of senior high schools with RSBI scheme experienced severe anxiety. However, there is no strong evidence that the school environment causes this severe anxiety.

  7. Anxiety and Test Anxiety: General and Test Anxiety among College Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodero, Jeri Lyn

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the state, trait, and test anxiety scores of 145 college students with and without learning disabilities against categories such as demographics, general anxiety, test anxiety, and disability experience. This study used a questionnaire and compared answers among groups. The analysis indicated that students with learning…

  8. HIV Sentinel Surveillance Among High Risk Groups: Scenario In Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L B Chavan, Prakash Patel, Vaibhav Gharat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surveillance is the ongoing systematic collection, collation, analysis and interpretation of data so that appropriate action can be taken within time. Aims and Objective: The present annual HIV sentinel surveillance (HSS was carried out for monitoring trends of HIV epidemic in high risk group populations in selected sites of Gujarat state.. Methodology: The HSS was carried out in representative populations from High Risk Group (HRG like Female Sex Workers (FSW, Man having Sex with Man (MSM and Single Male Migrant. Target sample size was 250 at each HRG site (Female Sex Worker, Male Sex Male & SMM. Consecutive sampling was done at designated sentinel site for selecting the survey participants. Results: Overall 3726 samples (1494 FSWs, 1732 MSMs & 500 SMM were tested in the High risk group of HSS 2008. The overall sero-positivity in samples from FSWs, MSMs sites was 4.5%. Sero-positivity was more or less high (? 5% among FSWs as well as MSMs irrespective of age, place of residence, literacy level, occupation; and migration status. Conclusion: The overall trend of sero-positivity in High risk groups shows decreasing trend of HIV in the state from 2004 to 2008.

  9. Correlation of cerebrovascular disorder and anxiety: The Kecskemet study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, Kornel; Bodo, Michael; Szalay, Piroska; Szucs, Attila

    2010-04-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that anxiety is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, specifically stroke, we simultaneously measured anxiety and cerebral vascular alternation, using a computer-based system, "Cerberus." Sixty nine psychiatric patients (including an alcoholic subgroup) were selected as subjects for measurements conducted in Kecskemet, Hungary. The five-item short form of anxiety test (STAI) was administered twice during the same session. Between each test, brain pulse waves were recorded by rheoencephalogram (REG). A REG peak time above 180 milliseconds was considered a cerebrovascular alteration (modified after Jenkner). Data were sorted into two groups: low anxiety (N=10) and high anxiety (N=10). Significant differences were found between cardiovascular risk factors (panxiety group, and two in the low anxiety group. For the two anxiety groups, there were no significant differences in body mass index, cardiovascular sympathetic-parasympathetic balance, age and symptoms of transient ischemic attack. The correlation of REG and age was significantly different only for the alcoholic subgroup (Szalay et al, 2007). These data support the hypothesis that a correlation exists between cerebrovascular disorder and anxiety in the studied population.

  10. Study of Meta-Cognitive Beliefs and Learning Methods and Their Relationship with Exam Anxiety in High School Students Bandar Abbas City, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazal Motazed Keyvani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Nowadays, one of the principal difficulties faced by educational systems worldwide is anxiety, a mental problem, which is evidently difficult to be endured by many students and leads to various types of mental and physical disorders or reduction of educational efficiency, and has gained attention of sociologists for its consequent psychological, social, and economical impacts. Objectives The current study aimed at predicting exam anxiety based on meta-cognitive beliefs and learning methods among high school students of Bandar Abbas. Methods The study population included 351 students (197 males and 154 females, who were selected randomly by the cluster approach and answered the research tools including Meta-Cognitive Beliefs Questionnaires (MCQ-30, Learning methods questionnaires of Marton and Saljoo (1996 and also test anxiety questionnaire of Alpert and Haber (1960. The study plan was correlative-descriptive. Pearson simple correlation coefficient, multi variable regression, and multi variable variance analysis were used to analyze the obtained data. Results The study results indicated that there was a positive significant relationship between meta-cognitive beliefs and exam anxiety, a negative significant relationship between profound learning and learning methods and exam anxiety, and a positive significant relationship between smattering learning method and exam anxiety. The regression exam results also revealed that meta-cognitive beliefs and smattering learning methods could positively predict and determine exam anxiety in students. A significant relationship was observed between meta-cognitive beliefs in females and males, and female students showed greater intention and interest toward meta-cognitive beliefs than males, however, no significant difference was observed between learning methods and exam anxiety in females and males. Conclusions It was concluded from the study results that profound learning methods lead to the

  11. Effect of NICU Department Orientation Program on Mother’s Anxiety: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Valizadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neonatal intensive care unit induces the high level of anxiety for mothers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of NICU orientation program on the anxiety of mothers who had preterm newborns hospitalized in NICU. Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial (three parallel groups. Participants included 99 mothers with preterm newborns hospitalized in NICU of Al- Zahra hospital, affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2015. Mothers were randomly assigned to one of three groups (film, booklet, and control. Mothers completed the State- Trait Anxiety Inventory before entering to the NICU, and then mothers in the experiment groups became familiar with the NICU environment through watching a film or reading booklet. After the first NICU visit, all mothers completed the STAI and Cattell's Anxiety Questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 13 software. Results: There was no significant difference between three groups regarding state- trait anxiety before the intervention. After the first NICU visit, a significant reduction in maternal state anxiety was seen in the both experiment groups. There was no statistical significant difference regarding trait anxiety. Data obtained from Cattell's anxiety questionnaire after intervention, showed significant difference in state anxiety between groups. Conclusion: Employing film and booklet orientation strategy after preterm delivery can reduce the mother’s anxiety and beneficent for the mother, baby, family and health care system.

  12. Neural responses to maternal praise and criticism: Relationship to depression and anxiety symptoms in high-risk adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aupperle, Robin L.; Morris, Amanda S.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Criss, Michael M.; Judah, Matt R.; Eagleton, Sally G.; Kirlic, Namik; Byrd-Craven, Jennifer; Phillips, Raquel; Alvarez, Ruben P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The parent-child relationship may be an important factor in the development of adolescent depressive and anxious symptoms. In adults, depressive symptoms relate to increased amygdala and attenuated prefrontal activation to maternal criticism. The current pilot study examined how depressive and anxiety symptoms in a high-risk adolescent population relate to neural responses to maternal feedback. Given previous research relating oxytocin to maternal behavior, we conducted exploratory analyses using oxytocin receptor (OXTR) genotype. Methods Eighteen females (ages 12–16) listened to maternal praise, neutral, and critical statements during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants completed the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. The OXTR single nucleotide polymorphism, rs53576, was genotyped. Linear mixed models were used to identify symptom or allele (GG, AA/AG) by condition (critical, neutral, praise) interaction effects on brain activation. Results Greater symptoms related to greater right amygdala activation for criticism and reduced activation to praise. For left amygdala, greater symptoms related to reduced activation to both conditions. Anxiety symptoms related to differences in superior medial PFC activation patterns. Parental OXTR AA/AG allele related to reduced activation to criticism and greater activation to praise within the right amygdala. Conclusions Results support a relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms and prefrontal-amygdala responses to maternal feedback. The lateralization of amygdala findings suggests separate neural targets for interventions reducing reactivity to negative feedback or increasing salience of positive feedback. Exploratory analyses suggest that parents' OXTR genetic profile influences parent-child interactions and related adolescent brain responses. PMID:27158587

  13. Glutamate receptor antagonism in inferior colliculus attenuates elevated startle response of high anxiety diazepam-withdrawn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, A; De Ross, J; Castilho, V M; Brandão, M L; Nobre, M J

    2009-07-07

    Rats segregated according to low (LA) or high (HA) anxiety levels have been used as an important tool in the study of fear and anxiety. Since the efficacy of an anxiolytic compound is a function of the animal's basal anxiety level, it is possible that chronic treatment with a benzodiazepine (Bzp) affects LA and HA animals differently. Based on these assumptions, this study aimed to provide some additional information on the influence of acute, chronic (18 days) and withdrawal effects (48 h) from diazepam (10 mg/kg), in rats with LA or HA levels, on startle response amplitude. For this purpose, the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test was used. In addition, the role of glutamate receptors of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (cIC), the most important mesencephalic tectum integrative structure of the auditory pathways and a brain region that is linked to the processing of auditory information of aversive nature, was also evaluated. Our results showed that, contrary to the results obtained in LA rats, long-term treatment with diazepam promoted anxiolytic and aversive effects in HA animals that were tested under chronic effects or withdrawal from this drug, respectively. In addition, since Bzp withdrawal may function as an unconditioned stressor, the negative affective states observed in HA rats could be a by-product of GABA-glutamate imbalance in brain systems that modulate unconditioned fear and anxiety behaviors, since the blockade of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors in the cIC clearly reduced the aversion promoted by diazepam withdrawal.

  14. Neural responses to maternal praise and criticism: Relationship to depression and anxiety symptoms in high-risk adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aupperle, Robin L; Morris, Amanda S; Silk, Jennifer S; Criss, Michael M; Judah, Matt R; Eagleton, Sally G; Kirlic, Namik; Byrd-Craven, Jennifer; Phillips, Raquel; Alvarez, Ruben P

    2016-01-01

    The parent-child relationship may be an important factor in the development of adolescent depressive and anxious symptoms. In adults, depressive symptoms relate to increased amygdala and attenuated prefrontal activation to maternal criticism. The current pilot study examined how depressive and anxiety symptoms in a high-risk adolescent population relate to neural responses to maternal feedback. Given previous research relating oxytocin to maternal behavior, we conducted exploratory analyses using oxytocin receptor (OXTR) genotype. Eighteen females (ages 12-16) listened to maternal praise, neutral, and critical statements during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants completed the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. The OXTR single nucleotide polymorphism, rs53576, was genotyped. Linear mixed models were used to identify symptom or allele (GG, AA/AG) by condition (critical, neutral, praise) interaction effects on brain activation. Greater symptoms related to greater right amygdala activation for criticism and reduced activation to praise. For left amygdala, greater symptoms related to reduced activation to both conditions. Anxiety symptoms related to differences in superior medial PFC activation patterns. Parental OXTR AA/AG allele related to reduced activation to criticism and greater activation to praise within the right amygdala. Results support a relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms and prefrontal-amygdala responses to maternal feedback. The lateralization of amygdala findings suggests separate neural targets for interventions reducing reactivity to negative feedback or increasing salience of positive feedback. Exploratory analyses suggest that parents' OXTR genetic profile influences parent-child interactions and related adolescent brain responses.

  15. Beijing Encourages High-Risk Groups to Undertake AIDS Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    High-risk groups in Beijing, China's capital city, such as sex workers, drug-takers who share needles and gay communities are being encouraged to take voluntary counseling and tests (VCT) as part of an effort to stem the spread of AIDS. Tens of thousands of flyers have been distributed to disease control centers at district levels, and they will be handed to high-risk individuals by AIDS workers and volunteers over the next few weeks.

  16. Emotional stability, anxiety, and natural killer activity under examination stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, P; Bargellini, A; Rovesti, S; Pinelli, M; Vivoli, R; Solfrini, V; Vivoli, G

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the relation between a stable personality trait, a mood state and immune response to an examination stress. A self-reported measure of emotional stability (BFQ-ES scale) was obtained in a sample (n = 39) randomly selected from 277 cadets; this personality trait was also investigated by completing a neuroticism scale (Eysenck personality inventory) and a trait-anxiety scale (STAI). Natural killer (NK) cell activity was measured at baseline, long before the examination time and the examination day. The state-anxiety scale evaluated the response to the stressful stimulus. Taking subjects all together, the academic task did not result in significant modification over baseline in NK cell activity. Subjects were then divided into three groups based on emotional stability and state-anxiety scores: high emotional stability/low anxiety, medium, and low emotional stability/high anxiety. Examination stress induced significant increases in NK cell activity in the high emotional stability/low anxiety group, no effect in the medium group, and significant decreases in the low emotional stability/high anxiety group. The repeated-measure ANOVA revealed a significant interaction of group x period (baseline vs. examination) for both lytic units and percent cytolysis. The results did not change after introducing coffee and smoking habits as covariates. Our findings suggest that the state-anxiety acts in concert with a stable personality trait to modulate NK response in healthy subjects exposed to a psychological naturalistic stress. The relation between anxiety and poor immune control has been already described, whereas the ability of emotional stability to associate with an immunoenhancement has not yet reported. The peculiarity of our population, a very homogeneous and healthy group for life style and habits, can have highlighted the role of emotional stability, and may account for the difference with other studies.

  17. Male rats with same sex preference show high experimental anxiety and lack of anxiogenic-like effect of fluoxetine in the plus maze test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cárdenas, Nallely; Olvera-Hernández, Sandra; Gómez-Quintanar, Blanca Nelly; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2015-08-01

    Homosexual men show a 2-4 higher risk to suffer anxiety in comparison with heterosexuals. It is unknown if biological factors collaborate to increase such incidence. Fluoxetine produces differential brain activation in homosexuals as compared with heterosexuals, suggesting that it may produce a divergent behavioral effect dependant on sex-preference. The first aim was to evaluate experimental anxiety in male rats that show same-sex preference in the elevated plus maze (EPM). The second goal explored the putative differential effect of fluoxetine (10mg/kg) in male rats with female and same-sex preference in the EPM. To induce same-sex preference males were prenatally treated with letrozole (0.56μg/kg, 10-20 gestation days), while controls were males prenatally treated with letrozole that retain female-preference or which mothers received oil. In both groups we found animals with male preference, but the proportion was higher in males that prenatally received letrozole (10 vs. 27%). Males with same-sex preference spent less time and showed lower number of entries to the open arms of the EPM than males that prefer females, regardless of the prenatal treatment. In males with female preference, fluoxetine reduced the time spent and number of entries to the open arms that was absent in males with same-sex preference. These data suggest that biological factors contribute to the high levels of anxiety in subjects with same-sex preference and that fluoxetine in men may produce a divergent action depending on sexual orientation.

  18. Electrophysiological Correlates of Emotional Source Memory in High-Trait-Anxiety Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lixia; Shi, Guangyuan; He, Fan; Zhang, Qin; Oei, Tian P S; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between recognition memory and emotion has become a research hotspot in recent years. Dual process theory posits that familiarity and recollection are two separate processes contributing to recognition memory, but further experimental evidence is needed. The present study explored the emotional context effects on successful and unsuccessful source retrieval amongst 15 high-trait-anxiety college students by using event-related potentials (ERPs) measurement. During study, a happy, fearful, or neutral face picture first was displayed, then a Chinese word was superimposed centrally on the picture and subjects were asked to remember the word and the corresponding type of picture. During the test participants were instructed to press one of four buttons to indicate whether the displayed word was an old or new word. And then, for the old word, indicate whether it had been shown with a fearful, happy, or neutral face during the study. ERPs were generally more positive for remembered words than for new words and the ERP difference was termed as an old/new effect. It was found that, for successful source retrieval (it meant both the item and the source were remembered accurately) between 500 and 700 ms (corresponding to a late positive component, LPC), there were significant old/new effects in all contexts. However, for unsuccessful source retrieval (it meant the correct recognition of old items matched with incorrect source attribution), there were no significant old/new effects in happy and neutral contexts, though significant old/new effects were observed in the fearful context. Between 700 and 1200 ms (corresponding to a late slow wave, LSW), there were significant old/new effects for successful source retrieval in happy and neutral contexts. However, in the fearful context, the old/new effects were reversed, ERPs were more negative for successful source retrieval compared to correct rejections. Moreover, there were significant emotion effects for

  19. Social anxiety in parents of high-functioning children with autism and Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja; Ebeling, Hanna; Pauls, David; Moilanen, Irma

    2013-03-01

    We evaluated social anxiety (SA) symptoms in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; N = 131) and community parents (N = 597) using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI). SA was significantly more common in ASD than control mothers (15.6 vs. 6.7 %) and more equal between the ASD and control fathers (3.3 vs. 4.8 %). The ASD mothers scored significantly higher than control mothers on all SPAI scales. ASD fathers scored significantly higher than control fathers on the somatic, cognitive, avoidance and agoraphobic symptoms of SA. It is of clinical import to support ASD parents' well-being as their psychiatric features may contribute greatly to their children's emotional development and the well-being of the whole family.

  20. [Anxiety in progressive disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Michaela; Heydweiller, Katrin; Mücke, Martin; Cuhls, Henning; Radbruch, Lukas

    2016-08-01

    Anxiety in terminally ill patients has a high impact on symptoms, trajectory and quality of life. There are different screening instruments for diagnosis. The holistic approach of palliative care considers the physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs and can improve the distress caused by anxiety. Early integration in palliative care decreases burden of symptoms and increases quality of life.

  1. Psychological intervention reduces self-reported performance anxiety in high school music students

    OpenAIRE

    Braden, Alice M.; Margaret Sarah Osborne; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) can be distressing for many young people studying music, and may negatively impact upon their ability to cope with the demands and stressors of music education. It can also lead young people to give up music or to develop unhealthy coping habits in their adult music careers. Minimal research has examined the effectiveness of psychological programs to address MPA in young musicians. Sixty-two adolescents were pseudo-randomised to a cognitive behavioural (CB) gro...

  2. Psychological intervention reduces self-reported performance anxiety in high school music students

    OpenAIRE

    Braden, Alice M.; Margaret Sarah Osborne; Sarah J Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) can be distressing for many young people studying music, and may negatively impact upon their ability to cope with the demands and stressors of music education. It can also lead young people to give up music or to develop unhealthy coping habits in their adult music careers. Minimal research has examined the effectiveness of psychological programs to address MPA in young musicians. Sixty-two adolescents were pseudo-randomised to a cognitive behavioural (CB) gro...

  3. Syndrome of Acute Anxiety Among Marines After Recent Arrival at High Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    conditioned 18- to 35-year-old men in good health, with a potentially increased incidence of trau- matic brain injury [TBI] germane to an infantry unit...initial presentation. Case 4 A male Marine in his late teens was brought to the BAS from a higher altitude because of cotnplaints of acute chest pain...organic brain disorders known to be associated with anxiety (both of which have a higher inci- dence in military populations). It is reasonably likely that

  4. Cyberchondriasis: fact or fiction? A preliminary examination of the relationship between health anxiety and searching for health information on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muse, Kate; McManus, Freda; Leung, Christie; Meghreblian, Ben; Williams, J Mark G

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between health anxiety and searching for health information online, a phenomenon dubbed 'cyberchondria'. The majority of those with 'high' (n=46) and 'low' (n=36) levels of health anxiety reported seeking health information online. However, those with higher levels of health anxiety sought online health information more frequently, spent longer searching, and found searching more distressing and anxiety provoking. Furthermore, more responses in the high than low health anxiety group related to searching for information on diagnosed and undiagnosed medical conditions, descriptions of others' experiences of illnesses and using message boards/support groups, although the largest proportion of responses in both groups was accounted for by seeking information on symptoms. Linear regression (n=167) revealed significant relationships between health anxiety and the frequency, duration and distress and anxiety associated with searching for health information online. This preliminary data suggests that searching for health information online may exacerbate health anxiety. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparing telehealth-based and clinic-based group cognitive behavioral therapy for adults with depression and anxiety: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatri N

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nasreen Khatri, Elsa Marziali, Illia Tchernikov, Nancy ShepherdRotman Research Institute, Toronto, ON, CanadaBackground: The primary objective of this pilot study was to demonstrate reliable adherence to a group cognitive behavioral (CBT therapy protocol when delivered using on-line video conferencing as compared with face-to-face delivery of group CBT. A secondary aim was to show comparability of changes in subject depression inventory scores between on-line and face-to-face delivery of group CBT.Methods: We screened 31 individuals, 18 of whom met the criteria for a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition diagnosis of mood and/or anxiety disorder. All qualifying participants had the necessary equipment (computer, webcam, Internet for participation in the study, but could exercise their preference for either the on-line or face-to-face format. Eighteen completed the 13 weekly session intervention program (ten face-to-face; eight video conferencing. We coded adherence to protocol in both intervention formats and generated pre–post changes in scores on the Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition (BDI-II for each participant.Results: Application of the CBT protocol coding system showed reliable adherence to the group CBT intervention protocol in both delivery formats. Similarly, qualitative analysis of the themes in group discussion indicated that both groups addressed similar issues. Pre–post intervention scores for the BDI-II were comparable across the two delivery formats, with 60% of participants in each group showing a positive change in BDI-II severity classification (eg, from moderate to low symptoms.Conclusion: This pilot study demonstrates that group CBT could be delivered in a technology-supported environment (on-line video conferencing and can meet the same professional practice standards and outcomes as face-to-face delivery of the intervention program.Keywords: psychotherapy, gerontology, mood

  6. Analysis of test anxiety in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Pantić Marina; Latas Milan; Obradović Danilo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Most students experience some level of anxiety during the exam. However, when anxiety affects the exam performance, it represents a problem. Test anxiety is a special form of anxiety, which is characterized with somatic, cognitive and behavioral symptoms of anxiety in situations of preparing and performing tests and exams. Test anxiety turns into a problem when it becomes so high that it interferes with test preparation and performance. The objective of this study was to a...

  7. Dietary patterns, n-3 fatty acids intake from seafood and high levels of anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Vaz

    Full Text Available Little is known about relationships between dietary patterns, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA intake and excessive anxiety during pregnancy.To examine whether dietary patterns and n-3 PUFA intake from seafood are associated with high levels of anxiety during pregnancy.Pregnant women enrolled from 1991-1992 in ALSPAC (n 9,530. Dietary patterns were established from a food frequency questionnaire using principal component analysis. Total intake of n-3 PUFA (grams/week from seafood was also examined. Symptoms of anxiety were measured at 32 weeks of gestation with the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index; scores ≥ 9 corresponding to the 85(th percentile was defined as high anxiety symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95% CI, adjusted by socioeconomic and lifestyle variables.Multivariate results showed that women in the highest tertile of the health-conscious (OR 0.77; 0.65-0.93 and the traditional (OR 0.84; 0.73-0.97 pattern scores were less likely to report high levels of anxiety symptoms. Women in the highest tertile of the vegetarian pattern score (OR 1.25; 1.08-1.44 were more likely to have high levels of anxiety, as well as those with no n-3 PUFA intake from seafood (OR 1.53; 1.25-1.87 when compared with those with intake of >1.5 grams/week.The present study provides evidence of a relationship between dietary patterns, fish intake or n-3 PUFA intake from seafood and symptoms of anxiety in pregnancy, and suggests that dietary interventions could be used to reduce high anxiety symptoms during pregnancy.

  8. Highly Scalable Trip Grouping for Large Scale Collective Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Risch, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Transportation-related problems, like road congestion, parking, and pollution, are increasing in most cities. In order to reduce traffic, recent work has proposed methods for vehicle sharing, for example for sharing cabs by grouping "closeby" cab requests and thus minimizing transportation cost...... and utilizing cab space. However, the methods published so far do not scale to large data volumes, which is necessary to facilitate large-scale collective transportation systems, e.g., ride-sharing systems for large cities. This paper presents highly scalable trip grouping algorithms, which generalize previous...

  9. The separation of adult separation anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, David S; Gordon, Robert; Abelli, Marianna; Pini, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) categorization of mental disorders places "separation anxiety disorder" within the broad group of anxiety disorders, and its diagnosis no longer rests on establishing an onset during childhood or adolescence. In previous editions of DSM, it was included within the disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence, with the requirement for an onset of symptoms before the age of 18 years: symptomatic adults could only receive a retrospective diagnosis, based on establishing this early onset. The new position of separation anxiety disorder is based upon the findings of epidemiological studies that revealed the unexpectedly high prevalence of the condition in adults, often in individuals with an onset of symptoms after the teenage years; its prominent place within the DSM-5 group of anxiety disorders should encourage further research into its epidemiology, etiology, and treatment. This review examines the clinical features and boundaries of the condition, and offers guidance on how it can be distinguished from other anxiety disorders and other mental disorders in which "separation anxiety" may be apparent.

  10. Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A What's in this article? What Is Test Anxiety? What Causes It? Who's Likely to Have Test Anxiety? What Can You Do? en español Ansiedad ante ... prevent them from doing their best on a test. continue What Causes It? All anxiety is a reaction to anticipating something stressful. Like ...

  11. The Effects of an Exercise Program on Anxiety Levels and Metabolic Functions in Patients With Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Fen; Wu, Po-Lun; Su, Chia-Hsien; Yang, Tzu-Ching

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a home-based (HB) exercise program on anxiety levels and metabolic functions in patients with anxiety disorders in Taiwan. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 86 participants for this randomized, experimental study. Participants were asked to complete a pretest before the 3-month exercise program, a posttest at 1 week, and a follow-up test at 3 months after the exercise program. Study measures included four Self-Report Scales and biophysical assessments to collect and assess personal data, lifestyle behaviors, anxiety levels, and metabolic control functions. Of the 86 study participants, 83 completed the posttest and the 3-month follow-up test, including 41 in the experimental group and 42 in the control group. Participants in the experimental group showed significant improvements in body mass index, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and the level of moderate exercise after the program relative to the control group, as analyzed by generalized estimating equations mixed-model repeated measures. State and trait anxiety levels were also significantly improved from pretest to follow-up test in the experimental group. Finally, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome declined for participants in the experimental group. The HB exercise program produced positive effects on the metabolic indicators and anxiety levels of Taiwanese adults with anxiety disorders. Health providers should consider using similar HB exercise programs to help improve the mental and physical health of patients with anxiety disorders in their communities.

  12. An investigation of the attitudes, anxieties and self-efficacy beliefs towards mathematics lessons high school students’ in terms of gender, types of school, and students’ grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. İzzet Kurbanoğlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing recognition that mathematics anxiety plays an important role in students’ learning of mathematics and thus, mathematics anxiety has gained heightened awareness by mathematics educators as an important factor in the teaching of mathematics (Bursal & Paznokas, 2006; Thomas & Higbee, 1999; McLeod, 1988; Singh, Granville, & Dika, 2002; Sloan, Daane, & Geisen, 2002; Vinson, 2001; Zettle & Raines, 2000. Math anxiety defined by Richardson & Suinn (1972 as a “feelings of tension and anxiety that interfere with the manipulation of numbers and the solving of mathematical problems in a wide variety of ordinary life and academic situations”. Research demonstrated that the physiological, cognitive, and behavioral consequences of math anxiety may impair life functioning. For example, students who have math anxiety exhibit physiological reactivity to numeric stimuli and have faulty beliefs and negative attitudes regarding their problem solving abilities. These students also may avoid environment and careers that require utilization of math skills, and will sacrifice accuracy for speed when performing numeric tasks (Ashcraft & Kirk, 2001. Purpose and significanceThe purpose of this research is to examine whether there is a significant difference between the attitudes, anxieties, and self-efficacy beliefs towards mathematics lessons high school students’ in terms of gender, types of school and students’ grades. It is very important to reveal relationships between attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs to develop high school students’ positive attitudes towards mathematics lessons.MethodsIn this study, descriptive research method was conducted. A total of 418 students, from three different school types participated in the study. The schools are Anatolian High School, Vocational High School and Public High School. Three scales were implemented

  13. Estimation of the level of anxiety in rats: differences in results of open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and Vogel's conflict test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, S K; Nazarova, G A; Alekseeva, E V; Bashkatova, V G

    2013-07-01

    We compared individual anxiety assessed by three standard tests, open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and Vogel conflict drinking test, in the same animals. No significant correlations between the main anxiety parameters were found in these three experimental models. Groups of animals with high and low anxiety rats were formed by a single parameter and subsequent selection of two extreme groups (10%). It was found that none of the tests could be used for reliable estimation of individual anxiety in rats. The individual anxiety level with high degree of confidence was determined in high-anxiety and low-anxiety rats demonstrating behavioral parameters above and below the mean values in all tests used. Therefore, several tests should be used for evaluation of the individual anxiety or sensitivity to emotional stress.

  14. Anxiety and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mae Wood

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the first preventable cause of death. This is associated not only with physical illness and a shorter life expectancy, but also with different mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. Given the low risk perception of use, this paper reports a systematic review of the scientific literature on the relationship between anxiety and tobacco from an emotional perspective, including data on smoking prevalence, factors associated with the onset and maintenance of tobacco use, as well as those factors that hamper smoking cessation and increase relapse rates. The high rates of comorbidity between tobacco use and anxiety disorders make necessary the development of new and better tobacco cessation treatments, especially designed for those smokers with high state anxiety or anxiety sensitivity, with the aim of maximizing the efficacy.

  15. Improving recognition of late life anxiety disorders in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition: observations and recommendations of the Advisory Committee to the Lifespan Disorders Work Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohlman, Jan; Bryant, Christina; Lenze, Eric J; Stanley, Melinda A; Gum, Amber; Flint, Alastair; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Thorp, Steven R; Craske, Michelle G

    2012-06-01

    Recognition of the significance of anxiety disorders in older adults is growing. The revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) provides a timely opportunity to consider potential improvements to diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorders for use with older people. The authors of this paper comprise the Advisory Committee to the DSM5 Lifespan Disorders Work Group, the purpose of which was to generate informative responses from individuals with clinical and research expertise in the field of late-life anxiety disorders. This paper reviews the unique features of anxiety in later life and synthesizes the work of the Advisory Committee. Suggestions are offered for refining our understanding of the effects of aging on anxiety and other disorders (e.g., mood disorders) and changes to the DSM5 criteria and text that could facilitate more accurate recognition and diagnosis of anxiety disorders in older adults. Several of the recommendations are not limited to the study of anxiety but rather are applicable across the broader field of geriatric mental health. DSM5 should provide guidelines for the thorough assessment of avoidance, excessiveness, and comorbid conditions (e.g., depression, medical illness, cognitive impairment) in anxious older adults. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The Effects of Twelve Weeks of Tai Chi Practice on Anxiety in Stressed But Healthy People Compared to Exercise and Wait-List Groups-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuai; Kim, Christine; Lal, Sara; Meier, Peter; Sibbritt, David; Zaslawski, Chris

    2017-06-13

    This randomized controlled trial was undertaken to determine whether 12 weeks of Tai Chi (TC) practice can reduce anxiety in healthy but stressed people. Fifty participants were randomized into TC (n=17), exercise (n=17), and wait-list (WL) groups (n=16). Outcome measures used were State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale 14 (PSS14), blood pressure and heart rate variability, visual analogue scale (VAS), and Short Form 36. Significant improvements were observed from baseline for both TC and exercise groups for both state (p stress levels in healthy individuals and provides a safer, cost effective, and less physically vigorous alternative to exercise. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Decreased sensitivity to thermal pain in rats bred for high anxiety-related behaviour is attenuated by citalopram or diazepam treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Thomas; Boettger, Michael Karl; Wigger, Alexandra; Beiderbeck, Daniela; Neumann, Inga D; Landgraf, Rainer; Sauer, Heinrich; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2007-10-01

    Complex interactions between pain perception, anxiety and depressive symptoms have repeatedly been described. However, pathophysiological or biochemical mechanisms underlying the alterations of pain perception in patients suffering from anxiety or depression still remain a matter of debate. Thus, we aimed to perform an investigation on pain perception in an animal model of extremes in anxiety-related behaviour, which might provide a tool for future studies. Here, thermal pain thresholds were obtained from rats with a genetic predisposition to high anxiety-related behaviour (HAB), including signs of comorbid depression-like behaviour and from controls (low-anxiety rats (LAB); cross-bred HAB and LAB rats; Wistar rats). Furthermore, the effect of eight-week antidepressive treatment using citalopram and of short-term anxiolytic treatment with diazepam on pain-related behaviour was assessed. Simultaneously, anxiety-related behaviour was monitored. At baseline, HAB animals showed 35% higher thresholds for thermal pain than controls. These were normalized to control levels after eight weeks of continuous citalopram treatment paralleled by a reduction of anxiety-related behaviour, but also acutely after diazepam administration. Overall, thermal pain thresholds in HAB animals are shifted in a similar fashion as seen in patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Antidepressive, as well as anxiolytic treatments, attenuated these differences. As the relative importance of the factors anxiety and depression cannot be derived from this study with certainty, extending these investigations to additional animal models might represent a valuable tool for future investigations concerning the interrelations between anxiety, depression, and pain at a molecular level.

  18. Group Lasso estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Bigot, Jérémie; Loubes, Jean-Michel; Alvarez, Lilian Muniz

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the Group Lasso estimator of the covariance matrix of a stochastic process corrupted by an additive noise. We propose to estimate the covariance matrix in a high-dimensional setting under the assumption that the process has a sparse representation in a large dictionary of basis functions. Using a matrix regression model, we propose a new methodology for high-dimensional covariance matrix estimation based on empirical contrast regularization by a group Lasso penalty. Using such a penalty, the method selects a sparse set of basis functions in the dictionary used to approximate the process, leading to an approximation of the covariance matrix into a low dimensional space. Consistency of the estimator is studied in Frobenius and operator norms and an application to sparse PCA is proposed.

  19. High Mobility Group Proteins and Their Post-Translational Modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qingchun; Wang, Yinsheng

    2008-01-01

    The high mobility group (HMG) proteins, including HMGA, HMGB and HMGN, are abundant and ubiquitous nuclear proteins that bind to DNA, nucleosome and other multi-protein complexes in a dynamic and reversible fashion to regulate DNA processing in the context of chromatin. All HMG proteins, like histone proteins, are subjected to extensive post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as lysine acetylation, arginine/lysine methylation and serine/threonine phosphorylation, to modulate their inter...

  20. Differences in evolutionary pressure acting within highly conserved ortholog groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravind L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In highly conserved widely distributed ortholog groups, the main evolutionary force is assumed to be purifying selection that enforces sequence conservation, with most divergence occurring by accumulation of neutral substitutions. Using a set of ortholog groups from prokaryotes, with a single representative in each studied organism, we asked the question if this evolutionary pressure is acting similarly on different subgroups of orthologs defined as major lineages (e.g. Proteobacteria or Firmicutes. Results Using correlations in entropy measures as a proxy for evolutionary pressure, we observed two distinct behaviors within our ortholog collection. The first subset of ortholog groups, called here informational, consisted mostly of proteins associated with information processing (i.e. translation, transcription, DNA replication and the second, the non-informational ortholog groups, mostly comprised of proteins involved in metabolic pathways. The evolutionary pressure acting on non-informational proteins is more uniform relative to their informational counterparts. The non-informational proteins show higher level of correlation between entropy profiles and more uniformity across subgroups. Conclusion The low correlation of entropy profiles in the informational ortholog groups suggest that the evolutionary pressure acting on the informational ortholog groups is not uniform across different clades considered this study. This might suggest "fine-tuning" of informational proteins in each lineage leading to lineage-specific differences in selection. This, in turn, could make these proteins less exchangeable between lineages. In contrast, the uniformity of the selective pressure acting on the non-informational groups might allow the exchange of the genetic material via lateral gene transfer.

  1. Preoperative anxiety in neurosurgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, Anna; Chakravarti, Sucharita; Manninen, Pirjo

    2009-04-01

    Anxiety is common in surgical patients, with an incidence of 60% to 92%. There is little information on the incidence and severity of preoperative anxiety in patients scheduled for neurosurgery. The aim of this study was to measure the level of preoperative anxiety in neurosurgical patients and to assess any influencing factors. After the Institutional Review Board approval and informed written consent, 100 patients booked for neurosurgery were interviewed preoperatively. Each patient was asked to grade their preoperative anxiety level on a verbal analog scale, Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale, and a set of specific anxiety-related questions. The anxiety scores and the responses to the questions were compared between the sex, age, weight, diagnosis, and history of previous surgery. The mean age (+/-SD) was 50+/-13 years. The preoperative diagnosis was tumor (n=64), aneurysm (n=14), and other (n=22). Overall verbal analog scale was 5.2+/-2.7; the score was higher for female (5.8+/-2.8) than male patients (4.6+/-2.5) (PAmsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale anxiety and knowledge scores were greater for surgery than for anesthesia. Questionnaire results showed that the most common anxieties were waiting for surgery, physical/mental harm, and results of the operation. In conclusion, our study showed that neurosurgical patients have high levels of anxiety, with a higher incidence in females. There was a moderately high need for information, particularly in patients with a high level of preoperative anxiety.

  2. Validity of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in detecting depressive and anxiety disorders among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksheev, Gennady Nickolaevich; Robinson, Jo; Cosgrave, Elizabeth Mary; Baker, Kathryn; Yung, Alison Ruth

    2011-05-15

    Despite the common use of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) with adolescents, there is limited data supporting its validity with this population. The aims of the study were to investigate the psychometric properties of the GHQ-12 among high school students, to validate the GHQ-12 against the gold standard of a diagnostic interview, and to suggest a threshold score for detecting depressive and anxiety disorders. Six hundred and fifty-four high school students from years 10 to 12 (ages 15-18) completed the GHQ-12 (Likert scored) and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Test Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted. The mean GHQ-12 score for the total sample was 9.9 (S.D.=5.4). Results from the ROC curve indicated that the GHQ-12 performed better than chance at identifying depressive and anxiety disorders (area under the curve (AUC)=0.781). A GHQ-12 threshold score of 9/10 for males and 10/11 for females was found to be optimal. Given the significant proportion of mental illness among high school students, there may be a need to introduce screening for mental illnesses as part of the school curriculum. This can assist with the early identification and enable low stigma preventive intervention within the school environment.

  3. The Influence of Personality and Chronotype on Distance Learning Willingness and Anxiety among Vocational High School Students in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph; Horzum, Mehmet Baris; Vollmer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies related to distance learning. Willingness and anxiety are important variables for distance learning. Recent research has shown that anxiety and willingness towards distance learning are moderated by personality. This study sought to investigate whether distance learning willingness and distance learning anxiety are…

  4. Effect of anxiety on memory for emotional information in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Sara; Montorio, Ignacio; Cabrera, Isabel

    2017-04-01

    Several studies have shown that anxiety is associated with a better memory of negative events. However, this anxiety-related memory bias has not been studied in the elderly, in which there is a preferential processing of positive information. To study the effect of anxiety in a recognition task and an autobiographical memory task in 102 older adults with high and low levels of trait anxiety. Negative, positive and neutral pictures were used in the recognition task. In the autobiographical memory task, memories of the participants' lives were recorded, how they felt when thinking about them, and the personal relevance of these memories. In the recognition task, no anxiety-related bias was found toward negative information. Individuals with high trait anxiety were found to remember less positive pictures than those with low trait anxiety. In the autobiographical memory task, both groups remembered negative and positive events equally. However, people with high trait anxiety remembered life experiences with more negative emotions, especially when remembering negative events. Individuals with low trait anxiety tended to feel more positive emotions when remembering their life experiences and most of these referred to feeling positive emotions when remembering negative events. Older adults with anxiety tend to recognize less positive information and to present more negative emotions when remembering life events; while individuals without anxiety have a more positive experience of negative memories.

  5. Trait Anxiety Modulates Brain Activity during Performance of Verbal Fluency Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawda, Barbara; Szepietowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Trait anxiety is thought to be associated with pathological anxiety, and a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. The present study examines the brain mechanisms associated with trait anxiety during the performing of verbal fluency tasks. The aim is to show how trait anxiety modulates executive functions as measured by verbal fluency, and to explore the link between verbal fluency and anxiety due to the putative negative biases in high-anxious individuals. Seven tasks of verbal fluency were used: letter "k," "f," verbs, "animals," "vehicles," "joy," and "fear." The results of 35 subjects (whole sample), and 17 subjects (nine men, eight women) selected from the whole sample for the low/high-anxious groups on the basis of Trait Anxiety scores were analyzed. The subjects were healthy, Polish speaking, right-handed and aged from 20 to 35 years old. fMRI (whole-brain analysis with FWE corrections) was used to show the neural signals under active participation in verbal fluency tasks. The results confirm that trait anxiety slightly modulates neural activation during the performance of verbal fluency tasks, especially in the more difficult tasks. Significant differences were found in brain activation during the performance of more complex tasks between individuals with low anxiety and those with high anxiety. Greater activation in the right hemisphere, frontal gyri, and cerebellum was found in people with low anxiety. The results reflect better integration of cognitive and affective capacities in individuals with low anxiety.

  6. An abnormal screening mammogram causes more anxiety than a palpable lump in benign breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyzer-Dekker, C M G; van Esch, L; de Vries, J; Ernst, M F; Nieuwenhuijzen, G A P; Roukema, J A; van der Steeg, A F W

    2012-07-01

    Being recalled for further diagnostic procedures after an abnormal screening mammogram (ASM) can evoke a high state anxiety with lowered quality of life (QoL). We examined whether these adverse psychological consequences are found in all women with benign breast disease (BBD) or are particular to women referred after ASM. In addition, the influence of the anxiety as a personality characteristic (trait anxiety) was studied. Between September 2002 and February 2010 we performed a prospective longitudinal study in six Dutch hospitals. Women referred after ASM or with a palpable lump in the breast (PL), who were subsequently diagnosed with BBD, were included. Before diagnosis (at referral) and during follow-up, questionnaires were completed examining trait anxiety (at referral), state anxiety, depressive symptoms (at referral, one, three and 6 months after diagnosis), and QoL (at referral and 12 months). Women referred after ASM (N=363) were compared with women with PL (N=401). A similar state anxiety score was found in both groups, but a lower psychological QoL score at 12 months was seen in the ASM group. In women with not-high trait anxiety those in the ASM group were more anxious with more depressive symptoms at referral, and reported impaired psychological QoL at referral and at 12 months compared with the PL group. No differences were found between ASM and PL in women with high trait anxiety, but this group scored unfavorably on anxiety, depressive symptoms and QoL compared with women with not-high trait anxiety. ASM evokes more anxiety and depressive symptoms and lowered QoL compared with women referred with PL, especially in women who are not prone to anxiety. Women should be fully informed properly about the risks and benefits of breast cancer screening programs. We recommend identifying women at risk of reduced QoL using a psychometric test.

  7. Sudden darkness induces a high activity-low anxiety state in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasello, A G; Machado, C; Bastos, J F; Felicio, L F

    1998-02-01

    The effects of sudden darkness on spontaneous motor activity in an open field and performance in an elevated plus-maze (EPM) were assessed in adult male and female rats. In the open field test, sudden darkness increased total locomotion, locomotion in central squares, rearing frequency (RF), and diminished defecation units (DU). In the dark, total locomotion remained elevated during the 20-min test period, while in the light total locomotion decreased significantly after the fourth minute, in both sexes. All the effects of sudden darkness in the open field test were more pronounced in female rats. In the EPM, sudden darkness increased the number of entries into the open arms, total entries, percentages of entries into the open arms, and time spent in the open arms. The changes were more significant in female than in male rats. These results show that sudden darkness increases general motor activity and suggest it diminishes habituation, fear, and anxiety. The results also suggest that this behavioral shift is sexually differentiated. Sudden darkness emerges as an experimental tool to simultaneously test physiologically-induced increases in spontaneous motor activity and decreases in anxiety.

  8. Valerian for anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, L S; Atallah, A N; Soares, B G O

    2006-10-18

    valerian and placebo groups in HAM-A total scores, or in somatic and psychic factor scores. Similarly, there were no significant differences in HAM-A scores between the valerian and diazepam groups, although based on STAI-Trait scores, significantly greater symptom improvement was indicated in the diazepam group. There were no significant differences between the three groups in the number of patients reporting side effects or in dropout rates. Since only one small study is currently available, there is insufficient evidence to draw any conclusions about the efficacy or safety of valerian compared with placebo or diazepam for anxiety disorders. RCTs involving larger samples and comparing valerian with placebo or other interventions used to treat of anxiety disorders, such as antidepressants, are needed.

  9. Anxiety levels, health behaviors, and support systems of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, S A; Rankin, M

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational descriptive study was to assess health behaviors, anxiety levels, and social support of pregnant women, ages 20 to 40, who were without complications and were patients of four private obstetrical practices in a large metropolitan city. Although sampling was a nonprobability approach, various socioeconomic, racial, and religious groups were represented. The three instruments used to test the hypotheses included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ) and a detailed Health Behavior Demographic Questionnaire. Results of the data indicated no significant differences between pregnant smokers' and pregnant nonsmokers' STAI or PRQ scores. Significant positive correlations were revealed between the following variables: Trait anxiety with increased age of pregnancy (r = .77, p = .008); trait anxiety with high educational level (r = .72, p = .001); trait anxiety with state anxiety (r = .64, p = .001); trait anxiety with years married (r = .68, p = .018); trait anxiety with numbers of children (r = .82, p = .005); trait anxiety with high occupation level (r = .68, p = .001), increased age with PRQ support (r = -.88, p = .001); caucasian women examined breast more frequently (r = .47, p = .005); pregnant women who were smokers also were more likely to drink (r = .66, p = .03). Significant negative correlations were: Increased state anxiety with decreased social support (r = -.28, p = .05); higher trait anxiety with lower PRQ (r = -.59, p = .001), and more drinks of alcohol per day with decreased social support (r = .88, p = .04). The study indicated that the subjects who continue to smoke while pregnant were highly educated. All had at least two years of college with 45% having completed graduate school. All were working in managerial or professional jobs. This has implications for nursing interventions focused on enhancing health coping strategies at the workplace and specific health promotion

  10. Dyslexia in higher education: implications for maths anxiety, statistics anxiety and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Julie-Ann; McGladdery, Gary; Dyer, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    This study examined levels of mathematics and statistics anxiety, as well as general mental health amongst undergraduate students with dyslexia (n = 28) and those without dyslexia (n = 71). Students with dyslexia had higher levels of mathematics anxiety relative to those without dyslexia, while statistics anxiety and general mental health were comparable for both reading ability groups. In terms of coping strategies, undergraduates with dyslexia tended to use planning-based strategies and seek instrumental support more frequently than those without dyslexia. Higher mathematics anxiety was associated with having a dyslexia diagnosis, as well as greater levels of worrying, denial, seeking instrumental support and less use of the positive reinterpretation coping strategy. By contrast, statistics anxiety was not predicted by dyslexia diagnosis, but was instead predicted by overall worrying and the use of denial and emotion focused coping strategies. The results suggest that disability practitioners should be aware that university students with dyslexia are at risk of high mathematics anxiety. Additionally, effective anxiety reduction strategies such as positive reframing and thought challenging would form a useful addition to the support package delivered to many students with dyslexia.

  11. Effects of cafeteria diet and high fat diet intake on anxiety, learning and memory in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Renata Tavares Beschizza; Ferreira do Vales, Lucas Duarte Manhas; Braga Costa, Telma Maria; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2017-09-01

    The effects of cafeteria and high fat diets were investigated on animal models of behavior. Male Wistar rats were treated with Control (C), Cafeteria (CD) and High Fat (FD) diets and tested in the Elevated Plus-Maze (EPM) and Morris Water Maze (MWM) procedures. Body weight, length, abdominal circumference, retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissues were recorded. Physical parameters, weight of tissues, EPM, and MWM data were subjected to ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls test (P < 0.05). There were no differences on weight and length parameters between CD and C rats up to 98 days of age. However, abdominal circumferences were higher in CD as compared to C at 35 and 70 days of age, respectively, the 5th and the 7th weeks. FD presented lower measures of weight and abdominal circumference; nevertheless there was an increase on those parameters at the end of the nutritional treatment. Even without an apparent weight gain of CD and FD these animals presented a greater accumulation of retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissues. In addition, CD and FD demonstrated behaviors that can suggest lower anxiety. CD showed a better learning performance and FD showed better recall of previous learned information in the memory retention test. According to those data it was concluded that hypercaloric diet ingestion was capable of triggering metabolic alterations and possibly lowering anxiety associated to learning or memory improvement on a spatial task.

  12. Insights into the Feelings, Thoughts, and Behaviors of Children with Visual Impairments: A Focus Group Study Prior to Adapting a Cognitive Behavior Therapy-Based Anxiety Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, Lisa; Loxton, Helene; Stallard, Paul; Silverman, Wendy K.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Anxiety is the most common psychological problem reported among children with visual impairments. Although cognitive behavior therapy interventions have proven successful in treating childhood anxiety, it is unclear whether they are suitable and accessible for children who have visual impairments. This study aimed to determine if and…

  13. Differential associations between Social Anxiety Disorder, family cohesion, and suicidality across racial/ethnic groups: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent (NCS-A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Amy M; Lau, Anna; Chavira, Denise A

    2016-09-20

    The proposed research seeks to introduce a novel model relating Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and suicide outcomes (i.e., passive suicidal ideation, active suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts) in diverse adolescents. This model posits that family cohesion is one pathway by which suicide risk is increased for socially anxious youth, and predicts that the relationships between these variables may be of different strength in Latino and White subgroups and across gender. Data from a sample of Latino (n=1922) and non-Hispanic White (hereafter referred to as White throughout) (n=5648) male and female adolescents who participated in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent were used for this study. Analyses were conducted using generalized structural equation modeling. Results showed that the mediation model held for White females. Further examination of direct pathways highlighted SAD as a risk factor unique to Latinos for active suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, over and above comorbid depression and other relevant contextual factors. Additionally, family cohesion showed a strong association with suicide outcomes across groups, with some inconsistent findings for White males. Overall, it appears that the mechanism by which SAD increases risk for suicidality is different across groups, indicating further need to identify relevant mediators, especially for racial/ethnic minority youth.

  14. Components of attentional bias to threat in high trait anxiety: Facilitated engagement, impaired disengagement, and attentional avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Ernst H W; Crombez, Geert; Verschuere, Bruno; Van Damme, Stefaan; Wiersema, Jan Roelf

    2006-12-01

    There is a wealth of evidence demonstrating enhanced attention to threat in high trait anxious individuals (HTA) compared with low trait anxious individuals (LTA). In two experiments, we investigated whether this attentional bias is related to facilitated attentional engagement to threat or difficulties dis-engaging attention from threat. HTA and LTA undergraduates performed a modified exogenous cueing task, in which the location of a target was correctly or incorrectly cued by neutral, highly and mildly threatening pictures. Results indicate that at 100 ms picture presentation, HTA individuals more strongly engaged their attention with and showed impaired disengagement from highly threatening pictures than LTA individuals. In addition, HTA individuals showed a stronger tendency to attentional avoidance of threat at the 200 and 500 ms picture presentation. These data provide evidence for differential patterns of anxiety-related biases in attentive processing of threat at early versus later stages of information processing.

  15. Phobic Anxiety is Associated with Higher Serum Concentrations of Adipokines and Cytokines in Women with Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Aoife M; Fargnoli, Jessica L.; Li, Tricia; Williams, Catherine J.; Willett, Walter C.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Qi, Lu; Hu, Frank B; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Phobic anxiety has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We aimed to determine whether associations of phobic anxiety with several known markers of CVD might be contributors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used a 16-point validated index (Crown-Crisp) measured in 1988 to categorize 984 women with type 2 diabetes from the Nurses' Health Study as having low, moderate, or high phobic anxiety. Groups w...

  16. Virtual Reality Exposure Training for Musicians: Its Effect on Performance Anxiety and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonnette, Josiane; Dubé, Francis; Provencher, Martin D; Moreno Sala, Maria T

    2015-09-01

    Music performance anxiety affects numerous musicians, with many of them reporting impairment of performance due to this problem. This exploratory study investigated the effects of virtual reality exposure training on students with music performance anxiety. Seventeen music students were randomly assigned to a control group (n=8) or a virtual training group (n=9). Participants were asked to play a musical piece by memory in two separate recitals within a 3-week interval. Anxiety was then measured with the Personal Report of Confidence as a Performer Scale and the S-Anxiety scale from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y). Between pre- and post-tests, the virtual training group took part in virtual reality exposure training consisting of six 1-hour long sessions of virtual exposure. The results indicate a significant decrease in performance anxiety for musicians in the treatment group for those with a high level of state anxiety, for those with a high level of trait anxiety, for women, and for musicians with high immersive tendencies. Finally, between the pre- and post-tests, we observed a significant increase in performance quality for the experimental group, but not for the control group.

  17. High Mobility Group Box Protein-1 in Wound Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Patrone

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1, a member of highly conserved non-histone DNA binding protein family, has been studied as transcription factor and growth factor. Secreted extracellularly by activated monocytes and macrophages or passively released by necrotic or damaged cells, extracellular HMGB1 is a potent mediator of inflammation. Extracellular HMGB1 has apparently contrasting biological actions: it sustains inflammation (with the possible establishment of autoimmunity or of self-maintaining tissue damage, but it also activates and recruits stem cells, boosting tissue repair. Here, we focus on the role of HMGB1 in physiological and pathological responses, the mechanisms by which it contributes to tissue repair and therapeutic strategies base on targeting HMGB1.

  18. Vocational High School Students’ Sense of Self-Efficacy and Test Anxiety Regarding Biology Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Serdar KÖKSAL

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulation perspective on motivation provides an important model to study on motivation in biologyeducation. Motivational part of the Pintrich’s model as one of the most studied models has self-efficacy andtest-anxiety factors as two dominant factors reflecting positive and negative sides of the model in terms ofnumber of relationship with other factors in the model. In the study, two hundred thirteen vocational highschool students were included and survey technique was used for examining the factors across grade level inthe study. Two subscales of MSLQ were applied to collect data. The data was analyzed by using MANOVAand Pearson-product moment correlation via SPSS 13. The results showed self-efficacy and test anxietyscores differed significantly between ninth and tenth graders. Again, they were correlated negatively at thesame levels.

  19. Prevention Services for Externalizing and Anxiety Symptoms in Low-Income Children: the Role of Parent Preferences in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Nicholas D; Godoy, Leandra; Eisenhower, Abbey S; Heberle, Amy E; Carter, Alice S

    2016-01-01

    Dissemination of prevention programs targeting young children is impeded by challenges with parent engagement. Matching program characteristics to parent preferences is associated with increased retention in clinical/intervention settings, but little is known about the types of prevention programs that interest parents. The objectives of this study were to better understand parents' preferences for services designed to prevent externalizing and anxiety disorders and to identify factors associated with preferences. Ethnically diverse, low-income caregivers (n = 485) of young children (11-60 months) completed surveys on child anxiety and externalizing symptoms, parental worry about their children, parent anxiety symptoms, and preferences for prevention group topics. Parents were more likely to prefer a group targeting externalizing behaviors compared to anxiety. Cluster analysis revealed four groups of children: low symptoms, moderate anxiety-low externalizing, moderate externalizing-low anxiety, and high anxiety and externalizing. Parents' preferences varied according to co-occurrence of child anxiety and externalizing symptoms; interest in a program targeting externalizing problems was associated with elevated externalizing problems (regardless of anxiety symptom level), parent anxiety symptoms, and parent worry about their child. Only parent anxiety symptoms predicted parents' interest in an anxiety-focused program, and preference for an anxiety-focused program was actually reduced if children had co-occurring anxiety and externalizing symptoms versus only anxiety symptoms. Results suggest that parents' interest in a program to prevent externalizing problems was well-aligned with the presenting problem, whereas preferences for anxiety programming suggest a more complex interplay among factors. Parent preferences for targeted programming are discussed within a broader framework of parent engagement.

  20. Electroweak renormalization group corrections in high energy processes

    CERN Document Server

    Melles, M

    2001-01-01

    At energies ($\\sqrt{s}$) much higher than the electroweak gauge boson masses ($M$) large logarithmic corrections of the scale ratio $\\sqrt{s}/M$ occur. While the electroweak Sudakov type double (DL) and universal single (SL) logarithms have recently been resummed, at higher orders the electroweak renormalization group (RG) corrections are folded with the DL Sudakov contributions and must be included for a consistent subleading treatment to all orders. In this paper we derive first all relevant formulae for massless as well as massive gauge theories including all such terms up to order ${\\cal O} (\\alpha^n \\beta_0 \\log^{2n-1} \\frac{s}{M^2})$ by integrating over the corresponding running couplings. The results for broken gauge theories in the high energy regime are then given in the framework of the infrared evolution equation (IREE) method. The analogous QED-corrections below the weak scale $M$ are included by appropriately matching the low energy solution to the renormalization group improved high energy resul...

  1. Eating disorders and anxiety among high school students in Western area of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egemen Unal

    2016-08-01

    Results: Of the study group 64.4% (n=625 were females and 35.6% (n=345 were males. The prevalence of eating disorder was 13.0% (n=126. The mean and standard deviation of students total score of EAT-40 were 18.80+/-9.88 (ranged 3 to 95. The mean and standard deviation of students total score of BAI were 20.32+/-12.32 (ranged 0 to 63. The positive weak correlation was found between the total scores of EAT-40 and BAI (r=0.178; p=0.001. Conclusions: ED is an important health problem for adolescents. On the studies upon epidemiology of ED towards high school students, socio-economic factors should be assessed in more detailed and more comprehensive perspective. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3513-3520

  2. A comparison of externality, anxiety, and life satisfaction in two aged populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, L; Freitag, C B

    1978-01-01

    An attempt was made to find the relationship between locus of control, anxiety, and life satisfaction and to assess the impact of environmental factors upon these variables in two distinct elderly populations (20 nursing home residents and 20 active elderly). It was hypothesized that internality would be positively correlated with low anxiety and high life satisfaction and that the active elderly group would score higher on internality and life satisfaction and lower on anxiety than the nursing home group. Assessment instruments included a revision of Rotter's I-E Scale, questions from certain MMPI scales, and a life satisfaction questionnaire. Results showed significant correlations between the three measures of locus control, anxiety, and life satisfaction in the nursing home group but not in the active elderly group. As predicted, the active elderly were more internal (p less than .05), showed higher life satisfaction (p less than .01), and reported less anxiety (p less than .01) than the nursing home group.

  3. Prenatal listening to songs composed for pregnancy and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwebube, Chineze; Glover, Vivette; Stewart, Lauren

    2017-05-08

    Prenatal anxiety and depression are distressing for the expectant mother and can have adverse effects on her fetus and subsequently, her child. This study aimed to determine whether listening to specially composed songs would be an effective intervention for reducing symptoms of prenatal anxiety and depression. Pregnant women were recruited online and randomly assigned to one of two groups: the music group (daily listening to specially composed songs) or control group (daily relaxation) for 12 weeks each. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess symptoms of State and Trait anxiety (Spielberger) and depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)). Trait anxiety was measured as the primary outcome, while State anxiety and depression were the secondary outcomes. 111 participants were randomised to each group. 20 participants in the intervention group and 16 participants in the active control group completed the study. The music group demonstrated lower Trait Anxiety (p = .0001) (effect size 0.80), State Anxiety (p = .02) (effect size 0.64), and EPDS (p = .002) (effect size 0.92) scores at week 12 compared to baseline, by paired t test. There were no such changes in the control group. Though this pilot study had high levels of attrition, the results do suggest that regular listening to relaxing music should be explored further as an effective non-pharmacological means for reducing prenatal anxiety and depression. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02776293 LV-001. Registered 17 May 2016. Retrospectively registered.

  4. Anxiety attenuates awareness of emotional faces during rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Nicholas T; Earleywine, Mitch; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2012-08-01

    Anxiety limits normative perception and impacts the interaction between key neurophysiological systems, possibly by decreasing recruitment of goal-oriented processes and increasing recruitment of stimulus-driven processes. Previous studies examining the impact of anxiety on emotion processing commonly lack a sample with levels of anxiety comparable to a clinical population. Many also fail to control for co-occurring symptoms like depression. The current study used rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) with two emotional targets, comparing healthy controls to a group of individuals with symptom levels comparable to anxiety disorder patients. The results showed a modulatory effect of anxiety; the high anxiety (HA) group showed an enhanced impairment in detecting the second of two emotional targets relative to the low anxiety (LA) control group. Though there were no group-specific effects on the attentional blink or repetition blindness, there was a significant interaction of group with first and second target valence. Notably, HA individuals showed deficits (where LA individuals showed benefits) when the same emotion was presented twice. Further, when the first target was neutral, second target detection was especially impaired in HA individuals. Correlational analyses confirmed perceptual limitations were related to anxiety, but not depression, positive affect, or negative affect. The current results, along with past findings, suggest that clinical anxiety leads to deficits in overall cognitive control, increased difficulty inhibiting attention to distractors, and impairments in rapid, intuitive emotion processing.

  5. Trait anxiety and goal difficulty on learning to climb the Bachman ladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, Jaqueline F O; Barros, Joao A C; Meira, Cassio M

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the effects of trait anxiety and goal setting on learning of the Bachman ladder. It was hypothesized that easy goals would increase learning for individuals with high trait anxiety while hard goals would increase learning for individuals with low trait anxiety. 80 high school students (40 boys, 40 girls; M age = 15 yr., SD = 1.0) filled out the Brazilian State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for trait anxiety. The experiment was divided into four phases: acquisition, immediate transfer (after 5 min.), delayed transfer, and retention (after 24 hr.). On the transfer phases, the participants started climbing the ladder with the foot opposite of that used in acquisition. Participants were assigned to one of four experimental groups combining high and low anxiety traits and hard and easy goals. Variances were analyzed with repeated measurements on the last factor of all phases. The results showed the performance increased during the acquisition phase and no effects were observed in any phases.

  6. High solid and high stability waterborne polyurethanes via ionic groups in soft segments and chain termini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S K; Kim, B K

    2009-08-01

    High solid and high stability waterborne polyurethanes were molecularly designed and synthesized. The positions and concentrations of the anionic groups were varied, along with the molecular weights of the polyol. It was found that the dispersions containing ionic groups at the chain termini (called terminal ions) gave the smallest dispersion size, and the highest dispersion stability and viscosity, whereas the hard ions, containing ionic groups in the hard segments, resulted in the greatest swelling in water. However, the mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of the dispersion cast films were similar. It was demonstrated that highly stable dispersions with a high solid content (45%) can be obtained at a low ionic content (2%) by simply incorporating the ionic groups at the flexible chain ends. The results were interpreted in terms of the high mobility and low free energy of the chain ends.

  7. [HTLV-I infection in a high-risk group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, E; Ollero, M; Gimeno, A; Colchero, J; Alcoucer, R; Márquez, P

    1990-07-01

    The aim of this study is to detect the presence of HTLV-1 in a high-risk population in west Andalusia. We studied 267 samples of serum from 255 patients: 179 of these patients being intravenous drug-users, 14 had ADVP sexual partners, 16 were inhalation drug-users, 4 were hemophiliacs, 9 had other high-risk habits and 25 hematological patients afflicted with leukemia or lymphoma. All of them were tested for antibodies against HTLV-1 by means of an in vitro qualitative ELISA technique (ELISA Du Pont HTLV-1). The positive results were confirmed by the Western blot technique. Additionally, the p24 antigen and the antibodies against VIH-1 and VIH-2 (ENV/CORE) were analysed, except in the 25 hematological patients. We found 20 serum samples positive to HTLV-1 by ELISA (7.4%), but only 1 (0.3%) was confirmed by the Western blot technique. The prevalence of VIH-1 was 46%; 9% had p24 VIH antigen and 26% had false positive ELISA to VIH-2. We found a statistically significant relationship (p = 0.0005) between positive ELISA to HTLV-1 and antibodies against VIH. We conclude that HTLV-1 has penetrated into the high-risk population of west Andalusia , although not yet to a great degree, and point out the need for seric epidemiological surveillance to prevent the spread of the retrovirus in these groups.

  8. Reward learning in pediatric depression and anxiety: preliminary findings in a high-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Bethany H; Bylsma, Lauren M; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Kovacs, Maria; Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2015-05-01

    Reward learning has been postulated as a critical component of hedonic functioning that predicts depression risk. Reward learning deficits have been established in adults with current depressive disorders, but no prior studies have examined the relationship of reward learning and depression in children. The present study investigated reward learning as a function of familial depression risk and current diagnostic status in a pediatric sample. The sample included 204 children of parents with a history of depression (n = 86 high-risk offspring) or parents with no history of major mental disorder (n = 118 low-risk offspring). Semistructured clinical interviews were used to establish current mental diagnoses in the children. A modified signal detection task was used for assessing reward learning. We tested whether reward learning was impaired in high-risk offspring relative to low-risk offspring. We also tested whether reward learning was impaired in children with current disorders known to blunt hedonic function (depression, social phobia, PTSD, GAD, n = 13) compared to children with no disorders and to a psychiatric comparison group with ADHD. High- and low-risk youth did not differ in reward learning. However, youth with current anhedonic disorders (depression, social phobia, PTSD, GAD) exhibited blunted reward learning relative to nondisordered youth and those with ADHD. Our results are a first demonstration that reward learning deficits are present among youth with disorders known to blunt anhedonic function and that these deficits have some degree of diagnostic specificity. We advocate for future studies to replicate and extend these preliminary findings. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The effect of assertiveness training on student's academic anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebi, S; Sharifirad, G H R; Shahsiah, M; Botlani, S; Matlabi, M; Rezaeian, M

    2012-03-01

    Academic anxiety is an important educational problem that affects millions of students in colleges and schools over the world each year. Although a low level of anxiety can cause positive motivation for improvement of educational functioning, high levels of it can cause a disturbance in concentration, attention, storage of knowledge, recall and educational reduction. It has also been recently determined that there is a relationship between anxiety and assertiveness. Therefore, this study is an attempt to determine the effect of assertiveness training on reducing anxiety levels in pre-college academic students in Gonabad city in 2008. In this clinical trial study, all the pre-college students of Gonabad city were invited to participate and 89 students were divided into experimental and control groups. There were 3 questionnaires, namely demographic, academic anxiety and assertiveness Rathus questionnaires in which the validity and reliability were calculated and approved. The intervention for the experimental group was 5 sessions of assertiveness training using the PRECEDE model and 1 session for parents and teachers to help and support the intervention program. We had a post-test 8 weeks after the last training session for each group was conducted. The data was analyzed by SPSS. The results showed that anxiety levels and decisiveness in the target group were moderate to high and it is seen as a significant reverse relationship between these two factors (r = -0.69 and p assertiveness in the control group.before and after the intervention. Due to a significant decrease in anxiety and increased decisiveness in the experimental group, it can be claimed that assertiveness training is an effective non-pharmacological method for reducing academic anxiety and it can improve academic performance.

  10. Teaching the Anxiety of Learning a Foreign Language That Influences High School Students in Learning French as a Second Foreign Language "The Case of Denizli"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusçu, Ertan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the reasons of anxiety levels of high school students who learn French as a second foreign language. The sample of the study consisted of four hundred fifty-six students from two high schools in Denizli province in 2015-2016 academic year. In this study, the effects of variables such as learners' gender,…

  11. Social Anxiety among Chinese People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an "other concerned anxiety" factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor-other concerned anxiety-functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  12. Biology of mood & anxiety disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    An open access peer-reviewed journal that publishes highly innovative basic, translational, and clinical research that advances our understanding of the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders...

  13. Attentional Bias in Children with Asthma with and without Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudeney, Joanne; Sharpe, Louise; Sicouri, Gemma; Lorimer, Sarah; Dear, Blake F; Jaffe, Adam; Selvadurai, Hiran; Hunt, Caroline

    2017-01-09

    Children with asthma have a high prevalence of anxiety disorders, however, very little is known about the mechanisms that confer vulnerability for anxiety in this population. This study investigated whether children with asthma and anxiety disorders display attentional biases towards threatening stimuli, similar to what has been seen in children with anxiety disorders more generally. We also examined the relationships between attentional biases and anxiety symptomatology and asthma control for children with asthma. Ninety-three children, aged 8-13, took part in the study and were recruited into one of four conditions (asthma/anxiety, asthma, anxiety, control). Asthma was medically confirmed and anxiety was assessed through clinical interview. We used self- and parent-report questionnaires to measure child asthma (ATAQ) and anxiety (SCAS, CASI) variables. Participants completed a visual dot-probe task designed to measure attentional bias towards two types of stimuli: asthma related words and general threat words, as well as tasks to assess reading ability and attentional control. Results showed that attentional biases did not differ between the groups, although children with anxiety disorders displayed poorer attentional control. A significant correlation was found between poor asthma control and an attentional bias of asthma stimuli. While we found no evidence that anxiety disorders in children with asthma were associated with threat- or asthma-related attentional biases, preliminary evidence suggested that children with poor asthma control displayed biases towards asthma-specific stimuli. Future research is needed to explore whether these attentional biases are adaptive.

  14. Student anxiety in introductory biology classrooms: Perceptions about active learning and persistence in the major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Benjamin J; Brigati, Jennifer R; Schussler, Elisabeth E

    2017-01-01

    Many researchers have called for implementation of active learning practices in undergraduate science classrooms as one method to increase retention and persistence in STEM, yet there has been little research on the potential increases in student anxiety that may accompany these practices. This is of concern because excessive anxiety can decrease student performance. Levels and sources of student anxiety in three introductory biology lecture classes were investigated via an online survey and student interviews. The survey (n = 327) data revealed that 16% of students had moderately high classroom anxiety, which differed among the three classes. All five active learning classroom practices that were investigated caused student anxiety, with students voluntarily answering a question or being called on to answer a question causing higher anxiety than working in groups, completing worksheets, or answering clicker questions. Interviews revealed that student anxiety seemed to align with communication apprehension, social anxiety, and test anxiety. Additionally, students with higher general anxiety were more likely to self-report lower course grade and the intention to leave the major. These data suggest that a subset of students in introductory biology experience anxiety in response to active learning, and its potential impacts should be investigated.

  15. 认知行为集体治疗在社交焦虑障碍患者中的应用%Application of cognitive behavioral group therapy for patients with social anxiety disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴满花; 叶雪花; 佘玉宇

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察认知行为集体治疗用于社交焦虑障碍患者的效果.方法 成立心理干预小组,制定认知行为集体治疗方案,对29例社交焦虑障碍患者进行心理干预.采用惧怕否定量表、列波威兹社交焦虑量表、主观不适度表评估干预效果.结果 干预后患者主观不适感觉明显改善,惧怕否定量表、列波威兹社交焦虑量表各因子分下降,与干预前比较有统计学意义(P均≤0.01).结论 认知行为集体治疗有利于社交焦虑障碍患者形成合理的认知行为模式,逐步恢复社会交往功能.%Objective To study the effect of cognitive behavioral group therapy for patients with social anxiety disorder.Method 29 patients with social anxiety disorder receive psychological intervention by cognitive behavioral group therapy from psychological intervention group. Assess the intervention effect by Fear of Negation Scale, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and subjective discomfort level Result Subjective discomfort level is obviously relieved after intervention. Scores of factors in Negation Scale and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale reduce. There is significant difference compared to the scores before intervention (P≤0. 01). Conclusion Cognitive behavioral group therapy can help form a reasonable cognitive behavioral mode for patients with social anxiety disorder and recover their social communication ability gradually.

  16. Examination of Relationship between Anxiety Sensitivity and Parenting Styles in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erozkan, Atilgan

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationships between anxiety sensitivity and perceived parenting styles of adolescents and the predictive role of perceived parenting styles on anxiety sensitivity. The study group was composed by 545 (255 females; 290 males) students studying in different high schools in Mugla. The data were collected using the…

  17. Parents-Perceived and Self-Perceived Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, María Olga Escandell; Sánchez, José Juan Castro; del Sol, María; Sevilla, Fortea

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by a series of deficits in social interaction and communication and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behavior patterns. In addition, a high percentage of ADS is associated with anxiety disorders. The goal of this study is to assess the perception of anxiety in a group of children and…

  18. Art Educational Practices: Fostering Self-Control and Improving Focus for Students Coping with Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This action research study served to help students suffering from anxiety or anxiety related issues by using Art as a means of improving focus and fostering self control. The student participants in this study were a group of 25 sophomore and junior high school students, both male and female, ranging between the ages of 15-17. The participants…

  19. The Fear Factor: Students' Experiences of Test Anxiety when Taking A-Level Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Suzanne; Daly, Anthony Leslie; Spalding, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a pilot study that explored students' experiences of test anxiety when taking A-level examinations. Four focus groups were convened with a sample of 19 participants in the south of England to explore the triggers of test anxiety and the perceived need for interventions to assist high test-anxious students cope…

  20. The negative effects of alcohol hangover on high-anxiety phenotype rats are influenced by the glutamate receptors of the dorsal midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezequiel Leite, L; Nobre, M J

    2012-06-28

    Alcoholism is a chronic disorder characterized by the appearance of a withdrawal syndrome following the abrupt cessation of alcohol intake that includes symptoms of physical and emotional disturbances, anxiety being the most prevalent symptom. In humans, it was shown that anxiety may increase the probability of relapse. In laboratory animals, however, the use of anxiety to predict alcohol preference has remained difficult. Excitatory amino acids as glutamate have been implicated in alcohol hangover and may be responsible for the seizures and anxiety observed during withdrawal. The dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG) is a midbrain region critical for the modulation/expression of anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and the propagation of seizures induced by alcohol withdrawal, the glutamate neurotransmission being one of the most affected. The present study was designed to evaluate whether low- (LA) and high-anxiety rats (HA), tested during the alcohol hangover phase, in which anxiety is the most prevalent symptom, are more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of alcohol when tested in a voluntary alcohol drinking procedure. Additionally, we were interested in investigating the main effects of reducing the excitatory tonus of the dorsal midbrain, after the blockade of the ionotropic glutamate receptors into the DPAG, on the voluntary alcohol intake of HA and LA motivated rats that were made previously experienced with the free operant response of alcohol drinking. For this purpose, we used local infusions of the N-metil D-Aspartato (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-kainate receptors antagonist DL-2-Amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid - DL-AP7 (10 nmol/0.2 μl) and l-glutamic acid diethyl ester - GDEE (160 nmol/0.2 μl), respectively. Alcohol intoxication was produced by 10 daily bolus intraperitonial (IP) injections of alcohol (2.0 g/kg). Peak-blood alcohol levels were determined by gas-chromatography analysis in order to assess blood

  1. A Selective Review of Group Selection in High Dimensional Models

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Jian; Ma, Shuangge

    2012-01-01

    Grouping structures arise naturally in many statistical modeling problems. Several methods have been proposed for variable selection that respect grouping structure in variables. Examples include the group LASSO and several concave group selection methods. In this article, we give a selective review of group selection concerning methodological developments, theoretical properties, and computational algorithms. We pay particular attention to group selection methods involving concave penalties. We address both group selection and bi-level selection methods. We describe several applications of these methods in nonparametric additive models, semiparametric regression, seemingly unrelated regressions, genomic data analysis and genome wide association studies. We also highlight some issues that require further study.

  2. The impact of health anxiety in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: Misperception, misattribution and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayter, Aimee L; Salkovskis, Paul M; Silber, Eli; Morris, Robin G

    2016-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive disease with an unpredictable prognosis. Previous studies have reported health anxiety within the MS population. This study examines the effect of health anxiety on MS patients' quality of life (QoL) and evaluates the potential contribution of cognitive factors in maintaining health anxiety. A total of 84 patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) were screened for health anxiety. From this sample, a group with relatively high and another group with low anxiety (n = 21 in each group) were identified. A further 21 healthy controls were recruited for comparison. A measure of QoL was then completed. Cognitive biases were investigated by measuring perception and attribution of common bodily symptoms as well as appraisal of performance on neuropsychological and physical fatigue tests. The high health anxiety group reported poorer QoL relative to the other groups, independent of level of disability. They were also more likely to misattribute common bodily changes to MS, and perceive their (objectively intact) performance on tests of cognition and fatigue as being impaired, attributing the cause of impairment to MS. Health anxiety may be a factor in mediating the psychosocial impact of MS. Skilled psychological treatment which changes misperception and misattribution may significantly benefit patients with MS and elevated health anxiety. Clinical implications Health anxiety impacts on quality of life in patients with MS even when disability and other measures of psychological distress are taken into account. High levels of health anxiety distort perceptions of symptoms in patients with MS in line with the predictions made by the cognitive model of health anxiety. Limitations of study This study is limited to patients with RRMS within the relatively early stages of their disease and is based on a small sample size. Health anxiety is correlated with measures of generalized anxiety, depression, and worry, although

  3. High pregnancy anxiety during mid-gestation is associated with decreased gray matter density in 6-9-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Muftuler, L Tugan; Head, Kevin; Sandman, Curt A

    2010-01-01

    Because the brain undergoes dramatic changes during fetal development it is vulnerable to environmental insults. There is evidence that maternal stress and anxiety during pregnancy influences birth outcome but there are no studies that have evaluated the influence of stress during human pregnancy on brain morphology. In the current prospective longitudinal study we included 35 women for whom serial data on pregnancy anxiety was available at 19 (+/-0.83), 25 (+/-0.9) and 31 (+/-0.9) weeks gestation. When the offspring from the target pregnancy were between 6 and 9 years of age, their neurodevelopmental stage was assessed by a structural MRI scan. With the application of voxel-based morphometry, we found regional reductions in gray matter density in association with pregnancy anxiety after controlling for total gray matter volume, age, gestational age at birth, handedness and postpartum perceived stress. Specifically, independent of postnatal stress, pregnancy anxiety at 19 weeks gestation was associated with gray matter volume reductions in the prefrontal cortex, the premotor cortex, the medial temporal lobe, the lateral temporal cortex, the postcentral gyrus as well as the cerebellum extending to the middle occipital gyrus and the fusiform gyrus. High pregnancy anxiety at 25 and 31 weeks gestation was not significantly associated with local reductions in gray matter volume.This is the first prospective study to show that a specific temporal pattern of pregnancy anxiety is related to specific changes in brain morphology. Altered gray matter volume in brain regions affected by prenatal maternal anxiety may render the developing individual more vulnerable to neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders as well as cognitive and intellectual impairment.

  4. High pregnancy anxiety during mid-gestation is associated with decreased gray matter density in 6-9 year-old children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Muftuler, L. Tugan; Head, Kevin; Sandman, Curt A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Because the brain undergoes dramatic changes during fetal development it is vulnerable to environmental insults. There is evidence that maternal stress and anxiety during pregnancy influences birth outcome but there are no studies that have evaluated the influence of stress during human pregnancy on brain morphology. In the current prospective longitudinal study we included 35 women for whom serial data on pregnancy anxiety was available at 19 (±0.83), 25 (±0.9) and 31 (±0.9) weeks gestation. When the offspring from the target pregnancy were between six to nine years of age, their neurodevelopmental stage was assessed by a structural MRI scan. With the application of voxel based morphometry, we found regional reductions in gray matter density in association with pregnancy anxiety after controlling for total gray matter volume, age, gestational age at birth, handedness and postpartum perceived stress. Specifically, independent of postnatal stress, pregnancy anxiety at 19 weeks gestation was associated with gray matter volume reductions in the prefrontal cortex, the premotor cortex, the medial temporal lobe, the lateral temporal cortex, the postcentral gyrus as well as the cerebellum extending to the middle occipital gyrus and the fusiform gyrus. High pregnancy anxiety at 25 and 31 weeks gestation was not significantly associated with local reductions in gray matter volume. This is the first prospective study to show that a specific temporal pattern of pregnancy anxiety is related to specific changes in brain morphology. Altered gray matter volume in brain regions affected by prenatal maternal anxiety may render the developing individual more vulnerable to neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders as well as cognitive and intellectual impairment. PMID:19674845

  5. 高焦虑敏感个体情绪面孔注意偏向特征%The characteristics of attentional bias in high anxiety sensitivity individuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋怀滨; 张斌; 林珂; 李淑清; 詹薇

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics and mechanisms of attentional bias in anxiety sensitivity individuals.Methods By using Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI),23 participants were included in the high score group and 20 participants were included in the low score group.Then,2 (between-subject factor:the high and low score group) ×2 (within-subject factor:the positive and negative picture) mixed design experiments were adopted.Emotional faces picture pairs were chosen as stimuli.Picture pairs were presented 100 ms in experiment 1 and 1 250 ms in experiment 2.Dot-probe task was adopted to inspect the attentional bias and the response time and correct rate were recorded.Results Experiment 1 implied the main effect of type of pictures was found in mixed design experiments(F(1,41)=4.40,P<0.05).The reaction time of two groups in positive pictures was greater than zero((12.22±30.24) ms vs (10.07±21.55) ms).It showed input effect to positive pictures.An input effect due to the reaction time of the high score group was greater than zero to negative pictures((4.81± 17.88)ms),while the low score group tended to avoid the negative pictures ((-6.81 ±21.33) ms).Experiment 2 implied positive score was not significant between two groups (F(1,41) =0.29,P>0.05).And positive score showed the attentional bias to some certain extent.Significant outcome was found by negative score between two groups (F(1,41) =6.41,P<0.05).It implied that the high score group tended to avoid the negative pictures and the low score group had the tendency of input effect.Conclusion At the initial stage of attention,anxiety sensitivity individuals had the attentional bias to negative emotional faces and avoidance in the late stage of attention.It suggests that the attentional bias of anxiety sensitivity individuals may have an important effect on the development of the mental disorders.%目的 探讨焦虑敏感个体注意偏向特点及机制.方法 使用大学生焦虑

  6. Relationship of smartphone use severity with sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Kadir; Akgönül, Mehmet; Akpinar, Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    The usage of smartphones has increased rapidly in recent years, and this has brought about addiction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between smartphone use severity and sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students. In total, 319 university students (203 females and 116 males; mean age = 20.5 ± 2.45) were included in the study. Participants were divided into the following three groups: a smartphone non-user group (n = 71, 22.3%), a low smartphone use group (n = 121, 37.9%), and a high smartphone use group (n = 127, 39.8%). All participants were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory; moreover, participants other than those in the smartphone non-user group were also assessed with the Smartphone Addiction Scale. The findings revealed that the Smartphone Addiction Scale scores of females were significantly higher than those of males. Depression, anxiety, and daytime dysfunction scores were higher in the high smartphone use group than in the low smartphone use group. Positive correlations were found between the Smartphone Addiction Scale scores and depression levels, anxiety levels, and some sleep quality scores. The results indicate that depression, anxiety, and sleep quality may be associated with smartphone overuse. Such overuse may lead to depression and/or anxiety, which can in turn result in sleep problems. University students with high depression and anxiety scores should be carefully monitored for smartphone addiction.

  7. Sparse group lasso and high dimensional multinomial classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Martin; Hansen, N.R.

    2014-01-01

    group lasso classifier. On three different real data examples the multinomial group lasso clearly outperforms multinomial lasso in terms of achieved classification error rate and in terms of including fewer features for the classification. An implementation of the multinomial sparse group lasso...

  8. The role of bibliotherapy in health anxiety: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Freda A

    2002-10-01

    Despite its high prevalence and implications for health care resources, health anxiety is generally considered difficult and expensive to manage. Structured self-help materials (bibliotherapy) using a cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) treatment approach have been shown to be clinically effective. This experimental study investigated the effects of bibliotherapy on patients who had been identified as demonstrating health concerns. The 40 participants (patients drawn from GP surgeries) were randomly allocated to two groups, one receiving bibliotherapy and the other not. Half the patients had a medically diagnosed problem. Anxiety was assessed before and after the bibliotherapy intervention, which took the form of a cognitive-behavioural self-help booklet for health anxiety sufferers. Patients in the bibliotherapy group showed reduced levels of anxiety at post-test, even when they also had an identifiable physical problem. These results are consistent with the idea that self-help materials can be an effective and accessible intervention in CBT, although further research is recommended.

  9. High-mobility group box-1 in sterile inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsung, A; Tohme, S; Billiar, T R

    2014-11-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was originally defined as a ubiquitous nuclear protein, but it was later determined that the protein has different roles both inside and outside of cells. Nuclear HMGB1 regulates chromatin structure and gene transcription, whereas cytosolic HMGB1 is involved in inflammasome activation and autophagy. Extracellular HMGB1 has drawn attention because it can bind to related cell signalling transduction receptors, such as the receptor for advanced glycation end products, Toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4 and TLR9. It also participates in the development and progression of a variety of diseases. HMGB1 is actively secreted by stimulation of the innate immune system, and it is passively released by ischaemia or cell injury. This review focuses on the important role of HMGB1 in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic sterile inflammatory conditions. Strategies that target HMGB1 have been shown to significantly decrease inflammation in several disease models of sterile inflammation, and this may represent a promising clinical approach for treatment of certain conditions associated with sterile inflammation. © 2014 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  10. Depression, anxiety and influencing factors in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chun-ping; LI Xiao-mei; CHEN Hang-wei; CUI Jun-yu; NIU Li-li; HE Yu-bin; TIAN Xin-li

    2011-01-01

    Background Psychological distress has been widely studied in many cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, but the condition in acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate levels of depression and anxiety and their influencing factors in APE patients.Methods Sixty consecutive patients with APE were subjected to investigation of depression and anxiety by the Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and 60 community-based subjects were enrolled as controls.APE patients were stratified as high-risk, intermediate-risk and low-risk according to the disease severity. Scores of depression and anxiety were compared by statistical analysis using paired t tests between APE patients and controls,and by analysis of variance within the APE patients with the three risk stratification. Factors influencing depression and anxiety were evaluated.Results The mean age of the patients (38 males and 22 females) was (52+12) years. APE patients displayed higher scores of depression (P=0.04) and anxiety (P=0.001) compared with controls. Patients in the high-risk group displayed higher scores of depression (P=0.004) and anxiety (P=0.001) compared with those in the intermediate- and low-risk groups. Depression scores were highly correlated with anxiety scores (r=0.60, P <0.001). Both depression and anxiety inversely related to risk stratification (P <0.01), age (P <0.05), and arterial blood oxygen pressure (PaO2) (P <0.05).Linear regression analysis showed that PaO2 was independently inversely related to both depression (P <0.01) and anxiety (P <0.05); risk stratification and age were independently inversely related to anxiety (P <0.05).Conclusions Patients of APE suffered high levels of depression and anxiety, which were negatively influenced by PaO2,risk stratification and age.

  11. A Multidisciplinary Investigation of the Effects of Competitive State Anxiety on Serve Kinematics in Table Tennis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vuong Ngo; Hugh Richards; Miran Kondric

    2017-01-01

    ... (heart-rate variability) and kinematic variables. Using a within-group crossover design, 9 university-level table tennis players completed a series of serves under low- and high-anxiety conditions...

  12. Self-Efficacy, Test Anxiety, and Self-Reported Test-Taking Ability: How Do They Differ between High- and Low-Achieving Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk, Jasna; Morse, David T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare high- and low-achieving undergraduate college students on selfefficacy, test anxiety, and self-reported test-taking ability. Eighty students from 2 sections of educational psychology course participated in the study; complete data were collected for 76 students. Before taking their first exam, students…

  13. [Explanatory models of anxiety from the viewpoint of biopsychology and pharmacopsychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netter, P; Hennig, J; Huwe, S

    1997-10-01

    To understand the biological basis of anxiety, the following psychological aspects are discussed: The difference between "trait" and "state" anxiety, types of anxiety as related to knowledge about causes and consequences, anxiety as a chronological process involving coping strategies and different levels of responses. The lack of specificity is physiological indicators of anxiety is demonstrated by experiments based on electrodermal and cardiovascular responses. Among hormones, special emphasis is placed on the constellation between catecholamines and cortisol as being relevant for anxiety research. It is emphasized that configurations of hormone parameters may be more relevant predictors for anxiety than single response values, and the study of postoperative catecholamine and cortisol responses is used for demonstrating differences between patients in a high and low preoperative state of anxiety. Differences are observed only on the emotional and pain response levels, but not in physiological parameters. The neurophysiological model representing central nervous system substrates for anxiety is the behavioural inhibitory system described in the theory by Gray [17], and the most relevant transmitters noradrenaline, serotonin, and the GABA-system are discussed with regard to their relevance for anxiety in animal studies, in studies using provocation tests with pharmacological substances, and in clinical studies with anti-anxiety drugs. Experimental anxiety research in psychology is frequently characterised by significant interactions between many mediators of responses, in particular the type of stressor, the level of trait anxiety and other personality variables, and the type of substances used. It is concluded that stressors as well as drugs frequently do not specifically induce anxiety but may nonspecifically affect general arousal and may only be operating in certain groups and certain levels of stress intensity.

  14. Diminished autonomic neurocardiac function in patients with generalized anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kyungwook Kim,1 Seul Lee,2 Jong-Hoon Kim1–3 1Gachon University School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University School of Medicine, Gachon University, 3Neuroscience Research Institute, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea Background: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD is a chronic and highly prevalent disorder that is characterized by a number of autonomic nervous system symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the linear and nonlinear complexity measures of heart rate variability (HRV, measuring autonomic regulation, and to evaluate the relationship between HRV parameters and the severity of anxiety, in medication-free patients with GAD. Methods: Assessments of linear and nonlinear complexity measures of HRV were performed in 42 medication-free patients with GAD and 50 healthy control subjects. In addition, the severity of anxiety symptoms was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory. The values of the HRV measures of the groups were compared, and the correlations between the HRV measures and the severity of anxiety symptoms were assessed. Results: The GAD group showed significantly lower standard deviation of RR intervals and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal sinus intervals values compared to the control group (P<0.01. The approximate entropy value, which is a nonlinear complexity indicator, was also significantly lower in the patient group than in the control group (P<0.01. In correlation analysis, there were no significant correlations between HRV parameters and the severity of anxiety symptoms. Conclusion: The present study indicates that GAD is significantly associated with reduced HRV, suggesting that autonomic neurocardiac integrity is substantially impaired in patients with GAD. Future prospective studies are required to investigate the effects of pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment on

  15. A Multidisciplinary Investigation of the Effects of Competitive State Anxiety on Serve Kinematics in Table Tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Vuong; Richards, Hugh; Kondric, Miran

    2017-01-01

    Displays of anxiety in table tennis were assessed through subjective (a self-report questionnaire), physiological (heart-rate variability) and kinematic variables. Using a within-group crossover design, 9 university-level table tennis players completed a series of serves under low- and high-anxiety conditions. Anxiety manipulation was achieved through the introduction of a national standard table tennis player, known to the participants, to receive serves in the high-anxiety condition, whilst serves were received by no opponent in the low-anxiety condition. Automated motion capture systems consisting of high-speed 3D motion cameras and analytical software (QUALISYS) determined the subject's movement kinematics: bat face angle (degrees) and serve routine duration (s). Self-reported state anxiety (MRF-Likert) and heart rate measurements were collected to examine changes between conditions. Contrary to the hypothesis, bat face angles did not change significantly between anxiety conditions (F (1.8) = 2.791, p = 0.133) and movement times were faster in the high-anxiety condition. In light of these findings, research into other facets of movement behaviour must be analysed to gain further understanding of the effects of anxiety on performance, which remain unclear.

  16. A Multidisciplinary Investigation of the Effects of Competitive State Anxiety on Serve Kinematics in Table Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Vuong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Displays of anxiety in table tennis were assessed through subjective (a self-report questionnaire, physiological (heart-rate variability and kinematic variables. Using a within-group crossover design, 9 university-level table tennis players completed a series of serves under low- and high-anxiety conditions. Anxiety manipulation was achieved through the introduction of a national standard table tennis player, known to the participants, to receive serves in the high-anxiety condition, whilst serves were received by no opponent in the low-anxiety condition. Automated motion capture systems consisting of high-speed 3D motion cameras and analytical software (QUALISYS determined the subject’s movement kinematics: bat face angle (degrees and serve routine duration (s. Self-reported state anxiety (MRF-Likert and heart rate measurements were collected to examine changes between conditions. Contrary to the hypothesis, bat face angles did not change significantly between anxiety conditions (F (1.8 = 2.791, p = 0.133 and movement times were faster in the high-anxiety condition. In light of these findings, research into other facets of movement behaviour must be analysed to gain further understanding of the effects of anxiety on performance, which remain unclear.

  17. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Van Oort, Floor V. A.

    We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative

  18. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Van Oort, Floor V. A.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative populatio

  19. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Mathyssek (Christina); T.M. Olino (Thomas); C.A. Hartman; J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representati

  20. [Judgment of gaze direction related to social anxiety: facial expressions and interpretation biases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kenta; Okamura, Yoko; Okubo, Matia

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigated the effects of social anxiety on judgments about gaze direction. The participants (N = 123) were divided into two groups on the basis of social anxiety scores (social anxiety and control group). Participants who scored high on a social anxiety scale judged the direction of slightly averted gaze to be straight more often for angry faces than for neutral faces. This pattern was reversed for participants in control group. An angry face looking straight at a person may be seen as an overt threat. People suffering from social anxiety tend to interpret ambiguous situations as negative or threatening. This negativity bias may contribute to the increased judgments of straight-gaze responses for angry faces with slightly averted gazes.

  1. Metabolomic analysis of anti-hypoxia and anti-anxiety effects of Fu Fang Jin Jing Oral Liquid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Herba Rhodiolae is a traditional Chinese medicine used by the Tibetan people for treating hypoxia related diseases such as anxiety. Based on the previous work, we developed and patented an anti-anxiety herbal formula Fu Fang Jin Jing Oral Liquid (FJJOL with Herba Rhodiolae as a chief ingredient. In this study, the anti-hypoxia and anti-anxiety effects of FJJOL in a high altitude forced-swimming mouse model with anxiety symptoms will be elucidated by NMR-based metabolomics. METHODS: In our experiments, the mice were divided randomly into four groups as flatland group, high altitude saline-treated group, high altitude FJJOL-treated group, and high altitude diazepam-treated group. To cause anxiety effects and hypoxic defects, a combination use of oxygen level decreasing (hypobaric cabin and oxygen consumption increasing (exhaustive swimming were applied to mice. After a three-day experimental handling, aqueous metabolites of mouse brain tissues were extracted and then subjected to NMR analysis. The therapeutic effects of FJJOL on the hypobaric hypoxia mice with anxiety symptoms were verified. RESULTS: Upon hypoxic exposure, both energy metabolism defects and disorders of functional metabolites in brain tissues of mice were observed. PCA, PLS-DA and OPLS-DA scatter plots revealed a clear group clustering for metabolic profiles in the hypoxia versus normoxia samples. After a three-day treatment with FJJOL, significant rescue effects on energy metabolism were detected, and levels of ATP, fumarate, malate and lactate in brain tissues of hypoxic mice recovered. Meanwhile, FJJOL also up-regulated the neurotransmitter GABA, and the improvement of anxiety symptoms was highly related to this effect. CONCLUSIONS: FJJOL ameliorated hypobaric hypoxia effects by regulating energy metabolism, choline metabolism, and improving the symptoms of anxiety. The anti-anxiety therapeutic effects of FJJOL were comparable to the conventional anti-anxiety drug

  2. Developmental trajectories of anxiety symptoms in early adolescence: the influence of anxiety sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Nicholas P; Capron, Daniel W; Lejuez, Carl W; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; MacPherson, Laura; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-05-01

    Children and adolescents seem to suffer from anxiety disorders at rates similar to adults. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms appear to generally decline over time within children as evidenced by lower rates in early and middle adolescence. There is some evidence that there may be heterogeneous subpopulations of adolescent children with different trajectories of anxiety symptoms, including a class of adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety that do not dissipate over time. Anxiety sensitivity has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of anxiety psychopathology. This study prospectively examined the development of anxiety symptoms in a sample of 277 adolescents (M age = 11.52; 44 % female, 56 % male) over a 3 year period including the influence of anxiety sensitivity on this development. Further, this study investigated whether there were distinct classes of adolescents based on their anxiety symptom trajectories and including anxiety sensitivity as a predictor. Consistent with other reports, findings indicated an overall decline in anxiety symptoms over time in the sample. However, three classes of adolescents were found with distinct anxiety symptom trajectories and anxiety sensitivity was an important predictor of class membership. Adolescents with elevated anxiety sensitivity scores were more likely to be classified as having high and increasing anxiety symptoms over time versus having moderate to low and decreasing anxiety symptoms over time. There are important implications for identification of adolescents and children who are at risk for the development of an anxiety disorder.

  3. Anxiety sensitivity moderates the relationship of changes in physiological arousal with flight anxiety during in vivo exposure therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busscher, Bert; Spinhoven, Philip; van Gerwen, Lucas J; de Geus, Eco J C

    2013-02-01

    Physiological sensations and discomfort constitute the major symptoms reported by aviophobics. Anxiety sensitivity (AS) seems to moderate the relationship between self-reported somatic sensations and flight anxiety, and AS has been identified as a vulnerability factor for flight phobia. In this study we examined whether AS moderates the effects of somatic sensations and autonomic nervous system reactivity on flight anxiety induced by real flight. In fifty aviophobics participating in Cognitive Behaviour Group Therapy (CBGT), flight anxiety, somatic sensations and autonomic nervous system reactivity were assessed during a guided return flight. Results indicate that physiological reactivity interacted with AS. Changes in heart rate and parasympathetic activity were more strongly associated with changes in reported flight anxiety for high AS participants, and less for participants low on AS. Results did not indicate a moderating effect of AS on the relationship between self-reported somatic sensations and flight anxiety. Our results suggest that therapy for flight phobia might benefit from addressing the physical effect of anxiety, by means of cognitive restructuring and exposure to interoceptive stimuli, particularly in aviophobics high in AS.

  4. Sparse group lasso and high dimensional multinomial classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Martin; Hansen, N.R.

    2014-01-01

    algorithm is available in the R package msgl. Its performance scales well with the problem size as illustrated by one of the examples considered - a 50 class classification problem with 10 k features, which amounts to estimating 500 k parameters. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.......The sparse group lasso optimization problem is solved using a coordinate gradient descent algorithm. The algorithm is applicable to a broad class of convex loss functions. Convergence of the algorithm is established, and the algorithm is used to investigate the performance of the multinomial sparse...... group lasso classifier. On three different real data examples the multinomial group lasso clearly outperforms multinomial lasso in terms of achieved classification error rate and in terms of including fewer features for the classification. An implementation of the multinomial sparse group lasso...

  5. Correlations between Academic Achievement and Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students Experiencing Integrated Curriculum Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Yeh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the correlations between academic achievement and levels of anxiety and depression in medical students who were experiencing curriculum reform. The differences in academic achievement and the directions of correlations between academic achievement and anxiety and depression among the medical students with different levels of anxiety and depression were also examined. Grade 1 students from graduate-entry program and grade 3 students from undergraduate-entry program in their first semester of the new curriculum were recruited to complete the Zung's Anxiety and Depression Scale twice to examine their levels of anxiety and depression. Their academic achievement ratings in the four blocks of the first semester of the new curriculum were collected. The results indicated that no significant correlation was found between academic achievement and global anxiety and depression. However, by dividing the medical students into low, moderate and high level anxiety or depression groups, those who had poorer academic achievement in the first learning block were more likely to have higher levels of depression in the first psychologic assessment. Among the medical students who were in the high anxiety level group in the first psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the low anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had better academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the moderate anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the second learning block. Among the medical students who were in the high depression level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe depression had poorer academic achievement in the fourth

  6. A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and sertraline versus a wait-list control group for anxiety disorders in older adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, J.; Comijs, H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.; Gundy, C.M.; Weijnen, I.J.C.; Hout, van M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study is the first to investigate the relative effectiveness of cognitive? behavioral therapy (CBT) compared with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI; sertraline) in a randomized, controlled trial on the treatment of anxiety disorders in older adults. Method: Eighty-four p

  7. A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and sertraline versus a wait-list control group for anxiety disorders in older adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, J.; Comijs, H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.; Gundy, C.M.; Weijnen, I.J.C.; Hout, van M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study is the first to investigate the relative effectiveness of cognitive? behavioral therapy (CBT) compared with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI; sertraline) in a randomized, controlled trial on the treatment of anxiety disorders in older adults. Method: Eighty-four p

  8. Childhood adversity as a moderator of the relationship between emotional reactivity and the occurrence of anxiety and depression in a non-clinical group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Łukasz Dragan

    2016-02-01

    The obtained results are only partially explained within the temperamental risk factor model. A different pattern of relationships between the intensity of the temperamental trait and the occurrence of anxiety and depression depending on the amount of reported adversity may result from the cumulative effect of the negative consequences of this type of experience.

  9. A Comparison between Anxiety and Self-esteem amongst High School Freshman Students(Male and Female with Amblyopia in Gachsaran in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Karim Afzali

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research intends to investigate and compare the relationship between anxiety and self-esteem amongst high school freshman students (male and female with Amblyopia in Gachsaran city. To this end, all the male and female freshman students (1st Grade in high school suffering from Amblyopia in Gachsaran participated in the study as the research statistical population among which 80 students, including 40 girls and 40 boys, were selected based on Simple Random Sampling Method. Materials and tools used in this research included Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Cooper-smith Self-esteem Inventory (CSEI and Snellen chart. In order to analyze results obtained from the present research, t-student test and correlation coefficient were used to investigate the relationship between the variables. Accordingly, the results indicated that: there is a statistically significant relationship between anxiety and self-esteem in students with Amblyopia (P˂0.000. Statistically significant difference in anxiety between male and female students with Amblyopia (P˂0.05 was observed. The results also showed that there is no any statistically significant difference in self-esteem between male and female students with Amblyopia (P˂0.66.

  10. An investigation of the attitudes, anxieties and self-efficacy beliefs towards mathematics lessons high school students’ in terms of gender, types of school, and students’ grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Izzet Kurbanoglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to explore relationships between high school students’ attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs in terms of gender, types of school and students’ grades. In this study, the data were gathered by “Attitudes Towards Mathematics Scale” (Aşkar, 1986 and by “Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale” which was adapted to Turkish by Akın, Kurbanoğlu and Takunyacı (2009. Besides, in order to determine students’ self-efficacy beliefs were determined by self-efficacy, sub-scale of “Motivation Scale” which was adapted to Turkish by Büyüköztürk, Akgün, Özkahveci, & Demirel (2004. The sample of this study consisted of 418 students who attended from three different high schools. The study was conducted during the fall semester of academic year 2009-2010. ANOVA and t-Test were employed to analyze the hypotheses of research. It was observed in the findings of the study that there are no statistically significant differences between students’ gender and scores of attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs. But there are statistically significant differences between students’ types of school and students’ grades and scores of attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs.    

  11. Precompetitive state anxiety in judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Montero Carretero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2 in Spanish judokas, and calculate differences in pre-competitive state anxiety due the sport level, age and gender. We analyze these relationships using a multidimensional anxiety perspective.Method: A sample of 128 judokas from amateur to high performance level participated in our study. The intensity and directional somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self confidence of the CSAI-2 were measured.Results: The results show that the questionnaire administered showed acceptable psychometric properties, and there are differences in directional somatic and cognitive anxiety for age, and in intensity self confidence for sport level. The implications of these findings for the process of training and competition are discussed in the document.

  12. Average Exceptional Lie Group Hierarchy and High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    El Naschie, M S

    2008-01-01

    Starting from an invariant total dimension for an exceptional Lie symmetry groups hierarchy, we drive all the essential characteristic and coupling constants of the fundamental interactions of physics. It is shown in a most simplistic fashion that all physical fields are various transfinite scaling transformation and topological deformation of each other. An extended standard model on the other hand turned out to be a compact sub group H of a version of E7 exceptional Lie group E7(−5) with dimH =69. Thus particle physics, electromagnetism as well as gravity and the bulk are all representable via modular spaces akin to the famous compactified version of F. Klein’s modular curve.

  13. The Highly Perturbed X-ray Bright Group NGC 5044

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Laurence

    2014-09-01

    The NGC 5044 group is the X-ray brightest group in the sky and hosts many small X-ray cavities that were inflated by weak AGN outbursts. The cumulative effect of many weak AGN outbursts may be the dominant reheating mechanism in cooling flows. While AGN feedback probably prevents the bulk of gas from cooling in NGC 5044, the presence of molecular structures, Halpha filaments, [CII] emission and star formation indicates that at least some gas is able to condense out of the hot phase. The near by 5044 group is the best target for detecting small X-ray cavities with Chandra and investigating the cumulative effect of repeated weak AGN outbursts. The wealth of multi-frequency data also makes NGC 5044 an ideal target for studying gas over a broad range of temperatures in a cooling flow.

  14. An Application Study on the Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy in Medical Students with Social Anxiety%认知行为团体疗法在社交焦虑医学生中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄爱华; 张乃正; 李磊; 王娟丽

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨认知行为团体疗法对改善医学生社交焦虑的效果,以期改善医学生社交沟通能力。方法根据纳入排除标准对某校三年制高职存在社交焦虑医学生随机分为实验组、对照组,对照组常规参加学校心理健康教育,实验组在此基础上采用认知行为团体疗法进行干预。运用交往焦虑量表( IAS)、惧怕否定量表( FNE)、社交回避与困扰量表( SAD)对干预前、后社交焦虑医学生认知、情绪、行为水平进行测量,评价干预效果。结果干预后实验组医学生社交焦虑认知、情绪、行为三方面水平均较对照组有显著改善(P<0.05)。结论认知行为团体疗法能够有效改善医学生社交焦虑水平。%Objective:To explore the effects of cognitive-behavioral group therapy on relieving social anxiety of medical students and thus improve the communication ability of medical students. Methods: The medical students with social anxiety in our school were randomly divided into two groups. The subjects in the control group and the experiment group were given with the routine mental health education and the cognitive-behavioral group therapy respectively. The cognitive, emotional, and behavioral levels were measured before and after intervention using Interaction Anxious-ness Scale ( IAS ) , Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale ( FNE ) , Social Avoidance and Distress Scale ( SAD) , and in order to evaluate the effects of cognitive-behavioral group therapy. Results:After the intervention of cognitive-behavioral group therapy in medical students, all the three levels of anxiety were im-proved significantly in the experimental group than those in the control group ( P<0 . 05 ) . Conclusion:Cognitive-behavioral group therapy could effectively decrease the level of social anxiety for medical students.

  15. A Further Look at Manifest Anxiety of Urban Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin F.

    1970-01-01

    Junior high school students, particularly Negroes, experience an excessive amount of inner conflict because they are lacking in social skills and confidence. These feelings of insecurity stem mainly from an awareness of social ostracism. (CK)

  16. Anterior cingulate cortex involvement in subclinical social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Elizabeth R; Hale, Lisa R; Liberzon, Israel; Lepping, Rebecca; N Powell, Joshua; Filion, Diane L; Savage, Cary R

    2013-12-30

    We demonstrated differential activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) between subjects with high and low social anxiety in response to angry versus neutral faces. Activation in the ACC distinguished between facial expressions in the low, but not the high, anxious group. The ACC's role in threat processing is discussed.

  17. Improving nutritional management within high-risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wayenburg, van C.A.M.; Binsbergen, van J.J.; Berg, van den M.G.A.; Merkx, M.A.W.; Staveren, van W.A.; Rasmussen-Conrad, E.; Weel, van C.

    2009-01-01

    The current pitfalls and future possibilities of nutritional management are discussed by two patients with tongue cancer who have suffered from substantial weight loss. Their nutritional problems are illustrative of those among other (cancer) patient groups. The main concerns are the lack of early c

  18. Highly Scalable Trip Grouping for Large Scale Collective Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Risch, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Transportation-related problems, like road congestion, parking, and pollution, are increasing in most cities. In order to reduce traffic, recent work has proposed methods for vehicle sharing, for example for sharing cabs by grouping "closeby" cab requests and thus minimizing transportation cost...

  19. The Importance of GroupTherapy for Anxiety Emotions in Migrant Children%团体辅导对流动儿童焦虑情绪的干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峥; 王体宾; 孔德荣; 邵玉单

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the importance of group therapy for anxiety emotions in migrant children.Methods:56 migrant children were assigned into two groups.In study group,26 migrant chil-dren were accepted group therapy for 8 times.In control study,30 migrant children were accepted no ther-apy.All subjects were accepted the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders,Simplified Cop-ing Style Questionnaire before and after study.Results:①The score of generalized anxiety in study group were lower than that in control group after group therapy(t=-2.017,P<0.05).The score of somatic/panic in study group was lower than that in control group after group therapy ( t=-4.389,P<0 0.1) .The score of separation anxiety in study group was lower than that in control group after group therapy ( t=-3.690,P<0.01).②The score of positive coping style in study group was higher than that in control group after group therapy(t=3 .149,P<0.01).Conclusion:Group therapy is a good method for migrant children to improve anxiety emotion and positively cope stress.%目的:探讨团体辅导对流动儿童焦虑情绪改善的作用。方法:筛选出56名焦虑评分较高的郑州市流动儿童,按照自愿原则,分成两组:26例接受为期8周、共计8次的团体辅导,作为研究组;30例为对照组,研究期间不接受任何心理干预。所有受试者在研究前及结束后分别接受儿童焦虑情绪障碍筛查表、简易应对方式量表测查。结果:①经过8次团体辅导干预后,研究组在广泛性焦虑因子上得分明显低于对照组得分,差异具有统计学意义(t=-2.017,P<0.05);在躯体化/惊恐因子上,研究组得分低于对照组得分,差异具有显著的统计学意义( t=-4.389, P<0.01);在分离性焦虑因子上研究组得分低于对照组得分,差异具有显著的统计学意义( t=-3.690,P<0.01);②经过8次团体辅导干预后,研究组的

  20. Highly adaptive tests for group differences in brain functional connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghi Kim

    2015-01-01

    The proposed tests combine statistical evidence against a null hypothesis from multiple sources across a range of plausible tuning parameter values reflecting uncertainty with the unknown truth. These highly adaptive tests are not only easy to use, but also high-powered robustly across various scenarios. The usage and advantages of these novel tests are demonstrated on an Alzheimer's disease dataset and simulated data.

  1. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  2. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed. PMID:26380367

  3. Test Anxiety and High-Stakes Test Performance between School Settings: Implications for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Embse, Nathaniel; Hasson, Ramzi

    2012-01-01

    With the enactment of standards-based accountability in education, high-stakes tests have become the dominant method for measuring school effectiveness and student achievement. Schools and educators are under increasing pressure to meet achievement standards. However, there are variables which may interfere with the authentic measurement of…

  4. Investigation on the Examination Anxiety of Junior High ;School Students%对初中生考试焦虑调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹响太

    2013-01-01

    Examination anxiety, a special psychological reaction of examinees to examinations, is a psychological state with anxiety as its feature, escape as its behavior and negative mood as its ex-pression. Junior high school students have many psychological problems, among which anxiety is a prominent one. Through an investigation on examination anxiety, corresponding measures are proposed in this paper.%考试焦虑是考生对考试的一种特殊的心理反应,是一种以担忧为特征、以逃避为行为方式、以消极情绪表现出来的心理状态。初中生存在很多的心理问题,焦虑问题是其中比较突出的。因此,本文通过对考试焦虑进行调查研究,以提出相应的应对措施。

  5. Maternal anxiety and its correlation with pain experience during chorion villus sampling and amniocentesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klages, Katharina; Kundu, Sudip; Erlenwein, Joachim; Elsaesser, Michael; Hillemanns, Peter; Scharf, Alexander; Staboulidou, Ismini

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures, such as chorion villus sampling (CVS) and amniocentesis (AC), are routinely performed to exclude or diagnose fetal chromosomal abnormalities. The aim of this study was to investigate anxiety-dependent pain experience during CVS and AC and the potential factors that increase anxiety and pain levels. Patients and methods During a 2-year period, women undergoing invasive procedures in three specialist centers were asked to participate in the study. Anxiety was evaluated before the procedure using the Spielberger State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory, and pain was evaluated directly after the procedure using a verbal rating scale. Results Among the women, 348/480 (73%) underwent AC, while 131/480 (27%) underwent CVS. There was a significant correlation between state and trait anxiety (p<0.0001). A positive correlation existed between the degree of anxiety and the level of pain experienced (p=0.01). There was a positive correlation for trait anxiety (p=0.0283) as well as for state anxiety (p=0.0001) and pain perception (p=0.0061) when invasive procedure was performed owing to abnormal ultrasound finding or to a history of fetal aneuploidy. Maternal age was found to be another influencing factor for the experienced pain (p=0.0016). Furthermore, the analysis showed a significant negative correlation between maternal age and anxiety. That applies for trait anxiety (p=0.0001) as well as for state anxiety (p=0.0001). The older the woman, the less anxious the reported feeling was in both groups. The main indication for undergoing CVS was abnormal ultrasound results (45%), and the main reason for undergoing AC was maternal age (58%). Conclusion Procedure-related pain intensity is highly dependent on the degree of anxiety before the invasive procedure. In addition, the indication has a significant impact on the emerging anxiety and consequential pain experiences. These influencing factors should therefore be considered during counseling

  6. Using collaborative two-stage examinations to address test anxiety in a large enrollment gateway course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Kimberly A; Couret, Jannelle; Ramsay, Jason B; Caulkins, Joshua L

    2017-01-30

    Large enrollment foundational courses are perceived as "high stakes" because of their potential to act as barriers for progression to the next course or admittance to a program. The nature of gateway courses makes them ideal settings to explore the relationship between anxiety, pedagogical interventions, and student performance. Here, two-stage collaborative examinations were implemented to improve test-taking skills and address widespread test anxiety in an introductory human anatomy course. Test anxiety data were collected (using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire) before the first examination and last examination. Most students experienced decreased test anxiety over the course of the semester; however, some students may have experienced performance limiting conditions due to test anxiety at the end of the semester based on academic ability in the course (in "C" students when compared to "A" students: P test anxiety were not significantly associated with the group portion of the examinations. Patterns of changes in test anxiety over the course of the semester underscore a complex interaction between test anxiety, student background, and student performance. Results suggest that pathways for test anxiety in "high stakes" courses may be separate from the mechanisms responsible for the benefits of collaborative testing. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. The problems during choice of profession and comparison of these problems with anxiety and depression in final year of high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Kars

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to investigate the relationship between prevalence of anxiety, depressive disorder symptoms and some sociodemographic variables in the final year of high-school students, secondly to determine the socio-economic and cultural factors which affect choosing professions among the high school senior students in the province of Van. Methods: In this context, the study was performed in the provincial center of Van in the second semester of 2011. Unpaired t test and one way Anova test were used for statistical analysis. Socio-demographic Information Form, Awareness of Career Choice Form, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI were applied to a total of 412 students. Results: In this study BAI and BDI scores were 15.4±13.3 and 15.3±12.8 respectively. BAI scores of the students in Anatolian high school were found higher than the normal high school. Both the anxiety and depressive levels of female students were higher than the males. The mean age was 16,8 years, 73.8% of whom were male. In 58% of the students’ BAI point, in 66% BDI point were higher than 41; and in 37% BDI point were higher than 17. Female students had higher BAI points. There was a positive correlation between BAI and BDI points. Conclusion: It was noticed in our study that the great amount of anxiety discovered in last grade high school students affect. The student’s job choice negatively. We think that providing last grade high school students with guidance service about job selection will be useful.

  8. Factor analysis of the hospital anxiety and depression scale among a Huntington's disease population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Maria; Maltby, John; Martucci, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Depression and anxiety are common in Huntington's disease, a genetic neurodegenerative disorder. There is a need for measurement tools of mood to be validated within a Huntington's disease population. The current study aimed to analyze the factor structure of the Hospital Anxiety......, with two group factors, comprising four depression and four anxiety items, provided the best fit of the data. The salience of loadings on the bifactor model suggested that loadings were high on the general factor (accounting for 64% of the variance) and low on the group factors (21% for anxiety and 15......% for depression). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that eight items from the scale perform well among the sample. Consistent with recent developments in modeling the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, a bifactor interpretation for an eight-item version outperformed other extant models. Our findings provide...

  9. Dental anxiety and its relationship with self-perceived health locus of control among Indian dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Shashidhar; Sangam, Dattatreya Krishnarao

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess dental anxiety and study its relationship with the perceived Health Locus of Control (HLC) among students in an Indian dental school. A total of 325 students returned completed history forms that consisted of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scale and the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS). 'Fear of the needle' was the greatest stimulus of dental anxiety with a mean score of 3.3, which was followed by 'tooth drilling' whose mean score was 2.7. There was also a statistically significant decrease in the mean scores for all of the MDAS items from 1st year to 4th year, except the item related to local anaesthetic injection, whose mean score remained high throughout. The mean scores of the three aspects of the MHLC scale (internal, chance and powerful others) were compared with respect to dental anxiety. The results showed that 'internal' was the most powerful of the three aspects of MHLC among all three anxiety groups. The mean 'internal' score for the low anxiety group was 4.4, which reduced to 4.1 for the high anxiety group. A statistically significant inverse correlation was also found between the 'internal' dimension of MHLC and dental anxiety. Perceived HLC was found to play an important role in predicting the dental anxiety among dental students.

  10. Distribution of influenza vaccine to high-risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ompad, Danielle C; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2006-01-01

    Vaccine distribution programs have historically targeted individuals at high risk of complications due to influenza. Despite recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, vaccination coverage among high-risk populations has been generally low. This review systematically summarizes the recent literature evaluating programs in different settings, from within medical settings to venue-based and community-based approaches, in an effort to identify successful program components. The published literature was identified by using the MEDLINE database from 1990 to 2006 covering studies that reported on interventions or programs aimed at vaccinating high-risk populations. The authors reviewed 56 studies. In the United States, the Healthy People 2010 goals included 90% vaccination coverage for adults aged > or = 65 years and 60% for high-risk adults aged 18-64 years. Only a handful of the studies reviewed managed to meet those goals. Interventions that increased vaccination coverage to Healthy People 2010 goals included advertising, provider and patient mailings, registry-based telephone calls, patient and staff education, standing orders coupled with standardized forms, targeting of syringe exchange customers, and visiting nurses. Few studies evaluated the impact of vaccination programs by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Few studies targeted individuals outside of the health-care and social services sectors. Given the growing disparities in health and health-care access, understanding the way in which interventions can remedy disparities is crucial.

  11. Specificity of dysfunctional thinking in children with symptoms of social anxiety, separation anxiety and generalised anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Bogels; N. Snieder; M. Kindt

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated whether children with high symptom levels of either social phobia (SP), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) are characterised by a specific set of dysfunctional interpretations that are consistent with the cognitive model of their s

  12. Diminished autonomic neurocardiac function in patients with generalized anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungwook; Lee, Seul; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic and highly prevalent disorder that is characterized by a number of autonomic nervous system symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the linear and nonlinear complexity measures of heart rate variability (HRV), measuring autonomic regulation, and to evaluate the relationship between HRV parameters and the severity of anxiety, in medication-free patients with GAD. Methods Assessments of linear and nonlinear complexity measures of HRV were performed in 42 medication-free patients with GAD and 50 healthy control subjects. In addition, the severity of anxiety symptoms was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory. The values of the HRV measures of the groups were compared, and the correlations between the HRV measures and the severity of anxiety symptoms were assessed. Results The GAD group showed significantly lower standard deviation of RR intervals and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal sinus intervals values compared to the control group (P<0.01). The approximate entropy value, which is a nonlinear complexity indicator, was also significantly lower in the patient group than in the control group (P<0.01). In correlation analysis, there were no significant correlations between HRV parameters and the severity of anxiety symptoms. Conclusion The present study indicates that GAD is significantly associated with reduced HRV, suggesting that autonomic neurocardiac integrity is substantially impaired in patients with GAD. Future prospective studies are required to investigate the effects of pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment on neuroautonomic modulation in patients with GAD. PMID:27994467

  13. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERAMENT AND ANXIETY ON ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug H. Han

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Our research aimed to conduct basic descriptions of temperamental traits and the level of state and trait anxiety of young male athletes, and to compare them by type of sports. Study participants were 277 athletes and 152 non-athletes who were all high school boys. The Korean version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI was used for checking temperamental traits while the Korean version of the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y (STAI-KY was used to estimate anxiety levels. Harm Avoidance score of athletes was higher than that of non-athletes. Harm Avoidance score of golfers was lowest and that of swimmers was highest. The state anxiety score of baseball players was lowest and that of Taekwondo players was highest. The trait anxiety score of baseball players was also lowest and that of golfers was highest. Both trait and state anxieties of the 'winner' group were lower than those of the 'no winner' group. While prior research mainly focused on athletes' environment and phenotypic characteristics, we studied the pattern of temperaments in athletes along with its potential influence on athletic performance

  14. High rates of comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders among women with premutation of the FMR1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, Heather A; Tartter, Molly; Hall, Scott S; Lightbody, Amy A; Nguyen, Quynh; de los Angeles, C Paula; Reiss, Allan L; Rasgon, Natalie L

    2013-12-01

    Phenotypic variations are emerging from investigations of carriers of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) premutation gene (55 to 200 CGG repeats). Initial studies suggest elevated psychiatric and reproductive system dysfunction, but have largely used self-reports for assessment of psychiatric history. The present study used diagnostic psychiatric interviews and assessed reproductive and menstrual history in women with FMR1 premutation. History of psychiatric diagnoses and data on reproductive functioning were collected in 46 women with FMR1 premutation who were mothers of at least one child with the fragile X full mutation. Results showed a significantly earlier age of menopause (mean age = 45.6 years) relative to the national average age of menopause (mean age = 51 years) and a high rate (76%) of lifetime depressive or anxiety history, with 43% of the overall sample reporting a comorbid history of both diagnoses. Compared to those free of psychiatric history, significantly longer premutation length was observed among women with psychiatric history after adjusting for age, with comorbid women having the highest number of CGG repeats (mean = 95.8) compared to women free of psychiatric history (mean = 79.9). Psychiatric history did not appear significantly related to reproductive system dysfunction, though results may have been obscured by the high rates of psychiatric dysfunction in the sample. These data add to the growing evidence base that women with the FMR1 premutation have an increased risk of psychiatric illness and risk for early menopause. Future investigations may benefit from inclusion of biochemical reproductive markers and longitudinal assessment of psychiatric and reproductive functioning.

  15. Emotional reasoning and anxiety sensitivity: Associations with social anxiety disorder in childhood☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Cooper, Peter J.; Creswell, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Background Two specific cognitive constructs that have been implicated in the development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms are anxiety sensitivity and emotional reasoning, both of which relate to the experience and meaning of physical symptoms of arousal or anxiety. The interpretation of physical symptoms has been particularly implicated in theories of social anxiety disorder, where internal physical symptoms are hypothesized to influence the individual's appraisals of the self as a social object. Method The current study compared 75 children on measures of anxiety sensitivity and emotional reasoning: 25 with social anxiety disorder, 25 with other anxiety disorders, and 25 nonanxious children (aged 7–12 years). Results Children with social anxiety disorder reported higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and were more likely than both other groups to view ambiguous situations as anxiety provoking, whether physical information was present or not. There were no group differences in the extent to which physical information altered children's interpretation of hypothetical scenarios. Limitations This study is the first to investigate emotional reasoning in clinically anxious children and therefore replication is needed. In addition, those in both anxious groups commonly had comorbid conditions and, consequently, specific conclusions about social anxiety disorder need to be treated with caution. Conclusion The findings highlight cognitive characteristics that may be particularly pertinent in the context of social anxiety disorder in childhood and which may be potential targets for treatment. Furthermore, the findings suggest that strategies to modify these particular cognitive constructs may not be necessary in treatments of some other childhood anxiety disorders. PMID:24120086

  16. A novel visual facial anxiety scale for assessing preoperative anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuezhao; Yumul, Roya; Elvir Lazo, Ofelia Loani; Friedman, Jeremy; Durra, Omar; Zhang, Xiao; White, Paul F.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is currently no widely accepted instrument for measuring preoperative anxiety. The objective of this study was to develop a simple visual facial anxiety scale (VFAS) for assessing acute preoperative anxiety. Methods The initial VFAS was comprised of 11 similarly styled stick-figure reflecting different types of facial expressions (Fig 1). After obtaining IRB approval, a total of 265 participant-healthcare providers (e.g., anesthesiologists, anesthesiology residents, and perioperative nurses) were recruited to participate in this study. The participants were asked to: (1) rank the 11 faces from 0–10 (0 = no anxiety, while 10 = highest anxiety) and then to (2) match one of the 11 facial expression with a numeric verbal rating scale (NVRS) (0 = no anxiety and 10 = highest level of anxiety) and a specific categorical level of anxiety, namely no anxiety, mild, mild-moderate, moderate, moderate-high or highest anxiety. Based on these data, the Spearman correlation and frequencies of the 11 faces in relation to the 11-point numerical anxiety scale and 6 categorical anxiety levels were calculated. The highest frequency of a face assigned to a level of the numerical anxiety scale resulted in a finalized order of faces corresponding to the 11-point numeric rating scale. Results The highest frequency for each of the NVRS anxiety scores were as follow: A0, A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A7, A6, A8, A9 and A10 (Fig 2). For the six categorical anxiety levels, a total of 260 (98.1%) participants chose the face A0 as representing ‘no’ anxiety, 250 (94.3%) participants chose the face A10 as representing ‘highest’ anxiety and 147 (55.5%) participants chose the face A8 as representing ‘moderate-high’ anxiety. Spearman analysis showed a significant correlation between the faces A3 and A5 assigned to the mild-moderate anxiety category (r = 0.58), but A5 was ultimately chosen due to its higher frequency compared to the frequency of A3 (30.6% vs 24.9%)(Fig 3

  17. Discriminant and Convergent Validity of the Anxiety Construct in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renno, Patricia; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite reports of high anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is controversy regarding differential diagnosis of ASD symptoms and anxiety symptoms. This study examined 88 children, aged 7-11 years, with ASD referred for concerns about anxiety. A multitrait-(social anxiety, separation anxiety, overall anxiety severity, and…

  18. Discriminant and Convergent Validity of the Anxiety Construct in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renno, Patricia; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite reports of high anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is controversy regarding differential diagnosis of ASD symptoms and anxiety symptoms. This study examined 88 children, aged 7-11 years, with ASD referred for concerns about anxiety. A multitrait-(social anxiety, separation anxiety, overall anxiety severity, and…

  19. Sunshine Group Builds High-End Aluminum Product Industrial Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    In order to propel development of the aluminum industry to move toward featured,specialized,and ecological directions,Sunlight Sanyuan Aluminum Company plans to expropriate 300 mu of land in Hanjiang District of Putian City,Fujian province,where it plans to construct high-end aluminum product industrial park,introduce the world’s most advanced fully automatic production equipment and technologies for aluminum profile and

  20. Recurrence of anxiety disorders and its predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Willemijn D.; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Penninx, Brenda; Smit, Johannes H.; van Oppen, Patricia

    Background: The chronic course of anxiety disorders and its high burden of disease are partly due to the recurrence of anxiety disorders after remission. However, knowledge about recurrence rates and predictors of recurrence is scarce. This article reports on recurrence rates of anxiety disorders

  1. Recurrence of anxiety disorders and its predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Willemijn D.; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Penninx, Brenda; Smit, Johannes H.; van Oppen, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background: The chronic course of anxiety disorders and its high burden of disease are partly due to the recurrence of anxiety disorders after remission. However, knowledge about recurrence rates and predictors of recurrence is scarce. This article reports on recurrence rates of anxiety disorders an

  2. Anxiety level and self-esteem in youth with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the research was to compare youth with cerebral palsy (CP and healthy individuals in terms of self-esteem and anxiety level, and to evaluate the relation between self-esteem and anxiety in both study groups. Participants and procedure The study included 30 individuals with CP and 30 healthy individuals, aged 16 to 22 years. The anxiety level was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, while self-esteem was assessed using Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale (SES and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI. Results No significant differences between youth with CP and healthy teenagers were observed in terms of anxiety level as a state or trait, global self-esteem and all the indicators of self-efficacy: family, friends, college, personal and the overall indicator of the sense of self-efficacy. State anxiety correlates with nearly all indicators of self-esteem in youth with CP, except for the sense of self-esteem in the family, although the control group also lacked that correlation. As far as trait anxiety is concerned, the values of correlations are higher and the relation seems to be more likely in the group with CP. Conclusions Youth with CP function like their healthy peers in terms of the anxiety level and self-esteem. The correlation between state anxiety and the dimensions of self-esteem in youth with CP suggests that their self-esteem is lower and more dependent on situational factors, especially anxiety-related ones, and the low level of trait anxiety suggested high self-esteem of an individual.

  3. Maternal phobic anxiety and child anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Gail A; Layne, Ann E; Egan, Elizabeth A; Nelson, Lara P

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between maternal anxiety symptoms and child anxiety symptoms and evaluated whether a reporting bias is associated with maternal anxiety. Fifty-seven mother-child pairs participated. All children had features or diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder, and/or social phobia. Measures of maternal symptomatology and child anxiety were administered. Higher levels of maternal phobic anxiety on the Brief Symptom Inventory were significantly associated with higher levels of separation anxiety in children. After controlling for clinician rating of SAD severity, maternal phobic anxiety emerged as a significant predictor of maternal ratings of child separation anxiety, accounting for 19% of the variance. Phobic mothers endorsed levels of separation anxiety in their children that exceeded levels endorsed by clinicians, suggesting maternal overreporting.

  4. Is Early Ability Grouping Good for High-Achieving Students' Psychosocial Development? Effects of the Transition into Academically Selective Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michael; Neumann, Marko; Tetzner, Julia; Böse, Susanne; Knoppick, Henrike; Maaz, Kai; Baumert, Jürgen; Lehmann, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates school context effects on psychosocial characteristics (academic self-concept, peer relations, school satisfaction, and school anxiety) of high-achieving and gifted students. Students who did or did not make an early transition from elementary to secondary schools for high-achieving and gifted students in 5th grade…

  5. A Stress Inoculation Program to Cope with Test Anxiety: Differential Efficacy as a Function of Worry or Emotionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Serrano Pintado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study experimentally investigated whether the effects of three different coping programs designed to reduce test anxiety were due to the predominant component of participants’ anxiety. Design: The study involved 259 participants, high text anxiety university students, real clinical cases collected and studied during eight years. The experimental sample was finally composed of 94 selected participants with irrational test anxiety. The experimental factors were: Therapy (intra-subject factor, pre and post- intervention, Treatment (cognitive, physiological and cognitive-physiological, Worry (high-low and Emotionality (high-low. Measures: Several anxiety questionnaires (TAS, TAI, ITA, CI, STAI were used as indicators of anxiety. Results: Using confidence intervals, we found evidence of changes in the level of measured anxiety in varied degree in the different Worry and Emotionality groups. Conclusion: The three different training programmes reduced test anxiety but did not lead to reductions on the same scale in pre-test anxiety in different groups of emotionality and worry. These results could be decisive in the phase of selection of the most suitable treatment for the patient along the therapeutic process.

  6. High-performance functional Renormalization Group calculations for interacting fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, J.; Sánchez de la Peña, D.; Rohe, D.; Di Napoli, E.; Honerkamp, C.; Maier, S. A.

    2017-04-01

    We derive a novel computational scheme for functional Renormalization Group (fRG) calculations for interacting fermions on 2D lattices. The scheme is based on the exchange parametrization fRG for the two-fermion interaction, with additional insertions of truncated partitions of unity. These insertions decouple the fermionic propagators from the exchange propagators and lead to a separation of the underlying equations. We demonstrate that this separation is numerically advantageous and may pave the way for refined, large-scale computational investigations even in the case of complex multiband systems. Furthermore, on the basis of speedup data gained from our implementation, it is shown that this new variant facilitates efficient calculations on a large number of multi-core CPUs. We apply the scheme to the t ,t‧ Hubbard model on a square lattice to analyze the convergence of the results with the bond length of the truncation of the partition of unity. In most parameter areas, a fast convergence can be observed. Finally, we compare to previous results in order to relate our approach to other fRG studies.

  7. Anxiety before extraction of impacted lower third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona, Beatriz; Tarazona-Álvarez, Pablo; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Rojo-Moreno, Juan; Peñarrocha-Diago, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Assess levels of trait anxiety, state anxiety and dental anxiety before extraction of lower third molars and check the correlation and reliability of the scales used for the measurement of preoperative anxiety. A prospective study of patients treated with extraction of a lower third molar between September 2010 to December 2010 was carried out. A total of 125 patients were included in the study. All of them were patients of the Oral Surgery and Implantology Department (Valencia University Medical and Dental School, Valencia, Spain). Before surgery, patients had to complete a preoperative protocol with 4 scales: the STAI-T (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait) for measuring trait anxiety, the STAI-S (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State) for measuring state anxiety, and DAS (Dental anxiety Scale of N. Corah) and APAIS (Amsterdam Preoperative anxiety and Information Scale) for measuring dental anxiety. Patients undergoing extractions of an impacted lower third molar showed low levels of trait anxiety and moderate levels of state anxiety and dental anxiety. Higher levels of trait anxiety were obtained for older patients. Women had higher mean levels of dental anxiety and state anxiety that men with a statistically significant difference in STAI-S scales, DAS, and APAIS. Patients with higher trait anxiety and state anxiety showed higher levels of dental anxiety. A significant correlation (p ≤ 0.01) (p = 0.00) was found between the four scales used to measure anxiety. The scale showed higher correlation was STAI-S scale. The 4 scales showed high reliability (α of C.> 0.80). Patients with highest levels of trait anxiety and state anxiety, had more dental anxiety. The STAI-T, STAI-S, DAS and APAIS scales provided useful information about anxiety before the extraction of lower impacted third molars. The STAI-S is the scale with highest correlation and reliability.

  8. Identifying Maths Anxiety in Student Nurses and Focusing Remedial Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Maths anxiety interferes with maths cognition and thereby increases the risk of maths errors. To initiate strategies for preventing anxiety-related errors progressing into nursing practice, this study explored the hypothesis that student nurses experience high maths anxiety in association with poor maths performance, and that high maths anxiety is…

  9. [Pharmacotherapy of Anxiety Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanzger, P

    2016-05-01

    Anxiety disorders belong to the most frequent psychiatric disorders according to epidemiological studies and are associated with a high economic burden. Panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia belong to the most important clinical disorders. The etiology is complex, including genetic, neurobiological as well as psychosocial factors. With regard to treatment, both psychotherapy and medication can be employed according to current treatment guidelines. With regard to psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) represents the treatment of choice. As for pharmacological treatment, in particular modern antidepressants and pregabalin are recommended. However, several recommendations have to be considered in daily clinical practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Benson's Relaxation Effect in Comparing to Systematic Desensitization on Anxiety of Female Nurses: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Mahbobeh; Goudarzi, Khatereh; Khosravi, Sharareh; Farmahini-Farahani, Molod; Mohammadbeig, Abolfazl

    2017-01-01

    Nursing staffs expose to a high level of anxiety. This study aimed to compare the effect of Benson's relaxation and systematic desensitization methods for decreasing the anxiety score of nurses. In a randomized clinical trial, 72 female nurses were assigned randomly to three different groups. Benson's relaxation and systematic desensitization were used as intervention beside control group. After intervention, the Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory was used for measuring the anxiety score. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey test, and paired t-test were applied for comparing three group scores. The ANOVA test showed that a significant difference among three groups regarding scores of posttrait and poststate anxiety (P < 0.05). The Tukey test showed that both Benson's relaxation and systematic desensitization methods were effective in decreasing of the anxiety score of nurses. Moreover, the mean change in trait and state anxiety scores at Benson's relaxation and systematic desensitization groups was more than control group, respectively, and was statistically significant. Both Benson's relaxation and systematic desensitization methods are effective in improvement of the state and trait dimensions of anxiety. However, these methods could be applied in stressful situation among medical staffs of students.

  11. [Evaluation of preoperative anxiety in patients requiring glaucoma filtration surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, S; Blumen-Ohana, E; Akesbi, J; Laplace, O; Nordmann, J-P

    2014-01-01

    Preoperative anxiety is often expressed by patients requiring filtration surgery for their glaucoma. So far, there has been no scale for screening this group of patients for preoperative anxiety. The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) is a self-evaluation questionnaire which has been used in specialties other than ophthalmology and which makes it possible to identify the adult patients with a high level of preoperative anxiety over an upcoming surgical procedure. The purpose of this study is to estimate the preoperative anxiety in glaucoma patients requiring filtration surgery. We performed a prospective study of 36 adult patients with chronic glaucoma not responding to medical treatment and who were about to undergo filtration surgery (trabeculectomy or deep sclerectomy). The APAIS questionnaire was given to the patients after discussing the indication for surgery. A global anxiety score (ranging from 4 to 20) above 10 defined patients with a high level of preoperative anxiety. We attempted to identify among these patients the factors related to filtration surgery which caused them anxiety (lack of control of intraocular pressure, risk of blindness, presence of the filtering bleb). In our sample of patients, we found that glaucoma was a source of anxiety. That was also true for the surgical procedure, though most patients believe that once the decision had been made, their psychological status was not modified by the upcoming procedure. The patient-clinician relationship is important in any chronic disease, all the more so in glaucoma, since this disease remains asymptomatic for a long time. When filtration surgery is necessary, the patients are going to express less preoperative anxiety if they trust their physician and if individualized information has been given to them The French version of the APAIS is a quick scale, easily completed, that can be recommended for evaluating anxiety and patients' need for information prior to filtering

  12. Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale for Cypriot Senior High School EFL Students: The Rasch Measurement Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayiotis Panayides

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS for Cypriot senior high school EFL students, through Rasch measurement. In doing so, the researchers clarified two discrepancies found in the literature: first the factor structure of the scale and second whether test anxiety is a component of FLCA. The Greek version of the FLCAS was administered to a sample of 304 senior high school EFL students. Results showed that after removing five items which fitted the Rasch Rating Scale model poorly, the remaining 28 items formed a unidimensional scale, one component of which is test anxiety. The degree of reliability was high. Semantic analysis of the items revealed that one of the reasons was the inclusion of many parallel items. The Rasch person-item map showed that a second reason was the narrow coverage of the construct by the items. Finally the 5-point Likert scale was shown to be marginally optimal. Suggestions are proposed for future research into the refinement of the scale.

  13. The role of expressive writing in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daeun; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L

    2014-06-01

    Math anxiety is a negative affective reaction to situations involving math. Previous work demonstrates that math anxiety can negatively impact math problem solving by creating performance-related worries that disrupt the working memory needed for the task at hand. By leveraging knowledge about the mechanism underlying the math anxiety-performance relationship, we tested the effectiveness of a short expressive writing intervention that has been shown to reduce intrusive thoughts and improve working memory availability. Students (N = 80) varying in math anxiety were asked to sit quietly (control group) prior to completing difficulty-matched math and word problems or to write about their thoughts and feelings regarding the exam they were about to take (expressive writing group). For the control group, high math-anxious individuals (HMAs) performed significantly worse on the math problems than low math-anxious students (LMAs). In the expressive writing group, however, this difference in math performance across HMAs and LMAs was significantly reduced. Among HMAs, the use of words related to anxiety, cause, and insight in their writing was positively related to math performance. Expressive writing boosts the performance of anxious students in math-testing situations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Threat interpretation and parental influences for children with asthma and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicouri, Gemma; Sharpe, Louise; Hudson, Jennifer L; Dudeney, Jo; Jaffe, Adam; Selvadurai, Hiran; Lorimer, Sarah; Hunt, Caroline

    2017-02-01

    Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in children with asthma yet very little is known about the cognitive and parent factors that may underpin this relationship. The present study investigated interpretation biases in children with asthma and anxiety and their parents, and whether parent-child discussions influenced children's interpretations. Eighty-nine parent-child dyads were included across four groups: children with asthma and anxiety, children with anxiety only, children with asthma only and healthy children (aged between 8 and 13 years old). Interpretation bias was assessed using ambiguous scenarios. Children with anxiety showed an interpretation bias in the general threat scenarios, whereas children with asthma showed an interpretation bias in the asthma threat scenarios. Parental predictions of their child's responses showed similar results. Parent-child discussions increased avoidance for children with anxiety and no asthma across all scenarios, but only for children with asthma and anxiety in the asthma threat scenarios. The results provide partial support for a cognitive theory of asthma and anxiety in children and suggest that parents play a role in influencing children's thinking styles. Treatment programs could thus aim to target and modify interpretation biases in children with anxiety, and include parents as part of treatment. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Trichotillomania and Co-occurring Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E.; Redden, Sarah A.; Leppink, Eric W.; Chamberlain, Samuel R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Trichotillomania appears to be a fairly common disorder, with high rates of co-occurring anxiety disorders. Many individuals with trichotillomania also report that pulling worsens during periods of increased anxiety. Even with these clinical links to anxiety, little research has explored whether trichotillomania with co-occurring anxiety is a meaningful subtype. Methods 165 adults with trichotillomania were examined on a variety of clinical measures including symptom severity, functioning, and comorbidity. Participants also underwent cognitive testing assessing motor inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Clinical features and cognitive functioning were compared between those with current co-occurring anxiety disorders (i.e. social anxiety, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and anxiety disorder NOS) (n=38) and those with no anxiety disorder (n=127). Results Participants with trichotillomania and co-occurring anxiety reported significantly worse hair pulling symptoms, were more likely to have co-occurring depression, and were more likely to have a first-degree relative with obsessive compulsive disorder. Those with anxiety disorders also exhibited significantly worse motor inhibitory performance on a task of motor inhibition (stop-signal task). Conclusions This study suggests that anxiety disorders affect the clinical presentation of hair pulling behavior. Further research is needed to validate our findings and to consider whether treatments should be specially tailored differently for adults with trichotillomania who have co-occurring anxiety disorders, or more pronounced cognitive impairment. PMID:27668531

  16. The Interrelationship of Social Anxiety with Anxiety, Depression, Locus of Control, Ways of Coping and Ego Strength amongst University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Robin-Marie; Edelman, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first study to investigate the interrelationship of social anxiety with the variables anxiety, depression, locus of control, ego strength and ways of coping in a sample of university students. There were high scores of social anxiety which were related to high scores on measures of anxiety and depression, low ego strength, external…

  17. The effect of video-based education on patient anxiety in men undergoing transrectal prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarhan, Huseyin; Cakmak, Ozgur; Unal, Elif; Akarken, Ilker; Un, Sitki; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Konyalioglu, Ersin; Isoglu, Cemal Selcuk; Zorlu, Ferruh

    2014-11-01

    We assess the effect of video-based education on patient anxiety during transrectal prostate biopsy. A total of 246 patients who underwent transrectal prostate biopsy were prospectively enrolled in the study. Group 1 included 123 patients who received both written and video-based education, while Group 2 included 123 patients who received only written instructions regarding prostate biopsies. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to assess state and trait anxiety (STAI-S/T) After completing the STAI-S and STAI-T questionnaires, all patients in Group 1 received written information and video-based education and they again completed STAI-S before the biopsy. On the contrary, after completing the STAI-S and STAI-T questionnaires, the patients in Group 2 received only written information and then they completed the STAI-S before the biopsy. Moreover, a visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess pain scores during digital rectal examination, probe insertion, periprostatic local anesthesic infiltration, and biopsy. No difference was noted between 2 groups regarding VAS scores. Comparing the 2 groups on baseline anxiety, we found that trait anxiety scores (STAI-T) were similar (p = 0.238). Pre-information STAI-S scores were similar in both groups (p = 0.889) and they both indicated high anxiety levels (score ≥42). While post-information STAI-S scores remained high in Group 2, post-information STAI-S scores significantly decreased in Group 1 (p = 0.01). Undergoing a prostate biopsy is stressful and may cause anxiety for patients. Video-based education about the procedure can diminish patient anxiety.

  18. Yoga ameliorates performance anxiety and mood disturbance in young professional musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Shorter, Stephanie M; Cope, Stephen; Wyshak, Grace; Sklar, Elyse

    2009-12-01

    Yoga and meditation can alleviate stress, anxiety, mood disturbance, and musculoskeletal problems, and can enhance cognitive and physical performance. Professional musicians experience high levels of stress, performance anxiety, and debilitating performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs). The goal of this controlled study was to evaluate the benefits of yoga and meditation for musicians. Young adult professional musicians who volunteered to participate in a 2-month program of yoga and meditation were randomized to a yoga lifestyle intervention group (n = 15) or to a group practicing yoga and meditation only (n = 15). Additional musicians were recruited to a no-practice control group (n = 15). Both yoga groups attended three Kripalu Yoga or meditation classes each week. The yoga lifestyle group also experienced weekly group practice and discussion sessions as part of their more immersive treatment. All participants completed baseline and end-program self-report questionnaires that evaluated music performance anxiety, mood, PRMDs, perceived stress, and sleep quality; many participants later completed a 1-year followup assessment using the same questionnaires. Both yoga groups showed a trend towards less music performance anxiety and significantly less general anxiety/tension, depression, and anger at end-program relative to controls, but showed no changes in PRMDs, stress, or sleep. Similar results in the two yoga groups, despite psychosocial differences in their interventions, suggest that the yoga and meditation techniques themselves may have mediated the improvements. Our results suggest that yoga and meditation techniques can reduce performance anxiety and mood disturbance in young professional musicians.

  19. The 2-(Triphenylsilylethoxycarbonyl-(“Tpseoc”- Group: A New Silicon-Based, Fluoride Cleavable Oxycarbonyl Protecting Group Highly Orthogonal to the Boc-, Fmoc- and Cbz-Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Golkowski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from 2-(triphenylsilylethanol a new oxycarbonyl protecting group cleavable by fluoride ion induced Peterson-elimination has been developed. Known 2-(triphenylsilylethanol has been prepared from commercially available triphenylvinyl-silane by a hydroboration-oxidation sequence using the sterically hindered borane reagent 9-BBN. The silyl alcohol was subsequently transformed into its chloroformate, imidazolylcarboxylic acid ester and p-nitrophenyl carbonate and used in standard protocols for the formation of carbamates and carbonates. The Tpseoc group proved to be highly resistant against acidic conditions applied in removal of tert-butyl esters and the t-Boc-group. It also withstood catalytic hydrogenation, treatment with morpholine, methylhydrazine and Pd-reagents/allyl-scavanger combinations, conditions required to cleave Cbz-, Fmoc-, phthalimide- and Alloc-groups. The Tpseoc-group is cleaved upon treatment with TBAF/CsF at 0 °C or r.t. with cleavage times reaching from

  20. Short Circuits or Superconductors? Effects of Group Composition on High-Achieving Students' Science Assessment Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Noreen M.; Nemer, Kariane Mari; Zuniga, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Studied the effects of group ability composition (homogeneous versus heterogeneous) on group processes and outcomes for high-ability students completing science assessments. Results for 83 high ability students show the quality of group functioning serves as the strongest predictor of high-ability students' performance and explained much of the…