WorldWideScience

Sample records for high al-content algan

  1. Impact of strain relaxation of AlGaN barrier layer on the performance of high Al-content AlGaN/GaN HEMT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan; HAO Yue; ZHANG Jincheng; WANG Chong; FENG Qian

    2006-01-01

    The effects of strain relaxation of AlGaN barrier layer on the conduction band profile, electron concentration and two-dimensional gas (2DEG) sheet charge density in a high Al-content AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) are calculated by self-consistently solving Poisson's and Schr(o)dinger's equations. The effect of strain relaxation on dc I-V characteristics of AlxGa1-xN/GaN HEMT is obtained by developing a nonlinear charge-control model that describes the accurate relation of 2DEG sheet charge density and gate voltage. The model predicts a highest 2DEG sheet charge density of 2.42×1013 cm-2 and maximum saturation current of 2482.8 mA/mm at a gate bias of 2 V for 0.7 μm Al0.50Ga0.50N/GaN HEMT with strain relaxation r =0 and 1.49×1013 cm-2 and 1149.7 mA/mm with strain relaxation r =1. The comparison between simulations and physical measurements shows a good agreement. Results show that the effect of strain relaxation must be considered when analyzing the characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN/GaN HEMT theoretically, and the performance of the devices is improved by decreasing the strain relaxation of AlGaN barrier layer.

  2. Growth of AlGaN Epitaxial Film with High Al Content by Metalorganic Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Lan; ZHAO De-Gang; YANG Hui; LIANG Jun-Wu

    2007-01-01

    A high-Al-content AlCaN epilayer is grown on a low-temperature-deposited AlN buffer on (0001) sapphire bylow pressure metalorganic chemical vapour deposition. The dependence of surface roughness, tilted mosaicity,and twisted mosaicity on the conditions of the AlCaN epilayer deposition is evaluated. An AlCaN epilayer withfavourable surface morphology and crystal quality is deposited on a 20nm low-temperature-deposited AlN buffer at a low Ⅴ/Ⅲ flow ratio of 783 and at a low reactor pressure of 100 Torr, and the adduct reaction between trimethylaluminium and NH3 is considered.

  3. Anomalously low Ga incorporation in high Al-content AlGaN grown on (11 anti 20) non-polar plane by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueta, Shunsaku; Horita, Masahiro; Suda, Jun [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto University Katsura Campus, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto, 615-8510 (Japan); Kimoto, Tsunenobu [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto University Katsura Campus, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto, 615-8510 (Japan); Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center (PESEC), Kyoto University Katsura Campus, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto, 615-8510 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Crystalline orientation dependence of Ga incorporation in growth of high Al-content AlGaN was investigated. Growth was carried out by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) using elemental Al, Ga, and rf-plasma-excited nitrogen under various V/III ratios. 6H-SiC (0001), 4H-SiC and 4H-SiC were used as substrates. Ga incorporation increased with increase of V/III ratio in the layers grown on (0001) and planes. On the other hand, Ga was not incorporated in the layer grown on plane even when the layer was grown under a nitrogen rich condition, indicating much lower Ga incorporation on plane than those of other planes. AlGaN with good quality was successfully grown on plane. Utilization of plane is suitable in MBE growth of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light emitting devices. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Experimental evidences for reducing Mg activation energy in high Al-content AlGaN alloy by MgGa δ doping in (AlN)m/(GaN)n superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jingli; Wu, Hao; Liu, Chang

    2017-01-01

    P-type doping in high Al-content AlGaN alloys is a main challenge for realizing AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet optoelectronics devices. According to the first-principles calculations, Mg activation energy may be reduced so that a high hole concentration can be obtained by introducing nanoscale (AlN)5/(GaN)1 superlattice (SL) in Al0.83Ga0.17N disorder alloy. In this work, experimental evidences were achieved by analyzing Mg doped high Al-content AlGaN alloys and Mg doped AlGaN SLs as well as MgGa δ doped AlGaN SLs. Mg acceptor activation energy was significantly reduced from 0.378 to 0.331 eV by using MgGa δ doping in SLs instead of traditional doping in alloys. This new process was confirmed to be able to realize high p-type doping in high Al-content AlGaN. PMID:28290480

  5. High-speed solar-blind UV photodetectors using high-Al content Al0.64Ga0.36N/Al0.34Ga0.66N multiple quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhtadi, Sakib; Hwang, Seong Mo; Coleman, Antwon L.; Lunev, Alexander; Asif, Fatima; Chava, V. S. N.; Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.; Khan, Asif

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate high-external quantum efficiency (˜50%) solar-blind AlGaN p-n junction photodetectors with high-Al content multiple quantum wells (MQWs). A peak responsivity of 0.1 A/W at 250 nm, which falls >103 by 280 nm, indicates that the optical absorption is dominated by the MQW structures. At a reverse bias of 0.5 V, the dark current is measured as 0.4 µs, and an achievable detector RC-limited time response of 2 ns is estimated. The devices do not show internal gain, which accounts for their high speed.

  6. Trap states in AlGaN channel high-electron-mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, ShengLei; Zhang, Kai; Ha, Wei; Chen, YongHe; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, JinCheng; Hao, Yue, E-mail: yhao@xidian.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); Ma, XiaoHua, E-mail: xhma@xidian.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); School of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2013-11-18

    Frequency dependent capacitance and conductance measurements were performed to analyze the trap states in the AlGaN channel high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). The trap state density in the AlGaN channel HEMTs decreases from 1.26 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1} at the energy of 0.33 eV to 4.35 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1} at 0.40 eV. Compared with GaN channel HEMTs, the trap states in the AlGaN channel HEMTs have deeper energy levels. The trap with deeper energy levels in the AlGaN channel HEMTs is another reason for the reduction of the reverse gate leakage current besides the higher Schottky barrier height.

  7. Botulinum toxin detection using AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Lin; Chu, B. H.; Chen, K. H.; Chang, C. Y.; Lele, T. P.; Tseng, Y.; Pearton, S. J.; Ramage, J.; Hooten, D.; Dabiran, A.; Chow, P. P.; Ren, F.

    2008-12-01

    Antibody-functionalized, Au-gated AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect botulinum toxin. The antibody was anchored to the gate area through immobilized thioglycolic acid. The AlGaN /GaN HEMT drain-source current showed a rapid response of less than 5s when the target toxin in a buffer was added to the antibody-immobilized surface. We could detect a range of concentrations from 1to10ng/ml. These results clearly demonstrate the promise of field-deployable electronic biological sensors based on AlGaN /GaN HEMTs for botulinum toxin detection.

  8. High temperature electron transport properties of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with different Al-contents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Electron transport properties in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with different Al-contents have been in-vestigated from room temperature up to 680 K. The temperature dependencies of electron mobility have been systematically measured for the samples. The electron mobility at 680 K were measured as 154 and 182 cm2/V.s for Al0.15Ga0.85N/GaN and Al0.40Ga0.60N/GaN heterostructures,respectively. It was found that the electron mobility of low Al-content Al0.15Ga0.85N/GaN heterostructure was less than that of high Al-content Al0.40Ga0.60N/GaN heterostructure at high temperature of 680 K,which is different from that at room temperature. Detailed analysis showed that electron occupations in the first subband were 75% and 82% at 700 K for Al0.15Ga0.85N/GaN and Al0.40Ga0.60N/GaN heterostructures,respectively,and the two dimensional gas (2DEG) ratios in the whole electron system were 30% and near 60%,respectively. That indicated the 2DEG was better confined in the well,and was still dominant in the whole electron system for higher Al-content AlGaN/GaN heterostructure at 700 K,while lower one was not. Thus it had a higher electron mobility. So a higher Al-content AlGaN/GaN heterostructure is more suitable for high-temperature applications.

  9. High-efficiency blue LEDs with thin AlGaN interlayers in InGaN/GaN MQWs grown on Si (111) substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shigeya; Yoshida, Hisashi; Ito, Toshihide; Okada, Aoi; Uesugi, Kenjiro; Nunoue, Shinya

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate high-efficiency blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with thin AlGaN interlayers in InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells (MQWs) grown on Si (111) substrates. The peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) ηEQE of 82% at room temperature and the hot/cold factor (HCF) of 94% have been obtained by using the functional thin AlGaN interlayers in the MQWs in addition to reducing threading dislocation densities (TDDs) in the blue LEDs. An HCF is defined as ηEQE(85°C)/ηEQE(25°C). The blue LED structures were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on Si (111) substrates. The MQWs applied as an active layer have 8- pairs of InGaN/AlyGa1-yN/GaN (0transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional atom probe analysis that the 1 nm-thick AlyGa1-yN interlayers, whose Al content is y=0.3 or less, are continuously formed. EQE and the HCFs of the LEDs with thin Al0.15Ga0.85N interlayers are enhanced compared with those of the samples without the interlayers in the low-current-density region. We consider that the enhancement is due to both the reduction of the nonradiative recombination centers and the increase of the radiative recombination rate mediated by the strain-induced hole carriers indicated by the simulation of the energy band diagram.

  10. The mobility of two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with varied Al content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JinFeng; HAO Yue; ZHANG JinCheng; NI JinYu

    2008-01-01

    The mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaN/GaN hetero-structures changes significantly with AI content in the AlGaN barrier layer, while few mechanism analyses focus on it. Theoretical calculation and analysis of the 2DEG mobility in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with varied Al content are carried out based on the recently reported experimental data. The 2DEG mobility is modeled analytically as the total effects of the scattering mechanisms including acoustic deformation-potential, piezoelectric, polar optic phonon, alloy disorder, interface roughness, dislocation and remote modulation doping scattering. We show that the increase of the 2DEG density, caused by the ascension of the Al content in the barrier layer, is a dominant factor that leads to the changes of the individual scat-tering processes. The change of the 2DEG mobility with Al content are mainly de-termined by the interface roughness scattering and the alloy disorder scattering at 77 K, and the polar optic phonon scattering and the interface roughness scattering at the room temperature. The calculated function of the interface roughness pa-rameters on the Al content shows that the stress caused AlGaN/GaN interface degradation at higher Al content is an important factor in the limitation of the in-terface roughness scattering on the 2DEG mobility in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with high Al content.

  11. Dependence of ohmic contact properties on AlGaN layer thickness for AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yusuke; Tsutsui, Kazuo; Saito, Wataru; Kakushima, Kuniyuki; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Iwai, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The dependence of ohmic contact resistance on the AlGaN layer thickness was evaluated for AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) structures. Mo/Al/Ti contacts were formed on AlGaN layers with various thicknesses. The observed resistance characteristics are discussed on the basis of a model in which the overall contact resistance is composed of a series of three resistance components. Different dependences on the AlGaN layer thickness was observed after annealing at low temperatures (800-850 °C) and at high temperatures (900-950 °C). It was determined that lowering the resistance at the metal/AlGaN interface and that of the AlGaN layer is important for obtaining low-resistance ohmic contacts.

  12. Short-period intrinsic Stark GaN /AlGaN superlattice as a Bloch oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinov, V. I.; Manasson, A.; Pavlidis, D.

    2004-07-01

    We discuss the properties of AlGaN /GaN superlattice (SL) related to the feasibility of a terahertz-range oscillator. The distortion of the conduction-band profile by the polarization fields has been taken into account. We have calculated the conduction-band offset between the pseudomorphic AlGaN barrier and the GaN quantum well, the first miniband width and energy dispersion, as functions of Al content in the barrier. As the short-period SL miniband energy dispersion contains contributions from next to nearest neighbors, it causes anharmonic electron oscillations at the multiples of the fundamental Bloch frequency. The Al content and SL period that favor high-frequency oscillations have been determined.

  13. Advantages of the AlGaN spacer in InAlN high-electron-mobility transistors grown using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Atsushi; Ishiguro, Tetsuro; Kotani, Junji; Tomabechi, Shuichi; Nakamura, Norikazu; Watanabe, Keiji

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate the advantages of an AlGaN spacer layer in an InAlN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT). We investigated the effects of the growth parameters of the spacer layer on electron mobility in InAlN HEMTs grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, focusing on the surface roughness of the spacer layer and sharpness of the interface with the GaN channel layer. The electron mobility degraded, as evidenced by the formation of a graded AlGaN layer at the top of the GaN channel layer and the surface roughness of the AlN spacer layer. We believe that the short migration length of aluminum atoms is responsible for the observed degradation. An AlGaN spacer layer was employed to suppress the formation of the graded AlGaN layer and improve surface morphology. A high electron mobility of 1550 cm2 V-1 s-1 and a low sheet resistance of 211 Ω/sq were achieved for an InAlN HEMT with an AlGaN spacer layer.

  14. New Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN high electron mobility transistor with partial etched AlGaN layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Song; Duan, Baoxing; Yuan, Xiaoning; Cao, Zhen; Guo, Haijun; Yang, Yintang

    2016-05-01

    In this letter, a new Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with the AlGaN layer is partial etched is reported for the first time. The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density in the HEMTs is changed by partially etching the AlGaN layer. A new electric field peak is introduced along the interface between the AlGaN layer and the GaN buffer by the electric field modulation effect. The high electric field near the gate in the proposed Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN HEMT is effectively decreased, which makes the surface electric field more uniform. Compared with the conventional structure, the breakdown voltage can be improved by 58% for the proposed Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN HEMT and the current collapse can be reduced resulting from the more uniform surface electric field.

  15. The effect of δ-doping and modulation-doping on Si-doped high Al content n-AlxGa1-xN grown by MOCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Shaoxin; Yan Jianchang; Zeng Jianping; Zhang Ning; Si Zhao; Dong Peng; Li Jinmin

    2013-01-01

    The effect of periodic delta-doping and modulation-doping on high Al content n-AlxGa1-xN (x =0.55) epilayers grown by MOCVD has been investigated.Measured by XRD,AFM,contactless sheet resistance,and Hall-effect tests,δ-doped and modulation-doped n-AlxGa1-xN have better crystal quality,surface morphology and electrical properties as compared with uniformly-doped n-AlxGa1-xN.These improvements are attributed to the SiNx growth mask induced by δ-doping layers and the dislocation-blocking effect induced by both growth techniques.In addition,due to the broadened doping profile ascribed to enhanced dopant diffusion at high growth temperatures (1150 ℃) of n-Al0.55Ga0.45N,modulation-doped n-Al0.55Ga0.45N has similar properties as δ-doped n-Al0.55Ga0.45N.

  16. Very Low Ohmic Contact Resistance through an AlGaN Etch-Stop in Nitrogen-Polar GaN-Based High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidhi; Brown, David F.; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2010-02-01

    Ultra-low ohmic contact resistance of 0.1 Ω mm has been obtained as a step towards a deep-recess structure using N-polar GaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). An AlGaN etchstop layer was investigated to obtain smooth and reliable gate recess. However due to reverse polarization, AlGaN results in a polarization-induced Schottky barrier which prevents ohmic contact to the channel through the etchstop. In this work, we have proposed a novel methodology to contact the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) by etching through the GaN cap and the AlGaN etchstop to eliminate the barrier and angular-evaporation of metals to achieve side-alloying resulting in very low ohmic contact resistance of 0.1 Ω mm achieved to N-polar GaN 2DEG. This result is state-of-the-art for alloyed contacts achieved to GaN-based 2DEG.

  17. AlGaN Nanostructures with Extremely High Room-Temperature Internal Quantum Efficiency of Emission Below 300 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropov, A. A.; Shevchenko, E. A.; Shubina, T. V.; Jmerik, V. N.; Nechaev, D. V.; Evropeytsev, E. A.; Kaibyshev, V. Kh.; Pozina, G.; Rouvimov, S.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2016-11-01

    We present theoretical optimization of the design of a quantum well (QW) heterostructure based on AlGaN alloys, aimed at achievement of the maximum possible internal quantum efficiency of emission in the mid-ultraviolet spectral range below 300 nm at room temperature. A sample with optimized parameters was fabricated by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy using the submonolayer digital alloying technique for QW formation. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy confirmed strong compositional disordering of the thus-fabricated QW, which presumably facilitates lateral localization of charge carriers in the QW plane. Stress evolution in the heterostructure was monitored in real time during growth using a multibeam optical stress sensor intended for measurements of substrate curvature. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy confirmed that radiative recombination in the fabricated sample dominated in the whole temperature range up to 300 K. This leads to record weak temperature-induced quenching of the QW emission intensity, which at 300 K does not exceed 20% of the low-temperature value.

  18. AlGaN Nanostructures with Extremely High Room-Temperature Internal Quantum Efficiency of Emission Below 300 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropov, A. A.; Shevchenko, E. A.; Shubina, T. V.; Jmerik, V. N.; Nechaev, D. V.; Evropeytsev, E. A.; Kaibyshev, V. Kh.; Pozina, G.; Rouvimov, S.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2017-07-01

    We present theoretical optimization of the design of a quantum well (QW) heterostructure based on AlGaN alloys, aimed at achievement of the maximum possible internal quantum efficiency of emission in the mid-ultraviolet spectral range below 300 nm at room temperature. A sample with optimized parameters was fabricated by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy using the submonolayer digital alloying technique for QW formation. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy confirmed strong compositional disordering of the thus-fabricated QW, which presumably facilitates lateral localization of charge carriers in the QW plane. Stress evolution in the heterostructure was monitored in real time during growth using a multibeam optical stress sensor intended for measurements of substrate curvature. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy confirmed that radiative recombination in the fabricated sample dominated in the whole temperature range up to 300 K. This leads to record weak temperature-induced quenching of the QW emission intensity, which at 300 K does not exceed 20% of the low-temperature value.

  19. Growth of AlGaN stripes with semipolar side facets as waveguide claddings for semipolar laser structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leute, Robert Anton Richard; Forghani, Kamran; Lipski, Frank; Scholz, Ferdinand [Institut fuer Optoelektronik, Universitaet Ulm (Germany); Tischer, Ingo; Neuschl, Benjamin; Thonke, Klaus [Institut fuer Quantenmaterie, Gruppe Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Selective area growth of group III nitrides allows the epitaxy of semipolar facets with reduced piezoelectric field on 2-inch sapphire substrates. Additionally, the 3D growth of stripes, pyramids or the like enables us to manipulate the extraction and propagation of light by changing the surface topology. LEDs grown on GaN stripes with {l_brace}11 anti 22{r_brace} facets and GaN stripes with {l_brace}10 anti 11{r_brace} facets have been published. The fabrication of laser structures with resonators along the stripes depends critically on the controlled growth of a waveguide cladding for optical confinement, typically realized by AlGaN layers. However, the growth parameters of AlGaN are challenging for selective epitaxy. The high growth temperature promotes lateral growth, leading to the emergence of an undesirable c-plane facet, whereas the reduced selectivity of the mask material for Al atoms leads to polycrystalline growth on masked areas. We investigate the selective growth of AlGaN with Al contents up to 10% with structured SiO{sub 2} and SiN{sub x} masks. The influence of mask geometries (stripes parallel m and perpendicular to m, variable opening sizes and periods) on topology, material quality and Al incorporation is examined. Therefore, we present SEM investigations, spatially resolved cathodoluminescence as well as low temperature photoluminescence.

  20. Sensitivity Analysis of Algan/GAN High Electron Mobility Transistors to Process Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    fullest, specifically its use in high power amplifiers operating at GHz or higher frequencies. Unfortunately, there were, and still are, fabrication...simulated data and since optimal operation is found at Vmax the drop at -1V Vg is not explored in this research. Figure 60: Transconductance vs Vg...6 2.2.1 Transconductance (gm

  1. High luminous efficacy green light-emitting diodes with AlGaN cap layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Abdullah I; Farrell, Robert M; Saifaddin, Burhan; Mughal, Asad; Wu, Feng; DenBaars, Steven P; Nakamura, Shuji; Speck, James S

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate very high luminous efficacy green light-emitting diodes employing Al0.30Ga0.70N cap layer grown on patterned sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The peak external quantum efficiency and luminous efficacies were 44.3% and 239 lm/w, respectively. At 20 mA (20 A/cm2) the light output power was 14.3 mW, the forward voltage was 3.5 V, the emission wavelength was 526.6 nm, and the external quantum efficiency was 30.2%. These results are among the highest reported luminous efficacy values for InGaN based green light-emitting diodes.

  2. Completely transparent ohmic electrode on p-type AlGaN for UV LEDs with core-shell Cu@alloy nanosilk network (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Duanjun; Wang, Huachun; Huang, Youyang; Wu, Chenping; Chen, Xiaohong; Gao, Na; Wei, Tongbo T.; Wang, Junxi; Li, Shuping; Kang, Junyong

    2016-09-01

    Metal nanowire networks hold a great promise, which have been supposed the only alternative to ITO as transparent electrodes for their excellent performance in touch screen, LED and solar cell. It is well known that the difficulty in making transparent ohmic electrode to p-type high-Al-content AlGaN conducting layer has highly constrained the further development of UV LEDs. On the IWN-2014, we reported the ohmic contact to n, p-GaN with direct graphene 3D-coated Cu nanosilk network and the fabrication of complete blue LED. On the ICNS-2015, we reported the ohmic contact to n-type AlGaN conducting layer with Cu@alloy nanosilk network. Here, we further demonstrate the latest results that a novel technique is proposed for fabricating transparent ohmic electrode to high-Al-content AlGaN p-type conducting layer in UV LEDs using Cu@alloy core-shell nanosilk network. The superfine copper nanowires (16 nm) was synthesized for coating various metals such as Ni, Zn, V or Ti with different work functions. The transmittance showed a high transparency (> 90%) over a broad wavelength range from 200 to 3000 nm. By thermal annealing, ohmic contact was achieved on p-type Al0.5Ga0.5N layer with Cu@Ni nanosilk network, showing clearly linear I-V curve. By skipping the p-type GaN cladding layer, complete UV LED chip was fabricated and successfully lit with bright emission at 276 nm.

  3. Insight into high-reflectivity AlN/GaN Bragg reflectors with spontaneously formed (Al,Ga)N transient layers at the interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gačević, Ž.; Eljarrat, A.; Peiró, F.; Calleja, E.

    2013-05-01

    This work gives a detailed insight into how the formation of (Al,Ga)N transient layers (TLs) at the interfaces of AlN/GaN Bragg reflectors modifies their structural and optical properties. While abrupt AlN/GaN interfaces are typically characterized with a network of microcracks, those with TLs are characterized with a network of nanocracks. Transmission electron microscopy reveals a strong correlation between strain and the TLs thickness, identifying thus the strain as the driving force for TLs formation. The AlN/GaN intermixing preserves the targeted stopband position (˜410 nm), whereas the peak reflectivity and the stopband width are both reduced, but still significantly high: >90% and >30 nm, respectively. To model their optical properties, a reduced refractive index contrast approximation is used, a novel method which yields an excellent agreement with the experiment.

  4. Self-terminated etching of GaN with a high selectivity over AlGaN under inductively coupled Cl2/N2/O2 plasma with a low-energy ion bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yaozong; Zhou, Yu; Gao, Hongwei; Dai, Shujun; He, Junlei; Feng, Meixin; Sun, Qian; Zhang, Jijun; Zhao, Yanfei; DingSun, An; Yang, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Etching of GaN/AlGaN heterostructure by O-containing inductively coupled Cl2/N2 plasma with a low-energy ion bombardment can be self-terminated at the surface of the AlGaN layer. The estimated etching rates of GaN and AlGaN were 42 and 0.6 nm/min, respectively, giving a selective etching ratio of 70:1. To study the mechanism of the etching self-termination, detailed characterization and analyses were carried out, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS). It was found that in the presence of oxygen, the top surface of the AlGaN layer was converted into a thin film of (Al,Ga)Ox with a high bonding energy, which effectively prevented the underlying atoms from a further etching, resulting in a nearly self-terminated etching. This technique enables a uniform and reproducible fabrication process for enhancement-mode high electron mobility transistors with a p-GaN gate.

  5. Low temperature laser molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of AlGaN epitaxial layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Prashant; Ch., Ramesh; Kushvaha, S. S.; Kumar, M. Senthil

    2017-05-01

    We have grown AlGaN (0001) epitaxial layers on sapphire (0001) by using laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) technique. The growth was carried out using laser ablation of AlxGa1-x liquid metal alloy under r.f. nitrogen plasma ambient. Before epilayer growth, the sapphire nitradation was performed at 700 °C using r.f nitrogen plasma followed by AlGaN layer growth. The in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) was employed to monitor the substrate nitridation and AlGaN epitaxial growth. High resolution x-ray diffraction showed wurtzite hexagonal growth of AlGaN layer along c-axis. An absorption bandgap of 3.97 eV is obtained for the grown AlGaN layer indicating an Al composition of more than 20 %. Using ellipsometry, a refractive index (n) value of about 2.19 is obtained in the visible region.

  6. Fabrication of Very High Efficiency 5.8 GHz Power Amplifiers using AlGaN HFETs on SiC Substrates for Wireless Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gerry

    2001-01-01

    For wireless power transmission using microwave energy, very efficient conversion of the DC power into microwave power is extremely important. Class E amplifiers have the attractive feature that they can, in theory, be 100% efficient at converting, DC power to RF power. Aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) semiconductor material has many advantageous properties, relative to silicon (Si), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and silicon carbide (SiC), such as a much larger bandgap, and the ability to form AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions. The large bandgap of AlGaN also allows for device operation at higher temperatures than could be tolerated by a smaller bandgap transistor. This could reduce the cooling requirements. While it is unlikely that the AlGaN transistors in a 5.8 GHz class E amplifier can operate efficiently at temperatures in excess of 300 or 400 C, AlGaN based amplifiers could operate at temperatures that are higher than a GaAs or Si based amplifier could tolerate. Under this program, AlGaN microwave power HFETs have been fabricated and characterized. Hybrid class E amplifiers were designed and modeled. Unfortunately, within the time frame of this program, good quality HFETs were not available from either the RSC laboratories or commercially, and so the class E amplifiers were not constructed.

  7. Synthesis of high Al content Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N ternary films by pulsed laser co-ablation of GaAs and Al targets assisted by nitrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hua; You, Qinghu [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Hu, Zhigao; Guo, Shuang [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Yang, Xu; Sun, Jian; Xu, Ning [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Jiada, E-mail: jdwu@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films were synthesized by co-ablation of an Al target and a GaAs target. • Nitrogen plasma was used to assist the synthesis of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N ternary films. • The Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films are slightly rich in N with an Al content above 0.6. • The Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films are hexagonal wurtzite in crystal structure. • The Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films have an absorption edge of 260 nm and a band gap of 4.7 eV. - Abstract: We present the synthesis of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N ternary films by pulsed laser co-ablation of a polycrystalline GaAs target and a metallic Al target in the environment of nitrogen plasma which provides nitrogen for the films and assists the formation of nitride films. Field emission scanning electron microscopy exposes the smooth surface appearance and dense film structure. X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman scattering spectroscopy reveal the hexagonal wurtzite structure. Optical characterization shows high optical transmittance with an absorption edge of about 260 nm and a band gap of 4.7 eV. Compositional analysis gives the Al content of about 0.6. The structure and optical properties of the Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films are compared with those of binary GaN and AlN films synthesized by ablating GaAs or Al target with the same nitrogen plasma assistance.

  8. Low-ohmic-contact-resistance V-based electrode for n-type AlGaN with high AlN molar fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuki; Takeda, Kunihiro; Kusafuka, Toshiki; Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Akasaki, Isamu; Amano, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    We investigated a V-based electrode for the realization of low ohmic-contact resistivity in n-type AlGaN with a high AlN molar fraction characterized by the circular transmission line model. The contact resistivity of n-type Al0.62Ga0.38N prepared using the V/Al/Ni/Au electrode reached 1.13 × 10-6 Ω cm2. Using this electrode, we also demonstrated the fabrication of UV light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an emission wavelength of approximately 300 nm. An operating voltage of LED prepared using a V/Al/Ni/Au electrode was 1.6 V lower at 100 mA current injection than that prepared using a Ti/Al/Ti/Au electrode, with a specific contact resistance of approximately 2.36 × 10-4 Ω cm2 for n-type Al0.62Ga0.38N.

  9. Effect of Al content on microstructure and mechanical properties of high-Mn light-weight steels%Al含量对高锰轻质钢组织和力学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯浩; 刘仁东; 乔军; 郭金宇; 徐荣杰; 韩鹏; 周晏锋

    2016-01-01

    以四种具有不同Al含量的Fe-19Mn-xAl-0.3Si-0.8C(x=3.5、6、8、11)热轧高锰轻质钢为研究对象,通过室温拉伸、XRD、金相检测和断口扫描等研究手段,研究Al元素对力学性能、显微组织、应变硬化行为以及断裂行为的影响.研究结果表明,随着Al含量的增加,铁素体含量增加、奥氏体晶粒尺寸减小、屈服强度和抗拉强度增加、伸长率和应变硬化能力下降,并呈现三个阶段的应变硬化特点.Al含量分别为3.5wt%、6wt%和8wt%时钢的断裂方式为韧性断裂,而Al含量为11wt%的钢呈韧性和准解理混合型断裂.%Four hot rolled high-Mn light-weight steels of Fe-19Mn-xAl-0. 3Si-0. 8C(x =3. 5, 6, 8, 11) with different Al contents were investigated. The effect of Al element on mechanical properties, microstructure, strain hardening behavior and fracture behavior was analyzed by means of room temperature tensile test, XRD, metallography observation and fracture scanning, etc. The results show that with the increase of Al content, ferrite content increases, grain size of austenite decreases, yield strength and tensile strength increase, ductility and strain hardening capacity decrease, and the steels exhibit three-stage strain hardening characteristics. The 3. 5Al, 6Al, 8Al steels exhibit ductile fractures and the 11Al steel exhibits a mixed fracture of ductility and quasi-cleavage.

  10. Thermo-piezo-electro-mechanical simulation of AlGaN (aluminum gallium nitride) / GaN (gallium nitride) High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Lorin E.

    Due to the current public demand of faster, more powerful, and more reliable electronic devices, research is prolific these days in the area of high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) devices. This is because of their usefulness in RF (radio frequency) and microwave power amplifier applications including microwave vacuum tubes, cellular and personal communications services, and widespread broadband access. Although electrical transistor research has been ongoing since its inception in 1947, the transistor itself continues to evolve and improve much in part because of the many driven researchers and scientists throughout the world who are pushing the limits of what modern electronic devices can do. The purpose of the research outlined in this paper was to better understand the mechanical stresses and strains that are present in a hybrid AlGaN (Aluminum Gallium Nitride) / GaN (Gallium Nitride) HEMT, while under electrically-active conditions. One of the main issues currently being researched in these devices is their reliability, or their consistent ability to function properly, when subjected to high-power conditions. The researchers of this mechanical study have performed a static (i.e. frequency-independent) reliability analysis using powerful multiphysics computer modeling/simulation to get a better idea of what can cause failure in these devices. Because HEMT transistors are so small (micro/nano-sized), obtaining experimental measurements of stresses and strains during the active operation of these devices is extremely challenging. Physical mechanisms that cause stress/strain in these structures include thermo-structural phenomena due to mismatch in both coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and mechanical stiffness between different materials, as well as stress/strain caused by "piezoelectric" effects (i.e. mechanical deformation caused by an electric field, and conversely voltage induced by mechanical stress) in the AlGaN and GaN device portions (both

  11. High temperature and low pressure chemical vapor deposition of silicon nitride on AlGaN: Band offsets and passivation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Pramod; Washiyama, Shun; Kaess, Felix; Hernandez-Balderrama, Luis H.; Haidet, Brian B.; Alden, Dorian; Franke, Alexander; Sarkar, Biplab; Kohn, Erhard; Collazo, Ramon; Sitar, Zlatko [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7919 (United States); Hayden Breckenridge, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7919 (United States); REU, Physics Department at Wofford College, Spartanburg, South Carolina 29303 (United States)

    2016-04-14

    In this work, we employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the band offsets and interface Fermi level at the heterojunction formed by stoichiometric silicon nitride deposited on Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (of varying Al composition “x”) via low pressure chemical vapor deposition. Silicon nitride is found to form a type II staggered band alignment with AlGaN for all Al compositions (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) and present an electron barrier into AlGaN even at higher Al compositions, where E{sub g}(AlGaN) > E{sub g}(Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}). Further, no band bending is observed in AlGaN for x ≤ 0.6 and a reduced band bending (by ∼1 eV in comparison to that at free surface) is observed for x > 0.6. The Fermi level in silicon nitride is found to be at 3 eV with respect to its valence band, which is likely due to silicon (≡Si{sup 0/−1}) dangling bonds. The presence of band bending for x > 0.6 is seen as a likely consequence of Fermi level alignment at Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/AlGaN hetero-interface and not due to interface states. Photoelectron spectroscopy results are corroborated by current-voltage-temperature and capacitance-voltage measurements. A shift in the interface Fermi level (before band bending at equilibrium) from the conduction band in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/n-GaN to the valence band in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/p-GaN is observed, which strongly indicates a reduction in mid-gap interface states. Hence, stoichiometric silicon nitride is found to be a feasible passivation and dielectric insulation material for AlGaN at any composition.

  12. Applications of Robust, Radiation Hard AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices in Space Exploration and High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, K.

    2011-05-04

    This slide show presents: space exploration applications; high energy density physics applications; UV LED and photodiode radiation hardness; UV LED and photodiode space qualification; UV LED AC charge management; and UV LED satellite payload instruments. A UV LED satellite will be launched 2nd half 2012.

  13. Characterization of different-Al-content AlGaN/GaN heterostructures on sapphire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Al x Ga 1-x N/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) structures with Al composition ranging from x = 0.13 to 0.36 are grown on sapphire substrates by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD). The effects of Al content on crystal quality, surface morphology, optical and electrical characteristics of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructures have been analyzed. Although high Al-content (36%) heterostructure exhibits a distinguished photoluminescence peak related to recombination between the two-dimensional electron gas and photoexcited holes (2DEG-h), its crystal quality and rough surface morphology are poor. 2DEG mobility increases with the Al content up to 26% and then it apparently decreases for high Al-content (36%) AlGaN/GaN heterostructure. The increase of sheet carrier density with the increase of Al content has been observed. A high mobility at room temperature of 2105 cm 2 /V s with a sheet carrier density of n s = 1.10 × 10 13 cm -2 , for a 26% Al-content AlGaN/GaN heterostructure has been obtained, which is approaching state-of-the-art for HEMT grown on SiC. Sheet resistance as low as 274 Ω/□ has also been achieved.

  14. Research on Materials of AlGaN Based p-i-n Solar-Blind Ultraviolet Detectors%AlGaN基p-i-n型日盲紫外探测器材料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 袁凤坡; 尹甲运; 盛百城; 房玉龙; 冯志红

    2012-01-01

    AlN and high Al content AlGaN were grown on (0001) sapphire substrates by MOCVD. By optimizing the process parameters such as temperature, pressure, Ⅴ/Ⅲ ratio of AlN and AlGaN, the high quality A1N and AlGaN materials were obtained. X-ray ω (002) full width half maximum (FWHM) of AlN is 74 arcsec, the band edge of transmission spectrum is 205 nm and very sharp. X-ray ω (002) FWHM of Al0.45 GaN is 223 arcsec, the band edge of transmission spectrum is 272 nm and very sharp. The material for AlGaN based p-I-n solar-blind UV detector was grown by optimized processing, and the devices were fabricated. AlGaN based p-I-n solar-blind ultraviolet detectors were fabricated, the peak responsivity wavelength is 262 nm, and peak responsivity at zero bias voltage is 0. 117 A/W.%采用金属有机气相外延(MOCVD)方法在(0001)面蓝宝石衬底上生长了AlN和高铝组分AlGaN材料.通过优化AlN和AlGaN材料的生长温度、生长压力和Ⅴ族元素/Ⅲ族元素物质的量比(nⅤ/Ⅲ)等工艺条件,得到了高质量的AlN和高铝组分AlGaN材料.AlN材料X射线双晶衍射ε(002)半宽为74 arcsec,透射光谱测试带边峰位于205 nm,带边陡峭;Al组分为45%的AlGaN材料X射线双晶衍射ω(002)半宽为223 arcsec,透射光谱测试带边峰位于272 nm,带边陡峭.采用此外延工艺方法生长了AlGaN基p-i-n型日盲紫外探测器材料并进行了器件工艺流片,研制出AlGaN基p-i-n型日盲紫外探测器,响应峰值波长为262 nm,在零偏压下的峰值响应度达到0.117 A/W.

  15. Measurement and simulation of top- and bottom-illuminated solar-blind AlGaN metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with high external quantum efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendel, Moritz, E-mail: moritz.brendel@fbh-berlin.de; Helbling, Markus; Knigge, Andrea; Brunner, Frank; Weyers, Markus [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik (FBH), Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-12-28

    A comprehensive study on top- and bottom-illuminated Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N/AlN metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors having different AlGaN absorber layer thickness is presented. The measured external quantum efficiency (EQE) shows pronounced threshold and saturation behavior as a function of applied bias voltage up to 50 V reaching about 50% for 0.1 μm and 67% for 0.5 μm thick absorber layers under bottom illumination. All experimental findings are in very good accordance with two-dimensional drift-diffusion modeling results. By taking into account macroscopic polarization effects in the hexagonal metal-polar +c-plane AlGaN/AlN heterostructures, new insights into the general device functionality of AlGaN-based MSM photodetectors are obtained. The observed threshold/saturation behavior is caused by a bias-dependent extraction of photoexcited holes from the Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N/AlN interface. While present under bottom illumination for any AlGaN layer thickness, under top illumination this mechanism influences the EQE-bias characteristics only for thin layers.

  16. 不同Al含量Mo(Si1-x,Alx)2材料的高温氧化行为%High temperature oxidation behaviors of Mo(Si1-x,Alx)2 with different Al contents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜建辉; 徐健建; 刘龙飞; 毛征宇; 王跃明; 许宁

    2014-01-01

    Mo(Si1-x,Alx)2 material was fabricated by hot press sintering using MoSi2, Mo and Al powders as raw materials. The effects of alloying element Al on the microstructure and high temperature oxidation behaviors of MoSi2 were investigated. The results show that the Mo(Si1-x,Alx)2 material mainly contains MoSi2 with C11b tetragonal structure at x of 0 and 0.05. At x of 0.1, the mixture phases of hexagonal C40 Mo(Si,Al) 2 and MoSi 2 are detected. Only hexagonal C40 Mo(Si,Al)2 phase is found when the Al content x changes from 0.2 to 0.4. The lattice of each structure generally expands with increasing the substitution ratio of Al. The oxidation kinetics of all materials at 1200℃follows a parabolic rate law. The higher the Al content in Mo(Si,Al) 2 is, the more the mass gain of Mo(Si,Al) 2 is, and the lower the oxidation resistance is. A dense and continuous SiO2 scale forms on the surface of both MoSi2 and Mo(Si0.95,Al0.05)2. The oxide scale comprises of SiO2 and Al2O3 in Mo(Si0.9,Al0.1)2 material, and the Al2O3 oxide scale forms on the surface of Mo(Si0.8,Al0.2)2, Mo(Si0.7,Al0.3)2 and Mo(Si0.6,Al0.4)2 materials. The Mo5(Si,Al)3 transition layer is found between the boundary of oxide scale and the Mo(Si,Al) 2 substrate because of the diffusion of Si and Al elements.%以MoSi 2、Mo和Al粉末为原料,采用真空热压烧结制备不同Al含量的Mo(Si 1-x ,Al x )2材料,考察Al含量对MoSi 2材料微观结构和高温氧化行为的影响。结果表明,当x=0和0.05时,Mo(Si 1-x ,Al x )2材料主要由呈C11b结构的MoSi2组成;当x=0.1时,该材料主要由呈C40结构的Mo(Si0.9,Al0.1)2和MoSi2组成;当x=0.2~0.4时,该材料由呈C40结构的Mo(Si1-x,Alx)2相组成。随着Al含量的增加,Mo(Si,Al)2晶格膨胀增大。1200℃氧化时,不同Al含量Mo(Si 1-x ,Al x )2材料的氧化动力学均呈抛物线规律;Mo(Si,Al)2中Al含量越高,氧化增量越大,抗氧化能力越低。当x=0和0.05时,材料表面氧化

  17. Performance improvement of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes via asymmetric step-like AlGaN quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Wan, Zhi; Xu, FuJun; Wang, XinQiang; Lv, Chen; Shen, Bo; Jiang, Ming; Chen, QiGong

    2017-04-01

    Characteristics of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs) with light-emitting wavelength around 265 nm via step-like AlGaN quantum wells (QWs) have been investigated. Simulation approach yields a result that, there is significant enhancement of light output power (LOP) for DUV-LEDs with two-layer step-like AlGaN QWs compared to that with conventional one. The location and thickness of AlGaN layer with higher Al-content in the step-like QWs are confirmed to significantly affect the distributions and overlap of electron and hole wavefunctions. The best material characteristic is obtained when the step-like QW is designed as an asymmetric structure, such as Al0.74Ga0.26N (1.8 nm)/Al0.64Ga0.36N (1.2 nm), where AlGaN with higher Al-content layer is set to be located nearer from n-side and be thick as far as possible. The key factors for the performance improvements for this specific design is the enhanced hole transport and mitigated auger recombination.

  18. Wafer-scale crack-free AlGaN on GaN through two-step selective-area growth for optically pumped stimulated emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young-Ho; Bae, Sung-Bum; Kim, Sung-Bock; Kim, Dong Churl; Leem, Young Ahn; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Nam, Eun-Soo

    2016-07-01

    Crack-free AlGaN template has been successfully grown over entire 2-in. wafer by using 2-step selective-area growth (SAG). The GaN truncated structure was obtained by vertical growth mode with low growth temperature. AlGaN of second step was grown under lateral growth mode. Low pressure enhanced the relative ratio of lateral to vertical growth rate as well as absolute overall growth rate. High V/III ratio was favorable for lateral growth mode. Crack-free planar AlGaN was obtained under low pressure of 30 Torr and high V/III ratio of 4400. The AlGaN was crack-free over entire 2-in. wafer and had quite uniform Al-mole fraction. The dislocation density of the AlGaN with 20% Al-composition was as low as ~7.6×108 /cm2, measured by cathodoluminescence. GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum well (MQW) with cladding and waveguide layers were grown on the crack-free AlGaN template with low dislocation density. It was confirmed that the MQW on the AlGaN template emitted the stimulated emission at 355.5 nm through optical pumping experiment. The AlGaN obtained by 2-step SAG would provide high crystal quality for highly-efficient optoelectronic devices as well as the ultraviolet laser diode.

  19. Eu{sup 3+} luminescence properties of Eu- and Mg-codoped AlGaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemoto, Masayoshi [Department of Electrical and Electronics Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Sekiguchi, Hiroto, E-mail: sekiguchi@ee.tut.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronics Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Yamane, Keisuke [Department of Electrical and Electronics Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Okada, Hiroshi [Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Department of Electrical and Electronics Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Wakahara, Akihiro [Department of Electrical and Electronics Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    We investigated the effect of Mg codoping on luminescence properties of AlGaN:Eu to improve emission through synergy effect between an increase in bandgap by AlGaN and the Mg codoping technique. The luminescence properties of AlGaN:(Eu, Mg) are strongly influenced by the Mg concentration and Al composition. Mg codoping in AlGaN was observed to contribute to increasing photoluminescence (PL) integrated intensity and to improve thermal quenching from 7.3% to 60% while the dominant optical site remained site B (622.3-nm peak) with low excitation cross section. The total concentration of optically activated Eu at 25 K was a constant at for either optical site, indicating that Mg codoping did not affect the formation of optical sites. The PL decay times at room temperature (RT) increased with Mg concentration because of suppression of the back-transfer process. For optimized Mg concentration, an increase in the Al composition contributed to the total activated Eu concentration and changed the dominant optical site from A (620.3-nm peak) to B. The activation energy E{sub a}, which is the difference in energy between the {sup 5}D{sub 0} energy level and the trap level in the host material, was estimated from temperature dependence of PL decay time. The E{sub a} for site A was larger than that for site B, suggesting that the back-transfer rate for site A was less than that for site B. - Highlights: • Eu and Mg codoped AlGaN was grown on GaN template by NH{sub 3}-MBE. • The effect of Mg codoping on optical properties of Eu doped AlGaN was investigated. • Mg codoping contributed to increase PL intensity at RT and improve thermal quenching. • An increase in the Al content affected total activated N{sub Eu} and dominant optical site.

  20. Polarization-induced electrical conductivity in ultra-wide band gap AlGaN alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2016-11-01

    Unintentionally doped (UID) AlGaN epilayers graded over Al compositions of 80%-90% and 80%-100% were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and were electrically characterized using contactless sheet resistance (Rsh) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. Strong electrical conductivity in the UID graded AlGaN epilayers resulted from polarization-induced doping and was verified by the low resistivity of 0.04 Ω cm for the AlGaN epilayer graded over 80%-100% Al mole fraction. A free electron concentration (n) of 4.8 × 1017 cm-3 was measured by C-V for Al compositions of 80%-100%. Average electron mobility ( μ ¯ ) was calculated from Rsh and n data for three ranges of Al composition grading, and it was found that UID AlGaN graded from 88%-96% had μ ¯ = 509 cm2/V s. The combination of very large band gap energy, high μ ¯ , and high n for UID graded AlGaN epilayers make them attractive as a building block for high voltage power electronic devices such as Schottky diodes and field effect transistors.

  1. Enhancement Mode Power Switching AlGaN HEMTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    the highest recorded off- state breakdown voltage for an AlGaN/ GaN HEMT device with a relatively small gate-drain spacing and no field plate...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 03/01/2010-12/31/2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enhancement Mode Power Switching AIGaN HEMTs 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...AISiN is a preferred dielectric for high voltage AIGaN HEMTs for power switching applications. The grate-source capacitance will compare favorably

  2. Performance of 128×128 solar-blind AlGaN ultraviolet focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongang; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Dafu; Chu, Kaihui; Wang, Ling; Li, Xiangyang

    2009-07-01

    Ozone layer intensively absorbs 240nm to 285 nm incidence, when the sunshine goes through stratospheric. There is almost no UVC (200nm-280nm) band radiation existing below stratospheric. Because the radiation target presents a strong contrast between atmosphere and background, solar-blind band radiation is very useful. Wide band gap materials, especially III-V nitride materials, have attracted extensive interest. The direct band gap of GaN and A1N is 3.4 and 6.2 eV, respectively. Since they are miscible with each other and form a complete series of AlGaN alloys, AlGaN has direct band gaps from 3.4 to 6.2 eV, corresponding to cutoff wavelengths from 365 to 200 nm. A back-illuminated hybrid FPA has been developed by Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics Chinese Academy of Science. This paper reports the performance of the 128x128 solar-blind AlGaN UV Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs). More and more a CTIA (capacitivetransimpedance) readout circuit architecture has been proven to be well suited for AlGaN detectors arrays. The bared readout circuit was first tested to find out optimal analog reference voltage. Second, this ROIC was tested in a standard 20-pin shielded dewar at 115 K to 330K. Then, a new test system was set up to obtain test UV FPA noise, swing voltage, data valid time, operating speed, dynamic range, UV response etc. The results show that 128x128 back-illuminated AlGaN PIN detector SNR is as high as 74db at the speed of above30 frame per second. Also, some noise test method is mentioned.

  3. Optical properties of AlGaN nanowires synthesized via ion beam techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, Santanu; Magudapathy, P.; Sivadasan, A. K.; Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Dhara, Sandip

    2017-05-01

    AlGaN plays a vital role in hetero-structure high electron mobility transistors by employing a two-dimensional electron gas as an electron blocking layer in multi-quantum well light emitting diodes. Nevertheless, the incorporation of Al into GaN for the formation of the AlGaN alloy is limited by the diffusion barrier formed by instant nitridation of Al adatoms by reactive atomic N. The incorporation of Al above the miscibility limit, however, can be achieved by the ion beam technique. The well known ion beam mixing (IBM) technique was carried out with the help of Ar+ irradiation for different fluences. A novel approach was also adopted for the synthesis of AlGaN by the process of post-irradiation diffusion (PID) as a comparative study with the IBM technique. The optical investigations of AlGaN nanowires, synthesized via two different methods of ion beam processing, are reported. The effect of irradiation fluence and post-irradiation annealing temperature on the random alloy formation was studied by the vibrational and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. Vibrational studies show one-mode phonon behavior corresponding to the longitudinal optical (LO) mode of A1 symmetry [A1(LO)] for the wurtzite phase of AlGaN nanowires in the random alloy model. A maximum Al atomic percentage of ˜6.3%-6.7% was calculated with the help of band bowing formalism from the Raman spectral analysis for samples synthesized in IBM and PID processes. PL studies show the extent of defects present in these samples.

  4. An extrinsic fmax > 100 GHz InAlN/GaN HEMT with AlGaN back barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Bo; Feng Zhihong; Dun Shaobo; Zhang Xiongwen; Gu Guodong; Wang Yuangang; Xu Peng

    2013-01-01

    We report the DC and RF performance of InAlN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors with AlGaN back barrier grown on SiC substrates.These presented results confirm the high performance that is reachable by InAlN-based technology.The InAlN/GaN HEMT sample showed a high 2DEG mobility of 1550 cm2/(V·s) at a 2DEG density of 1.7 × 1013 cm-2.DC and RF measurements were performed on the unpassivated device with 0.2 μm "T" gate.The maximum drain current density at VGs =2 V is close to 1.05 A/mm in a reproducible way.The reduction in gate leakage current helps to increase the frequency performance of AlGaN back barrier devices.The power gain cut-off frequency of a transistor with an AlGaN back barrier is 105 GHz,which is much higher than that of the device without an AlGaN back barrier at the same gate length.These results indicate InAlN/GaN HEMT is a promising candidate for millimeter-wave application.

  5. Electron field emission from nanostructured surfaces of GaN and AlGaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evtukh, A.; Litovchenko, V.; Semenenko, M.; Gorbanyuk, T.; Grygoriev, A. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 41 prospekt Nauki, 03028 Kiev (Ukraine); Yilmazoglu, O.; Hartnagel, H.; Pavlidis, D. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Hochfrequenztechnik, Merckstr. 25, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The possibility of high frequency electromagnetic wave generation by field emission based devices has great interest. The wide bandgap materials GaN and AlGaN are very promising for these applications due to low electron affinity and the existence of satellite valleys in conduction band. The results of investigations of the peculiarities of electron field emission from nanostructured surfaces of GaN and AlGaN are presented. Multilayer GaN and AlGaN structures with various levels of layer doping on sapphire and bulk GaN substrates were used as initial wafers. The surface of the upper layers was nanostructured by photoelectrochemical etching in water solution of KOH. Intensive electron field emission into vacuum was observed and explained by low electron affinity and electric field enhancement on surface nanowires. A decrease of the slope in the Fowler-Nordheim characteristics was revealed. The changing slope suggests a lowering of effective work function. It is caused by electron heating and transfer into an upper satellite valley with lower electron affinity. A theory was developed for the observed phenomena and interpretation of results. It is based on electron intervalley transition upon heating and on energy band reconstruction of the surface of the nanowires due to quantum size-confinement effect. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Influence of Al content on textural properties and catalytic activity of hierarchical porous aluminosilicate materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ling Xu; Limei Duan; Zongrui Liu; Jingqi Guan; Qiubin Kan

    2013-12-01

    A series of hierarchical porous aluminosilicate materials were prepared using hydrothermal treatment of the composite formed by polystyrene colloidal spheres and aluminosilicate gel. Influence of Al content on the textural properties, acidic properties and catalytic activity of the hierarchical porous aluminosilicate materials was studied. The results showed that textural and acidic properties of the hierarchical porous aluminosilicate materials were strongly related to Al content. As Al content is increased (Si/Al = 25), the hierarchical porous catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activity and major product selectivity for alkylation of phenol with tert-butanol than the catalysts with a lower Al content (Si/Al = 50).

  7. Effect of residual Al content on microstructure and mechanical properties of Grade B+Steel for castings for locomotives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kaifeng

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The bogie made of Grade B+ steel is one of the most important parts of heavy haul trains. Some accidents were found to be the result of fracture failure of the bogies. It is very important to find the reason why the fracture failure occurred. Because Al was added for the final deoxidation during the smelting process of the Grade B+Steel, residual Al existed to some extent in the castings. High residual Al content in the bogie casting was presumed to be the reason for the fracture. In this work, the influence of residual Al content in the range of 0.015wt.% to 0.3wt.% on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the Grade B+ Steel was studied. The experimental results showed that when the residual Al content is between 0.02wt.% and 0.20wt.%, the mechanical properties of the steel meet the requirements of technical specification for heavy haul train parts, and the fracture is typical plastic fractures. If the residual Al content is less than 0.02wt.%, the microstructures are coarse, and the mechanical properties can not meet the demand of bogie steel castings. When the residual Al content is more than 0.2wt.%, the elongation, reduction of area, and low-temperature impact energy markedly deteriorate. The fracture mode then changes from plastic fracture to cleavage brittle fracture. Therefore, the amount of Al addition for the final deoxidation during the smelting process must be strictly controlled. The optimum addition amount needs to be controlled within the range of 0.02wt.% to 0.20wt.% for the Grade B+Steel.

  8. Inverted vertical algan deep ultraviolet leds grown on p-SiC substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothern, Denis Maurice

    Deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) are an important emerging technology for a number of applications such as water/air/surface disinfection, communications, and epoxy curing. However, as of yet, deep UV LEDs grown on sapphire substrates are neither efficient enough nor powerful enough to fully serve these and other potential applications. The majority of UV LEDs reported so far in the literature are grown on sapphire substrates and their design consists of AlGaN quantum wells (QWs) embedded in an AlGaN p-i-n junction with the n-type layer on the sapphire. These devices suffer from a high concentration of threading defects originating from the large lattice mismatch between the sapphire substrate and AlGaN alloys. Other issues include the poor doping efficiency of the n- and particularly the p-AlGaN alloys, the extraction of light through the sapphire substrate, and the heat dissipation through the thermally insulating sapphire substrate. These problems have historically limited the internal quantum efficiency (IQE), injection efficiency (IE), and light extraction efficiency (EE) of devices. As a means of addressing these efficiency and power challenges, I have contributed to the development of a novel inverted vertical deep UV LED design based on AlGaN grown on p-SiC substrates. Starting with a p-SiC substrate that serves as the p-type side of the p-i-n junction largely eliminates the necessity for the notoriously difficult p-type doping of AlGaN alloys, and allows for efficient heat dissipation through the highly thermally conductive SiC substrate. UV light absorption in the SiC substrate can be addressed by first growing p-type doped distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) on top of the substrate prior to the deposition of the active region of the device. A number of n-AlGaN films, AlGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells, and p-type doped AlGaN DBRs were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). These were characterized in situ by reflected high energy electron

  9. Extreme Radiation Hardness and Space Qualification of AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ke-Xun; Balakrishnan, Kathik; Hultgren, Eric; Goebel, John; Bilenko, Yuri; Yang, Jinwei; Sun, Wenhong; Shatalov, Max; Hu, Xuhong

    2010-09-21

    Unprecedented radiation hardness and environment robustness are required in the new generation of high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments and deep space exploration. National Ignition Facility (NIF) break-even shots will have a neutron yield of 1015 or higher. The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) mission instruments will be irradiated with a total fluence of 1012 protons/cm2 during the space journey. In addition, large temperature variations and mechanical shocks are expected in these applications under extreme conditions. Hefty radiation and thermal shields are required for Si and GaAs based electronics and optoelectronics devices. However, for direct illumination and imaging applications, shielding is not a viable option. It is an urgent task to search for new semiconductor technologies and to develop radiation hard and environmentally robust optoelectronic devices. We will report on our latest systematic experimental studies on radiation hardness and space qualifications of AlGaN optoelectronic devices: Deep UV Light Emitting Diodes (DUV LEDs) and solarblind UV Photodiodes (PDs). For custom designed AlGaN DUV LEDs with a central emission wavelength of 255 nm, we have demonstrated its extreme radiation hardness up to 2x1012 protons/cm2 with 63.9 MeV proton beams. We have demonstrated an operation lifetime of over 26,000 hours in a nitrogen rich environment, and 23,000 hours of operation in vacuum without significant power drop and spectral shift. The DUV LEDs with multiple packaging styles have passed stringent space qualifications with 14 g random vibrations, and 21 cycles of 100K temperature cycles. The driving voltage, current, emission spectra and optical power (V-I-P) operation characteristics exhibited no significant changes after the space environmental tests. The DUV LEDs will be used for photoelectric charge management in space flights. For custom designed AlGaN UV photodiodes with a central response wavelength of 255 nm, we have demonstrated

  10. The effect of Al-content and crystallinity on the magnetic properties of goethites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrero, C.A. [Universidad de Antioquia, A.A, Departamento de Fisica (Colombia); Vandenberghe, R.E.; Grave, E. de [University of Gent, Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics (Belgium)

    1999-11-15

    This paper reviews a profound Moessbauer study on the magnetic properties of goethites with varying crystallinity and Al-content. It has been found that both the cluster-ordering and the superferromagnetic models reproduce the temperature dependencies of the average hyperfine fields quite well. However, the magnetic transition temperatures predicted by the cluster-ordering model are in better agreement with those measured from thermoscan experiments. On the other hand, it has been found that the hyperfine field of maximum probability at low temperatures follows the spin-wave law for antiferromagnets. Linear relationships between the saturation hyperfine fields, the inter-sublattice exchange interactions, and the Neel temperatures to the Al-content and crystallinity could be derived. On the other hand, applied-field Moessbauer spectroscopy seems to suggest that the anisotropy field can differentiate between poor crystallinity and Al-content, and that a certain degree of ferrimagnetism occurs at higher Al-contents.

  11. Growth of cubic III-nitrides by gas source MBE using atomic nitrogen plasma: GaN, AlGaN and AlN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, H.; Hamaguchi, H.; Koizumi, T.; Balakrishnan, K.; Ishida, Y.; Arita, M.; Chichibu, S.; Nakanishi, H.; Nagatomo, T.; Yoshida, S.

    1998-06-01

    Cubic GaN, AlGaN and AlN epilayers were grown on 3C-SiC(0 0 1) substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy using radio-frequency N 2 plasma containing atomic nitrogen species. Due to the enhancement of growth rate by this plasma source, cubic GaN epilayers with the thickness of several micrometers were obtained, and the quality of epilayers was so much improved that they showed an X-ray diffraction peak width as small as 9 min. Cubic Al xGa 1- xN and cubic AlN epilayers were also grown, and the variations of X-ray diffraction peak position and emission energy were observed according to the Al content.

  12. Anisotropic optical polarization dependence on internal strain in AlGaN epilayer grown on Al x Ga1-x N templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hanling; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Shuai; Chen, Jingwen; Zhao, Chong; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Xu, Jintong; Li, Xiangyang; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing

    2016-10-01

    Anisotropic optical polarization of AlGaN has been one of the major challenges responsible for the poor efficiency of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs). In this work, we experimentally investigated the effect of internal strain on the optical polarization of AlGaN epilayers which were pseudomorphically grown on Al x Ga1-x N templates with Al composition changing from 0.1 to 0.42. High-resolution x-ray diffraction and reciprocal space mapping were conducted to determine the crystal quality and strain status. Polarization-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurement was performed to study the degree of polarization (DOP) of light emission from lateral facet of the AlGaN epilayer. The result showed that the DOP increased from  -0.69 to  -0.24 with the in-plane strain changing from tensile status (1.19%) to compressive status (-0.70%) and it exhibited a strong dependence of the DOP on the strain. These results demonstrated that the compressive in-plane strain could facilitate TE mode emission from AlGaN, which providing a potential way to enhance the surface light emission of AlGaN-based UV LEDs via strain management of the active region.

  13. Luminescence dynamics in AlGaN with AlN content of 20%

    KAUST Repository

    Soltani, Sonia

    2016-12-15

    Optical properties and carrier dynamics of an AlGaN layer with an AlN content of 20% have been studied using time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL). Despite the high density of defects due to the relatively high AlN content, an intense PL emission from the sample has been detected. Low-temperature PL spectra exhibit several features, accompanied by a strong emission-wavelength dependence of the PL decay time. A significant red-shift of more than 200 meV from the band edge is recorded for the PL emission from localized states. Temperature-dependent PL spectra of the sample are dominated by the emission from localized states and, furthermore, show a relatively slight decrease by almost an order of magnitude with increasing temperature from 45 to 300 K. Our observations indicate strong, spatial localization effects of carriers, resulting in an increase in the radiative recombination rate.

  14. Effect of surface pretreatment on interfacial chemical bonding states of atomic layer deposited ZrO{sub 2} on AlGaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Gang; Arulkumaran, Subramaniam; Ng, Geok Ing; Li, Yang; Ang, Kian Siong [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wang, Hong, E-mail: ewanghong@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore and CINTRA CNRS/NTU/Thales, UMI 3288, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Ng, Serene Lay Geok; Ji, Rong [Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A-STAR), 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Liu, Zhi Hong [Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, 1 CREATE Way, Singapore 138602 (Singapore)

    2015-09-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZrO{sub 2} on native oxide covered (untreated) and buffered oxide etchant (BOE) treated AlGaN surface was analyzed by utilizing x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Evidenced by Ga–O and Al–O chemical bonds by XPS, parasitic oxidation during deposition is largely enhanced on BOE treated AlGaN surface. Due to the high reactivity of Al atoms, more prominent oxidation of Al atoms is observed, which leads to thicker interfacial layer formed on BOE treated surface. The results suggest that native oxide on AlGaN surface may serve as a protecting layer to inhibit the surface from further parasitic oxidation during ALD. The findings provide important process guidelines for the use of ALD ZrO{sub 2} and its pre-ALD surface treatments for high-k AlGaN/GaN metal–insulator–semiconductor high electron mobility transistors and other related device applications.

  15. Performance Improvement of GaN Based Schottky Barrier Ultraviolet Photodetector by Adding a Thin AlGaN Window Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Mei; ZHAO De-Gang

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new structure of GaN based Schottky barrier ultraviolet photodetector, in which a thin n-type AlGaN window layer is added on the conventional n--GaN/n+-GaN device structure. The performance of the Schottky barrier ultraviolet photodetector is found to be improved by the new structure. The simulation result shows that the new structure can reduce the negative effect of surface states on the performance of Schottky barrier GaN photodetectors, improving the quantum efficiency and decreasing the dark current. The investigations suggest that the new photodetector can exhibit a better responsivity by choosing a suitably high carrier concentration and thin thickness for the AlGaN window layer.

  16. AlGaN nanocolumns and AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN nanostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristic, J.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Ulloa, J.M.; Calleja, E. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Paramo, J.; Calleja, J.M. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Jahn, U.; Trampert, A.; Ploog, K.H. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    This work reports on the characterization of hexagonal, single crystal AlGaN nanocolumns with diameters in the range of 30 to 100 nm grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates. The change of the flux ratio between the Al and the total III-element controls the alloy composition. The Al composition trend versus the Al flux is consistent both with the E{sub 2} phonon energy values measured by inelastic light scattering and the luminescence emission peaks position. High quality low dimensional AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN heterostructures with five GaN quantum discs, 2 and 4 nm thick, embedded into the AlGaN columns, were designed in order to study the quantum confinement effects. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. AlN and AlGaN layers grown on Si(111) substrate by mixed-source hydride vapor phase epitaxy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hunsoo; Jeon, Injun; Lee, Gang Seok; Bae, Sung Geun; Ahn, Hyung Soo; Yang, Min; Yi, Sam Nyung; Yu, Young Moon; Honda, Yoshio; Sawaki, Nobuhiko; Kim, Suck-Whan

    2017-01-01

    High Al-composition AlGaN and AlN epilayers were grown directly on Si(111) substrate by a hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) method with a melted mixed source in a graphite boat set in a source zone with high temperatures of T = 700 and 800 °C, respectively. The presence of the Ga material in the mixed source of Ga and Al promoted the growth of AlN and AlGaN epilayers in the growth zone. When the temperature in the source zone was 800 °C, the crystalline quality of the AlN and AlGaN epilayers increased as the ratio of Ga to Al increased, and the optimum mix ratio of Ga to Al for the growth of AlN epilayers was approximately 0.35-0.42, obtained from a numerical fitting analysis of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) data for these epilayers. It appears that they can be grown directly by our melted-mixed-source HVPE method in a high-temperature source zone.

  18. Growth and Implementation of Carbon-Doped AlGaN Layers for Enhancement-Mode HEMTs on 200 mm Si Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jie; Posthuma, Niels; Wellekens, Dirk; Saripalli, Yoga N.; Decoutere, Stefaan; Arif, Ronald; Papasouliotis, George D.

    2016-12-01

    We are reporting the growth of AlGaN based enhancement-mode high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) on 200 mm silicon (111) substrates using a single wafer metalorganic chemical vapor deposition reactor. It is found that TMAl pre-dosing conditions are critical in controlling the structural quality, surface morphology, and wafer bow of the HEMT stack. Optimal structural quality and pit-free surface are demonstrated for AlGaN HEMTs with pre-dosing temperature at 750°C. Intrinsically, carbon-doped AlGaN, is used as the current blocking layer in the HEMT structures. The lateral buffer breakdown and device breakdown characteristics, reach 400 V at a leakage current of 1 μA/mm measured at 150°C. The fabricated HEMT devices, with a Mg doped p-GaN gate layer, are operating in enhancement mode reaching a positive threshold voltage of 2-2.5 V, a low on-resistance of 10.5 Ω mm with a high drain saturation current of 0.35 A/mm, and a low forward bias gate leakage current of 0.5 × 10-6 A/mm ( V gs = 7 V). Tight distribution of device parameters across the 200 mm wafers and over repeat process runs is observed.

  19. Dislocation blocking by AlGaN hot electron injecting layer in the epitaxial growth of GaN terahertz Gunn diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Yang, Lin'an; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports an efficient method to improve the crystal quality of GaN Gunn diode with AlGaN hot electron injecting layer (HEI). An evident reduction of screw dislocation and edge dislocation densities is achieved by the strain management and the enhanced lateral growth in high temperature grown AlGaN HEI layer. Compared with the top hot electron injecting layer (THEI) structure, the bottom hot electron injecting layer (BHEI) structure enhances the crystal quality of transit region due to the growth sequence modulation of HEI layer. A high Hall mobility of 2934 cm2/Vs at 77 K, a nearly flat downtrend of Hall mobility at the temperature ranging from 300 to 573 K, a low intensity of ratio of yellow luminescence band to band edge emission, a narrow band edge emission line-width, and a smooth surface morphology are observed for the BHEI structural epitaxy of Gunn diode, which indicates that AlGaN BHEI structure is a promising candidate for fabrication of GaN Gunn diodes in terahertz regime.

  20. Mixed Phases at the Bottom Interface of Si-Doped AlGaN Epilayers of Optoelectronic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-hui Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of crystalline structures of Si-doped Al0.4Ga0.6N layers grown on not-intentionally doped AlGaN buffer layer with an AlN nucleation layer by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Weak cubic Al0.4Ga0.6N (002 and (103 reflection peaks are observed in high-resolution XRD θ/2θ scans and cubic Al0.4Ga0.6N (LO mode in Raman scattering spectroscopy. These cubic subgrains are localized at the bottom interface of Si-doped layer due to the pulsed lower growth temperature and rich hydrogen atmosphere at the start of silane injection. Their appearance has no direct relationship with the buffer and nucleation layer. This study is helpful not only to understand fundamental properties of high aluminum content Si-doped AlGaN alloys but also to provide specific guidance on the fabrication of multilayer optoelectronic devices where weak cubic subgrains potentially occur and exert complicated influences on the device performance.

  1. Coulomb correlation effects and density dependence of radiative recombination rates in polar AlGaN quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupper, Greg; Rudin, Sergey; Bertazzi, Francesco; Garrett, Gregory; Wraback, Michael

    2013-03-01

    AlGaN narrow quantum wells are important elements of deep-ultraviolet light emitting devices. The electron-hole radiative recombination rates are important characteristics of these nanostructures. In this work we evaluated their dependence on carrier density and lattice temperature and compared our theoretical results with the experimentally determined radiative lifetimes in the c-plane grown AlGaN quantum wells. The bands were determined in the k .p approximation for a strained c-plane wurtzite quantum well and polarization fields were included in the model. In order to account for Coulomb correlations at relatively high densities of photo-excited electron-hole plasma and arbitrary temperature, we employed real-time Green's function formalism with self-energies evaluated in the self-consistent T-matrix approximation. The luminescence spectrum was obtained from the susceptibility by summing over scattering in-plane directions and polarization states. The recombination coefficient was obtained from the integrated photo-luminescence. The density dependence of the radiative recombination rate shows effects of strong screening of the polarization electric field at high photo-excitation density.

  2. Magnetic and structural properties of manganese doped (Al,Ga)N studied with emission Mössbauer spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Gallium nitride (GaN) and related compounds form a unique class of semiconductors with extraordinary qualities in terms of their crystal structure, optical properties, and electrical properties. These novel properties have made them useful in a wide range of applications in optoelectronic and high-frequency devices such as light emitting diodes, laser diodes and high power field effect transistors. When doped with a few percents of Mn and in the presence of free holes, GaN has been predicted to be a magnetic semiconductor with Curie temperature above room temperature. Mixed semiconductors of Al$_{x}$Ga$_{1-x}$N (AlGaN) composition, give rise to unexpected and critical magnetic and photonic functionalities when doped with magnetic ion species. Here we propose an experiment on very thoroughly characterised AlGaN doped with Mn utilising extremely dilute $^{57}$Mn (T$_{1/2}$=1.5 min), $^{57}$Co (T$_{1/2}$ = 272 d) and $^{119}$In (T$_{1/2}$=2.1 min) implantations, in order to perform $^{57}$Fe and $^{119}$Sn emiss...

  3. Impact of post-deposition annealing on interfacial chemical bonding states between AlGaN and ZrO{sub 2} grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Gang; Arulkumaran, Subramaniam; Ng, Geok Ing; Li, Yang; Ang, Kian Siong [Novitas, Nanoelectronics Center of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wang, Hong, E-mail: ewanghong@ntu.edu.sg [Novitas, Nanoelectronics Center of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); CINTRA CNRS/NTU/Thales, UMI 3288, 50 Nanyang Drive (Singapore); Ng, Serene Lay Geok; Ji, Rong [Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A-STAR), 5 Engineering Drive 1, 117608 (Singapore); Liu, Zhi Hong [Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, 1 CREATE Way, Singapore 138602 (Singapore)

    2015-03-02

    The effect of post-deposition annealing on chemical bonding states at interface between Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N and ZrO{sub 2} grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is studied by angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It has been found that both of Al-O/Al 2p and Ga-O/Ga 3d area ratio decrease at annealing temperatures lower than 500 °C, which could be attributed to “clean up” effect of ALD-ZrO{sub 2} on AlGaN. Compared to Ga spectra, a much larger decrease in Al-O/Al 2p ratio at a smaller take-off angle θ is observed, which indicates higher effectiveness of the passivation of Al-O bond than Ga-O bond through “clean up” effect near the interface. However, degradation of ZrO{sub 2}/AlGaN interface quality due to re-oxidation at higher annealing temperature (>500 °C) is also found. The XPS spectra clearly reveal that Al atoms at ZrO{sub 2}/AlGaN interface are easier to get oxidized as compared with Ga atoms.

  4. An AlGaN Core-Shell Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Operating in the Ultraviolet-C Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaf, S M; Zhao, S; Wu, Y; Ra, Y-H; Liu, X; Vanka, S; Mi, Z

    2017-02-08

    To date, semiconductor light emitting diodes (LEDs) operating in the deep ultraviolet (UV) spectral range exhibit very low efficiency due to the presence of large densities of defects and extremely inefficient p-type conduction of conventional AlGaN quantum well heterostructures. We have demonstrated that such critical issues can be potentially addressed by using nearly defect-free AlGaN tunnel junction core-shell nanowire heterostructures. The core-shell nanowire arrays exhibit high photoluminescence efficiency (∼80%) in the UV-C band at room temperature. With the incorporation of an epitaxial Al tunnel junction, the p-(Al)GaN contact-free nanowire deep UV LEDs showed nearly one order of magnitude reduction in the device resistance, compared to the conventional nanowire p-i-n device. The unpackaged Al tunnel junction deep UV LEDs exhibit an output power >8 mW and a peak external quantum efficiency ∼0.4%, which are nearly one to two orders of magnitude higher than previously reported AlGaN nanowire devices. Detailed studies further suggest that the maximum achievable efficiency is limited by electron overflow and poor light extraction efficiency due to the TM polarized emission.

  5. High-performance AlGaN-based solar-blind avalanche photodiodes with dual-periodic III-nitride distributed Bragg reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chujun; Ye, Xuanchao; Sun, Rui; Yang, Guofeng; Wang, Jin; Lu, Yanan; Yan, Pengfei; Cao, Jintao; Gao, Shumei

    2017-03-01

    Separate absorption and multiplication AlGaN solar-blind avalanche photodiodes with dual-periodic III-nitride distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) are numerically demonstrated. The designed devices exhibit an improved solar-blind characteristic with a maximum spectral responsivity of 0.184 A/W at λ = 284 nm owing to the optimized optical properties of the dual-periodic III-nitride DBRs. Compared with their conventional counterparts, an increased multiplication gain and a reduced breakdown voltage are achieved by using p-type Al0.15Ga0.85N layers with a lower Al content and multiplication layers. These improvements are attributed to the high p-doping efficiency and large hole ionization coefficient.

  6. Growth and Annealing Study of Mg-Doped AlGaN and GaN/AlGaN Superlattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-Zhu; LI Jin-Min; WANG Zhan-Guo; WANG Xiao-Liang; HU Guo-Xin; RAN Jun-Xue; WANG Xin-Hua; GUO Lun-Chun; XIAO Hong-Ling; LI Jian-Ping; ZENG Yi-Ping

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mg-doped AlGaN and GaN/AlGaN superlattices are grown by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD).Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatments are carried out on the samples. Hall and high resolution x-ray diffraction measurements are used to characterize the electrical and structural prosperities of the as-grown and annealed samples, respectively. The results of hall measurements show that after annealing, the Mg-doped AlGaN sample can not obtain the distinct hole concentration and can acquire a resistivity of 1.4×103 Ωcm. However, with the same annealing treatment, the GaN/AlGaN superlattice sample has a hole concentration of 1.7×1017 cm-3 and a resistivity of 5.6Ωcm. The piezoelectric field in the GaN/AlGaN superlattices improves the activation efficiency of Mg acceptors, which leads to higher hole concentration and lower p-type resistivity.

  7. Optically confined polarized resonance Raman studies in identifying crystalline orientation of sub-diffraction limited AlGaN nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivadasan, A. K., E-mail: sivankondazhy@gmail.com; Patsha, Avinash; Dhara, Sandip, E-mail: dhara@igcar.gov.in [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2015-04-27

    An optical characterization tool of Raman spectroscopy with extremely weak scattering cross section tool is not popular to analyze scattered signal from a single nanostructure in the sub-diffraction regime. In this regard, plasmonic assisted characterization tools are only relevant in spectroscopic studies of nanoscale object in the sub-diffraction limit. We have reported polarized resonance Raman spectroscopic (RRS) studies with strong electron-phonon coupling to understand the crystalline orientation of a single AlGaN nanowire of diameter ∼100 nm. AlGaN nanowire is grown by chemical vapor deposition technique using the catalyst assisted vapor-liquid-solid process. The results are compared with the high resolution transmission electron microscopic analysis. As a matter of fact, optical confinement effect due to the dielectric contrast of nanowire with respect to that of surrounding media assisted with electron-phonon coupling of RRS is useful for the spectroscopic analysis in the sub-diffraction limit of 325 nm (λ/2N.A.) using an excitation wavelength (λ) of 325 nm and near ultraviolet 40× far field objective with a numerical aperture (N.A.) value of 0.50.

  8. A comparison of the 60Co gamma radiation hardness, breakdown characteristics and the effect of SiNx capping on InAlN and AlGaN HEMTs for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. D.; O'Mahony, D.; Vitobello, F.; Muschitiello, M.; Costantino, A.; Barnes, A. R.; Parbrook, P. J.

    2016-02-01

    Electrical performance and stability of InAlN and AlGaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) subjected 9.1 mrad of 60Co gamma radiation and off-state voltage step-stressing until breakdown are reported. Comparison with commercially available production-level AlGaN HEMT devices, which showed negligible drift in DC performance throughout all experiments, suggests degradation mechanisms must be managed and suppressed through development of advanced epitaxial and surface passivation techniques in order to fully exploit the robustness of the III-nitride material system. Of the research level devices without dielectric layer surface capping, InAlN HEMTs exhibited the greater stability compared with AlGaN under off-state bias stressing and gamma irradiation in terms of their DC characteristics, although AlGaN HEMTs had significantly higher breakdown voltages. The effect of plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition SiNx surface capping is explored, highlighting the sensitivity of InAlN HEMT performance to surface passivation techniques. InAlN-SiNx HEMTs suffered more from trap related degradation than AlGaN-SiNx devices in terms of radiation hardness and step-stress characteristics, attributed to an increased capturing of carriers in traps at the InAlN/SiNx interface.

  9. Effect of Al content and pressing temperature on ECAP of cast Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.Y. [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Hankuk Aviation Univ., Koyang, Kyunggi-do (Korea); Lee, K.S.; Shin, D.H. [Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Hanyang Univ., Ansan, Kyunggi-do (Korea); Lee, S.H. [Div. of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Mokpo National Univ. (Korea); Hong, S.K. [Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea); Park, K.T. [Div. of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Hanbat National Univ., Taejon (Korea)

    2003-07-01

    The difficult-to-work Mg alloys was subjected to equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) under a condition of various pressing temperatures. Pure Mg was susceptible to shear localization during ECAP; surface cracking occurred along to the direction of shear localization at lower temperatures than 573 K. Uniform flow occurred at 573 K, resulting in the successful 4 repetitive ECAP. The ECAP of Mg alloys containing Al (AZ series alloys) was unsuccessful at even higher temperature than 573 K. However, the ECAP temperature of AZ series alloys hot-rolled before ECAP became lowered, and the temperature for successful ECAP decreased with decreasing Al content. In particular, the hot-rolled AZ31 alloy could be ECAPed at 493 K. The ECAPed AZ31 alloy revealed the microstructure of dynamically recrystallized grains with a grain size in range of 1 to 10 {mu}m. The deformation during ECAP was analyzed by dislocation characteristics. (orig.)

  10. Interfacial design and structure of protein/polymer films on oxidized AlGaN surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Samit K; Casal, Patricia; Nicholson III, Theodore R; Lee, Stephen Craig [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Wu, Hao-Hsuan; Wen Xuejin; Anisha, R; Berger, Paul R; Lu, Wu; Brillson, Leonard J [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kwak, Kwang J; Bhushan, Bharat, E-mail: lee.1996@osu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2011-01-26

    Protein detection using biologically or immunologically modified field-effect transistors (bio/immunoFETs) depends on the nanoscale structure of the polymer/protein film at sensor interfaces (Bhushan 2010 Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology 3rd edn (Heidelberg: Springer); Gupta et al 2010 The effect of interface modification on bioFET sensitivity, submitted). AlGaN-based HFETs (heterojunction FETs) are attractive platforms for many protein sensing applications due to their electrical stability in high osmolarity aqueous environments and favourable current drive capabilities. However, interfacial polymer/protein films on AlGaN, though critical to HFET protein sensor function, have not yet been fully characterized. These interfacial films are typically comprised of protein-polymer films, in which analyte-specific receptors are tethered to the sensing surface with a heterobifunctional linker molecule (often a silane molecule). Here we provide insight into the structure and tribology of silane interfaces composed of one of two different silane monomers deposited on oxidized AlGaN, and other metal oxide surfaces. We demonstrate distinct morphologies and wear properties for the interfacial films, attributable to the specific chemistries of the silane monomers used in the films. For each specific silane monomer, film morphologies and wear are broadly consistent on multiple oxide surfaces. Differences in interfacial film morphology also drive improvements in sensitivity of the underlying HFET (coincident with, though not necessarily caused by, differences in interfacial film thickness). We present a testable model of the hypothetical differential interfacial depth distribution of protein analytes on FET sensor interfaces with distinct morphologies. Empirical validation of this model may rationalize the actual behaviour of planar immunoFETs, which has been shown to be contrary to expectations of bio/immunoFET behaviour prevalent in the literature for the last 20 years

  11. Resistance spot weldability of lightweight steel with a high Al content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Insung; Kim, Dongcheol; Kang, Munjin; Kwak, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Young-Min

    2017-03-01

    Using alternating current (AC)- and direct current (DC)-type welders, the resistance spot weldability of lightweight steel was evaluated under various electrode forces, welding currents, and times. The acceptable welding conditions were specified; however, these had very narrow ranges and there was little difference between the conditions determined for the AC- and DC-type welding. In both types of welding with electrode forces of of 300 kgf and 400 kgf, the acceptable weld currents were 5.0 kA and 5.5 kA, respectively. Also, the nugget size increased with the welding current. Under the acceptable welding conditions, there were no significant changes in the maximum tensile shear strength and nugget size, as 6.4-6.6 kN and 4.1-4.3 mm, respectively. The microstructure of weld metals was consisted of martensite, austenite and ferrite. And the small fraction of martensite was founded in the heat affected zone (HAZ), therefore the weld metal had the greatest hardness, and HAZ softening did not occur in this study. Considering the fracture surface, cleavage and ductile fracture were investigated because of the existence of martensite and ferrite in the welds.

  12. A simulation of doping and trap effects on the spectral response of AlGaN ultraviolet detectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sidi Ould Saad Hamady

    2012-01-01

    We study,by means of numerical simulation,the impact of doping and traps on the performance of the “solar blind” ultraviolet Schottky detector based on AlGaN.We implemented physical models and AlGaN material properties taken from the literature,or from the interpolation between the binary materials (GaN and AlN) weighted by the mole fractions.We found that doping and traps highly impact the spectral response of the device,and in particular a compromise in the doping concentration must be reached in order to optimize the spectral response of the detector.These results give us a powerful tool to quantitatively understand the impact of elaboration and processing conditions on photodetector characteristics,and thus identify the key issues for the development of the technology.

  13. Influence of Al content on non-equilibrium solidification behavior of Ni-Al-Ta model single crystal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Cheng; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Heng; Zhao, Xinbao; Pei, Yanling; Li, Shusuo; Gong, Shengkai

    2016-01-01

    The non-equilibrium solidification behaviors of five Ni-Al-Ta ternary model single crystal alloys with different Al contents were investigated by experimental analysis and theoretical calculation (by JMatPro) in this study. These model alloys respectively represented the γ' phase with various volume fractions (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0%) at 900 °C. It was found that with decreasing Al content, liquidus temperature of experimental alloys first decreased and then increased. Meanwhile, the solidification range showed a continued downward trend. In addition, with decreasing Al content, the primary phases of non-equilibrium solidified model alloys gradually transformed from γ' phase to γ phase, and the area fraction of which first decreased and then increased. Moreover, the interdendritic/intercellular precipitation of model alloys changed from β phase (for 100% γ') to (γ+γ')Eutectic (for 75% γ'), (γ+γ')Eutectic+γ' (for 50% γ' and 25% γ') and none interdendritic precipitation (for 0% γ'), and the last stage non-equilibrium solidification sequence of model alloys was determined by the nominal Al content and different microsegregation behaviors of Al element.

  14. Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Z.; Zhao, S.; Woo, S. Y.; Bugnet, M.; Djavid, M.; Liu, X.; Kang, J.; Kong, X.; Ji, W.; Guo, H.; Liu, Z.; Botton, G. A.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the detailed molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire heterostructures on Si and their applications for deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers. The nanowires are formed under nitrogen-rich conditions without using any metal catalyst. Compared to conventional epilayers, Mg-dopant incorporation is significantly enhanced in nearly strain- and defect-free Al(Ga)N nanowire structures, leading to efficient p-type conduction. The resulting Al(Ga)N nanowire LEDs exhibit excellent performance, including a turn-on voltage of ∼5.5 V for an AlN nanowire LED operating at 207 nm. The design, fabrication, and performance of an electrically injected AlGaN nanowire laser operating in the UV-B band is also presented.

  15. Growth and characterization of InGaN back barrier HEMTs structure with a compositionally step-graded AlGaN layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jian; Wang Xiaoliang; Xiao Hongling

    2014-01-01

    A novel InGaN back barrier high electron mobility transistors structure with a compositionally stepgraded AlGaN barrier layer was grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on sapphire substrate.The structural and electrical properties of two samples were investigated and compared:the first sample is the stepgraded structure and the second one is the high Al structure as a comparison.By calculating full width at half maximum of XRD measurements,the densities of screw-type threading dislocations are 8.34 × 108 cm-2 and 11.44 × 108 cm-2 for step-graded structure and high Al structure,respectively,which are consistent with the results of atomic force microscopy.By Hall measurements,the measured two-dimensional electron gas mobility was 1820 cm2/(V·s) for step-graded structure,and 1300 cm2/(V·s) for high Al structure,respectively.The stepgraded structure improves the crystal quality of AlGaN layer due to the released lattice strain.The device was fabricated and leakage current is only 28μA when the drain voltage is 10 V; it was found that the InGaN back barrier could effectively reduce the buffer leakage current.

  16. Growth and Characterization of AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT Structures with a Compositionally Step-Graded AlGaN Barrier Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA ZHI-Yong; WANG Xiao-Liang; HU Guo-Xin; RAN Jun-Xue; XIAO Hong-Ling; LUO Wei-Jun; TANG Jian; LI Jian-Ping; LI Jin-Min

    2007-01-01

    A new AlGaN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structure using a Compositionally step-graded AlGaN barrier layer is grown on sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The structure demonstrates significant enhancement of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) mobility and smooth surface morphology compared with the conventional HEMT structure with high Al composition AlGaN barrier. The high 2DEG mobility of 1806 cm2 /Vs at room temperature and low rms surface roughness of 0.220 nm for a scan area of 5/umx5/um are attributed to the improvement of interfacial and crystal quality by employing the step-graded barrier to accommodate the large lattice mismatch stress. The 2DEG sheet density is independent of the measurement temperature, showing the excellent 2DEG confinement of the step-graded structure. A low average sheet resistance of 314.5 ft/square, with a good resistance uniformity of 0.68%, is also obtained across the 50mm epilayer wafer. HEMT devices are successfully fabricated using this material structure, which exhibits a maximum extrinsic transconductance of 218 mS/ mm and a maximum drain current density of 800m A/mm.

  17. Electron Velocity Enhancement in Polarization-doped AlGaN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas ARDARAVIČIUS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional electron gas/slabs (3DEG/S can be obtained using the technique of polarization bulk doping in graded AlGaN semiconductor layer on GaN. Transport characteristics of the graded AlGaN are investigated experimentally through nanosecond-pulsed measurements. The measured current-voltage dependences were used to determine drift velocity data assuming no change in electron density upon applied electric field. The velocity results are compared with that of GaN and ungraded AlGaN/GaN. Also, experimental results are compared with those of Monte Carlo simulation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.2.1797

  18. Growth, structural and optical properties of AlGaN nanowires in the whole composition range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, A.; Bougerol, C.; Murcia-Mascaros, S.; Cros, A.; Renevier, H.; Gayral, B.; Daudin, B.

    2013-03-01

    We report on the growth of AlxGa1-xN nanowires by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy for x in the 0.3-0.8 range. Based on a combination of macro- and micro-photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy experiments, it is shown that the structural and optical properties of AlGaN NWs are governed by the presence of compositional fluctuations associated with strongly localized electronic states. A growth model is proposed, which suggests that, depending on growth temperature and metal adatom density, macroscopic composition fluctuations are mostly of kinetic origin and are directly related to the nucleation of the AlGaN nanowire section on top of the GaN nanowire base which is used as a substrate.

  19. Development of solar-blind AlGaN 128x128 Ultraviolet Focal Plane Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the development of solar-blind aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) 128×128 UV Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs). The back-illuminated hybrid FPA archi- tecture consists of an 128x128 back-illuminated AlGaN PIN detector array that is bump-mounted to a matching 128x128 silicon CMOS readout integrated circuit (ROIC) chip. The 128×128 p-i-n photodiode arrays with cuton and cutoff wave-lengths of 233 and 258 nm, with a sharp reduction in response to UVB (280―320 nm) light. Several examples of solar-blind images are provided. This solar-blind band FPA has much better application prospect.

  20. Use of AlGaN in the notch region of GaN Gunn diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linan; Hao, Yue; Zhang, Jincheng

    2009-10-01

    The wurtzite gallium nitride (GaN) Gunn diodes with aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) as launcher in the notch region are investigated by negative-differential-mobility model based simulation. Under the operation of self-excitation oscillation with dipole domain mode, the simulations show that the diode with two-step-graded AlGaN launcher structure can yield the maximal rf power of 1.95 W and dc/rf conversion efficiency of 1.72% at the fundamental oscillation frequency of around 215 GHz. This kind of Gunn diode structure without the low doping process is convenient for accurately controlling the dopant concentration of GaN epitaxial growth.

  1. Native cation vacancies in Si-doped AlGaN studied by monoenergetic positron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uedono, A.; Tenjinbayashi, K.; Tsutsui, T.; Shimahara, Y.; Miyake, H.; Hiramatsu, K.; Oshima, N.; Suzuki, R.; Ishibashi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Native defects in Si-doped AlGaN grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy were probed by monoenergetic positron beams. Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation and positron lifetimes were measured, and these were compared with results obtained using first-principles calculation. For Si-doped AlxGa1-xN (4 × 1017 Si/cm3), the vacancy-type defects were introduced at above x = 0.54, and this was attributed to the transition of the growth mode to the Stranski-Krastanov mechanism from the Frank-van der Merwe mechanism. For Si-doped Al0.6Ga0.4N, the vacancy concentration increased with increasing Si concentration, and the major defect species was identified as Al vacancies. A clear correlation between the suppression of cathodoluminescence and the defect concentration was obtained, suggesting the cation vacancies act as nonradiative centers in AlGaN.

  2. Low Dark Current Mesa-Type AlGaN Flame Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chien Chen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes and reports on the fabrication process of AlGaN flame photodetectors with an Al0.1Ga0.9N/GaN superlattice structure. The AlGaN flame photodetectors exhibited a low dark current (∼1.17×10−10 A at bias of −5 V and large rejection ratio of photocurrent (∼2.14×10−5 A at bias of -5 V to dark current, which is greater than five orders of magnitude. Responsivity at 350 nm at a bias of -5 V was 0.194 A/W. Quantum efficiency, η, was 0.687 at a reverse bias of 5 V.

  3. Determination of Al Composition in Strained AlGaN Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Sheng-Qiang; WU Ming-Fang; YAO Shu-De

    2005-01-01

    @@ Alx Ga1-x N/GaN heterostructures are grown on c-sapphire with the Al composition x from 0.2 to 0.4 and thicknesses from 20nm to 30nm. The lattice parameters a and c are determined from 2θ/ω scan. The AlGaN layers are found to be under tensile strain by using x-ray diffraction. Vegard's law induces a large deviation in Al composition determination by only considering the linear relationship between one lattice parameter (a or c) and Al composition. The accurate determination of Al composition is only possible with consideration of both the lattice parameters a and c, by assuming the tetragonal distortion in the AlGaN layer. Additionally, the results obtained from x-ray diffraction are verified by Rutherford backscattering.

  4. Relaxation of compressively strained AlGaN by inclined threading dislocations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follstaedt, David Martin; Lee, Stephen Roger; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Floro, Jerrold Anthony

    2005-06-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to assess the microstructure and strain of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N(x = 0.61-0.64) layers grown on AlN. The compressively-strained AlGaN is partially relaxed by inclined threading dislocations, similar to observations on Si-doped AlGaN by P. Cantu, F. Wu, P. Waltereit, S. Keller, A. E. Romanov, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck [Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 674 (2003) ]; however, in our material, the dislocations bend before the introduction of any Si. The bending may be initiated by the greater lattice mismatch or the lower dislocation density of our material, but the presence of Si is not necessarily required. The relaxation by inclined dislocations is quantitatively accounted for with the model of A. E. Romanov and J. S. Speck [Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2569 (2003)], and we demonstrate the predicted linear dependence of relaxation on layer thickness. Notably, such relaxation was not found in tensile strained AlGaN grown on GaN [J. A. Floro, D. M. Follstaedt, P. Provencio, S. J. Hearne, and S. R. Lee, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7087 (2004)], even though the same mechanism appears applicable.

  5. Microsensors based on a whispering gallery mode in AlGaN microdisks undercut by hydrogen-environment thermal etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouno, Tetsuya; Sakai, Masaru; Takeshima, Hoshi; Suzuki, Sho; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Kishino, Katsumi; Hara, Kazuhiko

    2017-04-20

    AlGaN microdisks were fabricated via a top-down process using electron-beam lithography, inductively coupled plasma reactive-ion etching, and hydrogen-environment thermal etching from commercial epitaxial wafers with a 100-300 nm thick AlGaN layer grown on a c-plane GaN layer by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The hydrogen-environment thermal etching performed well in undercutting the AlGaN microdisks owing to the selective etching for the GaN layer. The AlGaN microdisks acted as the whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical microresonators, exhibiting sharp resonant peaks in room temperature photoluminescence spectra. The evanescent component of the whispering gallery mode (WGM) is influenced by the ambient condition of the microdisk, resulting in the shift of the resonant peaks. The phenomenon is considered to be used for microsensors. Using the WGM in the AlGaN microdisks, we demonstrated microsensors and a microsensor system, which can potentially be used to evaluate biological and chemical actions in a microscale area in real time.

  6. Strategisches Marketing: Die Nutzen-Positionierung von Bibliotheken als Content-Anbieter im Wettbewerb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy, Ursula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Content marketing is one of the current marketing trends. It focuses high-quality information to win and keep customers over a long term. The aim is not to persuade customers to buy products. Instead, the objective is by creating an added value through high-quality information to convince customers to buy products/to use services of an institution.

  7. Modelling of capacitance and threshold voltage for ultrathin normally-off AlGaN /GaN MOSHEMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, R.; Jena, K.; Lenka, T. R.

    2017-01-01

    A compact quantitative model based on oxide semiconductor interface density of states (DOS) is proposed for Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN metal oxide semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MOSHEMT). Mathematical expressions for surface potential, sheet charge concentration, gate capacitance and threshold voltage have been derived. The gate capacitance behaviour is studied in terms of capacitance-voltage (CV) characteristics. Similarly, the predicted threshold voltage ( V T) is analysed by varying barrier thickness and oxide thickness. The positive V T obtained for a very thin 3 nm AlGaN barrier layer enables the enhancement mode operation of the MOSHEMT. These devices, along with depletion mode devices, are basic constituents of cascode configuration in power electronic circuits. The expressions developed are used in conventional long-channel HEMT drain current equation and evaluated to obtain different DC characteristics. The obtained results are compared with experimental data taken from literature which show good agreement and hence endorse the proposed model.

  8. Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.Reich@tu-berlin.de; Guttmann, Martin; Wernicke, Tim; Mehnke, Frank; Kuhn, Christian [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, Berlin 10623 (Germany); Feneberg, Martin; Goldhahn, Rüdiger [Institut für Experimentelle Physik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität, Universitätsplatz 2, Magdeburg 39106 (Germany); Rass, Jens; Kneissl, Michael [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, Berlin 10623 (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, Berlin 12489 (Germany); Lapeyrade, Mickael; Einfeldt, Sven; Knauer, Arne; Kueller, Viola; Weyers, Markus [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, Berlin 12489 (Germany)

    2015-10-05

    The optical polarization of emission from ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on (0001)-oriented Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N multiple quantum wells (MQWs) has been studied by simulations and electroluminescence measurements. With increasing aluminum mole fraction in the quantum well x, the in-plane intensity of transverse-electric (TE) polarized light decreases relative to that of the transverse-magnetic polarized light, attributed to a reordering of the valence bands in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N. Using k ⋅ p theoretical model calculations, the AlGaN MQW active region design has been optimized, yielding increased TE polarization and thus higher extraction efficiency for bottom-emitting LEDs in the deep UV spectral range. Using (i) narrow quantum wells, (ii) barriers with high aluminum mole fractions, and (iii) compressive growth on patterned aluminum nitride sapphire templates, strongly TE-polarized emission was observed at wavelengths as short as 239 nm.

  9. AlGaN solar-blind avalanche photodiodes with AlInN/AlGaN distributed Bragg reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chujun; Ye, Xuanchao; Sun, Rui; Yang, Guofeng; Wang, Jin; Lu, Yanan; Yan, Pengfei; Cao, Jintao

    2017-06-01

    AlGaN solar-blind avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with AlInN/AlGaN distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) operated at lower avalanche breakdown voltage are numerically demonstrated. The p-type AlGaN layer and the multiplicative layer with low Al composition are introduced to construct the polarization-induced electric field, which can significantly reduce the avalanche breakdown voltage of the APDs. Calculated results exhibit that the avalanche breakdown voltage of the designed APDs decrease by 13% compared with the conventional device structure. Simultaneously, an improved solar-blind spectral responsivity is achieved due to the inserted AlInN/AlGaN DBRs.

  10. Control of Defects in Aluminum Gallium Nitride ((Al)GaN) Films on Grown Aluminum Nitride (AlN) Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    like HEMTs . A nanolayer of AlGaN over GaN provides extra 2DEG charge density because of the piezoelectric effect of the AlGaN layer. The higher...Control of Defects in Aluminum Gallium Nitride ((Al) GaN ) Films on Grown Aluminum Nitride (AlN) Substrates by Iskander G. Batyrev, Chi-Chin Wu...Aluminum Gallium Nitride ((Al) GaN ) Films on Grown Aluminum Nitride (AlN) Substrates Iskander G. Batyrev and N. Scott Weingarten Weapons and

  11. Trap-assisted tunneling in AlGaN avalanche photodiodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. G. Shao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated AlGaN solar-blind avalanche photodiodes (APDs that were based on separate absorption and multiplication (SAM structures. It was determined experimentally that the dark current in these APDs is rapidly enhanced when the applied voltage exceeds 52 V. Theoretical analyses demonstrated that the breakdown voltage at 52 V is mainly related to the local trap-assisted tunneling effect. Because the dark current is mainly dependent on the trap states as a result of modification of the lifetimes of the electrons in the trap states, the tunneling processes can be modulated effectively by tuning the trap energy level, the trap density, and the tunnel mass.

  12. Trap-assisted tunneling in AlGaN avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Z. G.; Gu, Q. J.; Yang, X. F.; Zhang, J.; Kuang, Y. W.; Zhang, D. B.; Yu, H. L.; Hong, X. K.; Feng, J. F.; Liu, Y. S.

    2017-06-01

    We fabricated AlGaN solar-blind avalanche photodiodes (APDs) that were based on separate absorption and multiplication (SAM) structures. It was determined experimentally that the dark current in these APDs is rapidly enhanced when the applied voltage exceeds 52 V. Theoretical analyses demonstrated that the breakdown voltage at 52 V is mainly related to the local trap-assisted tunneling effect. Because the dark current is mainly dependent on the trap states as a result of modification of the lifetimes of the electrons in the trap states, the tunneling processes can be modulated effectively by tuning the trap energy level, the trap density, and the tunnel mass.

  13. EFFECT OF Cr AND Al CONTENT ON THE STACKING FAULT ENERGY IN γ-Fe-Mn ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.Tian; Y.S.Zhang

    2003-01-01

    The effects of Cr and Al content were investigated on the stacking fault energy in austenitic Fe-31Mn-(0-7.26)Cr-0.96C and Fe-31Mn-(0-8.68)Al-0.85C alloys by the thermodynamic analysis. The results show that the additions of chromium or aluminum increase the non-magnetic component of the stacking fault energy in the γ-FeMn alloys, and the effect of aluminum is larger than that of chromium. The change in the magnetic entropy caused in the antiferromagnetic transition increases the free energy difference between the γ and ε phases in the γ-Fe-Mn alloys. The effects of chromium and aluminum on the magnetic component were discussed on the basis of the influence of both upon the antiferromagnetic transition in the γ-Fe-Mn alloys.

  14. Assembly of phosphonic acids on GaN and AlGaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, B S; Stine, R; Theodore, N D; Pehrsson, P E [Chemistry Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC (United States); Hong, S [Thomas Jefferson High School, McClean, VA (United States); Maekinen, A J [Optical Sciences Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Mastro, M A; Eddy, C R Jr [Electronics Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-01-13

    Self-assembled monolayers of octadecylphosphonic acid and 16-phosphonohexadecanoic acid (PHDA) were formed on the semiconductor substrates gallium nitride (GaN) and aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN). The presence of the molecular layers was verified through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Structural information was acquired with infrared spectroscopy which verified the bonding orientation of the carboxyl-containing PHDA. The impact of the molecular layers on the channel conductivity and the surface electronic structure of an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure was measured. Our results indicate that pinning of the surface Fermi level prohibits modification of the channel conductivity by the layer. However, a surface dipole of {approx}0.8 eV is present and associated with both phosphonic acid layers. These results are of direct relevance to field-effect-based biochemical sensors and metal-semiconductor contact formation for this system and provide a fundamental basis for further applications of GaN and AlGaN technology in the fields of biosensing and microelectronics.

  15. Microscopic potential fluctuations in Si-doped AlGaN epitaxial layers with various AlN molar fractions and Si concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurai, Satoshi, E-mail: kurai@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp; Yamada, Yoichi [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 2-16-1 Tokiwadai, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

    2016-01-14

    Nanoscopic potential fluctuations of Si-doped AlGaN epitaxial layers with the AlN molar fraction varying from 0.42 to 0.95 and Si-doped Al{sub 0.61}Ga{sub 0.39}N epitaxial layers with Si concentrations of 3.0–37 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} were investigated by cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging combined with scanning electron microscopy. The spot CL linewidths of AlGaN epitaxial layers broadened as the AlN molar fraction was increased to 0.7, and then narrowed at higher AlN molar fractions. The experimental linewidths were compared with the theoretical prediction from the alloy broadening model. The trends displayed by our spot CL linewidths were consistent with calculated results at AlN molar fractions of less than about 0.60, but the spot CL linewidths were markedly broader than the calculated linewidths at higher AlN molar fractions. The dependence of the difference between the spot CL linewidth and calculated line broadening on AlN molar fraction was found to be similar to the dependence of reported S values, indicating that the vacancy clusters acted as the origin of additional line broadening at high AlN molar fractions. The spot CL linewidths of Al{sub 0.61}Ga{sub 0.39}N epitaxial layers with the same Al concentration and different Si concentrations were nearly constant in the entire Si concentration range tested. From the comparison of reported S values, the increase of V{sub Al} did not contribute to the linewidth broadening, unlike the case of the V{sub Al} clusters.

  16. Effects of annealing condition and Al content on novel Fe73.5Si13.5B9Cu1Nb3-xAlx alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Haishun; DU Youwei; MIAO Xiexing; HAN Kui; SHEN Xiaopeng; BU Wankui

    2008-01-01

    The annealing condition,Al content,and field amplitude dependences of the complex permeability for Nb-poor Finemet type alloys,Fe73.5Si13.5B9Cu1Nb3-xAlx (x=0,0.5,1.5,2.0,and 3.0),were investigated using an impedance analyzer and X-ray diffraction.The results show that different Al contents lead to different optimum annealing conditions,and the Al content exerts a distinct effect on microstructure thus resulting in a variety of real permeability value.For the samples annealed at 793 K for 0.5 h,the real permeability increases with an increase in Al content when the Al content is below 2.0 at.%; as for those annealed at 793 K for 1 h and at 813 K for 0.5 h,an overall increase in real permeability can be obtained compared to those annealed at 793 K for 0.5 h.The permeability under different field amplitudes is also studied and it is found that the relaxation frequency in the lower frequency region tends to moving toward a higher frequency with an increase in field amplitude.All these might be because of the role of Nb in the annealing process and the solubility of Al in the amorphous matrix and nanocrystallized crystallites.

  17. Characterization of low Al content Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N epitaxial films grown by atmospheric-pressure MOVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toure, A.; Halidou, I.; Benzarti, Z.; Bchetnia, A.; El Jani, B. [Faculte des Sciences, Unite de Recherche sur les Hetero-Epitaxies et Applications, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Fouzri, A. [Laboratoire Physico-Chimie des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, Unite de Service Commun de Recherche ' ' High Resolution X-ray Diffractometer' ' , 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2012-05-15

    Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N epitaxial films grown on GaN/sapphire by atmospheric-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (AP-MOVPE) using trimethylgallium (TMG) and trimethylaluminum (TMA) as group III precursors have been studied. Two groups of samples were grown. The aluminum (Al) solid composition of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N was varied in the range from 0.03 to 0.20 by changing the molar flow ratio [TMA/(TMA + TMG)]. The effect of TMA flow rate, respectively, TMG flow rate, on the growth rate, and Al solid composition is discussed. The structural properties of the alloys have been investigated by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The optical properties of these samples were investigated by photoluminescence (PL). It is found that on increasing Al solid composition, via an increase of the TMA flow rate, the structural quality is deteriorated and the growth efficiency decreases. On the other hand, when the TMG flow rate is reduced, a decrease of the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) is observed with Al content. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Degraded model of radiation-induced acceptor defects for GaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Long; Hao Yue; Zhao Yuan-Fu; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Gao Zhi-Yuan; Li Pei-xian

    2009-01-01

    Using depletion approximation theory and introducing acceptor defects which can characterize radiation induced deep-level defects in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures, we set up a radiation damage model of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) to separately simulate the effects of several main radiation damage mechanisms and the complete radiation damage effect simultaneously considering the degradation in mobility. Our calculated results,consistent with the experimental results, indicate that thin AlGaN barrier layer, high Al content and high doping concentration are favourable for restraining the shifts of threshold voltage in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT; when the acceptor concentration induced is less than 1014cm-3, the shifts in threshold voltage are not obvious; only when the acceptor concentration induced is higher than 1016cm-3, will the shifts of threshold voltage remarkably increase; the increase of threshold voltage, resulting from radiation induced acceptor, mainly contributes to the degradation in drain saturation current of the current-voltage (Ⅰ-Ⅴ) characteristic, but has no effect on the transconductance in the saturation area.

  19. Reverse Gate Bias-Induced Degradation of AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    contributions from hot electrons and self-heating.13,19,20 In this article, we report on the degradation of AlGaN/ GaN HEMTs under step-stressing of...characteristic of the AlGaN/ GaN HEMTs before and after stress. FIG. 6. !Color online" PL spectra of stressed and unstressed devices. FIG. 7. EL images of stressed...high electric fields present under reverse bias stressing of AlGaN/ GaN HEMTs , the devices exhibit a five order of magnitude increase in gate current

  20. Enhanced photoluminescence efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells with gradient-composition AlGaN barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, E. A.; Nechaev, D. V.; Jmerik, V. N.; Kaibyshev, V. Kh; Ivanov, S. V.; Toropov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    We present photoluminescence studies of AIxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN (y = x+0.3) quantum well (QW) heterostructures with graded AI content in barrier layers, emitting in the range 285-315 nm. The best-established internal quantum efficiency of the QW emission is as high as 81% at 300 K, owing to enhanced activation energy of charge carriers and exciton binding energy in the QW heterostructure with optimized design.

  1. Probing alloy composition gradient and nanometer-scale carrier localization in single AlGaN nanowires by nanocathodoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, A.; Bougerol, C.; Gayral, B.; Kociak, M.; Daudin, B.

    2013-08-01

    The optical properties of single AlGaN nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy have been studied by nanocathodoluminescence. Optical emission was found to be position-dependent and to occur in a wide wavelength range, a feature which has been assigned to a composition gradient along the nanowire growth axis, superimposed on local composition fluctuations at the nanometer scale. This behavior is associated with the growth mode of such AlGaN nanowires, which is governed by kinetics, leading to the successive formation of (i) a zone with strong local composition fluctuations followed by (ii) a zone with a marked composition gradient and, eventually, (iii) a zone corresponding to a steady state regime and the formation of a homogeneous alloy.

  2. Enhancing the light extraction efficiency of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes by using nanowire structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djavid, Mehrdad; Mi, Zetian, E-mail: zetian.mi@mcgill.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McGill University, 3480 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 0E9 (Canada)

    2016-02-01

    The performance of conventional AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes has been limited by the extremely low light extraction efficiency (<10%), due to the unique transverse magnetic (TM) polarized light emission. Here, we show that, by exploiting the lateral side emission, the extraction efficiency of TM polarized light can be significantly enhanced in AlGaN nanowire structures. Using the three-dimensional finite-difference time domain simulation, we demonstrate that the nanowire structures can be designed to inhibit the emission of guided modes and redirect trapped light into radiated modes. A light extraction efficiency of more than 70% can, in principle, be achieved by carefully optimizing the nanowire size, nanowire spacing, and p-GaN thickness.

  3. Atomic layer etching of GaN and AlGaN using directional plasma-enhanced approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Tomihito; Yang, Wenbing; Tan, Samantha; Kanarik, Keren J.; Nojiri, Kazuo

    2017-06-01

    The directional atomic layer etching (ALE) of GaN and AlGaN has been developed. The GaN ALE process consists of cyclic Cl2 plasma chemisorption and Ar ion removal. The etch per cycle (EPC) was 0.4 nm within the self-limiting regime, which is 50 to 100 V. The root-mean-square surface roughness R RMS was 0.6 nm, which was improved from an initial roughness of 0.8 nm. For AlGaN ALE, BCl3 was added to the chlorine step to obtain a smooth surface with R RMS of 0.3 nm and stoichiometry similar to the initial sample. The ultra smooth surface obtained by etching is promising for use in next-generation power devices.

  4. Study of piezoelectric field in GaN quantum discs embedded in AlGaN nanocolumns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamfirescu, Marian; Gurioli, Massimo; Vinattieri, Anna [CNISM, Dipartimento di Fisica and LENS, Universita' di Firenze, via Sansone 1, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Risti, J.; Calleja, E. [Dept. Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion-ISOM, Universidad Politecnica, Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2005-11-01

    We report on recombination kinetics, by means of time resolved photoluminescence technique, on GaN quantum discs embedded in strain free AlGaN nanocolumn. The emission of the 100 Aa QD shows a very long time decay (about 20 ns), denoting a small radiative rate; in contrast, fast decay time are observed in the case of 20 Aa disc ({proportional_to}450 ps). At the same time a large blue shift of the PL band is found in the 100 Aa QD when increasing the power excitation while the PL of the 20 Aa QD does not show any energy shift. The whole phenomenology can be interpreted in terms of piezoelectric polarization fields inside the strained GaN QDs embedded in relaxed AlGaN nanocolumn (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Effect of self-heating on electrical characteristics of AlGaN/ GaN HEMT on Si (111 substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarsh Nigam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of self-heating of AlGaN/ GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs characteristics fabricated on Si(111 substrate, simulations of 2DEG temperature on different drain voltages have been carried out by Sentaurus TCAD simulator tool. Prior to the electrical direct-current (DC characteristics studies, structural properties of the HEMT structures were examined by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The comparative analysis of simulation and experimental data provided sheet carrier concentration, mobility, surface traps, electron density at 2DEG by considering factors such as high field saturation, tunneling and recombination models. Mobility, surface trap concentration and contact resistance were obtained by TCAD simulation and found out to be ∼1270cm2/Vs, ∼2×1013 cm-2 and ∼0.2 Ω.mm, respectively, which are in agreement with the experimental results. Consequently, simulated current-voltage characteristics of HEMTs are in good agreement with experimental results. The present simulator tool can be used to design new device structures for III-nitride technology.

  6. Vertical transport through AlGaN barriers in heterostructures grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, David A.; Fireman, Micha N.; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Kuritzky, Leah Y.; Wu, Yuh-Renn; Speck, James S.

    2017-02-01

    The results of vertical transport through AlGaN heterobarriers are presented for ammonia molecular beam epitaxy (NH3-MBE) on c-plane GaN on sapphire templates and on m-plane bulk GaN substrates, as well as by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on m-plane bulk GaN substrates. Experiments were performed to determine the role of the AlGaN alloy as an effective barrier to vertical transport, which is an essential component of both optoelectronic and power electronic devices. The alloy composition, thickness, and doping levels of the AlGaN layers, as well as substrate orientation, were systematically varied to examine their influence on electron transport. Atom probe tomography (APT) was used to directly determine the alloy composition at the atomic scale to reveal the presence of random alloy fluctuations which provides insight into the nature of the observed transport.

  7. Improved color rendering of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes with dual-blue active layers and n-type AlGaN layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qi-Rong; Zhang, Yong; Li, Shu-Ti; Yan, Qi-Ang; Shi, Pei-Pei; Niu, Qiao-Li; He, Miao; Li, Guo-Ping; Li, Jun-Rui

    2012-05-01

    An InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diode (LED) structure and an InGaN/GaN blue-violet LED structure were grown sequentially on the same sapphire substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. It was found that the insertion of an n-type AlGaN layer below the dual blue-emitting active layers showed better spectral stability at the different driving current relative to the traditional p-type AlGaN electron-blocking layer. In addition, color rendering index of a Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor-converted white LED based on a dual blue-emitting chip with n-type AlGaN reached 91 at 20 mA, and Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates almost remained at the same point from 5 to 60 mA.

  8. Enhancing the Light-Extraction Efficiency of AlGaN Nanowires Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode by using Nitride/Air Distributed Bragg Reflector Nanogratings

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2017-09-11

    The performance and efficiency of AlGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes have been limited by the extremely low light-extraction efficiency (LEE) due to the intrinsic material properties of AlGaN. Here, to enhance the LEE of the device, we demonstrate an AlGaN nanowires light-emitting diode (NWs-LED) integrated with nitride/air Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) nanogratings. Compared to a control device (only mesa), the AlGaN NWs-LED with the nitride/air DBR nanogratings exhibit enhancement in the light output power and external quantum efficiency (EQE) by a factor of ∼1.67. The higher light output power and EQE are attributed mainly to the multiple reflectances laterally for the transverse magnetic (TM)-polarized light and scattering introduced by the nanogratings. To further understand the LEE enhancement, the electrical field distribution, extraction ratio and polar pattern of the AlGaN NWs-LED with and without the nitride/air DBR nanogratings were analyzed using the finite-difference-time-domain method. It was observed that the TM-field emission was confined and scattered upward whereas the polar pattern was intensified for the AlGaN NWs-LED with the nanogratings. Our approach to enhance the LEE via the nitride/air DBR nanogratings can provide a promising route for increasing the efficiency of AlGaN-based LEDs, also, to functioning as facet mirror for AlGaN-based laser diodes.

  9. Effects of Si-doping on structural, electrical, and optical properties of polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongquan; Zhang, Xiong; Wang, Shuchang; Wang, Yi; Luan, Huakai; Dai, Qian; Wu, Zili; Zhao, Jianguo; Cui, Yiping

    2016-08-01

    The polar (0001)-oriented c-plane and non-polar (11 2 bar 0) -oriented a-plane wurtzite AlGaN epi-layers were successfully grown on polar (0001)-oriented c-plane and semi-polar (1 1 bar 02) -oriented r-plane sapphire substrates, respectively with various Si-doping levels in a low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. The morphological, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Hall effect, and Raman spectroscopy. The characterization results show that Si dopants incorporated into the polar and non-polar AlGaN films induced a relaxation of compressive residual strain and a generation of biaxial tensile strain on the surface in consequence of the dislocation climbing. In particular, it was found that the Si-induced compressive strain relaxation in the non-polar AlGaN samples can be promoted by the structural anisotropy as compared with the polar counterparts. The gradually increased relaxation of compressive residual strain in both polar and non-polar AlGaN samples with increasing Si-doping level was attributed to the Si-induced enhancement in the opportunity for the dislocations to interact and annihilate. This implies that the crystal quality for both polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers can be remarkably improved by Si-doping.

  10. Angular distribution of polarized light and its effect on light extraction efficiency in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinjuan; Ji, Cheng; Xiang, Yong; Kang, Xiangning; Shen, Bo; Yu, Tongjun

    2016-05-16

    Angular distribution of polarized light and its effect on light extraction efficiency (LEE) in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet (DUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are investigated in this paper. A united picture is presented to describe polarized light's emission and propagation processes. It is found that the electron-hole recombinations in AlGaN multiple quantum wells produce three kinds of angularly distributed polarized emissions and propagation process can change their intensity distributions. By investigation the change of angular distributions in 277nm and 215nm LEDs, this work reveals that LEE can be significantly enhanced by modulating the angular distributions of polarized light of DUV LEDs.

  11. Enhanced output power of GaN-based LEDs with embedded AlGaN pyramidal shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shang-Ju; Sheu, Jinn-Kong; Lee, Ming-Lun; Yang, Chih-Ciao; Chang, Kuo-Hua; Yeh, Yu-Hsiang; Huang, Feng-Wen; Lai, Wei-Chih

    2011-06-20

    In this article, the characteristics of GaN-based LEDs grown on Ar-implanted GaN templates to form inverted Al0.27Ga0.83N pyramidal shells beneath an active layer were investigated. GaN-based epitaxial layers grown on the selective Ar-implanted regions had lower growth rates compared with those grown on the implantation-free regions. This resulted in selective growth, and formation of V-shaped concaves in the epitaxial layers. Accordingly, the inverted Al0.27Ga0.83N pyramidal shells were formed after the Al0.27Ga0.83N and GaN layers were subsequently grown on the V-shaped concaves. The experimental results indicate that the light-output power of LEDs with inverted AlGaN pyramidal shells was higher than those of conventional LEDs. With a 20 mA current injection, the output power was enhanced by 10% when the LEDs were embedded with inverted Al0.27Ga0.83N pyramidal shells. The enhancement in output power was primarily due to the light scattering at the Al0.27Ga0.83N/GaN interface, which leads to a higher escape probability for the photons, that is, light-extraction efficiency. Based on the ray tracing simulation, the output power of LEDs grown on Ar-implanted GaN templates can be enhanced by over 20% compared with the LEDs without the embedded AlGaN pyramidal shells, if the AlGaN layers were replaced by Al0.5Ga0.5N layers.

  12. Comparative research on the influence of varied Al component on the active layer of AlGaN photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Minyou; Chen, Liang; Su, Lingai; Yin, Lin; Qian, Yunsheng

    2017-06-01

    To theoretically research the influence of a varied Al component on the active layer of AlGaN photocathodes, the first principle based on density functional theory is used to calculate the formation energy and band structure of Al x Ga1-x N with x at 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.325, and 0.5. The calculation results show that the formation energy declines along with the Al component rise, while the band gap is increasing with Al component increasing. Al x Ga1-x N with x at 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.325, and 0.5 are direct band gap semiconductors, and their absorption coefficient curves have the same variation tendency. For further study, we designed two kinds of reflection-mode AlGaN photocathode samples. Sample 1 has an Al x Ga1-x N active layer with varied Al component ranging from 0.5 to 0 and decreasing from the bulk to the surface, while sample 2 has an Al x Ga1-x N active layer with the fixed Al component of 0.25. Using the multi-information measurement system, we measured the spectral response of the activated samples at room temperature. Their photocathode parameters were obtained by fitting quantum efficiency curves. Results show that sample 1 has a better spectral response than sample 2 at the range of short-wavelength. This work provides a reference for the structure design of the AlGaN photocathode. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61308089, 6144005) and the Public Technology Applied Research Project of Zhejiang Province (No. 2013C31068).

  13. Design and control of interface reaction between Al-based dielectrics and AlGaN layer in AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Nozaki, Mikito; Yamada, Takahiro; Nakazawa, Satoshi; Anda, Yoshiharu; Ishida, Masahiro; Ueda, Tetsuzo; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2017-07-01

    Important clues for achieving well-behaved AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with Al-based gate dielectrics were systematically investigated on the basis of electrical and physical characterizations. We found that low-temperature deposition of alumina insulators on AlGaN surfaces is crucial to improve the interface quality, thermal stability, and variability of MOS devices by suppressing Ga diffusion into the gate oxides. Moreover, aluminum oxynitride grown in a reactive nitric atmosphere was proven to expand the optimal process window that would improve the interface quality and to enhance immunity against charge injection into the gate dielectrics. The results constitute common guidelines for achieving high-performance and reliable AlGaN/GaN MOS devices.

  14. Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehnke, Frank, E-mail: mehnke@physik.tu-berlin.de; Kuhn, Christian; Guttmann, Martin; Reich, Christoph; Kolbe, Tim; Rass, Jens; Wernicke, Tim [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Festkörperphysik, Hardenbergstr. 36, EW 6-1, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Kueller, Viola; Knauer, Arne; Lapeyrade, Mickael; Einfeldt, Sven; Weyers, Markus [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kneissl, Michael [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Festkörperphysik, Hardenbergstr. 36, EW 6-1, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-08-04

    The design and Mg-doping profile of AlN/Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}N electron blocking heterostructures (EBH) for AlGaN multiple quantum well (MQW) light emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting below 250 nm was investigated. By inserting an AlN electron blocking layer (EBL) into the EBH, we were able to increase the quantum well emission power and significantly reduce long wavelength parasitic luminescence. Furthermore, electron leakage was suppressed by optimizing the thickness of the AlN EBL while still maintaining sufficient hole injection. Ultraviolet (UV)-C LEDs with very low parasitic luminescence (7% of total emission power) and external quantum efficiencies of 0.19% at 246 nm have been realized. This concept was applied to AlGaN MQW LEDs emitting between 235 nm and 263 nm with external quantum efficiencies ranging from 0.002% to 0.93%. After processing, we were able to demonstrate an UV-C LED emitting at 234 nm with 14.5 μW integrated optical output power and an external quantum efficiency of 0.012% at 18.2 A/cm{sup 2}.

  15. Atom probe extended to AlGaN: three-dimensional imaging of a Mg-doped AlGaN/GaN superlattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Samantha E.; Kappers, Menno J.; Barnard, Jonathan S.; Humphreys, Colin J.; Oliver, Rachel A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Clifton, Peter H.; Ulfig, Robert M. [Imago Scientific Instruments Corporation, 5500 Nobel Drive, Madison, WI (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Laser pulsed atom probe tomography (APT) can provide three-dimensional chemical and spatial information in semiconductor materials, revealing buried features at the nanoscale. In this investigation, a Mg-doped AlGaN/GaN superlattice was studied using laser pulsed APT. Such superlattices are commonly used to overcome the intrinsically low doping efficiency of Mg. Although the superlattice was nominally doped to the same level throughout, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) suggested a greater Mg content in the AlGaN layers. The APT data provided three-dimensional element mapping and revealed clustered Mg in both the GaN and AlGaN layers. These clusters are shown to be statistically significant when compared to a random distribution of Mg. More clusters were found in the AlGaN layers, suggesting that the presence of clusters accounts for the higher Mg level in the AlGaN layers that was suggested by SIMS. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Highly Efficient FUV Photodetector with AlGaN Nanowire Photocathode Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA GSFC need for significant improvements in wide bandgap materials and detectors for UV applications, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes...

  17. Highly Efficient FUV Photodetector with AlGaN Nanowire Photocathode Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA GSFC need for significant improvements in wide bandgap materials and detectors for UV applications, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to...

  18. Determination of Temperature-Dependent Stress State in Thin AlGaN Layer of AlGaN/GaN HEMT Heterostructures by Near-Resonant Raman Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature-dependent stress state in the AlGaN barrier layer of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown on sapphire substrate was investigated by ultraviolet (UV near-resonant Raman scattering. Strong scattering peak resulting from the A1(LO phonon mode of AlGaN is observed under near-resonance condition, which allows for the accurate measurement of Raman shifts with temperature. The temperature-dependent stress in the AlGaN layer determined by the resonance Raman spectra is consistent with the theoretical calculation result, taking lattice mismatch and thermal mismatch into account together. This good agreement indicates that the UV near-resonant Raman scattering can be a direct and effective method to characterize the stress state in thin AlGaN barrier layer of AlGaN/GaN HEMT heterostructures.

  19. Effects of Al Content in Pack Powder on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Aluminized N80 Oil Casing Steel%包埋渗剂Al含量对N80套管钢渗层组织和性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史新勃; 王宇; 黄敏

    2012-01-01

    Aluminized N80 oil casing steel was packed by different Al content of pack powder. The aluminizing process was introduced. The metallographic, element distribution, phase composition, microhardness of aluminized N80 casing steel were analyzed using optical microscope, SEM, XRD, microhardness equipment in respective. The results show that the aluminizing layer with a thickness from 450 to 650 u.m can be obtained on the surface of N80 casing steel after high-temperature vacuum-pack processing by different Al content of pack powder. With the increase of Al content in the pack powder, the thickness of aluminizing layer increase. From the surface to the matrix, the Al content gradiently decreases in the aluminized layer microstructure. The different Al content in the pack powder causes the different phase in the surface of aluminized layer. The Fe3Al phase is obtained with the pack powder of 10% and 20%Al content, but the 35%A1 content pack powder get the FeAl phase. The microhardness of aluminized layer with different Al content in the pack powder is higher than that of the microhardness of matrix. Microhardness gradually reduces and tends to constant from the surface to the matrix.%选用不同Al含量配比的渗铝剂,对N80套管钢进行包埋渗铝处理,形成渗铝层.阐述了包埋渗铝过程,并依次表征了不同Al含量渗剂所得渗铝层的金相组织、元素分布、物相组成和显微硬度.结果表明:采用不同Al含量的渗剂在950℃真空条件下可以在N80钢基体表面获得450~650 μm厚度连续的渗铝层组织;渗铝层厚度随渗剂中Al含量增加而增厚;渗层组织从表面向基体方向Al含量呈梯度减少;渗剂中Al含量的不同引起渗层的物相变化,10%和20%Al含量的渗剂所得渗层组织为FeAl相,35%Al含量的渗剂所得渗层组织为FeAl相:不同Al含量渗剂下所得渗铝试样渗层组织的显微硬度均高于基体,从渗层表面向基体方向延伸,显微硬度逐渐降低趋于平缓.

  20. Visible and solar-blind AlGaN metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors grown on Si(111) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pau, J.L.; Munoz, E.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Calleja, E. [ISOM, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Dpto. Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2002-08-16

    Visible and solar-blind photodetectors have been fabricated on undoped GaN and AlGaN (x{proportional_to}0.40) layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The use of single and double AlGaN/GaN superlattice buffers and their effects on the grown structures were explored. Metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) and Schottky barrier photodiodes were characterised. A band-edge responsivity of 49 mA/W for GaN MSM photodiodes was obtained using a single superlattice as buffer. The growth of an additional superlattice as intermediate buffer enhanced the dark current of MSM devices due to the charge accumulation induced by piezoelectric effects inside the superlattice. Schottky barrier photodiodes showed a photosignal below the bandgap with opposite sign to the GaN photoresponse. This signal could be related to the superlattice absorption. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Carrier dynamics in active regions for ultraviolet optoelectronics grown on thick, relaxed AlGaN on semipolar bulk GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, Gregory A.; Rotella, Paul; Shen, Hongen; Wraback, Michael [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Haeger, Daniel A.; Chung, Roy B.; Pfaff, Nathan; Young, Erin C.; DenBaars, Steven P.; Speck, James S.; Cohen, Daniel A. [Electrical and Computer Engineering and Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Active regions for mid-ultraviolet laser diodes grown on bulk AlGaN templates are investigated by time-resolved photoluminescence. The active regions were grown pseudomorphically on thick, relaxed AlGaN on bulk GaN in the semi-polar orientation where it has been shown that the glide of dislocations create strain relieving defects confined to the AlGaN/GaN interface, away from the active region. The photoluminescence lifetimes were found to have mono-exponential decays of around 500 ps and calculated radiative and non-radiative lifetimes are compared to previously reported results for active regions on bulk m-plane GaN. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Tight-binding branch-point energies and band offsets for cubic InN, GaN, AlN, and AlGaN alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Starting with empirical tight-binding band structures, the branch-point (BP) energies and resulting valence band offsets for the zincblende phase of InN, GaN, and AlN are calculated from their k-averaged midgap energy. Furthermore, the directional dependence of the BPs of GaN and AlN is discussed using the Green's function method of Tersoff. We then show how to obtain the BPs for binary semiconductor alloys within a band-diagonal representation of the coherent potential approximation and apply this method to cubic AlGaN alloys. The resulting band offsets show good agreement to available experimental and theoretical data from the literature. Our results can be used to determine the band alignment in isovalent heterostructures involving pure cubic III-nitrides or AlGaN alloys for arbitrary concentrations.

  3. Effects of NH3 Flow Rate During AlGaN Barrier Layer Growth on the Material Properties of AlGaN/GaN HEMT Heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbantoruan, Franky J.; Wong, Yuen-Yee; Huang, Wei-Ching; Yu, Hung-Wei; Chang, Edward-Yi

    2017-10-01

    NH3 flow rate during AlGaN barrier layer growth not only affects the growth efficiency and surface morphology as a result of parasitic reactions but also influences the concentration of carbon impurity in the AlGaN barrier. Carbon, which decomposes from metal precursors, plays a role in electron compensation for AlGaN/GaN HEMT. No 2-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) was detected in the AlGaN/GaN structure if grown with 0.5 slm of NH3 due to the presence of higher carbon impurity (2.6 × 1019 cm-2). When the NH3 flow rate increased to 6.0 slm, the carbon impurity reduced to 2.10 × 1018 atom cm-3 and the 2 DEG electron density recovered to 9.57 × 1012 cm-2.

  4. Final LDRD report : science-based solutions to achieve high-performance deep-UV laser diodes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Miller, Mary A.; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Alessi, Leonard J.; Smith, Michael L.; Henry, Tanya A.; Westlake, Karl R.; Cross, Karen Charlene; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Lee, Stephen Roger

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project that has focused on overcoming major materials roadblocks to achieving AlGaN-based deep-UV laser diodes. We describe our growth approach to achieving AlGaN templates with greater than ten times reduction of threading dislocations which resulted in greater than seven times enhancement of AlGaN quantum well photoluminescence and 15 times increase in electroluminescence from LED test structures. We describe the application of deep-level optical spectroscopy to AlGaN epilayers to quantify deep level energies and densities and further correlate defect properties with AlGaN luminescence efficiency. We further review our development of p-type short period superlattice structures as an approach to mitigate the high acceptor activation energies in AlGaN alloys. Finally, we describe our laser diode fabrication process, highlighting the development of highly vertical and smooth etched laser facets, as well as characterization of resulting laser heterostructures.

  5. Comparisonof GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes by Using the AlGaN Electron-Blocking Layer and InAIN Electron-Blocking Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峻; 范广涵; 庞玮; 郑树文

    2011-01-01

    Optical properties of GaN-based light-emitting diodes(LEDs)are studied numerically by using AlGaN and InAIN electron-blocking layers(EBLs).Through the simulations of emission spectra,carrier concentration distribution,energy band,electrostatic field,internal quantum efficiency and output power,the results show that the LEDs with design of the InAIN EBL structure have a better performance over the original LEDs using an AlGaN EBL.The spectrum intensity and output power are enhanced significantly,and the efficiency droop of internal quantum efficiency is improved effectively with this design of InAlN EBL structure.It is proved that the strengths of carrier confinement and electron leakage current play a critical role in the performance of luminescence in LEDs.%Optical properties of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are studied numerically by using AlGaN and InAIN electron-blocking layers (EBLs). Through the simulations of emission spectra, carrier concentration distribution, energy band, electrostatic Reid, internal quantum efficiency and output power, the results show that the LEDs with design of the InAIN EBL structure have a better performance over the original LEDs using an AlGaN EBL. The spectrum intensity and output power are enhanced significantly, and the efficiency droop of internal quantum efficiency is improved effectively with this design of InAIN EBL structure. It is proved that the strengths of carrier confinement and electron leakage current play a critical role in tie performance of luminescence in LEDs.

  6. Effect of Cr/Al contents on the 475ºC age-hardening in oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentuo Han

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The age-hardening in oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS ferritic steels with various additions of Cr (12, 15 and 18wt.% and Al (0, 5, 7 and 9wt.% were investigated. After 5000h aging at 475ºC, the hardness increases in all these ODS steels, while the increased level depends on the Cr/Al contents. In 12Cr-ODS steels, the more the Al, the higher the increased hardness is. However, in 18Cr-ODS steels, higher Al addition suppresses the age-hardening. TEM observations of 18Cr-ODS steels reveal that 9Al suppresses the formation of Cr-enriched α' phase, while the 18Cr-5Al-ODS steel comprises a plenty of α′ phases. Adding Zr in ODS steels appears to increase the age-hardening. The susceptibility to age-hardening is remarkably lower in the ODS ferritic steels than in the non-ODS ferritic steel with the similar concentration of Cr.

  7. Effect of Al Content on the Isomerization Performance of Solid Superacid Pd-S2O82-/ZrO2-Al2O3☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Song; Na Wang; Hualin Song; Feng Li; Zaishun Jin

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Al content on the performance of the Pd–S2O82−/ZrO2–Al2O3 solid superacid catalyst was studied using n-pentane isomerization as a probe reaction. The catalysts were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fou-rier transform Infrared (FTIR), specific surface area measurements (BET), thermogravimetry–differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA), H2-temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD). The Pd–S2O82−/ZrO2–Al2O3 catalyst made from Al2O3 mass fraction of 2.5%exhibited the best perfor-mance and its catalytic activity increased by 44.0%compared with Pd–S2O82−/ZrO2. The isopentane yield reached 64.3%at a temperature of 238 °C, a reaction pressure of 2.0 MPa, a space velocity of 1.0 h−1 and a H2/n-pentane molar ratio of 4.0. No obvious catalyst deactivation was observed within 100 h.

  8. 阶梯AlGaN外延新型Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN HEMTs击穿特性分析%Breakdown voltage analysis for the new Al0.25 Ga0.75N/GaN HEMTs with the step AlGaN layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段宝兴; 杨银堂

    2014-01-01

    In order to optimize the surface electric field of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), a novel AlGaN/GaN HEMT has been grown with a step AlGaN layer, made for the first time as far as we know, to improve the breakdown voltage. The discipline of the 2DEG concentration varying with the thickness of the AlGaN epitaxy layer has been applied to the new AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with AlGaN/GaN heterostructure. By thinning the AlGaN layer near the gate edge, the 2DEG concentration in the channel is made to form the low concentration region near the gate edge. New electric field peak has appeared at the corner of the step AlGaN layer. The high electric field has been decreased effectively due to the emergence of new electric field peak; this optimizes the surface electric field of the new AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Then the breakdown voltage is improved to 640 V in the new AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with the step AlGaN layer as compared with 446 V for the conventional structure. In order to let the breakdown curve consistent with the test results, a certain concentration of the acceptor-like traps is added to the GaN buffer to capture the leaking current coming from the source electrode. Simulation results verify the causes for doping acceptor type ions to the GaN buffer, given by foreign researchers. The breakdown curves have been obtained which are consistent with the test results in this paper.%为了优化AlGaN/GaN HEMTs器件表面电场,提高击穿电压,本文首次提出了一种新型阶梯Al-GaN/GaN HEMTs结构.新结构利用AlGaN/GaN异质结形成的2DEG浓度随外延AlGaN层厚度降低而减小的规律,通过减薄靠近栅边缘外延的AlGaN层,使沟道2DEG浓度分区,形成栅边缘低浓度2DEG区,低的2DEG使阶梯AlGaN交界出现新的电场峰,新电场峰的出现有效降低了栅边缘的高峰电场,优化了AlGaN/GaN HEMTs器件的表面电场分布,使器件击穿电压从传统结构的446 V,提高到新结构的640 V.为了获得与实际测试结

  9. Effects of the strain relaxation of an AlGaN barrier layer induced by various cap layers on the transport properties in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zi-Yang; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Duan Huan-Tao; Xue Jun-Shuai; Lin Zhi-Yu; Ma Jun-Cai; Xue Xiao-Yong; Hao Yue

    2011-01-01

    The strain relaxation of an AlGaN barrier layer may be influenced by a thin cap layer above,and affects the transport properties of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. Compared with the slight strain relaxation found in AlGaN barrier layer without cap layer,it is found that a thin cap layer can induce considerable changes of strain state in the AIGaN barrier layer. The degree of relaxation of the AlGaN layer significantly influences the transport properties of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. It is observed that electron mobility decreases with the increasing degree of relaxation of the AlGaN barrier,which is believed to be the main cause of the deterioration of crystalline quality and morphology on the AlGaN/GaN interface. On the other hand,both GaN and AIN cap layers lead to a decrease in 2DEG density. The reduction of 2DEG caused by the GaN cap layer may be attributed to the additional negative polarization charges formed at the interface between GaN and AIGaN,while the reduction of the piezoelectric effect in the AlGaN layer results in the decrease of 2DEG density in the case of AIN cap layer.

  10. Efficiency enhancement in AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by adjusting Mg doped staggered barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Sun, Huiqing; Yi, Xinyan; Yang, Xian; Liu, Tianyi; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Xiu; Fan, Xuancong; Zhang, Zhuding; Guo, Zhiyou

    2017-07-01

    Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UVLEDs) with staggered barriers have been studied. The energy band diagrams, internal quantum efficiency, total output power and radiative recombination rate are investigated by APSYS software. The simulation results show that the UVLED with staggered barriers get a little enhancement comparing to the conventional one, on the contrary the structure with p-doped staggered barriers has higher efficiency and power due to enhancement of the holes' injection and the electrons' confinement. Then structures with different Al content in the Mg-doped barriers have been studied numerically and that confirmed the best.

  11. Determination of Al Content in Commercial Samples through Stoichiometry: A Simple Experiment for an Advanced High-School Chemistry Olympiad Preparatory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Kassio M. G.; da Silva, Amison R. L.; de Souza, Joao P. F.; das Neves, Luiz S.; Gasparotto, Luiz H. S.

    2014-01-01

    Stoichiometry has always been a puzzling subject. This may be partially due to the way it is introduced to students, with stoichiometric coefficients usually provided in the reaction. If the stoichiometric coefficients are not given, students find it very difficult to solve problems. This article describes a simple 4-h laboratory experiment for…

  12. Control of two-dimensional growth of AlN and high Al-content AlGaN-based MQWs for deep-UV LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihuang Yang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Dense and atomically flat AlN film with root-mean-square roughness value of 0.32 nm was grown on sapphire substrate at a relatively lower temperature by using a three-step epitaxy technique. On the basis of this AlN template, AlGaN-based multiple quantum wells (MQWs with atomically flat hetero-interfaces were epitaxially grown to suppress nonradiative recombination by introducing In as a surfactant during simultaneous source supply. As a result, single intense- and narrow-peaked photoluminescence was obtained from the MQWs. Finally, the deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes with well-behaved I-V characteristic and strong electroluminescence in the range of 256–312 nm were fabricated successfully.

  13. Determination of Al Content in Commercial Samples through Stoichiometry: A Simple Experiment for an Advanced High-School Chemistry Olympiad Preparatory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Kassio M. G.; da Silva, Amison R. L.; de Souza, Joao P. F.; das Neves, Luiz S.; Gasparotto, Luiz H. S.

    2014-01-01

    Stoichiometry has always been a puzzling subject. This may be partially due to the way it is introduced to students, with stoichiometric coefficients usually provided in the reaction. If the stoichiometric coefficients are not given, students find it very difficult to solve problems. This article describes a simple 4-h laboratory experiment for…

  14. Growth and design of deep-UV (240-290nm) light emitting diodes using AlGaN alloys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follstaedt, David Martin; Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Koleske, Daniel David; Lee, Stephen Roger; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Fischer, Arthur Joseph

    2004-06-01

    Solid-state light sources emitting at wavelengths less than 300 nm would enable technological advances in many areas such as fluorescence-based biological agent detection, non-line-of-sight communications, water purification, and industrial processing including ink drying and epoxy curing. In this paper, we present our recent progress in the development of LEDs with emission between 237 and 297 nm. We will discuss growth and design issues of deep-UV LEDs, including transport in Si-doped AlGaN layers. The LEDs are designed for bottom emission so that improved heat sinking and light extraction can be achieved by flip chipping. To date, we have demonstrated 2.25 mW of output power at 295 nm from 1 mm x 1 mm LEDs operated at 500 mA. Shorter wavelength LEDs emitting at 276 nm have achieved an output power of 1.3 mW at 400 mA. The heterostructure designs that we have employed have suppressed deep level emission to intensities that are up to 330 x lower than the primary quantum well emission.

  15. Temperature and doping dependent changes in surface recombination during UV illumination of (Al)GaN bulk layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netzel, Carsten; Jeschke, Jörg; Brunner, Frank; Knauer, Arne; Weyers, Markus [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Strasse 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-09-07

    We have studied the effect of continuous illumination with above band gap energy on the emission intensity of polar (Al)GaN bulk layers during the photoluminescence experiments. A temporal change in emission intensity on time scales from seconds to hours is based on the modification of the semiconductor surface states and the surface recombination by the incident light. The temporal behavior of the photoluminescence intensity varies with the parameters such as ambient atmosphere, pretreatment of the surface, doping density, threading dislocation density, excitation power density, and sample temperature. By means of temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements, we observed that at least two different processes at the semiconductor surface affect the non-radiative surface recombination during illumination. The first process leads to an irreversible decrease in photoluminescence intensity and is dominant around room temperature, and the second process leads to a delayed increase in intensity and becomes dominant around T = 150–200 K. Both processes become slower when the sample temperature decreases from room temperature. They cease for T < 150 K. Stable photoluminescence intensity at arbitrary sample temperature was obtained by passivating the analyzed layer with an epitaxially grown AlN cap layer.

  16. Field-Induced Defect Morphology in Ni-gate AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    mobility transistors. VC 2013 AIP Publishing LLC. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4813535] AlGaN/ GaN high electron mobility transistors ( HEMTs ) remain...interactions could enhance the reliability of AlGaN/ GaN HEMTs by circumventing the defect formation conditions and preventing device degradation...AlGaN/ GaN HEMTs used for this work were all grown on the same semi-insulating 6H-SiC substrate and received the same processing. An AlN nucleation layer

  17. Properties of impurity-bearing ferrihydrite I. Effects of Al content and precipitation rate on the structure of 2-line ferrihydrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cismasu, A. Cristina; Michel, F. Marc; Stebbins, Jonathan F.; Levard, Clément; Brown, Jr., Gordon E. (Stanford)

    2012-10-11

    The association of Al with ferrihydrite (Fh) may have a considerable effect on the composition, structure, and surface properties of Fh nanoparticles, and thus impact its reactivity and interaction with pollutant species. Aluminous Fh is abundant in natural environments, but the mode of association of Al with this nanomineral is not yet fully understood. Al{sup 3+} speciation may vary from true chemical substitution for Fe{sup 3+}, to adsorption or surface precipitation, and/or to formation of a mixture of two (or more) individual nanoscale phases. The conditions of formation (i.e. slow vs. rapid precipitation) may also affect the nature of Fh nanoparticles in terms of their crystallinity, phase purity, and Al speciation. In this study we used a variety of laboratory (TEM, NMR, ICP-AES) and synchrotron-based techniques (X-ray total scattering and PDF analysis, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, Al K-edge XANES spectroscopy) to characterize two synthetic Al-bearing Fh series formed at different precipitation rates in the presence of 5-40 mol% Al. We find that Al is dominantly octahedrally coordinated in the synthetic Fh samples and that up to 20-30 mol% Al substitutes for Fe in the Fh structure, regardless of the synthesis method we used. Formation of separate aluminous phases (e.g., gibbsite) was most significant at Al concentrations above 30 mol% Al in slowly precipitated samples. However, small amounts (<6% of total Al) of Al-hydroxide phases were also detected by NMR spectroscopy in samples with lower Al content (as low as 15 mol% Al), particularly in the Fh series that was precipitated slowly. Furthermore, it appears that the amount of Al incorporated in Fh is not affected by the synthesis methods we used and is more likely controlled by the accumulated strain caused by Al substitution in the Fh lattice. Given the prevalence of naturally occurring aluminous ferrihydrite, assumptions about ferrihydrite reactivity in natural environments should consider the

  18. Improved characteristics of ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes with step-graded quantum barriers close to waveguide layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xuefen; Li, Shuping; Kang, Junyong

    2016-09-01

    Ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes (LDs) with step-graded quantum barriers (QBs) instead of conventional first and last QBs close to waveguide layers are proposed. The characteristics of this type of laser diodes are numerically investigated by using the software PICS3D and it is found that the performances of these LDs are greatly improved. The results indicates that the structure with step-graded QBs exhibits higher output light power, slope efficiency and emission intensity, as well as lower series resistance and threshold current density under the identical condition, compared with conventional LD structure.

  19. Far field photoluminescence imaging of single AlGaN nanowire in the sub-wavelength scale using confinement of polarized light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivadasan, A.K.; Dhara, Sandip [Nanomaterials and Sensors Section, Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Kalpakkam (India); Sardar, Manas [Theoretical Studies Section, Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2017-03-15

    Till now the nanoscale focusing and imaging in the sub-diffraction limit is achieved mainly with the help of plasmonic field enhancement by confining the light assisted with noble metal nanostructures. Using far field imaging technique, we have recorded polarized spectroscopic photoluminescence (PL) imaging of a single AlGaN nanowire (NW) of diameter ∝100 nm using confinement of polarized light. It is found that the PL from a single NW is influenced by the proximity to other NWs. The PL intensity is proportional to 1/(l x d), where l and d are the average NW length and separation between the NWs, respectively. We suggest that the proximity induced PL intensity enhancement can be understood by assuming the existence of reasonably long lived photons in the intervening space between the NWs. A nonzero non-equilibrium population of such photons may cause stimulated emission leading to the enhancement of PL emission with the intensity proportional to 1/(l x d). The enhancement of PL emission facilitates far field spectroscopic imaging of a single semiconductor AlGaN NW of sub-wavelength dimension. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Broadband biphoton generation and statistics of quantum light in the UV-visible range in an AlGaN microring resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leonardis, Francesco; Soref, Richard A; Soltani, Mohammad; Passaro, Vittorio M N

    2017-09-12

    We present a physical investigation on the generation of correlated photon pairs that are broadly spaced in the ultraviolet (UV) and visible spectrum on a AlGaN/AlN integrated photonic platform which is optically transparent at these wavelengths. Using spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) in an AlGaN microring resonator, we show design techniques to satisfy the phase matching condition between the optical pump, the signal, and idler photon pairs, a condition which is essential and is a key hurdle when operating at short wavelength due to the strong normal dispersion of the material. Such UV-visible photon pairs are quite beneficial for interaction with qubit ions that are mostly in this wavelength range, and will enable heralding the photon-ion interaction. As a target application example, we present the systematic AlGaN microresonator design for generating signal and idler photon pairs using a blue wavelength pump, while the signal appears at the transition of ytterbium ion ((171)Yb(+), 369.5 nm) and the idler appears in the far blue or green range. The photon pairs have minimal crosstalk to the pump power due to their broad spacing in spectral wavelength, thereby relaxing the design of on-chip integrated filters for separating pump, signal and idler.

  1. Strain dependence on polarization properties of AlGaN and AlGaN-based ultraviolet lasers grown on AlN substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Zachary, E-mail: zabryan@ncsu.edu; Bryan, Isaac; Sitar, Zlatko; Collazo, Ramón [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Mita, Seiji [HexaTech, Inc., 991 Aviation Pkwy., Suite 800, Morrisville, North Carolina 27560 (United States); Tweedie, James [Adroit Materials, 2054 Kildaire Farm Rd., Suite 205, Cary, North Carolina 27518 (United States)

    2015-06-08

    Since the band ordering in AlGaN has a profound effect on the performance of UVC light emitting diodes (LEDs) and even determines the feasibility of surface emitting lasers, the polarization properties of emitted light from c-oriented AlGaN and AlGaN-based laser structures were studied over the whole composition range, as well as various strain states, quantum confinements, and carrier densities. A quantitative relationship between the theoretical valence band separation, determined using k•p theory, and the experimentally measured degree of polarization is presented. Next to composition, strain was found to have the largest influence on the degree of polarization while all other factors were practically insignificant. The lowest crossover point from the transverse electric to transverse magnetic polarized emission of 245 nm was found for structures pseudomorphically grown on AlN substrates. This finding has significant implications toward the efficiency and feasibility of surface emitting devices below this wavelength.

  2. Persistent photoconductivity in AlGaN/GaN heterojunction channels caused by the ionization of deep levels in the AlGaN barrier layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, H.; Akiyama, Y.; Niwa, R.; Sakashita, H.; Sakaki, H. [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan); Kachi, T. [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Sugimoto, M. [Toyota Motor Corporation, 543 Kirigahora, Nishihirose-cho, Toyota, Aichi 470-0309 (Japan)

    2013-12-04

    Time-dependent responses of drain current (I{sub d}) in an AlGaN/GaN HEMT under UV (3.3 eV) and red (2.0 eV) light illumination have been studied at 300 K and 250 K. UV illumination enhances I{sub d} by about 10 %, indicating that the density of two-dimensional electrons is raised by about 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}. When UV light is turned off at 300 K, a part of increased I{sub d} decays quickly but the other part of increment is persistent, showing a slow decay. At 250 K, the majority of increment remains persistent. It is found that such a persistent increase of I{sub d} at 250 K can be partially erased by the illumination of red light. These photo-responses are explained by a simple band-bending model in which deep levels in the AlGaN barrier get positively charged by the UV light, resulting in a parabolic band bending in the AlGaN layer, while some potion of those deep levels are neutralized by the red light.

  3. GaN/AlGaN nanocavities with AlN/GaN Bragg reflectors grown in AlGaN nanocolumns by plasma assisted MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristic, J.; Calleja, E.; Fernandez-Garrido, S. [ISOM and Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Trampert, A.; Jahn, U.; Ploog, K.H. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Povoloskyi, M.; Carlo, A. Di [Dept. di Ingegneria Elettronica, Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vegata' ' , 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2005-02-01

    The successful growth of AlGaN nanocolumns by plasma assisted MBE, with different Al compositions, opened the way for achieving nano-heterostructures including GaN Quantum Discs (QDss). The luminescence emission from the QDss embedded in the AlGaN nanocolumns was tuned by changing their thickness and/or the Al composition of the barriers. Such a nano-heterostructure was then enclosed between two AlN/GaN Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBR), with nominal reflectivities of 90 and 50%. The choice of the AlN/GaN bilayers for the DBRs allowed to reach these reflectivity values with a significantly lower number of periods, as compared to the AlGaN/GaN stacks. The resulting nanocavity has been characterized by cathodoluminescence (CL), and Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM, TEM). CL measurements show that the emission from the nanocavity is quite close to the targeted value. TEM data points to the need of optimized conditions to grow AlN columnar layers in order to avoid the lateral overgrowth in the columnar nanostructure. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. An Investigation of Carbon-Doping-Induced Current Collapse in GaN-on-Si High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Jye Tzou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the successful fabrication of a GaN-on-Si high electron mobility transistor (HEMT with a 1702 V breakdown voltage (BV and low current collapse. The strain and threading dislocation density were well-controlled by 100 pairs of AlN/GaN superlattice buffer layers. Relative to the carbon-doped GaN spacer layer, we grew the AlGaN back barrier layer at a high temperature, resulting in a low carbon-doping concentration. The high-bandgap AlGaN provided an effective barrier for blocking leakage from the channel to substrate, leading to a BV comparable to the ordinary carbon-doped GaN HEMTs. In addition, the AlGaN back barrier showed a low dispersion of transiently pulsed ID under substrate bias, implying that the buffer traps were effectively suppressed. Therefore, we obtained a low-dynamic on-resistance with this AlGaN back barrier. These two approaches of high BV with low current collapse improved the device performance, yielding a device that is reliable in power device applications.

  5. Predicted bond length variation in wurtzite and zinc-blende InGaN and AlGaN alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, T.; Zunger, Alex

    1999-01-01

    Valence force field simulations utilizing large supercells are used to investigate the bond lengths in wurtzite and zinc-blende InxGa1-xN and AlxGa1-xN random alloys. We find that (i) while the first-neighbor cation-anion shell is split into two distinct values in both wurtzite and zinc-blende alloys (RGa-N1≠RIn-N1), the second-neighbor cation-anion bonds are equal (RGa-N2=RIn-N2). (ii) The second-neighbor cation-anion bonds exhibit a crucial difference between wurtzite and zinc-blende binary structures: in wurtzite we find two bond distances which differ in length by 13% while in the zinc-blende structure there is only one bond length. This splitting is preserved in the alloy, and acts as a fingerprint, distinguishing the wurtzite from the zinc-blende structure. (iii) The small splitting of the first-neighbor cation-anion bonds in the wurtzite structure due to nonideal c/a ratio is preserved in the alloy, but is obscured by the bond length broadening. (iv) The cation-cation bond lengths exhibit three distinct values in the alloy (Ga-Ga, Ga-In, and In-In), while the anion-anion bonds are split into two values corresponding to N-Ga-N and N-In-N. (v) The cation-related splitting of the bonds and alloy broadening are considerably larger in InGaN alloy than in AlGaN alloy due to larger mismatch between the binary compounds. (vi) The calculated first-neighbor cation-anion and cation-cation bond lengths in InxGa1-xN alloy are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The remaining bond lengths are provided as predictions. In particular, the predicted splitting for the second-neighbor cation-anion bonds in the wurtzite structure awaits experimental testing.

  6. Predicted bond length variation in wurtzite and zinc-blende InGaN and AlGaN alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattila, T.; Zunger, A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado, 80401 (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Valence force field simulations utilizing large supercells are used to investigate the bond lengths in wurtzite and zinc-blende In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}N and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}N random alloys. We find that (i) while the first-neighbor cation{endash}anion shell is split into two distinct values in both wurtzite and zinc-blende alloys (R{sub Ga{minus}N{sub 1}}{ne}R{sub In{minus}N{sub 1}}), the second-neighbor cation{endash}anion bonds are equal (R{sub Ga{minus}N{sub 2}}=R{sub In{minus}N{sub 2}}). (ii) The second-neighbor cation{endash}anion bonds exhibit a crucial difference between wurtzite and zinc-blende binary structures: in wurtzite we find {ital two} bond distances which differ in length by 13{percent} while in the zinc-blende structure there is only {ital one} bond length. This splitting is preserved in the alloy, and acts as a fingerprint, distinguishing the wurtzite from the zinc-blende structure. (iii) The small splitting of the first-neighbor cation{endash}anion bonds in the wurtzite structure due to nonideal {ital c/a} ratio is preserved in the alloy, but is obscured by the bond length broadening. (iv) The cation{endash}cation bond lengths exhibit three distinct values in the alloy (Ga{endash}Ga, Ga{endash}In, and In{endash}In), while the anion{endash}anion bonds are split into two values corresponding to N{endash}Ga{endash}N and N{endash}In{endash}N. (v) The cation{endash}related splitting of the bonds and alloy broadening are considerably larger in InGaN alloy than in AlGaN alloy due to larger mismatch between the binary compounds. (vi) The calculated first-neighbor cation{endash}anion and cation{endash}cation bond lengths in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}N alloy are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The remaining bond lengths are provided as predictions. In particular, the predicted splitting for the second-neighbor cation{endash}anion bonds in the wurtzite structure awaits experimental testing. {copyright} {ital 1999

  7. Effect of Al content on delta phase microstructure evolution in Inconel 718 alloys%Al含量对Inconel 718合金中δ相组织演变的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周喜顺; 何亚斌; 刘建辉; 辛士进; 王东; 崔艳芳; 李鹏; 董莹

    2012-01-01

    The dissolution mechanism and morphology feature of 8 phase in standard as-heated 718 alloys with three different Al contents for different holding times were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Thermo-Calc software. The fraction of 8 phase was counted using the Photoshop software. The results indicate that the dissolution of 8 phase in 718 alloy with lower Al content is mainly characterized as the dissolution from long needle shape to short rod or granule, and the 8 phase in the grains of 718 alloys with higher Al content dissolves firstly while the dissolution of 8 phase at grain boundaries is slower. So the migration of grain boundary is inhibited, the grain size of 718 alloys can be controlled effectively to some extent. The fraction of 8 phase decreases gradually with the increase of temperature. The dissolution temperature of 8 phase can be increased with the increase of Al content in 718 alloys but the dissolution velocity decreases with it.%采用扫描电子显微镜和Thermo-Calc热力学计算等方法,研究3种不同Al含量的Inconel 718合金在标准热处理和不同保温时间下δ相的形貌特征、溶解行为及3种合金中δ相含量的变化.结果表明:A1含量低的合金中δ相溶解特征主要表现为沿针状δ相的长度方向断开,在短时间内溶解为短棒状及颗粒状;Al含量高的合金中δ相溶解优先从晶内开始,其晶界上的δ相溶解缓慢,对抑制晶界迁移,控制奥氏体晶粒长大有重要作用;Inconel 718合金中δ相含量随溶解温度的提高而降低,Al含量提高使合金中δ相的溶解速度减慢,溶解温度提高.

  8. Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on Si substrates by inserting thin AlGaN interlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shigeya; Yoshida, Hisashi; Uesugi, Kenjiro; Ito, Toshihide; Okada, Aoi; Nunoue, Shinya

    2016-09-01

    We have grown blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) having InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) with thin AlyGa1-yN (0 transmission electron microscopy observations and three-dimensional atom probe analysis that 1-nm-thick interlayers with an AlN mole fraction of less than y = 0.3 were continuously formed between GaN barriers and InGaN wells, and that the AlN mole fraction up to y = 0.15 could be consistently controlled. The external quantum efficiency of the blue LED was enhanced in the low-current-density region (≤45 A/cm2) but reduced in the high-current-density region by the insertion of the thin Al0.15Ga0.85N interlayers in the MQWs. We also found that reductions in both forward voltage and wavelength shift with current were achieved by inserting the interlayers even though the inserted AlGaN layers had potential higher than that of the GaN barriers. The obtained peak wall-plug efficiency was 83% at room temperature. We suggest that the enhanced electroluminescence (EL) performance was caused by the introduction of polarization-induced hole carriers in the InGaN wells on the side adjacent to the thin AlGaN/InGaN interface and efficient electron carrier transport through multiple wells. This model is supported by temperature-dependent EL properties and band-diagram simulations. We also found that inserting the interlayers brought about a reduction in the Shockley-Read-Hall nonradiative recombination component, corresponding to the shrinkage of V-defects. This is another conceivable reason for the observed performance enhancement.

  9. Low temperature p-type doping of (Al)GaN layers using ammonia molecular beam epitaxy for InGaN laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinverni, M., E-mail: marco.malinverni@epfl.ch; Lamy, J.-M.; Martin, D.; Grandjean, N. [ICMP, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Feltin, E.; Dorsaz, J. [NOVAGAN AG, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Castiglia, A.; Rossetti, M.; Duelk, M.; Vélez, C. [EXALOS AG, CH-8952 Schlieren (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    We demonstrate state-of-the-art p-type (Al)GaN layers deposited at low temperature (740 °C) by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy (NH{sub 3}-MBE) to be used as top cladding of laser diodes (LDs) with the aim of further reducing the thermal budget on the InGaN quantum well active region. Typical p-type GaN resistivities and contact resistances are 0.4 Ω cm and 5 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm{sup 2}, respectively. As a test bed, we fabricated a hybrid laser structure emitting at 400 nm combining n-type AlGaN cladding and InGaN active region grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy, with the p-doped waveguide and cladding layers grown by NH{sub 3}-MBE. Single-mode ridge-waveguide LD exhibits a threshold voltage as low as 4.3 V for an 800 × 2 μm{sup 2} ridge dimension and a threshold current density of ∼5 kA cm{sup −2} in continuous wave operation. The series resistance of the device is 6 Ω and the resistivity is 1.5 Ω cm, confirming thereby the excellent electrical properties of p-type Al{sub 0.06}Ga{sub 0.94}N:Mg despite the low growth temperature.

  10. Effect of Al Content in Stainless Steel 316L on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties%Al含量对316L不锈钢显微组织和力学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 秦春霞; 何国国

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Al content on the microstructures,mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the stainless steel 316L was investigated.The results show that the main existing forms of Al element in the hot-rolled steel 316L are solid solution and second phase Al4C3.The corrosion resistance,yield and tensile strength increase with the increase of the Al content,but the plasticity of the steel decreases.%研究了Al含量对316L不锈钢显微组织、力学性能和抗腐蚀性能的影响.结果表明,Al元素在热轧态316L不锈钢中的主要存在形式是固溶和第二相Al4C3.随着Al含量的增加,316L不锈钢的耐蚀性、屈服强度和抗拉强度升高,但其塑性降低.

  11. Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Power Electronics (FY11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    for HPE GaN high electron mobility transistors ( HEMTs ) compared to SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). Although a few...Figure 16. Asymmetric rocking curve for an HVPE film grown on an HVPE substrate. ............19 Figure 17. Schematic of a GaN /AlGaN HEMT structure grown...frequency (RF) HEMTs . These considerable investments can be leveraged for GaN HPE. Some people are concerned about the relative scarcity of gallium

  12. Strain and crystalline defects in epitaxial GaN layers studied by high-resolution X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chierchia, Rosa

    2007-07-01

    This thesis treats strain and dislocations in MOVPE GaN layers. The mosaic structure of metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE)-grown GaN layers was studied in dependence on the grain diameter utilizing high-resolution XRD. Different models for the defect structure were analyzed, the edge type TD densities were calculated under the assumption that the dislocations are not randomly distributed but localized at the grain boundaries. Moreover, in situ measurements have shown that the layers are under tension in the c-plane when a nucleation layer is used. The second part of this thesis treats a particular approach to reduce dislocations in MOVPE GaN layers, i.e. maskless pendeo epitaxial growth of MOVPE GAN layers. FE simulations assuming the strain to be completely induced during cooling of the structures after growth agree only partly with experimental data. The strain state of single layers and stripes of GaN grown on SiC was studied to exploit the evolution of the strain in the different phases of the PE growth. The biaxial compressive stress, due to the lattice mismatch between the GaN layer and the AlN nucleation layer is plastically relieved before overgrowth. Temperature dependent measurements show a linear reduction of the wing tilt with increasing temperature varying from sample to sample. Bent TDs have been observed in TEM images of maskless PE samples. Stress induced from the mismatch between the AlN buffer layer and the GaN also contributes to the remaining part of the wing tilt not relieved thermally. It has to be noted that the rest tilt value varies from sample to sample at the growth temperature. In fact some of the data indicate that the wing tilt decreases with increasing V/III ratio. In the last Chapter the application of X-ray techniques for the analysis of strain and composition in layers of inhomogeneous composition is explored. In the first part of the Chapter the strain state and the Al content of AlGaN buffer layers grown directly on (0001

  13. Influence of Al content on machinability of AZ series Mg alloys%铝含量对AZ系列镁合金机械加工性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Birol AKYUZ

    2013-01-01

    研究铝含量对AZ系列铸造铝合金机械加工性能的影响。为评价该合金的机械加工性能,测量切削操作过程中的切削力以及表面粗糙度,以及研究显微组织和拉伸性能。结果表明:添加2%铝含量的镁合金具有最佳的拉伸性能。随着铝含量增加到2%以上,由于晶界上析出金属间化合物β-Mg17Al12,切削力会随延展性的降低而降低。切削力也会随着切削速度的增加而增大,这是由于在加工过程中切削工具的尖端有侧面生成。%Influence of Al content on the machinability of AZ series cast Mg alloys was investigated. In order to evaluate the machinability of the alloys, measurements of the cutting forces during turning operations and surface roughness were carried out as well as considering the microstructure and tensile properties. The results show that maximum tensile properties are observed with 2%(mass fraction) Al addition to Mg. As the Al content of the alloy increases above 2%, the cutting forces tend to reduce along with the ductility owing to the grain boundary precipitation of intermetallic phase (β-Mg17Al12). Cutting forces are able to increase as the cutting speed increases for all the alloys studied, and it’s attributed to flank built up at the tip of the cutting tool during machining.

  14. High extraction efficiency ultraviolet light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierer, Jonathan; Montano, Ines; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-11-24

    Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with tailored AlGaN quantum wells can achieve high extraction efficiency. For efficient bottom light extraction, parallel polarized light is preferred, because it propagates predominately perpendicular to the QW plane and into the typical and more efficient light escape cones. This is favored over perpendicular polarized light that propagates along the QW plane which requires multiple, lossy bounces before extraction. The thickness and carrier density of AlGaN QW layers have a strong influence on the valence subband structure, and the resulting optical polarization and light extraction of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes. At Al>0.3, thinner QW layers (efficiently inject carriers in all the QWs, are preferred.

  15. Photoelectrochemical etching and oxidation technique for AlGaN and application in heterostructure field-effect transistorsi; Photoelektrochemische Aetz- und Oxidationstechnik fuer AlGaN und Anwendung in Heterostruktur-Feldeffekttransistoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotter, T.

    2005-07-01

    This work describes the development of novel photoelectrochemical technologies applied to polar and chemically inert GaN-based single layers and heterostructures. First, an understanding of the electronic reactions at the interface between the wide band-gap nitride semiconductor and the electrolyte is developed. By excitation of the semiconductor surface with UV radiation a low-energy and at the same time anisotropic etch process for n-type material is established. The nature of the threading dislocations in heteroepitaxially grown layers makes it possible to model these by a suitable choice of the etch parameters. So-called whiskers are formed and detected by scanning electron microscopy. Their density serves as a measure for the density of threading dislocations and the material quality. A new phase at the boundary surface is established and identified stoichiometrically as Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}, when changing the photoelectrochemical etch regime of GaN from reaction-limited to diffusion-limited. With the aid of these new native oxide films the surface morphology of etched structures is improved crucially. In the following, the suitability of the photoelectrochemically generated oxide films as dielectric in field-effect applications is reflected by electrical characterization of corresponding MOS structures for the first time. The newly developed oxide films are successfully implemented into the processing sequence of heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) using a tungsten gate metallization scheme. HFETs with an dielectrically isolated gate electrode (MOS-HFETs) show high drain currents (>500 mA/mm) together with high extrinsic and intrinsic transconductances of 62 and 142 mS/mm, respectively. The new devices prove to be capable to high-voltage (V{sub ds}=100 V) and high-temperature operation (T=300 C) and high-power (12.5 W/mm CW). Other device concepts (e.g. gate recessing) are discussed and experimentally verified. Finally, an electrode-less etch

  16. Raman scattering in GaN, AlN and AlGaN. Basic material properties, processing and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, J M

    2002-01-01

    dependence of the phonon frequencies and lifetimes was measured from 10 K to 1275 K. Empirical fitting and theoretical modelling of the temperature dependence was performed. The results have application for the monitoring of temperature in (Ga/AI)N. The E sub 2 (high) phonon frequency of GaN measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor local temperatures in active AIGaN/GaN hetero-structure field effect transistor devices (HFETs). The temperature rise in the active area of devices on sapphire substrates was significantly higher than for devices on 4H-SiC substrates. Temperatures were monitored to the point of device failure to gain insight into degradation mechanisms. GaN, AIN and AIGaN are very promising materials for high-power, high-temperature and high-frequency electronic device applications but many of their material properties and the effects of processing steps for device fabrication have not yet been fully investigated. AIGaN/GaN films were annealed at temperatures of 800 to 1300 deg C in...

  17. Demonstration of InAlN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistors with an enhanced breakdown voltage by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, JunShuai, E-mail: junshuaixue@hotmail.com; Zhang, JinCheng; Hao, Yue [Key Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2016-01-04

    In this work, InAlN/AlGaN heterostructures employing wider bandgap AlGaN instead of conventional GaN channel were grown on sapphire substrate by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition, where the nominal Al composition in InAlN barrier and AlGaN channel were chosen to be 83% and 5%, respectively, to achieve close lattice-matched condition. An electron mobility of 511 cm{sup 2}/V s along with a sheet carrier density of 1.88 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} were revealed in the prepared heterostructures, both of which were lower compared with lattice-matched InAlN/GaN due to increased intrinsic alloy disorder scattering resulting from AlGaN channel and compressively piezoelectric polarization in barrier, respectively. While the high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) processed on these structures not only exhibited a sufficiently high drain output current density of 854 mA/mm but also demonstrated a significantly enhanced breakdown voltage of 87 V, which is twice higher than that of reported InAlN/GaN HEMT with the same device dimension, potential characteristics for high-voltage operation of GaN-based electronic devices.

  18. Demonstration of InAlN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistors with an enhanced breakdown voltage by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, JunShuai; Zhang, JinCheng; Hao, Yue

    2016-01-01

    In this work, InAlN/AlGaN heterostructures employing wider bandgap AlGaN instead of conventional GaN channel were grown on sapphire substrate by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition, where the nominal Al composition in InAlN barrier and AlGaN channel were chosen to be 83% and 5%, respectively, to achieve close lattice-matched condition. An electron mobility of 511 cm2/V s along with a sheet carrier density of 1.88 × 1013 cm-2 were revealed in the prepared heterostructures, both of which were lower compared with lattice-matched InAlN/GaN due to increased intrinsic alloy disorder scattering resulting from AlGaN channel and compressively piezoelectric polarization in barrier, respectively. While the high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) processed on these structures not only exhibited a sufficiently high drain output current density of 854 mA/mm but also demonstrated a significantly enhanced breakdown voltage of 87 V, which is twice higher than that of reported InAlN/GaN HEMT with the same device dimension, potential characteristics for high-voltage operation of GaN-based electronic devices.

  19. Effect of OFF-state stress induced electric field on trapping in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors on Si (111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, M. J.; Ng, G. I.; Arulkumaran, S.; Manoj Kumar, C. M.; Ranjan, K.; Vicknesh, S.; Foo, S. C.; Syamal, B.; Zhou, X.

    2015-02-01

    The influence of electric field (EF) on the dynamic ON-resistance (dyn-RDS[ON]) and threshold-voltage shift (ΔVth) of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors on Si has been investigated using pulsed current-voltage (IDS-VDS) and drain current (ID) transients. Different EF was realized with devices of different gate-drain spacing (Lgd) under the same OFF-state stress. Under high-EF (Lgd = 2 μm), the devices exhibited higher dyn-RDS[ON] degradation but a small ΔVth (˜120 mV). However, at low-EF (Lgd = 5 μm), smaller dyn-RDS[ON] degradation but a larger ΔVth (˜380 mV) was observed. Our analysis shows that under OFF-state stress, the gate electrons are injected and trapped in the AlGaN barrier by tunnelling-assisted Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanism. Under high-EF, trapping spreads towards the gate-drain access region of the AlGaN barrier causing dyn-RDS[ON] degradation, whereas under low-EF, trapping is mostly confined under the gate causing ΔVth. A trap with activation energy 0.33 eV was identified in the AlGaN barrier by ID-transient measurements. The influence of EF on trapping was also verified by Silvaco TCAD simulations.

  20. Kinetics of AlGaN metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy for deep-UV applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanova, Anna; Yakovlev, Eugene; Jeschke, Joerg; Knauer, Arne; Weyers, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Al x Ga1- x N layers with high aluminum content of x ˜ 0.68-0.73 were grown in an 11 × 2-in. AIX 2400 G3 HT planetary reactor by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. Growth trends are analyzed by reaction-transport modeling in a wide range of growth conditions. Gas-phase nucleation resulting in both Al and Ga consumption into nanoparticles is a major mechanism affecting the growth efficiencies of AlN and GaN. Process windows suitable to grow multiple quantum wells (MQWs) for deep UV applications are found for a range of pressures, temperatures, and V/III ratios.

  1. Effect of Al content on thermal stability of TiAlN coatings%Al含量对TiAlN涂层热稳定性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雨萌; 朱丽慧; 倪旺阳; 刘一雄

    2013-01-01

    Ti1-xAlxN coatings (x=0.5,0.55 and 0.6) were deposited on WC-Co cemented carbides by cathode arc evaporation and then annealed at 900 ℃ in vacuum for 0.5-4 h.X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Vickers hardness tester were used to study the effect of Al content on the structure,hardness and thermal stability of TiAlN coatings.The results show Ti0.5Al0.5N and Ti0.45Al0.55N exhibit single-phase face-centered cubic structure,while Ti0.4Al0.6N is composed of face-centered cubic (fcc) TiAlN and close-packed hexagonal (hcp) AlN.During the annealing,TiAlN coatings undergo the phase transformation as follows:fcc-TiAlN→fcc-AlN+fcc-TiN→hcp-AlN+fcc-TiN,and the hardness decreases gradually.Ti0.45Al0.55N coating exhibits excellent thermal stability,since it keeps stable after annealed for relatively long time,and possesses the highest hardness.In contrast,the existence of hcp-AlN in Ti0.4Al0.6N coating results in slightly lower hardness,earlier decomposition and the worst thermal stability.The optimal composition of TiAlN coating is x=0.55.%采用阴极电弧蒸镀在WC-Co硬质合金基体上沉积Ti1-xAlxN涂层(x=0.5、0.55和0.6),并对涂层试样在900℃下真空退火0.5~4 h.采用X线衍射仪(XRD)和显微维氏硬度计分析比较退火前后TiAlN涂层物相及硬度,研究Al含量对涂层结构、硬度和热稳定性能的影响.研究结果表明:Ti0.5Al0.5N和Ti0.45Al0.55N为单相面心立方结构,Ti0.4Al0.6N为面心立方(fcc)TiAlN和密排六方(hcp)AlN双相结构.涂层退火时发生分解,先析出介稳相fcc-AlN,再转变为稳定相hcp-AlN和fcc-TiN,硬度逐渐下降.Ti0.45Al0.55N涂层高温下能保持较长时间的稳定,退火后仍具有最高的硬度,表现出优异的热稳定性;而Ti0.4Al0.6N涂层中因存在hcp-AlN硬度略低,分解最早,热稳定性最差.当x=0.55时为最佳涂层成分.

  2. Pressure Study of Photoluminescence in GaN/InGaN/ AlGaN Quantum Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, Piotr; Iota, V.; Weinstein, B. A.; Wisniewski, P.; Osinski, M.; Eliseev, P. G.

    1997-03-01

    We have studied the photoluminescence (PL) from two commercial high brightness single quantum well light emitting diodes (Nichia Chem. Industs.) with In_xGa_1-x N (x=0.45 and 0.2) as the active layers under hydrostatic pressures up to 7 GPa. These diodes are the best existing light emitters at short wavelengths, having the emission wavelengths of 430 nm and 530 nm depending on the content of indium in the 30 Åthick quantum wells. Although these devices show a remarkable quality and efficiency (luminosity as high as 12 cd), the mechanism of recombination remains obscure. We discovered that the pressure coefficient for each of the observed PL peaks is dramatically (2-3 times) lower than that of the energy gap of its InGaN active layer. These observations, in conjunction with the fact that the observed emission occurs below the energy gap of the quantum well material, and also considering the anomalous temperature behavior of the emission (peak energy increasing with temperature) suggest the involvement of localized states and exclude a simple band-to-band recombination picture. These localized states may be tentatively attributed to the presence of band tails in the gap which stem from composition fluctuations in the InGaN alloy. vih>(figures)

  3. Characterization of Local Carrier Dynamics in AlN and AlGaN Films using High Spatial- and Time-resolution Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4188 (1996); S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. P. Mack, M. S. Minsky , T. Deguchi, D. Cohen, P. Kozodoy, S. B. Fleischer, S. Keller...x (c) 0.44 0.45 0.46 0.47 S 0 50 100 150 FW HM (m eV ) alloy broadening model (b) (a) A4 A1 After Ref. 16 much remarkable than A1, reflecting...NBE emis- sion of statistically homogeneous AlxGa1-xN according to alloy-broadening model [36]. The dashed line in Fig. 9(b) connects the Sfree

  4. High-efficiency of AlInGaN/Al(In)GaN-delta AlGaN quantum wells for deep-ultraviolet emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Hosni; Ridene, Said

    2016-10-01

    Band structure and optical gain properties of AlInGaN/AlInGaN-delta-AlGaN quantum wells for deep-ultraviolet light emitting and lasers diodes with wavelength λ ∼229 nm and TE-polarized optical gain peak intensity ∼1.7 times larger than the conventional AlInN-delta-GaN was proposed and investigated in this work. The active region is made up of 20 Å staggered Al0.89In0.03Ga0.08N/Al0.8In 0.01Ga0.19N layers with a 3 Å Al0.46Ga0.54N delta layer. The use of the quaternary AlInGaN well layer permits the independent control of the band gap and the lattice parameter, so that the internal electric field induced by polarizations can be reduced and interband transition energy increases. Therefore, we can predict that the optical performance of the AlInGaN-delta-AlGaN is more convenient for an emission in the deep-ultraviolet than that of the conventional AlInN-delta-GaN-based quantum wells.

  5. High-Gain N-Face AlGaN Solar-Blind Avalanche Photodiodes Using a Heterostructure as Separate Absorption and Multiplication Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yin; Cai, Qing; Yang, Lian-Hong; Dong, Ke-Xiu; Chen, Dun-Jun; Lu, Hai; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, You-Dou

    2017-01-01

    Not Available Supported by the State Key Project of Research and Development Plan of China under Grant No 2016YFB0400903, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 61634002, 61274075 and 61474060, the Key Project of Jiangsu Province under Grant No BE2016174, the Anhui University Natural Science Research Project under Grant No KJ2015A153, and the Open Fund of State KeyLab of Optical Technologies on Nano-fabrication and Micro-engineering.

  6. High efficiency improvements in AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with specially designed AlGaN superlattice hole and electron blocking layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xinyan; Sun, Huiqing; Sun, Jie; Yang, Xian; Fan, Xuancong; Zhang, Zhuding; Guo, Zhiyou

    2017-04-01

    AlxGa1-xN/Al0.6Ga0.4N graded superlattice hole blocking layers (GSL-HBLs) and AlxGa1-xN/Al0.6Ga0.4N graded superlattice electron blocking layers (GSL-EBLs) are applied to the traditional AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UVLEDs). This can obtain much higher internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and output power. In order to reveal the underlying physical mechanism of this unique structure, we have studied it numerically by APSYS simulation programs. We find that GSL-EBLs can obviously increase the electron potential height and reduce the hole potential height, produce less electron leakage and more hole injection, leading to higher carrier contration. GSL-HBLs can obviously reduce the hole leakage, reduce the thermal velocity and correspondingly the mean free path of the hot electrons, and increase the electron injection. This enhanced the electron capture efficiency of the multiple quantum wells, which can also help to reduce electron leakage.

  7. The low-temperature mobility of two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jin-Feng; Mao Wei; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Hao Yue

    2008-01-01

    To reveal the internal physics of the low-temperature mobility of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures, we present a theoretical study of the strong dependence of 2DEG mobility on Al content and thickness of AlGaN barrier layer. The theoretical results are compared with one of the highest measured of 2DEG mobility reported for AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. The 2DEG mobility is modelled as a combined effect of the scattering mechanisms including acoustic deformation-potential, piezoelectric, ionized background donor, surface donor, dislocation, alloy disorder and interface roughness scattering. The analyses of the individual scattering processes show that the dominant scattering mechanisms are the alloy disorder scattering and the interface roughness scattering at low temperatures. The variation of 2DEG mobility with the barrier layer parameters results mainly from the change of 2DEG density and distribution. It is suggested that in AlGaN/GaN samples with a high Al content or a thick AlGaN layer, the interface roughness scattering may restrict the 2DEG mobility significantly, for the AlGan/GaN interface roughness increases due to the stress accumulation in AlGaN layer.

  8. Growth of GaN/AlxGa1-xN (x=0.65) Superlattices on Si(111) Substrates Using RF-MBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Superlattices with varying GaN well widths (2, 3, 6, 9 nm) and fixed AlGaN barrier (8 nm) with high Al-content (x=0.65) were grown. Streaky RHEED patterns indicated 2D growth mode for the superlattices. XRD measurements showed multiple satellite peaks corresponding to uniform periodicity of the GaN/AlGaN pairs. The AlGaN barrier XRD peak also shifted with increasing well widths, while the GaN XRD peak was nominally unchanged. Room temperature photoluminescence experiments revealed peak emissions at energies lower than the bulk GaN energy gap. The large red shift with respect to the bulk gap is attributed to significant Stark effect for wide multiple quantum wells.

  9. Optimization on the luminous efficiency in AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by amendment of a superlattice hole reservoir layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian; Sun, Huiqing; Fan, Xuancong; Zhang, Zhuding; Sun, Jie; Yi, Xinyan; Guo, Zhiyou

    2017-01-01

    The application of a p-type superlattice hole reservoir layer in the traditional ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UVLED) can obtain better Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and output power, ease the problem about efficient carrier movement in high Al-content AlGaN material. Through computation and analysis by using the APSYS simulation software, the change of position of the hole reservoir layer can influence the luminous efficiency. The design of a superlattice hole reservoir layer between electron blocking layer (EBL) and p-type AlGaN layer can obviously reduce the hole potential height and increase the electron potential height, produce more hole injection and less electron leak, leading to higher carrier concentration, so as to realize the further increased for carrier recombination rate.

  10. Efficient III-Nitride MIS-HEMT devices with high-κ gate dielectric for high-power switching boost converter circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanbabu, A.; Mohankumar, N.; Godwin Raj, D.; Sarkar, Partha; Saha, Samar K.

    2017-03-01

    The paper reports the results of a systematic theoretical study on efficient recessed-gate, double-heterostructure, and normally-OFF metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs), HfAlOx/AlGaN on Al2O3 substrate. In device architecture, a thin AlGaN layer is used in the AlGaN graded barrier MIS-HEMTs that offers an excellent enhancement-mode device operation with threshold voltage higher than 5.3 V and drain current above 0.64 A/mm along with high on-current/off-current ratio over 107 and subthreshold slope less than 73 mV/dec. In addition, a high OFF-state breakdown voltage of 1200 V is achieved for a device with a gate-to-drain distance and field-plate length of 15 μm and 5.3 μm, respectively at a drain current of 1 mA/mm with a zero gate bias, and the substrate grounded. The numerical device simulation results show that in comparison to a conventional AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT of similar design, a graded barrier MIS-HEMT device exhibits a better interface property, remarkable suppression of leakage current, and a significant improvement of breakdown voltage for HfAlOx gate dielectric. Finally, the benefit of HfAlOx graded-barrier AlGaN MIS-HEMTs based switching devices is evaluated on an ultra-low-loss converter circuit.

  11. Challenges in graphene integration for high-frequency electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannazzo, F.; Fisichella, G.; Greco, G.; Roccaforte, F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art research on graphene (Gr) for high-frequency (RF) devices. After discussing current limitations of lateral Gr RF transistors, novel vertical devices concepts such as the Gr Base Hot Electron Transistor (GBHET) will be introduced and the main challenges in Gr integration within these architectures will be discussed. In particular, a GBHET device based on Gr/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure will be considered. An approach to the fabrication of this heterostructure by transfer of CVD grown Gr on copper to the AlGaN surface will be presented. The morphological and electrical properties of this system have been investigated at nanoscale by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM). In particular, local current-voltage measurements by the CAFM probe revealed the formation of a Schottky contact with low barrier height (˜0.41 eV) and excellent lateral uniformity between Gr and AlGaN. Basing on the electrical parameters extracted from this characterization, the theoretical performances of a GBHET formed by a metal/Al2O3/Gr/AlGaN/GaN stack have been evaluated.

  12. The effect of Al content, substrate temperature and nitrogen flow rate on optical band gap and optical features of nanostructured TiAlN thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Reza; Parhizkar, Mojtaba; Bidadi, Hassan; Naghshara, Hamid; Hosseini, Seyd Reza; Jafari, Majid

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, TiAlN thin films were prepared by using a dual reactive magnetron sputtering system on fused quartz substrates kept at room temperature and 400 °C; keeping nitrogen flow at 0.51 and 2.78 sccm, various DC and RF powers and the effect of these factors have been studied on the optical properties of the layers. The optical properties including absorption and transmission were studied by a UV-Visible spectrophotometer in the wavelength region (200-1100) nm. By plotting ( αhν)2 and ( αhν)1/2 versus the photon energy hυ, the optical band gap was evaluated. Experimental results show that layers with high percentage of aluminum and nitrogen have higher gap with respect to layers having high titanium percentage. TiAlN thin films deposited with 2.78 sccm nitrogen flow rate possess optical direct band gap in the range of 3.8-5.1 eV and optical indirect band gap in the range of 1.1-3.4 eV. The variation of optical band gap of the films that deposited on the substrate with 400 °C and nitrogen flow rate of 2.78 sccm was different from other layers.

  13. Growth of free-standing bulk wurtzite AlxGa1-xN layers by molecular beam epitaxy using a highly efficient RF plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, S. V.; Staddon, C. R.; Sahonta, S.-L.; Oliver, R. A.; Humphreys, C. J.; Foxon, C. T.

    2016-12-01

    The recent development of group III nitrides allows researchers world-wide to consider AlGaN based light emitting diodes as a possible new alternative deep ultra-violet light source for surface decontamination and water purification. In this paper we will describe our recent results on plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) growth of free-standing wurtzite AlxGa1-xN bulk crystals using the latest model of Riber's highly efficient nitrogen RF plasma source. We have achieved AlGaN growth rates up to 3 μm/h. Wurtzite AlxGa1-xN layers with thicknesses up to 100 μm were successfully grown by PA-MBE on 2-inch and 3-inch GaAs (111)B substrates. After growth the GaAs was subsequently removed using a chemical etch to achieve free-standing AlxGa1-xN wafers. Free-standing bulk AlxGa1-xN wafers with thicknesses in the range 30-100 μm may be used as substrates for further growth of AlxGa1-xN-based structures and devices. High Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-STEM) and Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction (CBED) were employed for detailed structural analysis of AlGaN/GaAs (111)B interface and allowed us to determine the N-polarity of AlGaN layers grown on GaAs (111)B substrates. The novel, high efficiency RF plasma source allowed us to achieve free-standing AlxGa1-xN layers in a single day's growth, making this a commercially viable process.

  14. Effect of OFF-state stress induced electric field on trapping in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors on Si (111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, M. J., E-mail: anand2@e.ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: eging@ntu.edu.sg; Ng, G. I., E-mail: anand2@e.ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: eging@ntu.edu.sg; Syamal, B.; Zhou, X. [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Arulkumaran, S.; Manoj Kumar, C. M.; Ranjan, K.; Vicknesh, S.; Foo, S. C. [Temasek Laboratories@NTU, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, Research Techno Plaza, Singapore 637553 (Singapore)

    2015-02-23

    The influence of electric field (EF) on the dynamic ON-resistance (dyn-R{sub DS[ON]}) and threshold-voltage shift (ΔV{sub th}) of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors on Si has been investigated using pulsed current-voltage (I{sub DS}-V{sub DS}) and drain current (I{sub D}) transients. Different EF was realized with devices of different gate-drain spacing (L{sub gd}) under the same OFF-state stress. Under high-EF (L{sub gd} = 2 μm), the devices exhibited higher dyn-R{sub DS[ON]} degradation but a small ΔV{sub th} (∼120 mV). However, at low-EF (L{sub gd} = 5 μm), smaller dyn-R{sub DS[ON]} degradation but a larger ΔV{sub th} (∼380 mV) was observed. Our analysis shows that under OFF-state stress, the gate electrons are injected and trapped in the AlGaN barrier by tunnelling-assisted Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanism. Under high-EF, trapping spreads towards the gate-drain access region of the AlGaN barrier causing dyn-R{sub DS[ON]} degradation, whereas under low-EF, trapping is mostly confined under the gate causing ΔV{sub th}. A trap with activation energy 0.33 eV was identified in the AlGaN barrier by I{sub D}-transient measurements. The influence of EF on trapping was also verified by Silvaco TCAD simulations.

  15. Effects of high-temperature AIN buffer on the microstructure of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coerekci, S., E-mail: scorekci@kirklareli.edu.tr [K Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I rklareli University, Department of Physics (Turkey); Oeztuerk, M. K. [Gazi University, Department of Physics (Turkey); Yu, Hongbo [Bilkent University, Nanotechnology Research Center (Turkey); Cakmak, M.; Oezcelik, S. [Gazi University, Department of Physics (Turkey); Oezbay, E. [Bilkent University, Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (Turkey)

    2013-06-15

    Effects on AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor structure of a high-temperature AlN buffer on sapphire substrate have been studied by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy techniques. The buffer improves the microstructural quality of GaN epilayer and reduces approximately one order of magnitude the edge-type threading dislocation density. As expected, the buffer also leads an atomically flat surface with a low root-mean-square of 0.25 nm and a step termination density in the range of 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2}. Due to the high-temperature buffer layer, no change on the strain character of the GaN and AlGaN epitaxial layers has been observed. Both epilayers exhibit compressive strain in parallel to the growth direction and tensile strain in perpendicular to the growth direction. However, an high-temperature AlN buffer layer on sapphire substrate in the HEMT structure reduces the tensile stress in the AlGaN layer.

  16. Growth and electrical properties of high-quality Mg-doped P-type A10.2Ga0.8N films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xiaowei; Li Peixian; Xu Shengrui; Hao Yue

    2009-01-01

    The growth of high-performance Mg-doped p-type AlxGa1-xN(X=0.2)using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition is reported.The influence of growth conditions(growth temperature,magnesium flow,and thermal annealing temperature)on the electrical properties of Mg-doped p-type AlxGa1-xN(X=0.2)has been investigated.Using the optimized conditions,we obtained a minimum p-type resistivity of 0.71 Ωcm for p-type AlGaN with 20% Al fraction.

  17. The degradation and recovery properties of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors under direct current reverse step voltage stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Lei; Feng Shi-Wei; Guo Chun-Sheng; Zhu Hui; Wan Ning

    2013-01-01

    Direct current (DC) reverse step voltage stress is applied on the gate of an AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT).Experiments show that parameters degenerate under stress.Large-signal parasitic source/drain resistance (Rs/RD) and gate-source forward I-V characteristics are recoverable after breakdown of the device under test (DUT).Electrons trapped by both the AlGaN barrier trap and the surface state under stress lead to this phenomenon,and surface state recovery is the major reason for the recovery of device parameters.

  18. High electron mobility recovery in AlGaN/GaN 2DEG channels regrown on etched surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Silvia H.; Keller, Stacia; Tahhan, Maher; Li, Haoran; Romanczyk, Brian; DenBaars, Steven P.; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports high two-dimensional electron gas mobility attained from the regrowth of the AlGaN gating layer on ex situ GaN surfaces. To repair etch-damaged GaN surfaces, various pretreatments were conducted via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, followed by a regrown AlGaN/GaN mobility test structure to evaluate the extent of recovery. The developed treatment process that was shown to significantly improve the electron mobility consisted of a N2 + NH3 pre-anneal plus an insertion of a 4 nm or thicker GaN interlayer prior to deposition of the AlGaN gating layer. Using the optimized process, a high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device was fabricated which exhibited a high mobility of 1450 cm2 V-1 s-1 (R sh = 574 ohm/sq) and low dispersion characteristics. The additional inclusion of an in situ Al2O3 dielectric into the regrowth process for MOS-HEMTs still preserved the transport properties near etch-impacted areas.

  19. Growth of silicon-doped Al0.6Ga0.4N with low carbon concentration at high growth rate using high-flow-rate metal organic vapor phase epitaxy reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, Kazutada; Mishima, Akira; Yano, Yoshiki; Tabuchi, Toshiya; Matsumoto, Koh

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between the carbon concentration and electrical characteristics of silicon-doped AlGaN (Al > 0.5) was investigated using a high-flow-rate metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor. The carbon concentration and electrical properties of AlGaN (Al > 0.5) were measured as a function of the growth rate, V/III ratio, and growth temperature. The growth rate of Al0.6Ga0.4N was linearly controlled up to 7.2 µm/h under a constant ammonia (NH3) flow rate. However, a decrease in V/III ratio resulted in an increase in carbon concentration to 8 × 1017 cm-3. With increased growth temperature, the carbon concentration decreased to less than 2 × 1017 cm-3 without showing any reduction in growth rate. As a result, n-type Al0.6Ga0.4N with a carrier concentration of 5.4 × 1018 cm-3 and a resistivity of 2.2 × 10-2 Ω·cm was obtained.

  20. High Performance Enhancement-Mode AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT with Selective Fluorine Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel enhancement-mode (E-mode Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor- (MIS- HEMT with selective fluorine ion (F− treatment is proposed and its mechanism is investigated. The HEMT features the Selective F− treatment both in the AlGaN channel region and in the thick passivation layer between the gate and drain (SFCP-MIS-HEMT. First, the F− in the passivation layer not only extends the depletion region and thus enhances the average electric field (E-field between the gate and drain by the assisted depletion effect but also reduces the E-field peak at the gate end, leading to a higher breakdown voltage (BV. Second, in the AlGaN channel region, the F− region realizes the E-mode and the region without F− maintains a high drain current (ID. Third, MIS structure suppresses the gate leakage current, increasing the gate swing voltage and the BV. Compared with a MIS-HEMT with F− treatment in whole channel (FC-MIS-HEMT, SFCP-MIS-HEMT increases the BV by 46% and the saturation drain current (ID,sat by 28%.

  1. Characterization of Al2O3/GaN/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors with different gate recess depths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xiao-Hua; Pan Cai-Yuan; Yang Li-Yuan; Yu Hui-You; Yang Ling; Quan Si; Wang Hao; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Hao Yue

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, in order to solve the interface-trap issue and enhance the transconductance induced by high-k dielectric in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), we demonstrate better performances of recessed-gate Al2O3 MIS-HEMTs which are fabricated by Fluorine-based Si3N4 etching and chlorinebased AlGaN etching with three etching times (15 s, 17 s and 19 s). The gate leakage current of MIS-HEMT is about three orders of magnitude lower than that of AlGaN/GaN HEMT. Through the recessed-gate etching, the transconductance increases effectively. When the recessed-gate depth is 1.02 nm, the best interface performance with γit=(0.20-1.59) μs and Dit=(0.55-1.08)×1012 cm-2·eV-1 can be obtained. After chlorine-based etching, the interface trap density reduces considerably without generating any new type of trap. The accumulated chlorine ions and the N vacancies in the AlGaN surface caused by the plasma etching can degrade the breakdown and the high frequency performances of devices. By comparing the characteristics of recessed-gate MIS-HEMTs with different etching times, it is found that a low power chlorine-based plasma etching for a short time (15 s in this paper) can enhance the performances of MIS-HEMTs effectively.

  2. GaN-Based High-k Praseodymium Oxide Gate MISFETs with P2S5/(NH42SX + UV Interface Treatment Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wei Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the praseodymium-oxide- (Pr2O3- passivated AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs with high dielectric constant in which the AlGaN Schottky layers are treated with P2S5/(NH42SX + ultraviolet (UV illumination. An electron-beam evaporated Pr2O3 insulator is used instead of traditional plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PECVD, in order to prevent plasma-induced damage to the AlGaN. In this work, the HEMTs are pretreated with P2S5/(NH42SX solution and UV illumination before the gate insulator (Pr2O3 is deposited. Since stable sulfur that is bound to the Ga species can be obtained easily and surface oxygen atoms are reduced by the P2S5/(NH42SX pretreatment, the lowest leakage current is observed in MIS-HEMT. Additionally, a low flicker noise and a low surface roughness (0.38 nm are also obtained using this novel process, which demonstrates its ability to reduce the surface states. Low gate leakage current Pr2O3 and high-k AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs, with P2S5/(NH42SX + UV illumination treatment, are suited to low-noise applications, because of the electron-beam-evaporated insulator and the new chemical pretreatment.

  3. Study of radiation damage in InGaN and AlGaN films induced by 8.9 MeV Bi33+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. M.; Li, C. X.; Zhao, J. T.; Yang, K. J.; Zhang, G. F.; Wang, T. S.; Zhang, C. H.

    2013-06-01

    Homogeneous radiation damage was induced in ˜250-nm-thick In0.18Ga0.82N and Al0.2Ga0.8N films by irradiation with 8.9 MeV Bi33+ ions at room temperature. The ion fluence was in the range from 5 × 1011 to 5 × 1013 cm-2. From the Rutherford backscattering/channeling (RBS/C) measurements, it is shown that Al0.2Ga0.8N had a radiation resistance at least one order of magnitude higher than In0.18Ga0.82N. When the ion fluence was increased from 1 × 1013 to 5 × 1013 cm-2, enhanced surface peaks were observed in the RBS/C spectra for both the In0.18Ga0.82N and Al0.2Ga0.8N films, which may be attributed to the high charge state of the incident ions. Moreover, from the Raman spectra measurements, the evolution of the disorder-related B1 bands and TO-like peaks with the fluence was observed for the In0.18Ga0.82N and Al0.2Ga0.8N films, respectively.

  4. Three-dimensional current collapse imaging of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by electric field-induced optical second-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuno, Takashi; Manaka, Takaaki; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Soejima, Narumasa; Uesugi, Tsutomu; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) current collapse imaging of Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor devices was achieved by a combination of two-dimensional (2D) and depth directional electric field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurements. EFISHG can detect the electric field produced by trapped carriers, which causes the current collapse. In the 2D measurement, the strong second-harmonic (SH) signals appeared within 1 μm from the gate edge on the drain side at 0.8 μs after the transition from the off- to no bias- state in both unpassivated and passivated samples. In the depth measurement, the SH signals were generated mainly from the AlGaN surface region of the unpassivated sample due to the presence of high-density trap sites in the AlGaN layer, and SH signals from bulk GaN region were also detected at 50 μs after the transition from the off- to no bias- state in the passivated sample. The origin of the traps is presumably the nitrogen vacancies in the GaN buffer layer.

  5. Implantation of Y- and Hf-ions into a F-doped Ni-base superalloy improving the oxidation resistance at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zschau, H.-E. [DECHEMA-Forschungsinstitut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); King, F. [Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Institut für Kernphysik, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Galetz, M.C.; Schütze, M. [DECHEMA-Forschungsinstitut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    The surface modification of Ni-base alloys with low Al-contents (between 2 and 5 wt.%) with fluorine leads to the formation of a protective alumina scale under high temperature service conditions. The combined implantation of fluorine and reactive elements (Y, Hf) can increase the adherence of this alumina scale needed for technical applications.

  6. Investigation of passivation effects in AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron-mobility transistor by gate-drain conductance dispersion study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi Zhi-Wei; Chang Yong-Ming; Li Zhi-Ming; Mei Nan; Hu Zhen-Hua; Mao Wei; Hao Yue; Feng Qian; Cao Yan-Rong; Gao Zhi-Yuan; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Ma Xiao-Hua

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the drain current collapse of AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron-mobility transistors(MIS-HEMTs)with NbAlO dielectric by applying dual-pulsed stress to the gate and drain of the device.For NbAlO MIS-HEMT,smaller current collapse is found,especially when the gate static voltage is-8 V.Through a thorough study of the gate-drain conductance dispersion,it is found that the growth of NbAlO can reduce the trap density of the AlGaN surface.Therefore,fewer traps can be filled by gate electrons,and hence the depletion effect in the channel is suppressed effectively.It is proved that the NbAlO gate dielectric can not only decrease gate leakage current but also passivate the AlGaN surface effectively,and weaken the current collapse effect accordingly.

  7. Characterization of GaN/AlGaN epitaxial layers grown by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition for high electron mobility transistor applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhubesh Chander Joshi; Manish Mathew; B C Joshi; D Kumar; C Dhanavantri

    2010-01-01

    GaN and AlGaN epitaxial layers are grown by a metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) system. The crystalline quality of these epitaxially grown layers is studied by different characterization techniques. PL measurements indicate band edge emission peak at 363.8 nm and 312 nm for GaN and AlGaN layers respectively. High resolution XRD (HRXRD) peaks show FWHM of 272 and 296 arcsec for the (0 0 0 2) plane of GaN and GaN in GaN/AlGaN respectively. For GaN buffer layer, the Hall mobility is 346 cm2/V-s and carrier concentration is 4.5 × 1016 /cm3. AFM studies on GaN buffer layer show a dislocation density of 2 × 108/cm2 by wet etching in hot phosphoric acid. The refractive indices of GaN buffer layer on sapphire at 633 nm are 2.3544 and 2.1515 for TE and TM modes respectively.

  8. Study of SiN{sub x}:H{sub y} passivant layers for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo-Cubero, A. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectronicos y Microtecnologia and Dpto. Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gago, R. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Romero, M.F.; Gonzalez-Posada, F.; Brana, A.F.; Munoz, E. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectronicos y Microtecnologia and Dpto. Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, A. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectronicos y Microtecnologia and Dpto. Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Dpto. Electronica, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Alcala, 28805 Alcala de Henares (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    In this work, hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}:H{sub y}) grown by chemical vapour deposition as passivant layers for high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) have been studied. The film composition and bonding structure were determined by ion beam analysis and X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques, respectively. The effects of gas precursors (SiH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} and SiH{sub 4}/NH{sub 3}) and film/substrate interface on the film growth have been addressed. The growth on different substrates (Si, GaN, AlGaN), and the effects of plasma pre-treatments have been studied before the growth and the film growth evolution. Results yield no significant differences in all the analysed samples. This points out the relevant role of SiHn radicals as growth precursor species and that intrinsic characteristics of the SiNx:Hy layers are not affected by the film/substrate interface. Hence, improved performance of HEMT with surface plasma pre-treatments before passivation should be related to extrinsic mechanisms (such as creation of defects in AlGaN surface, removal of the surface contamination or ion-induced roughness). (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Highly color rendering YAG:Ce phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode based on dual -blue emitting active regions%基于双蓝光有源区激发YAG:Ce荧光粉的高显色性白光LED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石培培; 严启荣; 李述体; 章勇

    2012-01-01

    Dual - blue wavelength light - emitting diode (LED) based on mixed InGaN/GaN quantum wells was grown sequentially on the (0001) sapphire substrate by metal - organic chemical vapor deposition ( MOCVD) with p - AlGaN and asymmetry n - AlGaN, respectively. It was found that the asymmetry n - AlGaN layer can improve the distribution uniform of electrons and holes and deduce electron overflow relative to the conventional p - AlGaN, and further reduce the dependence of dual - blue wavelength e-mission spectrum on driving current. In addition, highly color rendering white light emission has been realized from YAG; Ce phosphor - converted white LED based on dual - blue wavelength chip, the color rendering index (CRI) of the corresponding white LED reached 91 at a forward current of 20 mA while that of white LED based on single - blue wavelength chip was only 75.%在(0001)蓝宝石衬底上利用金属有机化学气相沉积系统,分别生长含有p- AlGaN电子阻挡层和反对称n - AlGaN层的双蓝光波长发射的InGaN/GaN混合多量子阱发光二极管(LED).结果发现,与传统的具有p-AlGaN电子阻挡层的双蓝光波长LED相比,这种n- AlGaN层能有效改善电子和空穴在混合多量子阱活性层中的分布均匀性和减少电子溢出,并减弱双蓝光发射光谱对电流的依赖性.此外,基于这种双蓝光波长发射的芯片与YAG:Ce荧光粉封装成白光LED能实现高显色性的白光发射,在20 mA电流驱动下,6500 K色温时显色指数达到91,而基于单蓝光芯片的白光LED显色指数只有75.

  10. Photoluminescence efficiency of BGaN epitaxial layers with high boron content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurkevičius, J.; Mickevičius, J., E-mail: juras.mickevicius@ff.vu.lt; Kadys, A.; Kolenda, M.; Tamulaitis, G.

    2016-07-01

    High-boron-content epitaxial layers of BGaN intended for lattice-matching with AlGaN in UV light emitters were grown on SiC substrate and GaN and AlN templates on sapphire. Photoluminescence (PL) of these layers was studied under quasi-steady-state conditions by varying temperature and excitation intensity. The PL spectra in the samples with different boron content and their dynamics evidence formation of boron-rich regions occupying a small fraction of the total layer volume and acting as the emission killers. The room-temperature PL efficiency of the BGaN epilayers was estimated and shown to drastically decrease at increasing boron content with no significant correlation with either the type of substrate/template or technological conditions of the layer deposition.

  11. Nanoscale investigation of AlGaN/GaN-on-Si high electron mobility transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontserè, A; Pérez-Tomás, A; Placidi, M; Llobet, J; Baron, N; Chenot, S; Cordier, Y; Moreno, J C; Jennings, M R; Gammon, P M; Fisher, C A; Iglesias, V; Porti, M; Bayerl, A; Lanza, M; Nafría, M

    2012-10-05

    AlGaN/GaN HEMTs are devices which are strongly influenced by surface properties such as donor states, roughness or any kind of inhomogeneity. The electron gas is only a few nanometers away from the surface and the transistor forward and reverse currents are considerably affected by any variation of surface property within the atomic scale. Consequently, we have used the technique known as conductive AFM (CAFM) to perform electrical characterization at the nanoscale. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT ohmic (drain and source) and Schottky (gate) contacts were investigated by the CAFM technique. The estimated area of these highly conductive pillars (each of them of approximately 20-50 nm radius) represents around 5% of the total contact area. Analogously, the reverse leakage of the gate Schottky contact at the nanoscale seems to correlate somehow with the topography of the narrow AlGaN barrier regions producing larger currents.

  12. High-performance enhancement-mode Al2O3/InAlGaN/GaN MOS high-electron mobility transistors with a self-aligned gate recessing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Kong, Cen; Zhou, Jianjun; Kong, Yuechan; Chen, Tangsheng

    2017-02-01

    The paper reports high-performance enhancement-mode MOS high-electron mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) based on a quaternary InAlGaN barrier. Self-aligned gate technology is used for gate recessing, dielectric deposition, and gate electrode formation. An improved digital recessing process is developed, and an Al2O3 gate dielectric grown with O2 plasma is used. Compared to results with AlGaN barrier, the fabricated E-mode MOS-HEMT with InAlGaN barrier delivers a record output current density of 1.7 A/mm with a threshold voltage (V TH) of 1.5 V, and a small on-resistance (R on) of 2.0 Ω·mm. Excellent V TH hysteresis and greatly improved gate leakage characteristics are also demonstrated.

  13. 1060-nm Tunable Monolithic High Index Contrast Subwavelength Grating VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Chung, Il-Sug; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2013-01-01

    We present the first tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) where the top distributed Bragg reflector has been completely substituted by an air-cladded high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) mirror. In this way, an extended cavity design can be realized by reducing...... the reflection at the semiconductor #x2013;air interface using an anti-reflective coating (ARC). We demonstrate how the ARC can be integrated in a monolithic structure by oxidizing AlGaAs with high Al-content. The HCG VCSEL has the potential to achieve polarization stable single-mode output with high tuning...

  14. Numerical study of high-power semiconductor lasers for operation at sub-zero temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, K. H.; Frevert, C.; Crump, P.; Erbert, G.; Wenzel, H.

    2017-04-01

    We present results on the impact of the Al-content in the waveguide structure on the electro-optical characteristics of 9xx nm, GaAs-based high-power lasers operated at room (300 K) and at sub-zero (200 K) heat sink temperatures. Experimentally a strong improvement of conversion efficiency and output power has been found if the lasers are cooled down. Numerical simulations using a software tool which solves the thermo-dynamic based drift-diffusion equations are able to reproduce the experimental findings. The reasons for the improved performance at lower temperatures are the enhancement of the modal gain and the reduced accumulation of electrons in the p-confinement layers resulting in a reduction of the leakage current. The latter allows the realization of lasers with a reduced Al content having a smaller series resistance and thus further enlarged conversion efficiency at sub-zero temperatures.

  15. Investigation of gate-diode degradation in normally-off p-GaN/AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapajna, M.; Hilt, O.; Bahat-Treidel, E.; Würfl, J.; Kuzmík, J.

    2015-11-01

    Gate diode conduction mechanisms were analyzed in normally-off p-GaN/AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors grown on Si wafers before and after forward bias stresses. Electrical characterization of the gate diodes indicates forward current to be limited by channel electrons injected through the AlGaN/p-GaN triangular barrier promoted by traps. On the other hand, reverse current was found to be consistent with carrier generation-recombination processes in the AlGaN layer. Soft breakdown observed after ˜105 s during forward bias stress at gate voltage of 7 V was attributed to formation of conductive channel in p-GaN/AlGaN gate stack via trap generation and percolation mechanism, likely due to coexistence of high electric field and high forward current density. Possible enhancement of localized conductive channels originating from spatial inhomogeneities is proposed to be responsible for the degradation.

  16. High-power AlGaN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zengcheng; Liu, Legong; Huang, Yingnan; Sun, Qian; Feng, Meixin; Zhou, Yu; Zhao, Hanmin; Yang, Hui

    2017-07-01

    High-power AlGaN-based 385 nm near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UVA-LEDs) grown on Si(111) substrates are reported. The threading dislocation (TD) density of AlGaN was reduced by employing an Al-composition step-graded AlN/AlGaN multilayer buffer. V-shaped pits were intentionally incorporated into the active region to screen the carriers from the nonradiative recombination centers (NRCs) around the TDs and to facilitate hole injection. The light extraction efficiency was enhanced by the surface roughening of a thin-film (TF) vertical chip structure. The as-fabricated TF-UVA-LED exhibited a light output power of 960 mW at 500 mA, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 59.7%.

  17. Multicharacterization approach for studying InAl(Ga)N/Al(Ga)N/GaN heterostructures for high electron mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naresh-Kumar, G., E-mail: naresh.gunasekar@strath.ac.uk; Trager-Cowan, C. [Dept of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Vilalta-Clemente, A.; Morales, M.; Ruterana, P. [CIMAP UMR 6252 CNRS-ENSICAEN-CEA-UCBN 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Pandey, S.; Cavallini, A.; Cavalcoli, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica Astronomia, Università di Bologna, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Skuridina, D.; Vogt, P.; Kneissl, M. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technical University Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Behmenburg, H.; Giesen, C.; Heuken, M. [AIXTRON SE, Kaiserstr. 98, 52134 Herzogenrath (Germany); Gamarra, P.; Di Forte-Poisson, M. A. [Thales Research and Technology, III-V Lab, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Patriarche, G. [LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Vickridge, I. [Institut des NanoSciences, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 75015 Paris (France)

    2014-12-15

    We report on our multi–pronged approach to understand the structural and electrical properties of an InAl(Ga)N(33nm barrier)/Al(Ga)N(1nm interlayer)/GaN(3μm)/ AlN(100nm)/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) heterostructure grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). In particular we reveal and discuss the role of unintentional Ga incorporation in the barrier and also in the interlayer. The observation of unintentional Ga incorporation by using energy dispersive X–ray spectroscopy analysis in a scanning transmission electron microscope is supported with results obtained for samples with a range of AlN interlayer thicknesses grown under both the showerhead as well as the horizontal type MOVPE reactors. Poisson–Schrödinger simulations show that for high Ga incorporation in the Al(Ga)N interlayer, an additional triangular well with very small depth may be exhibited in parallel to the main 2–DEG channel. The presence of this additional channel may cause parasitic conduction and severe issues in device characteristics and processing. Producing a HEMT structure with InAlGaN as the barrier and AlGaN as the interlayer with appropriate alloy composition may be a possible route to optimization, as it might be difficult to avoid Ga incorporation while continuously depositing the layers using the MOVPE growth method. Our present work shows the necessity of a multicharacterization approach to correlate structural and electrical properties to understand device structures and their performance.

  18. Multicharacterization approach for studying InAl(GaN/Al(GaN/GaN heterostructures for high electron mobility transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Naresh-Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on our multi–pronged approach to understand the structural and electrical properties of an InAl(GaN(33nm barrier/Al(GaN(1nm interlayer/GaN(3μm/ AlN(100nm/Al2O3 high electron mobility transistor (HEMT heterostructure grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE. In particular we reveal and discuss the role of unintentional Ga incorporation in the barrier and also in the interlayer. The observation of unintentional Ga incorporation by using energy dispersive X–ray spectroscopy analysis in a scanning transmission electron microscope is supported with results obtained for samples with a range of AlN interlayer thicknesses grown under both the showerhead as well as the horizontal type MOVPE reactors. Poisson–Schrödinger simulations show that for high Ga incorporation in the Al(GaN interlayer, an additional triangular well with very small depth may be exhibited in parallel to the main 2–DEG channel. The presence of this additional channel may cause parasitic conduction and severe issues in device characteristics and processing. Producing a HEMT structure with InAlGaN as the barrier and AlGaN as the interlayer with appropriate alloy composition may be a possible route to optimization, as it might be difficult to avoid Ga incorporation while continuously depositing the layers using the MOVPE growth method. Our present work shows the necessity of a multicharacterization approach to correlate structural and electrical properties to understand device structures and their performance.

  19. A Physics-Based Compact Direct-Current and Alternating-Current Model for AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Miao; WANG Yan

    2007-01-01

    A set of analytical models for the dc and small signal characteristics of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are presented. A modified transferred-electron mobility model is adapted and a phenomenological low-field mobility model is developed. We calculate the channel charge considering the neutralization of donors and the contribution of free electrons in the AlGaN layer. The gate-to-source and gate-to-drain capacitances are obtained analytically, and the cut-off frequency is predicted. The models are implemented into the HSPICE simulator for the dc, ac and transient simulations and verified by experimental data for the first time. A high efficiency class-E GaN HEMT power amplifier is designed and simulated by the HSPICE to verify the applicability of our models.

  20. Ultralow nonalloyed Ohmic contact resistance to self aligned N-polar GaN high electron mobility transistors by In(Ga)N regrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Sansaptak; Nidhi, Brown, David F.; Wu, Feng; Keller, Stacia; Speck, James S.; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2010-04-01

    Ultralow Ohmic contact resistance and a self-aligned device structure are necessary to reduce the effect of parasitic elements and obtain higher ft and fmax in high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). N-polar (0001¯) GaN HEMTs, offer a natural advantage over Ga-polar HEMTs, in terms of contact resistance since the contact is not made through a high band gap material [Al(Ga)N]. In this work, we extend the advantage by making use of polarization induced three-dimensional electron-gas through regrowth of graded InGaN and thin InN cap in the contact regions by plasma (molecular beam epitaxy), to obtain an ultralow Ohmic contact resistance of 27 Ω μm to a GaN 2DEG.

  1. Performance of AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors with AlSiN Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    NOTES 20100402017 14. ABSTRACT This program was focused on the development of alternative and superior dielectric passivations to AlGaN/ GaN HEMT ...efficiency were demonstrated. Index Terms GaN , MODFETs, Microwave power FETs, passivation. I. INTRODUCTION THE AlGaN/ GaN HEMT has been studied for its...deposition (LPCVD) system onto etched mesa-isolated AlGaN/ GaN HEMT structures with 25 nm Alo.25Gao.75N barriers grown on S.I. SiC. Dielectric

  2. The BCC/B2 Morphologies in AlxNiCoFeCr High-Entropy Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Ma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work primarily investigates the morphological evolution of the body-centered-cubic (BCC/B2 phases in AlxNiCoFeCr high-entropy alloys (HEAs with increasing Al content. It is found that the BCC/B2 coherent morphology is closely related to the lattice misfit between these two phases, which is sensitive to Al. There are two types of microscopic BCC/B2 morphologies in this HEA series: one is the weave-like morphology induced by the spinodal decomposition, and the other is the microstructure of a spherical disordered BCC precipitation on the ordered B2 matrix that appears in HEAs with a much higher Al content. The mechanical properties, including the compressive yielding strength and microhardness of the AlxNiCoFeCr HEAs, are also discussed in light of the concept of the valence electron concentration (VEC.

  3. High-Quality Crystal Growth and Characteristics of AlGaN-Based Solar-Blind Distributed Bragg Reflectors with a Tri-layer Period Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianjun; Chen, Dunjun; Yang, Lianhong; Liu, Yanli; Dong, Kexiu; Lu, Hai; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou

    2016-07-06

    To realize AlGaN-based solar-blind ultraviolet distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs), a novel tri-layer AlGaN/AlInN/AlInGaN periodical structure that differs from the traditional periodically alternating layers of high- and low-refractive-index materials was proposed and grown on an Al0.5Ga0.5N template via metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. Because of the intentional design of the AlInGaN strain transition layer, a state-of-the-art DBR structure with atomic-level-flatness interfaces was achieved using an AlGaN template. The fabricated DBR exhibits a peak reflectivity of 86% at the centre wavelength of 274 nm and a stopband with a full-width at half-maximum of 16 nm.

  4. Formation of combined partially recessed and multiple fluorinated-dielectric layers gate structures for high threshold voltage GaN-based HEMT power devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huolin; Liang, Yung Chii

    2015-12-01

    The formation of partial AlGaN trench recess filled with multiple fluorinated gate dielectric layers as metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) gate structure for GaN-based HEMT power devices is designed, fabricated and experimentally verified. The approach realizes the device normally-off operational mode and at the same time is able to preserve the good mobility in the 2DEG channel for a maximum on-state current. Experimental measurements on the fabricated MIS-HEMT devices indicate a high gate threshold voltage (Vth) at around 5 V and a very low gate leakage current at pA/mm level. This proposed gate structure provides very promising properties for GaN-based power semiconductor devices in future power electronics switching applications.

  5. Improved electrical properties of the two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures using high temperature AlN interlayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The electrical properties of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures using high temperature (HT) AlN interlayers (ITs) grown on c-plane sapphire substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been investigated.It is found that the electrical properties (electron mobility and sheet carrier density) are improved compared with those in the conventional AlGaN/GaN heterostructures without HT AlN ITs,and the improved 2DEG properties result in the reduction of the sheet resistance.The results from high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and Raman spectroscopy measurements show that HT AlN ITs increase the in-plane compressive strain in the upper GaN layer,which enhances the piezoelectric polarization in it and consequently causes increasing of 2DEG density at the AlGaN/GaN interface.Meanwhile,the compressive strain induced by HT AlN ITs leads to a less tensile strain in AlGaN barrier layer and causes positive and negative effects on the sheet carrier density of 2DEG,which counteract each other.The HT AlN ITs reduce the lattice mismatch between the GaN and AlGaN layers and smooth the interface between them,thus increasing the electric mobility of 2DEG by weakening the alloy-related interface roughness and scattering.In addition,the surface morphology of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures is improved by the insertion of HT AlN ITs.The reason for the improved properties is discussed in this paper.

  6. Transport mechanism of reverse surface leakage current in AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor with SiN passivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雪峰; 张进成; 郝跃; 范爽; 陈永和; 康迪; 张建坤; 王冲; 默江辉; 李亮; 马晓华

    2015-01-01

    The transport mechanism of reverse surface leakage current in AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT) becomes one of the most important reliability issues with the downscaling of feature size. In this paper, the research results show that the reverse surface leakage current in AlGaN/GaN HEMT with SiN passivation increases with the enhancement of temperature in a range from 298 K to 423 K. Three possible transport mechanisms are proposed and examined to explain the generation of reverse surface leakage current. By comparing the experimental data with the numerical transport models, it is found that neither Fowler–Nordheim tunneling nor Frenkel–Poole emission can describe the transport of reverse surface leakage current. However, good agreement is found between the experimental data and the two-dimensional variable range hopping (2D-VRH) model. Therefore, it is concluded that the reverse surface leakage current is dominated by the electron hopping through the surface states at barrier layer. Moreover, the activation energy of surface leakage current is extracted, which is around 0.083 eV. Finally, the SiN passivated HEMT with high Al composition and thin AlGaN barrier layer is also studied. It is observed that 2D-VRH still dominates the reverse surface leakage current and the activation energy is around 0.10 eV, which demonstrates that the alteration of AlGaN barrier layer does not affect the transport mechanism of reverse surface leakage current in this paper.

  7. Impact of pulse duration in high power impulse magnetron sputtering on the low-temperature growth of wurtzite phase (Ti,Al)N films with high hardness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Tetsuhide, E-mail: simizu-tetuhide@tmu.ac.jp [Division of Human Mechatronics Systems, Graduate School of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 6-6, Asahigaoka, Hino-shi, 191-0065 Tokyo (Japan); Teranishi, Yoshikazu; Morikawa, Kazuo; Komiya, Hidetoshi; Watanabe, Tomotaro; Nagasaka, Hiroshi [Surface Finishing Technology Group, Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute, 2-4-10, Aomi, Kohtoh-ku, 135-0064 Tokyo (Japan); Yang, Ming [Division of Human Mechatronics Systems, Graduate School of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 6-6, Asahigaoka, Hino-shi, 191-0065 Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-04-30

    (Ti,Al)N films were deposited from a Ti{sub 0.33}Al{sub 0.67} alloy target with a high Al content at a substrate temperature of less than 150 °C using high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) plasma. The pulse duration was varied from 60 to 300 μs with a low frequency of 333 Hz to investigate the effects on the dynamic variation of the substrate temperature, microstructural grain growth and the resulting mechanical properties. The chemical composition, surface morphology and phase composition of the films were analyzed by energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Mechanical properties were additionally measured by using a nanoindentation tester. A shorter pulse duration resulted in a lower rate of increase in the substrate temperature with an exponentially higher peak target current. The obtained films had a high Al content of 70–73 at.% with a mixed highly (0002) textured wurtzite phase and a secondary phase of cubic (220) grains. Even with the wurtzite phase and the relatively high Al contents of more than 70 at.%, the films exhibited a high hardness of more than 30 GPa with a relatively smooth surface of less than 2 nm root-mean-square roughness. The hardest and smoothest surfaces were obtained for pulses with an intermediate duration of 150 μs. The differences between the obtained film properties under different pulse durations are discussed on the basis of the grain growth process observed by transmission electron microscopy. The feasibility of the low-temperature synthesis of AlN rich wurtzite phase (Ti,Al)N films with superior hardness by HIPIMS plasma duration was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Low temperature synthesis of AlN rich wurtzite phase (Ti,Al)N film was demonstrated. • 1 μm-thick TiAlN film was deposited under the temperature less than 150 °C by HIPIMS. • High Al content with highly (0002) textured wurtzite phase structure was obtained. • High hardness of 35 GPa were

  8. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Microstructure, Tensile Properties, and Fracture Behavior of Cold-Rolled High-Mn Light-Weight Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Hyun; Cho, Kyung Mox [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong-Jun; Moon, Joonoh; Kang, Jun-Yun; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Tae-Ho [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    The effects of the annealing temperature on the microstructure and tensile properties of cold-rolled light-weight steels are investigated using two Fe-30Mn-xAl-0.9C alloys that contain different Al content. The initial alloy microstructure is composed of a single austenite or a mixture of austenite and ferrite depending on the nominal aluminum content. For the alloy with 9 wt%Al content, the recrystallization and grain growth of austenite occurrs depending on the annealing temperature. However, for the alloy with 11 wt%Al content, the β-Mn phase is observed after annealing for 10 min at 550~800 ℃. The β-Mn transformation kinetics is the fastest at 700 ℃. The formation of the β-Mn phase has a detrimental effect on the ductility, and this leads to significant decreases in the total elongation. The same alloy also forms κ-carbide and DO3 ordering at 550~900 ℃. The investigated alloys exhibit a fully recrystallized microstructure after annealing at 900 ℃ for 10 min, which results in a high total elongation of 25~55%with a high tensile strength of 900~1170 MPa.

  9. Physical and chemical performances of high Al steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-chuan; DONG Yuan-chi; ZHANG Wen-ming; WANG Shi-jun; ZHOU Yun

    2005-01-01

    The effects of acid-soluble Al content on the physical and chemical performances of high Al steels were investigated. The results show that the distribution of acid-soluble Al in steel substrate is uniform. With increasing Al content, the strength and toughness of steels decrease a little but the hardness increases. The average yield strength and tensile strength are 425 MPa and 570 MPa, respectively, and the Rockwell hardness is 89.7. For non-Al steels the average oxidation rate is up to 0.421 mg/(cm2·h) at 1 373 K. For high Al steels, when the mass fraction of Al is less than 5%, there is a thinner gray oxidized layer on surface and the oxidation rate is high; when the mass fraction of Al is more than 8.0%, the thin, close and yellow glossing film still exists, and the average oxidation rate is only 0.016 mg/(cm2·h).

  10. Effect of Al content on the order of phase transition and magnetic entropy change in LaFe{sub 11}Co{sub 0.8}(Si{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}){sub 1.2} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gębara, P., E-mail: pgebara@wip.pcz.pl [Institute of Physics, Częstochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 19, 42-200 Częstochowa (Poland); Pawlik, P. [Institute of Physics, Częstochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 19, 42-200 Częstochowa (Poland); Škorvánek, I. [Institute of Experimental Physics, SAS Watsonowa 47, 043 33 Kosice (Slovakia); Bednarcik, J. [HASYLAB am DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Marcin, J. [Institute of Experimental Physics, SAS Watsonowa 47, 043 33 Kosice (Slovakia); Michalik, Š. [HASYLAB am DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); P.J. Safarik University in Kosice, Insitute of Physics, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54 Kosice (Slovakia); Donges, J. [HASYLAB am DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Wysłocki, J.J. [Institute of Physics, Częstochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 19, 42-200 Częstochowa (Poland); Michalski, B. [Faculty of Materials Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-12-15

    The comparative studies of the effect of partial substitution of Al by Si on the structure and magnetic entropy change in LaFe{sub 11}Co{sub 0.8}(Si{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}){sub 1.2} alloys produced by arc-melting followed by long time annealing at 1323 K were performed. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed almost single phase composition of annealed samples. The high intensity synchrotron radiation was used for studying the thermal evolution of lattice constant of the La(Fe,Co,Si){sub 13} phase. Furthermore, calculations of temperature dependences of Landau coefficients were used to reveal changes in the character of phase transformation at around the Curie temperature. - Highlights: • Identification of order of phase transition in LaFe{sub 11.0}Co{sub 0.8}(Si{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}){sub 1.2} where x=0;0.6. • Negative change of lattice parameter near Curie temperature in LaFe{sub 11.0}Co{sub 0.8}Si{sub 1.2}. • Landau theory of phase transitions.

  11. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2003-10-30

    In this second annual report we summarize the progress in the second-year period of Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High- Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has recently made significant progress in the development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV), resonant-cavity LEDs (RCLEDs), as well as lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) techniques to obtain large-area non-polar GaN films with low average dislocation density. The Rensselaer team has benchmarked the performance of commercially available LED systems and has also conducted efforts to develop an optimized RCLED packaging scheme, including development of advanced epoxy encapsulant chemistries.

  12. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

    2002-09-01

    In this annual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first year with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  13. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

    2002-04-30

    In this semiannual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first six months with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  14. Effect of al content on reaction laser sintering of Ni-Al powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin L.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser reactive sintering, i.e., laser-induced self-propagating reaction sintering synthesis was used for the preparation of nickel aluminide intermetallic compounds. The experimental parameters controlling the ignition step such as ignition time and adiabatic temperature were calculated as a function of initial stoichiometry. Al mole ratio in initial powder mixture was varied from 25% to 50% for controlling adiabatic temperature. The increase in Al powder content resulted in the rise in adiabatic temperature and the morphology change of nickel aluminide compounds from needle-like to blocky.

  15. Materials physics and device development for improved efficiency of GaN HEMT high power amplifiers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Steven Ross; Follstaedt, David Martin; Wright, Alan Francis; Baca, Albert G.; Briggs, Ronald D.; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Missert, Nancy A.; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Marsh, Phil F.; Koleske, Daniel David; Lee, Stephen Roger; Shul, Randy John; Seager, Carleton Hoover; Tigges, Christopher P.

    2005-12-01

    GaN-based microwave power amplifiers have been identified as critical components in Sandia's next generation micro-Synthetic-Aperture-Radar (SAR) operating at X-band and Ku-band (10-18 GHz). To miniaturize SAR, GaN-based amplifiers are necessary to replace bulky traveling wave tubes. Specifically, for micro-SAR development, highly reliable GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), which have delivered a factor of 10 times improvement in power performance compared to GaAs, need to be developed. Despite the great promise of GaN HEMTs, problems associated with nitride materials growth currently limit gain, linearity, power-added-efficiency, reproducibility, and reliability. These material quality issues are primarily due to heteroepitaxial growth of GaN on lattice mismatched substrates. Because SiC provides the best lattice match and thermal conductivity, SiC is currently the substrate of choice for GaN-based microwave amplifiers. Obviously for GaN-based HEMTs to fully realize their tremendous promise, several challenges related to GaN heteroepitaxy on SiC must be solved. For this LDRD, we conducted a concerted effort to resolve materials issues through in-depth research on GaN/AlGaN growth on SiC. Repeatable growth processes were developed which enabled basic studies of these device layers as well as full fabrication of microwave amplifiers. Detailed studies of the GaN and AlGaN growth of SiC were conducted and techniques to measure the structural and electrical properties of the layers were developed. Problems that limit device performance were investigated, including electron traps, dislocations, the quality of semi-insulating GaN, the GaN/AlGaN interface roughness, and surface pinning of the AlGaN gate. Surface charge was reduced by developing silicon nitride passivation. Constant feedback between material properties, physical understanding, and device performance enabled rapid progress which eventually led to the successful fabrication of state of the

  16. Novel solar-blind photodetector using AlGaN in combination with a PVDF film%结合AlGaN和 PVDF的新型日盲紫外探测器的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀娟; 李超; 王建禄; 张燕; 孙璟兰; 李向阳

    2013-01-01

    制作了一种新型的结合了AlGaN材料结构和Poly(vinylidene fluoride)(PVDF)热释电材料的日盲紫外探测器。当紫外光从AlGaN一侧背照射至器件上时,测量PVDF两端的热释电响应光谱,测得峰值响应在入射光波长为260 nm处,响应电压高达129.6 mV(此时辐射功率为39.8 nW)。器件响应机理为:紫外光被i-Al0.35Ga0.65层吸收,产生光生载流子并复合生热,热量通过AlGaN材料传导给PVDF结构的电极,温度升高,PVDF对温度变化产生响应。为了进一步验证,制作了对比器件,即在AlGaN结构和PVDF结构之间加了一层多孔SiO2隔热层,测得的响应光谱中有两个峰值,一个在260 nm,另外一个在300 nm。与参考器件相比,在260 nm处的响应电压大大减小,说明了利用热效应探测的可行性。另外,测量了不同频率下的器件响应并对其进行理论拟合,深入研究300 nm处的响应机理。%A novel solar-blind detector which combined a AlGaN-based structure and a Poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) -based pyroelectric detector structure in one chip was fabricated. The pyroelectric response spectra of the PVDF-based pyroelectric structure was measured when the UV light illuminated from the side of the AlGaN-based structure. The peak response voltage was measured as high as 129.6 mV when the light’s wavelength was 260 nm and the radiation power was 39.8 nW. The response mechanism was assumed as followed: the light at 260 nm was absorbed by i-Al0.35Ga0.65N layer and the heat energy was generated through the direct recombination of photoexcited-carriers, then the heat transferred to the PVDF layer and a response voltage was got through the pyroelectric effect of the PVDF. To confirm this assumption, another sample which added a porous SiO2 layer between the AlGaN-based structure and the PVDF-based structure was fabricated. Its response spectra showed two peaks, one was at 260 nm and the other was at 300 nm

  17. DEVELOPMENT AND EXPERIMENT OF NEW AlTiN COATED DRILLS FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY DRY DRILLING OF 40Cr%新型AlTiN涂层钻头高效干式钻削40Cr的开发与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈中; 刘钢; 陈明

    2007-01-01

    Two new AlTiN coated cemented carbide drills with Al content of 40% and 55% in weight are developed for high efficiency dry drilling of 40Cr. By studying tool durability, machined hole quality, tool wear mechanism, chip deformation, and lubrication, the dry drilling performance of the two kinds of coated drills is analyzed. Experimental results show that the AlTiN coated drills are suitable for high efficiency dry drilling and can obtain higher quality of machined holes. The tool durability of the drill with 55% Al content is 1. 3 times of that of the drill with 40% Al content at the cutting speed of 90 m/min. The wear mechanism of two AlTiN coatings are studied in experiments. During dry drilling process, oxidative wear appears in both two kinds of drills. The oxide film is formed on the top of the coated drill containing Al content of 55%. And the oxide film helps to increase its high temperature resistance and decrease the coating flaking, thus the drill is failed because of coating subsidence. The drill with less Al content is failed due to peeling and breakage. The lubricated condition in dry drilling is improved by the high Al content coating. It helps to reduce the cutting deformation and benefits to improve the quality of machined holes. The AlTiN coating with higher Al content shows longer tool life and higher quality of machined holes in high efficiency dry drilling. Its tool life increases by 30% compared with that of the coating with less Al content.%针对40cr的高效干钻削,开发了含铝质量百分比分别为40%和55%的AlTiN涂层钻头.通过刀具耐用度、加工表面质量、刀具磨损、切削变形等方面的研究,分析了不同含铝量的涂层对干钻削加工的影响.试验结果表明,AlTiN涂层钻头适合高效干钻削,并能保持良好的加工表面质量,特别是含铝量为55%的涂层,其耐用度在90 m/min的切削速度下是含铝40%涂层的1.3倍.试验还揭示了这两种涂层干钻削的磨损机理:

  18. AlGaN Heterostructure Optimization for Photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Didenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available GaN-based photodetectors are of great interest for applications involving detection and imaging in the UV-visible wavelength range. Most of experimental and theoretical work in this area has been focused so far on Schottky diode and p-i-n structures for solar blind applications. However, it seems that bipolar phototransistors with their additional functionality could also be of potential interest. In this work we present the results of phototransistors parameters simulation using the software – Sim Windows. The structure analyzed consisted, counting from the substrate, of n-AlxGa1 – xN collector, p-GaN base and n-AlxGa1 – xN emitter. The Al mole fraction in the collector and emitter was varied from x  0.2 to x  0.3. The collector and emitter thickness was taken as 0.9 m. The doping level in the emitter and collector was varied from 1017 to 1019 cm – 3. The p-GaN base thickness was taken as 0.3 m, with doping of 1017-1018 cm – 3. The electron and hole lifetimes in the base were taken as 12 ns.

  19. Photoluminescence efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamulaitis, G.; Mickevičius, J. [Institute of Applied Research and Semiconductor Physics Department, Vilnius University, Sauletekio av. 9-III, Vilnius LT-10222 (Lithuania); Jurkevičius, J., E-mail: jonas.jurkevicius@ff.vu.lt [Institute of Applied Research and Semiconductor Physics Department, Vilnius University, Sauletekio av. 9-III, Vilnius LT-10222 (Lithuania); Shur, M.S. [Department of ECE and CIE, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (United States); Shatalov, M.; Yang, J.; Gaska, R. [Sensor Electronic Technology, Inc. (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Photoluminescence spectroscopy of AlGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells under quasi-steady-state conditions in the temperature range from 8 to 300 K revealed a strong dependence of droop onset threshold on temperature that was explained by the influence of carrier delocalization. The delocalization at room temperature results predominantly in enhancement of bimolecular radiative recombination, while being favorable for enhancement of nonradiative recombination at low temperatures. Studies of stimulated emission confirmed the strong influence of carrier localization on droop.

  20. P-doping-free III-nitride high electron mobility light-emitting diodes and transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Baikui; Tang, Xi; Chen, Kevin J., E-mail: eekjchen@ust.hk [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang, Jiannong [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-07-21

    We report that a simple metal-AlGaN/GaN Schottky diode is capable of producing GaN band-edge ultraviolet emission at 3.4 eV at a small forward bias larger than ∼2 V at room temperature. Based on the surface states distribution of AlGaN, a mature impact-ionization-induced Fermi-level de-pinning model is proposed to explain the underlying mechanism of the electroluminescence (EL) process. By experimenting with different Schottky metals, Ni/Au and Pt/Au, we demonstrated that this EL phenomenon is a “universal” property of metal-AlGaN/GaN Schottky diodes. Since this light-emitting Schottky diode shares the same active structure and fabrication processes as the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, straight-forward and seamless integration of photonic and electronic functional devices has been demonstrated on doping-free III-nitride heterostructures. Using a semitransparent Schottky drain electrode, an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility light-emitting transistor is demonstrated.

  1. Basic Equations for the Modeling of Gallium Nitride (gan) High Electron Mobility Transistors (hemts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jon C.

    2003-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is a most promising wide band-gap semiconductor for use in high-power microwave devices. It has functioned at 320 C, and higher values are well within theoretical limits. By combining four devices, 20 W has been developed at X-band. GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) are unique in that the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is supported not by intentional doping, but instead by polarization charge developed at the interface between the bulk GaN region and the AlGaN epitaxial layer. The polarization charge is composed of two parts: spontaneous and piezoelectric. This behavior is unlike other semiconductors, and for that reason, no commercially available modeling software exists. The theme of this document is to develop a self-consistent approach to developing the pertinent equations to be solved. A Space Act Agreement, "Effects in AlGaN/GaN HEMT Semiconductors" with Silvaco Data Systems to implement this approach into their existing software for III-V semiconductors, is in place (summer of 2002).

  2. Neutron irradiation effects on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Ling; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Xue Jun-Shuai; Ma Xiao-Hua; Zhang Wei; Bi Zhi-Wei; Zhang Yue; Hao Yue

    2012-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were exposed to 1 MeV neutron irradiation at a neutron fluence of 1 × 1015 cm-2.The dc characteristics of the devices,such as the drain saturation current and the maximum transconductance,decreased after neutron irradiation. The gate leakage currents increased obviously after neutron irradiation.However,the rf characteristics,such as the cut-off frequency and the maximum frequency,were hardly affected by neutron irradiation.The AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions have been employed for the better understanding of the degradation mechanism.It is shown in the Hall measurements and capacitance-voltage tests that the mobility and concentration of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) decreased after neutron irradiation.There was no evidence of the full-width at half-maximum of X-ray diffraction (XRD) rocking curve changing after irradiation,so the dislocation was not influenced by neutron irradiation.It is concluded that the point defects induced in AlGaN and GaN by neutron irradiation are the dominant mechanisms responsible for performance degradations of AlGaN/GaN HEMT devices.

  3. Nanostructured High Performance Ultraviolet and Blue Light Emitting Diodes for Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arto V. Nurmikko; Jung Han

    2007-03-31

    We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and near ultraviolet for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the duration of the contract period include (i) new means of synthesizing AlGaN and InN quantum dots by droplet heteroepitaxy, (ii) synthesis of AlGaInN nanowires as building blocks for GaN-based microcavity devices, (iii) progress towards direct epitaxial alignment of the dense arrays of nanowires, (iv) observation and measurements of stimulated emission in dense InGaN nanopost arrays, (v) design and fabrication of InGaN photonic crystal emitters, and (vi) observation and measurements of enhanced fluorescence from coupled quantum dot and plasmonic nanostructures. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

  4. High-electric-field-stress-induced degradation of SiN passivated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Wen-Ping; Duan Huan-Tao; Ni Jin-Yu; Hao Yue; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Feng Qian; Ma Xiao-Hua

    2009-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors(HEMTs)are fabricated by employing SiN passivation,this paper investigates the degradation due to the high-electric-field stress.After the stress,a recoverable degradation has been found,consisting of the decrease of saturation drain current IDsat,maximal transconductance gm,and the positive shift of threshold voltage VTH at high drain-source voltage VDS.The high-electric-field stress degrades the electric characteristics of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs because the high field increases the electron trapping at the surface and in AlGaN barrier layer.The SiN passivation of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs decreases the surface trapping and 2DEG depletion a little during the high-electric-field stress.After the hot carrier stress with VDS=20 V and VGS=0 V applied to the device for 104 sec,the SiN passivation decreases the stress-induced degradation of IDsat from 36% to 30%.Both on-state and pulse-state stresses produce comparative decrease of IDsat,which shows that although the passivation is effective in suppressing electron trapping in surface states,it does not protect the device from high-electric-field degradation in nature.So passivation in conjunction with other technological solutions like cap layer,prepassivation surface treatments.or field-plate gate to weaken high-electric-field degradation should be adopted.

  5. High Temperature Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-15

    2700 cmW/V-s at room temperature, a far higher value than ever found for GaN or AlGaN. Thus a GaN/ InGaN HEMT would be analogous to InP/InGaAs HEMTs...Spire’s ECR plasma source modif led as a crystal growth reactor. 8 The substrate for the film deposition is mounted on a sample holder which is...The three samples from the second growth run were also characterized. One sample was found to have a very even frosty white haze on it. The other

  6. High-resolution hydrogen profiling in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by different epitaxial methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Posada Flores, F; Redondo-Cubero, A; Bengoechea, A; Brana, A F; Munoz, E [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectronicos y Microtecnologia (ISOM) and Dpto. IngenierIa Electronica (DIE), ETSI de Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Gago, R [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, A [Dpto. Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala, E-28805 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Grambole, D, E-mail: fposada@die.upm.e [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF 51019, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-03-07

    Hydrogen (H) incorporation into AlGaN/GaN heterostructures used in high electron mobility transistors, grown by different methods, is studied by high-resolution depth profiling. Samples grown on sapphire and Si(1 1 1) substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy and metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy; involving H-free and H-containing precursors, were analysed to evaluate the eventual incorporation of H into the wafer. The amount of H was measured by means of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) using the {sup 1}H({sup 15}N,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 12}C reaction up to a depth of {approx}110 nm into the heterostructures. Interestingly, the H profiles are similar in all the samples analysed, with an increasing H content towards the surface and a negligible H incorporation into the GaN layer (0.24 {+-} 0.08 at%) or at the AlGaN/GaN interface. Therefore, NRA shows that H uptake is not related to the growth process or technique employed and that H contamination may be due to external sources after growth. The eventual correlation between topographical defects on the AlGaN surface and the H concentration are also discussed.

  7. High performance TiN gate contact on AlGaN/GaN transistor using a mechanically strain induced P-doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani, A., E-mail: ali.soltani@iemn.univ-lille1.fr; Rousseau, M.; Gerbedoen, J.-C.; Bourzgui, N. [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie, UMR-CNRS 8520, USTL, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Mattalah, M. [Laboratoire de Microélectronique, Université Djilali Liabès, 22000 Sidi Bel Abbès (Algeria); Bonanno, P. L.; Ougazzaden, A. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30324-0250 (United States); UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, Georgia Tech Lorraine, 2-3 Rue Marconi, 57070 Metz-Technopôle (France); Telia, A. [LMI, Electronic Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mentouri University of Constantine, Constantine (Algeria); Patriarche, G. [Laboratoire de Photonique et Nanostructures, CNRS UPR 20, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); BenMoussa, A. [Solar Terrestrial Center of Excellence, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Circular 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-06-09

    High performance titanium nitride sub-100 nm rectifying contact, deposited by sputtering on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, shows a reverse leakage current as low as 38 pA/mm at V{sub GS} = −40 V and a Schottky barrier height of 0.95 eV. Based on structural characterization and 3D simulations, it is found that the polarization gradient induced by the gate metallization forms a P-type pseudo-doping region under the gate between the tensile surface and the compressively strained bulk AlGaN barrier layer. The strain induced by the gate metallization can compensate for the piezoelectric component. As a result, the gate contact can operate at temperatures as high as 700 °C and can withstand a large reverse bias of up to −100 V, which is interesting for high-performance transistors dedicated to power applications.

  8. Growth and characterization of cubic AlGaN/GaN based devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potthast, S.

    2006-11-15

    Cubic GaN and AlGaN layers are grown by radio frequency plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on freestanding 3C-SiC (001) substrates. Detailed analysis of the substrate quality reveal a direct dependence of the roughness of the 3C-SiC on the dislocation density. Additionally a strong influence of the substrate quality on the quality of cubic GaN layers is found. GaN, AlGaN and AlN buffer layers grown at different temperatures are used to improve the structural properties of the c-GaN buffer. Best values are obtained for AlN buffers deposited at T{sub Subs}=720 C. Furthermore, the growth temperature of the buffer itself is varied. Optimized results are found for T{sub Subs}=720 C grown under a Ga coverage of one monolayer. On top of the GaN buffer, AlGaN films (0high energy electron diffraction as a probe, show a predominant two-dimensional growth mode. With increasing Al mole fraction, a change in the resistivity of the AlGaN layer is observed due to the gettering of oxygen by aluminum and the variation of the oxygen ionization energy as a function of the Al content. Schottky diodes are fabricated on GaN and AlGaN using nickel as contact material. A strong deviation of the current voltage characteristics from thermionic emission theory is found, measuring anormal high leakage current, caused by the presence of oxygen donors near the surface. It is investigated, that thermal annealing in air reduces the reverse current by three orders of magnitude. AlGaN/GaN are used to fabricate heterojunction field effect transistor structures. Analysis of the capacitance-voltage characteristics at T=150 K revealed clear evidence for the existence of a two-dimensional electron gas, and a sheet carrier concentration of about 1.6 x 10{sup 12}cm{sup -2} is

  9. Investigation of gate-diode degradation in normally-off p-GaN/AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ťapajna, M., E-mail: milan.tapajna@savba.sk; Kuzmík, J. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Hilt, O.; Bahat-Treidel, E.; Würfl, J. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Strasse 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-11-09

    Gate diode conduction mechanisms were analyzed in normally-off p-GaN/AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors grown on Si wafers before and after forward bias stresses. Electrical characterization of the gate diodes indicates forward current to be limited by channel electrons injected through the AlGaN/p-GaN triangular barrier promoted by traps. On the other hand, reverse current was found to be consistent with carrier generation-recombination processes in the AlGaN layer. Soft breakdown observed after ∼10{sup 5 }s during forward bias stress at gate voltage of 7 V was attributed to formation of conductive channel in p-GaN/AlGaN gate stack via trap generation and percolation mechanism, likely due to coexistence of high electric field and high forward current density. Possible enhancement of localized conductive channels originating from spatial inhomogeneities is proposed to be responsible for the degradation.

  10. Ultrathin Compound Semiconductor on Insulator Layers for High-Performance Nanoscale Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-11

    substrate for low power logic applications. IEEE IEDM Tech. Digest 2009, 319–322 (2009). 11. Javorka, P. et al. AlGaN/ GaN HEMTs on (111) silicon...of sub-100 nm InAs HEMTs on InP substrate for future logic applications. IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57, 1504–1511 (2010). 24. Lundstrom, M

  11. Self-Aligned ALD AlOx T-gate Insulator for Gate Leakage Current Suppression in SiNx-Passivated AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Self-aligned ALD AlOx T-gate insulator for gate leakage current suppression in SiNx-passivated AlGaN/ GaN HEMTs David J. Meyer *, Robert Bass, D...concept metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) AlGaN/ GaN high-electron mobility transistor ( HEMT ) that uses a self-aligned 10 nm AlOx gate insulator and...Au gate metal layers to fabri- cate submicron insulated T-gates for AlGaN/ GaN high-electron mobility transistors ( HEMTs ). Metal–insulator

  12. High-quality distributed Bragg reflectors for resonant-cavity light-emitting diode applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, S.; Naranjo, F.B.; Calle, F.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Calleja, E. [ISOM, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vennegues, P. [CHREA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Gregory, Sophia Antipolis, 06560 Valbonne (France)

    2002-08-16

    Efficient distributed Bragg reflectors based on Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1} {sub -} {sub x}N/GaN multilayer stacks have been grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on GaN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} templates. The final goal is to incorporate these reflectors as bottom mirrors in a backside (sapphire) resonant-cavity light-emitting diode at 510 nm. The reflectors have been characterised by atomic force microscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Reflectivity measurements have also been performed, obtaining values between 30% and 50%, depending on the Al content used. The incorporation of the Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1} {sub -} {sub x}N/GaN Bragg reflector as bottom mirror in a RCLED structure improves the output power by a factor of 12 compared with conventional light-emitting diodes. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Selective area deposited n-Al0.5Ga0.5N channel field effect transistors with high solar-blind ultraviolet photo-responsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhtadi, S.; Hwang, S.; Coleman, A.; Asif, F.; Lunev, A.; Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.; Khan, A.

    2017-04-01

    We report on AlGaN field effect transistors over AlN/sapphire templates with selective area grown n-Al0.5Ga0.5N channel layers for which a field-effect mobility of 55 cm2/V-sec was measured. Using a pulsed plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition deposited 100 A thick SiO2 layer as the gate-insulator, the gate-leakage currents were reduced by three orders of magnitude. These devices with or without gate insulators are excellent solar-blind ultraviolet detectors, and they can be operated either in the photoconductive or the photo-voltaic modes. In the photo-conductive mode, gain arising from hole-trapping in the depletion region leads to steady-state photoresponsivity as high as 1.2 × 106A/W at 254 nm, which drops sharply below 290 nm. A hole-trapping limited detector response time of 34 ms, fast enough for real-time flame-detection and imaging applications, was estimated.

  14. TiAl Ohmic contact on GaN, in situ high or low doped or Si implanted, epitaxially grown on sapphire or silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayrel, F.; Menard, O.; Alquier, D. [Laboratoire de Microelectronique de Puissance, Universite de Tours (France); Yvon, A.; Collard, E. [STMicroelectronics, Tours (France); Thierry-Jebali, N.; Brylinsky, C. [Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon1, Lyon (France)

    2012-06-15

    In this work, the Ti/Al Ohmic contact quality on n-type gallium nitride (GaN) films has been studied as a function of different process parameters such as surface cleaning procedure, etching, thickness of the deposited layers or annealing conditions. GaN epilayers, with uniform doping concentration from 1 x 10{sup 16} to 5.8 x 10{sup 18} at./cm{sup 3} were grown on sapphire or silicon substrates using AlN and/or AlGaN buffer layers. Electrical characterizations were made using circular transfer length method (cTLM) patterns with a four-probe equipment. Specific contact resistance (SCR) was then extracted from current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, for all the process conditions. Contact structures depending on experiment parameters were studied by means of (scanning) transmission electronic microscopy (STEM-TEM). Our results reveal that process parameters such as surface treatment have a lower impact than annealing temperature or metal thickness and annealing duration. Finally, SCR values of 1 x 10{sup -6} {omega} cm{sup 2} can be reproducibly achieved. Moreover, good Ohmic contacts have been obtained on etched surfaces or on low-doped layers implanted with Si. This low value demonstrates a good Ohmic contact and this large parameter process window is of high interest for future device fabrication based on GaN (planar or mesa structures). (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. AlGaN/GaN Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor High-Electron-Mobility Transistor with Polarized P(VDF-TrFE) Ferroelectric Polymer Gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinke; Lu, Youming; Yu, Wenjie; Wu, Jing; He, Jiazhu; Tang, Dan; Liu, Zhihong; Somasuntharam, Pannirselvam; Zhu, Deliang; Liu, Wenjun; Cao, Peijiang; Han, Sun; Chen, Shaojun; Seow Tan, Leng

    2015-01-01

    Effect of a polarized P(VDF-TrFE) ferroelectric polymer gating on AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) was investigated. The P(VDF-TrFE) gating in the source/drain access regions of AlGaN/GaN MOS-HEMTs was positively polarized (i.e., partially positively charged hydrogen were aligned to the AlGaN surface) by an applied electric field, resulting in a shift-down of the conduction band at the AlGaN/GaN interface. This increases the 2-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) density in the source/drain access region of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure, and thereby reduces the source/drain series resistance. Detailed material characterization of the P(VDF-TrFE) ferroelectric film was also carried out using the atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and ferroelectric hysteresis loop measurement. PMID:26364872

  16. Development of high toughness, high strength aluminide-bonded carbide ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, P.F.; Plucknett, K.P.; Tiegs, T.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Cemented carbides are widely used in applications where resistance to abrasion and wear are important, particularly in combination with high strength and stiffness. In the present case, ductile aluminides have been used as a binder phase to fabricate dense carbide cermets by either sintering of mixed powders or a melt-infiltration sintering process. The choice of an aluminide binder was based on the exceptional high temperature strength and chemical stability exhibited by these alloys. For example, TiC-based composites with a Ni{sub 3}Al binder phase exhibit improved oxidation resistance, Young`s moduli > 375 GPa, high fracture strengths (> 1 GPa) that are retained to {ge} 900{degrees}C, and fracture toughness values of 10 to 15 MPa{radical}m, identical to that measured in commercial cobalt-bonded WC with the same test method. The thermal diffusivity values at 200{degrees}C for these composites are {approximately} 0.070 to 0.075 cm{sup 2}/s while the thermal expansion coefficients rise with Ni3Al content from {approximately} 8 to {approximately}11 x 10{sup {minus}6}/{degrees}C over the range of 8 to 40 vol. % Ni{sub 3}Al. The oxidation and acidic corrosion resistances are quite promising as well. Finally, these materials also exhibit good electrical conductivity allowing them to be sectioned and shaped by electrical discharge machining (EDM) processes.

  17. Effect of Mg Addition on the Refinement and Homogenized Distribution of Inclusions in Steel with Different Al Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linzhu; Yang, Shufeng; Li, Jingshe; Zhang, Shuo; Ju, Jiantao

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of Mg addition on the refinement and homogenized distribution of inclusions, deoxidized experiments with different amounts of aluminum and magnesium addition were carried out at 1873 K (1600 °C) under the condition of no fluid flow. The size distribution of three-dimensional inclusions obtained by applying the modified Schwartz-Saltykov transformation from the observed planar size distribution, and degree of homogeneity in inclusion dispersion quantified by measuring the inter-surface distance of inclusions, were studied as a function of the amount of Mg addition and holding time. The nucleation and growth of inclusions based on homogeneous nucleation theory and Ostwald ripening were discussed with the consideration of supersaturation degree and interfacial energy between molten steel and inclusions. The average attractive force acted on inclusions in experimental steels was estimated according to Paunov's theory. The results showed that in addition to increasing the Mg addition, increasing the oxygen activity at an early stage of deoxidation and lowering the dissolved oxygen content are conductive to the increase of nucleation rate as well as to the refinement of inclusions Moreover, it was found that the degree of homogeneity in inclusion dispersion decreases with an increase of the attractive force acted on inclusions, which is largely dependent on the inclusion composition and volume fraction of inclusions.

  18. Effect of Mg Addition on the Refinement and Homogenized Distribution of Inclusions in Steel with Different Al Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linzhu; Yang, Shufeng; Li, Jingshe; Zhang, Shuo; Ju, Jiantao

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of Mg addition on the refinement and homogenized distribution of inclusions, deoxidized experiments with different amounts of aluminum and magnesium addition were carried out at 1873 K (1600 °C) under the condition of no fluid flow. The size distribution of three-dimensional inclusions obtained by applying the modified Schwartz-Saltykov transformation from the observed planar size distribution, and degree of homogeneity in inclusion dispersion quantified by measuring the inter-surface distance of inclusions, were studied as a function of the amount of Mg addition and holding time. The nucleation and growth of inclusions based on homogeneous nucleation theory and Ostwald ripening were discussed with the consideration of supersaturation degree and interfacial energy between molten steel and inclusions. The average attractive force acted on inclusions in experimental steels was estimated according to Paunov's theory. The results showed that in addition to increasing the Mg addition, increasing the oxygen activity at an early stage of deoxidation and lowering the dissolved oxygen content are conductive to the increase of nucleation rate as well as to the refinement of inclusions Moreover, it was found that the degree of homogeneity in inclusion dispersion decreases with an increase of the attractive force acted on inclusions, which is largely dependent on the inclusion composition and volume fraction of inclusions.

  19. EFFECTS OF Al CONTENT ON STRUCTURAL STABILITY AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF Sm2 (Fe, Al) 17 COMPOUNDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Themagneticproperties of Sm2Fe17-xAlx(x=0,1,2,3)compoundsandtheirhydridesare systematically investigated. The results reveal that all compounds have the Th2Zn17-type structure. As the content of Al increases, the Curie temperature of Sm2(Fe, Al)17 compounds increases, and their saturation magnetization decreases. It is first discovered that the Curie temperatures of the hydrides of Sm2 (Fe, Al)17compounds measured from heating process are higher than those measured from cooling process, and their difference is denoted as △Tc* . The correlation between △Tc* and the structural stability of Sm2(Fe, Al)17 compounds as well as their corresponding hydrides is discussed.

  20. Ultra High p-doping Material Research for GaN Based Light Emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir Dmitriev

    2007-06-30

    The main goal of the Project is to investigate doping mechanisms in p-type GaN and AlGaN and controllably fabricate ultra high doped p-GaN materials and epitaxial structures. Highly doped p-type GaN-based materials with low electrical resistivity and abrupt doping profiles are of great importance for efficient light emitters for solid state lighting (SSL) applications. Cost-effective hydride vapor phase epitaxial (HVPE) technology was proposed to investigate and develop p-GaN materials for SSL. High p-type doping is required to improve (i) carrier injection efficiency in light emitting p-n junctions that will result in increasing of light emitting efficiency, (ii) current spreading in light emitting structures that will improve external quantum efficiency, and (iii) parameters of Ohmic contacts to reduce operating voltage and tolerate higher forward currents needed for the high output power operation of light emitters. Highly doped p-type GaN layers and AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with low electrical resistivity will lead to novel device and contact metallization designs for high-power high efficiency GaN-based light emitters. Overall, highly doped p-GaN is a key element to develop light emitting devices for the DOE SSL program. The project was focused on material research for highly doped p-type GaN materials and device structures for applications in high performance light emitters for general illumination P-GaN and p-AlGaN layers and multi-layer structures were grown by HVPE and investigated in terms of surface morphology and structure, doping concentrations and profiles, optical, electrical, and structural properties. Tasks of the project were successfully accomplished. Highly doped GaN materials with p-type conductivity were fabricated. As-grown GaN layers had concentration N{sub a}-N{sub d} as high as 3 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. Mechanisms of doping were investigated and results of material studies were reported at several International conferences providing

  1. Transformation Heat Treatment of Rapidly Quenched Nb3A1 Precursor Monitored in situ by High Energy Synchrotron Diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Di Michiel, M; Jin, X; Takeuchi, T; Kikuchi, A; Tsuchiya, K; Nakagawa, K; Nakamoto, T

    2013-01-01

    Nb3Al superconductors are studied for use in high field magnets. Fine grained Nb3Al with nearly stoichiometric Al content is obtained by a Rapid Heating Quenching and Transformation (RHQT) process. We describe a non destructive in situ study of the transformation process step of a RHQ Nb3Al precursor wire with ramp rates of either 120 °C/h or 800 °C/h. High energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements show the transformation from a Nb(Al)SS supersaturated solid solution into Nb3Al. When heating with a ramp rate of 120 °C/h a strong reduction of the Nb(Al)SS (110) diffraction peak component is observed when the temperature exceeds 660 °C. Additional diffraction peaks are detectable in the approximate temperature interval 610 °C - 750 °C and significant Nb3Al growth is observed above 730 °C.

  2. Inelastic light scattering spectroscopy of semiconductor nitride nanocolumns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, J.M.; Lazic, S.; Sanchez-Paramo, J. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Agullo-Rueda, F. [Materials Science Institute of Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Cerutti, L.; Ristic, J.; Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Grandal, J.; Calleja, E. [ISOM and Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSIT, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Trampert, A.; Jahn, U. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    A review of inelastic light scattering measurements on group III-nitride nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy is presented. The nanocolumns are hexagonal, high quality single crystals with diameters in the range of 20 to 100 nm, with no traces of extended defects. GaN nanocolumns grown on bare Si substrates with both (111) and (100) orientation display narrow phonon peaks, indicating the absence of strain inhomogeneities. This opens the possibility of efficient integration of the nanocolumns as optoelectronic devices with the complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. Measurements of the E{sub 2} phonon frequency on AlGaN nanocolumns indicate a linear dependence of the Al concentration on the Al relative flux, up to 60%. The E{sub 2} peak width increases with Al content due to phonon damping by alloy scattering. Inelastic light scattering measurements in InN nanocolumns display a coupled LO phonon-plasmon mode together with uncoupled phonons. The coupled mode is not observed in a reference compact sample. The origin of the coupled mode is attributed to spontaneous accumulation of electrons at the lateral surfaces of the nanocolumns. The presence of free electrons in the nanocolumns is confirmed by infrared reflectance measurements. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. High-alumina basalts from the Bogda Mountains suggest an arc setting for Chinese Northern Tianshan during the Late Carboniferous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Xu, Yi-Gang; Chen, Yi-Bing; Luo, Zhen-Yu; Hong, Lu-Bing; Ma, Liang; Liu, Hai-Quan

    2016-07-01

    Considerable debate persists as to the tectonic setting of the Tianshan Orogen during the Late Paleozoic, with active subduction system and intraplate large igneous provinces as two dominant schools. With aims of providing constraints on this issue, geochronological and geochemical analyses have been carried out on the Late Carboniferous high-Al basaltic lava (HAB) from the Bogda Mountains. These lavas, in conformable contact with the felsic rocks, belong to the Upper Carboniferous Liushugou Group. Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating of two felsic ignimbrites further suggest that they were mainly erupted during 315-319 Ma. The Bogda basaltic lava is classified as HAB given their high Al contents > 16% and their chemical resemblance to those from modern arcs such as Aleutian and Kamchatka. They are characterized by strong enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILE), strong negative Nb-Ta and Ti anomalies, and distinct positive Pb anomalies. Hence, they are significantly different from the mantle plume-related basalts, as exemplified by those from Siberian, Emeishan, and Tarim large igneous provinces. Instead, their MORB-like Nd-Hf-Pb isotopes and arc-like trace elements indicate that the Bogda HABs may have been generated from a mantle wedge metasomatized by sediment-derived melts. The sector and oscillatory zoning in clinopyroxene phenocrysts in the Bogda HABs is attributable to rapid dynamic crystallization during magma ascent. High Al content is due to delayed plagioclase nucleation likely by the high crystallization pressure rather than water content. Collectively, our data lend support to an island arc environment during the Late Paleozoic, probably related to southward subduction of the Paleo-Tianshan Ocean.

  4. Determination of silicon and aluminum in silicon carbide nanocrystals by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dravecz, Gabriella; Bencs, László; Beke, Dávid; Gali, Adam

    2016-01-15

    The determination of Al contaminant and the main component Si in silicon carbide (SiC) nanocrystals with the size-distribution of 1-8nm dispersed in an aqueous solution was developed using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-GFAAS). The vaporization/atomization processes were investigated in a transversally heated graphite atomizer by evaporating solution samples of Al and Si preserved in various media (HCl, HNO3). For Si, the best results were obtained by applying a mixture of 5µg Pd plus 5µg Mg, whereas for Al, 10µg Mg (each as nitrate solution) was dispensed with the samples, but the results obtained without modifier were found to be better. This way a maximum pyrolysis temperature of 1200°C for Si and 1300°C for Al could be used, and the optimum (compromise) atomization temperature was 2400°C for both analytes. The Si and Al contents of different sized SiC nanocrystals, dispersed in aqueous solutions, were determined against aqueous (external) calibration standards. The correlation coefficients (R values) of the calibrations were found to be 0.9963 for Si and 0.9991 for Al. The upper limit of the linear calibration range was 2mg/l Si and 0.25mg/l Al. The limit of detection was 3µg/l for Si and 0.5µg/l for Al. The characteristic mass (m0) was calculated to be 389pg Si and 6.4pg Al. The Si and Al content in the solution samples were found to be in the range of 1.0-1.7mg/l and 0.1-0.25mg/l, respectively.

  5. Structure and properties of FeCoNiCrCu0.5Alx high-entropy alloy%FeCoNiCrCu0.5Alx高熵合金的结构和性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝玉; 彭坤; 胡爱平; 周灵平; 朱家俊; 李德意

    2013-01-01

    Effects of Al content and heat treatment on the structure,hardness and electrochemical properties of FeCoNiCrCu0.5Alx high-entropy alloys were investigated.The phase structure of as-cast alloys evolves from FCC phase to BCC phase with the increase of Al content.The stable phase of FeCoNiCrCu0.5Alx high-entropy alloys will transform from FCC phase to FCC+BCC duplex phases when x value increases from 0.5 to 1.5.The hardness of BCC phase is higher than that of FCC phase,and the corrosion resistance of BCC phase is better than FCC phase in chlorine ion and acid medium.High hardness and good corrosion resistance can be obtained in as-cast FeCoNiCrCu05Al1.0 alloy.%研究Al含量和热处理对FeCoNiCrCu0.5Alx多主元高熵合金的相结构、硬度和电化学性能的影响规律.随着Al含量的增加,铸态合金的相结构由FCC相向BCC相转变.当x从0.5增加到1.5时,FeCoNiCrCu0.5Alx高熵合金的稳定结构由FCC结构向FCC+BCC双相结构转变.BCC相的硬度高于FCC相的,在氯离子及酸性介质中BCC相的耐腐蚀性均优于FCC相的.FeCoNiCrCu0.5Al1.0铸态合金具有高硬度和良好的抗腐蚀性能.

  6. MEMOCVD Growth of AlGaN Heterojunctions for Advanced UV Photodetectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sensor Electronic Technology, Inc. (SET) proposes to develop ultraviolet detectors for focal plane arrays based on wide-bandgap semiconductor materials. Direct gap...

  7. OMVPE growth and gas-phase reactions of AlGaN for UV emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, J.; Figiel, J.J.; Crawford, M.H.; Banas, M.A.; Bartram, M.E.; Biefeld, R.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Song, Y.K.; Nurmikko, A.V. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Div. of Engineering

    1998-06-01

    Gas-phase parasitic reactions among TMG, TMA, and NH3, are investigated by monitoring of the growth rate/incorporation efficiency of GaN and AlN using an in-situ optical reflectometer. It is suggested that gas phase adduct (TMA: NH{sub 3}) reactions not only reduce the incorporation efficiency of TMA but also affect the incorporation behavior of TMGa. The observed phenomena can be explained by either a synergistic gas-phase scavenging effect or a surface site-blocking effect. Relatively low reactor pressures (30--50 Torr) are employed to grow an AlGaN/GaN QW p-n diode structure. The UV emission at 354 nm (FWHM {approximately} 6 nm) represents the first report of LED operation from an indium-free GaN QW diode.

  8. An Empiric Linear Formula between the Internal Tetrahedron Symmetric Stretch Frequency and the Al Content in the Framework of KL Molecular Sieves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nong Yue HE; Chun YANG; Jian Xin TANG; Peng Feng XIAO; Hong CHEN

    2003-01-01

    KL molecular sieves with different framework compositions were secondarily synthesized by substituting Si for Al with a solution of (NH4)2SiF6. The internal tetrahedron symmetric stretch frequency, at ν770 cm-1, is linear with the molar fraction of Al (XAl= Al/(Si+Al)) in the framework of KL samples: XAl = -7.309×10-3 (υ770-760) + 0.3242.

  9. Effect of Al content on the phase structure and the hydrogenation characteristic of La(Mg1-xAlx) alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Qingyu; ZHANG Qing'an

    2006-01-01

    La(Mg1-xAlx) (x=0.2,0.4,0.6,0.8) alloys have been prepared using induction melting followed by annealing. It is found that partial substitution of Mg by Al does not lead to a change in crystal structure, and the alloys have a single LaMg phase when x ≤ 0.4. The lattice parameter of the LaMg phase decreases obviously after the partial substitution of Mg by Al. However, further substitution of Mg by Al leads to the coexistence of multiple phases when x ≥ 0.6. The alloys consist of the LaMg, LaAl, LaAl2, and La5Al4 phases. The LaMg phase decreases, whereas the La5Al4 phase increases with the increase in x. The Al-substituted La(Mg0.6Al0.4) alloy can be hydrogenated into the tetragonal LaH3, cubic LaH3, MgH2, and LaAl under 5 MPa at 473 K for 5 d.

  10. Dielectric function and electro-optical properties of (Al,Ga)N/GaN-heterostructures; Dielektrische Funktion und elektrooptische Eigenschaften von (Al,Ga)N/GaN-Heterostrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchheim, Carsten

    2010-04-23

    In this work extensive investigations on nitride semiconductors by optical spectroscopy are presented. The ordinary and the extraordinary component of the dielectric function of GaN in the spectral range from 1.2 to 9.8 eV is shown for the first time. It is demonstrated, that the transparent spectral range is clearly influenced by higher energetic critical points of the band structure. The optical selection rules for GaN and AlN are verified considering the actual strain state. The change of the valence band ordering of AlN in comparison to GaN is proven and the crystal field splitting is estimated for AlN. The ordinary dielectric function of AlGaN is determined for different Al contents. The data are used for developing an analytical model, which includes excitonic effects and bowings. It allows the calculation of the dielectric function for arbitrary alloy compositions. (GaN/)AlGaN/GaN heterostructures are investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry as well as by photoreflectance and electroreflectance. The optical data yields the electric field strengths of the individual layers to determine the density of the two-dimensional carrier gases at the heterointerfaces with high accuracy. The surface potential is calculated from the combination of experiments and Schroedinger-Poisson calculations. Its dependency on the Al content is quantified. For the special case of thick cap layers the coexistence of electron and hole gases in one sample is experimentally proven for the first time. Several interband transitions between quantized states in AlN/GaN superlattices are observed by electroreflectance. The comparison to quantum mechanical calculations demonstrates the influence of strain and electrical fields (quantum confined Stark effect). For both the ratio of the thicknesses of quantum wells and barriers is crucial. From the dielectric function of the superlattices it becomes obvious, that quantum size effects are not only important for the vicinity of the bandgap, but

  11. High arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pes cavus; High foot arch ... High foot arches are much less common than flat feet. They are more likely to be caused ... difficult to fit into shoes. People who have high arches most often need foot support. A high ...

  12. Controllable electrical properties of metal-doped In2O3 nanowires for high-performance enhancement-mode transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xuming; Liu, Xingqiang; Wang, Chunlan; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Yong; Xiao, Xiangheng; Ho, Johnny C; Li, Jinchai; Jiang, Changzhong; Xiong, Qihua; Liao, Lei

    2013-01-22

    In recent years, In(2)O(3) nanowires (NWs) have been widely explored in many technological areas due to their excellent electrical and optical properties; however, most of these devices are based on In(2)O(3) NW field-effect transistors (FETs) operating in the depletion mode, which induces relatively higher power consumption and fancier circuit integration design. Here, n-type enhancement-mode In(2)O(3) NW FETs are successfully fabricated by doping different metal elements (Mg, Al, and Ga) in the NW channels. Importantly, the resulting threshold voltage can be effectively modulated through varying the metal (Mg, Ga, and Al) content in the NWs. A series of scaling effects in the mobility, transconductance, threshold voltage, and source-drain current with respect to the device channel length are also observed. Specifically, a small gate delay time (0.01 ns) and high on-current density (0.9 mA/μm) are obtained at 300 nm channel length. Furthermore, Mg-doped In(2)O(3) NWs are then employed to fabricate NW parallel array FETs with a high saturation current (0.5 mA), on/off ratio (>10(9)), and field-effect mobility (110 cm(2)/V·s), while the subthreshold slope and threshold voltage do not show any significant changes. All of these results indicate the great potency for metal-doped In(2)O(3) NWs used in the low-power, high-performance thin-film transistors.

  13. AlGaN/GaN 高电子迁移率晶体管漏电流退化机理研究*%Degradation mechanism of leakage current in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任舰; 闫大为; 顾晓峰

    2013-01-01

      本文首先制备了与 AlGaN/GaN 高电子迁移率晶体管(HEMT)结构与特性等效的 AlGaN/GaN 异质结肖特基二极管,采用步进应力测试比较了不同栅压下器件漏电流的变化情况,然后基于电流-电压和电容-电压测试验证了退化前后漏电流的传输机理,并使用失效分析技术光发射显微镜(EMMI)观测器件表面的光发射,研究了漏电流的时间依赖退化机理。实验结果表明:在栅压高于某临界值后,器件漏电流随时间开始增加,同时伴有较大的噪声。将极化电场引入电流与电场的依赖关系后,器件退化前后的 log(IFP/E)与√E 都遵循良好的线性关系,表明漏电流均由电子 Frenkel-Poole (FP)发射主导。退化后 log(IFP/E)与√E 曲线斜率的减小,以及利用 EMMI 在栅边缘直接观察到了与缺陷存在对应关系的“热点”,证明了漏电流退化的机理是:高电场在 AlGaN 层中诱发了新的缺陷,而缺陷密度的增加导致了 FP 发射电流 IFP 的增加。%In order to study the degradation mechanism of leakage current in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), we have fabricated AlGaN/GaN heterojunction Schottky diodes having equivalent structure and characteristics to AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Step stress tests were then performed to compare the leakage current changes at different gate voltages. The transport mechanism of leakage current before and after degradation was validated based on the current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements. The light emission from the device surface was examined by emission microscopy (EMMI) to investigate the time-dependent degradation of leakage current. Experimental results show that the leakage current increases with increasing time and is accompanied by a large noise when the applied gate voltage exceeds a critical value. After introducing the polarization field into the current-field depen-dence, log(IFP/E) exhibits a good

  14. Sodium beta-alumina thin films as gate dielectrics for AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Ben-Lang; Chen Chao; Li Yan-Rong; Zhang Wan-Li; Liu Xing-Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Sodium beta-alumina (SBA) is deposited on AlGaN/GaN by using a co-deposition process with sodium and Al2O3 as the precursors.The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum reveals that the deposited thin film is amorphous.The binding energy and composition of the deposited thin film,obtained from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)measurement,are consistent with those of SBA.The dielectric constant of the SBA thin film is about 50.Each of the capacitance-voltage characteristics obtained at five different frequencies shows a high-quality interface between SBA and A1GaN.The interface trap density of metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistor (MISHEMT)is measured to be (3.5~9.5)× 1010 cm-2.eV-1 by the conductance method.The fixed charge density of SBA dielectric is on the order of 2.7x1012 cm-2.Compared with the AlGaN/GaN metal semiconductor hetcrostructure high-electron-mobility transistor (MESHEMT),the AlGaN/GaN MISHEMT usually has a threshold voltage that shifts negatively.However,the threshold voltage of the AlGaN/GaN MISHEMT using SBA as the gate dielectric shifts positively from -5.5 V to-3.5 V.From XPS results,the surface valence-band maximum (VBM-EF) of AlGaN is found to decrease from 2.56 eV to 2.25 eV after the SBA thin film deposition.The possible reasons why the threshold voltage of AlGaN/GaN MISHEMT with the SBA gate dielectric shifts positively are the influence of SBA on surface valence-band maximum (VBM-EF),the reduction of interface traps and the effects of sodium ions,and/or the fixed charges in SBA on the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG).

  15. The improvement of Al2O3/AlGaN/GaN MISHEMT performance by N2 plasma pretreatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Qian; Tian Yuan; Bi Zhi-Wei; Yue Yuan-Zheng; Ni Jin-Yu; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Hao Yue; Yang Lin-An

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of N2 plasma treatment before dielectric deposition on the electrical performance of a Al2O3/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MISHEMT), with Al2O3deposited by atomic layer deposition. The results indicated that the gate leakage was decreased two orders of magnitude after the Al2O3/AlGaN interface was pretreated by N2 plasma. Furthermore, effects of N2 plasma pretreatment on the electrical properties of the AlGaN/Al2O3 interface were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and the interface quality between Al2O3 and AlGaN film was improved.

  16. Preparation of AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures on Sapphire Using Light Radiation Heating Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition at Low Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yu-Gang; ZHENG You-Dou; SHEN Bo; ZHANG Rong; LI Wei-Ping; CHEN Peng; CHEN Zhi-Zhong; GU Shu-Lin; SHI Yi; Z. C. Huang

    2000-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN heterostructures on sapphire substrate were fabricated by using light radiation heating metalor ganic chemical vapor deposition. Photoluminescence excitation spectra show that there are two abrupt slopes corresponding to the absorption edges of AlGaN and GaN, respectively. X-ray diffraction spectra clearly exhibit the GaN (0002), (0004), and A1GaN (0002), (0004) diffraction peaks, and no diffraction peak other than those from the GaN {0001} and A1GaN {0001} planes is found. Reciprocal space mapping indicates that there is no tilt between the AlGaN layer and the GaN layer. All results also indicate that the sample is of sound quality and the Al composition in the AlGaN layer is of high uniformity.

  17. Instrumentation for a Temperature Controlled Pulsed-4 Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    GaN HEMTs with Oxygen Plasma Treatment,” Submitted to IEEE Electron Device Letters, Dec...O.I. Saadat, K.K. Ryu, Y. Liu, R.G. Gordon and T. Palacios: “Low-k passsivation layers for AlGaN/ GaN HEMTs ”. International Workshop on Nitride...Graphene Week 2010, Maryland, April 2010. • B. Lu and T. Palacios, “High Breakdown (> 1500 V) AlGaN/ GaN HEMTs by Substrate-Transfer Technology” IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 31, No. 9, pp. 951-953, Sept. 2010.

  18. The Role of Field Electron Emission in Polypropylene/Aluminum Nanodielectrics Under High Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Li, Yue; Tang, Saide; Thompson, Rhett D; Zhu, Lei

    2017-03-09

    Polymer/metallic particle nanocomposites or nanodielectrics can exhibit colossal dielectric constants with a relatively low dissipation factor under low electric fields and thus seem to be promising for high-energy density dielectric capacitors. To study this possibility, this work focused on the dielectric performance and loss mechanisms in polypropylene (PP)/aluminum nanoparticle (nAl NP) composites under high electric fields. Phosphonic acid-terminated poly(ethylene-co-1-butene) was grafted to the Al2O3 surface layer on the nAl NPs in order to achieve reasonable dispersion in the PP matrix. The dielectric breakdown study showed that the breakdown strength decreased to nearly 1/20 that of the neat PP film as the nAl content increased to 25.0 vol %. The leakage current study revealed three electronic conduction mechanisms in the PP/100 nm nAl nanocomposites, namely, ohmic conduction at low fields, hopping conduction at intermediate fields, and Fowler-Nordheim (FN) field electron emission above a critical field, depending on the filler content. Compared to the 100 nm nAl NPs, smaller (e.g., 18 nm) nAl NPs needed a much higher electric field to exhibit FN field electron emission. It was the FN electron tunneling that induced a substantial reduction in breakdown strength for the PP/nAl nanocomposites. Meanwhile, electron-tunneling injected space charges (electrons) from nAl NPs into the PP matrix, and internal electronic conduction led to significant dielectric nonlinearity at high poling fields. Although polymer/metallic NP composites are not suitable for high-field electric applications, they can be good candidates for electrical switches and quantum tunneling composites operated at relatively low electric fields.

  19. Two-dimensional electron and hole gases in GaN/AlGaN heterostructures; Zweidimensionale Elektronen- und Loechergase in GaN/AlGaN-Heterostrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, A.

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this PhD thesis is to investigate the electronic properties of electron and hole gases in GaN/AlGaN heterostructures. Particularly, a deeper and broadened understanding of scattering mechanisms and transport properties is in the focus of this work. The main experimental techniques used for this purpose are the study of Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) effect and Hall measurements at low temperatures. By means of these magnetotransport measurements, a series of GaN/AlGaN heterostructures with different Al content of the AlGaN barrier were investigated. Since the sheet carrier density of the 2DEG in these semiconductor structures is strongly dependent on the Al content (n{sub s}=2 x 10{sup 12}-10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}), the variation of transport parameters was determined as a function of sheet carrier concentration. First, from the temperature dependence of the SdH oscillations the effective transport mass was calculated. A Hall bar structure with an additional gate contact was used as an alternative to tune the carrier density of a 2DEG system independent of varying structural parametes such as Al content. Thus, the scattering mechanisms were investigated in the carrier density region between 3 x 10{sup 12} and 9.5 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}. The transport properties of subband electrons were studied for a 2DEG system with two occupied subbands. (orig.)

  20. Optical characterization of Al sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x N alloys grown by MOCVD

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, H S; Li, J; Lin, J Y; Jiang, H

    2000-01-01

    Al sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x N alloys with x varied from 0 to 0.35 have been produced on sapphire substrates with GaN buffer layers by using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), and the optical properties of the Al sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x N alloys have been investigated using picosecond time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy at low temperature (10 K). Our results reveal that the PL intensity decreases with increasing of Al content. On the other hand, the PL decay lifetime increases with Al content. These results can be understood in terms of the effects of tail states in the density of states (DOS) due to alloy fluctuation in the Al sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x N alloys. The Al content dependence of the energy tail-state distribution parameter, E sub 0 , which is an important parameter for determining the optical and the electrical properties of the AlGaN alloys, has been obtained experimentally.

  1. High PRF high current switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Stuart L.; Hutcherson, R. Kenneth

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  2. GaN基高电子迁移率场效应管的可靠性研究%Reliability Study of GaN-based High-electron-mobility Transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆海; 付立华; 刘新宇; 王燕

    2016-01-01

    GaN-based high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) are the most promising candidate for high-frequency and high-power microwave applications due to the intrinsic material advantanges of GaN-based semiconductors. However, imperfect material quality, strong polarization effect, high field operation enviroment and variation of processing technologies make the reliability problem of GaN-based HEMTs very complicated. As a result, GaN-based HEMTs have actual performance not up to their ideal level. These reliability challenges will hinder the extensive commercial applications of GaN-based HEMTs. In this work, we studied the reliability behaviors of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs from different perspectives. Firstly, we studied a carrier-trapping related anomalous kink effect in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. The kink is found largely caused by trapping electrons from the gate leakage current by deep levels within the AlGaN barrier at high drain bias, while the carrier trapping process mainly occuring within the AlGaN barrier under the gate has to be induced by a high drain bias leakage current. The carrier detrapping process is caused by hot electrons injected into the AlGaN barrier which “knock off” the trapped electrons. Secondly, we observed a critical stress voltage in the step stress tests, beyond which the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs start to recover from drain current slump induced by the lower voltage stress. The recovery process is explained by a high field induced carrier detrapping mechanism, while the device degradation in low-to-medium stress voltage range is caused by carrier trapping in surface or bulk states. Thirdly, we comprehensively studied off-state breakdown and current transport process of GaN-based HEMTs. Premature hard-breakdown can be observed in three-terminal tests, illustrating that buffer layer plays an important role in off-state breakdown. Measurement using drain current injection technique proves the existence of drain-to-source buffer leakage. Based on detailed tests at

  3. Microstructural characterization of thermal barrier coating on Inconel 617 after high temperature oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Daroonparvar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A turbine blade was protected against high temperature corrosion and oxidation by thermal barrier coatings (TBCsusing atmospheric plasma spraying technique (APS on a Ni-based superalloy (Inconel 617. The coatings (NiCr6AlY/ YSZ and NiCr10AlY/YSZ consist of laminar structure with substantial interconnected porosity transferred oxygen from Yittria stabilized Zirconia (YSZ layer toward the bond coat (NiCrAlY. Hence, a thermally grown oxide layer (TGO was formed on the metallic bond coat and internal oxidation of the bond coat occurred during oxidation. The TBC systems were oxidized in a normal electrically heated furnace at 1150 °C for 18, 22, 26, 32 and 40h.Microstructural characterization of coatings demonstrated that the growth of the TGO layer on the nickel alloy with 6wt. % Al is more rapid than TGO with 10wt. % Al. In addition, many micro-cracks were observed at the interface of NiCr6AlY/YSZ. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD showed the existence of detrimental oxides such as NiCr2O4, NiCrO3 and NiCrO4 in the bond coat containing 6wt. % Al, accompanied by rapid volume expansion causing the destruction of TBC. In contrast, in the bond coat with 10wt. % Al, NiO, Al2O3and Cr2O3 oxides were formed while very low volume expansion occurred. The oxygen could not penetrate into the TGO layer of bond coat with 10 wt. % Al during high temperature oxidation and the detrimental oxides were not extensively formed within the bond coat as more oxygen was needed. The YSZ with higher Al content showed higher oxidation resistance.

  4. Relative crystal stability of Al{sub x}FeNiCrCo high entropy alloys from XRD analysis and formation energy calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasiewicz, K.; Cieslak, J.; Kaprzyk, S.; Tobola, J., E-mail: tobola@ftj.agh.edu.pl

    2015-11-05

    Electronic structure of Al{sub x}FeNiCrCo (x ≤ 3) high-entropy alloys (HEAs) was calculated using the Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker method combined with the coherent potential approximation (KKR-CPA). Total energy minimization was performed for bcc and fcc structures in each alloy composition. The phase stability was investigated from the total energy analysis, which finally allowed to determine the bcc–fcc phase transition for aluminium concentration close to 13 at%. It inspired us to synthesize Al{sub x}FeNiCrCo (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5) using two procedures based on arc melting and sintering to allow for observation of entropy effect on phase formation. The XRD measurements evidently proved an occurence of fcc or bcc structure and their coexistence, depending on Al concentration and temperature. This finding remains in good agreement with theoretical results from free energy analysis, when accounting for KKR-CPA total energy as well as entropy terms. Furthermore, the structure preference, from fcc to bcc HEAs, with increasing Al content was discussed in view of total and atomic-dependent density of states computed in non-magnetic and paramagnetic-like states. - Highlights: • Crystal stability and electronic properties of high entropy alloys from KKR-CPA. • Influence of configuration entropy on phase preference (or coexistence). • Effect of configuration entropy on phase stability: arc melting viz. sintering. • Ab initio calculations (accounting for disorder) of phase preference in HEA.

  5. Effect of Aluminum Content on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al x CoCrFeMo0.5Ni High-Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chin-You; Juan, Chien-Chang; Sheu, Tsing-Shien; Chen, Swe-Kai; Yeh, Jien-Wei

    2013-12-01

    High-entropy alloys Al x CoCrFeMo0.5Ni with varied Al contents ( x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) have been designed based on the Al x CoCrCuFeNi system to improve mechanical properties for room and elevated temperatures. They have been investigated for microstructure and mechanical properties. As the aluminum content increases, the as-cast structure evolves from face-centered cubic dendrite + minor σ-phase interdendrite at x = 0 to B2 dendrite with body-centered cubic (bcc) precipitates + bcc interdendrite with B2 precipitates at x = 2.0. This confirms the strong bcc-forming tendency of Al. The room-temperature Vickers hardness starts from the lowest, HV 220, at x = 0, attains to the maximum, HV 720, at x = 1.0, and then decreases to HV 615 at x = 2.0. Compared with the base alloy system, the current alloy system has a superior combination of hardness and fracture toughness. In addition, Al x CoCrFeMo0.5Ni alloys except x = 0 display a higher hot hardness level than those of Ni-based superalloys, including In 718 and In 718 H, up to 1273 K and show great potential in high-temperature applications.

  6. Effect of aluminizing of Cr-containing ferritic alloys on the seal strength of a novel high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell sealing glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2008-12-01

    A novel high-temperature alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass was used to join two metallic coupons of Cr-containing ferritic stainless steel for seal strength evaluation. In previous work, SrCrO4 was found to form along the glass/steel interface, which led to severe strength degradation. In the present study, aluminization of the steel surface was investigated as a remedy to minimize or prevent the strontium chromate formation. Three different processes for aluminization were evaluated with Crofer22APU stainless steel: pack cementation, vapor phase deposition, and aerosol spraying. It was found that pack cementation resulted in a rough surface with occasional cracks in the Al-diffused region. Vapor phase deposition yielded a smoother surface, but the resulting high Al content increased the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), resulting in failure of joined coupons. Aerosol spraying of an Al-containing salt resulted in formation of a thin aluminum oxide layer without any surface damage. The room temperature seal strength was evaluated in the as-fired state and in environmentally aged conditions. In contrast to earlier results with uncoated Crofer22APU, the aluminized samples showed no strength degradation even for samples aged in air. Interfacial and chemical compatibility was also investigated. The results showed aluminization to be a viable candidate approach to minimize undesirable chromate formation between alkaline earth silicate sealing glass and Cr-containing interconnect alloys for SOFC applications.

  7. Investigation of trap states in Al2O3 InAlN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Sheng-Lei; Xue, Jun-Shuai; Zhu, Jie-Jie; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Hao, Yue

    2015-12-01

    In this paper the trapping effects in Al2O3/In0.17Al0.83N/GaN MOS-HEMT (here, HEMT stands for high electron mobility transistor) are investigated by frequency-dependent capacitance and conductance analysis. The trap states are found at both the Al2O3/InAlN and InAlN/GaN interface. Trap states in InAlN/GaN heterostructure are determined to have mixed de-trapping mechanisms, emission, and tunneling. Part of the electrons captured in the trap states are likely to tunnel into the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channel under serious band bending and stronger electric field peak caused by high Al content in the InAlN barrier, which explains the opposite voltage dependence of time constant and relation between the time constant and energy of the trap states. Project supported by the Program for National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61404100 and 61306017).

  8. High Surplus Means High Profits?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ In recent years,China has been in the limelight worldwide due to its constant high trade surplus.Its trade surplus hit US$ 24.974 billion in August, a record high and an increase of US$ 624 million versus the previous month, according to the latest data from China Customs.

  9. High Tech

    OpenAIRE

    Manterola, Javier; Fernández Casado, S.A., Carlos

    1987-01-01

    "High Tech" is an architectural movement that emphasizes the technological dimension of the building as expression means. Its research includes the diverse structures composing the building: resistance, closing, services, distribution and communications. Its results are unequal since not all the buildings rising from this movement are high technology and already are other buildings not enrolled in this movement. Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers and Norman Foster are its main representatives.

  10. The Mg impurity in nitride alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvanut, M. E.; Willoughby, W. R.; Sunay, U. R. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham AL (United States); Koleske, D. D.; Allerman, A. A. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque NM (United States); Wang, Ke; Araki, Tsutomu [Department of Photonics, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Nanishi, Yasushi [Department of Photonics, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga, Japan and WCU Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-21

    Although several magnetic resonance studies address the Mg acceptor in GaN, there are few reports on Mg doping in the alloys, where hole production depends strongly on the Al or In content. Our electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of the p-type alloys suggest that the Mg impurity retains the axial symmetry, characteristic of a p-type dopant in both alloys; however, In and Al produce additional, different characteristics of the acceptor. In InGaN, the behavior is consistent with a lowering of the acceptor level and increasing hole density as In concentration increases. For AlGaN, the amount of neutral Mg decreases with increasing Al content, which is attributed to different kinetics of hydrogen diffusion thought to occur in samples with higher Al mole fraction.

  11. Aluminium incorporation in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN heterostructures: A comparative study by ion beam analysis and X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo-Cubero, A. [ISOM and Dpt. de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Gago, R. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: raul.gago@uam.es; Gonzalez-Posada, F. [ISOM and Dpt. de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Kreissig, U. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF 51019, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Di Forte Poisson, M.-A. [Thales Research and Technology/TIGER 91461 Marcoussis Cedex (France); Brana, A.F.; Munoz, E. [ISOM and Dpt. de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-10-01

    The Al content in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN heterostructures has been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and contrasted with absolute measurements from ion beam analysis (IBA) methods. For this purpose, samples with 0.1 < x < 0.3 grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition on sapphire substrates have been studied. XRD and IBA corroborate the good epitaxial growth of the AlGaN layer, which slightly deteriorates with the incorporation of Al for x > 0.2. The assessment of Al incorporation by XRD is quite reliable regarding the average value along the sample thickness. However, XRD analysis tends to overestimate the Al fraction at low contents, which is attributed to the presence of strain within the layer. For the highest Al incorporation, IBA detects a certain Al in-depth compositional profile that should be considered for better XRD data analysis.

  12. Highly efficient high temperature electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Ebbesen, Sune; Jensen, Søren Højgaard;

    2008-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of water and steam may provide an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly production of H-2 Using electricity produced from sustainable, non-fossil energy sources. To achieve cost competitive electrolysis cells that are both high performing i.e. minimum...... internal resistance of the cell, and long-term stable, it is critical to develop electrode materials that are optimal for steam electrolysis. In this article electrolysis cells for electrolysis of water or steam at temperatures above 200 degrees C for production of H-2 are reviewed. High temperature...... electrolysis is favourable from a thermodynamic point of view, because a part of the required energy can be supplied as thermal heat, and the activation barrier is lowered increasing the H-2 production rate. Only two types of cells operating at high temperature (above 200 degrees C) have been described...

  13. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...... in close proximity to the park bridge and new projects being added to fit the context. The outcome is a conglomeration of non-contemporary urban activities along the High Line, where mechanical workshops, small wholesale stores. etc. mix with new exclusive residential buildings, eminent cafés...

  14. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    in close proximity to the park bridge and new projects being added to fit the context. The outcome is a conglomeration of non-contemporary urban activities along the High Line, where mechanical workshops, small wholesale stores. etc. mix with new exclusive residential buildings, eminent cafés......At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many...... factories and warehouses on Gansevoort Street. Today the High Line is a beautiful park covered with new tiles, viewing platforms and smaller recreational areas. The park bridge has simple, uniform, urban fittings and features a variety of flowering plants, grasses, shrubs and trees from around the world...

  15. High temperature creep behaviour of Al-rich Ti-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, D.; Heilmaier, M.; Saage, H.; Aguilar, J.; Schmitz, G. J.; Drevermann, A.; Palm, M.; Stein, F.; Engberding, N.; Kelm, K.; Irsen, S.

    2010-07-01

    Compared to Ti-rich γ-TiAl-based alloys Al-rich Ti-Al alloys offer an additional reduction of in density and a better oxidation resistance which are both due to the increased Al content. Polycrystalline material was manufactured by centrifugal casting. Microstructural characterization was carried out employing light-optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and XRD analyses. The high temperature creep of two binary alloys, namely Al60Ti40 and Al62Ti38 was comparatively assessed with compression tests at constant true stress in a temperature range between 1173 and 1323 K in air. The alloys were tested in the cast condition (containing various amounts of the metastable phases Al5Ti3 and h-Al2Ti) and after annealing at 1223 K for 200 h which produced (thermodynamically stable) lamellar γ-TiAl + r-Al2Ti microstructures. In general, already the as-cast alloys exhibit a reasonable creep resistance at 1173 K. Compared with Al60Ti40, both, the as-cast and the annealed Al62Ti38 alloy exhibit better creep resistance up to 1323 K which can be rationalized by the reduced lamella spacing. The assessment of creep tests conducted at identical stress levels and varying temperatures yielded apparent activation energies for creep of Q = 430 kJ/mol for the annealed Al60Ti40 alloy and of Q = 383 kJ/mol for the annealed Al62Ti38 material. The latter coincides well with that of Al diffusion in γ-TiAl, whereas the former can be rationalized by the instability of the microstructure containing metastable phases.

  16. High temperature creep behaviour of Al-rich Ti-Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, D; Heilmaier, M; Saage, H [Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Institute for Materials and Joining Technology, PO Box 4120, D-39016 Magdeburg (Germany); Aguilar, J; Schmitz, G J; Drevermann, A [ACCESS e.V., Intzestrasse 5, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Palm, M; Stein, F; Engberding, N [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Kelm, K; Irsen, S, E-mail: daniel.sturm@ovgu.d [Stiftung caesar, Electron Microscopy, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, D-53175 Bonn (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Compared to Ti-rich {gamma}-TiAl-based alloys Al-rich Ti-Al alloys offer an additional reduction of in density and a better oxidation resistance which are both due to the increased Al content. Polycrystalline material was manufactured by centrifugal casting. Microstructural characterization was carried out employing light-optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and XRD analyses. The high temperature creep of two binary alloys, namely Al{sub 60}Ti{sub 40} and Al{sub 62}Ti{sub 38} was comparatively assessed with compression tests at constant true stress in a temperature range between 1173 and 1323 K in air. The alloys were tested in the cast condition (containing various amounts of the metastable phases Al{sub 5}Ti{sub 3} and h-Al{sub 2}Ti) and after annealing at 1223 K for 200 h which produced (thermodynamically stable) lamellar {gamma}-TiAl + r-Al{sub 2}Ti microstructures. In general, already the as-cast alloys exhibit a reasonable creep resistance at 1173 K. Compared with Al{sub 60}Ti{sub 40}, both, the as-cast and the annealed Al{sub 62}Ti{sub 38} alloy exhibit better creep resistance up to 1323 K which can be rationalized by the reduced lamella spacing. The assessment of creep tests conducted at identical stress levels and varying temperatures yielded apparent activation energies for creep of Q = 430 kJ/mol for the annealed Al{sub 60}Ti{sub 40} alloy and of Q = 383 kJ/mol for the annealed Al{sub 62}Ti{sub 38} material. The latter coincides well with that of Al diffusion in {gamma}-TiAl, whereas the former can be rationalized by the instability of the microstructure containing metastable phases.

  17. Characterization of capture cross sections of interface states in dielectric/III-nitride heterojunction structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matys, M.; Stoklas, R.; Kuzmik, J.; Adamowicz, B.; Yatabe, Z.; Hashizume, T.

    2016-05-01

    We performed, for the first time, quantitative characterization of electron capture cross sections σ of the interface states at dielectric/III-N heterojunction interfaces. We developed a new method, which is based on the photo-assisted capacitance-voltage measurements using photon energies below the semiconductor band gap. The analysis was carried out for AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterojunction (MISH) structures with Al2O3, SiO2, or SiN films as insulator deposited on the AlGaN layers with Al content (x) varying over a wide range of values. Additionally, we also investigated an Al2O3/InAlN/GaN MISH structure. Prior to insulator deposition, the AlGaN and InAlN surfaces were subjected to different treatments. We found that σ for all these structures lies in the range between 5 × 10 - 19 and 10 - 16 cm2. Furthermore, we revealed that σ for dielectric/AlxGa1-xN interfaces increases with increasing x. We showed that both the multiphonon-emission and cascade processes can explain the obtained results.

  18. High Turbulence

    CERN Multimedia

    EuHIT, Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed.

  19. Stress Control in GaN Grown on 6H-SiC by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yao; JIANG Yang; XU Pei-Qiang; MA Zi-Guang; WANG Xiao-Li; WANG Lu; JIA Hai-Qiang; CHEN Hong

    2011-01-01

    The strain in GaN epitaxial layers grown on 6H-SiC substrates with an AIN buffer by metalorganic chemical wpor deposition is investigated.It is found that the insertion of a graded AlGaN layer between the GaN layer and the AIN buffer can change the signs of strain.A compressive strain in an overgrown thick (2 μm) GaN layer is obtained.High-resolution x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements are used to determine the strain state in the GaN layers.The mechanism of stress control by inserting graded AlGaN in subsequent GaN layers is discussed briefly.%@@ The strain in GaN epitaxial layers grown on 611-SiC substrates with an AIN buffer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is investigated.It is found that the insertion of a graded AlGaN layer between the GaN layer and the AIN buffer can change the signs of strain.A compressive strain in an overgrown thick(2μm)GaN layer is obtained.High-resolution x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements are used to determine the strain state in the GaN layers.The mechanism of stress control by inserting graded AlGaN in subsequent GaN layers is discussed briefly.

  20. Growth and characterization of AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN double-heterojunction high-electron-mobility transistors on 100-mm Si(111) using ammonia-molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravikiran, L.; Radhakrishnan, K., E-mail: ERADHA@ntu.edu.sg; Yiding, Lin; Ng, G. I. [NOVITAS-Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Dharmarasu, N.; Agrawal, M.; Arulkumaran, S.; Vicknesh, S. [Temasek Laboratories@NTU, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553 (Singapore)

    2015-01-14

    To improve the confinement of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) heterostructures, AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction HEMT (DH-HEMT) heterostructures were grown using ammonia-MBE on 100-mm Si substrate. Prior to the growth, single heterojunction HEMT (SH-HEMT) and DH-HEMT heterostructures were simulated using Poisson-Schrödinger equations. From simulations, an AlGaN buffer with “Al” mole fraction of 10% in the DH-HEMT was identified to result in both higher 2DEG concentration (∼10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2}) and improved 2DEG confinement in the channel. Hence, this composition was considered for the growth of the buffer in the DH-HEMT heterostructure. Hall measurements showed a room temperature 2DEG mobility of 1510 cm{sup 2}/V.s and a sheet carrier concentration (n{sub s}) of 0.97 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} for the DH-HEMT structure, while they are 1310 cm{sup 2}/V.s and 1.09 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2}, respectively, for the SH-HEMT. Capacitance-voltage measurements confirmed the improvement in the confinement of 2DEG in the DH-HEMT heterostructure, which helped in the enhancement of its room temperature mobility. DH-HEMT showed 3 times higher buffer break-down voltage compared to SH-HEMT, while both devices showed almost similar drain current density. Small signal RF measurements on the DH-HEMT showed a unity current-gain cut-off frequency (f{sub T}) and maximum oscillation frequency (f{sub max}) of 22 and 25 GHz, respectively. Thus, overall, DH-HEMT heterostructure was found to be advantageous due to its higher buffer break-down voltages compared to SH-HEMT heterostructure.

  1. Compositionally graded relaxed AlGaN buffers on semipolar GaN for mid-ultraviolet emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Erin C.; Wu Feng; Haeger, Daniel A.; Nakamura, Shuji; Denbaars, Steven P.; Cohen, Daniel A.; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Romanov, Alexey E. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Tartu 194021 (Estonia)

    2012-10-01

    In this Letter, we report on the growth and properties of relaxed, compositionally graded Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N buffer layers on freestanding semipolar (2021) GaN substrates. Continuous and step compositional grades with Al concentrations up to x = 0.61 have been achieved, with emission wavelengths in the mid-ultraviolet region as low as 265 nm. Coherency stresses were relaxed progressively throughout the grades by misfit dislocation generation via primary (basal) slip and secondary (non-basal) slip systems. Threading dislocation densities in the final layers of the grades were less than 10{sup 6}/cm{sup 2} as confirmed by plan-view transmission electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence studies.

  2. Sub-250nm room temperature optical gain from AlGaN materials with strong compositional fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, Emanuele; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Haiding; Nikiforov, A.; Yin, Jian; Paiella, Roberto; Moustakas, Theodore; Dal Negro, Luca

    2013-03-01

    Compact and portable deep-UV LEDs and laser sources are needed for a number of engineering applications including optical communications, gas sensing, biochemical agent detection, disinfection, biotechnology and medical diagnostics. We investigate the deep-UV optical emission and gain properties of AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN multiple quantum wells structure. These structures were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on 6H-SiC substrates resulting in either homogeneous wells or various degrees of band-structure compositional fluctuations in the form of cluster-like features within the wells. We measured the TE-polarized amplified spontaneous emission in the sample with cluster-like features and quantified the optical absorption/gain coefficients and gain spectra by the Variable Stripe Length (VSL) technique under ultrafast optical pumping. We report blue-shift and narrowing of the emission, VSL traces, gain spectra, polarization studies, and the validity of the Schalow-Townes relation to demonstrate a maximum net modal gain of 120 cm-1 at 250 nm in the sample with strong compositional fluctuations. Moreover, we measure a very low gain threshold (15 μJ/cm2) . On the other hand, we found that samples with homogeneous quantum wells lead to absorption only. In addition, we report gain measurements in graded-index-separate-confined heterostructure (GRINSCH) designed to increase the device optical confinement factor.

  3. An improved design for AlGaN solar-blind avalanche photodiodes with enhanced avalanche ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yin; Cai, Qing; Yang, Lian-Hong; Dong, Ke-Xiu; Chen, Dun-Jun; Lu, Hai; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, You-Dou

    2017-03-01

    Not Available Project supported by the State Key Project of Research and Development Plan, China (Grant No. 2016YFB0400903), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61634002, 61274075, and 61474060), the Key Project of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BE2016174), the Anhui University Natural Science Research Project, China (Grant No. KJ2015A153), the Open Fund (KFS) of State Key Lab of Optical Technologieson Nanofabrication and Microengineering, Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Science.

  4. Transport and breakdown analysis for improved figure-of-merit for AlGaN power devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltrin, Michael E.; Kaplar, Robert J.

    2017-02-01

    Mobility and critical electric field for bulk AlxGa1-xN alloys across the full composition range (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) are analyzed to address the potential application of this material system for power electronics. Calculation of the temperature-dependent electron mobility includes the potential limitations due to different scattering mechanisms, including alloy, optical polar phonon, deformation potential, and piezoelectric scattering. The commonly used unipolar figure of merit (appropriate for vertical-device architectures), which increases strongly with increasing mobility and critical electric field, is examined across the alloy composition range to estimate the potential performance in power electronics applications. Alloy scattering is the dominant limitation to mobility and thus also for the unipolar figure of merit. However, at higher alloy compositions, the limitations due to alloy scattering are overcome by increased critical electric field. These trade-offs, and their temperature dependence, are quantified in the analysis.

  5. Effects of oxygen plasma treatment on the formation of ohmic contacts to GaN and AlGaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, J.; Kappers, M.J.; McAleese, C.; Humphreys, C.J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Crossley, A. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Phillips, W.A. [phconsult Ltd., 54 Convent Garden, Cambridge CB1 2HR (United Kingdom)

    2004-10-01

    The effects of oxygen plasma treatment prior to metal contact deposition have been studied for both n- and p-GaN, as well as n-AlGaN. In n-GaN, the as-deposited Ti/Al contacts change from rectifying to ohmic, and further improvements are observed after rapid thermal annealing (RTA). A specific contact resistivity better than 10{sup -7} {omega} cm{sup 2} was obtained using a plasma treatment of 20 s at 30 W and 0.2 mbar, followed by RTA at 500 C in argon. The I-V characteristics of the Ti/Al contacts degraded when plasma treatments were performed for a longer time and/or at increased plasma pressure. However, in contrast to n-GaN, the electrical properties of the Ni/Au contacts to p-GaN and Ti/Al contacts to n-Al{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}N deteriorated following oxygen plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used in order to help elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Enhanced light extraction efficiency of micro-ring array AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele Fayisa, Gabisa; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Jungsub; Kim, Yong-Il; Park, Youngsoo; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2017-09-01

    An effective approach to overcome inherently poor light extraction efficiency of AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet (DUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is presented. We demonstrated the 5 × 5 array micro-ring DUV LED having an inclined sidewall at the outer perimeter and a p-GaN-removed inner circle of the micro-ring, together with MgF2/Al omnidirectional reflectors. The micro-ring array DUV LED shows remarkably higher light output power by 70% than the reference, consistent with the calculated result, as well as comparable turn-on and operational voltages, which are attributed to the effective extraction of strong transverse-magnetic polarized anisotropic emission and the reduction of the absorption loss by the p-GaN contact layer, simultaneously.

  7. Onset of surface stimulated emission at 260 nm from AlGaN multiple quantum wells

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xiaohang

    2015-12-14

    We demonstrated onset of deep-ultraviolet (DUV) surface stimulated emission (SE) from c-plane AlGaNmultiple-quantum well(MQW)heterostructuresgrown on a sapphire substrate by optical pumping at room temperature. The onset of SE became observable at a pumping power density of 630 kW/cm2. Spectral deconvolution revealed superposition of a linearly amplified spontaneous emission peak at λ ∼ 257.0 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ∼12 nm and a superlinearly amplified SE peak at λ ∼ 260 nm with a narrow FWHM of less than 2 nm. In particular, the wavelength of ∼260 nm is the shortest wavelength of surface SE from III-nitride MQWheterostructures to date. Atomic force microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements were employed to investigate the material and structural quality of the AlGaNheterostructures, showing smooth surface and sharp layer interfaces. This study offers promising results for AlGaNheterostructuresgrown on sapphire substrates for the development of DUV vertical cavity surface emitting lasers(VCSELs).

  8. Donors, Acceptors, and Traps in AlGaN and AlGaN/GaN Epitaxial Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-31

    839 (1985). 19. B. Ziebro, J.W. Hemnsky, and D.C. Look, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 78 (1992). 20. R. Ambigapathy, A.A. Manuel , P. Hautoj drvi, K. Saarinen, and...87, 5504 (2001). [14] D. Chems, C.G. Jiao, H. Mokhtari, J. Cai, and F.A. Ponce , phys. stat. sol. (b) 234, 924 (2002). 19 6> •,• Nss = 5 x 101’ cmŖ r

  9. Carrier dynamics and recombination in GaN quantum discs embedded in AlGaN nanocolumns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamfirescu, M.; Abbarchi, M.; Gurioli, M.; Vinattieri, A. [INFM, Dept. of Physics and LENS, Universita di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Ristic, J.; Calleja, E. [Dept. Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion-ISOM, Universidad Politecnica, Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2005-02-01

    We report on the study of carrier dynamics and recombination by time resolved PL in GaN quantum discs embedded in Al{sub 0.16}Ga{sub 0.84}N nanocolumns, grown by MBE on AlN buffered Si (111) substrates. The emission band of GaN quantum discs and the Al{sub 0.16}Ga{sub 0.84}N nanocolumns are strongly overlapped and the standard analysis of PL decays is not useful to fully characterize the recombination kinetics. We make use of time resolved spectroscopy to clearly distinguish the different contributions to the PL spectra and therefore to obtain the intrinsic carrier time evolution in the quantum discs. We observe a dynamical red shift of the PL band together with a non exponential decay, very likely due to screening of the internal piezoelectric field provided by the photoinjected carriers. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. High efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, G.

    1984-05-18

    The surgeon wants to have phlebograms with good contrast, which should show only the deep venous system and leaks to the superficial system, that means, the insufficient communicating veins and the inflow of the big and small saphenous vein into the deep vein must be visible. The most frequent causes for X-ray-prints of bad quality are: a too high position of the stowing, too high puncture at the back of the foot, bad focussing without showing the ankle joint or the popliteal region and too narrow sections of the X-ray-films as well as too late exposures with fullfilling of the total superficial venous system and extreme superposition on the film.

  11. High Energy $\

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is a high statistics exposure of BEBC filled with hydrogen to both @n and &bar.@n beams. The principal physics aims are : \\item a) The study of the production of charmed mesons and baryons using fully constrained events. \\end{enumerate} b) The study of neutral current interactions on the free proton. \\item c) Measurement of the cross-sections for production of exclusive final state N* and @D resonances. \\item d) Studies of hadronic final states in charged and neutral current reactions. \\item e) Measurement of inclusive charged current cross-sections and structure functions. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ The neutrino flux is determined by monitoring the flux of muons in the neutrino shield. The Internal Picket Fence and External Muon Identifier of BEBC are essential parts of the experiment. High resolution cameras are used to search for visible decays of short-lived particles.

  12. High Tech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manterola, Javier

    1987-02-01

    Full Text Available "High Tech" is an architectural movement that emphasizes the technological dimension of the building as expression means. Its research includes the diverse structures composing the building: resistance, closing, services, distribution and communications. Its results are unequal since not all the buildings rising from this movement are high technology and already are other buildings not enrolled in this movement. Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers and Norman Foster are its main representatives.

    "High Tech" es un movimiento arquitectónico que enfatiza la dimensión tecnológica del edificio como medio de expresión. Su investigación se fija en las diversas estructuras que configuran el edificio, la resistente, la de cerramiento, la de servicios, la de distribución y comunicaciones. Sus resultados son desiguales pues no todos los edificios que surgen de este movimiento son alta tecnología y muchos otros no inscritos en dicho movimiento sí lo son. Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers y Norman Foster son sus representantes más destacados.

  13. Carrier dynamics of optical emission from two-dimensional electron gas in undoped AlGaN/GaN single heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwack, H.S.; Cho, Y.H. [Department of Physics and Institute for Basic Science Research, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea); Kim, G.H. [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea); Park, M.R.; Youn, D.H.; Bae, S.B.; Lee, K.S. [Basic Research Laboratory, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea); Lee, J.H.; Lee, J.H. [Department of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Taegu 702-701 (Korea)

    2006-06-15

    The structural and optical properties of undoped AlGaN/GaN single heterojunctions (HJs) were studied by means of high-resolution x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL), cathodoluminescence (CL), and time-resolved PL spectroscopy. An additional two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG)-related PL and CL emission appeared at about 40 meV below the GaN band-edge emission energy and persisted up to about 100 K, while this peak disappeared when the top AlGaN layer was removed by reactive ion etching. Depth-resolved CL spectra reveal the presence of a 2DEG at the heterointerface. The additional PL and CL emission below the GaN band-edge emission is attributed to the recombination between photogenerated holes and electrons confined at 2DEG states in the triangular-shaped interface potential. For the 2DEG emission, we observed an about 50-ps delayed rise time than the GaN and AlGaN emissions by using time-resolved PL, indicating effective carrier transfer from the GaN flatband and AlGaN regions to the heterointerface. From the results, we explained the optical properties and carrier recombination dynamics of 2DEG, GaN, and AlGaN emissions in undoped AlGaN/GaN single HJs. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Carrier dynamics of optical emission from two-dimensional electron gas in undoped AlGaN/GaN single heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwack, H. S.; Cho, Y. H.; Kim, G. H.; Park, M. R.; Youn, D. H.; Bae, S. B.; Lee, K.-S.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, J. H.

    2006-06-01

    The strucutral and optical properties of undoped AlGaN/GaN single heterojunctions (HJs) were studied by means of high-resolution x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL), cathodoluminescence (CL), and time-resolved PL spectroscopy. An additional two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG)-related PL and CL emission appeared at about 40 meV below the GaN band-edge emission energy and persisted up to about 100 K, while this peak disappeared when the top AlGaN layer was removed by reactive ion etching. Depth-resolved CL spectra reveal the presence of a 2DEG at the heterointerface. The additional PL and CL emission below the GaN band-edge emission is attributed to the recombination between photogenerated holes and electrons confined at 2DEG states in the triangular-shaped interface potential. For the 2DEG emission, we observed an about 50-ps delayed rise time than the GaN and AlGaN emissions by using time-resolved PL, indicating effective carrier transfer from the GaN flatband and AlGaN regions to the heterointerface. From the results, we explained the optical properties and carrier recombination dynamics of 2DEG, GaN, and AlGaN emissions in undoped AlGaN/GaN single HJs.

  15. Gas source molecular beam epitaxial growth of GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Duncan W.

    1992-11-01

    Aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) has long been recognized as a promising radiation hard optoelectronic material. AlGaN has a wide direct band gap and therefore has potential applications in the fabrication of short wave-length devices, e.g., detectors and light-emitting diodes in the visible to ultraviolet region. Additionally, its piezoelectric properties and high acoustic velocities make it attractive for acoustic devices. The technical objective in Phase 1 was to determine if low temperature sources based on covalently bonded Group 3-nitrogen compounds could be used to prepare AlGaN films by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. The program required to investigate low temperature AlGaN source materials was separated into two parts: (1) the synthesis, purification, and pyrolysis of gallium-nitrogen adducts and aluminum-nitrogen adducts; and (2) the growth of GaN by chemical beam epitaxy. We clearly demonstrated under CBE conditions GaN(x)C(y) films could be grown using compounds with pre-existing Ga-N bonds whereas no films were formed using trimethylgallium. Dimethylgallium amide was shown to produce dramatically lower carbon content films in the presence of ammonia than did trimethylgallium in the presence of ammonia.

  16. Development of a new 718-type Ni-Co superalloy family for high temperature applications at 750∘C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorova Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alloy718 has been used for many years in the aerospace industry due to its unique mechanical properties and good processing characteristics, especially its workability. However, the temperature limit of Alloy718 is about 650 ∘C because of the thermal instability of the main strengthening phase γ′′-Ni3(Nb,Ti,Al. Numerous attempts have been made to develop a new wrought 718-type alloy for high temperature applications. The approach was to increase the stability, i.e. the solvus temperature of the γ′-phase (Tγ′,s. However, this affected workability as the solvus temperature of the δ-phase (Tδ,s did not increase accordingly so that the window for fine grain forging Tδ,s-Tγ′,s became smaller. In this paper the development of a new γ′/γ′-alloy on the basis of Alloy718 is presented, where the microstructure is stable at 800 ∘C, mechanical properties are similar to Alloy718, yet do not deteriorate beyond 650 ∘C, and the forging window is wider than the one of Alloy718, allowing for good workability. This was essentially achieved by the addition of about 17%–30% Co in combination with an Al/Ti-ratio of more than 5.0 and an Al-content of about 1.6%–2.2%. The key role of cobalt is to stabilize the δ-phase, allowing for solvus temperatures in excess of 1100 ∘C. Consequently, the stability of the γ′ -phase can be increased by further addition of aluminium. At the same time the Ti-content is reduced to prevent formation of the η-(Ni,Co3(Ti,Al,Nb phase. Besides discussion of the alloy development concept, information on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties will be given.

  17. Growth of GaN-based non- and semipolar heterostructures for high efficiency light emitters; Wachstum von nicht- und semipolaren InAIGaN-Heterostrukturen fuer hocheffiziente Lichtemitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernicke, Tim

    2010-07-01

    Optoelectronic devices based on GaN and its alloys InGaN and AlGaN are capable of emitting light from the visible to the ultraviolet spectral region. Blue and green lasers have applications in laser projectors, DNA sequencing and spectroscopy. But it is extremely difficult to fabricate green laser diodes. Currently almost all of the light emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers are grown on GaN crystals that are oriented in the polar (0001) c-plane direction, which provides the most stable growth surface. However the resulting polarization fields on (0001)GaN have detrimental effects on the optical properties of nitride light emitters, e.g. causing significant wavelength shifts and reduced efficiencies in InGaN LEDs. Growth on crystal surfaces with non- and semipolar orientations, e.g. (10 anti 10) m-plane or (11 anti 22), could enable devices with new and improved optical properties. For example, for nonpolar and semipolar LEDs the degree of polarization of the emitted light can be tailored. Furthermore easier to grow devices with green light emission, since the indium incorporation is enhanced for semipolar orientations. In contrast to c-plane GaN there is no polarization field across quantum wells on nonpolar GaN. By reducing the polarization fields an increase in the radiative recombination rate can be expected and would lead to higher LED efficiencies and lower laser thresholds. One of the biggest challenges for the growth of light emitters on non- and semipolar GaN is the choice of a suitable substrate: Heteroepitaxial growth on sapphire or LiAlO{sub 2} allows the deposition of GaN on 2'' diameter wafers and larger. However, these layers show a very high defect density in particular basal plane stacking faults, in comparison to c-plane GaN on sapphire. In order to reduce the defect density we applied successfully epitaxial lateral overgrowth to heteroepitaxial nonpolar a-plane GaN and verified the improvement by spatially and spectrally

  18. Structural Transitions in Nanosized Zn0.97Al0.03O Powders under High Pressure Analyzed by in Situ Angle-Dispersive X-ray Diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ming Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized aluminum-doped zinc oxide Zn1−xAlxO (AZO powders (AZO-NPs with x = 0.01, 0.03, 0.06, 0.09 and 0.11 were synthesized by chemical precipitation method. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA indicated that the precursors were converted to oxides from hydroxides near 250 °C, which were then heated to 500 °C for subsequent thermal processes to obtain preliminary powders. The obtained preliminary powders were then calcined at 500 °C for three hours. The structure and morphology of the products were measured and characterized by angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction (ADXRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. ADXRD results showed that AZO-NPs with Al content less than 11% exhibited würtzite zinc oxide structure and there was no other impurity phase in the AZO-NPs, suggesting substitutional doping of Al on Zn sites. The Zn0.97Al0.03O powders (A3ZO-NPs with grain size of about 21.4 nm were used for high-pressure measurements. The in situ ADXRD measurements revealed that, for loading run, the pressure-induced würtzite (B4-to-rocksalt (B1 structural phase transition began at 9.0(1 GPa. Compared to the predicted phase-transition pressure of ~12.7 GPa for pristine ZnO nanocrystals of similar grain size (~21.4 nm, the transition pressure for the present A3ZO-NPs exhibited a reduction of ~3.7 GPa. The significant reduction in phase-transition pressure is attributed to the effects of highly selective site occupation, namely Zn2+ and Al3+, were mainly found in tetrahedral and octahedral sites, respectively.

  19. Phase Evolution of the AlxNbTiVZr (x = 0; 0.5; 1; 1.5 High Entropy Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Y. Yurchenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AlxNbTiVZr (x = 0; 0.5; 1; 1.5 high entropy alloys were fabricated by vacuum arc melting and annealed at 1200 °C for 24 h. The NbTiVZr alloy had single body centered cubic (bcc solid solution phase after annealing at 1200 °C, while, in the Al-containing alloys, C14 Laves and Zr2Al-type phases are found. The alloys were subjected to annealing at 800 °C and 1000 °C. It was shown that annealing temperature (800 °C or 1000 °C weakly affected the produced phases but the Al content had pronounced effect on structure of the annealed alloys. The NbTiVZr alloy decomposed into bcc, Zr-rich hexagonal close-packed (hcp, and C15 Laves phases. In the Al0.5NbTiVZr alloy, the bcc matrix phase also decomposed into a mixture of bcc and C14 Laves phases. In the AlNbTiVZr alloy, annealing resulted in an increase of volume fraction of Zr2Al-type phase. Finally, in the Al1.5NbTiVZr alloy, formation of AlNb2-type phase was observed. The highest fraction of second phases appeared after annealing in the NbTiVZr alloy. It is demonstrated that the strong chemical affinity and high enthalpy of formation of intermetallic phases in Al-Zr atomic pair govern the intermetallic phase formation in the alloys at 1200 °C. Increase of volume fraction of second phases in the alloys due to annealing at 800 °C and 1000 °C is in proportion to the decrease of Zr concentration in the bcc matrix phase.

  20. Effect of aluminizing of Cr-containing ferritic alloys on the seal strength of a novel high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell sealing glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar [K2-44, Energy Materials Department, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2008-12-01

    A novel high-temperature alkaline earth silicate sealing glass was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass was used to join two metallic coupons of Cr-containing ferritic stainless steel for seal strength evaluation. In previous work, SrCrO{sub 4} was found to form along the glass/steel interface, which led to severe strength degradation. In the present study, aluminization of the steel surface was investigated as a remedy to minimize or prevent the strontium chromate formation. Three different processes for aluminization were evaluated with Crofer22APU stainless steel: pack cementation, vapor-phase deposition, and aerosol spraying. It was found that pack cementation resulted in a rough surface with occasional cracks in the Al-diffused region. Vapor-phase deposition yielded a smoother surface, but the resulting high Al content increased the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), resulting in the failure of joined coupons. Aerosol spraying of an Al-containing salt resulted in the formation of a thin aluminum oxide layer without any surface damage. The room temperature seal strength was evaluated in the as-fired state and in environmentally aged conditions. In contrast to earlier results with uncoated Crofer22APU, the aluminized samples showed no strength degradation even for samples aged in air. Interfacial and chemical compatibility was also investigated. The results showed aluminization to be a viable candidate approach to minimize undesirable chromate formation between alkaline earth silicate sealing glass and Cr-containing interconnect alloys for SOFC applications. (author)

  1. 中国铝的社会蓄积量及折旧再生指数分析%Analysis of Al-Contents in Social Stock and the Regeneration Index of Depreciated Aluminum Products in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳强; 杜岩; 王鹤鸣

    2015-01-01

    我国近些年来原铝产量和消费量快速增长,铝土矿资源严重不足,在很大程度上依赖于进口.随着铝社会蓄积量的增大,废铝资源将越来越多,并在铝工业中发挥更大的作用.通过对我国铝的社会蓄积量及其平均年龄、回收率、折旧再生指数等进行分析,得到以下结果:1990年~2010年铝的社会蓄积量从723万 t 增长到10355万 t;2010年铝制品的平均年龄约为4.3年,折旧再生指数和铝的社会蓄积量回收率分别为0.0747 t /t和1.17%.基于未来铝消费的3种情景进行了分析,在情景3下:预计我国铝的社会蓄积量在2035年达到最大值6亿 t,2055年稳定在5.7亿 t;铝制品平均年龄在2040年达到最大值(7.13年),同年折旧再生指数达到最大值(0.79 t/t),铝的社会蓄积量回收率也达到最大值(5.05%).研究结果将为铝工业相关政策的制定提供一定的参考.%Aluminum production and consumption have increased quickly in China in recent years,while bauxite is in severely shortage and has to been imported from overseas.With the increment of aluminum social stock,the old scrap will become larger and play a greater role in aluminum industry.The social stock of aluminum,average age,old scrap recovery rate and regeneration index were analyzed.The results showed that social stock of aluminum in China increased from 7.23 million tons to 103.55 million tons in the period 1990 ~2010.The average age of aluminum products in social stock was about 4.3 years,and the regeneration index of depreciated aluminum products and recovery rate of aluminum social stock were 0.074 7 t /t and 1.17 percent,respectively,in 2010.Three scenarios analysis for different aluminum consumption conditions were carried out,and under the third scenario:the amount of aluminum social stock will reach 6 hundred million tons in 2035 and keep constant at 5.7 hundred million tons in 2055. In the year 2040,the average age of aluminum products in social stock will reach its maximum value at 7.13 years,the regeneration index of depreciated aluminum products and recovery rate of aluminum social stock will also get their maximum value in the same year,and the values were 0.79 t/t and 5.05%,respectively.The analyzing results will give some references for the policy making of aluminum industry.

  2. Thermal expansion in the garnet-type solid electrolyte (Li{sub 7−x}Al{sub x/3})La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} as a function of Al content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubaud, Aude A. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Schroeder, David J. [Department of Engineering Technology, College of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Ingram, Brian J. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Okasinski, John S. [Advanced Photon Source, X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Vaughey, John T., E-mail: vaughey@anl.gov [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • Thermal expansion (TE) coefficients of LLZ found up to 700°. • The aluminum content of LLZ has a small impact on the thermal expansion. • Typical thermal expansion values were around, 16 × 10{sup −6} K{sup −1}. • The TE is approximately double other garnet-type structures. - Abstract: The thermal expansion (TE) coefficients of the lithium-stable lithium-ion conducting garnet lithium lanthanum zirconium oxide (LLZ) and the effect of aluminum substitution were measured from room temperature up to 700 °C by a synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction. The typical TE value measured for the most reported composition (LLZ doped with 0.3 wt.% or 0.093 mol% aluminum) was 15.498 × 10{sup −6} K{sup −1}, which is approximately twice the value reported for other garnet-type structures. As the Al(III) concentration has been observed to strongly affect the structure observed and the ionic conductivity, we also assessed its role on thermal expansion and noted only a small variation with increasing dopant concentration. The materials implications for using LLZ in a solid state battery are discussed.

  3. Effect of RDX and Al Contents on the Heat Explosion Temperature for RDX-based Aluminized Explosives%RDX和铝含量对RDX基含铝炸药热爆发温度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑亚峰; 常海; 刘子如; 邵颖惠; 岳璞; 刘文亮

    2011-01-01

    The explosion temperatures Tb of 5 s delay for aluminized explosives of different RDX contents were determined by heat explosion test, and the effects of RDX and aluminum powder contents on explosion temperatures were studied. The results show that the Tb values first fall down and then rise with the increasing of RDX contents. A linear empiric equation, in which Tb is correlated with RDX and aluminum powder contents, was obtained. It is considered that the energies necessary to heat explosion under the test conditions are obtained from two ways, I. E. From thermal decomposition for energetic materials and from heating medium. The former is related to energetic reactant content, while the later is related to the heat conduction of the system. Moreover.it is proposed that the thermal conductivity of RDX-based aluminized explosives is related to aluminum powder content. Based on above view,a linear relation, which is in agreement with experiment results and can represent the correlation of Tb with RDX and aluminum powder contents,is educed in theory.%通过热爆发延滞期试验测定了含铝炸药的5s延滞期热爆发温度Tb,研究了RDX和铝粉含量对热爆发温度的影响.结果表明,随着RDX含量的增加,Tb先下降后升高,获得了描述Tb与RDX和铝粉含量关系的线性经验方程.认为在热爆发试验中体系是从含能材料热分解和加热介质两个途径获得能量(热量),前者与含能反应物的含量有关,后者与体系的热传导有关,同时认为该含铝炸药的导热系数与铝含量有关,基于这种观点,从理论上导出了符合实验结果的描述爆发温度Tb与RDX和铝粉含量关系的线性关系式.

  4. Research Progress in Al Content Effect on Crystalline Structure and Properties of (Ti, Al) N Film%Al含量对(Ti, Al)N膜结构性能影响的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国芳; 王顺花; 石宗利

    2008-01-01

    (Ti, Al)N是在TiN基础上发展起来的一种多元膜,目前Al元素对(Ti,Al)N膜的性能影响研究较多,但是不够系统,而且存在一些矛盾之处.综述了Al元素在(Ti,Al)N膜中的作用机理和Al铝含量对(Ti,Al)N膜结构、抗高温氧化、硬度、耐磨性、结合强度等的影响,指出了(Ti,Al)N膜的发展方向.

  5. Device Performance and Reliability Improvements of AlGaBN/GaN/Si MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-04

    on a p-type Si(111) substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (see the wafer structure in Fig. 1.1 (a) in the supplemental material30... Metal insulator semiconductor AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors (MISHEMTs) are promising for power device applications due to a lower leakage...introduced into an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) system, described in detail elsewhere,30 which consists of a number of vacuum chambers interconnected by a UHV

  6. High Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility in Morgantown, WV, researchers can investigate new high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen turbine combustion...

  7. GaN Schottky diodes with single-crystal aluminum barriers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, H. Y.; Yang, W. C.; Lee, P. Y.; Lin, C. W.; Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Hsieh, K. C.; Cheng, K. Y.; Hsu, C.-H.

    2016-08-01

    GaN-based Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) with single-crystal Al barriers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy are fabricated. Examined using in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffractions, ex-situ high-resolution x-ray diffractions, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, it is determined that epitaxial Al grows with its [111] axis coincident with the [0001] axis of the GaN substrate without rotation. In fabricated SBDs, a 0.2 V barrier height enhancement and 2 orders of magnitude reduction in leakage current are observed in single crystal Al/GaN SBDs compared to conventional thermal deposited Al/GaN SBDs. The strain induced piezoelectric field is determined to be the major source of the observed device performance enhancements.

  8. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Print ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  9. AlGaN-based material characterizations and recent development of related solar-blind ultraviolet detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangyang; Xu, Jintong; Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Yonggang; Chu, Kaihui; Li, Chao; Bao, Xichang; Wang, Ling

    2009-08-01

    Recently, AlGaN-based material and related devices have been investigated intensively because of their applications in ultraviolet solar-blind detectors, blue light-emitting diodes, UV laser diodes, and high-power-temperature devices. Due to intrinsic difficulty to grow high aluminum fraction material, achieving reasonable good quality of wafers is the key aspect to fabricate high performance solar-blind AlGaN-based detectors. Transmission spectra, XRD, and a two dimension transmission scanning system were employed to evaluate the properties of AlGaN-based material. Wet chemical etching process of n-type AlGaN in 20% aqueous KOH solutions was performed to reduce dry etching damages and the average leakage current. I-V characterization indicated that the average leakage current of the wet etching treated detectors was lower than that of the detectors without treatment by about one order of magnitude. Ti/Al/Ti/Au contact on n-type Al0.63Ga0.37N was optimized to get a low series resistance. 128×128 solar-blind AlGaN UV Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) were fabricated and the performance were characterized. A CTIA (capacitive-transimpedance) readout circuit architecture has been proven to be well suited for AlGaN detectors arrays. The results show that 128×128 back-illuminated AlGaN PIN detector SNR is as high as 74 db at a speed of above 30 frames per second.

  10. Innovative Science and Technology, Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, Technical Program Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    will be encouraged to follow-up with additional documentation - for example, a white paper or formal proposal. In addition to basic program efforts...related devices for opto-electronics, double heterostructures composed of AlGaN, GaN, and InGaN based layers for laser diode applications, as well...emitting diode ( LED ) structures. Opportunities Unique chemical approaches for ultra-fast EO external modulators; opto-electronic, ultra-high-speed signal

  11. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  12. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  13. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cholesterol? To understand high blood cholesterol (ko-LES-ter- ... cholesterol from your body. What Is High Blood Cholesterol? High blood cholesterol is a condition in which ...

  14. High potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperkalemia; Potassium - high; High blood potassium ... There are often no symptoms with a high level of potassium. When symptoms do occur, they may include: Nausea Slow, weak, or irregular pulse Sudden collapse, when the heartbeat gets too ...

  15. High Blood Cholesterol Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Prevention and Management of High LDL Cholesterol: What You Can Do Recommend on ... like eating a healthy diet, can help prevent high cholesterol. High low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increases ...

  16. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Cholesterol What is High Blood Cholesterol? What is Cholesterol? Cholesterol is a ... heart disease. If Your Blood Cholesterol Is Too High Too much cholesterol in your blood is called ...

  17. High Performance Networks for High Impact Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Mary A.; Bair, Raymond A.

    2003-02-13

    This workshop was the first major activity in developing a strategic plan for high-performance networking in the Office of Science. Held August 13 through 15, 2002, it brought together a selection of end users, especially representing the emerging, high-visibility initiatives, and network visionaries to identify opportunities and begin defining the path forward.

  18. High speed, high current pulsed driver circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlen, Christopher R.

    2017-03-21

    Various technologies presented herein relate to driving a LED such that the LED emits short duration pulses of light. This is accomplished by driving the LED with short duration, high amplitude current pulses. When the LED is driven by short duration, high amplitude current pulses, the LED emits light at a greater amplitude compared to when the LED is driven by continuous wave current.

  19. High-Flying High-Poverty Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Educator, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In discussing socioeconomic integration before audiences, the author is frequently asked: What about high-poverty schools that do work? Don't they suggest that economic segregation isn't much of a problem after all? High-poverty public schools that beat the odds paint a heartening story that often attracts considerable media attention. In 2000,…

  20. Thermal etching rate of GaN during MOCVD growth interruption in hydrogen and ammonia ambient determined by AlGaN/GaN superlattice structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Ikeda, Masao; Zhang, Shuming; Liu, Jianping; Tian, Aiqin; Wen, Pengyan; Cheng, Yang; Yang, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Thermal etching effect of GaN during growth interruption in the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition reactor was investigated in this paper. The thermal etching rate was determined by growing a series of AlGaN/GaN superlattice structures with fixed GaN growth temperature at 735 °C and various AlGaN growth temperature changing from 900 °C to 1007 °C. It was observed that the GaN layer was etched off during the growth interruption when the growth temperature ramped up to AlGaN growth temperature. The etching thickness was determined by high resolution X-ray diffractometer and the etching rate was deduced accordingly. An activation energy of 2.53 eV was obtained for the thermal etching process.

  1. Current transport mechanism in graphene/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with various Al mole fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Bhishma; Seo, Tae Hoon; Ryu, Beo Deul; Cho, Jaehee

    2016-06-01

    The current transport mechanism of graphene formed on AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures with various Al mole fractions (x = 0.15, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.40) is investigated. The current-voltage measurement from graphene to AlGaN/GaN shows an excellent rectifying property. The extracted Schottky barrier height of the graphene/AlGaN/GaN contacts increases with the Al mole fraction in AlGaN. However, the current transport mechanism deviates from the Schottky-Mott theory owing to the deterioration of AlGaN crystal quality at high Al mole fractions confirmed by reverse leakage current measurement.

  2. Tailoring of polarization in electron blocking layer for electron confinement and hole injection in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yu-Hsuan; Pilkuhn, Manfred H. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Microelectronics and Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Fu, Yi-Keng; Chu, Mu-Tao [Electronics and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan (China); Huang, Shyh-Jer, E-mail: yksu@mail.ncku.edu.tw, E-mail: totaljer48@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Microelectronics and Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Su, Yan-Kuin, E-mail: yksu@mail.ncku.edu.tw, E-mail: totaljer48@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Microelectronics and Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronic Engineering, Kun-Shan University, Tainan 71003, Taiwan (China); Wang, Kang L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-03-21

    The influence of the AlGaN electron blocking layer (EBL) with graded aluminum composition on electron confinement and hole injection in AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are investigated. The light output power of LED with graded AlGaN EBL was markedly improved, comparing to LED with conventional EBL. In experimental results, a high increment of 86.7% can be obtained in light output power. Simulation analysis shows that via proper modification of the barrier profile from the last barrier of the active region to EBL, not only the elimination of electron overflow to p-type layer can be achieved but also the hole injection into the active region can be enhanced, compared to a conventional LED structure. The dominant factor to the performance improvement is shown to be the modulation of polarization field by the graded Al composition in EBL.

  3. High Throughput Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Argonne?s high throughput facility provides highly automated and parallel approaches to material and materials chemistry development. The facility allows scientists...

  4. High Temperature Materials Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The High Temperature Materials Lab provides the Navy and industry with affordable high temperature materials for advanced propulsion systems. Asset List: Arc Melter...

  5. High pressure, high current, low inductance, high reliability sealed terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; McKeever, John W [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-03-23

    The invention is a terminal assembly having a casing with at least one delivery tapered-cone conductor and at least one return tapered-cone conductor routed there-through. The delivery and return tapered-cone conductors are electrically isolated from each other and positioned in the annuluses of ordered concentric cones at an off-normal angle. The tapered cone conductor service can be AC phase conductors and DC link conductors. The center core has at least one service conduit of gate signal leads, diagnostic signal wires, and refrigerant tubing routed there-through. A seal material is in direct contact with the casing inner surface, the tapered-cone conductors, and the service conduits thereby hermetically filling the interstitial space in the casing interior core and center core. The assembly provides simultaneous high-current, high-pressure, low-inductance, and high-reliability service.

  6. Studies of Al metabolism in animal by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangNa-Xiu; ZhuHan-Min; 等

    1997-01-01

    The correlation between Al metabolism and senile dementia in animal has been studied by AMS(accelerator mass spectrometry).Three groups of laboratory rats were fed with normal food.food with high Al content,and with enriched Ca and Mg together with high Al,respectively for six to eight months.Mapping test was made to recored th degree of wisdom degeneration.Half of the rats were sacrificed and Al contents in various organs were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy.The rest were injected with 26Al,killed after 5,10,15,25,and 35d and 26Al contents measured by AMS.The distribution of Al as well as the correlation among the accumulation of 26Al,and the existed Al content and dementia was studied.

  7. High speed high dynamic range high accuracy measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deibele, Craig E.; Curry, Douglas E.; Dickson, Richard W.; Xie, Zaipeng

    2016-11-29

    A measuring system includes an input that emulates a bandpass filter with no signal reflections. A directional coupler connected to the input passes the filtered input to electrically isolated measuring circuits. Each of the measuring circuits includes an amplifier that amplifies the signal through logarithmic functions. The output of the measuring system is an accurate high dynamic range measurement.

  8. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) A ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  9. High pressure technology 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapp, J.A.; Picqueuer, L.M. (eds.)

    1994-01-01

    This volume is divided into four sessions: fracture mechanics applications to high pressure vessels; high pressure code issues; high pressure design, analysis, and safety concerns; and military and other high pressure applications. Separate abstracts were prepared for eleven papers of this conference.

  10. High speed data converters

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Ahmed MA

    2016-01-01

    This book covers high speed data converters from the perspective of a leading high speed ADC designer and architect, with a strong emphasis on high speed Nyquist A/D converters. For our purposes, the term 'high speed' is defined as sampling rates that are greater than 10 MS/s.

  11. High-current, high-frequency capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, D. D.

    1983-06-01

    The NASA Lewis high-current, high-frequency capacitor development program was conducted under a contract with Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., San Diego, California. The program was started to develop power components for space power systems. One of the components lacking was a high-power, high-frequency capacitor. Some of the technology developed in this program may be directly usable in an all-electric airplane. The materials used in the capacitor included the following: the film is polypropylene, the impregnant is monoisopropyl biphenyl, the conductive epoxy is Emerson and Cuming Stycast 2850 KT, the foil is aluminum, the case is stainless steel (304), and the electrode is a modified copper-ceramic.

  12. Quantification of aluminium in soil of the Solimões Formation, Acre State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Andrade Bernini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The variety of soils in the State of Acre is wide and their chemical profiles are still not fully understood. The nature of the material of origin of these soils is indicated by the high aluminium (Al content, commonly associated with high calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg contents. The study objective was to use different methods to quantify Al in soils from toposequences formed from material of a sedimentary nature originating from the Solimões Formation, in Acre, Brazil. Trenches were opened at three distinct points in the landscape: shoulder, backslope and footslope positions. Soil samples were collected for physical, chemical, mineralogical analyses. The Al content was quantified using different methods. High Al contents were found in most of these horizons, associated with high Ca and Mg levels, representing the predominant cations in the sum of exchangeable bases. The mineralogy indicates that the soils are still in a low weathering phase, with the presence of significant quantities of 2:1 minerals. Similar Al contents were determined by the methods of NaOH titration, xylenol orange spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. However, no consistent data were obtained by the pyrocatechol violet method. Extraction with KCl overestimated the exchangeable Al content due to its ability to extract the non-exchangeable Al present in the smectite interlayers. It was observed that high Al contents are related to the instability of the hydroxyl-Al smectite interlayers.

  13. High temperature, high power piezoelectric composite transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2014-08-08

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined.

  14. High Temperature, High Power Piezoelectric Composite Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong Jae Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined.

  15. Enhanced UV luminescence from InAlN quantum well structures using two temperature growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubialevich, Vitaly Z., E-mail: vitaly.zubialevich@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Dyke Parade, Cork (Ireland); Sadler, Thomas C.; Dinh, Duc V. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Dyke Parade, Cork (Ireland); Alam, Shahab N.; Li, Haoning; Pampili, Pietro [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Dyke Parade, Cork (Ireland); School of Engineering, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Parbrook, Peter J., E-mail: peter.parbrook@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Dyke Parade, Cork (Ireland); School of Engineering, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2014-11-15

    InAlN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) emitting between 300 and 350 nm have been prepared by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on planar AlN templates. To obtain strong room temperature luminescence from InAlN QWs a two temperature approach was required. The intensity decayed weakly as the temperature was increased to 300 K, with ratios I{sub PL}(300 K)/I{sub PL}(T){sub max} up to 70%. This high apparent internal quantum efficiency is attributed to the exceptionally strong carrier localization in this material, which is also manifested by a high Stokes shift (0.52 eV) of the luminescence. Based on these results InAlN is proposed as a robust alternative to AlGaN for ultraviolet emitting devices. - Highlights: • InAlN quantum wells with AlGaN barriers emitting in near UV successfully grown using quasi-2T approach. • 1 nm AlGaN capping of InAlN quantum wells used to avoid In desorption during temperature ramp to barrier growth conditions. • Strong, thermally resilient luminescence obtained as a result of growth optimization. • Promise of InAlN as an alternative active region for UV emitters demonstrated.

  16. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2014-07-15

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

  17. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2014-07-15

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

  18. Effects of GaN/AlGaN/Sputtered AlN nucleation layers on performance of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongpo; Zhou, Shengjun; Liu, Xingtong; Gao, Yilin; Gui, Chengqun; Liu, Sheng

    2017-03-01

    We report on the demonstration of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) emitting at 375 nm grown on patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) with in-situ low temperature GaN/AlGaN nucleation layers (NLs) and ex-situ sputtered AlN NL. The threading dislocation (TD) densities in GaN-based UV LEDs with GaN/AlGaN/sputtered AlN NLs were determined by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which revealed that the TD density in UV LED with AlGaN NL was the highest, whereas that in UV LED with sputtered AlN NL was the lowest. The light output power (LOP) of UV LED with AlGaN NL was 18.2% higher than that of UV LED with GaN NL owing to a decrease in the absorption of 375 nm UV light in the AlGaN NL with a larger bandgap. Using a sputtered AlN NL instead of the AlGaN NL, the LOP of UV LED was further enhanced by 11.3%, which is attributed to reduced TD density in InGaN/AlInGaN active region. In the sputtered AlN thickness range of 10-25 nm, the LOP of UV LED with 15-nm-thick sputtered AlN NL was the highest, revealing that optimum thickness of the sputtered AlN NL is around 15 nm.

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Islanders American Indian/Alaska Native Programs Older Adults Family Link Diabetes EXPO Upcoming Diabetes EXPOs EXPO Volunteer ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & ...

  4. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Options for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and ...

  6. Causes of High Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Causes of High Cholesterol Updated:Jul 5,2017 If you have high ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • HDL, LDL, and Triglycerides • Causes ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient Education Materials Scientific Sessions Journals for Professionals Professional Books Patient Access to Research ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  9. High-Risk Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications High-Risk Pregnancy: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content A high-risk pregnancy refers to anything that puts the ...

  10. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  11. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.

    1993-08-24

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  12. Highly Ionized Envelopes of High Velocity Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Zekis, Erin E

    2009-01-01

    We present recent results on highly ionized gas in Galactic High-Velocity Clouds (HVCs), originally surveyed in OVI (Sembach et al. 2003). In a new FUSE/HST survey of SiII/III/IV (Shull et al. 2009) toward 37 AGN, we detected SiIII (lambda 1206.500 A) absorption with a sky coverage fraction 81 +/- 5% (61 HVCs along 30 of 37 high-latitude sight lines). The SiIII (lambda 1206.500 A) line is typically 4-5 times stronger than OVI (lambda 1031.926 A). The mean HVC column density of perhaps 10^19 cm^-2 of low-metallicity (0.1 - 0.2 Z_sun) ionized gas in the low halo. Recent determinations of HVC distances allow us to estimate a total reservoir of ~10^8 M_sun. Estimates of infall velocities indicate an infall rate of around 1 M_sun yr^-1, comparable to the replenishment rate for star formation in the disk. HVCs appear to be sheathed by intermediate-temperature gas (10^4.0 - 10^4.5 K) detectable in SiIII and SiIV, as well as hotter gas seen in OVI and other high ions. To prepare for HST observations of 10 HVC-selecte...

  13. Solar-blind Al x Ga1- x N ( x > 0.45) p- i- n photodiodes with a polarization- p-doped emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, N. V.; Nechaev, D. V.; Shmidt, N. M.; Karpov, S. Yu.; Rzheutskii, N. V.; Zemlyakov, V. E.; Kaibyshev, V. Kh.; Kazantsev, D. Yu.; Troshkov, S. I.; Egorkin, V. I.; Ber, B. Ya.; Lutsenko, E. V.; Ivanov, S. V.; Jmerik, V. N.

    2016-06-01

    Polarization-induced p-type doping of AlGaN layers with high aluminum content during plasmaassisted MBE growth has been studied. It is shown that a gradient of the AlN molar fraction in AlGaN (composition gradient) on a level of 0.005 nm-1 must be set in order to obtain a hole concentration of ~1018 cm-3 (measured by the C- V method) in Al x Ga1- x N:Mg ( x = 0.52-0.32) layers with dopant concentration [Mg] = 1.3 × 1018 cm-3. p- i- n photodiodes based on AlGaN heterostructures with such layers as p-emitters showed maximum photoresponsitivity in the solar-blind wavelength range (λ = 281 nm) about 35 and 48 mA/W at reverse bias voltage U = 0 and-5 V, respectively, and exhibited a dark current density of 3.9 × 10-8 A/cm2 at U =-5 V.

  14. EUV detectors based on AlGaN-on-Si Schottky photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, P. E.; Duboz, J.-Y.; De Moor, P.; Minoglou, K.; John, J.; Srivastava, P.; Semond, F.; Frayssinet, E.; BenMoussa, A.; Giordanengo, B.; Van Hoof, C.; Mertens, R.

    2011-05-01

    Photodetectors designed for the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) range with the Aluminum Gallium Nitride (AlGaN) active layer are reported. AlGaN layers were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) on Si(111) wafers. Different device structures were designed and fabricated, including single pixel detectors and 2D detector arrays. Sensitivity in different configurations was demonstrated, including front- and backside illumination. The latter was possible after integration of the detector chips with dedicated Si-based readouts using high-density In bump arrays and flip-chip bonding. In order to avoid radiation absorption in silicon, the substrate was removed, leaving a submicron-thin membrane of AlGaN active layer suspended on top of an array of In bumps. Optoelectrical characterization was performed using different UV light sources, also in the synchrotron beamlines providing radiation down to the EUV range. The measured cut-off wavelength of the active layer used was 280 nm, with a rejection ratio of the visible radiation above 3 orders of magnitude. Spectral responsivity and quantum efficiency values

  15. Treating High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    About High Blood Pressure Many people in the United States die from high blood pressure. This condition usually does not cause symptoms. Most ... until it is too late. A person has high blood pressure when the blood pushes against Visit your doctor ...

  16. High-temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Ajay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The present book aims at describing the phenomenon of superconductivity and high-temperature superconductors discovered by Bednorz and Muller in 1986. The book covers the superconductivity phenomenon, structure of high-Tc superconductors, critical currents, synthesis routes for high Tc materials, superconductivity in cuprates, the proximity effect and SQUIDs, theories of superconductivity and applications of superconductors.

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia? A number of things can cause hyperglycemia: ...

  18. Early College High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    For at-risk students who stand little chance of going to college, or even finishing high school, a growing number of districts have found a solution: Give them an early start in college while they still are in high school. The early college high school (ECHS) movement that began with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 10 years ago…

  19. High performance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, M.B. [comp.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  20. Epitaxial Al/GaN and Au/GaN junctions on as-grown GaN(0001) 1 x 1 surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orani, D.; Rubini, S.; Pelucchi, E.; Bonanni, B. [Laboratorio Nazionale TASC-INFM, Area di Ricerca, S.S. 14, Km. 163.5, 34012 Trieste (Italy); Piccin, M. [Laboratorio Nazionale TASC-INFM, Area di Ricerca, S.S. 14, Km. 163.5, 34012 Trieste (Italy); Also with Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Trieste, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Franciosi, A. [Laboratorio Nazionale TASC-INFM, Area di Ricerca, S.S. 14, Km. 163.5, 34012 Trieste (Italy); Passaseo, A.; Cingolani, R. [INFM e Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita' di Lecce, Via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Khan, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    GaN(0001) epilayers were fabricated by rf-plasma enhanced molecular beam epitaxy on GaN templates. The templates were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on sapphire. The layers exhibited the 2 x 2 reconstruction of the Ga-face during growth and the 1 x 1 reconstruction upon cooling. On such surfaces, Al/n-GaN and Au/n-GaN junctions were fabricated in-situ by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy studies allowed us to determine n-type Schottky barrier heights of 0.61{+-}0.06 and 0.98{+-}0.06 eV, respectively, for the two types of epitaxial junctions. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Efficiency droop enhancement in AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by making whole barriers but the bottom Mg doped

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Sun, Huiqing; Yi, Xinyan; Yang, Xian; Fan, Xuancong; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Zhuding; Guo, Zhiyou

    2016-09-01

    Ultra violet light-emitting diodes (UVLEDs) with different types of Mg-doped barriers have been studied. The energy band diagrams, internal quantum efficiency, total output power and radiative recombination rate are investigated by APSYS software. The simulation results show that the UVLED with only a p-doped top barrier get little enhancement comparing to the conventional one, on the contrary the structure with p-doping in all but the bottom barriers has a much better optical and electrical properties due to enhancement of the holes' injection and the electrons' confinement. The efficiency droop is significantly alleviated and the light output power is greatly enhanced. To avoid forming a PN junction by the bottom barrier and the n-AlGaN in the proposed structure, therefore, the bottom barrier isn't p-doped. Then structures with different hole densities in the Mg-doped barriers have been studied numerically and that confirmed the best.

  2. Metal organic vapor phase epitaxy growth of (Al)GaN heterostructures on SiC/Si(111) templates synthesized by topochemical method of atoms substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozhavskaia, Mariia M.; Kukushkin, Sergey A.; Osipov, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    crystalline interfaces with epitaxial relationship between SiC/Si and AlN/SiC layers. Optimization of SiC morphology and AlN seed layer thickness facilitates the growth of GaN layers free of pits (v-defects). It is also found that Si doping eliminates these defects in the case of growth on SiC templates...

  3. 日盲型AlGaN PIN紫外探测器的研制%PIN Solar-blind Ultraviolet Detectors Based on AlGaN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄烈云; 吴琼瑶; 赵文伯; 叶嗣荣; 向勇军; 刘小芹; 黄绍春

    2007-01-01

    采用MOCVD方法在双面抛光的(0001)蓝宝石衬底上生长了高铝组分AlGaN材料,研制出日盲型AlGaN PIN紫外探测器.详细介绍了该器件的结构设计和制作工艺,并对该器件进行了光电性能测试.测试结果表明:器件的正向开启电压约为4.5 V,反向击穿电压大于20 V;常温下(300 K),该器件在3 V反向偏压下的暗电流约为50 pA,在零偏压下270 nm处峰值响应度达到0.12 A/W,长波截止波长小于285 nm.

  4. High reflectivity III-nitride UV-C distributed Bragg reflectors for vertical cavity emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, A.; Hoffmann, M. P.; Kirste, R.; Bobea, M.; Tweedie, J.; Kaess, F.; Gerhold, M.; Collazo, R.; Sitar, Z.

    2016-10-01

    UV-C distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) for vertical cavity surface emitting laser applications and polariton lasers are presented. The structural integrity of up to 25 layer pairs of AlN/Al0.65Ga0.35N DBRs is maintained by balancing the tensile and compressive strain present between the single layers of the multilayer stack grown on top of an Al0.85Ga0.35N template. By comparing the structural and optical properties for DBRs grown on low dislocation density AlN and AlGaN templates, the criteria for plastic relaxation by cracking thick nitride Bragg reflectors are deduced. The critical thickness is found to be limited mainly by the accumulated strain energy during the DBR growth and is only negligibly affected by the dislocations. A reflectance of 97.7% at 273 nm is demonstrated. The demonstrated optical quality and an ability to tune the resonance wavelength of our resonators and microcavity structures open new opportunities for UV-C vertical emitters.

  5. High Sensitivity, High Frequency and High Time Resolution Decimetric Spectroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, H. S.; Rosa, R. R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se ha desarrollado el primer espectroscopio decimetrico latino americano operando en una banda de 100 MHz con alta resoluci6n de fre- cuencia (100 KHz) y tiempo (10 ms), alrededor de cualquier centro de frecuencia en el intervalo de 2000-200 MHz. El prop6sito de esta nota es describir investigaciones solares y no solares que se planean, progra ma de investigaci6n y la situaci6n actual de desarrollo de este espectroscopio. ABSTRACT. First Latin American Decimetric Spectroscope operating over a band of 100 MHz with high resolution in frequency (100 KHz) and time (10 ms), around any center frequency in the range of 2000-200 MHz is being developed. The purpose of this note is to describe planned solar, and non-solar, research programmes and present status of development of this spectroscope. Keq wo : INSTRUMENTS - SPECTROSCOPY

  6. Photoproduction at High Energy and High Intensity

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photon beam used for this programme is tagged and provides a large flux up to very high energies (150-200 GeV). It is also hadron-free, since it is obtained by a two-step conversion method. A spectrometer is designed to exploit this beam and to perform a programme of photoproduction with a high level of sensitivity (5-50 events/picobarn).\\\\ \\\\ Priority will be given to the study of processes exhibiting the point-like behaviour of the photon, especially deep inelastic Compton scattering. The spectrometer has two magnets. Charged tracks are measured by MWPC's located only in field-free regions. Three calorimeters provide a large coverage for identifying and measuring electrons and photons. An iron filter downstream identifies muons. Most of the equipment is existing and recuperated from previous experiments.

  7. High Precision Measurements Using High Frequency Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Aohan; Sakurai, Atsunori; Liu, Liang; Edman, Fredrik; Öwall, Viktor; Pullerits, Tonu; Karki, Khadga J

    2014-01-01

    Generalized lock-in amplifiers use digital cavities with Q-factors as high as 5X10^8. In this letter, we show that generalized lock-in amplifiers can be used to analyze microwave (giga-hertz) signals with a precision of few tens of hertz. We propose that the physical changes in the medium of propagation can be measured precisely by the ultra-high precision measurement of the signal. We provide evidence to our proposition by verifying the Newton's law of cooling by measuring the effect of change in temperature on the phase and amplitude of the signals propagating through two calibrated cables. The technique could be used to precisely measure different physical properties of the propagation medium, for example length, resistance, etc. Real time implementation of the technique can open up new methodologies of in-situ virtual metrology in material design.

  8. Space Based Infrared System High (SBIRS High)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Aviation Blvd Bldg 271 Los Angeles Air Force Base (LAAFB) El Segundo, CA 90245-2808 michael.guetlein@us.af.mil Phone: 310-653-3018 Fax: 310-653-4414 DSN...mission areas: Missile Warning , Missile Defense, Technical Intelligence and Battlespace Awareness. The constellation architecture for SBIRS High...Integrated Tactical Warning /Attack Assessment (ITW/AA) mission in November 2008 and technical intelligence mission in August 2009. The SBIRS GEO 1

  9. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  10. High performance homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Can prefabrication contribute to the development of high performance homes? To answer this question, this chapter defines high performance in more broadly inclusive terms, acknowledging the technical, architectural, social and economic conditions under which energy consumption and production occur....... Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...

  11. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji

    2006-12-01

    A general review on high-temperature superconductivity was made. After prehistoric view and the process of discovery were stated, the special features of high-temperature superconductors were explained from the materials side and the physical properties side. The present status on applications of high-temperature superconductors were explained on superconducting tapes, electric power cables, magnets for maglev trains, electric motors, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and single flux quantum (SFQ) devices and circuits.

  12. High performance homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Can prefabrication contribute to the development of high performance homes? To answer this question, this chapter defines high performance in more broadly inclusive terms, acknowledging the technical, architectural, social and economic conditions under which energy consumption and production occur....... Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...

  13. High enthalpy gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan

    2014-01-01

    This is an introductory level textbook which explains the elements of high temperature and high-speed gas dynamics. written in a clear and easy to follow style, the author covers all the latest developments in the field including basic thermodynamic principles, compressible flow regimes and waves propagation in one volume covers theoretical modeling of High Enthalpy Flows, with particular focus on problems in internal and external gas-dynamic flows, of interest in the fields of rockets propulsion and hypersonic aerodynamics High enthalpy gas dynamics is a compulsory course for aerospace engine

  14. High voltage engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Farouk AM

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by a new revival of worldwide interest in extra-high-voltage (EHV) and ultra-high-voltage (UHV) transmission, High Voltage Engineering merges the latest research with the extensive experience of the best in the field to deliver a comprehensive treatment of electrical insulation systems for the next generation of utility engineers and electric power professionals. The book offers extensive coverage of the physical basis of high-voltage engineering, from insulation stress and strength to lightning attachment and protection and beyond. Presenting information critical to the design, selec

  15. 铝热法制备高钒铝合金的研究%Study on high grade vanadium-aluminium alloy prepared by aluminothermic reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喇培清; 卢学峰; 申达; 魏玉鹏; 王鸿鼎; 郭鑫

    2012-01-01

    用V2O5粉和Al粉为原料,通过铝热还原法制备了高钒铝合金,研究了反应物配比中Al含量对制备的高钒铝合金纯度和钒回收率的影响.结果表明:当反应物配比中Al欠量5%时,高钒铝合金的纯度最高为98.45%;随着反应物配比中Al含量的增加,高钒铝合金的纯度降低,钒的回收率增加,在Al过量15%时回收率最高为92.4%(质量分数).高钒铝合金的布氏硬度在Al欠量5%时最低,为213.6 HB;在Al过量15%时布氏硬度最大,为250 HB.可以通过调节原料中Al含量来制备不同纯度的高钒铝合金.%High grade vanadium - aluminium alloy was prepared by aluminothermic reaction using V2O5 and Al powders as raw materials. The effects of Al content in raw materials on purity of alloy and recovery of vanadium were investigated in this study. The results show that the purity of vanadium decreases with the addition of aluminum element in raw materials and there exists a maximum value of 98. 45% when aluminum element is 5% shortfall in raw materials. The recovery rate of vanadium increases with increasing aluminum element in raw materials and there exists a maximum value of 92. 4% when aluminum element is 15% excess in raw materials. Brinell hardness of alloy comes to the minimum value of 213. 6 HB when aluminum element is 5% shortfall, and comes to the maximum value of 250 HB when aluminum element is 15% excess. The high grade vanadium - aluminium alloy with different purities can be prepared by varying the content of aluminium in raw materials.

  16. High assurance services computing

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Covers service-oriented technologies in different domains including high assurance systemsAssists software engineers from industry and government laboratories who develop mission-critical software, and simultaneously provides academia with a practitioner's outlook on the problems of high-assurance software development

  17. High Nitrogen Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    Kiev, 1993. 7. High Nitrogen Steels, edited by M. Kikuchi and Y. Mishima , Vol. 36, No. 7, Iron and Steel Institute of Japan Inernational, Tokyo...the Corrosion of Iron and Steels,” High Nitrogen Steels, edited by M. Kikuchi and Y. Mishima , Vol. 36, No. 7, Iron and Steel Institute of Japan

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ...

  19. High coking value pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  20. High-pressure apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepdael, van L.J.M.; Bartels, P.V.; Berg, van den R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a high-pressure device (1) having a cylindrical high-pressure vessel (3) and prestressing means in order to exert an axial pressure on the vessel. The vessel (3) can have been formed from a number of layers of composite material, such as glass, carbon or aramide fibers which

  1. Highly interactive distributed visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scarpa, M.; Belleman, R.G.; Sloot, P.M.A.; de Laat, C.T.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on our iGrid2005 demonstration, called the "Dead Cat Demo"; an example of a highly interactive augmented reality application consisting of software services distributed over a wide-area, high-speed network. We describe our design decisions, analyse the implications of the design on applica

  2. High-Conflict Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janet R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Factors believed to contribute to high-conflict divorce are explored, and a model of their interrelationships is proposed. Dispute resolution, intervention, and prevention programs are discussed, and implications for social policy are outlined. (SLD)

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes ... Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  4. High and Dry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    High-performance schools are facilities that improve the learning environment while saving energy, resources and money. Creating a high-performance school requires an integrated design approach. Key systems--including lighting, HVAC, electrical and plumbing--must be considered from the beginning of the design process. According to William H.…

  5. High density photovoltaic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haigh, R.E.; Jacobson, G.F.; Wojtczuk, S. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

    1997-10-14

    Photovoltaic technology can directly generate high voltages in a solid state material through the series interconnect of many photovoltaic diodes. We are investigating the feasibility of developing an electrically isolated, high-voltage power supply using miniature photovoltaic devices that convert optical energy to electrical energy.

  6. High School Oceanography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falmouth Public Schools, MA.

    This book is a compilation of a series of papers designed to aid high school teachers in organizing a course in oceanography for high school students. It consists of twelve papers, with references, covering each of the following: (1) Introduction to Oceanography, (2) Geology of the Ocean, (3) The Continental Shelves, (4) Physical Properties of Sea…

  7. Proxmox high availability

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Simon MC

    2014-01-01

    If you want to know the secrets of virtualization and how to implement high availability on your services, this is the book for you. For those of you who are already using Proxmox, this book offers you the chance to build a high availability cluster with a distributed filesystem to further protect your system from failure.

  8. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  9. Phononic High Harmonic Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesan, Adarsh; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the first experimental evidence for phononic low-order to high-order harmonic conversion leading to high harmonic generation. Similar to parametric resonance, phononic high harmonic generation is also mediated by a threshold dependent instability of a driven phonon mode. Once the threshold for instability is met, a cascade of harmonic generation processes is triggered. Firstly, the up-conversion of first harmonic phonons into second harmonic phonons is established. Subsequently, the down-conversion of second harmonic phonons into first harmonic phonons and conversion of first and second harmonic phonons into third harmonic phonons occur. On the similar lines, an eventual conversion of third harmonic phonons to high orders is also observed to commence. This surprising physical pathway for phononic low-order to high-order harmonic conversion may find general relevance to other physical systems.

  10. High performance germanium MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraswat, Krishna [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)]. E-mail: saraswat@stanford.edu; Chui, Chi On [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Krishnamohan, Tejas [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kim, Donghyun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Nayfeh, Ammar [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Pethe, Abhijit [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Ge is a very promising material as future channel materials for nanoscale MOSFETs due to its high mobility and thus a higher source injection velocity, which translates into higher drive current and smaller gate delay. However, for Ge to become main-stream, surface passivation and heterogeneous integration of crystalline Ge layers on Si must be achieved. We have demonstrated growth of fully relaxed smooth single crystal Ge layers on Si using a novel multi-step growth and hydrogen anneal process without any graded buffer SiGe layer. Surface passivation of Ge has been achieved with its native oxynitride (GeO {sub x}N {sub y} ) and high-permittivity (high-k) metal oxides of Al, Zr and Hf. High mobility MOSFETs have been demonstrated in bulk Ge with high-k gate dielectrics and metal gates. However, due to their smaller bandgap and higher dielectric constant, most high mobility materials suffer from large band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) leakage currents and worse short channel effects. We present novel, Si and Ge based heterostructure MOSFETs, which can significantly reduce the BTBT leakage currents while retaining high channel mobility, making them suitable for scaling into the sub-15 nm regime. Through full band Monte-Carlo, Poisson-Schrodinger and detailed BTBT simulations we show a dramatic reduction in BTBT and excellent electrostatic control of the channel, while maintaining very high drive currents in these highly scaled heterostructure DGFETs. Heterostructure MOSFETs with varying strained-Ge or SiGe thickness, Si cap thickness and Ge percentage were fabricated on bulk Si and SOI substrates. The ultra-thin ({approx}2 nm) strained-Ge channel heterostructure MOSFETs exhibited >4x mobility enhancements over bulk Si devices and >10x BTBT reduction over surface channel strained SiGe devices.

  11. High Antibiotic Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malo, Sara; José Rabanaque, María; Feja, Cristina;

    2014-01-01

    with highest consumption) were responsible for 21% of the total DDD consumed and received ≥6 packages per year. Elderly adults (≥60 years) and small children (0-9 years) were those exposed to the highest volume of antibiotics and with the most frequent exposure, respectively. Heavy users received a high...... proportion of antibiotics not recommended as first choice in primary health care. In conclusion, heavy antibiotic users consisted mainly of children and old adults. Inappropriate overuse of antibiotics (high quantity, high frequency, and inappropriate antibiotic choice) leads to a substantial risk...

  12. High voltage test techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  13. High Efficiency, High Performance Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pescatore; Phil Carbone

    2005-03-31

    This program covered the development of two separate products; an electric heat pump clothes dryer and a modulating gas dryer. These development efforts were independent of one another and are presented in this report in two separate volumes. Volume 1 details the Heat Pump Dryer Development while Volume 2 details the Modulating Gas Dryer Development. In both product development efforts, the intent was to develop high efficiency, high performance designs that would be attractive to US consumers. Working with Whirlpool Corporation as our commercial partner, TIAX applied this approach of satisfying consumer needs throughout the Product Development Process for both dryer designs. Heat pump clothes dryers have been in existence for years, especially in Europe, but have not been able to penetrate the market. This has been especially true in the US market where no volume production heat pump dryers are available. The issue has typically been around two key areas: cost and performance. Cost is a given in that a heat pump clothes dryer has numerous additional components associated with it. While heat pump dryers have been able to achieve significant energy savings compared to standard electric resistance dryers (over 50% in some cases), designs to date have been hampered by excessively long dry times, a major market driver in the US. The development work done on the heat pump dryer over the course of this program led to a demonstration dryer that delivered the following performance characteristics: (1) 40-50% energy savings on large loads with 35 F lower fabric temperatures and similar dry times; (2) 10-30 F reduction in fabric temperature for delicate loads with up to 50% energy savings and 30-40% time savings; (3) Improved fabric temperature uniformity; and (4) Robust performance across a range of vent restrictions. For the gas dryer development, the concept developed was one of modulating the gas flow to the dryer throughout the dry cycle. Through heat modulation in a

  14. High Efficiency, High Performance Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pescatore; Phil Carbone

    2005-03-31

    This program covered the development of two separate products; an electric heat pump clothes dryer and a modulating gas dryer. These development efforts were independent of one another and are presented in this report in two separate volumes. Volume 1 details the Heat Pump Dryer Development while Volume 2 details the Modulating Gas Dryer Development. In both product development efforts, the intent was to develop high efficiency, high performance designs that would be attractive to US consumers. Working with Whirlpool Corporation as our commercial partner, TIAX applied this approach of satisfying consumer needs throughout the Product Development Process for both dryer designs. Heat pump clothes dryers have been in existence for years, especially in Europe, but have not been able to penetrate the market. This has been especially true in the US market where no volume production heat pump dryers are available. The issue has typically been around two key areas: cost and performance. Cost is a given in that a heat pump clothes dryer has numerous additional components associated with it. While heat pump dryers have been able to achieve significant energy savings compared to standard electric resistance dryers (over 50% in some cases), designs to date have been hampered by excessively long dry times, a major market driver in the US. The development work done on the heat pump dryer over the course of this program led to a demonstration dryer that delivered the following performance characteristics: (1) 40-50% energy savings on large loads with 35 F lower fabric temperatures and similar dry times; (2) 10-30 F reduction in fabric temperature for delicate loads with up to 50% energy savings and 30-40% time savings; (3) Improved fabric temperature uniformity; and (4) Robust performance across a range of vent restrictions. For the gas dryer development, the concept developed was one of modulating the gas flow to the dryer throughout the dry cycle. Through heat modulation in a

  15. High-Definition Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamani, Ali; Andersen, Kristian G; Steinhubl, Steven R; Topol, Eric J

    2017-08-24

    The foundation for a new era of data-driven medicine has been set by recent technological advances that enable the assessment and management of human health at an unprecedented level of resolution-what we refer to as high-definition medicine. Our ability to assess human health in high definition is enabled, in part, by advances in DNA sequencing, physiological and environmental monitoring, advanced imaging, and behavioral tracking. Our ability to understand and act upon these observations at equally high precision is driven by advances in genome editing, cellular reprogramming, tissue engineering, and information technologies, especially artificial intelligence. In this review, we will examine the core disciplines that enable high-definition medicine and project how these technologies will alter the future of medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity ...

  17. High cholesterol - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and dressings Avoid foods that are high in saturated fat and added sugar Use skim milk or low- ... with other risk factors. Have family history of cardiovascular disease. Have one or more risk factors for ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an Employer Options for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life ... blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  1. High-Tech Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Eşsiz

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The technological development in building and construction area, bring with the new construction systems and the new products. The aim of this study is to define the High Tech concept, and set the common and basic characteristics of High Tech applications. During 1970’s High Tech was born and developed in Britain. Especially British Architects Richard Rogers, Michael Hopkins, Norman Foster, Nicholas Grimshaw and Ian Ritchie are the leaders of this style. Their architecture show the machine aesthetic and use of industrial revoluation materials such as glass and steel. The reasons for wide usage of this technology in building constructions are; the ease of renewing the structural and installation systems by the changing technology and giving monumentality to the prestige buildings. High Tech building which we have many examples of give their occupants a lot of opportunities and also they can adapt itself to the time.

  2. Landforms of High Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek A. McDougall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Landforms of High Mountains. By Alexander Stahr and Ewald Langenscheidt. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 2015. viii + 158 pp. US$ 129.99. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-3-642-53714-1.

  3. Poole High Street study

    OpenAIRE

    Kilburn, David

    2007-01-01

    A presentation given to key decision makers within Poole to improve the retail offer in Poole High Street and leverage the benefit of improved town planning and the introduction of quality retail companies.

  4. High temperature battery. Hochtemperaturbatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, M.

    1992-06-04

    To prevent heat losses of a high temperature battery, it is proposed to make the incoming current leads in the area of their penetration through the double-walled insulating housing as thermal throttle, particularly spiral ones.

  5. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... already been diagnosed with high blood pressure. Try yoga and meditation. Yoga and meditation not only can strengthen your body ... Accessed Sept. 21, 2015. Hu B, et al. Effects of psychological stress on hypertension in middle-aged ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... excused. 86 million Americans have prediabetes. Take the test. Know where you stand. sticky en -- Chef Ronaldo's ...

  7. High Plains Aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — These digital maps contain information on the altitude of the base, the extent, and the 1991 potentiometric surface (i.e. altitude of the water table) of the High...

  8. High-mix insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Premix insulins are commonly used insulin preparations, which are available in varying ratios of different molecules. These drugs contain one short- or rapid-acting, and one intermediate- or long-acting insulin. High-mix insulins are mixtures of insulins that contain 50% or more than 50% of short-acting insulin. This review describes the clinical pharmacology of high-mix insulins, including data from randomized controlled trials. It suggests various ways, in which high-mix insulin can be used, including once daily, twice daily, thrice daily, hetero-mix, and reverse regimes. The authors provide a rational framework to help diabetes care professionals, identify indications for pragmatic high-mix use.

  9. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  10. Microwave Radiometer - high frequency

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The Microwave Radiometer-High Frequency (MWRHF) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from two channels centered at 90 and 150 GHz. These two...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  12. Responsive design high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Els, Dewald

    2015-01-01

    This book is ideal for developers who have experience in developing websites or possess minor knowledge of how responsive websites work. No experience of high-level website development or performance tweaking is required.

  13. HIGH-ALTITUDE ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitya Elvira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHigh-altitude illness (HAI merupakan sekumpulan gejala paru dan otak yang terjadi pada orang yang baru pertama kali mendaki ke ketinggian. HAI terdiri dari acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE dan high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. Tujuan tinjauan pustaka ini adalah agar dokter dan wisatawan memahami risiko, tanda, gejala, dan pengobatan high-altitude illness. Perhatian banyak diberikan terhadap penyakit ini seiring dengan meningkatnya popularitas olahraga ekstrim (mendaki gunung tinggi, ski dan snowboarding dan adanya kemudahan serta ketersediaan perjalanan sehingga jutaan orang dapat terpapar bahaya HAI. Di Pherice, Nepal (ketinggian 4343 m, 43% pendaki mengalami gejala AMS. Pada studi yang dilakukan pada tempat wisata di resort ski Colorado, Honigman menggambarkan kejadian AMS 22% pada ketinggian 1850 m sampai 2750 m, sementara Dean menunjukkan 42% memiliki gejala pada ketinggian 3000 m. Aklimatisasi merupakan salah satu tindakan pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan sebelum pendakian, selain beberapa pengobatan seperti asetazolamid, dexamethasone, phosopodiestrase inhibitor, dan ginko biloba.Kata kunci: high-altitude illness, acute mountain sickness, edema cerebral, pulmonary edema AbstractHigh-altitude illness (HAI is symptoms of lung and brain that occurs in people who first climb to altitude. HAI includes acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. The objective of this review was to understand the risks, signs, symptoms, and treatment of high-altitude illness. The attention was given to this disease due to the rising popularity of extreme sports (high mountain climbing, skiing and snowboarding and the ease and availability of the current travelling, almost each year, millions of people could be exposed to the danger of HAI. In Pherice, Nepal (altitude 4343 m, 43% of climbers have symptoms of AMS. Furthermore, in a study conducted at sites in

  14. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol: How High

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Rajagopal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C is considered anti-atherogenic good cholesterol. It is involved in reverse transport of lipids. Epidemiological studies have found inverse relationship of HDL-C and coronary heart disease (CHD risk. When grouped according to HDL-C, subjects having HDL-C more than 60 mg/dL had lesser risk of CHD than those having HDL-C of 40-60 mg/dL, who in turn had lesser risk than those who had HDL-C less than 40 mg/dL. No upper limit for beneficial effect of HDL-C on CHD risk has been identified. The goals of treating patients with low HDL-C have not been firmly established. Though many drugs are known to improve HDL-C concentration, statins are proven to improve CHD risk and mortality. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is involved in metabolism of HDL-C and its inhibitors are actively being screened for clinical utility. However, final answer is still awaited on CETP-inhibitors.

  15. High surface area, high permeability carbon monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Organic Materials Processing Dept.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this work is to prepare carbon monoliths having precisely tailored pore size distribution. Prior studies have demonstrated that poly(acrylonitrile) can be processed into a precursor having tailored macropore structure. Since the macropores were preserved during pyrolysis, this synthetic process provided a route to porous carbon having macropores with size =0.1 to 10{mu}m. No micropores of size <2 nm could be detected in the carbon, however, by nitrogen adsorption. In the present work, the authors have processed a different polymer, poly(vinylidene chloride) into a macroporous precursor, Pyrolysis produced carbon monoliths having macropores derived from the polymer precursor as well as extensive microporosity produced during the pyrolysis of the polymer. One of these carbons had BET surface area of 1,050 m{sup 2}/g and about 1.2 cc/g total pore volume, with about 1/3 of the total pore volume in micropores and the remainder in 1{mu}m macropores. No mesopores in the intermediate size range could be detected by nitrogen adsorption. Carbon materials having high surface area as well as micron size pores have potential applications as electrodes for double layer supercapacitors containing liquid electrolyte, or as efficient media for performing chemical separations.

  16. High voltage engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffel, E; Hammond, P

    1984-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and over

  17. Adaptation to High Altitude

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Hypoxia is inconsequential for physiologically fit persons below an effective altitude of 2640 metres. At higher altitudes, the adaptation is brought about by four main factors, viz., hyperventilation, increased diffusion of oxygen across alveolar membrane, erythrocythemia and maintenance of body hydration. Carbon dioxide sensitivity is markedly elevated at high altitude, both in sojourners and acclimatized low-landers. The greater pulmonary diffusing capacity observed in high altitude native...

  18. High power fiber lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Qi-hong; ZHOU Jun

    2007-01-01

    In this review article, the development of the double cladding optical fiber for high power fiber lasers is reviewed. The main technology for high power fiber lasers, including laser diode beam shaping, fiber laser pumping techniques, and amplification systems, are discussed in de-tail. 1050 W CW output and 133 W pulsed output are ob-tained in Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, China. Finally, the applications of fiber lasers in industry are also reviewed.

  19. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  20. High speed heterostructure devices

    CERN Document Server

    Beer, Albert C; Willardson, R K; Kiehl, Richard A; Sollner, T C L Gerhard

    1994-01-01

    Volume 41 includes an in-depth review of the most important, high-speed switches made with heterojunction technology. This volume is aimed at the graduate student or working researcher who needs a broad overview andan introduction to current literature. Key Features * The first complete review of InP-based HFETs and complementary HFETs, which promise very low power and high speed * Offers a complete, three-chapter review of resonant tunneling * Provides an emphasis on circuits as well as devices.

  1. High energy astrophysical neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Athar, H.

    2002-01-01

    High energy neutrinos with energy typically greater than tens of thousands of GeV may originate from several astrophysical sources. The sources may include, for instance, our galaxy, the active centers of nearby galaxies, as well as possibly the distant sites of gamma ray bursts. I briefly review some aspects of production and propagation as well as prospects for observations of these high energy astrophysical neutrinos.

  2. High Altitude Cerebral Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    such enzyme inhibition would favor the creation of a metabolic acidosis to offset the hypoxic respiratory alkalosis of high altitude hyperventilation...that some of their symptoms might be due to the early respiratory alkalosis seen upon arrival at high altitude. Unfortunately 23 out of the 30 subjects...i I Hamilton-16 was negative in all cases and normal respiratory excursions were seen. CSF chemistries and cell counts were normal. Houston and

  3. High Performance Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Traian Oneţ

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the last studies and researches accomplished in Cluj-Napoca related to high performance concrete, high strength concrete and self compacting concrete. The purpose of this paper is to raid upon the advantages and inconveniences when a particular concrete type is used. Two concrete recipes are presented, namely for the concrete used in rigid pavement for roads and another one for self-compacting concrete.

  4. High throughput drug profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Entzeroth, Michael; Chapelain, Béatrice; Guilbert, Jacques; Hamon, Valérie

    2000-01-01

    High throughput screening has significantly contributed to advances in drug discovery. The great increase in the number of samples screened has been accompanied by increases in costs and in the data required for the investigated compounds. High throughput profiling addresses the issues of compound selectivity and specificity. It combines conventional screening with data mining technologies to give a full set of data, enabling development candidates to be more fully compared.

  5. High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian Oneţ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the last studies and researches accomplished in Cluj-Napoca related to high performance concrete, high strength concrete and self compacting concrete. The purpose of this paper is to raid upon the advantages and inconveniences when a particular concrete type is used. Two concrete recipes are presented, namely for the concrete used in rigid pavement for roads and another one for self-compacting concrete.

  6. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  7. Kilburn High Road Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Capineri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on John Agnew’s (1987 theoretical framework for the analysis of place (location, locale and sense of place and on Doreen Massey’s (1991 interpretation of Kilburn High Road (London, the contribution develops an analysis of the notion of place in the case study of Kilburn High Road by comparing the semantics emerging from Doreen Massey’s interpretation of Kilburn High Road in the late Nineties with those from a selection of noisy and unstructured volunteered geographic information collected from Flickr photos and Tweets harvested in 2014–2015. The comparison shows how sense of place is dynamic and changing over time and explores Kilburn High Road through the categories of location, locale and sense of place derived from the qualitative analysis of VGI content and annotations. The contribution shows how VGI can contribute to discovering the unique relationship between people and place which takes the form given by Doreen Massey to Kilburn High Road and then moves on to the many forms given by people experiencing Kilburn High Road through a photo, a Tweet or a simple narrative. Finally, the paper suggests that the analysis of VGI content can contribute to detect the relevant features of street life, from infrastructure to citizens’ perceptions, which should be taken into account for a more human-centered approach in planning or service management.

  8. Adaptation to High Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Nayar

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is inconsequential for physiologically fit persons below an effective altitude of 2640 metres. At higher altitudes, the adaptation is brought about by four main factors, viz., hyperventilation, increased diffusion of oxygen across alveolar membrane, erythrocythemia and maintenance of body hydration. Carbon dioxide sensitivity is markedly elevated at high altitude, both in sojourners and acclimatized low-landers. The greater pulmonary diffusing capacity observed in high altitude natives is well documented. RBC count, haemoglobin and haematocrit increase whereas arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation percentage decreases at high altitude. Diuretics (Furosemide have no role in adaptation to high altitude and adequate body hydration must be maintained.The ultimate adaptive mechanisms occur at tissue level which facilitate the diffusion of oxygen from blood to tissue and its utilization. The work capacity decreases at high altitude and a relationship between load carried and speed of marching has been determined at various altitudes. Although altitude has an adverse effect on process of cold acclimatization, yet it is possible to induce cold acclimatization by exposing subjects to a temperature of 0° to -5°C for a period of three hours daily for three weeks. The caloric requirements increase at high altitudes and are 4,286 K Cal and 4,380 K Cal at 13000 feet (3950 m and 17000 feet (5170 m, respectively.

  9. Reliability study of Zr and Al incorporated Hf based high-k dielectric deposited by advanced processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyian, Md Nasir Uddin

    electron affinity variation in HfO2 and ZrO 2. The trap activation energy levels estimated from the temperature dependent current voltage characteristics also support the observed reliability characteristics for these devices. In another experiment, HfO2 is lightly doped with Al with a variation in Al concentration by depositing intermediate HfAlOx layers. This work has demonstrated a high quality HfO2 based gate stack by depositing atomic layer deposited (ALD) HfAlOx along with HfO2 in a layered structure. In order to get multifold enhancement of the gate stack quality, both Al percentage and the distribution of Al are observed by varying the HfAlOx layer thickness and it is found that < 2% Al/(Al+Hf)% incorporation can result in up to 18% reduction in the average EOT along with up to 41% reduction in the gate leakage current as compared to the dielectric with no Al content. On the other hand, excess Al presence in the interfacial layer moderately increases the interface state density (Dit). When devices are stressed in the gate injection mode at a constant voltage stress, dielectrics with Al/(Hf+Al)% < 2% show resistance to stress induced flat-band voltage shift (DeltaVFB), and stress induced leakage current (SILC). The time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) characteristics show a higher charge to breakdown and an increase in the extracted Weibull slope (beta) that further confirms an enhanced dielectric reliability for devices with < 2% Al/(Al+Hf)%.

  10. Targeting Safer Aquifer At A Highly Arsenic Contaminated Community; South-Western Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauhid-Ur-Rahman, Md.

    2010-05-01

    The depositional pattern, geochemistry and mineralogy of the Arsenic (As) contaminated sediments along with the chemistry of groundwaters extracted from the Holocene deposit of an As hotspot, Kalaroa, Southwestern Bangladesh have been investigated in this study. These were done to elucidate a unified view that could explain the accumulation and distribution of As on the sediment surface and its subsequent release into the groundwater. Such view of As distribution mainly helped to find out eventually the possible existence of any safer aquifer that could provide adequate potable water to that targeted community. Two key geochemical parameters, the reaction rate Kr and the partition coefficient, Kd were found to be very promising in explaining the As release mechanism. Showing the realistic natural biotite dissolution process, the in-situ Kr that was derived by applying inverse mass balance model (2.72 × 10-16 /sec), was found to be slower by only three orders of magnitude than that was determined with the laboratory study (3.19×10-13 /sec). A parametric predictor equation, that can calculate the partition coefficient Kd based on the aquifer sediment's minerals such as Fe and Al contents along with pore-water pH was developed in this study. Another Kd model based on the diffuse double layer surface complexation theory has also been developed to compare the appropriateness of the parametric Kd model. These two models were compared with the in-situ based field Kd data and were found in a good agreement. Integrating those two essential geochemical parameters (Kd and Kr), a 1D-Finite Difference numerical model was applied to observe and evaluate the As pollution scenario for the studied Holocene aquifer. The simulation showed very promising results introducing the idea that the deeper aquifer's groundwaters would be remained safe against being contaminated with high As in future, due to the presence of a number of encouraging factors. The most significant among such

  11. High Caloric Diet for ALS Patients: High Fat, High Carbohydrate or High Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvin Sanaie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ALS is a fatal motor neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle atrophy and weakness, dysarthria, and dysphagia. The mean survival of ALS patients is three to five years, with 50% of those diagnosed dying within three years of onset (1. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial to set an appropriate plan for metabolic and nutritional support in ALS. Nutritional management incorporates a continuous assessment and implementation of dietary modifications throughout the duration of the disease. The nutritional and metabolic approaches to ALS should start when the diagnosis of ALS is made and should become an integral part of the continuous care to the patient, including nutritional surveillance, dietary counseling, management of dysphagia, and enteral nutrition when needed. Malnutrition and lean body mass loss are frequent findings in ALS patients necessitating comprehensive energy requirement assessment for these patients. Malnutrition is an independent prognostic factor for survival in ALS with a 7.7 fold increase in risk of death. Malnutrition is estimated to develop in one quarter to half of people with ALS (2. Adequate calorie and protein provision would diminish muscle loss in this vulnerable group of patients. Although appropriate amount of energy to be administered is yet to be established, high calorie diet is expected to be effective for potential improvement of survival; ALS patients do not normally receive adequate  intake of energy. A growing number of clinicians suspect that a high calorie diet implemented early in their disease may help people with ALS meet their increased energy needs and extend their survival. Certain high calorie supplements appear to be safe and well tolerated by people with ALS according to studies led by Universitäts klinikum Ulm's and, appear to stabilize body weight within 3 months. In a recent study by Wills et al., intake of high-carbohydrate low-fat supplements has been recommended in ALS patients (3

  12. High Temperature Capacitor Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kosek

    2009-06-30

    The absence of high-temperature electronics is an obstacle to the development of untapped energy resources (deep oil, gas and geothermal). US natural gas consumption is projected to grow from 22 trillion cubic feet per year (tcf) in 1999 to 34 tcf in 2020. Cumulatively this is 607 tcf of consumption by 2020, while recoverable reserves using current technology are 177 tcf. A significant portion of this shortfall may be met by tapping deep gas reservoirs. Tapping these reservoirs represents a significant technical challenge. At these depths, temperatures and pressures are very high and may require penetrating very hard rock. Logistics of supporting 6.1 km (20,000 ft) drill strings and the drilling processes are complex and expensive. At these depths up to 50% of the total drilling cost may be in the last 10% of the well depth. Thus, as wells go deeper it is increasingly important that drillers are able to monitor conditions down-hole such as temperature, pressure, heading, etc. Commercial off-the-shelf electronics are not specified to meet these operating conditions. This is due to problems associated with all aspects of the electronics including the resistors and capacitors. With respect to capacitors, increasing temperature often significantly changes capacitance because of the strong temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. Higher temperatures also affect the equivalent series resistance (ESR). High-temperature capacitors usually have low capacitance values because of these dielectric effects and because packages are kept small to prevent mechanical breakage caused by thermal stresses. Electrolytic capacitors do not operate at temperatures above 150oC due to dielectric breakdown. The development of high-temperature capacitors to be used in a high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) drilling environment was investigated. These capacitors were based on a previously developed high-voltage hybridized capacitor developed at Giner, Inc. in conjunction with a

  13. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  14. High Altitude and Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalcin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, situations associated with high altitude such as mountaineering, aviation increasingly draw the attention of people. Gas pressure decreases and hypoxia is encountered when climbing higher. Physiological and pathological responses of human body to different heights are different. Therefore, physiological and pathological changes that may occur together with height and to know the clinical outcomes of these are important . Acute mountain sickness caused by high altitude and high altitude cerebral edema are preventable diseases with appropriate precautions. Atmospheric oxygen decreasing with height, initiates many adaptive mechanisms. These adaptation mechanisms and acclimatization vary widely among individuals because of reasons such as environmental factors, exercise and cold. High altitude causes different changes in the cardiovascular system with various mechanisms. Although normal individuals easily adapt to these changes, this situation can lead to undesirable results in people with heart disease. For this reason, it should be known the effective evaluation of the people with known heart disease before traveling to high altitude and the complications due to the changes with height and the recommendations can be made to these patients. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 211-222

  15. HIGH TEMPERATURE DISPLACEMENT SENSOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Longxiang; Zhang Jinyu; Schweitzer Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    A high temperature displacement sensor based on the principle of eddy-current is investigated. A new temperature compensation technique by using eddy-current effect is presented to satisfy the special requirement at high temperature up to 550℃. The experiment shows that the temperature compensation technique leads to good temperature stability for the sensors. The variation of the sensitivity as well as the temperature drift of the sensor with temperature compensation technique is only about 7.4% and 90~350 mV at 550℃ compared with that at room temperature, and that of the sensor without temperature compensation technique is about 31.2% and 2~3 V at 550℃ compared with that at room temperature. A new dynamic calibration method for the eddy-current displacement sensor is presented, which is very easy to be realized especially in high frequency and at high temperatures. The high temperature displacement sensors developed are successfully used at temperature up to 550℃ in a magnetic bearing system for more than 100 h.

  16. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  17. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  18. Highly Thermal Conductive Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya-Ping (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Veca, Lucia Monica (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed are methods for forming carbon-based fillers as may be utilized in forming highly thermal conductive nanocomposite materials. Formation methods include treatment of an expanded graphite with an alcohol/water mixture followed by further exfoliation of the graphite to form extremely thin carbon nanosheets that are on the order of between about 2 and about 10 nanometers in thickness. Disclosed carbon nanosheets can be functionalized and/or can be incorporated in nanocomposites with extremely high thermal conductivities. Disclosed methods and materials can prove highly valuable in many technological applications including, for instance, in formation of heat management materials for protective clothing and as may be useful in space exploration or in others that require efficient yet light-weight and flexible thermal management solutions.

  19. High Resolution Laboratory Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Brünken, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    In this short review we will highlight some of the recent advancements in the field of high-resolution laboratory spectroscopy that meet the needs dictated by the advent of highly sensitive and broadband telescopes like ALMA and SOFIA. Among these is the development of broadband techniques for the study of complex organic molecules, like fast scanning conventional absorption spectroscopy based on multiplier chains, chirped pulse instrumentation, or the use of synchrotron facilities. Of similar importance is the extension of the accessible frequency range to THz frequencies, where many light hydrides have their ground state rotational transitions. Another key experimental challenge is the production of sufficiently high number densities of refractory and transient species in the laboratory, where discharges have proven to be efficient sources that can also be coupled to molecular jets. For ionic molecular species sensitive action spectroscopic schemes have recently been developed to overcome some of the limita...

  20. High-tech entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, Michel; Harris, Simon; Mønsted, Mette

    ; entrepreneurial finance; marketing technological innovations; and high-tech incubation management. Including case studies to give practical insights into genuine business examples, this comprehensive book has a distinctly 'real-world' focus throughout.Edited by a multi-national team, this comprehensive book......High-tech businesses form a crucial part of entrepreneurial activity - in some ways representing very typical examples of entrepreneurship, yet in some ways representing quite different challenges. The uncertainty in innovation and advanced technology makes it difficult to use conventional economic...... planning models, and also means that the management skills used in this area must be more responsive to issues of risk, uncertainty and evaluation than in conventional business opportunities. Whilst entrepreneurial courses do reflect the importance of high-tech businesses, they often lack the resources...

  1. High-conflict divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J R

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Interparental conflict after divorce (defined as verbal and physical aggression, overt hostility, and distrust) and the primary parent's emotional distress are jointly predictive of more problematic parent-child relationships and greater child emotional and behavioral maladjustment. As a group, children of high-conflict divorce as defined above, especially boys, are two to four times more likely to be clinically disturbed in emotions and behavior compared with national norms. Court-ordered joint physical custody and frequent visitation arrangements in high-conflict divorce tend to be associated with poorer child outcomes, especially for girls. Types of intervention programs and social policy appropriate for these kinds of families are presented.

  2. High power microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    Benford, James; Schamiloglu, Edl

    2016-01-01

    Following in the footsteps of its popular predecessors, High Power Microwaves, Third Edition continues to provide a wide-angle, integrated view of the field of high power microwaves (HPMs). This third edition includes significant updates in every chapter as well as a new chapter on beamless systems that covers nonlinear transmission lines. Written by an experimentalist, a theorist, and an applied theorist, respectively, the book offers complementary perspectives on different source types. The authors address: * How HPM relates historically and technically to the conventional microwave field * The possible applications for HPM and the key criteria that HPM devices have to meet in order to be applied * How high power sources work, including their performance capabilities and limitations * The broad fundamental issues to be addressed in the future for a wide variety of source types The book is accessible to several audiences. Researchers currently in the field can widen their understanding of HPM. Present or pot...

  3. Citing for High Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Xiaolin; McFarland, Daniel A

    2010-01-01

    The question of citation behavior has always intrigued scientists from various disciplines. While general citation patterns have been widely studied in the literature we develop the notion of citation projection graphs by investigating the citations among the publications that a given paper cites. We investigate how patterns of citations vary between various scientific disciplines and how such patterns reflect the scientific impact of the paper. We find that idiosyncratic citation patterns are characteristic for low impact papers; while narrow, discipline-focused citation patterns are common for medium impact papers. Our results show that crossing-community, or bridging citation patters are high risk and high reward since such patterns are characteristic for both low and high impact papers. Last, we observe that recently citation networks are trending toward more bridging and interdisciplinary forms.

  4. High availability IT services

    CERN Document Server

    Critchley, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This book starts with the basic premise that a service is comprised of the 3Ps-products, processes, and people. Moreover, these entities and their sub-entities interlink to support the services that end users require to run and support a business. This widens the scope of any availability design far beyond hardware and software. It also increases the potential for service failure for reasons beyond just hardware and software; the concept of logical outages. High Availability IT Services details the considerations for designing and running highly available ""services"" and not just the systems

  5. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  6. High strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2012-06-05

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  7. High strength alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  8. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  9. JUNOS High Availability

    CERN Document Server

    Sonderegger, James; Milne, Kieran; Palislamovic, Senad

    2009-01-01

    Whether your network is a complex carrier or just a few machines supporting a small enterprise, JUNOS High Availability will help you build reliable and resilient networks that include Juniper Networks devices. With this book's valuable advice on software upgrades, scalability, remote network monitoring and management, high-availability protocols such as VRRP, and more, you'll have your network uptime at the five, six, or even seven nines -- or 99.99999% of the time. Rather than focus on "greenfield" designs, the authors explain how to intelligently modify multi-vendor networks. You'll learn

  10. Clustering high dimensional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira

    2012-01-01

    High-dimensional data, i.e., data described by a large number of attributes, pose specific challenges to clustering. The so-called ‘curse of dimensionality’, coined originally to describe the general increase in complexity of various computational problems as dimensionality increases, is known...... to render traditional clustering algorithms ineffective. The curse of dimensionality, among other effects, means that with increasing number of dimensions, a loss of meaningful differentiation between similar and dissimilar objects is observed. As high-dimensional objects appear almost alike, new approaches...

  11. High Availability Electronics Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.S.; /SLAC

    2006-12-13

    Availability modeling of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) predicts unacceptably low uptime with current electronics systems designs. High Availability (HA) analysis is being used as a guideline for all major machine systems including sources, utilities, cryogenics, magnets, power supplies, instrumentation and controls. R&D teams are seeking to achieve total machine high availability with nominal impact on system cost. The focus of this paper is the investigation of commercial standard HA architectures and packaging for Accelerator Controls and Instrumentation. Application of HA design principles to power systems and detector instrumentation are also discussed.

  12. High Temperature Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elder, Rachael; Cumming, Denis; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of carbon dioxide, or co-electrolysis of carbon dioxide and steam, has a great potential for carbon dioxide utilisation. A solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC), operating between 500 and 900. °C, is used to reduce carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide. If steam is also...... input to the cell then hydrogen is produced giving syngas. This syngas can then be further reacted to form hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. Operating at high temperature gives much higher efficiencies than can be achieved with low temperature electrolysis. Current state of the art SOECs utilise a dense...

  13. Danish High Performance Concretes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. P.; Christoffersen, J.; Frederiksen, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the main results obtained in the research program High Performance Concretes in the 90's are presented. This program was financed by the Danish government and was carried out in cooperation between The Technical University of Denmark, several private companies, and Aalborg University...

  14. High School Press Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Diana J.

    This report focuses on controversial articles written by the high school press, decisions made by the courts regarding students' press freedoms, and reactions to the articles and rulings. Particular attention is given to two rulings concerning censorship of articles about students' sexual atttiudes and activities, the issue of prior restraint of…

  15. High Performance Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-29

    Our efforts in this project were focused on three different materials, namely; interstitial Sm-Fe carbides and nitrides, high energy product Nd2Fe14B ...magnets with MgO addition, and nanocomposite Nd2Fe14B /alpha-Fe consisting of a fine mixture of hard and soft phases. In the Sm-Fe carbides and

  16. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certain tumors Inherited conditions (problems that run in families) Thyroid problems Blood pressure rises as the baby grows. The average blood ... vomiting constantly Prevention Some causes of high blood pressure run in families. Talk to your provider before you get pregnant ...

  17. High-velocity clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, BP; vanWoerden, H

    1997-01-01

    High-velocity clouds (HVCs) consist of neutral hydrogen (HI) at velocities incompatible with a simple model of differential galactic rotation; in practice one uses \\v(LSR)\\ greater than or equal to 90 km/s to define HVCs. This review describes the main features of the sky and velocity distributions,

  18. Energy at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, N E; Stacey, M J; Woods, D R

    2011-03-01

    For the military doctor, an understanding of the metabolic effects of high altitude (HA) exposure is highly relevant. This review examines the acute metabolic challenge and subsequent changes in nutritional homeostasis that occur when troops deploy rapidly to HA. Key factors that impact on metabolism include the hypoxic-hypobaric environment, physical exercise and diet. Expected metabolic changes include augmentation of basal metabolic rate (BMR), decreased availability of oxygen in peripheral metabolic tissues, reduction in VO2 max, increased glucose dependency and lactate accumulation during exercise. The metabolic demands of exercise at HA are crucial. Equivalent activity requires greater effort and more energy than it does at sea level. Soldiers working at HA show high energy expenditure and this may exceed energy intake significantly. Energy intake at HA is affected adversely by reduced availability, reduced appetite and changes in endocrine parameters. Energy imbalance and loss of body water result in weight loss, which is extremely common at HA. Loss of fat predominates over loss of fat-free mass. This state resembles starvation and the preferential primary fuel source shifts from carbohydrate towards fat, reducing performance efficiency. However, these adverse effects can be mitigated by increasing energy intake in association with a high carbohydrate ration. Commanders must ensure that individuals are motivated, educated, strongly encouraged and empowered to meet their energy needs in order to maximise mission-effectiveness.

  19. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir By living a healthy lifestyle, you can help keep your blood pressure in ...

  20. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More black women than men have high blood pressure. 2 Race of Ethnic Group Men (%) Women (%) African Americans 43.0 45.7 Mexican Americans 27.8 28.9 Whites 33.9 31.3 All 34.1 32.7 Top of Page Why Blood Pressure Matters View this graphic snapshot of blood pressure ...

  1. Nongrading the High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, John M.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the history of nongraded high schools, from Preston Search's pioneering efforts in Pueblo, Colorado, to early 1900s Dalton and Winnetka Plans and midcentury continuous-progress plans. Competency, not age, already determines participation in band, orchestra, choir, and athletics. Curricula should be based on the structure, methodology, and…

  2. High availability using virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Calzolari, Federico

    2009-01-01

    High availability has always been one of the main problems for a data center. Till now high availability was achieved by host per host redundancy, a highly expensive method in terms of hardware and human costs. A new approach to the problem can be offered by virtualization. Using virtualization, it is possible to achieve a redundancy system for all the services running on a data center. This new approach to high availability allows to share the running virtual machines over the servers up and running, by exploiting the features of the virtualization layer: start, stop and move virtual machines between physical hosts. The system (3RC) is based on a finite state machine with hysteresis, providing the possibility to restart each virtual machine over any physical host, or reinstall it from scratch. A complete infrastructure has been developed to install operating system and middleware in a few minutes. To virtualize the main servers of a data center, a new procedure has been developed to migrate physical to virtu...

  3. Highly oxidized superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Donald E.

    1994-01-01

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical ...

  5. Carthage High School Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfin, Samantha, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This is the third issue of the magazine to focus on baseball in Panola County (Texas). The issue salutes the Carthage High School baseball program during two periods of its history. The first period was the early 1940's under Coach E. B. Morrison, whose teams were State Finalists in 1941 and 1942. The second period covered is the era of Coach…

  6. High Blood Pressure Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or "no added salt." Look for the sodium content in milligrams and the Percent Daily Value. Aim for foods that are less than 5 percent of the Daily Value of sodium. Foods with 20 percent or more Daily Value of sodium are considered high. To learn more about reading nutrition labels, see ...

  7. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Smith

    2011-08-01

    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  8. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A

    2009-01-01

    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  9. High Density Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic composition and properties of matter at super-saturation densities have been the subject of intense investigation for decades. The scarcity of experimental and observational data has led to the necessary reliance on theoretical models. There remains great uncertainty in these models which, of necessity, have to go beyond the over-simple assumption that high density matter consists only of nucleons and leptons. Heavy strange baryons, mesons and quark matter in different forms and phases have to be included to fulfil basic requirements of fundamental laws of physics. In this contribution latest developments in construction of the Equation of State (EoS of high-density matter at zero and finite temperature assuming different composition of matter will be discussed. Critical comparison of model EoS with available experimental data from heavy ion collisions and observations on neutron stars, including gravitational mass, radii and cooling patterns and data on X-ray burst sources and low mass X-ray binaries are made. Fundamental differences between the EoS of low-density, high temperature matter, such as is created in heavy ion collisions and of high-density, low temperature compact objects is discussed.

  10. Highly Expressive Hakka Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER LIM

    1996-01-01

    SOUTHERN Jiangxi Province was the birthplace of the Hakka ethnic group and has since been the native home and main transfer hub for the spread of the nationality. The highly expressive art of the Hakkas, including folk songs in Xingguo, colored lantern performances in Shicheng, ancient

  11. High-Energy Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutz, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Experimentalists in particle physics have long regarded computers as essential components of their apparatus. Theorists are now finding that significant advances in some areas can be accomplished only in partnership with a machine. Needs of experimentalists, interests of theorists, and specialized computers for high-energy experiments are…

  12. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the years led to verification of the important role of high blood pressure—especially in concert with ... is specific for that person will be an important key to improving prevention, ... an international team of investigators, funded in part by the NIH, ...

  13. Maintaining High Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They…

  14. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  15. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1992-03-26

    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  16. Ghana's high forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oduro, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised stakeholde

  17. High temperature superconducting compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Allen M.

    1992-11-01

    The major accomplishment of this grant has been to develop techniques for the in situ preparation of high-Tc superconducting films involving the use of ozone-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The techniques are generalizable to the growth of trilayer and multilayer structures. Films of both the DyBa2Cu3O(7-x) and YBa2Cu3O(7-x) compounds as well as the La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 compound have been grown on the usual substrates, SrTiO3, YSZ, MgO, and LaAlO3, as well as on Si substrates without any buffer layer. A bolometer has been fabricated on a thermally isolated SiN substrate coated with YSZ, an effort carried out in collaboration with Honeywell Inc. The deposition process facilitates the fabrication of very thin and transparent films creating new opportunities for the study of superconductor-insulator transitions and the investigation of photo-doping with carriers of high temperature superconductors. In addition to a thin film technology, a patterning technology has been developed. Trilayer structures have been developed for FET devices and tunneling junctions. Other work includes the measurement of the magnetic properties of bulk single crystal high temperature superconductors, and in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, measurement of electric transport properties of T1-based high-Tc films.

  18. High blood pressure - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... number is the diastolic pressure. This measures the pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest. Blood pressure ... Medical Professional Call your child's provider if home monitoring shows that your child's blood pressure is still high. Prevention Your child's provider will ...

  19. High-Sensitivity Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Selected high-sensitivity spectrophotometric methods are examined, and comparisons are made of their relative strengths and weaknesses and the circumstances for which each can best be applied. Methods include long path cells, noise reduction, laser intracavity absorption, thermocouple calorimetry, photoacoustic methods, and thermo-optical methods.…

  20. High Brightness OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, Jeffrey [OLEDWorks LLC; Kondakova, Marina [OLEDWorks LLC; Boroson, Michael [OLEDWorks LLC; Hamer, John [OLEDWorks LLC

    2016-05-25

    In this work we describe the technology developments behind our current and future generations of high brightness OLED lighting panels. We have developed white and amber OLEDs with excellent performance based on the stacking approach. Current products achieve 40-60 lm/W, while future developments focus on achieving 80 lm/W or higher.

  1. High-resolution headlamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Carsten; Cristea, Iulia; Neumann, Cornelius

    2016-04-01

    The following article shall describe how human vision by night can be influenced. At first, front lighting systems that are already available on the market will be described, followed by their analysis with respect to the positive effects on traffic safety. Furthermore, how traffic safety by night can be increased since the introduction of high resolution headlamps shall be discussed.

  2. High reliability organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallis, R.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    High Reliability Organizations (HRO’s) are organizations that constantly face serious and complex (safety) risks yet succeed in realising an excellent safety performance. In such situations acceptable levels of safety cannot be achieved by traditional safety management only. HRO’s manage safety

  3. High temperature interface superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozar, A., E-mail: adrian.gozar@yale.edu [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Bozovic, I. [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Highlight: • This review article covers the topic of high temperature interface superconductivity. • New materials and techniques used for achieving interface superconductivity are discussed. • We emphasize the role played by the differences in structure and electronic properties at the interface with respect to the bulk of the constituents. - Abstract: High-T{sub c} superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-T{sub c} Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  4. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in

  5. High voltage pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, George E.

    1977-03-08

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator has been provided which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of a first one of the rectifiers connected between the first and second of the plurality of charging capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. Alternate circuits are provided for controlling the application of the charging voltage from a charging circuit to be applied to the parallel capacitors which provides a selection of at least two different intervals in which the charging voltage is turned "off" to allow the SCR's connecting the capacitors in series to turn "off" before recharging begins. The high-voltage pulse-generating circuit including the N capacitors and corresponding SCR's which connect the capacitors in series when triggered "on" further includes diodes and series-connected inductors between the parallel-connected charging capacitors which allow sufficiently fast charging of the capacitors for a high pulse repetition rate and yet allow considerable control of the decay time of the high-voltage pulses from the pulse-generating circuit.

  6. High Voltage Seismic Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes

  7. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... prevent high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  8. Melt Cast High Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Cudziło

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. This paper reviews the current state and future developments of melt-cast high explosives. First the compositions, properties and methods of preparation of trinitrotoluene based (TNT conventional mixtures with aluminum, hexogen (RDX or octogen (HMX are described. In the newer, less sensitive explosive formulations, TNT is replaced with dinitroanisole (DNANDNANDNAN and nitrotriazolone (NTONTONTO, nitroguanidine (NG or ammonium perchlorate (AP are the replacement for RDRDX and HMX. Plasticized wax or polymer-based binder systems for melt castable explosives are also included. Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HPTB is the binder of choice, but polyethylene glycol, and polycaprolactone with energetic plasticizers are also used. The most advanced melt-cast explosives are compositions containing energetic thermoplastic elastomers and novel highly energetic compounds (including nitrogen rich molecules in whose particles are nanosized and practically defect-less.[b]Keywords[/b]: melt-cast explosives, detonation parameters

  9. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York

    1960-01-01

    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  10. High Speed Video Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janess, Don C.

    1984-11-01

    This paper describes a means of inserting alphanumeric characters and graphics into a high speed video signal and locking that signal to an IRIG B time code. A model V-91 IRIG processor, developed by Instrumentation Technology Systems under contract to Instrumentation Marketing Corporation has been designed to operate in conjunction with the NAC model FHS-200 High Speed Video Camera which operates at 200 fields per second. The system provides for synchronizing the vertical and horizontal drive signals such that the vertical sync precisely coincides with five millisecond transitions in the IRIG time code. Additionally, the unit allows for the insertion of an IRIG time message as well as other data and symbols.

  11. Dual Campus High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen P. Mombourquette

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available September 2010 witnessed the opening of the first complete dual campus high school in Alberta. Catholic Central High School, which had been in existence since 1967 in one building, now offered courses to students on two campuses. The “dual campus” philosophy was adopted so as to ensure maximum program flexibility for students. The philosophy, however, was destined to affect student engagement and staff efficacy as the change in organizational structure, campus locations, and course availability was dramatic. Changing school organizational structure also had the potential of affecting student achievement. A mixed-methods study utilizing engagement surveys, efficacy scales, and interviews with students and teachers was used to ascertain the degree of impact. The results of the study showed that minimal impact occurred to levels of student engagement, minor negative impact to staff efficacy, and a slight increase to student achievement results.

  12. Desulfurization at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panula-Nikkilae, E.; Kurkela, E.; Mojtahedi, W.

    1987-01-01

    Two high-temperature desulfurization methods, furnace injection and gasification-desulfurization are presented. In furnace injection, the efficiency of desulfurization is 50-60%, but this method is applied in energy production plants, where flue gas desulfurization cannot be used. Ca-based sorbents are used as desulfurization material. Factors affecting desulfurization and the effect of injection on the boiler and ash handling are discussed. In energy production based on gasification, very low sulfur emissions can be achieved by conventional low-temperature cleanup. However, high-temperature gas cleaning leads to higher efficiency and can be applied to smaller size classes. Ca-, Fe-, or Zn-based sorbents or mixed metals can be used for desulfurization. Most of the methods under development are based on the use of regenerative sorbents in a cleanup reactor located outside the gasifier. So far, only calcium compounds have been used for desulfurization inside the gasifier.

  13. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Booker; Brindesh Dhruva

    2011-06-20

    The objective of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project was to develop a downhole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole well temperatures up to 300°C for measuring motor temperature, formation pressure, and formation temperature. These measurements are used to monitor the health of the ESP motor, to track the downhole operating conditions, and to optimize the pump operation. A 220 ºC based High Temperature ESP Monitoring system was commercially released for sale with Schlumberger ESP motors April of 2011 and a 250 ºC system with will be commercially released at the end of Q2 2011. The measurement system is now fully qualified, except for the sensor, at 300 °C.

  14. High energy beam lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  15. High integrity automotive castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D. [Eck Industries Inc., St. Manitowoc, WI (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This paper described the High Integrity Magnesium Automotive Casting (HI-MAC) program, which was developed to ensure the widespread adoption of magnesium in structural castings. The program will encourage the use of low pressure permanent molds, squeeze casting, and electromagnetic pumping of magnesium into dies. The HI-MAC program is currently investigating new heat treatment methods, and is in the process of creating improved fluid flow and solidification modelling to produce high volume automotive components. In order to address key technology barriers, the program has been divided into 8 tasks: (1) squeeze casting process development; (2) low pressure casting technology; (3) thermal treatment; (4) microstructure control; (5) computer modelling and properties; (6) controlled molten metal transfer and filling; (7) emerging casting technologies; and (8) technology transfer throughout the automotive value chain. Technical challenges were outlined for each of the tasks. 1 ref., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  17. High Performance Biocomputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    ab initio calculation of a small protein has been reported (1PNH, a scorpion toxin with 31 residues and 500 atoms; [3]). Hybrid classical and first...challenge can be characterized as highly computationally-savvy and fully capable of effectively exploiting state-of-the-art capability. However, there...enilarrassingly parallel comlrltations, where little or no comnmiinication is required), capacity computing is an effective approac-h. A recent extension of

  18. High Power Switching Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, P. L.; Kao, Y. C.; Carnahan, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    Improved switching transistors handle 400-A peak currents and up to 1,200 V. Using large diameter silicon wafers with twice effective area as D60T, form basis for D7 family of power switching transistors. Package includes npn wafer, emitter preform, and base-contact insert. Applications are: 25to 50-kilowatt high-frequency dc/dc inverters, VSCF converters, and motor controllers for electrical vehicles.

  19. High Performance RAIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JamesHughes; CharlesMilligan; 等

    2001-01-01

    The ability to move 10s of TeraBytes in reasonable amounts of time are critical to many of the High Energy Physics applications.This paper examines the issues of high performance,high reliability tape storage systems,and presents the results of a 2-year ASCI Path Forward program to be able to reliably move 1GB/s to an archive that can last 20 years.This paper will cover the requirements.approach,hardware,application software,interface descriptions,performance,measured reliability and predicted reliability.This paper will also touch on future directions for this research.The current research allows systems to sustain 80MB/s of uncompressable data per Fibre Channel interface which is striped out to 8 or more drives.This looks to the application as a single tape drive from both mout and data transfer perspectives .Striping 12 RAIT systems together will provide nearly 1GB/s to tape.The reliability is provided by a method of adding parity tapes to the data stripes.For example,adding 2 parity tapes to an 8-stripe group will allow any 2 of the 10 tapes to be lost or damaged without loss of information.The reliability of RAIT with 8 stripes and 2 parities exceeds that of mirrored tapes while RAIT uses 10 tapes instead of the 16 tapes that a mirror would require.The results of this paper is to be abloe to understand the applicability of RAIT and to be able to understand when it may be useful in High Energy Physics applications.

  20. High Speed Compressor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    are listed below, and some of these are discussed at length later. o Heat capacity issues in low temperature regenerators o Pressure drop losses...carried out on a relatively old design of compressor, initially developed for use with a Stirling cycle domestic freezer12, and subsequently used in a...2003), pp 247-253. 3 Wang, X, Dai, W., et al, “Performance of a Stirling -Type Pulse Tube Cooler for High Efficiency Operation at 100Hz