WorldWideScience

Sample records for high acceleration cockpit

  1. High Resolution Autostereoscopic Cockpit Display, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase II program Dimension Technologies Inc. (DTI) proposes to design and build an autostereoscopic (glasses-free 3D) LCD based aircraft cockpit display...

  2. Converting Hangar High Expansion Foam Systems to Prevent Cockpit Damage: Full-Scale Validation Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AFCEC-CO-TY-TR-2018-0001 CONVERTING HANGAR HIGH EXPANSION FOAM SYSTEMS TO PREVENT COCKPIT DAMAGE: FULL-SCALE VALIDATION TESTS Gerard G...manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation , or approval by the United States Air Force. The views and...09-2017 Final Test Report May 2017 Converting Hangar High Expansion Foam Systems to Prevent Cockpit Damage: Full-Scale Validation Tests N00173-15-D

  3. High brightness electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.; Carlsten, B.E.; Young, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of accelerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electrons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electrons as the electrons enter the first cavity. 5 figs

  4. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temkin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  5. High energy medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrillon, P.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of tumours with charged particles, ranging from protons to 'light ions' (carbon, oxygen, neon), has many advantages, but up to now has been little used because of the absence of facilities. After the successful pioneering work carried out with accelerators built for physics research, machines dedicated to this new radiotherapy are planned or already in construction. These high energy medical accelerators are presented in this paper. (author) 15 refs.; 14 figs.; 8 tabs

  6. Cockpit napping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeber, R. Curtis; Rosekind, Mark R.; Connell, Linda J.; Dinges, David F.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a NASA-sponsored study examining the effectiveness of a brief, preplanned cockpit rest period to improve pilot alertness and performance in nonaugmented long-haul flight operations are discussed. Four regularly scheduled trans-Pacific flight legs were studied. The shortest flight legs were about 7 h and the longest about 9.5 h, with duty periods averaging about 11 h and layovers about 25 h. Three-person B747 crews were divided randomly into two volunteer pilot groups. These crews were nonaugmented, and therefore no relief pilots were available. The rest group, consisting of four crews, was allowed a 40 min opportunity to rest during the overwater cruise portion of the flight. On a preplanned, rotating basis, individual crew members were allowed to nap. It is concluded that a preplanned cockpit nap is associated with significantly better behavioral performance and higher levels of physiological alertness and that this can be accomplished without disrupting normal flight operations or compromising safety.

  7. High intensity hadron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-05-01

    This rapporteur report consists mainly of two parts. Part I is an abridged review of the status of all High Intensity Hadron Accelerator projects in the world in semi-tabulated form for quick reference and comparison. Part II is a brief discussion of the salient features of the different technologies involved. The discussion is based mainly on my personal experiences and opinions, tempered, I hope, by the discussions I participated in in the various parallel sessions of the workshop. In addition, appended at the end is my evaluation and expression of the merits of high intensity hadron accelerators as research facilities for nuclear and particle physics

  8. High energy plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1985-05-01

    Colinear intense laser beams ω 0 , kappa 0 and ω 1 , kappa 1 shone on a plasma with frequency separation equal to the electron plasma frequency ω/sub pe/ are capable of creating a coherent large longitudinal electric field E/sub L/ = mc ω/sub pe//e of the order of 1GeV/cm for a plasma density of 10 18 cm -3 through the laser beat excitation of plasma oscillations. Accompanying favorable and deleterious physical effects using this process for a high energy beat-wave accelerator are discussed: the longitudinal dephasing, pump depletion, the transverse laser diffraction, plasma turbulence effects, self-steepening, self-focusing, etc. The basic equation, the driven nonlinear Schroedinger equation, is derived to describe this system. Advanced accelerator concepts to overcome some of these problems are proposed, including the plasma fiber accelerator of various variations. An advanced laser architecture suitable for the beat-wave accelerator is suggested. Accelerator physics issues such as the luminosity are discussed. Applications of the present process to the current drive in a plasma and to the excitation of collective oscillations within nuclei are also discussed

  9. High intensity circular proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1987-12-01

    Circular machines suitable for the acceleration of high intensity proton beams include cyclotrons, FFAG accelerators, and strong-focusing synchrotrons. This paper discusses considerations affecting the design of such machines for high intensity, especially space charge effects and the role of beam brightness in multistage accelerators. Current plans for building a new generation of high intensity 'kaon factories' are reviewed. 47 refs

  10. High intensity proton accelerator program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yoshihiko; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Nishida, Takahiko

    1991-06-01

    Industrial applications of proton accelerators to the incineration of the long-lived nuclides contained in the spent fuels have long been investigated. Department of Reactor Engineering of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has formulated the Accelerator Program through the investigations on the required performances of the accelerator and its development strategies and also the research plan using the accelerator. Outline of the Program is described in the present report. The target of the Program is the construction of the Engineering Test Accelerators (ETA) of the type of a linear accelerator with the energy 1.5 GeV and the proton current ∼10 mA. It is decided that the construction of the Basic Technology Accelerator (BTA) is necessary as an intermediate step, aiming at obtaining the required technical basis and human resources. The Basic Technology Accelerator with the energy of 10 MeV and with the current of ∼10 mA is composed of the ion source, RFQ and DTL, of which system forms the mock-up of the injector of ETA. Development of the high-β structure which constitutes the main acceleration part of ETA is also scheduled. This report covers the basic parameters of the Basic Technology Accelerator (BTA), development steps of the element and system technologies of the high current accelerators and rough sketch of ETA which can be prospected at present. (J.P.N.)

  11. High performance proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favale, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    In concert with this theme this paper briefly outlines how Grumman, over the past 4 years, has evolved from a company that designed and fabricated a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) physics and specifications to a company who, as prime contractor, is designing, fabricating, assembling and commissioning the US Army Strategic Defense Commands (USA SDC) Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) accelerator as a turn-key operation. In the case of the RFQ, LANL scientists performed the physics analysis, established the specifications supported Grumman on the mechanical design, conducted the RFQ tuning and tested the RFQ at their laboratory. For the CWDD Program Grumman has the responsibility for the physics and engineering designs, assembly, testing and commissioning albeit with the support of consultants from LANL, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Brookhaven National laboratory. In addition, Culham Laboratory and LANL are team members on CWDD. LANL scientists have reviewed the physics design as well as a USA SDC review board. 9 figs

  12. High temperature superconductor accelerator magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nugteren, J.

    2016-01-01

    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding 20T. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and

  13. High-Field Accelerator Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijk, G de

    2014-01-01

    In this lecture an overview is given of the present technology for high field accelerator magnets. We indicate how to get high fields and what are the most important parameters. The available conductors and their limitations are presented followed by the most relevant types of coils and support structures. We conclude by showing a number of recent examples of development magnets which are either pure R&D objects or models for the LHC luminosity upgrade

  14. Human and behavioral factors contributing to spine-based neurological cockpit injuries in pilots of high-performance aircraft: recommendations for management and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. A.; Hart, S. F.; Baskin, D. S.; Effenhauser, R.; Johnson, S. L.; Novas, M. A.; Jennings, R.; Davis, J.

    2000-01-01

    In high-performance aircraft, the need for total environmental awareness coupled with high-g loading (often with abrupt onset) creates a predilection for cervical spine injury while the pilot is performing routine movements within the cockpit. In this study, the prevalence and severity of cervical spine injury are assessed via a modified cross-sectional survey of pilots of multiple aircraft types (T-38 and F-14, F-16, and F/A-18 fighters). Ninety-five surveys were administered, with 58 full responses. Fifty percent of all pilots reported in-flight or immediate post-flight spine-based pain, and 90% of fighter pilots reported at least one event, most commonly (> 90%) occurring during high-g (> 5 g) turns of the aircraft with the head deviated from the anatomical neutral position. Pre-flight stretching was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in neck pain episodes in this evaluation, whereas a regular weight training program in the F/A-18 group approached a significant reduction (mean = 2.492; p < 0.064). Different cockpit ergonomics may vary the predisposition to cervical injury from airframe to airframe. Several strategies for prevention are possible from both an aircraft design and a preventive medicine standpoint. Countermeasure strategies against spine injury in pilots of high-performance aircraft require additional research, so that future aircraft will not be limited by the human in control.

  15. High Power Electron Accelerator Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Tkachenko, Vadim; Cheskidov, Vladimir; Korobeynikov, G I; Kuznetsov, Gennady I; Lukin, A N; Makarov, Ivan; Ostreiko, Gennady; Panfilov, Alexander; Sidorov, Alexey; Tarnetsky, Vladimir V; Tiunov, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    In recent time the new powerful industrial electron accelerators appear on market. It caused the increased interest to radiation technologies using high energy X-rays due to their high penetration ability. However, because of low efficiency of X-ray conversion for electrons with energy below 5 MeV, the intensity of X-rays required for some industrial applications can be achieved only when the beam power exceeds 300 kW. The report describes a project of industrial electron accelerator ILU-12 for electron energy up to 5 MeV and beam power up to 300 kW specially designed for use in industrial applications. On the first stage of work we plan to use the existing generator designed for ILU-8 accelerator. It is realized on the GI-50A triode and provides the pulse power up to 1.5-2 MW and up to 20-30 kW of average power. In the report the basic concepts and a condition of the project for today are reflected.

  16. High power laser exciter accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.

    1975-01-01

    Recent developments in untriggered oil and water switching now permit the construction of compact, high energy density pulsed power sources for laser excitation. These accelerators, developed principally for electron beam fusion studies, appear adaptable to laser excitation and will provide electron beams of 10 13 to 10 14 W in the next several years. The accelerators proposed for e-beam fusion essentially concentrate the available power from the outside edge of a disk into the central region where the electron beam is formed. One of the main problem areas, that of power flow at the vacuum diode insulator, is greatly alleviated by the multiplicity of electron beams that are allowable for laser excitation. A proposal is made whereby the disk-shaped pulsed power sections are stacked vertically to form a series of radially flowing electron beams to excite the laser gas volume. (auth)

  17. Ultra-high vacuum photoelectron linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, David U.L.; Luo, Yan

    2013-07-16

    An rf linear accelerator for producing an electron beam. The outer wall of the rf cavity of said linear accelerator being perforated to allow gas inside said rf cavity to flow to a pressure chamber surrounding said rf cavity and having means of ultra high vacuum pumping of the cathode of said rf linear accelerator. Said rf linear accelerator is used to accelerate polarized or unpolarized electrons produced by a photocathode, or to accelerate thermally heated electrons produced by a thermionic cathode, or to accelerate rf heated field emission electrons produced by a field emission cathode.

  18. High Temperature Superconductor Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079328; de Rijk, Gijs; Dhalle, Marc

    2016-11-10

    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding $20T$. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and development before they can be applied in a practical accelerator magnet. In order to study HTS in detail, a five tesla demonstrator magnet named Feather-M2 is designed and constructed. The magnet is based on ReBCO coated conductor, which is assembled into a $10kA$ class Roebel cable. A new and optimized Aligned Block layout is used, which takes advantage of the anisotropy of the conductor. This is achieved by providing local alignment of the Roebel cable in the coil windings with the magnetic field lines. A new Network Model capable of analyzing transient electro-magnetic and thermal phenomena in coated conductor cables and coils is developed. This model is necessary to solve critical issues in coated conductor ac...

  19. Acceleration of polarized proton in high energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1991-01-01

    In low to medium energy accelerators, betatron tune jumps and vertical orbit harmonic correction methods have been used to overcome the intrinsic and imperfection resonances. At high energy accelerators, snakes are needed to preserve polarization. The author analyzes the effects of snake resonances, snake imperfections, and overlapping resonances on spin depolarization. He discusses also results of recent snake experiments at the IUCF Cooler Ring. The snake can overcome various kinds of spin depolarization resonances. These experiments pointed out further that partial snake can be used to cure the imperfection resonances in low to medium energy accelerators

  20. ERGONOMIC DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT COCKPIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎMPIAN Ionuţ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design are based.

  1. ERGONOMIC DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT COCKPIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎMPIAN Ionuţ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design is based.

  2. High-energy cosmic-ray acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, M; de Paula, W; Duarte Chavez, J A; Gago, A M; Hakobyan, H; Jez, P; Monroy Montañez, J A; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Padilla Cabal, F; Pino Rozas, M; Rodriguez Patarroyo, D J; Romeo, G L; Saldaña-Salazar , U J; Velasquez, M; von Steinkirch, M

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review the basics of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray acceleration. The Hillas criterion is introduced as a geometrical criterion that must be fulfilled by potential acceleration sites, and energy losses are taken into account in order to obtain a more realistic scenario. The different available acceleration mechanisms are presented, with special emphasis on Fermi shock acceleration and its prediction of a power-law cosmic-ray energy spectrum. We conclude that first-order Fermi acceleration, though not entirely satisfactory, is the most promising mechanism for explaining the ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray flux.

  3. High energy particle accelerators as radiation Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, M E [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Vontrol, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    Small accelerators in the energy range of few million electron volts are usually used as radiation sources for various applications, like radiotherapy, food irradiation, radiation sterilization and in other industrial applications. High energy accelerators with energies reaching billions of electron volts also find wide field of applications as radiation sources. Synchrotrons with high energy range have unique features as radiation sources. This review presents a synopsis of cyclic accelerators with description of phase stability principle of high energy accelerators with emphasis on synchrotrons. Properties of synchrotron radiation are given together with their applications in basic and applied research. 13 figs.,1 tab.

  4. New accelerators in high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blewett, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    First, I should like to mention a few new ideas that have appeared during the last few years in the accelerator field. A couple are of importance in the design of injectors, usually linear accelerators, for high-energy machines. Then I shall review some of the somewhat sensational accelerator projects, now in operation, under construction or just being proposed. Finally, I propose to mention a few applications of high-energy accelerators in fields other than high-energy physics. I realize that this is a digression from my title but I hope that you will find it interesting

  5. The evolution of high energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.

    1989-10-01

    In this lecture I would like to trace how high energy particle accelerators have grown from tools used for esoteric small-scale experiments to gigantic projects being hotly debated in Congress as well as in the scientific community

  6. Development of high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.; Kusano, J.; Hasegawa, K.; Ouchi, N.; Oguri, H.; Kinsho, M.; Touchi, Y.; Honda, Y.; Mukugi, K.; Ino, H.; Noda, F.; Akaoka, N.; Kaneko, H.; Chishiro, E.; Fechner, B.

    1997-01-01

    The high-intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 5.33mA has been proposed for the Neutron Science Project (NSP) at JAERI. the NSP is aiming at exploring nuclear technologies for nuclear waste transmutation based on a proton induced spallation neutrons. The proposed accelerators facilities will be also used in the various basic research fields such as condensed matter physics in combination with a high intensity proton storage ring. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the front-end of the proton accelerator. For the high energy portion above 100 MeV, superconducting (SC) accelerator linac has been designed and developed as a major option. (Author) 7 refs

  7. Accelerator System Development at High Voltage Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M. G.; Gottdang, A.; Haitsma, R. G.; Mous, D. J. W.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the years, HVE has continuously extended the capabilities of its accelerator systems to meet the rising demands from a diverse field of applications, among which are deep level ion implantation, micro-machining, neutron production for biomedical research, isotope production or accelerator mass spectrometry. Characteristic for HVE accelerators is the coaxial construction of the all solid state power supply around the acceleration tubes. With the use of solid state technology, the accelerators feature high stability and very low ripple. Terminal voltages range from 1 to 6 MV for HVE Singletrons and Tandetrons. The high-current versions of these accelerators can provide ion beams with powers of several kW. In the last years, several systems have been built with terminal voltages of 1.25 MV, 2 MV and 5 MV. Recently, the first system based on a 6 MV Tandetron has passed the factory tests. In this paper we describe the characteristics of the HVE accelerator systems and present as example recent systems.

  8. Superconductivity in high energy particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmueser, P.

    2002-08-01

    The basics of superconductivity are outlined with special emphasis on the features which are relevant for the application in magnets and radio frequency cavities for high energy particle accelerators. The special properties of superconducting accelerator magnets are described in detail: design principles, magnetic field calculations, magnetic forces, quench performance, persistent magnetization currents and eddy currents. The design principles and basic properties of superconducting cavities are explained as well as the observed performance limitations and the countermeasures. The ongoing research efforts towards maximum accelerating fields are addressed and the coupling of radio frequency power to the particle beam is treated. (orig.)

  9. Relativistic klystron research for high gradient accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.

    1988-06-01

    Relativistic klystrons are being developed as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron--positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. We have attained 200MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. We report here on the design of our first klystrons, the results of our experiments so far, and some of our plans for the near future. 5 refs., 7 figs

  10. High-energy accelerators in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Mandrillon, Pierre

    1992-05-04

    The treatment of tumours with charged particles, ranging from protons to "light ions" ( Carbon, Oxygen, Neon) has many advantages, but up to now has been little used because of the absence of facilities. After the successful pioneering work carried out with accelerators built for physics research, machines dedicated to this new radiotherapy are planned or already in construction. The rationale for this new radiotherapy, the high energy accelerators and the beam delivery systems are presented in these two lectures.

  11. High Accelerating Field Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, R. S.; Saito, K.; Furuta, F.; Saeki, T.; Inoue, H.; Morozumi, Y.; Higo, T.; Higashi, Y.; Matsumoto, H.; Kazakov, S.; Yamaoka, H.; Ueno, K.; Sato, M.

    2008-06-01

    We have conducted a study of a series of single cell superconducting RF cavities at KEK. These tests were designed to investigate the effect of surface treatment on the maximum accelerating field attainable. All of these cavities are of the ICHIRO shape, based on the Low Loss shape. Our results indicate that accelerating fields as high as the theoretical maximum of 50MV/m are attainable.

  12. High-brightness H/sup -/ accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Neutral particle beam (NPB) devices based on high-brightness H/sup -/ accelerators are an important component of proposed strategic defense systems. The basic rational and R and D program are outlined and examples given of the underlying technology thrusts toward advanced systems. Much of the research accomplished in the past year is applicable to accelerator systems in general; some of these activities are discussed

  13. Optimum culture in the cockpit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamori, Hisaaki

    1987-01-01

    Even with the same program and objectives, if the culture is different, there will be different approaches to the goal of flight safety. However, the cockpit environment is culture-free so it is not as important to think of a person's cultural background as it is to think of the approach to the goal of ultimate safety. Crew members can look at their individual safety goals and compare them to their own performance to see if their behavior matches their own safety goals. The cockpit environment must be culture-free in order to obtain the ultimate safety goal. One must first realize how their culture affects their behavior before they can begin to change their attitude and actions in the cockpit.

  14. Development of a high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu; Kusano, Joichi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ito, Nobuo; Oguri, Hidetomo; Touchi, Yutaka; Mukugi, Ken; Ino, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    The high-intensity proton linear accelerator with a beam power of 15 MW has been proposed for various engineering tests for the nuclear waste transmutation system as one of the research plans in the Neutron Science Research Program (NSRP) in JAERI. High intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutron, pion, muon and unstable radio isotope (RI) beam generated from the proton spallation reaction will be utilized at these facilities in each research field. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the front-end part of the proton accelerator; ion source, RFQ, DTL and RF source. In the beam test, the current of 70 mA with a duty factor of 7% has been accelerated from the RFQ at the energy of 2 MeV. A hot test model of the DTL for the high power and high duty operation was fabricated and tested. For the high energy portion above 100 MeV, superconducting accelerating cavity is studied as a main option. The superconducting linac is expected to have several favourable characteristics for high intensity accelerator such as short accelerator length, large bore radius resulting in low beam losses and cost effectiveness for construction and operation. A test stand with equipment of cryogenics system, vacuum system, RF system and cavity processing and cleaning is prepared to test the physics issues and fabrication process. The proposed plan for accelerator design and construction will compose of two consecutive stages. The first stage will be completed in about 7 years with the beam power of 1.5 MW. As the second stage gradual upgrading of the beam power will be made up to 15 MW. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Relativistic klystrons for high-gradient accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westenskow, G.A.; Aalberts, D.P.; Boyd, J.K.; Deis, G.A.; Houck, T.L.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Ryne, R.D.; Yu, S.S.; Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.F.; Lavine, T.L.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Ruth, R.D.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, J.W.; Hopkins, D.B.; Sessler, A.M.; Haimson, J.; Mecklenburg, B.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental work is being performed by collaborators at LLNL, SLAC, and LBL to investigate relativistic klystrons as a possible rf power source for future high-gradient accelerators. The authors have learned how to overcome their previously reported problem of high power rf pulse shortening and have achieved peak rf power levels of 330 MW using an 11.4-GHz high-gain tube with multiple output structures. In these experiments the rf pulse is of the same duration as the beam current pulse. In addition, experiments have been performed on two short sections of a high-gradient accelerator using the rf power from a relativistic klystron. An average accelerating gradient of 84 MV/m has been achieved with 80-MW of rf power

  16. A Statistical Perspective on Highly Accelerated Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Edward V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Highly accelerated life testing has been heavily promoted at Sandia (and elsewhere) as a means to rapidly identify product weaknesses caused by flaws in the product's design or manufacturing process. During product development, a small number of units are forced to fail at high stress. The failed units are then examined to determine the root causes of failure. The identification of the root causes of product failures exposed by highly accelerated life testing can instigate changes to the product's design and/or manufacturing process that result in a product with increased reliability. It is widely viewed that this qualitative use of highly accelerated life testing (often associated with the acronym HALT) can be useful. However, highly accelerated life testing has also been proposed as a quantitative means for "demonstrating" the reliability of a product where unreliability is associated with loss of margin via an identified and dominating failure mechanism. It is assumed that the dominant failure mechanism can be accelerated by changing the level of a stress factor that is assumed to be related to the dominant failure mode. In extreme cases, a minimal number of units (often from a pre-production lot) are subjected to a single highly accelerated stress relative to normal use. If no (or, sufficiently few) units fail at this high stress level, some might claim that a certain level of reliability has been demonstrated (relative to normal use conditions). Underlying this claim are assumptions regarding the level of knowledge associated with the relationship between the stress level and the probability of failure. The primary purpose of this document is to discuss (from a statistical perspective) the efficacy of using accelerated life testing protocols (and, in particular, "highly accelerated" protocols) to make quantitative inferences concerning the performance of a product (e.g., reliability) when in fact there is lack-of-knowledge and uncertainty concerning

  17. Applications of High Intensity Proton Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Rajendran; Mishra, Shekhar

    2010-06-01

    Superconducting radiofrequency linac development at Fermilab / S. D. Holmes -- Rare muon decay experiments / Y. Kuno -- Rare kaon decays / D. Bryman -- Muon collider / R. B. Palmer -- Neutrino factories / S. Geer -- ADS and its potential / J.-P. Revol -- ADS history in the USA / R. L. Sheffield and E. J. Pitcher -- Accelerator driven transmutation of waste: high power accelerator for the European ADS demonstrator / J. L. Biarrotte and T. Junquera -- Myrrha, technology development for the realisation of ADS in EU: current status & prospects for realisation / R. Fernandez ... [et al.] -- High intensity proton beam production with cyclotrons / J. Grillenberger and M. Seidel -- FFAG for high intensity proton accelerator / Y. Mori -- Kaon yields for 2 to 8 GeV proton beams / K. K. Gudima, N. V. Mokhov and S. I. Striganov -- Pion yield studies for proton driver beams of 2-8 GeV kinetic energy for stopped muon and low-energy muon decay experiments / S. I. Striganov -- J-Parc accelerator status and future plans / H. Kobayashi -- Simulation and verification of DPA in materials / N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov -- Performance and operational experience of the CNGS facility / E. Gschwendtner -- Particle physics enabled with super-conducting RF technology - summary of working group 1 / D. Jaffe and R. Tschirhart -- Proton beam requirements for a neutrino factory and muon collider / M. S. Zisman -- Proton bunching options / R. B. Palmer -- CW SRF H linac as a proton driver for muon colliders and neutrino factories / M. Popovic, C. M. Ankenbrandt and R. P. Johnson -- Rapid cycling synchrotron option for Project X / W. Chou -- Linac-based proton driver for a neutrino factory / R. Garoby ... [et al.] -- Pion production for neutrino factories and muon colliders / N. V. Mokhov ... [et al.] -- Proton bunch compression strategies / V. Lebedev -- Accelerator test facility for muon collider and neutrino factory R&D / V. Shiltsev -- The superconducting RF linac for muon

  18. Cockpit weather information needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective is to develop an advanced pilot weather interface for the flight deck and to measure its utilization and effectiveness in pilot reroute decision processes, weather situation awareness, and weather monitoring. Identical graphical weather displays for the dispatcher, air traffic control (ATC), and pilot crew should also enhance the dialogue capabilities for reroute decisions. By utilizing a broadcast data link for surface observations, forecasts, radar summaries, lightning strikes, and weather alerts, onboard weather computing facilities construct graphical displays, historical weather displays, color textual displays, and other tools to assist the pilot crew. Since the weather data is continually being received and stored by the airborne system, the pilot crew has instantaneous access to the latest information. This information is color coded to distinguish degrees of category for surface observations, ceiling and visibilities, and ground radar summaries. Automatic weather monitoring and pilot crew alerting is accomplished by the airborne computing facilities. When a new weather information is received, the displays are instantaneously changed to reflect the new information. Also, when a new surface or special observation for the intended destination is received, the pilot crew is informed so that information can be studied at the pilot's discretion. The pilot crew is also immediately alerted when a severe weather notice, AIRMET or SIGMET, is received. The cockpit weather display shares a multicolor eight inch cathode ray tube and overlaid touch panel with a pilot crew data link interface. Touch sensitive buttons and areas are used for pilot selection of graphical and data link displays. Time critical ATC messages are presented in a small window that overlays other displays so that immediate pilot alerting and action can be taken. Predeparture and reroute clearances are displayed on the graphical weather system so pilot review of weather along

  19. The evolution of high energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Accelerators have been devised and built for two reasons: In the first place, by physicists who needed high energy particles in order to have a means to explore the interactions between particles that probe the fundamental elementary forces of nature. And conversely, sometimes accelerator builders produce new machines for higher energy than ever before just because it can be done, and then challenge potential users to make new discoveries with the new means at hand. These two approaches or motivations have gone hand in hand. This lecture traces how high energy particle accelerators have grown from tools used for esoteric small-scale experiments to the gigantic projects of today. So far all the really high-energy machines built and planned in the world--except the SLC--have been ring accelerators and storage rings using the strong-focusing method. But this method has not removed the energy limit, it has only pushed it higher. It would seem unlikely that one can go beyond the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)--but in fact a workshop was held in Sicily in November 1991, concerned with the question of extrapolating to 100 TeV. Other acceleration and beam-forming methods are now being discussed--collective fields, laser acceleration, wake-field accelerators etc., all aimed primarily at making linear colliders possible and more attractive than with present radiofrequency methods. So far it is not entirely clear which of these schemes will dominate particle physics in the future--maybe something that has not been thought of as yet

  20. Nested high voltage generator/particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a modular high voltage particle accelerator having an emission axis and an emission end, the accelerator. It comprises: a plurality of high voltage generators in nested adjacency to form a nested stack, each the generator comprising a cup-like housing having a base and a tubular sleeve extending from the base, a primary transformer winding encircling the nested stack; a secondary transformer winding between each adjacent pair of housings, magnetically linked to the primary transformer winding through the gaps; a power supply respective to each of the secondary windings converting alternating voltage from its respective secondary winding to d.c. voltage, the housings at the emission end forming a hollow throat for particle acceleration, a vacuum seal at the emission end of the throat which enables the throat to be evacuated; a particle source in the thrond power means to energize the primary transformer winding

  1. Particle accelerators and lasers high energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, J.P.

    1985-04-01

    Particle accelerators and lasers are to-day precious devices for physicist and engineer. Their performance and scope do not stop growing. Producing thin beams of high energy particles or photons, they are able to be very high energy sources which interact strongly with matter. Numerous applications use them: research, industry, communication, medicine, agroalimentary, defence, and soon. In this note, their operation principles are described and some examples of their use as high energy sources are given [fr

  2. Discussion of high brightness rf linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamental aspects of high-brightness rf linacs are outlined, showing the breadth and complexity of the technology and indicating that synergism with advancements in other areas is important. Areas of technology reviewed include ion sources, injectors, rf accelerator structures, beam dynamics, rf power, and automatic control

  3. The high energy accelerator program in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, S.

    1987-01-01

    The author observes that in order to survey the intentions of Japanese high energy physicists and to make a recommendation to the High Energy Committee on future plans for high energy physics in Japan, including accelerators after TRISTAN, international collaboration projects and non-accelerator physics, a subcommittee of fifteen members is formed. The committee recommendation reads: A) For a new energy frontier, 1. Immediate initiation of R/D efforts for an e/sup +/e/sup -/ linear collider of TeV class, constructs a possible home-based facility, 2. Promotes international collaborative experiments using the SSC for the hadron sector, B) As projects of immediate concern: 1. The energy of the TRISTAN main ring increases further makes a possible low energy, high luminosity e/sup +/e/sup -/ collider operation in the TRISTAN complex, 2. The intensity of the 12 GeV PS at KEK increases, 3. Experiments in non-accelerator particle physics are promoted. In this contribution, the current status of the TRISTAN project and some of the R/D program on accelerator technology are reported

  4. Research on high beam-current accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1981-01-01

    In this review of research being undertaken at present in the US on accelerating devices and concepts of a novel nature, both non-collective systems, including high-current rf linacs and a variety of induction linacs, and also collective systems are considered. (U.K.)

  5. Microparticles in high-voltage accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, G.L.; Eastham, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Microparticles with radii greater than 2 μm have been observed in a high voltage vacuum accelerator tube. The charge acquired by most of the particles is similar to the contact charging of a conducting sphere on a plane. (author)

  6. Cost optimisation studies of high power accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, R.; Nightingale, M.P.S.; Godden, D. [AEA Technology, Oxon (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Cost optimisation studies are carried out for an accelerator based neutron source consisting of a series of linear accelerators. The characteristics of the lowest cost design for a given beam current and energy machine such as power and length are found to depend on the lifetime envisaged for it. For a fixed neutron yield it is preferable to have a low current, high energy machine. The benefits of superconducting technology are also investigated. A Separated Orbit Cyclotron (SOC) has the potential to reduce capital and operating costs and intial estimates for the transverse and longitudinal current limits of such machines are made.

  7. High average power linear induction accelerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayless, J.R.; Adler, R.J.

    1987-07-01

    There is increasing interest in linear induction accelerators (LIAs) for applications including free electron lasers, high power microwave generators and other types of radiation sources. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed LIA technology in combination with magnetic pulse compression techniques to achieve very impressive performance levels. In this paper we will briefly discuss the LIA concept and describe our development program. Our goals are to improve the reliability and reduce the cost of LIA systems. An accelerator is presently under construction to demonstrate these improvements at an energy of 1.6 MeV in 2 kA, 65 ns beam pulses at an average beam power of approximately 30 kW. The unique features of this system are a low cost accelerator design and an SCR-switched, magnetically compressed, pulse power system. 4 refs., 7 figs

  8. High temperature experiment for accelerator inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    The High Temperature Experiment (HTE) is intended to produce temperatures of 50-100 eV in solid density targets driven by heavy ion beams from a multiple beam induction linac. The fundamental variables (particle species, energy number of beamlets, current and pulse length) must be fixed to achieve the temperature at minimum cost, subject to criteria of technical feasibility and relevance to the development of a Fusion Driver. The conceptual design begins with an assumed (radiation-limited) target temperature and uses limitations due to particle range, beamlet perveance, and target disassembly to bound the allowable values of mass number (A) and energy (E). An accelerator model is then applied to determine the minimum length accelerator, which is a guide to total cost. The accelerator model takes into account limits on transportable charge, maximum gradient, core mass per linear meter, and head-to-tail momentum variation within a pulse

  9. Very high pulse-energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    The dominant trend in the development of pulsed power accelerator technology over the last decade has been towards higher power and shorter pulse widths. Limitations in high voltage, high current switch performance, and in power flow through vacuum insulator housings led to the development of highly modular designs. This modular approach requires precise synchronization of the various modules and efficient methods of combining the power from these modules to drive a common load. The need to drive very low impedance loads led to effective ways to combine these modules in parallel. The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator I (PBFA I) and Saturn are representative of these designs. Hermes III represent a new approach towards the efficient generation of higher voltages. It is designed to drive a 22-MV, 730-kA, 40-ns electron beam diode and combines conventional, modular pulsed power technology with linear induction accelerator concepts. High-power induction accelerator cavities are combined with voltage addition along a MITL to generate the desired output. This design differs from a conventional linac in that the voltages are added by the MITL flow rather than by a drifting beam that gains kinetic energy at each stage. This design is a major extrapolation of previous state-of-the-art technology represented by the injector module of the Advanced Test Accelerator and has proven to be efficient and reliable. The design and performance of Hermes III are presented together with a discussion of the application of this technology to the light ion beam inertial confinement fusion program. 18 refs., 9 figs

  10. High-field dipoles for future accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wipf, S.L.

    1984-09-01

    This report presents the concept for building superconducting accelerator dipoles with record high fields. Economic considerations favor the highest possible current density in the windings. Further discussion indicates that there is an optimal range of pinning strength for a superconducting material and that it is not likely for multifilamentary conductors to ever equal the potential performance of tape conductors. A dipole design with a tape-wound, inner high-field winding is suggested. Methods are detailed to avoid degradation caused by flux jumps and to overcome problems with the dipole ends. Concerns for force support structure and field precision are also addressed. An R and D program leading to a prototype 11-T dipole is outlined. Past and future importance of superconductivity to high-energy physics is evident from a short historical survey. Successful dipoles in the 10- to 20-T range will allow interesting options for upgrading present largest accelerators

  11. High efficiency beam splitting for H- accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.L.; Stipp, V.; Krieger, C.; Madsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beam splitting for high energy accelerators has typically involved a significant loss of beam and radiation. This paper reports on a new method of splitting beams for H - accelerators. This technique uses a high intensity flash of light to strip a fraction of the H - beam to H 0 which are then easily separated by a small bending magnet. A system using a 900-watt (average electrical power) flashlamp and a highly efficient collector will provide 10 -3 to 10 -2 splitting of a 50 MeV H - beam. Results on the operation and comparisons with stripping cross sections are presented. Also discussed is the possibility for developing this system to yield a higher stripping fraction

  12. High heat flux cooling for accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, I.; Nagler, A.

    2002-01-01

    Accelerator targets, both for radioisotope production and for high neutron flux sources generate very high thermal power in the target material which absorbs the particles beam. Generally, the geometric size of the targets is very small and the power density is high. The design of these targets requires dealing with very high heat fluxes and very efficient heat removal techniques in order to preserve the integrity of the target. Normal heat fluxes from these targets are in the order of 1 kw/cm 2 and may reach levels of an order of magnitude higher

  13. CERN/KEK: Very high accelerating gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-01-15

    Full text: A world-wide effort is under way to develop linear electron-positron colliders so that physics experiments can be extended into a range of energies where circular machines (necessarily much larger than CERN's 27-kilometre LEP machine) would be crippled by synchrotron radiation. CERN is studying the feasibility of building a 2 TeV machine called CLIC powered not by individual klystrons, but by a high intensity electron 'drive' linac running parallel to the main linac (November 1990, page 7). This drive linac will itself be powered by similar superconducting cavities to those developed for LEP. A high gradient is an obvious design aim for any future high energy linear collider because it makes it shorter and therefore cheaper - the design figure for the CLIC machine is 80 MV/m. The CLIC study group has taken a significant step forward in demonstrating the technical feasibility of their machine by achieving peak and average accelerating gradients of 137 MV/m and 84 MV/m respectively in a short section of accelerating structure during high gradient tests at the Japanese KEK Laboratory last year. This result obtained within the framework of a CERN/KEK collaboration on linear colliders was obtained using a 20-cell accelerating section built at CERN using state-of the- art technology which served both as a model for CLIC studies as well as a prototype for the Japanese Linear Collider studies. The operating frequency of the model accelerating section is 2.6 times lower than the CLIC frequency but was chosen because a high power r.f. source and pulse compression scheme has been developed for this frequency at KEK. Testing CLIC models at 11.4 GHz is however more stringent than at 30 GHz because the chance of electrical breakdown increases as the frequency is lowered. This recent result clearly demonstrates that a gradient of 80 MV/m is feasible.

  14. CERN/KEK: Very high accelerating gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: A world-wide effort is under way to develop linear electron-positron colliders so that physics experiments can be extended into a range of energies where circular machines (necessarily much larger than CERN's 27-kilometre LEP machine) would be crippled by synchrotron radiation. CERN is studying the feasibility of building a 2 TeV machine called CLIC powered not by individual klystrons, but by a high intensity electron 'drive' linac running parallel to the main linac (November 1990, page 7). This drive linac will itself be powered by similar superconducting cavities to those developed for LEP. A high gradient is an obvious design aim for any future high energy linear collider because it makes it shorter and therefore cheaper - the design figure for the CLIC machine is 80 MV/m. The CLIC study group has taken a significant step forward in demonstrating the technical feasibility of their machine by achieving peak and average accelerating gradients of 137 MV/m and 84 MV/m respectively in a short section of accelerating structure during high gradient tests at the Japanese KEK Laboratory last year. This result obtained within the framework of a CERN/KEK collaboration on linear colliders was obtained using a 20-cell accelerating section built at CERN using state-of the- art technology which served both as a model for CLIC studies as well as a prototype for the Japanese Linear Collider studies. The operating frequency of the model accelerating section is 2.6 times lower than the CLIC frequency but was chosen because a high power r.f. source and pulse compression scheme has been developed for this frequency at KEK. Testing CLIC models at 11.4 GHz is however more stringent than at 30 GHz because the chance of electrical breakdown increases as the frequency is lowered. This recent result clearly demonstrates that a gradient of 80 MV/m is feasible

  15. Predicting Induced Radioactivity at High Energy Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasso, Alberto

    1999-08-27

    Radioactive nuclides are produced at high-energy electron accelerators by different kinds of particle interactions with accelerator components and shielding structures. Radioactivity can also be induced in air, cooling fluids, soil and groundwater. The physical reactions involved include spallations due to the hadronic component of electromagnetic showers, photonuclear reactions by intermediate energy photons and low-energy neutron capture. Although the amount of induced radioactivity is less important than that of proton accelerators by about two orders of magnitude, reliable methods to predict induced radioactivity distributions are essential in order to assess the environmental impact of a facility and to plan its decommissioning. Conventional techniques used so far are reviewed, and a new integrated approach is presented, based on an extension of methods used at proton accelerators and on the unique capability of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code to handle the whole joint electromagnetic and hadronic cascade, scoring residual nuclei produced by all relevant particles. The radiation aspects related to the operation of superconducting RF cavities are also addressed.

  16. Power Supplies for High Energy Particle Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Pranab Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The on-going research and the development projects with Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland has generated enormous enthusiasm and interest amongst all to know about the ultimate findings on `God's Particle'. This paper has made an attempt to unfold the power supply requirements and the methodology adopted to provide the stringent demand of such high energy particle accelerators during the initial stages of the search for the ultimate particles. An attempt has also been made to highlight the present status on the requirement of power supplies in some high energy accelerators with a view that, precautionary measures can be drawn during design and development from earlier experience which will be of help for the proposed third generation synchrotron to be installed in India at a huge cost.

  17. High gradient accelerators for linear light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    Ultra-high gradient radio frequency linacs powered by relativistic klystrons appear to be able to provide compact sources of radiation at XUV and soft x-ray wavelengths with a duration of 1 picosecond or less. This paper provides a tutorial review of the physics applicable to scaling the present experience of the accelerator community to the regime applicable to compact linear light sources. 22 refs., 11 figs., 21 tabs

  18. A high performance architecture for accelerator controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.; Hunt, S.M; Lue, H.; Saltmarsh, C.G.; Parker, C.R.C.B.

    1991-01-01

    The demands placed on the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) control system due to large distances, high bandwidth and fast response time required for operation will require a fresh approach to the data communications architecture of the accelerator. The prototype design effort aims at providing deterministic communication across the accelerator complex with a response time of < 100 ms and total bandwidth of 2 Gbits/sec. It will offer a consistent interface for a large number of equipment types, from vacuum pumps to beam position monitors, providing appropriate communications performance for each equipment type. It will consist of highly parallel links to all equipment: those with computing resources, non-intelligent direct control interfaces, and data concentrators. This system will give each piece of equipment a dedicated link of fixed bandwidth to the control system. Application programs will have access to all accelerator devices which will be memory mapped into a global virtual addressing scheme. Links to devices in the same geographical area will be multiplexed using commercial Time Division Multiplexing equipment. Low-level access will use reflective memory techniques, eliminating processing overhead and complexity of traditional data communication protocols. The use of commercial standards and equipment will enable a high performance system to be built at low cost

  19. A high performance architecture for accelerator controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.; Hunt, S.M.; Lue, H.; Saltmarsh, C.G.; Parker, C.R.C.B.

    1991-03-01

    The demands placed on the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) control system due to large distances, high bandwidth and fast response time required for operation will require a fresh approach to the data communications architecture of the accelerator. The prototype design effort aims at providing deterministic communication across the accelerator complex with a response time of <100 ms and total bandwidth of 2 Gbits/sec. It will offer a consistent interface for a large number of equipment types, from vacuum pumps to beam position monitors, providing appropriate communications performance for each equipment type. It will consist of highly parallel links to all equipments: those with computing resources, non-intelligent direct control interfaces, and data concentrators. This system will give each piece of equipment a dedicated link of fixed bandwidth to the control system. Application programs will have access to all accelerator devices which will be memory mapped into a global virtual addressing scheme. Links to devices in the same geographical area will be multiplexed using commercial Time Division Multiplexing equipment. Low-level access will use reflective memory techniques, eliminating processing overhead and complexity of traditional data communication protocols. The use of commercial standards and equipment will enable a high performance system to be built at low cost. 1 fig

  20. Comparison of high group velocity accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Z.D.; Wilson, P.B.

    1987-02-01

    It is well known that waveguides with no perturbations have phase velocities greater than the velocity of light c. If the waveguide dimensions are chosen so that the phase velocity is only moderately greater than c, only small perturbations are required to reduce the phase velocity to be synchronous with a high energy particle bunch. Such a lightly loaded accelerator structure will have smaller longitudinal and transverse wake potentials and hence will lead to lower emittance growth in an accelerated beam. Since these structures are lightly loaded, their group velocities are only slightly less than c and not in the order of 0.01c, as is the case for the standard disk-loaded structures. To ascertain that the peak and average power requirements for these structures are not prohibitive, we examine the elastance and the Q for several traveling wave structures: phase slip structures, bellows-like structures, and lightly loaded disk-loaded structures

  1. Application of High Temperature Superconductors to Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A

    2000-01-01

    Since the discovery of high temperature superconductivity, a large effort has been made by the scientific community to investigate this field towards a possible application of the new oxide superconductors to different devices like SMES, magnetic bearings, flywheels energy storage, magnetic shielding, transmission cables, fault current limiters, etc. However, all present day large scale applications using superconductivity in accelerator technology are based on conventional materials operating at liquid helium temperatures. Poor mechanical properties, low critical current density and sensitivity to the magnetic field at high temperature are the key parameters whose improvement is essential for a large scale application of high temperature superconductors to such devices. Current leads, used for transferring currents from the power converters, working at room temperature, into the liquid helium environment, where the magnets are operating, represent an immediate application of the emerging technology of high t...

  2. Siberian Snakes in high-energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, S R; Shatunov, Yu M; Yokoya, K

    2005-01-01

    We review modern techniques to accelerate spin-polarized beams to high energy and to preserve their polarization in storage rings. Crucial to the success of such work is the use of so-called Siberian Snakes. We explain these devices and the reason for their necessity. Closely related to Snakes is the concept of 'spin rotators'. The designs and merits of several types of Snakes and spin rotators are examined. Theoretical work with Snakes and spin rotators, and experimental results from several storage rings, are reviewed, including the so-called Snake resonances. (topical review)

  3. Ultra-high vacuum technology for accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Hilleret, Noël; Strubin, Pierre M

    2002-01-01

    The lectures will start with a review of the basics of vacuum physics required to build Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) systems, such as static and dynamic outgassing. Before reviewing the various pumping and measurement devices, including the most modern one like Non Evaporable Getter (NEG) coatings, an overview of adequate materials to be used in UHV systems will be given together with their treatment (e.g. cleaning procedures and bake out). Practical examples based on existing or future accelerators will be used to illustrate the topics. Finally, a short overview of modern vacuum controls and interlocks will be given.

  4. Compact high-current, subnanosecond electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpak, V G; Shunajlov, S A; Ulmaskulov, M R; Yalandin, M I [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of Electrophysics; Pegel, I V [Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation). High-Current Electronics Inst.; Tarakanov, V P [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). High-Temperature Inst.

    1997-12-31

    A compact subnanosecond, high-current electron accelerator producing an annular electron beam of duration up to 300 - 400 ps, energy about 250 keV, and current up to 1 kA has been developed to study transient processes in pulsed power microwave devices. The measuring and recording techniques used to experimentally investigate the dynamics of the beam current pulse and the transformation of the electron energy during the transportation of the beam in a longitudinal magnetic field are described. The experimental data obtained are compared with the predictions of a numerical simulation. (author). 6 figs., 5 refs.

  5. High-energy cosmic-ray acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante, M; Carrillo Montoya, G; de Paula, W; Duarte Chavez, J A; Gago, A M; Hakobyan, H; Jez, P; Monroy Montañez, J A; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Padilla Cabal, F; Pino Rozas, M; Rodriguez Patarroyo, D J; Romeo, G L; Saldaña-Salazar , U J; Velasquez, M

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review the basics of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray acceleration. The Hillas criterion is introduced as a geometrical criterion that must be fulfilled by potential acceleration sites, and energy losses are taken into account in order to obtain a more realistic scenario. The different available acceleration mechanisms are presented, with special emphasis on Fermi shock acceleration and its prediction of a power-law cosmic-ray energy spectrum. We conclude that first-order Fermi accelera...

  6. High-gradient compact linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Bruce M.

    1998-01-01

    A high-gradient linear accelerator comprises a solid-state stack in a vacuum of five sets of disc-shaped Blumlein modules each having a center hole through which particles are sequentially accelerated. Each Blumlein module is a sandwich of two outer conductive plates that bracket an inner conductive plate positioned between two dielectric plates with different thicknesses and dielectric constants. A third dielectric core in the shape of a hollow cylinder forms a casing down the series of center holes, and it has a dielectric constant different that the two dielectric plates that sandwich the inner conductive plate. In operation, all the inner conductive plates are charged to the same DC potential relative to the outer conductive plates. Next, all the inner conductive plates are simultaneously shorted to the outer conductive plates at the outer diameters. The signal short will propagate to the inner diameters at two different rates in each Blumlein module. A faster wave propagates quicker to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the closer spacing and lower dielectric constant. When the faster wave reaches the inner extents of the outer and inner conductive plates, it reflects back outward and reverses the field in that segment of the dielectric core. All the field segments in the dielectric core are then in unipolar agreement until the slower wave finally propagates to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the wider spacing and higher dielectric constant. During such unipolar agreement, particles in the core are accelerated with gradients that exceed twenty megavolts per meter.

  7. Voltage generators of high voltage high power accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svinin, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    High voltage electron accelerators are widely used in modern radiation installations for industrial purposes. In the near future further increasing of their power may be effected, which enables to raise the efficiency of the radiation processes known and to master new power-consuming production in industry. Improvement of HV generators by increasing their power and efficiency is one of many scientific and engineering aspects the successful solution of which provides further development of these accelerators and their technical parameters. The subject is discussed in detail. (author)

  8. On the mechanism of high-voltage discharge initiation in high-voltage accelerator accelerating tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheleznikov, F.G.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental investigation into physical natupe of discharge processes in high-voltage accelerator accelerating tubes in the absence of the accelerated particle beam are conducted. The installation for the study of the mechanism of initiating vacuum isolation conductivity is used in the experiments. The vacuum chamber of the installation is made of steel and sealed with rubber packings. Electrodes 300-360 mm in diameter are made of stainless steel. Two variants of cleaning technology were used before electrode assembling: 1) degreasing by organic solvents; 2) cleaning by fine grinding cloth with successive washing by rectificated alcohol. Analysis of the obtained data shows that forma. tion of background flux of charged particles in interelectrode gap is caused by external photoelectric effect, excited by X radiation, which initiates the formation of intensive internal field in microfilms of non-conducting impurities on the electrode surfaces. The secondary electron emission plays the minor role at that

  9. High intensity proton accelerator controls network upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempaska, R.; Bertrand, A.; Lendzian, F.; Lutz, H.

    2012-01-01

    The High Intensity Proton Accelerator (HIPA) control system network is spread through a vast area in PSI and it was grown historically in an unorganized way. The miscellaneous network hardware infrastructure and the lack of the documentation and components overview could no longer guarantee the reliability of the control system and the facility operation. Therefore, a new network, based on modern network topology, PSI standard hardware with monitoring and detailed documentation and overview was needed. The number of active components has been reduced from 25 to 9 Cisco Catalyst 24- or 48-port switches. They are the same type as other PSI switches, thus a replacement emergency stock is not an issue anymore. We would like to present how we successfully achieved this goal and the advantages of the clean and well documented network infrastructure. (authors)

  10. Cockpit Automation Technology CSERIAC-CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    AD-A273 124 AL-TR-1991-0078 A R COCKPIT AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGY M CSERIAC- CAT S JULY 1989 - DEC 1990: FINAL REPORT T R Trudy S. Abrams Cindy D. Martin...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Cockpit Automation Technology CSERIAC- CAT JUL 89 - DEC 90 PE 62202F Final Report (U) PR 7184 ,___,TA 12 6. AUTHOR(S...Boeing-developed CAT software tools, and for facilitating their use by the cockpit design community. A brief description of the overall task is given

  11. Overview of error-tolerant cockpit research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of research in intelligent cockpit aids and intelligent error-tolerant systems are stated. In intelligent cockpit aids research, the objective is to provide increased aid and support to the flight crew of civil transport aircraft through the use of artificial intelligence techniques combined with traditional automation. In intelligent error-tolerant systems, the objective is to develop and evaluate cockpit systems that provide flight crews with safe and effective ways and means to manage aircraft systems, plan and replan flights, and respond to contingencies. A subsystems fault management functional diagram is given. All information is in viewgraph form.

  12. Ultra-High Intensity Proton Accelerators and their Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W. T.

    1997-01-01

    The science and technology of proton accelerators have progressed considerably in the past three decades. Three to four orders of magnitude increase in both peak intensity and average flux have made it possible to construct high intensity proton accelerators for modern applications, such as: spallation neutron sources, kaon factory, accelerator production of tritium, energy amplifier and muon collider drivers. The accelerator design focus switched over from intensity for synchrotrons, to brightness for colliders to halos for spallation sources. An overview of this tremendous progress in both accelerator science and technology is presented, with special emphasis on the new challenges of accelerator physics issues such as: H(-) injection, halo formation and reduction of losses

  13. Accelerated hydration of high silica cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Colin; Yui, Mikazu

    2012-01-01

    Current Japanese designs for high level radioactive waste (HLW) repositories anticipate the use of both bentonite (buffer and backfill material) and cement based materials. Using hydrated Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) as a grouting material is undesirable because the associated high pH buffer will have an undisputed detrimental effect on the performance of the bentonite buffer and backfill and of the host rock by changing its porosity. Instead, hydrated low pH cement (LopHC) grouting materials are being developed to provide a pH inferior or equal to 11 to reduce these detrimental effects. LopHC grouting materials use mixtures of superfine OPC (SOPC) clinker and silica fume (SF), and are referred as high silica cements (HSC). The focus of the present study was to identify the development of the unhydrated and hydrated mineral assemblage and the solution chemistry during the hydration of HSC. Since hydration experiments of cementitious materials are notably slow, a ball mill was used to accelerate hydration. This was done for two reasons. Firstly, to develop a method to rapidly hydrate cement based materials without the need for higher temperatures (which can alter the mineral assemblage), and secondly, to ensure that the end point of hydration was reached in a reasonable time frame and so to realize the final mineralogy and solution chemistry of hydrated HSC

  14. Accelerated Electron-Beam Formation with a High Capture Coefficient in a Parallel Coupled Accelerating Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernousov, Yu. D.; Shebolaev, I. V.; Ikryanov, I. M.

    2018-01-01

    An electron beam with a high (close to 100%) coefficient of electron capture into the regime of acceleration has been obtained in a linear electron accelerator based on a parallel coupled slow-wave structure, electron gun with microwave-controlled injection current, and permanent-magnet beam-focusing system. The high capture coefficient was due to the properties of the accelerating structure, beam-focusing system, and electron-injection system. Main characteristics of the proposed systems are presented.

  15. Ultra-high gradient compact accelerator developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, G.J.H.; Wiel, van der M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Continued development of relatively compact, although not quite 'table-top', lasers with peak powers in the range up to 100 TW has enabled laser-plasma-based acceleration experiments with amazing gradients of up to 1 TV/m. In order to usefully apply such gradients to 'controlled' acceleration,

  16. Reliability of high power electron accelerators for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Accelerators applied for radiation processing are installed in industrial facilities where accelerator availability coefficient should be at the level of 95% to fulfill requirements according to industry standards. Usually the exploitation of electron accelerator reviles the number of short and few long lasting failures. Some technical shortages can be overcome by practical implementation the experience gained in accelerator technology development by different accelerator manufactures. The reliability/availability of high power accelerators for application in flue gas treatment process must be dramatically improved to meet industrial standards. Support of accelerator technology dedicated for environment protection should be provided by governmental and international institutions to overcome accelerator reliability/availability problem and high risk and low direct profit in this particular application. (author)

  17. Reliability of high power electron accelerators for radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimek, Z. [Department of Radiation Chemistry and Technology, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Accelerators applied for radiation processing are installed in industrial facilities where accelerator availability coefficient should be at the level of 95% to fulfill requirements according to industry standards. Usually the exploitation of electron accelerator reviles the number of short and few long lasting failures. Some technical shortages can be overcome by practical implementation the experience gained in accelerator technology development by different accelerator manufactures. The reliability/availability of high power accelerators for application in flue gas treatment process must be dramatically improved to meet industrial standards. Support of accelerator technology dedicated for environment protection should be provided by governmental and international institutions to overcome accelerator reliability/availability problem and high risk and low direct profit in this particular application. (author)

  18. High-sensitivity mass spectrometry with a tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, W.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristic features of accelerator mass spectrometry are discussed. A short overview is given of the current status of mass spectrometry with high-energy (MeV/nucleon) heavy-ion accelerators. Emphasis is placed on studies with tandem accelerators and on future mass spectrometry of heavier isotopes with the new generation of higher-voltage tandems

  19. High power accelerator for environmental application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Kim, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources are receiving increasing attention throughout the world. The increased population, higher living standards, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities of humankind are all leading to degradation of the environment. Increasing urbanization has been accompanied by significant environmental pollution, given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the efficient technologies including economical treatment methods. Therefore, cost-effective treatment of the stack gases, wastewater and sludge containing refractory pollutant with electron beam is actively studied in EB TECH Co. Electron beam treatment of such hazardous wastes is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from radiolysis. However, to have advantages over existing processes, the electron beam process should have cost-effective and reliable in operation. Therefore high power accelerators (400kW~1MW) are developed for environmental application and they show the decrease in the cost of construction and operation of electron beam plant. In other way to reduce the cost for treatment, radical reactions accompanied by the other processes are introduced, and the synergistic effect upon the use of combined methods such as electron beam treatment with catalytic system, biological treatment and physico-chemical adsorption and others also show the improvement of the effect of electron beam treatment. (author)

  20. High power accelerator for environmental application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, Y. R.; Kim, S. M. [EB-TECH Co., Ltd., Yuseong-gu Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    The problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources are receiving increasing attention throughout the world. The increased population, higher living standards, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities of humankind are all leading to degradation of the environment. Increasing urbanization has been accompanied by significant environmental pollution, given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the efficient technologies including economical treatment methods. Therefore, cost-effective treatment of the stack gases, wastewater and sludge containing refractory pollutant with electron beam is actively studied in EB TECH Co. Electron beam treatment of such hazardous wastes is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from radiolysis. However, to have advantages over existing processes, the electron beam process should have cost-effective and reliable in operation. Therefore high power accelerators (400kW~1MW) are developed for environmental application and they show the decrease in the cost of construction and operation of electron beam plant. In other way to reduce the cost for treatment, radical reactions accompanied by the other processes are introduced, and the synergistic effect upon the use of combined methods such as electron beam treatment with catalytic system, biological treatment and physico-chemical adsorption and others also show the improvement of the effect of electron beam treatment. (author)

  1. High power accelerators and wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Kim, S.M.; Makaov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources are receiving increasing attention throughout the world. The increased population, higher living standards, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities of humankind are all leading to degradation of the environment. Increasing urbanization has been accompanied by significant water pollution. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. Therefore, cost-effective treatment of the municipal and industrial wastewater containing refractory pollutant with electron beam is actively studied in EB TECH Co.. Electron beam treatment of wastewater is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis (hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom). However, to have advantages over existing processes, the electron beam process should have cost-effective and reliable in operation. Therefore high power accelerators (400kW∼1MW) are developed for environmental application and they show the decrease in the cost of construction and operation of electron beam plant. In other way to reduce the cost for wastewater treatment, radical reactions accompanied by the other processes are introduced, and the synergistic effect upon the use of combined methods such as electron beam treatment with ozonation, biological treatment and physico-chemical adsorption and others also show the improvement of the effect of electron beam treatment for the wastewater purification. (author)

  2. Distributed coupling high efficiency linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Neilson, Jeffrey

    2016-07-19

    A microwave circuit for a linear accelerator includes multiple monolithic metallic cell plates stacked upon each other so that the beam axis passes vertically through a central acceleration cavity of each plate. Each plate has a directional coupler with coupling arms. A first coupling slot couples the directional coupler to an adjacent directional coupler of an adjacent cell plate, and a second coupling slot couples the directional coupler to the central acceleration cavity. Each directional coupler also has an iris protrusion spaced from corners joining the arms, a convex rounded corner at a first corner joining the arms, and a corner protrusion at a second corner joining the arms.

  3. Manufacturing considerations for AMLCD cockpit displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fang-Chen

    1995-06-01

    AMLCD cockpit displays need to meet more stringent requirements compared with AMLCD commercial displays in areas such as environmental conditions, optical performance and device reliability. Special considerations are required for the manufacturing of AMLCD cockpit displays in each process step to address these issues. Some examples are: UV stable polarizers, wide-temperature LC material, strong LC glue seal, ESS test system, gray scale voltage EEPROM, etc.

  4. Prospects for high energy heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemann, C.

    1979-03-01

    The acceleration of heavy ions to relativistic energies (T greater than or equal to 1 GeV/amu) at the beam intensities required for fundamental research falls clearly in the domain of synchrotons. Up to date, such beams have been obtained from machines originally designed as proton acccelerators by means of modified RF-programs, improved vacuum and, most importantly, altered or entirely new injector systems. Similarly, for the future, substantial changes in synchrotron design itself are not foreseen, but rather the judicious application and development of presently known principles and technologies and a choice of parameters optimized with respect to the peculiarities of heavy ions. The low charge to mass ratio, q/A, of very heavy ions demands that superconducting magnets be considered in the interest of the highest energies for a given machine size. Injector brightness will continue to be of highest importance, and although space charge effects such as tune shifts will be increased by a factor q 2 /A compared with protons, advances in linac current and brightness, rather than substantially higher energies are required to best utilize a given synchrotron acceptance. However, high yeilds of fully stripped, very heavy ions demand energies of a few hundred MeV/amu, thus indicating the need for a booster synchrotron, although for entirely different reasons than in proton facilities. Finally, should we consider colliding beams, the high charge of heavy ions will impose severe current limitations and put high demands on system design with regard to such quantities as e.g., wall impedances or the ion induced gas desorption rate, and advanced concepts such as low β insertions with suppressed dispersion and very small crossing angles will be essential to the achievement of useful luminosities

  5. High-intensity deuteron linear accelerator (FMIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    For fusion reactors to become operational, one of the many problems to be solved is to find materials able to withstand the intense bombardment of 14-MeV neutrons released by the fusion process. The development of alloys less likely to become damaged by this neutron bombardment will require years of work, making it desirable to begin studies in parallel with other aspects of fusion power generators. The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility, to be built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), Richland, Washington, will provide a high neutron flux and a neutron energy spectrum representative of fusion reactor conditions in volumes adequate to screen and qualify samples of candidate fusion reactor materials. FMIT's design goal is to provide an irradiation test volume of 10 cm 3 at a neutron flux of 10 15 n/cm 2 -s, and 500 cm 3 at a flux of 10 14 n/cm 2 -s. This will not allow testing of actual components, but samples in the most intense flux region can be subjected to accelerated life testing, accumulating in one year the total number of neutrons seen by a fusion reactor in 10 to 20 years of operation

  6. A high-current racetrack induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondelli, A.; Roberson, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, the energy and system scaling laws of the Racetrack Induction Accelerator are determined and its operating principles are discussed. This device is a cyclic accelerator that is capable of multi-kiloamp operation. Long pulse induction linac technology is used to obtain short acceleration times. The accelerator consists of a long-pulse linear induction module and a racetrack beam transport system. For detailed studies of the particle dynamics in a racetrack, a numerical model is required to integrate the fully-relativistic single-particle equations of motion in an externally applied magnetic field. The numerical model is a compromise between the need for a large rotational transform and the need for a reasonable volume within the separatrix

  7. Super High Energy Colliding Beam Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaziz, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    This lecture presents a review of cyclic accelerators and their energy limitations. A description is given of the phase stability principle and evolution of the synchrotron, an accelerator without energy limitation. Then the concept of colliding beams emerged to yield doubling of the beam energy as in the Tevatron 2 trillion electron volts (TeV) proton collider at Fermilab and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is now planned as a 14-TeV machine in the 27 kilometer tunnel of the Large Electron Positron (LEP) collider at CERN. Then presentation is given of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC), a giant accelerator complex with energy 40-TeV in a tunnel 87 kilometers in circumference under the country surrounding Waxahachie in Texas, U.S.A. These superhigh energy accelerators are intended to smash protons against protons at energy sufficient to reveal the nature of matter and to consolidate the prevailing general theory of elementary particle.

  8. New Pulsed Power Technology for High Current Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G J

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in solid-state modulators now permit the design of a new class of high current accelerators. These new accelerators will be able to operate in burst mode at frequencies of several MHz with unprecedented flexibility and precision in pulse format. These new modulators can drive accelerators to high average powers that far exceed those of any other technology and can be used to enable precision beam manipulations. New insulator technology combined with novel pulse forming lines and switching may enable the construction of a new type of high gradient, high current accelerator. Recent developments in these areas will be reviewed

  9. High-current proton accelerators-meson factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrievskij, V.P.

    1979-01-01

    A possibility of usage of accelerators of neutron as well as meson factories is considered. Parameters of linear and cyclic accelerators are given, which are employed as meson factories and as base for developing intense neutron generators. It is emphasized that the principal aim of developing neutron generators on the base of high current proton accelerators is production of intense neutron fluxes with a present energy spectrum. Production of tens-and-hundreds milliampere currents at the energy of 800-1000 MeV is considered at present for two types of accelerating facilities viz. linear accelerators under continuous operating conditions and cyclotrons with strong focusing. Quantitative evaluations of developing high-efficiency linear and cyclic accelerators are considered. The basic parameters of an ccelerating complex are given, viz. linear accelerator-injector and 800 MeV isochronous cyclotron. The main problems associated with their realization are listed [ru

  10. Multistage charged particle accelerator, with high-vacuum insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holl, P.

    1976-01-01

    A multistage charged-particle accelerator for operating with accelerating voltages higher than 150 kV is described. The device consists essentially of a high-voltage insulator, a source for producing charged particles, a Wehnelt cylinder, an anode, and a post-accelerating tube containing stack-wise positioned post-accelerating electrodes. A high vacuum is used for insulating the parts carrying the high voltages, and at least one cylindrical screen surrounding these parts is interposed between them and the vacuum vessel, which can itself also function as a cylindrical screen

  11. rf coaxial couplers for high-intensity linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, J.J.; Knapp, E.A.

    1980-02-01

    Two rf coaxial couplers that are particularly suitable for intertank connection of the disk-and-washer accelerating structure for use in high-intensity linear accelerators have been developed. These devices have very high coupling to the accelerating structure and very low rf power loss at the operating frequency, and they can be designed for any relative particle velocity β > 0.4. Focusing and monitoring devices can be located inside these couplers

  12. Shielding for high energy, high intensity electron accelerator installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warawas, C.; Chongkum, S.

    1997-03-01

    The utilization of electron accelerators (eBA) is gradually increased in Thailand. For instance, a 30-40 MeV eBA are used for tumor and cancer therapy in the hospitals, and a high current eBA in for gemstone colonization. In the near future, an application of eBA in industries will be grown up in a few directions, e.g., flue gases treatment from the coal fire-power plants, plastic processing, rubber vulcanization and food preservation. It is the major roles of Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to regulate the public safety and protection of the environment. By taking into account of radiation safety aspect, high energy electrons are not only harmful to human bodies, but the radioactive nuclides can be occurred. This report presents a literature review by following the National Committee on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) report No.31. This reviews for parametric calculation and shielding design of the high energy (up to 100 MeV), high intensity electron accelerator installation

  13. Radiation protection around high energy proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgois, L.

    1996-01-01

    Proton accelerators are intense radiation sources because of the particle beam itself, secondary radiation and structure activation. So radiation protection is required around these equipment during running time but even during downtime. This article presents some estimated values about structure and air activation and applies the Moyer model to get dose rate behind shielding. (A.C.)

  14. Radiation protection of the operation of accelerator facilities. On high energy proton and electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Kenjiro

    1997-01-01

    Problems in the radiation protection raised by accelerated particles with energy higher than several hundreds MeV in strong accelerator facilities were discussed in comparison with those with lower energy in middle- and small-scale facilities. The characteristics in the protection in such strong accelerator facilities are derived from the qualitative changes in the interaction between the high energy particles and materials and from quantitative one due to the beam strength. In the former which is dependent on the emitting mechanism of the radiation, neutron with broad energy spectrum and muon are important in the protection, and in the latter, levels of radiation and radioactivity which are proportional to the beam strength are important. The author described details of the interaction between high energy particles and materials: leading to the conclusion that in the electron accelerator facilities, shielding against high energy-blemsstrahlung radiation and -neutron is important and in the proton acceleration, shielding against neutron is important. The characteristics of the radiation field in the strong accelerator facilities: among neutron, ionized particles and electromagnetic wave, neutron is most important in shielding since it has small cross sections relative to other two. Considerations for neutron are necessary in the management of exposure. Multiplicity of radionuclides produced: which is a result of nuclear spallation reaction due to high energy particles, especially to proton. Radioactivation of the accelerator equipment is a serious problem. Other problems: the interlock systems, radiation protection for experimenters and maintenance of the equipment by remote systems. (K.H.). 11 refs

  15. High power electron accelerators for flue gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas treatment process based on electron beam application for SO 2 and NO x removal was successfully demonstrated in number of laboratories, pilot plants and industrial demonstration facilities. The industrial scale application of an electron beam process for flue gas treatment requires accelerators modules with a beam power 100-500 kW and electron energy range 0.8-1.5 MeV. The most important accelerator parameters for successful flue gas radiation technology implementation are related to accelerator reliability/availability, electrical efficiency and accelerator price. Experience gained in high power accelerators exploitation in flue gas treatment industrial demonstration facility was described and high power accelerator constructions have been reviewed. (author)

  16. High power electron accelerators for flue gas treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimek, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Flue gas treatment process based on electron beam application for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal was successfully demonstrated in number of laboratories, pilot plants and industrial demonstration facilities. The industrial scale application of an electron beam process for flue gas treatment requires accelerators modules with a beam power 100-500 kW and electron energy range 0.8-1.5 MeV. The most important accelerator parameters for successful flue gas radiation technology implementation are related to accelerator reliability/availability, electrical efficiency and accelerator price. Experience gained in high power accelerators exploitation in flue gas treatment industrial demonstration facility was described and high power accelerator constructions have been reviewed. (author)

  17. High-gradient electron accelerator powered by a relativisitic klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.; Boyd, J.K.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Haimson, J.; Hoag, H.A.; Hopkins, D.B.; Houck, T.; Koontz, R.F.; Lavine, T.L.; Loew, G.A.; Mecklenburg, B.; Miller, R.H.; Ruth, R.D.; Ryne, R.D.; Sessler, A.M.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, J.W.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    We have used relativistic klystron technology to extract 290 MW of peak power at 11.4 GHz from an induction linac beam, and to power a short 11.4-GHz high-gradient accelerator. We have measured rf phase stability, field emission, and the momentum spectrum of an accelerated electron beam. An average accelerating gradient of 84 MV/m has been achieved with 80 MW of relativistic klystron power

  18. The acceleration of particles to high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, E.N.

    1976-01-01

    The common occurrence, and often spectacular consequence, of fast particles in active astrophysical bodies has attracted the attention of physicists for more than four decades. The acceleration mechanisms, whatever they may be, are remarkably efficient, converting a major fraction of the total energy into fast particles. A variety of ideas have arisen, suggesting how and why fast particles are generated in various circumstances. The principal limitation on particle acceleration theories has been the realization that the universe in not filled with a hard vacuum, but rather is pervaded everywhere by tenuous ionized gases quite able to short circuit any large-scale electric fields that occur under ordinary circumstances. A number of the early ideas on the acceleration of cosmic rays have been discarded for this reason. The basic theoretical ideas can be grouped roughly into five parts: 1. hydromagnetic fields; 2. field in reduced conductivity; 3. plasma turbulence; 4. low frequency electromagnetic waves; 5. supernova explosion. Each of these is considered in turn. (Auth.)

  19. Cockpit System Situational Awareness Modeling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John; Lebiere, Christian; Shay, Rick; Latorella, Kara

    2004-01-01

    This project explored the possibility of predicting pilot situational awareness (SA) using human performance modeling techniques for the purpose of evaluating developing cockpit systems. The Improved Performance Research Integration Tool (IMPRINT) was combined with the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive modeling architecture to produce a tool that can model both the discrete tasks of pilots and the cognitive processes associated with SA. The techniques for using this tool to predict SA were demonstrated using the newly developed Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) system. By providing an SA prediction tool to cockpit system designers, cockpit concepts can be assessed early in the design process while providing a cost-effective complement to the traditional pilot-in-the-loop experiments and data collection techniques.

  20. Control in the cockpit: crews vs. computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropelewski, R

    1996-08-01

    In the no-holds-barred competition between Boeing and Europe's Airbus Industrie for dominance in the world's commercial jet airliner markets, the question of who--or what--is in charge in the cockpit has been a significant selling point. Airbus, which pioneered highly automated flight controls with its A320 narrow-body transport in the late 1980s, likes to emphasize the "protection" features built into the aircraft through those automated systems. Boeing, which employs many of the same concepts in its new 777 twin-engine widebody transport, tends to put more emphasis on crew involvement in the operation of that aircraft. Is there a difference? In fact, the question has broader implications than those involving the marketing battle between Boeing and Airbus. Airlines, aircraft manufacturers, flight training specialists, human factors gurus, and aviation authorities in various countries are struggling with the isse as automation becomes more and more prevalent on passenger and cargo-carrying aircraft around the world.

  1. Accelerator technical design report for high-intensity proton accelerator facility project, J-PARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    This report presents the detail of the technical design of the accelerators for the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility Project, J-PARC. The accelerator complex comprises a 400-MeV room-temperature linac (600-MeV superconducting linac), 3-GeV rapid-cycling synchrotron (RCS), and a 50-GeV synchrotron (MR). The 400-MeV beam is injected to the RCS, being accelerated to 3 GEV. The 1-MW beam thus produced is guided to the Materials Life Science Experimental Facility, with both the pulsed spallation neutron source and muon source. A part of the beam is transported to the MR, which provides the 0.75-MW beam to either the Nuclear and Fundamental Particle Experimental Facility or the Neutrino Production Target. On the other hand, the beam accelerated to 600 MeV by the superconducting linac is used for the Nuclear Waster Transmutation Experiment. In this way, this facility is unique, being multipurpose one, including many new inventions and Research and Development Results. This report is based upon the accomplishments made by the Accelerator Group and others of the Project Team, which is organized on the basis of the Agreement between JAERI and KEK on the Construction and Research and Development of the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility. (author)

  2. Induction linear accelerators with high-Tc bulk superconductor lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Hidenori; Wada, Haruhisa; Mori, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    1991-01-01

    Solenoidal coils in a one-stage induction accelerator were replaced by a high-T c bulk superconductor lens (Supertron). The accelerator postaccelerated injected electron beams to ∼ 400 keV, ∼ 0.35 kA, and ∼ 10 ns of duration time. (author)

  3. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.C.; Frank, J.A.; Liska, D.J.; Potter, R.C.; Schamaun, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder

  4. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, Donald J.; Schamaun, Roger G.; Clark, Donald C.; Potter, R. Christopher; Frank, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  5. Using Visualization in Cockpit Decision Support Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.

    2005-07-01

    In order to safely operate their aircraft, pilots must makerapid decisions based on integrating and processing large amounts ofheterogeneous information. Visual displays are often the most efficientmethod of presenting safety-critical data to pilots in real time.However, care must be taken to ensure the pilot is provided with theappropriate amount of information to make effective decisions and notbecome cognitively overloaded. The results of two usability studies of aprototype airflow hazard visualization cockpit decision support systemare summarized. The studies demonstrate that such a system significantlyimproves the performance of helicopter pilots landing under turbulentconditions. Based on these results, design principles and implicationsfor cockpit decision support systems using visualization arepresented.

  6. High frequency single mode traveling wave structure for particle acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanyan, M.I.; Danielyan, V.A.; Grigoryan, B.A.; Grigoryan, A.H. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Tsakanian, A.V. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut TEMF, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Tsakanov, V.M., E-mail: tsakanov@asls.candle.am [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Vardanyan, A.S.; Zakaryan, S.V. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia)

    2016-09-01

    The development of the new high frequency slow traveling wave structures is one of the promising directions in accomplishment of charged particles high acceleration gradient. The disc and dielectric loaded structures are the most known structures with slowly propagating modes. In this paper a large aperture high frequency metallic two-layer accelerating structure is studied. The electrodynamical properties of the slowly propagating TM{sub 01} mode in a metallic tube with internally coated low conductive thin layer are examined.

  7. High Field Studies for CLIC Accelerating Structures Development

    CERN Document Server

    Profatilova, I

    2017-01-01

    Compact Linear Collider RF structures need to be able to achieve the very high average accelerating gradient of 100 MV/m. One of the main challenges in reaching such high accelerating gradients is to avoid vacuum electrical breakdown within CLIC accelerating structures. Accelerating structure tests are carried out in the klystron-based test stands known as the XBoxes. In order to investigate vacuum breakdown phenomena and its statistical characteristics in a simpler system and get results in a faster way, pulsed dc systems have been developed at CERN. To acquire sufficient breakdown data in a reasonable period of time, high repetition rate pulse generators are used in the systems for breakdown studies, so-called pulsed dc system. This paper describes the pulsed dc systems and the two high repetition rate circuits, which produce high-voltage pulses for it, available at CERN.

  8. High-performance computing in accelerating structure design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zenghai; Folwell, Nathan; Ge Lixin; Guetz, Adam; Ivanov, Valentin; Kowalski, Marc; Lee, Lie-Quan; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Schussman, Greg; Stingelin, Lukas; Uplenchwar, Ravindra; Wolf, Michael; Xiao, Liling; Ko, Kwok

    2006-01-01

    Future high-energy accelerators such as the Next Linear Collider (NLC) will accelerate multi-bunch beams of high current and low emittance to obtain high luminosity, which put stringent requirements on the accelerating structures for efficiency and beam stability. While numerical modeling has been quite standard in accelerator R and D, designing the NLC accelerating structure required a new simulation capability because of the geometric complexity and level of accuracy involved. Under the US DOE Advanced Computing initiatives (first the Grand Challenge and now SciDAC), SLAC has developed a suite of electromagnetic codes based on unstructured grids and utilizing high-performance computing to provide an advanced tool for modeling structures at accuracies and scales previously not possible. This paper will discuss the code development and computational science research (e.g. domain decomposition, scalable eigensolvers, adaptive mesh refinement) that have enabled the large-scale simulations needed for meeting the computational challenges posed by the NLC as well as projects such as the PEP-II and RIA. Numerical results will be presented to show how high-performance computing has made a qualitative improvement in accelerator structure modeling for these accelerators, either at the component level (single cell optimization), or on the scale of an entire structure (beam heating and long-range wakefields)

  9. Ultra high vacuum systems for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In order to perform controlled, stable, and reproducible experiments, several research areas today require very low pressures. Maybe the most important example is the research that is performed in storage rings and accelerators where the lifetime and stability of particle beams depends critically on the vacuum conditions. Although the vacuum requirements ultimately depend on the kind of experiments that is performed, the studies of more and more rare and exotic species in storage rings and accelerators today pushes the demands on the vacuum conditions towards lower and lower pressures. The final pressure obtained in the vacuum system can often be the key factor for the outcome of an experiment. Pioneering work in vacuum technology has therefore often been performed at storage rings and accelerator facilities around the world. In order to reach pressures in the low UHV regime and lower (below 10 -11 mbar), several aspects have to be considered which implies choosing the proper materials, pumps and vacuum gauges. In the absence of gases inleaking from the outside, the rate of gas entering a vacuum system is determined by the release of molecules adsorbed on the surfaces and the outgassing from the bulk of the vacuum chamber walls. This means that the choice of material and, equally important, the pre treatment of the material, must be such that these rates are minimised. Today the most widely used material for vacuum applications are stainless steel. Besides its many mechanical advantages, it is resistant to corrosion and oxidation. If treated correctly the major gas source in a stainless steel chamber is hydrogen outgassing from the chamber walls. The hydrogen outgassing can be decreased by vacuum firing at 950 deg. C under vacuum. In addition to choosing the right materials the choice of vacuum pumps is important for the final pressure. Since no vacuum pump is capable of taking care of all kinds of gases found in the rest gas at pressures below 10 -11

  10. A brief history of high power RF proton linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The first mention of linear acceleration was in a paper by G. Ising in 1924 in which he postulated the acceleration of positive ions induced by spark discharges which produced electric fields in gaps between a series of open-quotes drift tubesclose quotes. Ising apparently was not able to demonstrate his concept, most likely due to the limited state of electronic devices. Ising's work was followed by a seminal paper by R. Wideroe in 1928 in which he demonstrated the first linear accelerator. Wideroe was able to accelerate sodium or potassium ions to 50 keV of energy using drift tubes connected alternately to high frequency waves and to ground. Nuclear physics during this period was interested in accelerating protons, deuterons, electrons and alpha particles and not heavy ions like sodium or potassium. To accelerate the light ions required much higher frequencies than available at that time. So linear accelerators were not pursued heavily at that time. Research continued during the 1930s but the development of high frequency RF tubes for radar applications in World War 2 opened the potential for RF linear accelerators after the war. The Berkeley laboratory of E. 0. Lawrence under the leadership of Luis Alvarez developed a new linear proton accelerator concept that utilized drift tubes that required a full RF period to pass through as compared to the earlier concepts. This development resulted in the historic Berkeley 32 MeV proton linear accelerator which incorporated the open-quotes Alvarez drift tubeclose quotes as the basic acceleration scheme using surplus 200 MHz radar components

  11. Open cell conducting foams for high synchrotron radiation accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Petracca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible use of open cell conductive foams in high synchrotron radiation particle accelerators is considered. Available materials and modeling tools are reviewed, potential pros and cons are discussed, and preliminary conclusions are drawn.

  12. High power radiation guiding systems for laser driven accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutolo, A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the main problems encountered in the design of an optical system for transmitting high fluence radiation in a laser driven accelerator. Particular attention is devoted to the analysis of mirror and waveguide systems. (orig.)

  13. The joint project for high-intensity proton accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) agreed to promote the joint project integrating both the Neutron Science Project (NSP) of JAERI and the Japan Hadron Facility Project (JHF) of KEK for comprehensive studies on basic science and technology using high-intensity proton accelerator. This document describes the joint proposal prepared by the Joint Project Team of JAERI and KEK to construct accelerators and research facilities necessary both for the NSP and the JHF at the site of JAERI Tokai Establishment. (author)

  14. Computer applications: Automatic control system for high-voltage accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryukhanov, A.N.; Komissarov, P.Yu.; Lapin, V.V.; Latushkin, S.T.. Fomenko, D.E.; Yudin, L.I.

    1992-01-01

    An automatic control system for a high-voltage electrostatic accelerator with an accelerating potential of up to 500 kV is described. The electronic apparatus on the high-voltage platform is controlled and monitored by means of a fiber-optic data-exchange system. The system is based on CAMAC modules that are controlled by a microprocessor crate controller. Data on accelerator operation are represented and control instructions are issued by means of an alphanumeric terminal. 8 refs., 6 figs

  15. JAERI-KEK joint project on high intensity proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji

    2000-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Organization (KEK) are promoting the joint project integrating both the Neutron Science Project (NSP) of JAERI and the Japan Hadron Facility Project (JHF) of KEK for comprehensive studies on basic science and technology using high-intensity proton accelerator. This paper describes the joint project prepared by the Joint Project Team of JAERI and KEK to construct accelerators and research facilities necessary both for the NSP and the JHF at the site of JAERI Tokai Establishment. (author)

  16. Electron clouds in high energy hadron accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Fedor

    2013-08-29

    The formation of electron clouds in accelerators operating with positrons and positively charge ions is a well-known problem. Depending on the parameters of the beam the electron cloud manifests itself differently. In this thesis the electron cloud phenomenon is studied for the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) conditions, and for the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS-100 as a part of the FAIR complex in Darmstadt, Germany. Under the FAIR conditions the extensive use of slow extraction will be made. After the acceleration the beam will be debunched and continuously extracted to the experimental area. During this process, residual gas electrons can accumulate in the electric field of the beam. If this accumulation is not prevented, then at some point the beam can become unstable. Under the SPS and LHC conditions the beam is always bunched. The accumulation of electron cloud happens due to secondary electron emission. At the time when this thesis was being written the electron cloud was known to limit the maximum intensity of the two machines. During the operation with 25 ns bunch spacing, the electron cloud was causing significant beam quality deterioration. At moderate intensities below the instability threshold the electron cloud was responsible for the bunch energy loss. In the framework of this thesis it was found that the instability thresholds of the coasting beams with similar space charge tune shifts, emittances and energies are identical. First of their kind simulations of the effect of Coulomb collisions on electron cloud density in coasting beams were performed. It was found that for any hadron coasting beam one can choose vacuum conditions that will limit the accumulation of the electron cloud below the instability threshold. We call such conditions the ''good'' vacuum regime. In application to SIS-100 the design pressure 10{sup -12} mbar corresponds to the good vacuum regime. The transition to the bad vacuum

  17. High intensity proton linear accelerator development for nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Oguri, H.; Ito, N.; Kusano, J.; Okumura, Y.; Murata, H.; Sakogawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    A high-intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA has been proposed for various engineering tests for the transmutation system of nuclear waste by JAERI. The conceptual and optimization studies for this accelerator performed for a proper choice of operating frequency, high b structure, mechanical engineering considerations and RF source aspects are briefly described

  18. High intensity accelerator for a wide range of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    When looking at commercial applications of accelerators from a market point of view, it appears that a common accelerator design could meet different users' needs. This would benefit both the manufacturer and the user by multiplying the number of machines sold, thus lowering their cost and improving their quality. These applications include: radioisotope production for medical imaging (positron emission tomography), industrial imaging and non-destructive testing (e.g. neutron radiography, explosive and drug detection in luggage or freight). This paper investigates the needs of the various applications and defines their common denominator to establish suitable specifications (type of particles, energy, intensity). Different accelerator types (cyclotrons, linear accelerators and electrostatic machines) are reviewed and compared on performance and estimated costs. A high intensity tandem accelerator design is studied in more detail as it seems the most appropriate candidate. ((orig.))

  19. Future Accelerator Challenges in Support of High-Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, Michael S.; Zisman, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Historically, progress in high-energy physics has largely been determined by development of more capable particle accelerators. This trend continues today with the imminent commissioning of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and the worldwide development effort toward the International Linear Collider. Looking ahead, there are two scientific areas ripe for further exploration--the energy frontier and the precision frontier. To explore the energy frontier, two approaches toward multi-TeV beams are being studied, an electron-positron linear collider based on a novel two-beam powering system (CLIC), and a Muon Collider. Work on the precision frontier involves accelerators with very high intensity, including a Super-BFactory and a muon-based Neutrino Factory. Without question, one of the most promising approaches is the development of muon-beam accelerators. Such machines have very high scientific potential, and would substantially advance the state-of-the-art in accelerator design. The challenges of the new generation of accelerators, and how these can be accommodated in the accelerator design, are described. To reap their scientific benefits, all of these frontier accelerators will require sophisticated instrumentation to characterize the beam and control it with unprecedented precision

  20. Future Accelerator Challenges in Support of High-Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zisman, Michael S.; Zisman, M.S.

    2008-05-03

    Historically, progress in high-energy physics has largely been determined by development of more capable particle accelerators. This trend continues today with the imminent commissioning of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and the worldwide development effort toward the International Linear Collider. Looking ahead, there are two scientific areas ripe for further exploration--the energy frontier and the precision frontier. To explore the energy frontier, two approaches toward multi-TeV beams are being studied, an electron-positron linear collider based on a novel two-beam powering system (CLIC), and a Muon Collider. Work on the precision frontier involves accelerators with very high intensity, including a Super-BFactory and a muon-based Neutrino Factory. Without question, one of the most promising approaches is the development of muon-beam accelerators. Such machines have very high scientific potential, and would substantially advance the state-of-the-art in accelerator design. The challenges of the new generation of accelerators, and how these can be accommodated in the accelerator design, are described. To reap their scientific benefits, all of these frontier accelerators will require sophisticated instrumentation to characterize the beam and control it with unprecedented precision.

  1. CAS Accelerator Physics (High-Power Hadron Machines) in Spain

    CERN Multimedia

    CAS

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and ESS-Bilbao jointly organised a specialised course on High-Power Hadron Machines, held at the Hotel Barceló Nervión in Bilbao, Spain, from 24 May to 2 June, 2011.   CERN Accelerator School students. After recapitulation lectures on the essentials of accelerator physics and review lectures on the different types of accelerators, the programme focussed on the challenges of designing and operating high-power facilities. The particular problems for RF systems, beam instrumentation, vacuum, cryogenics, collimators and beam dumps were examined. Activation of equipment, radioprotection and remote handling issues were also addressed. The school was very successful, with 69 participants of 22 nationalities. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and excellent quality of their lectures. In addition to the academic programme, the participants w...

  2. Radiation safety aspects of high energy particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbaiah, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    High-energy accelerators are widely used for various applications in industry, medicine and research. These accelerators are capable of accelerating both ions and electrons over a wide range of energy and subsequently are made to impinge on the target materials. Apart from generating intended reactions in the target, these projectiles can also generate highly penetrating radiations such as gamma rays and neutrons. Over exposure to these radiations will cause deleterious effects on the living beings. Various steps taken to protect workers and general public from these harmful radiations is called radiation safety. The primary objective in establishing permissible values for occupational workers is to keep the radiation worker well below a level at which adverse effects are likely to be observed during one's life time. Another objective is to minimize the incidence of genetic effects for the population as a whole. Today's presentation on radiation safety of accelerators will touch up on the following sub-topics: Types of particle accelerators and their applications; AERB directives on dose limits; Radiation Source term of accelerators; Shielding Design-Use of Transmission curves and Tenth Value layers; Challenges for accelerator health physicists

  3. Is there a future for high energy accelerators?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigner, M.

    1993-01-01

    The question of continuing viability of high energy accelerators as instruments of fundamental physics is discussed. It is seen that the next decade in elementary CM energies beyond SSC may be achievable with accelerators that can be imagined now. Beyond that there is room for doubt that accelerators will be the instrument of choice. History teaches that there is a good likelihood that the present perspective on the matter will be much different when the results from the few TeV region of elementary collision energies are in hand

  4. KEK/JAERI joint project on high intensity proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji

    2002-01-01

    From JFY01, which started on April 1, 2001, a new accelerator project to provide high-intensity proton beams proceeded into a construction phase. This project is conducted under a cooperation of two institutions, KEK and JAERI. The accelerator complex will provide 1 MW proton beams at 3 GeV and 0.75 MW beams at 50 GeV. The project will be completed within six years. In this article I will describe a) the project itself, b) sciences to be pursued at this new accelerator complex and c) the present status and future plans of the project. (author)

  5. High intensity proton operation at the Brookhaven AGS accelerator complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L.A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Bleser, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Onillon, E.; Reece, R.K.; Roser, T.; Soukas, A.

    1994-01-01

    With the completion of the AGS rf upgrade, and the implementation of a transition open-quotes jumpclose quotes, all of accelerator systems were in place in 1994 to allow acceleration of the proton intensity available from the AGS Booster injector to AGS extraction energy and delivery to the high energy users. Beam commissioning results with these new systems are presented. Progress in identifying and overcoming other obstacles to higher intensity are given. These include a careful exploration of the stopband strengths present on the AGS injection magnetic porch, and implementation of the AGS single bunch transverse dampers throughout the acceleration cycle

  6. Investigation and Development of Control Laws for the NASA Langley Research Center Cockpit Motion Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Craig R.; Cardullo, Frank M.; Zaychik, Kirill B.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to develop highly advanced simulators is a critical need that has the ability to significantly impact the aerospace industry. The aerospace industry is advancing at an ever increasing pace and flight simulators must match this development with ever increasing urgency. In order to address both current problems and potential advancements with flight simulator techniques, several aspects of current control law technology of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center's Cockpit Motion Facility (CMF) motion base simulator were examined. Preliminary investigation of linear models based upon hardware data were examined to ensure that the most accurate models are used. This research identified both system improvements in the bandwidth and more reliable linear models. Advancements in the compensator design were developed and verified through multiple techniques. The position error rate feedback, the acceleration feedback and the force feedback were all analyzed in the heave direction using the nonlinear model of the hardware. Improvements were made using the position error rate feedback technique. The acceleration feedback compensator also provided noteworthy improvement, while attempts at implementing a force feedback compensator proved unsuccessful.

  7. Parametric study of emerging high power accelerator applications using Accelerator Systems Model (ASM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Mendelsohn, S.S.; Myers, T.J.; Paulson, C.C.; Peacock, M.A.; Piaszczyk, CM.; Rathke, J.W.; Piechowiak, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Emerging applications for high power rf linacs include fusion materials testing, generation of intense spallation neutrons for neutron physics and materials studies, production of nuclear materials and destruction of nuclear waste. Each requires the selection of an optimal configuration and operating parameters for its accelerator, rf power system and other supporting subsystems. Because of the high cost associated with these facilities, economic considerations become paramount, dictating a full evaluation of the electrical and rf performance, system reliability/availability, and capital, operating, and life cycle costs. The Accelerator Systems Model (ASM), expanded and modified by Northrop Grumman during 1993-96, provides a unique capability for detailed layout and evaluation of a wide variety of normal and superconducting accelerator and rf power configurations. This paper will discuss the current capabilities of ASM, including the available models and data base, and types of trade studies that can be performed for the above applications. (author)

  8. High performance current controller for particle accelerator magnets supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Bidoggia, Benoit; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    The electromagnets in modern particle accelerators require high performance power supply whose output is required to track the current reference with a very high accuracy (down to 50 ppm). This demands very high bandwidth controller design. A converter based on buck converter topology is used...

  9. High-energy acceleration of an intense negative ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Ando, A.; Kaneko, O.

    1995-02-01

    A high-current H - ion beam has been accelerated with the two-stage acceleration. A large negative hydrogen ion source with an external magnetic filter produces more than 10 A of the H - ions from the grid area of 25cm x 50cm with the arc efficiency of 0.1 A/kW by seeding a small amount of cesium. The H - ion current increases according to the 3/2-power of the total beam energy. A 13.6 A of H - ion beam has been accelerated to 125 keV at the operational gas pressure of 3.4 mTorr. The optimum beam acceleration is achieved with nearly the same electric fields in the first and the second acceleration gaps on condition that the ratio of the first acceleration to the extraction electric fields is adjusted for an aspect ratio of the extraction gap. The ratio of the acceleration drain current to the H - ion current is more than 1.7. That is mainly due to the secondary electron generated by the incident H - ions on the extraction grid and the electron suppression grid. The neutralization efficiency was measured and agrees with the theoretical calculation result. (author)

  10. High-current beam transport in electrostatic accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramian, G.; Elais, L.

    1987-01-01

    The UCSB Free Electron Laser (FEL) has successfully demonstrated the use of a commercial 6 megavolt electrostatic accelerator as a high current beam source in a recirculating configuration. The accelerator, manufactured by National Electrostatics Corp. (NEC), Middleton WI, uses two standard high gradient accelerator tubes. Suppression of ion multiplication was accomplished by NEC with apertures and a shaped electrostatic field. This field shaping has fortuitously provided a periodically reversing radial field component with sufficient focusing strength to transport electron beams of up to 3 Amps current. Present two-stage FEL work requires a 20 Amp beam and proposed very high voltage FEL designs require currents as high as 100 Amps. A plan to permit transport of such high current beams by the addition of solenoidal focussing elements is described

  11. High-brightness rf linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The issue of high brightness and its ramifications in linacs driven by radio-frequency fields is discussed. A history of the RF linacs is reviewed briefly. Some current applications are then examined that are driving progress in RF linacs. The physics affecting the brightness of RF linacs is then discussed, followed by the economic feasibility of higher brightness machines

  12. High Energy Density Physics and Exotic Acceleration Schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, T.; Colby, E.

    2005-01-01

    The High Energy Density and Exotic Acceleration working group took as our goal to reach beyond the community of plasma accelerator research with its applications to high energy physics, to promote exchange with other disciplines which are challenged by related and demanding beam physics issues. The scope of the group was to cover particle acceleration and beam transport that, unlike other groups at AAC, are not mediated by plasmas or by electromagnetic structures. At this Workshop, we saw an impressive advancement from years past in the area of Vacuum Acceleration, for example with the LEAP experiment at Stanford. And we saw an influx of exciting new beam physics topics involving particle propagation inside of solid-density plasmas or at extremely high charge density, particularly in the areas of laser acceleration of ions, and extreme beams for fusion energy research, including Heavy-ion Inertial Fusion beam physics. One example of the importance and extreme nature of beam physics in HED research is the requirement in the Fast Ignitor scheme of inertial fusion to heat a compressed DT fusion pellet to keV temperatures by injection of laser-driven electron or ion beams of giga-Amp current. Even in modest experiments presently being performed on the laser-acceleration of ions from solids, mega-amp currents of MeV electrons must be transported through solid foils, requiring almost complete return current neutralization, and giving rise to a wide variety of beam-plasma instabilities. As keynote talks our group promoted Ion Acceleration (plenary talk by A. MacKinnon), which historically has grown out of inertial fusion research, and HIF Accelerator Research (invited talk by A. Friedman), which will require impressive advancements in space-charge-limited ion beam physics and in understanding the generation and transport of neutralized ion beams. A unifying aspect of High Energy Density applications was the physics of particle beams inside of solids, which is proving to

  13. Prototyping high-gradient mm-wave accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Dolgashev, Valery A.; Haase, Andrew; Neilson, Jeffrey; Tantawi, Sami

    2017-01-01

    We present single-cell accelerating structures designed for high-gradient testing at 110 GHz. The purpose of this work is to study the basic physics of ultrahigh vacuum RF breakdown in high-gradient RF accelerators. The accelerating structures are π-mode standing-wave cavities fed with a TM 01 circular waveguide. The structures are fabricated using precision milling out of two metal blocks, and the blocks are joined with diffusion bonding and brazing. The impact of fabrication and joining techniques on the cell geometry and RF performance will be discussed. First prototypes had a measured Q 0 of 2800, approaching the theoretical design value of 3300. The geometry of these accelerating structures are as close as practical to singlecell standing-wave X-band accelerating structures more than 40 of which were tested at SLAC. This wealth of X-band data will serve as a baseline for these 110 GHz tests. Furthermore, the structures will be powered with short pulses from a MW gyrotron oscillator. RF power of 1 MW may allow an accelerating gradient of 400 MeV/m to be reached.

  14. Calibration processes for high-energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, E.

    2005-01-01

    The Dissertation is devoted to the processes on high energy colliders, namely, to the measurement and evaluation of muon anomalous magnetic moment, the lepton pair production in peripheral collisions of relativistic heavy ions, γγ and γ-lepton collisions in helicity representation and finally to the derivation of new sum rule for photoproduction processes. The anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and muon, a e and a μ , played an important role in the development of particle physics. Until now they have continued to serve as basic quantities for testing the validity of the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) and Standard Model, put the strict constraints for the theories beyond the Standard Model and provided important insights into the structure of the fundamental interactions. While the value of anomalous magnetic moment of electron is known very well, in the case of a muon the situation is more complicated. The discrepancy between the theoretical and experimental value varies from 1.02 to 2.96 standard deviation σ. The reason is that the theoretical value consists (unlike the case of electron) from various types of contributions. While QED and weak interaction contributions to a μ seem to be estimated quite reliably, there is critical situation in hadronic contributions, mainly for light-by-light meson pole terms, therefore the third.order (in fine structure constant) hadronic light-by-light contributions to a μ from the pole terms of the scalar σ a 0 and pseudoscalar π 0 , η, η ' mesons in the framework of the linearized extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model has been recalculated. As the QED and Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) share many properties, the solving of the issue of the lepton pair production in peripheral collisions of heavy ions can help to understand very important and unsolved problem of accounting the final state interaction of quarks and gluons in QCD. Unfortunately, even QED is not solving this problem satisfactorily despite the recent high

  15. Cryogenic Beam Screens for High-Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Baglin, V; Tavian, L; van Weelderen, R

    2013-01-01

    Applied superconductivity has become a key enabling technology for high-energy particle accelerators, thus making them large helium cryogenic systems operating at very low temperature. The circulation of high-intensity particle beams in these machines generates energy deposition in the first wall through different processes. For thermodynamic efficiency, it is advisable to intercept these beam-induced heat loads, which may be large in comparison with cryostat heat in-leaks, at higher temperature than that of the superconducting magnets of the accelerator, by means of beam screens located in the magnet apertures. Beam screens may also be used as part of the ultra-high vacuum system of the accelerator, by sheltering the gas molecules cryopumped on the beam pipe from impinging radiation and thus avoiding pressure runaway. Space being extremely tight in the magnet apertures, cooling of the long, slender beam screens also raises substantial problems in cryogenic heat transfer and fluid flow. We present sizing rule...

  16. High-Power Electron Accelerators for Space (and other) Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewellen, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-23

    This is a presentation on high-power electron accelerators for space and other applications. The main points covered are: electron beams for space applications, new designs of RF accelerators, high-power high-electron mobility transistors (HEMT) testing, and Li-ion battery design. In summary, the authors have considered a concept of 1-MeV electron accelerator that can operate up to several seconds. This concept can be extended to higher energy to produce higher beam power. Going to higher beam energy requires adding more cavities and solid-state HEMT RF power devices. The commercial HEMT have been tested for frequency response and RF output power (up to 420 W). Finally, the authors are testing these HEMT into a resonant load and planning for an electron beam test in FY17.

  17. Using Visualization in Cockpit Decision Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.

    2005-01-01

    In order to safely operate their aircraft, pilots must make rapid decisions based on integrating and processing large amounts of heterogeneous information. Visual displays are often the most efficient method of presenting safety-critical data to pilots in real time. However, care must be taken to ensure the pilot is provided with the appropriate amount of information to make effective decisions and not become cognitively overloaded. The results of two usability studies of a prototype airflow hazard visualization cockpit decision support system are summarized. The studies demonstrate that such a system significantly improves the performance of helicopter pilots landing under turbulent conditions. Based on these results, design principles and implications for cockpit decision support systems using visualization are presented.

  18. Cockpit resource management training at People Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Keith D.; Jensen, Doug

    1987-01-01

    In January 1986 in a continuing effort to maintain and improve flight safety and solve some Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) problems, People Express implemented a new CRM training program. It is a continuously running program, scheduled over the next three years and includes state-of-the-art full-mission simulation (LOFT), semi-annual seminar workshops and a comprehensive academic program authored by Robert W. Mudge of Cockpit Management Resources Inc. That program is outlined and to maximize its contribution to the workshop's goals, is organized into four topic areas: (1) Program content: the essential elements of resource management training; (2) Training methods: the strengths and weaknesses of current approaches; (3) Implementation: the implementation of CRM training; and (4) Effectiveness: the effectiveness of training. It is confined as much as possible to concise descriptions of the program's basic components. Brief discussions of rationale are included, however no attempt is made to discuss or review popular CRM tenets or the supporting research.

  19. Cockpit canopy shattering using exploding wire techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novac, B M; Smith, I R; Downs, P R; Marston, P; Fahey, D

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the principal experimental results provided by a preliminary investigation into the possibility of using exploding wire (EW) techniques to shatter the plastic cockpit canopy of a modern jet aircraft. The data provided forms the basis for a qualitative understanding of the physics of interaction between the plasma produced by an EW and the surrounding elasto-plastic material in which the wire is embedded. To optimize the shock-wave 'clean cutting' effect, the significance of the material, the dimensions of the exploding wire and the amplitude of the current and voltage pulses are all considered. This leads to important conclusions concerning both the characteristics of the EW and the optimum arrangement of the electrical circuit, with the single most important optimization factor being the peak electrical power input to the EW, rather than the dissipated Joule energy. A full-scale system relevant to an actual cockpit canopy shattering is outlined and relevant results are presented and discussed

  20. High current pulsed linear ion accelerators for inertial fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Yonas, G.; Poukey, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    Pulsed ion beams have a number of advantages for use as inertial fusion drivers. Among these are classical interaction with targets and good efficiency of production. As has been pointed out by members of the accelerator community, multistage accelerators are attractive in this context because of lower current requirements, low power flow per energy conversion stage and low beam divergence at higher ion energies. On the other hand, current transport limits in conventional accelerators constrain them to the use of heavy ions at energies much higher than those needed to meet the divergence requirements, resulting in large, costly systems. We have studied methods of neutralizing ion beams with electrons within the accelerator volume to achieve higher currents. The aim is to arrive at an inexpensive accelerator that can advantageously use existing pulsed voltage technology while being conservative enough to achieve a high repetition rate. Typical output parameters for reactor applications would be an 0 + beam of 30 kA at 300 MeV. We will describe reactor scaling studies and the physics of neutralized linear accelerators using magnetic fields to control the electron dynamics. Recent results are discussed from PULSELAC, a five stage multikiloampere device being tested at Sandia Laboratories

  1. High intensity proton linear accelerator for Neutron Science Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu

    1999-01-01

    JAERI has been proposing the Neutron Science Project (NSP) which will be composed of a high intensity proton accelerator and various research facilities. With an energy of 1.5 GeV and a beam power of 8 MW, the accelerator is required for basic research fields and nuclear waste transmutation studies. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the accelerator. In the low energy accelerator part, a beam test with an ion source and an RFQ has been performed with a current of 80 mA and a duty factor of 10% at an energy of 2 MeV. A 1 m long high power test model of DTL has been fabricated and tested with a duty factor of 20%. In the high energy accelerator part, a superconducting (SC) linac has been selected as a main option from 100 MeV to 1.5 GeV. A test stand for SC linac cavity with equipment of cryogenics, vacuum, RF source and cavity processing and cleaning system has been prepared to test the fabrication process and physics issues. The vertical tests of β = 0.5 (145 MeV) and β = 0.89 (1.1 GeV) single cell SC cavities have been made resulting in a maximum electric field strength of 44 MV/m and 47 MV/m at 2 K, respectively. (author)

  2. Modeling high-power RF accelerator cavities with SPICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamical interactions between RF accelerator cavities and high-power beams can be treated on personal computers using a lumped circuit element model and the SPICE circuit analysis code. Applications include studies of wake potentials, two-beam accelerators, microwave sources, and transverse mode damping. This report describes the construction of analogs for TM mn0 modes and the creation of SPICE input for cylindrical cavities. The models were used to study continuous generation of kA electron beam pulses from a vacuum cavity driven by a high-power RF source

  3. Science opportunities at high power accelerators like APT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents applications of high power RF proton linear accelerators to several fields. Radioisotope production is an area in which linacs have already provided new isotopes for use in medical and industrial applications. A new type of spallation neutron source, called a long-pulse spallation source (LPSS), is discussed for application to neutron scattering and to the production and use of ultra-cold neutrons (UCN). The concept of an accelerator-driven, transmutation of nuclear waste system, based on high power RF linac technology, is presented along with its impact on spent nuclear fuels

  4. High current proton linear accelerators and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunnicliffe, P.R.; Chidley, B.G.; Fraser, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible role that high-current proton linear accelerators might play as ''electrical breeders'' in the forthcoming nuclear-power economy. A high-power beam of intermediate energy protons delivered to an actinide-element target surrounded by a blanket of fertile material may produce fissile material at a competitive cost. Criteria for technical performance and, in a Canadian context, for costs are given and the major problem areas outlined not only for the accelerator and its associated rf power source but also for the target assembly. (author)

  5. High Gradient Accelerating Structures for Carbon Therapy Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutsaev, Sergey; Agustsson, R.; Faillace, L.; Goel, A.; Mustapha, B.; Nassiri, A.; Ostroumov, P.; Plastun, A.; Savin, E.

    2016-05-01

    Carbon therapy is the most promising among techniques for cancer treatment, as it has demonstrated significant improvements in clinical efficiency and reduced toxicity profiles in multiple types of cancer through much better localization of dose to the tumor volume. RadiaBeam, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, are developing an ultra-high gradient linear accelerator, Advanced Compact Carbon Ion Linac (ACCIL), for the delivery of ion-beams with end-energies up to 450 MeV/u for 12C6+ ions and 250 MeV for protons. In this paper, we present a thorough comparison of standing and travelling wave designs for high gradient S-Band accelerating structures operating with ions at varying velocities, relative to the speed of light, in the range 0.3-0.7. In this paper we will compare these types of accelerating structures in terms of RF, beam dynamics and thermo-mechanical performance.

  6. KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization) annual report, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes research activities of KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization) in the fiscal year 2005. Two years have passed since the KEK was reorganized as an inter-university research institute corporation, and KEK continue to facilitate a wide range of research programs based on high-energy accelerators for users from universities. KEK consists of two research institutes, the Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS) and the Institute of Materials Science (IMSS); and two laboratories, the Accelerator Laboratory and the Applied Research Laboratory. KEK has been operating four major accelerator facilities in Tsukuba: the 12 GeV Proton Synchrotron (PS), the KEK B-factory (KEKB), the Photon Factory (PF), and the Electron/Positron Injector Linac. We are now engaged in the construction of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) in Tokai in cooperation with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The J-PARC Center was established in February 2006 to take full responsibility for the operation of J-PARC. With the progress of construction, the PS ceased operation at the end of March 2006 after a history of 26 years. The task of KEK is to play a key role in the fields of elementary particle, nuclei, materials and life science as one of leading research facilities of the world. The fiscal year 2005 activities of both KEK employees and visiting researchers yielded excellent outcomes in these research fields. (J.P.N.)

  7. High energy gain electron beam acceleration by 100TW laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kando, Masaki; Kondo, Shuji; Hosokai, Tomonao; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Yokoyama, Takashi; Matoba, Toru; Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2001-01-01

    A laser wakefield acceleration experiment using a 100TW laser is planed at JAERI-Kansai. High quality and short pulse electron beams are necessary to accelerate the electron beam by the laser. Electron beam - laser synchronization is also necessary. A microtron with a photocathode rf-gun was prepared as a high quality electron injector. The quantum efficiency (QE) of the photocathode of 2x10 -5 was obtained. A charge of 100pC from the microtron was measured. The emittance and pulse width of the electron beam was 6π mm-mrad and 10ps, respectively. In order to produce a short pulse electron beam, and to synchronize between the electron beam and the laser pulse, an inverse free electron laser (IFEL) is planned. One of problems of LWFA is the short acceleration length. In order to overcome the problem, a Z-pinch plasma waveguide will be prepared as a laser wakefield acceleration tube for 1 GeV acceleration. (author)

  8. Study of superconducting cavities for high power proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biarrotte, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    The research program on hybrid reactors has started in France in order to study the technologies allowing the transmutation of radioactive wastes thanks to a spallation neutron source supplied by a linear high intensity proton accelerator. The study of the high energy part of this accelerator (superconducting accelerator for hybrid) has started, and its aim is the design of superconducting radiofrequency cavities which make the two different sections of the accelerator (0.47 and 0.65). This thesis presents the advance of the work carried out on this topic since 1997, in particular the design and optimization of the 5-cell cavities which work at the 704.4 MHz frequency. The experimental part of the study has been carried out in parallel with the industrial fabrication (Cerca) of several prototypes of mono-cell cavities. These cavities have shown very good RF performances during the tests in vertical cryostat; the A 102 A cavity, in particular develops a Q0 of 7.10 10 (indicating very low RF losses) and reaches an accelerator field of 25 MV/m, i.e. more than two times the specified value (about 10 MV/V). Finally, a new risk analysis method for the excitation of the upper modes is proposed. This method shows in particular the uselessness of the implementation of HOM couplers on the cavities for a continuous beam use. (J.S.)

  9. Coaxial two-channel high-gradient dielectric wakefield accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Sotnikov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A new scheme for a dielectric wakefield accelerator is proposed that employs a cylindrical multizone dielectric structure configured as two concentric dielectric tubes with outer and inner vacuum channels for drive and accelerated bunches. Analytical and numerical studies have been carried out for such coaxial dielectric-loaded structures (CDS for high-gradient acceleration. An analytical theory of wakefield excitation by particle bunches in a multizone CDS has been formulated. Numerical calculations are presented for an example of a CDS using dielectric tubes with dielectric permittivity 5.7, having external diameters of 2.121 and 0.179 mm with inner diameters of 2.095 and 0.1 mm. An annular 5 GeV, 6 nC electron bunch with rms length of 0.035 mm energizes a wakefield on the structure axis having an accelerating gradient of ∼600  MeV/m with a transformer ratio ∼8∶1. The period of the accelerating field is ∼0.33  mm. If the width of the drive bunch channel is decreased, it is possible to obtain an accelerating gradient of >1  GeV/m while keeping the transformer ratio approximately the same. Full numerical simulations using a particle-in-cell code have confirmed results of the linear theory and furthermore have shown the important influence of the quenching wave that restricts the region of the wakefield to within several periods following the drive bunch. Numerical simulations for another example have shown nearly stable transport of drive and accelerated bunches through the CDS, using a short train of drive bunches.

  10. Acceleration of a high-current single bunch in a linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Seishi

    1984-01-01

    Some problems associated with the feasibility of an electron-positron linear collider with colliding energy of about 1x1 TeV are discussed. The first problem is related to the generation of high-current single bunch. A quasi-relativistic electron beam from an electron gun is injected into one bucket of the accelerating fields, in opposition to the longitudinal defocusing due to the space-charge effect. For generating a high-current single bunch, the beam bunching by means of the velocity modulation with a subharmonic prebuncher (SHPB) is indispensable. Three existing second generation single bunch electron linear accelerators (SLC, ANL and ISLR-Osaka Univ.) are briefly described. The results of the simulation of subharmonic-bunching is also reported. The second problem is associated with the physics of accelerating high-current single bunch. The longitudinal and transverse wake fields generated by a bunch-cavity interaction and the energy spread of the single bunch are analyzed and discussed. (Aoki, K.)

  11. Application of Plasma Waveguides to High Energy Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milchberg, Howard M

    2013-03-30

    The eventual success of laser-plasma based acceleration schemes for high-energy particle physics will require the focusing and stable guiding of short intense laser pulses in reproducible plasma channels. For this goal to be realized, many scientific issues need to be addressed. These issues include an understanding of the basic physics of, and an exploration of various schemes for, plasma channel formation. In addition, the coupling of intense laser pulses to these channels and the stable propagation of pulses in the channels require study. Finally, new theoretical and computational tools need to be developed to aid in the design and analysis of experiments and future accelerators. Here we propose a 3-year renewal of our combined theoretical and experimental program on the applications of plasma waveguides to high-energy accelerators. During the past grant period we have made a number of significant advances in the science of laser-plasma based acceleration. We pioneered the development of clustered gases as a new highly efficient medium for plasma channel formation. Our contributions here include theoretical and experimental studies of the physics of cluster ionization, heating, explosion, and channel formation. We have demonstrated for the first time the generation of and guiding in a corrugated plasma waveguide. The fine structure demonstrated in these guides is only possible with cluster jet heating by lasers. The corrugated guide is a slow wave structure operable at arbitrarily high laser intensities, allowing direct laser acceleration, a process we have explored in detail with simulations. The development of these guides opens the possibility of direct laser acceleration, a true miniature analogue of the SLAC RF-based accelerator. Our theoretical studies during this period have also contributed to the further development of the simulation codes, Wake and QuickPIC, which can be used for both laser driven and beam driven plasma based acceleration schemes. We

  12. Concept for high-charge-state ion induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.; Perry, M.D.; Caporaso, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    This work describes a particular concept for ion induction linac accelerators using high-charge-state ions produced by an intense, short pulse laser, and compares the costs of a modular driver system producing 6.5 MJ for a variety of ion masses and charge states using a simple but consistent cost model

  13. Teaching Electromagnetism to High-School Students Using Particle Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinflorio, D. A.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.; Santos, A. C. F.

    2006-01-01

    In this article we describe two simple experiments using an ion accelerator as an aid to the teaching of electromagnetism to high-school students. This is part of a programme developed by a Brazilian State funding agency (FAPERJ) which aims to help scientifically minded students take their first steps in research.

  14. Annotated bibliography on high-intensity linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.; Roybal, E.U.

    1978-01-01

    A technical bibliography covering subjects important to the design of high-intensity beam transport systems and linear accelerators is presented. Space charge and emittance growth are stressed. Subject and author concordances provide cross-reference to detailed citations, which include an abstract and notes on the material. The bibliography resides in a computer database that can be searched for key words and phrases

  15. Conduction cooled high temperature superconducting dipole magnet for accelerator applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenberg, N.; Nielsen, G.; Hauge, N.

    2012-01-01

    A 3T proof-of-principle dipole magnet for accelerator applications, based on 2nd generation high temperature superconducting tape was designed, built, and tested by a consortium under the lead of Danfysik. The magnet was designed to have a straight, circular bore with a good field region of radius...

  16. Annotated bibliography on high-intensity linear accelerators. [240 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, R.A.; Roybal, E.U.

    1978-01-01

    A technical bibliography covering subjects important to the design of high-intensity beam transport systems and linear accelerators is presented. Space charge and emittance growth are stressed. Subject and author concordances provide cross-reference to detailed citations, which include an abstract and notes on the material. The bibliography resides in a computer database that can be searched for key words and phrases.

  17. Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    The talk summarizes the principles of particle acceleration and addresses problems related to storage rings like LEP and LHC. Special emphasis will be given to orbit stability, long term stability of the particle motion, collective effects and synchrotron radiation.

  18. High energy electron acceleration with PW-class laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanii, N.; Kondo, K.; Yabuuchi, T.; Tsuji, K.; Kimura, K.; Fukumochi, S.; Kashihara, M.; Tanimoto, T.; Nakamura, H.; Ishikura, T.; Kodama, R.; Mima, K.; Tanaka, K. A.; Mori, Y.; Miura, E.; Suzuki, S.; Asaka, T.; Yanagida, K.; Hanaki, H.; Kobayashi, T.

    2008-01-01

    We performed electron acceleration experiment with PW-class laser and a plasma tube, which was created by imploding a hollow polystyrene cylinder. In this experiment, electron energies in excess of 600 MeV have been observed. Moreover, the spectra of a comparatively high-density plasma ∼10 19 cm -3 had a bump around 10 MeV. Additionally, we performed the absolute sensitivity calibration of imaging plate for 1 GeV electrons from the injector Linac of Spring-8 in order to evaluate absolute number of GeV-class electrons in the laser acceleration experiment

  19. Practical aspects of shielding high-energy particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.H.; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA

    1993-09-01

    The experimental basis of shielding design for high-energy accelerators that has been established over the past thirty years is described. Particular emphasis is given to the design of large accelerators constructed underground. The first data obtained from cosmic-ray physics were supplemented by basic nuclear physics. When these data proved insufficient, experiments were carried out and interpreted by several empirical formulae -- the most successful of which has been the Moyer Model. This empirical model has been used successfully to design the shields of most synchrotrons currently in operation, and is still being used in preliminary design and to check the results of neutron transport calculations. Accurate shield designs are needed to reduce external radiation levels during accelerator operations and to minimize environmental impacts such as open-quotes skyshineclose quotes and the production of radioactivity in groundwater. Examples of the cost of minimizing such environmental impacts are given

  20. High power ring methods and accelerator driven subcritical reactor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahar, Malek Haj [Univ. of Grenoble (France)

    2016-08-07

    High power proton accelerators allow providing, by spallation reaction, the neutron fluxes necessary in the synthesis of fissile material, starting from Uranium 238 or Thorium 232. This is the basis of the concept of sub-critical operation of a reactor, for energy production or nuclear waste transmutation, with the objective of achieving cleaner, safer and more efficient process than today’s technologies allow. Designing, building and operating a proton accelerator in the 500-1000 MeV energy range, CW regime, MW power class still remains a challenge nowadays. There is a limited number of installations at present achieving beam characteristics in that class, e.g., PSI in Villigen, 590 MeV CW beam from a cyclotron, SNS in Oakland, 1 GeV pulsed beam from a linear accelerator, in addition to projects as the ESS in Europe, a 5 MW beam from a linear accelerator. Furthermore, coupling an accelerator to a sub-critical nuclear reactor is a challenging proposition: some of the key issues/requirements are the design of a spallation target to withstand high power densities as well as ensure the safety of the installation. These two domains are the grounds of the PhD work: the focus is on the high power ring methods in the frame of the KURRI FFAG collaboration in Japan: upgrade of the installation towards high intensity is crucial to demonstrate the high beam power capability of FFAG. Thus, modeling of the beam dynamics and benchmarking of different codes was undertaken to validate the simulation results. Experimental results revealed some major losses that need to be understood and eventually overcome. By developing analytical models that account for the field defects, one identified major sources of imperfection in the design of scaling FFAG that explain the important tune variations resulting in the crossing of several betatron resonances. A new formula is derived to compute the tunes and properties established that characterize the effect of the field imperfections on the

  1. Electron Acceleration by High Power Radio Waves in the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Paul

    2012-10-01

    At the highest ERP of the High Altitude Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, high frequency (HF) electromagnetic (EM) waves in the ionosphere produce artificial aurora and electron-ion plasma layers. Using HAARP, electrons are accelerated by high power electrostatic (ES) waves to energies >100 times the thermal temperature of the ambient plasma. These ES waves are driven by decay of the pump EM wave tuned to plasma resonances. The most efficient acceleration process occurs near the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency in earth's magnetic field. Mode conversion plays a role in transforming the ES waves into EM signals that are recorded with ground receivers. These diagnostic waves, called stimulated EM emissions (SEE), show unique resonant signatures of the strongest electron acceleration. This SEE also provides clues about the ES waves responsible for electron acceleration. The electron gas is accelerated by high frequency modes including Langmuir (electron plasma), upper hybrid, and electron Bernstein waves. All of these waves have been identified in the scattered EM spectra as downshifted sidebands of the EM pump frequency. Parametric decay is responsible low frequency companion modes such as ion acoustic, lower hybrid, and ion Bernstein waves. The temporal evolution of the scattered EM spectrum indicates development of field aligned irregularities that aid the mode conversion process. The onset of certain spectral features is strongly correlated with glow plasma discharge structures that are both visible with the unaided eye and detectable using radio backscatter techniques at HF and UHF frequencies. The primary goals are to understand natural plasma layers, to study basic plasma physics in a unique ``laboratory with walls,'' and to create artificial plasma structures that can aid radio communications.

  2. Dielectric-Lined High-Gradient Accelerator Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-04-24

    Rectangular particle accelerator structures with internal planar dielectric elements have been studied, with a view towards devising structures with lower surface fields for a given accelerating field, as compared with structures without dielectrics. Success with this concept is expected to allow operation at higher accelerating gradients than otherwise on account of reduced breakdown probabilities. The project involves studies of RF breakdown on amorphous dielectrics in test cavities that could enable high-gradient structures to be built for a future multi-TeV collider. The aim is to determine what the limits are for RF fields at the surfaces of selected dielectrics, and the resulting acceleration gradient that could be achieved in a working structure. The dielectric of principal interest in this study is artificial CVD diamond, on account of its advertised high breakdown field ({approx}2 GV/m for dc), low loss tangent, and high thermal conductivity. Experimental studies at mm-wavelengths on materials and structures for achieving high acceleration gradient were based on the availability of the 34.3 GHz third-harmonic magnicon amplifier developed by Omega-P, and installed at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory. Peak power from the magnicon was measured to be about 20 MW in 0.5 {micro}s pulses, with a gain of 54 dB. Experiments for studying RF high-field effects on CVD diamond samples failed to show any evidence after more than 10{sup 5} RF pulses of RF breakdown up to a tangential surface field strength of 153 MV/m; studies at higher fields were not possible due to a degradation in magnicon performance. A rebuild of the tube is underway at this writing. Computed performance for a dielectric-loaded rectangular accelerator structure (DLA) shows highly competitive properties, as compared with an existing all-metal structure. For example, comparisons were made of a DLA structure having two planar CVD diamond elements with a all-metal CERN structure HDS

  3. Dielectric-Lined High-Gradient Accelerator Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2012-01-01

    Rectangular particle accelerator structures with internal planar dielectric elements have been studied, with a view towards devising structures with lower surface fields for a given accelerating field, as compared with structures without dielectrics. Success with this concept is expected to allow operation at higher accelerating gradients than otherwise on account of reduced breakdown probabilities. The project involves studies of RF breakdown on amorphous dielectrics in test cavities that could enable high-gradient structures to be built for a future multi-TeV collider. The aim is to determine what the limits are for RF fields at the surfaces of selected dielectrics, and the resulting acceleration gradient that could be achieved in a working structure. The dielectric of principal interest in this study is artificial CVD diamond, on account of its advertised high breakdown field (∼2 GV/m for dc), low loss tangent, and high thermal conductivity. Experimental studies at mm-wavelengths on materials and structures for achieving high acceleration gradient were based on the availability of the 34.3 GHz third-harmonic magnicon amplifier developed by Omega-P, and installed at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory. Peak power from the magnicon was measured to be about 20 MW in 0.5 (micro)s pulses, with a gain of 54 dB. Experiments for studying RF high-field effects on CVD diamond samples failed to show any evidence after more than 10 5 RF pulses of RF breakdown up to a tangential surface field strength of 153 MV/m; studies at higher fields were not possible due to a degradation in magnicon performance. A rebuild of the tube is underway at this writing. Computed performance for a dielectric-loaded rectangular accelerator structure (DLA) shows highly competitive properties, as compared with an existing all-metal structure. For example, comparisons were made of a DLA structure having two planar CVD diamond elements with a all-metal CERN structure HDS operating at 30

  4. New initiatives for producing high current electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faehl, R.J.; Keinigs, R.K.; Pogue, E.W.

    1996-01-01

    New classes of compact electron accelerators able to deliver multi-kiloamperes of pulsed 10-50 MeV electron beams are being studied. One class is based upon rf linac technology with dielectric-filled cavities. For materials with ε/ε o >>1, the greatly increased energy storage permits high current operation. The second type is a high energy injected betatron. Circulating current limits scale as Β 2 γ 3

  5. Advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henig, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Since the pioneering work that was carried out 10 years ago, the generation of highly energetic ion beams from laser-plasma interactions has been investigated in much detail in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Creation of ion beams with small longitudinal and transverse emittance and energies extending up to tens of MeV fueled visions of compact, laser-driven ion sources for applications such as ion beam therapy of tumors or fast ignition inertial con finement fusion. However, new pathways are of crucial importance to push the current limits of laser-generated ion beams further towards parameters necessary for those applications. The presented PhD work was intended to develop and explore advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration that reach beyond TNSA. In this spirit, ion acceleration from two novel target systems was investigated, namely mass-limited microspheres and nm-thin, free-standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils. Using such ultrathin foils, a new regime of ion acceleration was found where the laser transfers energy to all electrons located within the focal volume. While for TNSA the accelerating electric field is stationary and ion acceleration is spatially separated from laser absorption into electrons, now a localized longitudinal field enhancement is present that co-propagates with the ions as the accompanying laser pulse pushes the electrons forward. Unprecedented maximum ion energies were obtained, reaching beyond 0.5 GeV for carbon C 6+ and thus exceeding previous TNSA results by about one order of magnitude. When changing the laser polarization to circular, electron heating and expansion were shown to be efficiently suppressed, resulting for the first time in a phase-stable acceleration that is dominated by the laser radiation pressure which led to the observation of a peaked C 6+ spectrum. Compared to quasi-monoenergetic ion beam generation within the TNSA regime, a more than 40 times increase in

  6. Advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henig, Andreas

    2010-04-26

    Since the pioneering work that was carried out 10 years ago, the generation of highly energetic ion beams from laser-plasma interactions has been investigated in much detail in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Creation of ion beams with small longitudinal and transverse emittance and energies extending up to tens of MeV fueled visions of compact, laser-driven ion sources for applications such as ion beam therapy of tumors or fast ignition inertial con finement fusion. However, new pathways are of crucial importance to push the current limits of laser-generated ion beams further towards parameters necessary for those applications. The presented PhD work was intended to develop and explore advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration that reach beyond TNSA. In this spirit, ion acceleration from two novel target systems was investigated, namely mass-limited microspheres and nm-thin, free-standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils. Using such ultrathin foils, a new regime of ion acceleration was found where the laser transfers energy to all electrons located within the focal volume. While for TNSA the accelerating electric field is stationary and ion acceleration is spatially separated from laser absorption into electrons, now a localized longitudinal field enhancement is present that co-propagates with the ions as the accompanying laser pulse pushes the electrons forward. Unprecedented maximum ion energies were obtained, reaching beyond 0.5 GeV for carbon C{sup 6+} and thus exceeding previous TNSA results by about one order of magnitude. When changing the laser polarization to circular, electron heating and expansion were shown to be efficiently suppressed, resulting for the first time in a phase-stable acceleration that is dominated by the laser radiation pressure which led to the observation of a peaked C{sup 6+} spectrum. Compared to quasi-monoenergetic ion beam generation within the TNSA regime, a more than 40 times

  7. Experimental and theoretical investigation of high gradient acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtele, J.S.; Bekefi, G.; Chen, C.; Chen, S.C.; Temkin, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a technical progress summary of the research conducted under the auspices of DOE Grant No. DE-AC02-91-ER40648, ''Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of High Gradient Acceleration''. This grant supports three research tasks: Task A consists of the design, fabrication and testing of a 17GHz RF photocathode gun, which can produce 2ps electron pulses with up to 1nC of charge at 2MeV energy and at a 1OHz repetition rate. Task B supports the testing of high gradient acceleration at 33GHz structure, and Task C comprises theoretical investigations, both in support of the experimental tasks and on critical physics issues for the development of high energy linear colliders

  8. Cockpit resources management and the theory of the situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, L.

    1984-01-01

    The cockpit resource management (CRM) and hypothetical cockpit situations are discussed. Four different conditions which influence pilot action are outlined: (1) wrong assumptions about a situation; (2) stress and workload; (3) frustration and delays to cause risk taking; and (4) ambigious incomplete or contradicting information. Human factors and behavior, and pilot communication and management in the simulator are outlined.

  9. Cockpit design and evaluation using interactive graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    A general overview of the characteristics of an interactive graphics system which was developed to assist cockpit engineers design and evaluate work stations was presented. The manikin used in this COMputerized BIomechanical MAN-model (COMBIMAN) was described, as are provisions for generating work stations and assessing interactions between man and environment. The applications of the present system are explained, and critiques of COMBIMAN are presented. The limitations of the existing programs and the requirements of the designers necessitate future revisions and additions to the biomechanical and erogonomic properties of COMBIMAN. Some of these enhancements are discussed.

  10. Accelerated Irradiations for High Dose Microstructures in Fast Reactor Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zhijie [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The objective of this project is to determine the extent to which high dose rate, self-ion irradiation can be used as an accelerated irradiation tool to understand microstructure evolution at high doses and temperatures relevant to advanced fast reactors. We will accomplish the goal by evaluating phase stability and swelling of F-M alloys relevant to SFR systems at very high dose by combining experiment and modeling in an effort to obtain a quantitative description of the processes at high and low damage rates.

  11. High Resolution Autostereoscopic Cockpit Display, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The utility of stereoscopic 3D image representation in many applications is now well established. It is not just a matter of stereo being better than 2D, but of...

  12. High voltage performance of BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surendran, P.; Ansari, Q.N.; Nair, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The 14 UD Pelletron Accelerator at TIFR, Mumbai is operational since its inception in 1988. It was decided to impart enough time for high voltage conditioning to achieve higher operational voltage. Prior to this, comprehensive works such as replacing all the sputter ion pumps and Titanium sublimation pumps across the accelerator tube with new or refurbished ones and replacement of Alumina balls in the SF_6 drier with fresh balls were carried out. High voltage conditioning of each module was done. Further conditioning of two modules at a time in overlapping mode improved the terminal voltage. As a result of this rigorous conditioning Terminal voltage of 12.6 MV was achieved and beam has been delivered to users at 12 MV terminal. Details of this effort will be presented in this paper. (author)

  13. Superconductor Requirements and Characterization for High Field Accelerator Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzi, E.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    The 2014 Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) strategic plan for U.S. High Energy Physics (HEP) endorses a continued world leadership role in superconducting magnet technology for future Energy Frontier Programs. This includes 10 to 15 T Nb3Sn accelerator magnets for LHC upgrades and a future 100 TeV scale pp collider, and as ultimate goal that of developing magnet technologies above 20 T based on both High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) and Low Temperature Superconductors (LTS) for accelerator magnets. To achieve these objectives, a sound conductor development and characterization program is needed and is herein described. This program is intended to be conducted in close collaboration with U.S. and International labs, Universities and Industry.

  14. High voltage performance of BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surendran, P.; Ansari, Q.N.; Nair, J.P., E-mail: surendra@tifr.res.in [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); and others

    2014-07-01

    The 14 UD Pelletron Accelerator at TIFR, Mumbai is operational since its inception in 1988. It was decided to impart enough time for high voltage conditioning to achieve higher operational voltage. Prior to this, comprehensive works such as replacing all the sputter ion pumps and Titanium sublimation pumps across the accelerator tube with new or refurbished ones and replacement of Alumina balls in the SF{sub 6} drier with fresh balls were carried out. High voltage conditioning of each module was done. Further conditioning of two modules at a time in overlapping mode improved the terminal voltage. As a result of this rigorous conditioning Terminal voltage of 12.6 MV was achieved and beam has been delivered to users at 12 MV terminal. Details of this effort will be presented in this paper. (author)

  15. High-current power supply for accelerator magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourkland, K.R.; Winje, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    A power supply for controlling the current to accelerator magnets produces a high current at a precisely controlled time rate of change by varying the resonant frequency of an RLC circuit that includes the magnet and applying the current to the magnet during a predetermined portion of the waveform of an oscillation. The current is kept from going negative despite the reverse-current characteristics of thyristors by a quenching circuit

  16. High Energy Ion Acceleration by Extreme Laser Radiation Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-14

    published in the internationally leading journal Physical Review Letters. We continued to progress this pionee 15.  SUBJECT TERMS ion therapy, heavy ion ...Thomson parabola spectrometer: To separate and provide a measurement of the charge -to-mass ratio and energy spectrum of the different ion species...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2017-0015 High energy ion acceleration by extreme laser radiation pressure Paul McKenna UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDE VIZ ROYAL COLLEGE

  17. Ionizing wave via high-power HF acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Mishin, Evgeny; Pedersen, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Recent ionospheric modification experiments with the 3.6 MW transmitter at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska led to discovery of artificial ionization descending from the nominal interaction altitude in the background F-region ionosphere by ~60 km. This paper presents a physical model of an ionizing wavefront created by suprathermal electrons accelerated by the HF-excited plasma turbulence.

  18. High quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, S M; Issac, R C; Welsh, G H; Brunetti, E; Shanks, R P; Anania, M P; Cipiccia, S; Manahan, G G; Aniculaesei, C; Ersfeld, B; Islam, M R; Burgess, R T L; Vieux, G; Jaroszynski, D A [SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Gillespie, W A [SUPA, Division of Electronic Engineering and Physics, University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); MacLeod, A M [School of Computing and Creative Technologies, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); Van der Geer, S B; De Loos, M J, E-mail: m.wiggins@phys.strath.ac.u [Pulsar Physics, Burghstraat 47, 5614 BC Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    High quality electron beams have been produced in a laser-plasma accelerator driven by femtosecond laser pulses with a peak power of 26 TW. Electrons are produced with an energy up to 150 MeV from the 2 mm gas jet accelerator and the measured rms relative energy spread is less than 1%. Shot-to-shot stability in the central energy is 3%. Pepper-pot measurements have shown that the normalized transverse emittance is {approx}1{pi} mm mrad while the beam charge is in the range 2-10 pC. The generation of high quality electron beams is understood from simulations accounting for beam loading of the wakefield accelerating structure. Experiments and self-consistent simulations indicate that the beam peak current is several kiloamperes. Efficient transportation of the beam through an undulator is simulated and progress is being made towards the realization of a compact, high peak brilliance free-electron laser operating in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelength ranges.

  19. Quantum Accelerators for High-performance Computing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humble, Travis S. [ORNL; Britt, Keith A. [ORNL; Mohiyaddin, Fahd A. [ORNL

    2017-11-01

    We define some of the programming and system-level challenges facing the application of quantum processing to high-performance computing. Alongside barriers to physical integration, prominent differences in the execution of quantum and conventional programs challenges the intersection of these computational models. Following a brief overview of the state of the art, we discuss recent advances in programming and execution models for hybrid quantum-classical computing. We discuss a novel quantum-accelerator framework that uses specialized kernels to offload select workloads while integrating with existing computing infrastructure. We elaborate on the role of the host operating system to manage these unique accelerator resources, the prospects for deploying quantum modules, and the requirements placed on the language hierarchy connecting these different system components. We draw on recent advances in the modeling and simulation of quantum computing systems with the development of architectures for hybrid high-performance computing systems and the realization of software stacks for controlling quantum devices. Finally, we present simulation results that describe the expected system-level behavior of high-performance computing systems composed from compute nodes with quantum processing units. We describe performance for these hybrid systems in terms of time-to-solution, accuracy, and energy consumption, and we use simple application examples to estimate the performance advantage of quantum acceleration.

  20. Proton and Ion Sources for High Intensity Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Scrivens, R

    2004-01-01

    Future high intensity ion accelerators, including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the European Spallation Source (ESS), the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) etc, will require high current and high duty factor sources for protons and negative hydrogen ions. In order to achieve these goals, a comparison of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance, radio-frequency and Penning ion sources, among others, will be made. For each of these source types, the present operational sources will be compared to the state-of-the-art research devices with special attention given to reliability and availability. Finally, the future research and development aims will be discussed.

  1. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Macek, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures

  2. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI,J.; MACEK,R.J.

    2002-04-14

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures.

  3. Cockpit weather graphics using mobile satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Shashi

    1993-01-01

    Many new companies are pushing state-of-the-art technology to bring a revolution in the cockpits of General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The vision, according to Dr. Bruce Holmes - the Assistant Director for Aeronautics at National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center, is to provide such an advanced flight control system that the motor and cognitive skills you use to drive a car would be very similar to the ones you would use to fly an airplane. We at ViGYAN, Inc., are currently developing a system called the Pilot Weather Advisor (PWxA), which would be a part of such an advanced technology flight management system. The PWxA provides graphical depictions of weather information in the cockpit of aircraft in near real-time, through the use of broadcast satellite communications. The purpose of this system is to improve the safety and utility of GA aircraft operations. Considerable effort is being extended for research in the design of graphical weather systems, notably the works of Scanlon and Dash. The concept of providing pilots with graphical depictions of weather conditions, overlaid on geographical and navigational maps, is extremely powerful.

  4. High-energy inverse free-electron laser accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Pellegrini, C.; Zakowicz, W.

    1985-01-01

    We study the inverse free electron laser (IFEL) accelerator and show that it can accelerate electrons to the few hundred GeV region with average acceleration rates of the order of 200 meV/m. Several possible accelerating structures are analyzed, and the effect of synchrotron radiation losses is studied. The longitudinal phase stability of accelerated particles is also analyzed. A Hamiltonian description, which takes into account the dissipative features of the IFEL accelerator, is introduced to study perturbations from the resonant acceleration. Adiabatic invariants are obtained and used to estimate the change of the electron phase space density during the acceleration process

  5. A high current, short pulse electron source for wakefield accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Ching-Hung.

    1992-01-01

    Design studies for the generation of a high current, short pulse electron source for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator are presented. An L-band laser photocathode rf gun cavity is designed using the computer code URMEL to maximize the electric field on the cathode surface for fixed frequency and rf input power. A new technique using a curved incoming laser wavefront to minimize the space charge effect near the photocathode is studied. A preaccelerator with large iris to minimize wakefield effects is used to boost the drive beam to a useful energy of around 20 MeV for wakefield acceleration experiments. Focusing in the photocathode gun and the preaccelerator is accomplished with solenoids. Beam dynamics simulations throughout the preaccelerator are performed using particle simulation codes TBCI-SF and PARMELA. An example providing a useful set of operation parameters for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator is given. The effects of the sagitta of the curved beam and laser amplitude and timing jitter effects are discussed. Measurement results of low rf power level bench tests and a high power test for the gun cavity are presented and discussed

  6. High gradient tests of SLAC Linear Collider Accelerator Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.W.; Deruyter, H.; Eichner, J.; Fant, K.H.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.F.; Lavine, T.; Loew, G.A.; Loewen, R.; Menegat, L.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the current SLAC R ampersand D program to develop room temperature accelerator structures for the Next Linear Collider (NLC). The structures are designed to operate at 11.4 GHz at an accelerating gradient in the range of 50 to 100 MV/m. In the past year a 26 cm constant-impedance traveling-wave section, a 75 cm constant-impedance traveling-wave section, and a 1.8 m traveling-wave section with detuned deflecting modes have been high-power tested. The paper presents a brief description of the RF test setup, the design and manufacturing details of the structures, and a discussion of test results including field emission, RF processing, dark current spectrum and RF breakdown

  7. Transport of accelerator produced high energy neutrons though concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar Rao, G.; Sarkar, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    Development of a computational system for estimating the production and transport of high energy neutrons in particle accelerators is reported. The energy-angle distribution of neutrons from accelerated ions bombarding thick targets is calculated by a hybrid nuclear reaction model code, ALICE-91, modified to suit the purpose. Subsequent transmission of these neutrons through concrete slabs is treated using the anisotropic source-flux iteration technique (ASFIT) in the framework of a coupled neutron-gamma transport. Several parameters of both the codes have been optimized to obtain the transmitted dose through concrete. The calculations are found to be accurate and at the same time faster compared to the detailed Monte Carlo calculations. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs

  8. High intensity linear accelerator development topics for panel discussion on ''Nuclear Energy Research and Accelerators: Future Prospects''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Two companion papers at this meeting have introduced the subject of high intensity linacs for materials research and for radioactive waste transmutation; Prof. Kaneko's paper ''Intense Proton Accelerator,'' and my paper ''Accelerator-Based Intense Neutron Source for Materials R ampersand D.'' I will expand on those remarks to briefly outline some of the extensive work that has been done at Los Alamos toward those two application areas, plus a third --- the production of tritium in an accelerator-based facility (APT--Accelerator Production of Tritium). 1 ref., 11 figs

  9. Some problems in the technique of high-voltage testing of the accelerating tube gaps in electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanov, V.A.; Ivanov, V.V.; Mukhametshin, V.I.; Dmitriev, E.P.; Kidalov, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    Problems arising during high-voltage testing and training of accelerating taubes of electrostatic accelrators are discussed. A rig and technique of the accelerating tube testing and program designed for the processing of the data obtained and sorting out of the samples investigated are described

  10. High-resolution accelerator alignment using x-ray optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxin Yang

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel alignment technique utilizing the x-ray beam of an undulator in conjunction with pinholes and position-sensitive detectors for positioning components of the accelerator, undulator, and beam line in an x-ray free-electron laser. Two retractable pinholes at each end of the undulator define a stable and reproducible x-ray beam axis (XBA. Targets are precisely positioned on the XBA using a pinhole camera technique. Position-sensitive detectors responding to both x-ray and electron beams enable direct transfer of the position setting from the XBA to the electron beam. This system has the potential to deliver superior alignment accuracy (1–3   μm for target pinholes in the transverse directions over a long distance (200 m or longer. It can be used to define the beam axis of the electron-beam–based alignment, enabling high reproducibility of the latter. This x-ray–based concept should complement the electron-beam–based alignment and the existing survey methods to raise the alignment accuracy of long accelerators to an unprecedented level. Further improvement of the transverse accuracy using x-ray zone plates will be discussed. We also propose a concurrent measurement scheme during accelerator operation to allow real-time feedback for transverse position correction.

  11. Accelerated Creep Testing of High Strength Aramid Webbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas C.; Doggett, William R.; Stnfield, Clarence E.; Valverde, Omar

    2012-01-01

    A series of preliminary accelerated creep tests were performed on four variants of 12K and 24K lbf rated Vectran webbing to help develop an accelerated creep test methodology and analysis capability for high strength aramid webbings. The variants included pristine, aged, folded and stitched samples. This class of webbings is used in the restraint layer of habitable, inflatable space structures, for which the lifetime properties are currently not well characterized. The Stepped Isothermal Method was used to accelerate the creep life of the webbings and a novel stereo photogrammetry system was used to measure the full-field strains. A custom MATLAB code is described, and used to reduce the strain data to produce master creep curves for the test samples. Initial results show good correlation between replicates; however, it is clear that a larger number of samples are needed to build confidence in the consistency of the results. It is noted that local fiber breaks affect the creep response in a similar manner to increasing the load, thus raising the creep rate and reducing the time to creep failure. The stitched webbings produced the highest variance between replicates, due to the combination of higher local stresses and thread-on-fiber damage. Large variability in the strength of the webbings is also shown to have an impact on the range of predicted creep life.

  12. Electron acceleration via high contrast laser interacting with submicron clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lu; Chen Liming; Wang Weiming; Yan Wenchao; Yuan Dawei; Mao Jingyi; Wang Zhaohua; Liu Cheng; Shen Zhongwei; Li Yutong; Dong Quanli; Lu Xin; Ma Jinglong; Wei Zhiyi; Faenov, Anatoly; Pikuz, Tatiana; Li Dazhang; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally investigated electron acceleration from submicron size argon clusters-gas target irradiated by a 100 fs, 10 TW laser pulses having a high-contrast. Electron beams are observed in the longitudinal and transverse directions to the laser propagation. The measured energy of the longitudinal electron reaches 600 MeV and the charge of the electron beam in the transverse direction is more than 3 nC. A two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation of the interaction has been performed and it shows an enhancement of electron charge by using the cluster-gas target.

  13. Future of high intensity accelerators in nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.; Fraser, J.S.; Tunnicliffe, P.R.

    1977-08-01

    A possible application for a high mean current, intermediate-energy proton linear accelerator is the ''electrical breeding'' of fuel for nuclear electrical power stations. The possible role of the spallation breeder in the context of a Canadian nuclear power economy and its relationship to nuclear fuel resources are discussed. The production of fissile material using the spallation process in a target containing actinide elements appears desirable and feasible from engineering and economic considerations. Current development work in Canada and some of the outstanding problems are discussed. (author)

  14. Crane RF accelerator for high current radiation damage studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitham, K.; Anamkath, H.; Evans, K.; Lyons, S.; Palmer, D.; Miller, R.; Treas, P.; Zante, T.

    1992-01-01

    An electron accelerator was designed and built for the Naval Weapons Support Center for transient radiation effects on electronics experiments and testing. The Crane L Band RF Electron Linac was designed to provide high currents over a wide range of pulse widths and energies. The energy extends to 60 MeV and pulse widths vary from a few ns to 10 μsec. Beam currents range from 20 amps in the short pulse case to 1.5 amps in the long pulse case. This paper describes the linac, its architecture, the e-gun and pulser, waveguides, klystrons and modulator, vacuum system, beam transport, and control systems. fig., tab

  15. Overview of high intensity proton accelerator facility, J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The J-PARC project of high intensity proton accelerator research complex, conducted jointly by JAERI and KEK, has been completed with demonstration of all beam productions in 2009 as the facility construction phase, and the operation started to offer the secondary beams of neutron, muon, kaon, and neutrino, to the advanced scientific experimental research aiming at making breakthroughs in materials and life science, nuclear and elementary physics, etc. This text describes the overview of the J-PARC present status with emphasis of a performance toward to 1MW power as user facilities. (author)

  16. High-performance insulator structures for accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampayan, S.E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Sanders, D.M.; Stoddard, R.D.; Trimble, D.O.; Elizondo, J.; Krogh, M.L.; Wieskamp, T.F.

    1997-05-01

    A new, high gradient insulator technology has been developed for accelerator systems. The concept involves the use of alternating layers of conductors and insulators with periods of order 1 mm or less. These structures perform many times better (about 1.5 to 4 times higher breakdown electric field) than conventional insulators in long pulse, short pulse, and alternating polarity applications. We describe our ongoing studies investigating the degradation of the breakdown electric field resulting from alternate fabrication techniques, the effect of gas pressure, the effect of the insulator-to-electrode interface gap spacing, and the performance of the insulator structure under bi-polar stress

  17. Electron beam welding of high-purity copper accelerator cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delis, K.; Haas, H.; Schlebusch, P.; Sigismund, E.

    1986-01-01

    The operating conditions of accelerator cells require high thermal conductivity, low gas release in the ultrahigh vacuum, low content of low-melting metals and an extremely good surface quality. In order to meet these requirements, high-purity copper (OFHC, Grade 1, according to ASTM B 170-82 and extra specifications) is used as structural material. The prefabricated components of the accelerator cells (noses, jackets, flanges) are joined by electron beam welding, the weld seam being assessed on the basis of the same criteria as the base material. The welding procedures required depend, first, on the material and, secondly, on the geometries involved. Therefore experimental welds were made first on standardized specimens in order to study the behaviour of the material during electron beam welding and the influence of parameter variations. The welded joints of the cell design were planned on the basis of these results. Seam configuration, welding procedures and the parameters were optimized on components of original geometry. The experiments have shown that high-quality joints of this grade of copper can be produced by the electron beam welding process, if careful planning and preparation of the seams and adequate containment of the welding pool are assured. (orig.)

  18. Very high flux steady state reactor and accelerator based sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Simos, N.; Shapiro, S.; Hastings, J.

    2004-01-01

    With the number of steady state neutron sources in the US declining (including the demise of the Bnl HFBR) the remaining intense sources are now in Europe (i.e. reactors - ILL and FMR, accelerator - PSI). The intensity of the undisturbed thermal flux for sources currently in operation ranges from 10 14 n/cm 2 *s to 10 15 n/cm 2 *s. The proposed Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) was to be a high power reactor (about 350 MW) with a projected undisturbed thermal flux of 7*10 15 n/cm 2 *s but never materialized. The objective of the current study is to explore the requirements and implications of two source concepts with an undisturbed flux of 10 16 n/cm 2 *s. The first is a reactor based concept operating at high power density (10 MW/l - 15 MW/l) and a total power of 100 MW - 250 MW, depending on fissile enrichment. The second is an accelerator based concept relying on a 1 GeV - 1.5 GeV proton Linac with a total beam power of 40 MW and a liquid lead-bismuth eutectic target. In the reactor source study, the effects of fissile material enrichment, coolant temperature and pressure drop, and estimates of pressure vessel stress levels will be investigated. The fuel form for the reactor will be different from all other operating source reactors in that it is proposed to use an infiltrated graphitic structure, which has been developed for nuclear thermal propulsion reactor applications. In the accelerator based source the generation of spallation products and their activation levels, and the material damage sustained by the beam window will be investigated. (authors)

  19. Practical Voice Recognition for the Aircraft Cockpit, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal responds to the urgent need for improved pilot interfaces in the modern aircraft cockpit. Recent advances in aircraft equipment bring tremendous...

  20. Dragon Stream Cipher for Secure Blackbox Cockpit Voice Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmal, Fadira; Michrandi Nasution, Surya; Azmi, Fairuz

    2017-11-01

    Aircraft blackbox is a device used to record all aircraft information, which consists of Flight Data Recorder (FDR) and Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR). Cockpit Voice Recorder contains conversations in the aircraft during the flight.Investigations on aircraft crashes usually take a long time, because it is difficult to find the aircraft blackbox. Then blackbox should have the ability to send information to other places. Aircraft blackbox must have a data security system, data security is a very important part at the time of information exchange process. The system in this research is to perform the encryption and decryption process on Cockpit Voice Recorder by people who are entitled by using Dragon Stream Cipher algorithm. The tests performed are time of data encryption and decryption, and avalanche effect. Result in this paper show us time encryption and decryption are 0,85 seconds and 1,84 second for 30 seconds Cockpit Voice Recorder data witn an avalanche effect 48,67 %.

  1. Accelerator-breeder, an application of high-energy accelerators to solving our energy problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, P.; Batchelor, K.; Powell, J.R.; Steinberg, M.

    1977-01-01

    The rising costs of 235 U and other fossil fuels, and the schedule for implementing the breeder reactor have renewed interest in the utilization of accelerators for breeding 233 U or 239 Pu. A discussion is given of some of the basic accelerator parameters and choices to be made in order to meet the technical and economic requirements of such a facility

  2. NSC KIPT accelerator on nuclear and high energy physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dovbnya, A.N.; Guk, I.S.; Kononenko, S.G.; Wiel, van der M.J.; Botman, J.I.M.; Tarasenko, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Qualitatively new level can be performed by creating the accelerator that will incorporate the latest technological achievements in the field of electron beam acceleration on the basis of a superconducting TESLA accelerating structure. This structure permits the production of both quasi-continuous

  3. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

    1981-11-01

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized.

  4. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

    1981-11-01

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized

  5. Cognitive engineering in aerospace application: Pilot interaction with cockpit automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarter, Nadine R.; Woods, David D.

    1993-01-01

    Because of recent incidents involving glass-cockpit aircraft, there is growing concern with cockpit automation and its potential effects on pilot performance. However, little is known about the nature and causes of problems that arise in pilot-automation interaction. The results of two studies that provide converging, complementary data on pilots' difficulties with understanding and operating one of the core systems of cockpit automation, the Flight Management System (FMS) is reported. A survey asking pilots to describe specific incidents with the FMS and observations of pilots undergoing transition training to a glass cockpit aircraft served as vehicles to gather a corpus on the nature and variety of FMS-related problems. The results of both studies indicate that pilots become proficient in standard FMS operations through ground training and subsequent line experience. But even with considerable line experience, they still have difficulties tracking FMS status and behavior in certain flight contexts, and they show gaps in their understanding of the functional structure of the system. The results suggest that design-related factors such as opaque interfaces contribute to these difficulties which can affect pilots' situation awareness. The results of this research are relevant for both the design of cockpit automation and the development of training curricula specifically tailored to the needs of glass cockpits.

  6. Beam Loss Calibration Studies for High Energy Proton Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stockner, M

    2007-01-01

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a proton collider with injection energy of 450 GeV and collision energy of 7 TeV. Superconducting magnets keep the particles circulating in two counter rotating beams, which cross each other at the Interaction Points (IP). Those complex magnets have been designed to contain both beams in one yoke within a cryostat. An unprecedented amount of energy will be stored in the circulating beams and in the magnet system. The LHC outperforms other existing accelerators in its maximum beam energy by a factor of 7 and in its beam intensity by a factor of 23. Even a loss of a small fraction of the beam particles may cause the transition from the superconducting to the normal conducting state of the coil or cause physical damage to machine components. The unique combination of these extreme beam parameters and the highly advanced superconducting technology has the consequence that the LHC needs a more efficient beam cleaning and beam loss measurement system than previous accelerators....

  7. Development of high current injector for tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Takashi; Iwamoto, Eiji [Nissin - High Voltage Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan); Kishimoto, Naoki; Saito, Tetsuya; Mori, Yoshiharu

    1997-02-01

    The development of the electrostatic type tandem accelerators has been carried out so far, but by the recent remarkable progress of negative ion sources, the beam current which was inconceivable so far has become obtainable, and the use as the electrostatic type tandem accelerators is expanding rapidly. The problem which must be solved in the development of a high energy, large current heavy ion injection device is the development of an injector. As to the generation of negative ions, by the development of plasma sputter negative ion sources, the almost satisfactory performance has been obtained in beam current, emittance, life and so on, but as for the transport and control of generated negative ion beam, there is the large problem of spatial charge effect. This time, the verifying test on this problem was carried out, therefore, its contents and results are reported. The equipment which was developed this time was delivered to the Institute for Materials Research. Its specifications are shown. The whole constitution, negative ion source, and beam transport system are described. Beam generation test and spatial charge effect test are reported. The test stand was made, and in the verifying test, the maximum beams of 4 mA in Cu and 3 mA in Ni were able to be generated and transported. The effect of the countermeasures to spatial charge effect was confirmed. (K.I.)

  8. Particle acceleration through the resonance of high magnetic field and high frequency electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Liu; He, X.T.; Chen, S.G.; Zhang, W.Y.; He, X.T.; Hong, Liu

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new particle acceleration mechanism. Electrons can be accelerated to relativistic energy within a few electromagnetic wave cycles through the mechanism which is named electromagnetic and magnetic field resonance acceleration (EMRA). We find that the electron acceleration depends not only on the electromagnetic wave intensity, but also on the ratio between electron Larmor frequency and electromagnetic wave frequency. As the ratio approaches to unity, a clear resonance peak is observed, corresponding to the EMRA. Near the resonance regime, the strong magnetic fields still affect the electron acceleration dramatically. We derive an approximate analytical solution of the relativistic electron energy in adiabatic limit, which provides a full understanding of this phenomenon. In typical parameters of pulsar magnetospheres, the mechanism allows particles to increase their energies through the resonance of high magnetic field and high frequency electromagnetic wave in each electromagnetic wave period. The energy spectra of the accelerated particles exhibit the synchrotron radiation behavior. These can help to understand the remaining emission of high energy electron from radio pulsar within supernova remnant. The other potential application of our theory in fast ignition scheme of inertial confinement fusion is also discussed. (authors)

  9. A review of high beam current RFQ accelerators and funnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The authors review the design features of several high-current (> 20-mA) and high-power (> 1-mA average) proton or H - injectors, RFQs, and funnels. They include a summary of observed performance and will mention a sampling of new designs, including the proposed incorporation of beam choppers. Different programs and organizations have chosen to build the RFQ in diverse configurations. Although the majority of RFQs are either low-current or very low duty-factor, several versions have included high-current and/or high-power designs for either protons or H - ions. The challenges of cooling, handling high space-charge forces, and coupling with injectors and subsequent accelerators are significant. In all instances, beam tests were a valuable learning experience, because not always did these as-built structures perform exactly as predicted by the earlier design codes. They summarize the key operational parameters, indicate what was achieved, and highlight what was learned in these tests. Based on this generally good performance and high promise, even more challenging designs are being considered for new applications that include even higher powers, beam funnels and choppers

  10. Simplified shielding calculation system for high-intensity proton accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masumura, Tomomi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Nakane, Yoshihiro; Sasamoto, Nobuo [Center for Neutron Science, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    A simplified shielding calculation system is developed for applying conceptual shielding design of facilities in the joint project for high-intensity proton accelerators. The system is composed of neutron transmission calculation part for bulk shielding using simplified formulas: Moyer model and Tesch's formula, and neutron skyshine calculation part using an empirical formula: Stapleton's formula. The system is made with the Microsoft Excel software for user's convenience. This report provides a manual for the system as well as calculation conditions used in the calculation such as Moyer model's parameters. In this report preliminary results based on data at December 8, 1999, are also shown as an example. (author)

  11. Modified Magnicon for High-Gradient Accelerator R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis, and low-power cold tests are described on a modified design intended for the Ka-band pulsed magnicon now in use for high-gradient accelerator R and D and rare elementary particle searches at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory. The modification is mainly to the output cavity of the magnicon, which presently operates in the TM310 mode. It is proposed to substitute for this a dual-chamber TE311 cavity structure. The first chamber is to extract about 40% of the beam power (about 25 MW) at 34.272 GHz, while the second chamber is to convey the power to four WR-28 output waveguides. Minor design changes are also proposed for the penultimate 11.424 GHz cavity and the beam collector. The intention of these design changes is to allow the magnicon to operate reliably 24/7, with minor sensitivity to operating parameters.

  12. Modified Magnicon for High-Gradient Accelerator R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2011-12-19

    Analysis, and low-power cold tests are described on a modified design intended for the Ka-band pulsed magnicon now in use for high-gradient accelerator R and D and rare elementary particle searches at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory. The modification is mainly to the output cavity of the magnicon, which presently operates in the TM310 mode. It is proposed to substitute for this a dual-chamber TE311 cavity structure. The first chamber is to extract about 40% of the beam power (about 25 MW) at 34.272 GHz, while the second chamber is to convey the power to four WR-28 output waveguides. Minor design changes are also proposed for the penultimate 11.424 GHz cavity and the beam collector. The intention of these design changes is to allow the magnicon to operate reliably 24/7, with minor sensitivity to operating parameters.

  13. Advanced power flow technologies for high current ICF accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanDevender, J.P.; McDaniel, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    Two new technologies for raising the power density in high current, inertial confinement fusion accelerators have been developed in the past two years. Magnetic flashover inhibition utilizes the self-magnetic fields around the vacuum insulator surface to inhibit surface flashover; average electric fields of 40 Mv/m at magnetic fields of 1.1 T have been achieved. Self-magnetic insulation of long, vacuum transmission lines has been used to transport power at 1.6 x 10 14 W/m 2 over six meters and up to 1.6 x 10 15 W/m 2 over short distances in a radial anode-cathode feed. The recent data relevant to these new technologies and their implications for ICF will be explored

  14. Synchrotron accelerator technology for proton beam therapy with high accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramoto, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Proton beam therapy was applied at the beginning to head and neck cancers, but it is now extended to prostate, lung and liver cancers. Thus the need for a pencil beam scanning method is increasing. With this method radiation dose concentration property of the proton beam will be further intensified. Hitachi group has supplied a pencil beam scanning therapy system as the first one for M. D. Anderson Hospital in United States, and it has been operational since May 2008. Hitachi group has been developing proton therapy system to correspond high-accuracy proton therapy to concentrate the dose in the diseased part which is located with various depths, and which sometimes has complicated shape. The author described here on the synchrotron accelerator technology that is an important element for constituting the proton therapy system. (K.Y.)

  15. High power electron beam accelerators for gas laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.G.; Martin, T.H.; Halbleib, J.A.

    1976-06-01

    A preliminary parameter investigation has been used to determine a possible design of a high-power, relativistic electron beam, transversely excited laser. Based on considerations of present and developing pulsed power technology, broad area diode physics and projected laser requirements, an exciter is proposed consisting of a Marx generator, pulse shaping transmission lines, radially converging ring diodes and a laser chamber. The accelerator should be able to deliver approximately 20 kJ of electron energy at 1 MeV to the 10 4 cm 2 cylindrical surface of a laser chamber 1 m long and 0.3 m in diameter in 24 ns with very small azimuthal asymmetry and uniform radial deposition

  16. Beam manipulation techniques, nonlinear beam dynamics, and space charge effect in high energy high power accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. Y. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2014-04-07

    We had carried out a design of an ultimate storage ring with beam emittance less than 10 picometer for the feasibility of coherent light source at X-ray wavelength. The accelerator has an inherent small dynamic aperture. We study method to improve the dynamic aperture and collective instability for an ultimate storage ring. Beam measurement and accelerator modeling are an integral part of accelerator physics. We develop the independent component analysis (ICA) and the orbit response matrix method for improving accelerator reliability and performance. In collaboration with scientists in National Laboratories, we also carry out experimental and theoretical studies on beam dynamics. Our proposed research topics are relevant to nuclear and particle physics using high brightness particle and photon beams.

  17. A practical guide to modern high energy particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, S.D.

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to convey an understanding of how particle accelerators work and why they look the way they do. The approach taken is physically intuitive rather than mathematically rigorous. The emphasis is on the description of proton circular accelerators and colliders. Linear accelerators are mentioned only in passing as sources of protons for higher energy rings. Electron accelerators/storage rings and antiproton sources are discussed only by way of brief descriptions of the features which distinguish them from proton accelerators. The basics of how generic accelerators work are discussed, focusing on descriptions of what sets the overall scale, single particle dynamics and stability, and descriptions of the phase space of the particle beam, the information thus presented is then used to go through the exercise of designing a Superconducting Super Collider

  18. Assessing high reliability via Bayesian approach and accelerated tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erto, Pasquale; Giorgio, Massimiliano

    2002-01-01

    Sometimes the assessment of very high reliability levels is difficult for the following main reasons: - the high reliability level of each item makes it impossible to obtain, in a reasonably short time, a sufficient number of failures; - the high cost of the high reliability items to submit to life tests makes it unfeasible to collect enough data for 'classical' statistical analyses. In the above context, this paper presents a Bayesian solution to the problem of estimation of the parameters of the Weibull-inverse power law model, on the basis of a limited number (say six) of life tests, carried out at different stress levels, all higher than the normal one. The over-stressed (i.e. accelerated) tests allow the use of experimental data obtained in a reasonably short time. The Bayesian approach enables one to reduce the required number of failures adding to the failure information the available a priori engineers' knowledge. This engineers' involvement conforms to the most advanced management policy that aims at involving everyone's commitment in order to obtain total quality. A Monte Carlo study of the non-asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators and a comparison with the properties of maximum likelihood estimators closes the work

  19. Cockpit task management: A preliminary, normative theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Ken

    1991-01-01

    Cockpit task management (CTM) involves the initiation, monitoring, prioritizing, and allocation of resources to concurrent tasks as well as termination of multiple concurrent tasks. As aircrews have more tasks to attend to due to reduced crew sizes and the increased complexity of aircraft and the air transportation system, CTM will become a more critical factor in aviation safety. It is clear that many aviation accidents and incidents can be satisfactorily explained in terms of CTM errors, and it is likely that more accidents induced by poor CTM practice will occur in the future unless the issue is properly addressed. The first step in understanding and facilitating CTM behavior was the development of a preliminary, normative theory of CTM which identifies several important CTM functions. From this theory, some requirements for pilot-vehicle interfaces were developed which are believed to facilitate CTM. A prototype PVI was developed which improves CTM performance and currently, a research program is under way that is aimed at developing a better understanding of CTM and facilitating CTM performance through better equipment and procedures.

  20. High fat diet accelerates cartilage repair in DBA/1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wu; Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Yvonne M; Suijkerbuijk, Mathijs; Kops, Nicole; Bos, Pieter K; Verhaar, Jan A N; Zuurmond, Anne-Marie; Dell'Accio, Francesco; van Osch, Gerjo J V M

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a well-known risk factor for osteoarthritis, but it is unknown what it does on cartilage repair. Here we investigated whether a high fat diet (HFD) influences cartilage repair in a mouse model of cartilage repair. We fed DBA/1 mice control or HFD (60% energy from fat). After 2 weeks, a full thickness cartilage defect was made in the trochlear groove. Mice were sacrificed, 1, 8, and 24 weeks after operation. Cartilage repair was evaluated on histology. Serum glucose, insulin and amyloid A were measured 24 h before operation and at endpoints. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on synovium and adipose tissue to evaluate macrophage infiltration and phenotype. One week after operation, mice on HFD had defect filling with fibroblast-like cells and more cartilage repair as indicated by a lower Pineda score. After 8 weeks, mice on a HFD still had a lower Pineda score. After 24 weeks, no mice had complete cartilage repair and we did not detect a significant difference in cartilage repair between diets. Bodyweight was increased by HFD, whereas serum glucose, amyloid A and insulin were not influenced. Macrophage infiltration and phenotype in adipose tissue and synovium were not influenced by HFD. In contrast to common wisdom, HFD accelerated intrinsic cartilage repair in DBA/1 mice on the short term. Resistance to HFD induced inflammatory and metabolic changes could be associated with accelerated cartilage repair. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1258-1264, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A Beam Interlock System for CERN High Energy Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Benjamin; Schmidt, R

    2006-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (The European Organisation for Nuclear Research) is one of the largest and most complicated machines envisaged to date. The LHC has been conceived and designed over the course of the last 25 years and represents the cutting edge of accelerator technology with a collision energy of 14TeV, having a stored beam energy over 100 times more powerful than the nearest competitor. Commissioning of the machine is already nderway and operation with beam is intended for Autumn 2007, with 7TeV operation expected in 2008. The LHC is set to answer some of the fundemental questions in theoretical physics, colliding particles with such high energy that the inner workings of the quantum world can be revealed. Colliding particles together at such high energy makes very high demands on machine operation and protection. The specified beam energy requires strong magnetic fields that are made in superconducting dipole magnets, these magnets are kept only around two degrees above absolute zero...

  2. Vacuum improvements for ultra high charge state ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.; Clark, D.J.; Guy, A.; Lundgren, S.A

    1998-06-01

    The installation of a second cryo panel has significantly improved the vacuum in the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutral pressure in the extraction region decreased from 1.2 x 10 -6 down to about 7 x 10 -7 Torr. The vacuum improvement reduces beam loss from charge changing collisions and enhances the cyclotron beam transmission, especially for the high charge state heavy ions. Tests with improved vacuum show the cyclotron transmission increased more than 50% (from 5.7% to 9.0%) for a Xe 27+ at 603 MeV, more than doubled for a Bi 41+ beam (from 1.9% to 4.6%) at 904 MeV and tripled for a U 47+ beam (from 1.2% to 3.6%) at 1,115 MeV. At about 5 NeV/nucleon 92 enA (2.2 pnA) for Bi 41+ and 14 enA (0.3 pnA) for U 47+ were extracted ut of the 88-Inch Cyclotron Ion beams with charge states as high as U 64+ have been produced by the LBNL AECR-U ion source and accelerated through the cyclotron for the first time. The beam losses for a variety of ultra high charge state ions were measured as a function of cyclotron pressure and compared with the calculations from the existing models

  3. Vacuum improvements for ultra high charge state ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.; Clark, D.J.; Guy, A.; Lundgren, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The installation of a second cryo panel has significantly improved the vacuum in the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutral pressure in the extraction region decreased from 1.2 x 10 -6 down to about 7 x 10 -7 Torr. The vacuum improvement reduces beam loss from charge changing collisions and enhances the cyclotron beam transmission, especially for the high charge state heavy ions. Tests with improved vacuum show the cyclotron transmission increased more than 50% (from 5.7% to 9.0%) for a Xe 27+ at 603 MeV, more than doubled for a Bi 41+ beam (from 1.9% % to 4.6%) at 904 MeV and tripled for a U 47+ beam (from 1.2% to 3.6%) at 1115 MeV. At about 5 MeV/nucleon 92 enA (2.2 pnA) for Bi 41+ and 14 enA (0.3 pnA) for U 47+ were extracted out of the 88-Inch Cyclotron Ion beams with charge states as high as U 64+ have been produced by the LBNL AECR-U ion source and accelerated through the cyclotron for the first time. The beam losses for a variety of ultra high charge state ions were measured as a function of cyclotron pressure and compared with the calculations from the existing models. (authors)

  4. High-brightness negative-hydrogen linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadlinger, E.A.; Farrell, J.A.; Dogliani, H.O.

    1982-01-01

    We have designed a linear accelerator to accelerate negative hydrogen ions to 50 MeV with an instantaneous output current of 100 mA and a normalized rms emittance in both transverse planes of 0.02 π cm mrad. The design and results obtained to date with a 2-MeV prototype are presented

  5. History of the development and manufacture of Czechoslovak high-frequency linear electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerny, R.

    2007-01-01

    The paper is structured as follows: History of linear accelerators worldwide (beginnings); Development of the Czechoslovak high-frequency linear electron accelerator (Layout and working principle; The first model of the accelerator and the Faculty of Technical and Nuclear Physics and cooperation with the Research Institute for Vacuum Electronics (VUVET); Continuing development of the accelerator at VUVET); Construction of linear accelerators at VUVET and their application (Construction of the accelerating unit; UR 4/1200 accelerator for radiation technology tests at VUVET; UR 4PR ('LUPUR') accelerator for the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez; UR 4/1200 technological accelerator for the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez; LPR4 accelerator for the Hungarian Academy of Sciences; L 4/1200 accelerators for the Research Institute of Cables and Insulators in Bratislava, CKD Semiconductors in Prague, Animal Feed Research Institute at Ivanka pri Dunaji, and Synthesia Semtin). Appendix contains paragraphs devoted to the Accelerator Dept. staff and equipment, key accelerator spare parts, and radiation safety at the accelerator department, (P.A.)

  6. SOLVING BY PARALLEL COMPUTATION THE POISSON PROBLEM FOR HIGH INTENSITY BEAMS IN CIRCULAR ACCELERATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUCCIO, A.U.; DIMPERIO, N.L.; SAMULYAK, R.; BEEB-WANG, J.

    2001-01-01

    Simulation of high intensity accelerators leads to the solution of the Poisson Equation, to calculate space charge forces in the presence of acceleration chamber walls. We reduced the problem to ''two-and-a-half'' dimensions for long particle bunches, characteristic of large circular accelerators, and applied the results to the tracking code Orbit

  7. Accelerate!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, John P

    2012-11-01

    The old ways of setting and implementing strategy are failing us, writes the author of Leading Change, in part because we can no longer keep up with the pace of change. Organizational leaders are torn between trying to stay ahead of increasingly fierce competition and needing to deliver this year's results. Although traditional hierarchies and managerial processes--the components of a company's "operating system"--can meet the daily demands of running an enterprise, they are rarely equipped to identify important hazards quickly, formulate creative strategic initiatives nimbly, and implement them speedily. The solution Kotter offers is a second system--an agile, networklike structure--that operates in concert with the first to create a dual operating system. In such a system the hierarchy can hand off the pursuit of big strategic initiatives to the strategy network, freeing itself to focus on incremental changes to improve efficiency. The network is populated by employees from all levels of the organization, giving it organizational knowledge, relationships, credibility, and influence. It can Liberate information from silos with ease. It has a dynamic structure free of bureaucratic layers, permitting a level of individualism, creativity, and innovation beyond the reach of any hierarchy. The network's core is a guiding coalition that represents each level and department in the hierarchy, with a broad range of skills. Its drivers are members of a "volunteer army" who are energized by and committed to the coalition's vividly formulated, high-stakes vision and strategy. Kotter has helped eight organizations, public and private, build dual operating systems over the past three years. He predicts that such systems will lead to long-term success in the 21st century--for shareholders, customers, employees, and companies themselves.

  8. HIGH-GRADIENT, HIGH-TRANSFORMER-RATIO, DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2012-04-12

    The Phase I work reported here responds to DoE'ss stated need "...to develop improved accelerator designs that can provide very high gradient (>200 MV/m for electrons...) acceleration of intense bunches of particles." Omega-P's approach to this goal is through use of a ramped train of annular electron bunches to drive a coaxial dielectric wakefield accelerator (CDWA) structure. This approach is a direct extension of the CDWA concept from acceleration in wake fields caused by a single drive bunch, to the more efficient acceleration that we predict can be realized from a tailored (or ramped) train of several drive bunches. This is possible because of a much higher transformer ratio for the latter. The CDWA structure itself has a number of unique features, including: a high accelerating gradient G, potentially with G > 1 GeV/m; continuous energy coupling from drive to test bunches without transfer structures; inherent transverse focusing forces for particles in the accelerated bunch; highly stable motion of high charge annular drive bunches; acceptable alignment tolerances for a multi-section system. What is new in the present approach is that the coaxial dielectric structure is now to be energized by-not one-but by a short train of ramped annular-shaped drive bunches moving in the outer coaxial channel of the structure. We have shown that this allows acceleration of an electron bunch traveling along the axis in the inner channel with a markedly higher transformer ratio T than for a single drive bunch. As described in this report, the structure will be a GHz-scale prototype with cm-scale transverse dimensions that is expected to confirm principles that can be applied to the design of a future THz-scale high gradient (> 500 MV/m) accelerator with mm-scale transverse dimensions. We show here a new means to significantly increase the transformer ratio T of the device, and thereby to significantly improve its suitability as a flexible and effective component in

  9. Reliability studies of a high-power proton accelerator for accelerator-driven system applications for nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgazzi, Luciano; Pierini, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    The main effort of the present study is to analyze the availability and reliability of a high-performance linac (linear accelerator) conceived for Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) purpose and to suggest recommendations, in order both to meet the high operability goals and to satisfy the safety requirements dictated by the reactor system. Reliability Block Diagrams (RBD) approach has been considered for system modelling, according to the present level of definition of the design: component failure modes are assessed in terms of Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and Mean Time To Repair (MTTR), reliability and availability figures are derived, applying the current reliability algorithms. The lack of a well-established component database has been pointed out as the main issue related to the accelerator reliability assessment. The results, affected by the conservative character of the study, show a high margin for the improvement in terms of accelerator reliability and availability figures prediction. The paper outlines the viable path towards the accelerator reliability and availability enhancement process and delineates the most proper strategies. The improvement in the reliability characteristics along this path is shown as well

  10. Reliability studies of a high-power proton accelerator for accelerator-driven system applications for nuclear waste transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgazzi, Luciano [ENEA-Centro Ricerche ' Ezio Clementel' , Advanced Physics Technology Division, Via Martiri di Monte Sole, 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: burgazzi@bologna.enea.it; Pierini, Paolo [INFN-Sezione di Milano, Laboratorio Acceleratori e Superconduttivita Applicata, Via Fratelli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    The main effort of the present study is to analyze the availability and reliability of a high-performance linac (linear accelerator) conceived for Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) purpose and to suggest recommendations, in order both to meet the high operability goals and to satisfy the safety requirements dictated by the reactor system. Reliability Block Diagrams (RBD) approach has been considered for system modelling, according to the present level of definition of the design: component failure modes are assessed in terms of Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and Mean Time To Repair (MTTR), reliability and availability figures are derived, applying the current reliability algorithms. The lack of a well-established component database has been pointed out as the main issue related to the accelerator reliability assessment. The results, affected by the conservative character of the study, show a high margin for the improvement in terms of accelerator reliability and availability figures prediction. The paper outlines the viable path towards the accelerator reliability and availability enhancement process and delineates the most proper strategies. The improvement in the reliability characteristics along this path is shown as well.

  11. An accelerating high-latitude jet in Earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, P. W.; Finlay, C. C.; Hollerbach, R.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of the change in Earth's magnetic field, the secular variation, provide information on the motion of liquid metal within the core that is responsible for its generation. The very latest high-resolution observations from ESA's Swarm satellite mission show intense field change at high-latitude localised in a distinctive circular daisy-chain configuration centred on the north geographic pole. Here we explain this feature with a localised, nonaxisymmetric, westwards jet of 420 km width on the tangent cylinder, the cylinder of fluid within the core that is aligned with the rotation axis and tangent to the solid inner core. We find that the jet has increased in magnitude by a factor of three over the period 2000-2016 to about 40 km/yr, and is now much stronger than typical large-scale flows inferred for the core. The current accelerating phase may be a part of a longer term fluctuation of the jet causing both eastwards and westwards movement of magnetic features over historical periods, and may contribute to recent changes in torsional wave activity and the rotation direction of the inner core.

  12. Learning About Cockpit Automation: From Piston Trainer to Jet Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casner, Stephen M.

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments explored the idea of providing cockpit automation training to airline-bound student pilots using cockpit automation equipment commonly found in small training airplanes. In a first experiment, pilots mastered a set of tasks and maneuvers using a GPS navigation computer, autopilot, and flight director system installed in a small training airplane Students were then tested on their ability to complete a similar set of tasks using the cockpit automation system found in a popular jet transport aircraft. Pilot were able to successfully complete 77% of all tasks in the jet transport on their first attempt. An analysis of a control group suggests that the pilot's success was attributable to the application of automation principles they had learned in the small airplane. A second experiment looked at two different ways of delivering small-aeroplane cockpit automation training: a self-study method, and a dual instruction method. The results showed a slight advantage for the self-study method. Overall, the results of the two studies cast a strong vote for the incorporation of cockpit automation training in curricula designed for pilot who will later transition to the jet fleet.

  13. Highly-stabilized power supply for synchrotron accelerators. High speed, low ripple power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kenji [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics; Kumada, Masayuki; Fukami, Kenji; Koseki, Shoichiro; Kubo, Hiroshi; Kanazawa, Toru

    1997-02-01

    In synchrotron accelerators, in order to utilize high energy beam effectively, those are operated by repeating acceleration and taking-out at short period. In order to accelerate by maintaining beam track stable, the tracking performance with the error less than 10{sup -3} in the follow-up of current is required for the power supply. Further, in order to maintain the intensity and uniformity of beam when it is taken out, very low ripple is required for output current. The power supply having such characteristics has been developed, and applied to the HIMAC and the SPring-8. As the examples of the application of synchrotrons, the accelerators for medical treatment and the generation of synchrotron radiation are described. As to the power supply for the deflection magnets and quadrupole magnets of synchrotron accelerators, the specifications of the main power supply, the method of reducing ripple, the method of improving tracking, and active filter control are reported. As to the test results, the measurement of current ripple and tracking error is shown. The lowering of ripple was enabled by common mode filter and the symmetrical connection of electromagnets, and high speed response was realized by the compensation for delay with active filter. (K.I.)

  14. High voltage high brightness electron accelerators with MITL voltage adder coupled to foilless diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Frost, C.A.; Shope, S.L.; Halbleib, J.A.; Turman, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    During the last ten years the authors have extensively studied the physics and operation of magnetically-immersed electron foilless diodes. Most of these sources were utilized as injectors to high current, high energy linear induction accelerators such as those of the RADLAC family. Recently they have experimentally and theoretically demonstrated that foilless diodes can be successfully coupled to self-magnetically insulated transmission line voltage adders to produce very small high brightness, high definition (no halo) electron beams. The RADLAC/SMILE experience opened the path to a new approach in high brightness, high energy induction accelerators. There is no beam drifting through the device. The voltage addition occurs in a center conductor, and the beam is created at the high voltage end in an applied magnetic field diode. This work was motivated by the remarkable success of the HERMES-III accelerator and the need to produce small radius, high energy, high current electron beams for air propagation studies and flash x-ray radiography. In this paper they present experimental results compared with analytical and numerical simulations in addition to design examples of devices that can produce multikiloamp electron beams of as high as 100 MV energies and radii as small as 1 mm

  15. High energy particle acceleration by relativistic plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiranoff, F.; Jacquet, F.; Mora, P.; Matthieussent, G.

    1991-01-01

    Accelerating schemes using plasmas, lasers or electron beams are proposed and compared to electron bunches in dielectric media or laser propagation through a slow wave structure made of liquid droplets. (L.C.J.A.). 33 refs, 20 figs

  16. Highly efficient accelerator of dense matter using laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Badziak, J.; Jabloňski, S.; Pisarczyk, T.; Rączka, P.; Krouský, Eduard; Liska, R.; Kucharik, M.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Parys, P.; Rosiński, M.; Borodziuk, S.; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 5 (2012), s. 1-8 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma accelerators * plasma density * plasma inertial confinement * plasma light propagation * plasma pressure * plasma transport processes Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.376, year: 2012

  17. Special scientific programme on use of high energy accelerators for transmutation of actinides and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Various techniques for the transmutation of radioactive waste through the use of high energy accelerators are reviewed and discussed. In particular, the present publication contains presentations on (i) requirements and the technical possibilities for the transmutation of long-lived radionuclides (background paper); (ii) high energy particle accelerators for bulk transformation of elements and energy generation; (iii) the resolution of nuclear energy issues using accelerator-driven technology; (iv) the use of proton accelerators for the transmutation of actinides and power production; (v) the coupling of an accelerator to a subcritical fission reactor (with a view on its potential impact on waste transmutation); (vi) research and development of accelerator-based transmutation technology at JAERI (Japan); and (vii) questions and problems with regard to accelerator-driven nuclear power and transmutation facilities. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Proceedings of the third ICFA mini-workshop on high intensity, high brightness hadron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1997-01-01

    The third mini-workshop on high intensity, high brightness hadron accelerators was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory on May 7-9, 1997 and had about 30 participants. The workshop focussed on rf and longitudinal dynamics issues relevant to intense and/or bright hadron synchrotrons. A plenary session was followed by four sessions on particular topics. This document contains copies of the viewgraphs used as well as summaries written by the session chairs

  19. Integration Test of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a 4 kilowatt-class Hall propulsion system for implementation in NASA science missions. NASA science mission performance analysis was completed using the latest high voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAc) and Aerojet-Rocketdyne's state-of-the-art BPT-4000 Hall thruster performance curves. Mission analysis results indicated that the HiVHAc thruster out performs the BPT-4000 thruster for all but one of the missions studied. Tests of the HiVHAc system major components were performed. Performance evaluation of the HiVHAc thruster at NASA Glenn's vacuum facility 5 indicated that thruster performance was lower than performance levels attained during tests in vacuum facility 12 due to the lower background pressures attained during vacuum facility 5 tests when compared to vacuum facility 12. Voltage-Current characterization of the HiVHAc thruster in vacuum facility 5 showed that the HiVHAc thruster can operate stably for a wide range of anode flow rates for discharge voltages between 250 and 600 volts. A Colorado Power Electronics enhanced brassboard power processing unit was tested in vacuum for 1,500 hours and the unit demonstrated discharge module efficiency of 96.3% at 3.9 kilowatts and 650 volts. Stand-alone open and closed loop tests of a VACCO TRL 6 xenon flow control module were also performed. An integrated test of the HiVHAc thruster, brassboard power processing unit, and xenon flow control module was performed and confirmed that integrated operation of the HiVHAc system major components. Future plans include continuing the maturation of the HiVHAc system major components and the performance of a single-string integration test.

  20. High intensity proton acceleration at the Brookhaven AGS -- An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L.; Alessi, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.

    1997-01-01

    The AGS accelerator complex is into its third year of 60+ x 10 12 (teraproton = Tp) per cycle operation. The hardware making up the complex as configured in 1997 is briefly mentioned. The present level of accelerator performance is discussed. This includes beam transfer efficiencies at each step in the acceleration process, i.e. losses; which are a serious issue at this intensity level. Progress made in understanding beam behavior at the Linac-to-Booster (LtB) injection, at the Booster-to-AGS (BtA) transfer as well as across the 450 ms AGS accumulation porch is presented. The state of transition crossing, with the gamma-tr jump is described. Coherent effects including those driven by space charge are important at all of these steps

  1. Development of High-Gradient Dielectric Laser-Driven Particle Accelerator Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byer, Robert L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Edward L. Ginzton Lab.

    2013-11-07

    The thrust of Stanford's program is to conduct research on high-gradient dielectric accelerator structures driven with high repetition-rate, tabletop infrared lasers. The close collaboration between Stanford and SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) is critical to the success of this project, because it provides a unique environment where prototype dielectric accelerator structures can be rapidly fabricated and tested with a relativistic electron beam.

  2. Harp, a short pulse, high current electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestwich, K.R.

    1974-01-01

    A 3 MV, 800 kA, 24 ns electron beam accelerator is described and the results of initial switching experiments are discussed. The generator will provide a source for studying the physics of processes leading to electron beam driven, inertially confined fusion. The major components of the accelerator are two diodes with a common anode, twelve oil-dielectric Blumleins with low jitter (less than 2 ns) multichannel switches, three intermediate storage capacitors, a trigger pulse generator and two Marx generators. (U.S.)

  3. Beam dosimetry in high-power electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V.N.; Zhitomirskii, B.M.; Ermakov, A.N.; Terebilin, A.V.; Stryukov, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    In order to evaluate beam utilization efficiency, measure the radiation yield, and determine the cost effectiveness of the new technologies, it is necessary to know the radiation power of the electron beam absorbed by the reacting medium. To measure the electron-beam power the authors designed, built, and tested a radiation detector combining a Faraday cylinder with a continuous-flow calorimeter. The construction of the detector is shown. The radiation detector was tested on a number of electron accelerators. The beam-power and mean-electron-energy measurement results for the LUE-8M accelerator with 8 MeV maximum electron energy are given

  4. Application of magnetically insulated transmission lines for high current, high voltage electron beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shope, S.L.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Frost, C.A.; Poukey, J.W.; Turman, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines (MITL) adders have been used successfully in a number of Sandia accelerators such as HELIA, HERMES III, and SABRE. Most recently the authors used a MITL adder in the RADLAC/SMILE electron beam accelerator to produce high quality, small radius (r b < 2 cm), 11 to 15 MeV, 50 to 100-kA beams with a small transverse velocity v perpendicular/c = β perpendicular ≤ 0.1. In RADLAC/SMILE, a coaxial MITL passed through the eight, 2 MV vacuum envelopes. The MITL summed the voltages of all eight feeds to a single foilless diode. The experimental results are in good agreement with code simulations. The authors' success with the MITL technology led them to investigate the application to higher energy accelerator designs. They have a conceptual design for a cavity-fed MITL that sums the voltages from 100 identical, inductively-isolated cavities. Each cavity is a toroidal structure that is driven simultaneously by four 8-ohm pulse-forming lines, providing a 1-MV voltage pulse to each of the 100 cavities. The point design accelerator is 100 MV, 500 kA, with a 30-50-ns FWHM output pulse

  5. Application of Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines for high current, high voltage electron beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shope, S.L.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Frost, C.A.; Poukey, J.W.; Turman, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines (MITL) adders have been used successfully in a number of Sandia accelerators such as HELIA, HERMES III, and SABRE. Most recently we used at MITL adder in the RADLAC/SMILE electron beam accelerator to produce high quality, small radius (r ρ < 2 cm), 11 to 15 MeV, 50 to 100-kA beams with a small transverse velocity v perpendicular/c = β perpendicular ≤ 0.1. In RADLAC/SMILE, a coaxial MITL passed through the eight, 2 MV vacuum envelopes. The MITL summed the voltages of all eight feeds to a single foilless diode. The experimental results are in good agreement with code simulations. Our success with the MITL technology led us to investigate the application to higher energy accelerator designs. We have a conceptual design for a cavity-fed MITL that sums the voltages from 100 identical, inductively-isolated cavities. Each cavity is a toroidal structure that is driven simultaneously by four 8-ohm pulse-forming lines, providing a 1-MV voltage pulse to each of the 100 cavities. The point design accelerator is 100 MV, 500 kA, with a 30--50 ns FWHM output pulse. 10 refs

  6. Application of magnetically insulated transmission lines for high current, high voltage electron beam accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, S. L.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Frost, C. A.; Poukey, J. W.; Turman, B. N.

    Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines (MITL) adders were used successfully in a number of Sandia accelerators such as HELIA, HERMES III, and SABRE. Most recently we used at MITL adder in the RADLAC/SMILE electron beam accelerator to produce high quality, small radius (r(sub rho) less than 2 cm), 11 - 15 MeV, 50 - 100-kA beams with a small transverse velocity v(perpendicular)/c = beta(perpendicular) less than or equal to 0.1. In RADLAC/SMILE, a coaxial MITL passed through the eight, 2 MV vacuum envelopes. The MITL summed the voltages of all eight feeds to a single foilless diode. The experimental results are in good agreement with code simulations. Our success with the MITL technology led us to investigate the application to higher energy accelerator designs. We have a conceptual design for a cavity-fed MITL that sums the voltages from 100 identical, inductively-isolated cavities. Each cavity is a toroidal structure that is driven simultaneously by four 8-ohm pulse-forming lines, providing a 1-MV voltage pulse to each of the 100 cavities. The point design accelerator is 100 MV, 500 kA, with a 30 - 50 ns FWHM output pulse.

  7. NSC KIPT accelerator on nuclear and high energy physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guk, I.S.; Dovbnya, A.N.; Kononenko, S.G.; Tarasenko, A.S.; Botman, J.I.M.; Wiel, van der M.J.

    2004-01-01

    One of the main reasons for the outflow of experts in nuclear physics and adjacent areas of science from Ukraine is the absence of modern accelerating facilities, for conducting research in the present fields of interest worldwide in this area of knowledge. A qualitatively new level of research can

  8. Trial of accelerator cells machining with high precision and high efficiency at Okayama region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Mitsuo; Yoden, Hiroyuki; Yokomizo, Seiichi; Sumida, Tsuneto; Kunishida, Jun; Oshita, Isao

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of the project 'Promotion of Science and Technology in Regional Areas' by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, we have prepared a special apparatus for machining accelerator cells with a high precision and a high efficiency for the future linear collider. A machining with as small an error as 2 micrometers has been realized. Necessary time to finish one accelerator cell is reduced from 128 minutes to 34 minutes due to the suppression of the heating of the object at the machining. If newly developed one chuck method was employed, the precision and efficiency would be further improved. By cutting at both sides of the spindle, the necessary time for machining would be reduced by half. (author)

  9. Perspective information in the cockpit to improve situational awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breda, L. van

    1999-01-01

    Three simulator experiments were carried out to quantify the potential benefits of perspective visual displays in the cockpit for situational awareness support of the pilot, in local guidance and global awareness tasks. In the first experiment, the application of an egocentric perspective display

  10. High gradient test of X-band accelerating structure at GLCTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, K.; Higo, T.; Hayano, H.; Terunuma, N.; Saeki, T.; Kudo, N.; Sanuki, T.; Seuhara, T.

    2004-01-01

    GLCTA (Global Linear Collider Test Accelerator) is the high power test facility for X-band acceleration. We have installed an X-band 60cm structure in April 2004 and have been processing it for more than 3 months. Now it is under test on long-term operation. We report here the installation process and high power test result to date. (author)

  11. Medium energy high intensity proton accelerator (MEHIPA): Reference Design Report (RDR) Ver. 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-11-01

    Recent progress in accelerator technology has made it possible to use a proton accelerator to produce nuclear energy. In an accelerator-driven system (ADS), a high-intensity proton accelerator is used to produce protons of around 1 GeV energy, which strike a target such as lead or tungsten to produce spallation neutrons. ADS can be used to produce power, incinerate minor actinides and long-lived fission products, and for the utilization of thorium as an alternative nuclear fuel. The accelerator for ADS has to produce high energy (1 GeV) protons, and deliver tens of milli amperes of beam current with minimum (< 1 nA/m) beam loss for hands-on maintenance of the accelerator. This makes the development of accelerators for ADS very challenging. In India, it is planned to take a staged approach towards development of the requisite accelerator technology, and it is planned to develop the accelerator in three phases: 20 MeV, 200 MeV and 1 GeV. This report presents a reference design report for the Medium Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (MEHIPA) which will accelerate the beam to 200 MeV. The linac consists of a 3 MeV normal conducting RFQ followed by three families of superconducting Single Spoke Resonators (SSR) to accelerate the beam to 200 MeV. The major elements of the physics design of MEHIPA, as well as layouts and specifications of the major accelerator sub-systems are presented in this report. (author)

  12. Thermally Induced Ultra High Cycle Fatigue of Copper Alloys of the High Gradient Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Heikkinen, Samuli; Wuensch, Walter

    2010-01-01

    In order to keep the overall length of the compact linear collider (CLIC), currently being studied at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), within reasonable limits, i.e. less than 50 km, an accelerating gradient above 100 MV/m is required. This imposes considerable demands on the materials of the accelerating structures. The internal surfaces of these core components of a linear accelerator are exposed to pulsed radio frequency (RF) currents resulting in cyclic thermal stresses expected to cause surface damage by fatigue. The designed lifetime of CLIC is 20 years, which results in a number of thermal stress cycles of the order of 2.33•1010. Since no fatigue data existed in the literature for CLIC parameter space, a set of three complementary experiments were initiated: ultra high cycle mechanical fatigue by ultrasound, low cycle fatigue by pulsed laser irradiation and low cycle thermal fatigue by high power microwaves, each test representing a subset of the original problem. High conductiv...

  13. High quality electron beams from a plasma channel guided laser wakefield accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geddes, C.G.R.; Toth, Cs.; Tilborg, J. van; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Bruhwiler, D.; Nieter, C.; Cary, J.; Leemans, W.P.

    2004-01-01

    Laser driven accelerators, in which particles are accelerated by the electric field of a plasma wave driven by an intense laser, have demonstrated accelerating electric fields of hundreds of GV/m. These fields are thousands of times those achievable in conventional radiofrequency (RF) accelerators, spurring interest in laser accelerators as compact next generation sources of energetic electrons and radiation. To date however, acceleration distances have been severely limited by lack of a controllable method for extending the propagation distance of the focused laser pulse. The ensuing short acceleration distance results in low energy beams with 100% electron energy spread, limiting applications. Here we demonstrate that a relativistically intense laser can be guided by a preformed plasma density channel and that the longer propagation distance can result in electron beams of percent energy spread with low emittance and increased energy, containing >10 9 electrons above 80 MeV. The preformed plasma channel technique forms the basis of a new class of accelerators, combining beam quality comparable to RF accelerators with the high gradients of laser accelerators to produce compact tunable high brightness electron and radiation sources

  14. High-performance control system for a heavy-ion medical accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, H.D.; Magyary, S.B.; Sah, R.C.

    1983-03-01

    A high performance control system is being designed as part of a heavy ion medical accelerator. The accelerator will be a synchrotron dedicated to clinical and other biomedical uses of heavy ions, and it will deliver fully stripped ions at energies up to 800 MeV/nucleon. A key element in the design of an accelerator which will operate in a hospital environment is to provide a high performance control system. This control system will provide accelerator modeling to facilitate changes in operating mode, provide automatic beam tuning to simplify accelerator operations, and provide diagnostics to enhance reliability. The control system being designed utilizes many microcomputers operating in parallel to collect and transmit data; complex numerical computations are performed by a powerful minicomputer. In order to provide the maximum operational flexibility, the Medical Accelerator control system will be capable of dealing with pulse-to-pulse changes in beam energy and ion species.

  15. Pulsed high field magnets. An efficient way of shaping laser accelerated proton beams for application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Florian; Schramm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Bagnoud, Vincent; Blazevic, Abel; Busold, Simon [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Jena, 07734 Jena (Germany); Brabetz, Christian; Schumacher, Dennis [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Deppert, Oliver; Jahn, Diana; Roth, Markus [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Karsch, Leonhard; Masood, Umar [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Kraft, Stephan [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Compact laser-driven proton accelerators are a potential alternative to complex, expensive conventional accelerators, enabling unique beam properties, like ultra-high pulse dose. Nevertheless, they still require substantial development in reliable beam generation and transport. We present experimental studies on capture, shape and transport of laser and conventionally accelerated protons via pulsed high-field magnets. These magnets, common research tools in the fields of solid state physics, have been adapted to meet the demands of laser acceleration experiments.Our work distinctively shows that pulsed magnet technology makes laser acceleration more suitable for application and can facilitate compact and efficient accelerators, e.g. for material research as well as medical and biological purposes.

  16. High-performance control system for a heavy-ion medical accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, H.D.; Magyary, S.B.; Sah, R.C.

    1983-03-01

    A high performance control system is being designed as part of a heavy ion medical accelerator. The accelerator will be a synchrotron dedicated to clinical and other biomedical uses of heavy ions, and it will deliver fully stripped ions at energies up to 800 MeV/nucleon. A key element in the design of an accelerator which will operate in a hospital environment is to provide a high performance control system. This control system will provide accelerator modeling to facilitate changes in operating mode, provide automatic beam tuning to simplify accelerator operations, and provide diagnostics to enhance reliability. The control system being designed utilizes many microcomputers operating in parallel to collect and transmit data; complex numerical computations are performed by a powerful minicomputer. In order to provide the maximum operational flexibility, the Medical Accelerator control system will be capable of dealing with pulse-to-pulse changes in beam energy and ion species

  17. Nuclear design aspect of the Korean high intensity proton accelerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jonghwa; Song, Tae-Yung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Yusong, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-11-01

    A plan to construct a high current proton accelerator has been proposed by KAERI. We are presenting the required nuclear design to support the project as well as a brief overview of the proposed proton accelerator. The target and core design is highlighted to show feasibility of incineration of minor actinides from the spent fuel of light water reactors. Radiation shielding and activation analyses are also important for the design and the license of the accelerator. (author)

  18. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, S.A.; Puzynin, I.V.; Samoilov, V.N.; Sissakian, A.N. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    The project of a high current pulsed linear ion accelerator is described in this paper. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, a system of charge and energy separation, an inductor accelerator and an output system. The ion source with explosive ion emission can produce all kinds of ions. The separation system includes a pulsed magnetic system. The inductors are based on amorphous iron with inside magnetic elements. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  19. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Puzynin, I.V.; Samoilov, V.N.; Sissakian, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    The project of a high current pulsed linear ion accelerator is described in this paper. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, a system of charge and energy separation, an inductor accelerator and an output system. The ion source with explosive ion emission can produce all kinds of ions. The separation system includes a pulsed magnetic system. The inductors are based on amorphous iron with inside magnetic elements. 3 refs., 3 figs

  20. Optical design for increased interaction length in a high gradient dielectric laser accelerator

    OpenAIRE

    Cesar, D.; Maxson, J.; Musumeci, P.; Shen, X.; England, R. J.; Wootton, K. P.

    2018-01-01

    We present a methodology for designing and measuring pulse front tilt in an ultrafast laser for use in dielectric laser acceleration. Previous research into dielectric laser accelerating modules has focused on measuring high accelerating gradients in novel structures, but has done so only for short electron-laser coupling lengths. Here we demonstrate an optical design to extend the laser-electron interaction to 1mm.

  1. High-Confidence Flow Accelerated Corrosion Screening Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyung Ha; Kim, Ji Hak; Hwang, Il Soon; Lee, Na Young; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2008-01-01

    All carbon steel pipes with fluid traveling through it could potentially be threatened by flowing fluid have a potential threat of Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC). FAC in a nuclear power plant (NPP) could cause not only pipe failure leading but fatalities sometimes. It is almost impossible to inspect all carbon steel pipes in NPPs, and FAC prediction programs such as CHECWORKS, WATHEC, and BRT-CICERO have limited capability to in predicting FAC area

  2. High-gradient two-beam electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-11-04

    The main goal for this project was to design, build, and evaluate a detuned-cavity, collinear, two-beam accelerator structure. Testing was to be at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory, under terms of a sub-grant from Omega-P to Yale. Facilities available at Yale for this project include a 6-MeV S-band RF gun and associated beam line for forming and transporting a ~1 A drive beam , a 300 kV beam source for use as a test beam, and a full panoply of laboratory infrastructure and test equipment. During the first year of this project, availability and functionality of the 6-MeV drive beam and 300 kV test beam were confirmed, and the beam line was restored to a layout to be used with the two-beam accelerator project. Major efforts during the first year were also focused on computational design and simulation of the accelerator structure itself, on beam dynamics, and on beam transport. Effort during the second year was focussed on building and preparing to test the structure, including extensive cold testing. Detailed results from work under this project have been published in twelve archival journal articles, listed in Section IV of the technical report.

  3. Los Alamos High-Brightness Accelerator FEL (HIBAF) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelius, W.D.; Bender, S.; Meier, K.; Thode, L.E.; Watson, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The 10-/mu/m Los Alamos free-electron laser (FEL) facility is being upgraded. The conventional electron gun and bunchers have been replaced with a much more compact 6-MeV photoinjector accelerator. By adding existing parts from previous experiments, the primary beam energy will be doubled to 40 MeV. With the existing 1-m wiggler (/lambda//sub w/ = 2.7 cm) and resonator, the facility can produce photons with wavelengths from 3 to 100 /mu/m when lasing on the fundamental mode and produce photons in the visible spectrum with short-period wigglers or harmonic operation. After installation of a 150/degree/ bend, a second wiggler will be added as an amplifier. The installation of laser transport tubes between the accelerator vault and an upstairs laboratory will provide experimenters with a radiation-free environment for experiments. Although the initial experimental program of the upgraded facility will be to test the single accelerator-master oscillator/power amplifier configuration, some portion of the operational time of the facility can be dedicated to user experiments. 13 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. SIS: an accelerator installation for heavy ions of high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two major sections of the report cover the scientific experimental program and the accelerator installation. Topics covered in the first include: heavy ion physics in the medium energy region; nuclear physics at relativistic energies; atomic physics loss and capture cross sections for electrons; spectroscopy of few-electron systems; atomic collision processes; biological experiments; nuclear track techniques in biology; and experiments with protons and secondary radiation. The second includes: concept for the total installation; technical description of the SIS 12; technical description of the SIS 100; status of the UNILAC injector; development options for the SIS installations; properties of the heavy ion beam; and structural work and technical supply provisions. In this SIS project proposal, an accelerator installation based on two synchrotrons is described with which atomic nuclei up to uranium can be accelerated to energies of more than 10 GeV/μ. With the SIS 12, which is the name of the first stage, heavy ion physics at intermediate energies can be pursued up to 500 MeV/μ. The second stage, a larger synchrotron, the SIS 100, has a diameter of 250 m. With this device, it is proposed to open up the domain of relativistic heavy ion physics up to 14 GeV/μ (for intermediate mass particles) and 10 GeV/μ (for uranium)

  5. High Precision Survey and Alignment of Large Linear Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Prenting, J

    2004-01-01

    For the future linear accelerator TESLA the demanded accuracy for the alignment of the components is 0.5 mm horizontal and 0.2 mm vertical, both on each 600 m section. Other accelerators require similar accuracies. These demands can not be fulfilled with open-air geodetic methods, mainly because of refraction. Therefore the RTRS (Rapid Tunnel Reference Surveyor), a measurement train performing overlapping multipoint alignment on a reference network is being developed. Two refraction-free realizations of this concept are being developed at the moment: the first one (GeLiS) measures the horizontal co-ordinates using stretched wires, combined with photogrammetric split-image sensors in a distance measurement configuration. In areas of the tunnel where the accelerator is following the earth curvature GeLiS measures the height using a new hydrostatic leveling system. The second concept (LiCAS) is based on laser straightness monitors (LSM) combined with frequency scanning interferometry (FSI) in an evacuated system...

  6. High energy neutrinos from astrophysical accelerators of cosmic ray nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Hooper, Dan; Sarkar, Subir; Taylor, Andrew M.

    2008-02-01

    Ongoing experimental efforts to detect cosmic sources of high energy neutrinos are guided by the expectation that astrophysical accelerators of cosmic ray protons would also generate neutrinos through interactions with ambient matter and/or photons. However, there will be a reduction in the predicted neutrino flux if cosmic ray sources accelerate not only protons but also significant numbers of heavier nuclei, as is indicated by recent air shower data. We consider plausible extragalactic sources such as active galactic nuclei, gamma ray bursts and starburst galaxies and demand consistency with the observed cosmic ray composition and energy spectrum at Earth after allowing for propagation through intergalactic radiation fields. This allows us to calculate the expected neutrino fluxes from the sources, normalized to the observed cosmic ray spectrum. We find that the likely signals are still within reach of next generation neutrino telescopes such as IceCube.PACS95.85.Ry98.70.Rz98.54.Cm98.54.EpReferencesFor a review, see:F.HalzenD.HooperRep. Prog. Phys.6520021025A.AchterbergIceCube CollaborationPhys. Rev. Lett.972006221101A.AchterbergIceCube CollaborationAstropart. Phys.262006282arXiv:astro-ph/0611063arXiv:astro-ph/0702265V.NiessANTARES CollaborationAIP Conf. Proc.8672006217I.KravchenkoPhys. Rev. D732006082002S.W.BarwickANITA CollaborationPhys. Rev. Lett.962006171101V.Van ElewyckPierre Auger CollaborationAIP Conf. Proc.8092006187For a survey of possible sources and event rates in km3 detectors see e.g.,W.BednarekG.F.BurgioT.MontaruliNew Astron. Rev.4920051M.D.KistlerJ.F.BeacomPhys. Rev. D742006063007A. Kappes, J. Hinton, C. Stegmann, F.A. Aharonian, arXiv:astro-ph/0607286.A.LevinsonE.WaxmanPhys. Rev. Lett.872001171101C.DistefanoD.GuettaE.WaxmanA.LevinsonAstrophys. J.5752002378F.A.AharonianL.A.AnchordoquiD.KhangulyanT.MontaruliJ. Phys. Conf. Ser.392006408J.Alvarez-MunizF.HalzenAstrophys. J.5762002L33F.VissaniAstropart. Phys.262006310F.W

  7. Modeling high-Power Accelerators Reliability-SNS LINAC (SNS-ORNL); MAX LINAC (MYRRHA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitigoi, A. E.; Fernandez Ramos, P.

    2013-01-01

    Improving reliability has recently become a very important objective in the field of particle accelerators. The particle accelerators in operation are constantly undergoing modifications, and improvements are implemented using new technologies, more reliable components or redundant schemes (to obtain more reliability, strength, more power, etc.) A reliability model of SNS (Spallation Neutron Source) LINAC has been developed within MAX project and analysis of the accelerator systems reliability has been performed within the MAX project, using the Risk Spectrum reliability analysis software. The analysis results have been evaluated by comparison with the SNS operational data. Results and conclusions are presented in this paper, oriented to identify design weaknesses and provide recommendations for improving reliability of MYRRHA linear accelerator. The SNS reliability model developed for the MAX preliminary design phase indicates possible avenues for further investigation that could be needed to improve the reliability of the high-power accelerators, in view of the future reliability targets of ADS accelerators.

  8. Highly Productive Application Development with ViennaCL for Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, K.; Weinbub, J.; Rudolf, F.

    2012-12-01

    The use of graphics processing units (GPUs) for the acceleration of general purpose computations has become very attractive over the last years, and accelerators based on many integrated CPU cores are about to hit the market. However, there are discussions about the benefit of GPU computing when comparing the reduction of execution times with the increased development effort [1]. To counter these concerns, our open-source linear algebra library ViennaCL [2,3] uses modern programming techniques such as generic programming in order to provide a convenient access layer for accelerator and GPU computing. Other GPU-accelerated libraries are primarily tuned for performance, but less tailored to productivity and portability: MAGMA [4] provides dense linear algebra operations via a LAPACK-comparable interface, but no dedicated matrix and vector types. Cusp [5] is closest in functionality to ViennaCL for sparse matrices, but is based on CUDA and thus restricted to devices from NVIDIA. However, no convenience layer for dense linear algebra is provided with Cusp. ViennaCL is written in C++ and uses OpenCL to access the resources of accelerators, GPUs and multi-core CPUs in a unified way. On the one hand, the library provides iterative solvers from the family of Krylov methods, including various preconditioners, for the solution of linear systems typically obtained from the discretization of partial differential equations. On the other hand, dense linear algebra operations are supported, including algorithms such as QR factorization and singular value decomposition. The user application interface of ViennaCL is compatible to uBLAS [6], which is part of the peer-reviewed Boost C++ libraries [7]. This allows to port existing applications based on uBLAS with a minimum of effort to ViennaCL. Conversely, the interface compatibility allows to use the iterative solvers from ViennaCL with uBLAS types directly, thus enabling code reuse beyond CPU-GPU boundaries. Out-of-the-box support

  9. Application of high power modulated intense relativistic electron beams for development of Wake Field Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.

    1989-01-01

    This final Progress Report addresses DOE-sponsored research on the development of future high-gradient particle accelerators. The experimental and the theoretical research, which lasted three years, investigated the Two Beam Accelerator (TBA). This high-voltage-gradient accelerator was powered by a modulated intense relativistic electron beam (MIREB) of power >10 10 watts. This research was conceived after a series of successful experiments performed at NRL generating and using MIREBs. This work showed that an RF structure could be built which was directly powered by a modulated intense relativistic electron beam. This structure was then used to accelerate a second electron beam. At the end of the three year project the proof-of-principle accelerator demonstrated the generation of a high current beam of electrons with energy >60 MeV. Scaling laws needed to design practical devices for future applications were also derived

  10. R and D status of high-current accelerators at IFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, J. J.; Shi, J. S.; Xie, W. P.

    2011-01-01

    High-current accelerators have many important applications in Z-pinches, high-power microwaves, and free electron lasers, imploding liners and radiography and so on. Research activities on Z-pinches, imploding liners, radiography at the Institute of Fluid Physics (IFP) are introduced. Several main high-current accelerators developed and being developed at IFP are described, such as the Linear Induction Accelerator X-Ray Facility Upgrade (LIAXFU, 12 MeV, 2.5 kA, 90 ns), the Dragon-I linear induction accelerator (20 MeV, 2.5 kA, 60 ns), and the Primary Test Stand for Z-pinch (PTS, 10 MA, 120 ns). The design of Dragon-II linear induction accelerator (20 MeV, 2.5 kA, 3 x 60 ns) to be built will be presented briefly.

  11. Development plan of basic technology for a high intensity proton linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    The national program called OMEGA (Option Making Extra Gains from Actinide and Fission Products) has started with the aim of promoting the research and development of the new technologies for nuclear waste partitioning and transmutation. As a part of this program, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, JAERI, has laid out several R and D plans for accelerator based actinide transmutation. The present article first outlines the status of the high intensity proton linear accelerator. Then it describes the time schedule for the development of a high intensity proton linac, focusing on the first step development (basic technology accelerator), second step development (engineering test accelerator, and third step development (commercial plant). It also outlines the conceptual design study and preliminary design calculations for basic technology accelerator, focusing on general consideration, ion source, radio frequency quadrupole, drift tube linac, and high beta linac. (N.K.)

  12. Manufacturing of ultra high vacuum compatible accelerator and laser components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundra, G.; Sharma, S.D.; Bhatnagar, V.

    2015-01-01

    For carrying out advanced basic research, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, (RRCAT) had set up 450 MeV and 2.5 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Sources. Many beamlines are being utilized by researchers from various universities and institutions of the country. Centre has also developed various lasers that find application in various front line areas like medicine, industry and research. To cater the need of manufacturing for these programs, an advanced and versatile manufacturing development center was established, called Accelerator Components Design and Fabrication Section (ACDFS),

  13. High precision survey and alignment techniques in accelerator construction

    CERN Document Server

    Gervaise, J

    1974-01-01

    Basic concepts of precision surveying are briefly reviewed, and an historical account is given of instruments and techniques used during the construction of the Proton Synchrotron (1954-59), the Intersecting Storage Rings (1966-71), and the Super Proton Synchrotron (1971). A nylon wire device, distinvar, invar wire and tape, and recent automation of the gyrotheodolite and distinvar as well as auxiliary equipment (polyurethane jacks, Centipede) are discussed in detail. The paper ends summarizing the present accuracy in accelerator metrology, giving an outlook of possible improvement, and some aspects of staffing for the CERN Survey Group. (0 refs).

  14. Photographic film dosimetry for high-energy accelerator radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komochkov, M.M.; Salatskaya, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for personnel photographic film dosimetry (PPFDN) of wide energy spectrum neutrons intended for measuring the effect of accelerating device radiation on personnel is described. Procedures of data measurement and processing as well as corrections to hadron contribution are presented. It is noted that the PPFDN method permits to measure a neutron dose equivalent for personnel in the range from 0.01 to 0.02 up to 100 rem, if the relativistic neutron contribution to a total dose does not exceed 5%. The upper limit of the measured dose reduced several times for a greater contribution of relativistic neutrons to the total dose [ru

  15. Superstructure for high current applications in superconducting linear accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekutowicz, Jacek [Elbchaussee, DE; Kneisel, Peter [Williamsburg, VA

    2008-03-18

    A superstructure for accelerating charged particles at relativistic speeds. The superstructure consists of two weakly coupled multi-cell subunits equipped with HOM couplers. A beam pipe connects the subunits and an HOM damper is included at the entrance and the exit of each of the subunits. A coupling device feeds rf power into the subunits. The subunits are constructed of niobium and maintained at cryogenic temperatures. The length of the beam pipe between the subunits is selected to provide synchronism between particles and rf fields in both subunits.

  16. Technical development of high intensity proton accelerators in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu

    1995-01-01

    Science and Technology Agency decided 'Options making extra gains of actinides and fission products (OMEGA)' and to promote the related researches. Also in JAERI, the research on the group separation method for separating transuranic elements, strontium and cesium from high level radioactive wastes has been carried out since the beginning of 1970s. Also the concept of the fast reactors using minor actinide mixture fuel is being established, and the accelerator annihilation treatment utilizing the nuclear spallation reaction by high energy protons has been examined. In this report, from the viewpoint of the application of accelerators to atomic energy field, the annihilation treatment method by the nuclear spallation reaction utilizing high intensity proton accelerators, the plan of the various engineering utilization of proton beam, and the development of accelerators in JAERI are described. The way of thinking on the annihilation treatment of radioactive waste, the system using fast neutrons, the way of thinking on the development of high intensity proton accelerator technology, the steps of the development, the research and development for constructing the basic technology accelerator, 2 MeV beam acceleration test, the basic technology accelerator utilization facility and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  17. Implementation of the technique of partial irradiation accelerated the breast with high doses (HDR) brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Lopez, M. Y.; Pardo Perez, E.; Castro Novais, J.; Martinez Ortega, J.; Ruiz Maqueda, S.; Cerro Penalver, E. del

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is presents procedure carried out in our Centre for the implementation of the accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI, accelerated partial-breast irradiation) with high-rate brachytherapy (HDR), using plastic tubes as applicators. Carried out measures, the evaluation of the dosimetric parameters analyzing and presenting the results. (Author)

  18. Choice of initial operating parameters for high average current linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, K.

    1976-01-01

    In designing an accelerator for high currents it is evident that beam losses in the machine must be minimized, which implies well matched beams, and that adequate acceptance under severe space charge conditions must be met. This paper investigates the input parameters to an Alvarez type drift-tube accelerator resulting from such factors

  19. Analysis and design of a slotless tubular permanent magnet actuator for high acceleration applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meessen, K.J.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a linear actuator for high acceleration applications. In the analysis, a slotless tubular permanent magnet actuator is modeled by means of semianalytical field solutions. Several slotless topologies are modeled and compared to achieve the highest acceleration. A

  20. Reliability and availability of high power proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.

    1999-01-01

    It has become increasingly important to address the issues of operational reliability and availability of an accelerator complex early in its design and construction phases. In this context, reliability addresses the mean time between failures and the failure rate, and availability takes into account the failure rate as well as the length of time required to repair the failure. Methods to reduce failure rates include reduction of the number of components and over-design of certain key components. Reduction of the on-line repair time can be achieved by judiciously designed hardware, quick-service spare systems and redundancy. In addition, provisions for easy inspection and maintainability are important for both reduction of the failure rate as well as reduction of the time to repair. The radiation safety exposure principle of ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) is easier to comply with when easy inspection capability and easy maintainability are incorporated into the design. Discussions of past experience in improving accelerator availability, some recent developments, and potential R and D items are presented. (author)

  1. Can low energy electrons affect high energy physics accelerators?

    CERN Document Server

    Cimino, R; Furman, M A; Pivi, M; Ruggiero, F; Rumolo, Giovanni; Zimmermann, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The properties of the electrons participating in the build up of an electron cloud (EC) inside the beam-pipe have become an increasingly important issue for present and future accelerators whose performance may be limited by this effect. The EC formation and evolution are determined by the wall-surface properties of the accelerator vacuum chamber. Thus, the accurate modeling of these surface properties is an indispensible input to simulation codes aimed at the correct prediction of build-up thresholds, electron-induced instability or EC heat load. In this letter, we present the results of surface measurements performed on a prototype of the beam screen adopted for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which presently is under construction at CERN. We have measured the total secondary electron yield (SEY) as well as the related energy distribution curves (EDC) of the secondary electrons as a function of incident electron energy. Attention has been paid, for the first time in this context, to the probability at whic...

  2. Can Low Energy Electrons Affect High Energy Physics Accelerators?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimino, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    The properties of the electrons participating in the build up of an electron cloud (EC) inside the beam-pipe have become an increasingly important issue for present and future accelerators whose performance may be limited by this effect. The EC formation and evolution are determined by the wall-surface properties of the accelerator vacuum chamber. Thus, the accurate modeling of these surface properties is an indispensible input to simulation codes aimed at the correct prediction of build-up thresholds, electron-induced instability or EC heat load. In this letter, we present the results of surface measurements performed on a prototype of the beam screen adopted for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which presently is under construction at CERN. We have measured the total secondary electron yield (SEY) as well as the related energy distribution curves (EDC) of the secondary electrons as a function of incident electron energy. Attention has been paid, for the first time in this context, to the probability at which low-energy electrons (<∼ 20 eV) impacting on the wall create secondaries or are elastically reflected. It is shown that the ratio of reflected to true-secondary electrons increases for decreasing energy and that the SEY approaches unity in the limit of zero primary electron energy

  3. A conceptual design of the RF system for the NSP high intensity proton accelerator at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chishiro, Etsuji; Kusano, Joichi; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Touchi, Yutaka; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Takado, Hiroshi; Sawada, Junichi

    1999-03-01

    JAERI has been proposing the Neutron Science Project which aims at exploring the fields of basic science and nuclear technology using a high power spallation neutron source. The neutron source will be driven by a high intensity linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average beam current of 5.33 mA and beam power of 8 MW. The RF system for the accelerator consists of a high-energy accelerator part and a low energy accelerator part. The maximum RF power requirements at the high and low energy accelerator parts are 25 MW and 8.3 MW, respectively. In this report, we describe the conceptual design of the RF system. In the low energy accelerator part, we estimated the requirement for the high-power amplifier tube and made the basis design for RF components. In the high energy accelerator part, we studied the effect of tuning errors, Lorentz forces and microphonics in the superconducting cavity. We calculated the klystron efficiency and supply power in the arrangement of where one klystron distributes the RF power to four cavities. We also considered an IOT RF system. Finally, we describe the electrical capacity and quantity of cooling water in the RF system. (author)

  4. Theory of factors limiting high gradient operation of warm accelerating structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nusinovich, Gregory S. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2014-07-22

    This report consists of two parts. In the first part we describe a study of the heating of microprotrusions on surfaces of accelerating structures. This ;process is believed to lead to breakdown in these structures. Our study revealed that for current accelerator parameters melting should not occur due to space charge limitations of the current emitted by a protrusion. The second part describes a novel concept to develop THz range sources based on harmonic cyclotron masers for driving future colliders. This work was stimulated by a recent request of SLAC to develop high power, high-efficiency sources of sub-THz radiation for future high-gradient accelerators.

  5. The design of the extraction window of high power electron accelerator used in flue gas desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Tongqi; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai; Hu Wei; Sun Guangkui; Shi Weiguo; Li Minxi; Zhang Yutian; Pu Gengqiang

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the pollution caused by industrial exhaust gas, especially, the air pollution and acid rain resulting from the sulfur of exhaust gas, is increasingly drawing people's attention. The flue gas desulfurization by electron beam produced by high-power electron accelerator has the characteristics of high efficiency and non-secondary contamination. As one of the most pivotal part of accelerator, the service lifetime of this extraction window directly effects the stable operation of the device. In this paper, a brief review is given to summarize the advantages, material selecting, structure, replacing, maintaining of the extraction window of high-power electron accelerator developed by SINAP. (authors)

  6. A high-power rf linear accelerator for FELS [free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.; Watson, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a high average current rf linear accelerator suitable for driving short-wavelength free-electron lasers (FEL). It is concluded that the design of a room-temperature rf linear acelerator that can meet the stringent requirements of a high-power short-wavelength FEL appears possible. The accelerator requires the use of an advanced photoelectric injector that is under development; the accelerator components, however, do not require appreciable development. At these large beam currents, low-frequency, large-bore room-temperature cavities can be highly efficient and give all specified performance with minimal risk. 20 refs

  7. High voltage tests of an electrostatic accelerator for different mixtures of gases at various pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellborg, R.

    1996-01-01

    An account is given of high voltage tests of an electrostatic accelerator. High voltage conditioning is measured and is reported for the same accelerator tube after different periods of usage. Tests of different mixtures of sulphur hexafluoride and nitrogen have been performed. A considerable amount of data was obtained for various parameters connected with the high voltage system for different proportions of nitrogen in sulphur hexafluoride at various gas pressures. (orig.)

  8. Final Report for 'Modeling Electron Cloud Diagnostics for High-Intensity Proton Accelerators'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitzer, Seth A.

    2009-01-01

    Electron clouds in accelerators such as the ILC degrade beam quality and limit operating efficiency. The need to mitigate electron clouds has a direct impact on the design and operation of these accelerators, translating into increased cost and reduced performance. Diagnostic techniques for measuring electron clouds in accelerating cavities are needed to provide an assessment of electron cloud evolution and mitigation. Accurate numerical modeling of these diagnostics is needed to validate the experimental techniques. In this Phase I, we developed detailed numerical models of microwave propagation through electron clouds in accelerating cavities with geometries relevant to existing and future high-intensity proton accelerators such as Project X and the ILC. Our numerical techniques and simulation results from the Phase I showed that there was a high probability of success in measuring both the evolution of electron clouds and the effects of non-uniform electron density distributions in Phase II.

  9. Conceptual study of high power proton linac for accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingchang; Ouyang Huafu; Xu Taoguang

    2002-01-01

    As a prior option of the next generation of energy source, the accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system (ADS) can use efficiently the uranium and thorium resource, transmute the high-level long-lived radioactive wastes and raise nuclear safety. The ADS accelerator should provide the proton beam with tens megawatts. The superconducting linac is a good selection of ADS accelerator because of its high efficiency and low beam loss rate. The ADS accelerator presented by the authors consists of a 5 MeV radio-frequency quadrupole, a 100 MeV independently phased superconducting cavity linac and a 1 GeV elliptical superconducting cavity linac. The accelerating structures and main parameters are determined and the research and development plan is considered

  10. Conceptual study of high power proton linac for accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Qi; Ouyang Hua Fu; Xu Tao Guang

    2001-01-01

    As a prior option of the next generation of energy source, the accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system (ADS) can use efficiently the uranium and thorium resource, transmute the high-level long-lived radioactive wastes and raise nuclear safety. The ADS accelerator should provide the proton beam with tens megawatts. The superconducting linac is a good selection of ADS accelerator because of its high efficiency and low beam loss rate. The ADS accelerator presented by the consists of a 5 MeV radio-frequency quadrupole, a 100 MeV independently phased superconducting cavity linac and a 1 GeV elliptical superconducting cavity linac. The accelerating structures and main parameters are determined and the research and development plan is considered

  11. Bridging the gap between high and low acceleration for planetary escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrikis, Janis; Preble, Jeffrey C.

    With the exception of the often time consuming analysis by numerical optimization, no single orbit transfer analysis technique exists that can be applied over a wide range of accelerations. Using the simple planetary escape (parabolic trajectory) mission some of the more common techniques are considered as the limiting bastions at the high and the extremely low acceleration regimes. The brachistochrone, the minimum time of flight path, is proposed as the technique to bridge the gap between the high and low acceleration regions, providing a smooth bridge over the entire acceleration spectrum. A smooth and continuous velocity requirement is established for the planetary escape mission. By using these results, it becomes possible to determine the effect of finite accelerations on mission performance and target propulsion and power system designs which are consistent with a desired mission objective.

  12. Plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de; Johnston, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  13. High current, high energy proton beams accelerated by a sub-nanosecond laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Margarone, Daniele; Krása, Josef; Picciotto, A.; Torrisi, L.; Láska, Leoš; Velyhan, Andriy; Prokůpek, Jan; Ryc, L.; Parys, P.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Rus, Bedřich

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 653, č. 1 (2011), s. 159-163 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/1165; GA AV ČR IAA100100715; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E09092 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 212105 - ELI-PP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser-acceleration * proton beam * high ion current * time -of-flight * proton energy distribution Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  14. High voltage high brightness electron accelerator with MITL voltage adder coupled to foilless diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poulkey, J.W.; Rovang, D.

    1995-01-01

    The design and analysis of a high brightness electron beam experiment under construction at Sandia National Laboratory is presented. The beam energy is 12 MeV, the current 35-40 kA, the rms radius 0.5 mm, and the pulse duration FWHM 40 ns. The accelerator is SABRE a pulsed inductive voltage adder, and the electron source is a magnetically immersed foilless diode. This experiment has as its goal to stretch the technology to the edge and produce the highest possible electron current in a submillimeter radius beam

  15. Application of radiofrequency superconductivity to accelerators for high-current ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.; Bohn, C.L.; Kennedy, W.L.; Roche, C.T.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1992-01-01

    A development program is underway to apply rf superconductivity to the design of continuous-wave (cw) linear accelerators for high-current, high-brightness ion beam. During the last few years, considerable progress has been made both experimentally and theoretically toward this application. Recent tests of niobium resonators for ion acceleration have yielded average accelerating gradients as high as 18 MV/m. In an experiment with a radio-frequency quadrupole geometry, niobium was found to sustain cw peak surface electric fields as high as 128 MV/m over large (10 cm) surface areas. Theoretical studies of beam halo, cumulative beam breakup and alternating-phase focusing have also yielded important results. This paper su-summarizes the recent progress and identifies current and future work in the areas of superconducting accelerator technology for high-current ion beams

  16. High-voltage terminal test of a test stand for a 1-MV electrostatic accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Yu-Seok

    2015-10-01

    The Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex has been developing a 300-kV test stand for a 1-MV electrostatic accelerator ion source. The ion source and accelerating tube will be installed in a high-pressure vessel. The ion source in the high-pressure vessel is required to have a high reliability. The test stand has been proposed and developed to confirm the stable operating conditions of the ion source. The ion source will be tested at the test stand to verify the long-time operating conditions. The test stand comprises a 300-kV high-voltage terminal, a battery for the ion-source power, a 60-Hz inverter, 200-MHz radio-frequency power supply, a 5-kV extraction power supply, a 300-kV accelerating tube, and a vacuum system. The results of the 300-kV high-voltage terminal tests are presented in this paper.

  17. Experimental Studies of W-Band Accelerator Structures at High Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Marc E

    2001-02-09

    A high-gradient electron accelerator is desired for high-energy physics research, where frequency scalings of breakdown and trapping of itinerant beamline particles dictates operation of the accelerator at short wavelengths. The first results of design and test of a high-gradient mm-wave linac with an operating frequency at 91.392 GHz (W-band) are presented. A novel approach to particle acceleration is presented employing a planar, dielectric lined waveguide used for particle acceleration. The traveling wave fields in the planar dielectric accelerator (PDA) are analyzed for an idealized structure, along with a circuit equivalent model used for understanding the structure as a microwave circuit. Along with the W-band accelerator structures, other components designed and tested are high power rf windows, high power attenuators, and a high power squeeze-type phase shifter. The design of the accelerator and its components where eased with the aide of numerical simulations using a finite-difference electromagnetic field solver. Manufacturing considerations of the small, delicate mm-wave components and the steps taken to reach a robust fabrication process are detailed. These devices were characterized under low power using a two-port vector network analyzer to verify tune and match, including measurements of the structures' fields using a bead-pull. The measurements are compared with theory throughout. Addition studies of the W-band structures were performed under high power utilizing a 11.424 GHz electron linac as a current source. Test results include W-band power levels of 200 kW, corresponding to fields in the PDA of over 20 MV/m, a higher gradient than any collider. Planar accelerator devices naturally have an rf quadrupole component of the accelerating field. Presented for the first time are the measurements of this effect.

  18. FEM Techniques for High Stress Detection in Accelerated Fatigue Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, M.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the theory and a numerical validation study in support to a novel method for a priori identification of fatigue critical regions, with the aim to accelerate durability design in large FEM problems. The investigation is placed in the context of modern full-body structural durability analysis, where a computationally intensive dynamic solution could be required to identify areas with potential for fatigue damage initiation. The early detection of fatigue critical areas can drive a simplification of the problem size, leading to sensible improvement in solution time and model handling while allowing processing of the critical areas in higher detail. The proposed technique is applied to a real life industrial case in a comparative assessment with established practices. Synthetic damage prediction quantification and visualization techniques allow for a quick and efficient comparison between methods, outlining potential application benefits and boundaries.

  19. High field accelerator magnet R&D in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Devred, Arnaud; Bottura, L; Chorowski, M; Fabbricatore, P; Leroy, D; den Ouden, A; Rifflet, J M; Rossi, L; Vincent-Viry, O; Volpini, G

    2004-01-01

    The LHC magnet R&D program has shown that the limit of NbTi technology at 1.9 K was in the 10-to-10.5-T range. Hence, to go beyond the 10-T threshold, it is necessary to change the superconducting material. Given the state of the art in HTS, the only serious candidate is Nb$_{3}$Sn. A series of dipole magnet models built at Twente University and LBNL as well as a vigorous program carried out at Fermilab have demonstrated the feasibility of Nb$_{3}$Sn magnet technology. The next step is to bring this technology to maturity, which require further conductor and conductor insulation development and a simplification of manufacturing processes. After a brief history, we review ongoing R&D programs in Europe and we present the Next European Dipole (NED) initiative promoted by the European Steering Group on Accelerator R&D (ESGARD).

  20. Chemical warfare protection for the cockpit of future aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickl, William C.

    1988-01-01

    Currently systems are being developed which will filter chemical and biological contaminants from crew station air. In order to maximize the benefits of these systems, a method of keeping the cockpit contaminant free during pilot ingress and egress is needed. One solution is to use a rectangular plastic curtain to seal the four edges of the canopy frame to the canopy sill. The curtain is stored in a tray which is recessed into the canopy sill and unfolds in accordion fashion as the canopy is raised. A two way zipper developed by Calspan could be used as an airlock between the pilot's oversuit and the cockpit. This system eliminates the pilot's need for heavy and restrictive CB gear because he would never be exposed to the chemical warfare environment.

  1. Aircraft Cockpit Ergonomic Layout Evaluation Based on Uncertain Linguistic Multiattribute Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxuan Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the view of the current cockpit information interaction, facilities and other characteristics are increasingly multifarious; the early layout evaluation methods based on single or partial components, often cause comprehensive evaluation unilateral, leading to the problems of long development period and low efficiency. Considering the fuzziness of ergonomic evaluation and diversity of evaluation information attributes, we refine and build an evaluation system based on the characteristics of the current cockpit man-machine layout and introduce the different types of uncertain linguistic multiple attribute combination decision making (DTULDM method in the cockpit layout evaluation process. Meanwhile, we also establish an aircraft cockpit ergonomic layout evaluation model. Finally, an experiment about cockpit layout evaluation is given, and the result demonstrates that the proposed method about cockpit ergonomic layout evaluation is feasible and effective.

  2. Characteristics of high gradient insulators for accelerator and high power flow applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizondo, J.M.; Krogh, M.L.; Smith, D.

    1997-07-01

    The high gradient insulator has been demonstrated to operate at levels comparable or better than special geometry or coated insulators. Some patented insulator configurations allow for sophisticated accelerator structures, high power flow interfaces, and microwave applications not previously possible. Sophisticated manufacturing techniques available at AlliedSignal FM and T made this development possible. Bipolar and high power flow applications are specially suited for present insulator designs. The insulator shows a beneficial effect when used under RF fields or RF structures. These insulators can be designed, to a first approximation, from simple electron flight path equations. With a recently developed model of surface flashover physics the authors completed a set of design calculations that include effects such as layer density and dielectric/metal thickness. Experimental data, obtained in the last few years of development, is presented and reviewed. Several insulator fabrication characteristics, indicating critical design parameters, are also presented

  3. Cryogenics for high-energy particle accelerators: highlights from the first fifty years

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067931

    2017-01-01

    Applied superconductivity has become a key technology for high-energy particle accelerators, allowing to reach higher beam energy while containing size, capital expenditure and operating costs. Large and powerful cryogenic systems are therefore ancillary to low-temperature superconducting accelerator devices – magnets and high-frequency cavities – distributed over multi-kilometre distances and operating generally close to the normal boiling point of helium, but also above 4.2 K in supercritical and down to below 2 K in superfluid. Additionally, low-temperature operation in accelerators may also be required by considerations of ultra-high vacuum, limited stored energy and beam stability. We discuss the rationale for cryogenics in high-energy particle accelerators, review its development over the past half-century and present its outlook in future large projects, with reference to the main engineering domains of cryostat design and heat loads, cooling schemes, efficient power refrigeration and cryogenic flu...

  4. Transport and acceleration of the high-current ion beam in magneto-isolated gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karas', V.I.; Kornilov, E.A.; Manuilenko, O.V.; Fedorovskaya, O.V.; Tarakanov, V.P.

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of transportation and acceleration of the high-current ion beam in the magneto-isolated gap has been demonstrated. Found the parameters of the system and beams (the magnetic field produced by the coils with opposing currents, the size of the system, and the parameters of the beams), under which the uniform acceleration of the high-current ion beam all along the gap length is realized. It is shown that the quality of the ion beam, during transport and acceleration, at the exit of the gap is acceptable for many technological applications.

  5. Design concept of radiation control system for the high intensity proton accelerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Yukihiro; Ikeno, Koichi; Akiyama, Shigenori; Harada, Yasunori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    Description is given for the characteristic radiation environment for the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility and the design concept of the radiation control system of it. The facility is a large scale accelerator complex consisting of high energy proton accelerators carrying the highest beam intensity in the world and the related experimental facilities and therefore provides various issues relevant to the radiation environment. The present report describes the specifications for the radiation control system for the facility, determined in consideration of these characteristics. (author)

  6. High gradient test of the C-band choke-mode type accelerating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, T.; Shintake, T.; Baba, H.; Togawa, K.; Onoe, K.; Marechal, X.; Takashima, T.; Takahashi, S.; Matsumoto, H.

    2004-01-01

    The C-band (5712 MHz) choke-mode type accelerating structure will be used for SPring-8 Compact SASE-FEL Source (SCSS). To make the accelerator length short, we designed the field gradient as high as 40 MV/m. Since it is higher gradient than other traditional electron accelerators, we have to carefully check its performance (RF breakdown, dark current emission, etc.) in the high gradient test stand. The first experiment will be scheduled in this summer. In this paper, we will describe the preparation progress for the test. (author)

  7. SLAC High Gradient Testing of a KEK X-Band Accelerator Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewen, Rod

    2000-01-01

    The high accelerating gradients required for future linear colliders demands a better study of field emission and RF breakdown in accelerator structures. Changes in structure geometry, vacuum pumping, fabrication methods, and surface finish can all potentially impact the conditioning process, dark current emission, and peak RF power handling capability. Recent tests at SLAC of KEK's ''M2'' travelling wave x-band accelerator section provides an opportunity to investigate some of these effects by comparing its performance to previously high power tested structures at SLAC. In addition to studying ultimate power limitations, this test also demonstrates the use of computer automated conditioning to reach practical, achievable gradients

  8. Machine Protection and High Energy Density States in Matter for High Energy Hadron Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco Sancho, Juan; Schmidt, R

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the largest accelerator in the world. It is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7TeV. The energy stored in each beam is 362MJ, sufficient to melt 500kg of copper. An accidental release of even a small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. Machine protection systems are essential to safely operate the accelerator and handle all possible accidents. This thesis deals with the study of different failure scenarios and its possible consequences. It addresses failure scenarios ranging from low intensity losses on high-Z materials and superconductors to high intensity losses on carbon and copper collimators. Low beam losses are sufficient to quench the superconducting magnets and the stabilized superconducting cables (bus-bars) that connects the main magnets. If this occurs and the energy from the bus-bar is not extracted fast enough it can lead to a situation similar to the accident in 2008 at LHC during pow...

  9. Beyond Cockpit-ism: Four Insights to Enhance the Transformative Potential of the Sustainable Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Hajer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG have the potential to become a powerful political vision that can support the urgently needed global transition to a shared and lasting prosperity. In December 2014, the United Nations (UN Secretary General published his report on the SDGs. However, the final goals and targets that will be adopted by the UN General Assembly in September 2015 risk falling short of expectations because of what we call “cockpit-ism”: the illusion that top-down steering by governments and intergovernmental organizations alone can address global problems. In view of the limited effectiveness of intergovernmental efforts and questions about the capacity of national governments to affect change, the SDGs need to additionally mobilize new agents of change such as businesses, cities and civil society. To galvanize such a broad set of actors, multiple perspectives on sustainable development are needed that respond to the various motives and logics of change of these different actors. We propose four connected perspectives which can strengthen the universal relevance of the SDGs: “planetary boundaries” to stress the urgency of addressing environmental concerns and to target governments to take responsibility for (global public goods; “the safe and just operating space” to highlight the interconnectedness of social and environmental concerns and its distributive consequences; “the energetic society” to benefit from the willingness of a broad group of actors worldwide to take action; and “green competition” to stimulate innovation and new business practices. To realize the transformative potential of the SDGs, these four perspectives should be reflected in the focus and content of the SDGs that will be negotiated in the run up to September 2015 and its further implementation.

  10. Status of spallation neutron source program in High Intensity Proton Accelerator Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Yukio

    2001-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and High Energy Accelerator Organization are jointly designing a 1 MW spallation neutron source as one of the research facilities planned in the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Project. The spallation neutron source is driven by 3 GeV proton beam with a mercury target and liquid hydrogen moderators. The present status of design for these spallation source and relevant facility is overviewed. (author)

  11. Acceleration of high charge density electron beams in the SLAC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, J.C.; Clendenin, J.E.; Jobe, R.K.; Lueth, V.G.; Millich, A.; Ross, M.C.; Seeman, J.T.; Stiening, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) will require both electron and positron beams of very high charge density and low emittance to be accelerated to about 50 GeV in the SLAC 3-km linac. The linac is in the process of being improved to meet this requirement. The program to accelerate an electron beam of high charge density through the first third of the SLC linac is described and the experimental results are discussed. 7 references, 5 figures

  12. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, S A; Puzynin, I V; Samojlov, V N; Sissakyan, A N [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    A new high-current pulsed linear induction accelerator proposed for application in beam-driven transmutation technologies is described. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, of ion separation and induction accelerating systems, and of an output system for extracting an ion beam into open air. An ion source with explosive ion emission, capable of producing various kinds of ions, is used as an injector. The ion separator exploits a pulsed magnetic system. The induction acceleration structure includes inductors with amorphous iron cores. Imbedded magnetic elements assure the ion beam transport. Main parameters of the accelerator are given in the paper and the design of an ion injector is discussed in more detail. (J.U.). 3 figs., 3 refs.

  13. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Puzynin, I.V.; Samojlov, V.N.; Sissakyan, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    A new high-current pulsed linear induction accelerator proposed for application in beam-driven transmutation technologies is described. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, of ion separation and induction accelerating systems, and of an output system for extracting an ion beam into open air. An ion source with explosive ion emission, capable of producing various kinds of ions, is used as an injector. The ion separator exploits a pulsed magnetic system. The induction acceleration structure includes inductors with amorphous iron cores. Imbedded magnetic elements assure the ion beam transport. Main parameters of the accelerator are given in the paper and the design of an ion injector is discussed in more detail. (J.U.). 3 figs., 3 refs

  14. Shielding calculation for treatment rooms of high energy linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elleithy, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    A review of German Institute of Standardization (DIN) scheme of the shielding calculation and the essential data required has been done for X-rays and electron beam in the energy range from 1 MeV to 50 MeV. Shielding calculation was done for primary and secondary radiations generated during X-ray operation of Linac. In addition, shielding was done against X-rays generated (Bremsstrahlung) by useful electron beams. The calculations also covered the neutrons generated from the interactions of useful X-rays (at energies above 8 MeV) with the surrounding. The present application involved the computation of shielding against the double scattered components of X-rays and neutrons in the maze area and the thickness of the paraffin wax of the room door. A new developed computer program was designed to assist shielding thickness calculations for a new Linac installation or in replacing an existing machine. The program used a combination of published tables and figures in computing the shielding thickness at different locations for all possible radiation situations. The DIN published data of 40 MeV accelerator room was compared with the program calculations. It was found that there is good agreement between both calculations. The developed program improved the accuracy and speed of calculation

  15. Experimental study of proton acceleration with ultra-high intensity, high contrast laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flacco, A.

    2008-07-01

    This thesis reports experimental work in the domain of laser-matter interaction to study the production of energetic proton beams. The ion beams accelerated by laser have been increasing in quality, in energy and in repeatability as laser technology keeps improving. The presence of the pedestal before the high peak laser pulse introduces many unknowns in the accelerating conditions that are created on the front and on the rear surface of the target. The first part of the experimental activities is focused to a better comprehension and the experimental validation of the interaction of a 'pedestal-like', moderate intensity, laser pulse on Aluminum targets. The developed interferometric technique proved to be reliable and produced a complete set of maps of the early stages of the plasma expansion. The reflectometry experiment stresses the importance of the quality of the metallic targets and underlines some obscure points on the behaviour of the rear surface of the illuminated foil. For instance the reflectometry measurements on the thicker targets are significantly different from what is foreseen by the simulations about the timescale of the shock break out. In the second part, the XPW laser pulse is used in ion acceleration from thin metal foils. The laser and target parameters are varied to put in evidence the dependence of the ion beam to the experimental condition. In conclusion I can say that first, during the variation of the target thickness, an optimum is put in evidence. Secondly, the correlation between the laser pulse duration and the proton cutoff energy is qualitatively different between thicker (15 μm) and thinner (1.5 μm, 3 μm) targets. For the first, an optimal pulse duration exists while for the seconds, no variation is found - in the searched space - from the monotonic decreasing of the cutoff energy with the peak intensity. The experimental results put however in evidence some points that are not completely understood. (A.C.)

  16. High current electron beam acceleration in dielectric-filled RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faehl, R.J.; Keinigs, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    The acceleration of charged particles in radio frequency (RF) cavities is a widely used mode in high energy accelerators. Advantages include very high accelerating gradients and very stable phase control. A traditional limitation for such acceleration has been their use for intense, high current beam generation. This constraint arises from the inability to store a large amount of electromagnetic energy in the cavity and from loading effects of the beam on the cavity. The authors have studied a simple modification to transcend these limitations. Following Humphries and Huang, they have conducted analytic and numerical investigations of RF accelerator cavities in which a high dielectric constant material, such as water, replaces most of the cavity volume. This raises the stored energy in a cavity of given dimensions by a factor var-epsilon/var-epsilon 0 . For a water fill, var-epsilon/var-epsilon 0 ∼ 80, depending on the frequency. This introduction of high dielectric constant material into the cavity reduces the resonant frequencies by a factor of (var-epsilon/var-epsilon 0 ) 1/2 . This reduced operating frequency mans that existing high efficiency power supplies, at lower frequencies, can be used for an accelerator

  17. Post-acceleration of laser driven protons with a compact high field linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinigardi, Stefano; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Turchetti, Giorgio; Bolton, Paul R.

    2013-05-01

    We present a start-to-end 3D numerical simulation of a hybrid scheme for the acceleration of protons. The scheme is based on a first stage laser acceleration, followed by a transport line with a solenoid or a multiplet of quadrupoles, and then a post-acceleration section in a compact linac. Our simulations show that from a laser accelerated proton bunch with energy selection at ~ 30MeV, it is possible to obtain a high quality monochromatic beam of 60MeV with intensity at the threshold of interest for medical use. In the present day experiments using solid targets, the TNSA mechanism describes accelerated bunches with an exponential energy spectrum up to a cut-off value typically below ~ 60MeV and wide angular distribution. At the cut-off energy, the number of protons to be collimated and post-accelerated in a hybrid scheme are still too low. We investigate laser-plasma acceleration to improve the quality and number of the injected protons at ~ 30MeV in order to assure efficient post-acceleration in the hybrid scheme. The results are obtained with 3D PIC simulations using a code where optical acceleration with over-dense targets, transport and post-acceleration in a linac can all be investigated in an integrated framework. The high intensity experiments at Nara are taken as a reference benchmarks for our virtual laboratory. If experimentally confirmed, a hybrid scheme could be the core of a medium sized infrastructure for medical research, capable of producing protons for therapy and x-rays for diagnosis, which complements the development of all optical systems.

  18. The application analysis of high energy electron accelerator in food irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Wenmin; Chen Hao; Feng Lei; Zhang Yaqun; Chen Xun; Li Wenjun; Xiang Chengfen; Pei Ying; Wang Zhidong

    2012-01-01

    Irradiation technology of high energy electron accelerator has been highly concerned in food processing industry with its fast development, especially in the field of food irradiation processing. In this paper, equipment and research situation of high energy electron accelerator were collected, meanwhile, the similarities and differences between high energy electron beam and 60 Co γ-rays were discussed. In order to provide more references of high energy electron beam irradiation, the usages of high energy electron in food irradiation processing was prospected. These information would promote the development of domestic food irradiation industry and give a useful message to irradiation enterprises and researchers. (authors)

  19. Mortality among a cohort of U.S. commercial airline cockpit crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Lee C; Pinkerton, Lynne E; Yiin, James H; Anderson, Jeri L; Deddens, James A

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated mortality among 5,964 former U.S. commercial cockpit crew (pilots and flight engineers). The outcomes of a priori interest were non-chronic lymphocytic leukemia, central nervous system (CNS) cancer (including brain), and malignant melanoma. Vital status was ascertained through 2008. Life table and Cox regression analyses were conducted. Cumulative exposure to cosmic radiation was estimated from work history data. Compared to the U.S. general population, mortality from all causes, all cancer, and cardiovascular diseases was decreased, but mortality from aircraft accidents was highly elevated. Mortality was elevated for malignant melanoma but not for non-chronic lymphocytic leukemia. CNS cancer mortality increased with an increase in cumulative radiation dose. Cockpit crew had a low all-cause, all-cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality but elevated aircraft accident mortality. Further studies are needed to clarify the risk of CNS and other radiation-associated cancers in relation to cosmic radiation and other workplace exposures. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Accelerated Sensitivity Analysis in High-Dimensional Stochastic Reaction Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arampatzis, Georgios; Katsoulakis, Markos A; Pantazis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Existing sensitivity analysis approaches are not able to handle efficiently stochastic reaction networks with a large number of parameters and species, which are typical in the modeling and simulation of complex biochemical phenomena. In this paper, a two-step strategy for parametric sensitivity analysis for such systems is proposed, exploiting advantages and synergies between two recently proposed sensitivity analysis methodologies for stochastic dynamics. The first method performs sensitivity analysis of the stochastic dynamics by means of the Fisher Information Matrix on the underlying distribution of the trajectories; the second method is a reduced-variance, finite-difference, gradient-type sensitivity approach relying on stochastic coupling techniques for variance reduction. Here we demonstrate that these two methods can be combined and deployed together by means of a new sensitivity bound which incorporates the variance of the quantity of interest as well as the Fisher Information Matrix estimated from the first method. The first step of the proposed strategy labels sensitivities using the bound and screens out the insensitive parameters in a controlled manner. In the second step of the proposed strategy, a finite-difference method is applied only for the sensitivity estimation of the (potentially) sensitive parameters that have not been screened out in the first step. Results on an epidermal growth factor network with fifty parameters and on a protein homeostasis with eighty parameters demonstrate that the proposed strategy is able to quickly discover and discard the insensitive parameters and in the remaining potentially sensitive parameters it accurately estimates the sensitivities. The new sensitivity strategy can be several times faster than current state-of-the-art approaches that test all parameters, especially in "sloppy" systems. In particular, the computational acceleration is quantified by the ratio between the total number of parameters over the

  1. Accelerated Sensitivity Analysis in High-Dimensional Stochastic Reaction Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Arampatzis

    Full Text Available Existing sensitivity analysis approaches are not able to handle efficiently stochastic reaction networks with a large number of parameters and species, which are typical in the modeling and simulation of complex biochemical phenomena. In this paper, a two-step strategy for parametric sensitivity analysis for such systems is proposed, exploiting advantages and synergies between two recently proposed sensitivity analysis methodologies for stochastic dynamics. The first method performs sensitivity analysis of the stochastic dynamics by means of the Fisher Information Matrix on the underlying distribution of the trajectories; the second method is a reduced-variance, finite-difference, gradient-type sensitivity approach relying on stochastic coupling techniques for variance reduction. Here we demonstrate that these two methods can be combined and deployed together by means of a new sensitivity bound which incorporates the variance of the quantity of interest as well as the Fisher Information Matrix estimated from the first method. The first step of the proposed strategy labels sensitivities using the bound and screens out the insensitive parameters in a controlled manner. In the second step of the proposed strategy, a finite-difference method is applied only for the sensitivity estimation of the (potentially sensitive parameters that have not been screened out in the first step. Results on an epidermal growth factor network with fifty parameters and on a protein homeostasis with eighty parameters demonstrate that the proposed strategy is able to quickly discover and discard the insensitive parameters and in the remaining potentially sensitive parameters it accurately estimates the sensitivities. The new sensitivity strategy can be several times faster than current state-of-the-art approaches that test all parameters, especially in "sloppy" systems. In particular, the computational acceleration is quantified by the ratio between the total number of

  2. Application of pulse power technology to ultra high energy electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nation, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents in this paper a review of the application of pulse power technology to the development of high gradient electron accelerators. The technology demands are relatively modest compared to the ultra high power technology used for inertial confinement fusion drivers. With the advent of magnetic switching intense electron beams can be generated with a sufficiently high repetition rate to be of interest for high energy electron accelerator driver applications. Most of the techniques considered rely on the excitation of large amplitude waves on the beams. Within this framework there are two broad categories of accelerator, those in which the waves are directly excited in and supported by the medium and, secondly, those where the waves are used to generate radiofrequency signals which are then coupled via structures to the beam being accelerated. In what follows we shall consider both approaches. Present-day pulse power technology limits pulse durations to about 100 nsec. Consequently, if these sources are to be used, we will need to use high group velocity structures to avoid the need for short accelerator module lengths. An advantage of the short pulse duration is that the available acceleration voltage gradient increases compared to that obtained using conventional rf drivers. 19 references, 9 figures, 1 table

  3. Design and applications of a pneumatic accelerator for high speed punching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaldiz, Sueleyman; Saglam, Haci; Unsacar, Faruk; Isik, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    High speed forming is an important production method that requires specially designed HERF (high energy rate forming) machines. Most of the HERF machines are devices that consist of a system in which energy is stored and a differential piston mechanism is used to release the energy at high rate. In order to eliminate the usage of specially designed HERF machines and to obtain the high speed forming benefits, the accelerator which can be adapted easily onto conventional presses has been designed and manufactured in this study. The designed energy accelerator can be incorporated into mechanical press to convert the low speed operation into high-speed operation of a hammer. Expectations from this work are reduced distortion rates, increased surface quality and precise dimensions in metal forming operations. From the performance test, the accelerator is able to achieve high speed and energy which require for high speed blanking of thick sheet metals

  4. Current state of X-band accelerating structure high gradient test. Be held at high energy accelerator organization on April 15, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ken; Higo, Toshiyasu

    2005-01-01

    XTF (X-band Test Facility, Old name is GLCTA) is the high gradient test facility for X-band acceleration. We have installed an X-band 60cm structure (KX01) in the April 2004 and have been processing it for more than 10 months. Now it is under test on long-term operation. We report here the high gradient test result to date. (author)

  5. FPGA Compute Acceleration for High-Throughput Data Processing in High-Energy Physics Experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The upgrades of the four large experiments of the LHC at CERN in the coming years will result in a huge increase of data bandwidth for each experiment which needs to be processed very efficiently. For example the LHCb experiment will upgrade its detector 2019/2020 to a 'triggerless' readout scheme, where all of the readout electronics and several sub-detector parts will be replaced. The new readout electronics will be able to readout the detector at 40MHz. This increases the data bandwidth from the detector down to the event filter farm to 40TBit/s, which must be processed to select the interesting proton-proton collisions for later storage. The architecture of such a computing farm, which can process this amount of data as efficiently as possible, is a challenging task and several compute accelerator technologies are being considered.    In the high performance computing sector more and more FPGA compute accelerators are being used to improve the compute performance and reduce the...

  6. High-quality electron beam generation in a proton-driven hollow plasma wakefield accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Xia, G.; Lotov, K. V.; Sosedkin, A. P.; Hanahoe, K.; Mete-Apsimon, O.

    2017-10-01

    Simulations of proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerators have demonstrated substantially higher accelerating gradients compared to conventional accelerators and the viability of accelerating electrons to the energy frontier in a single plasma stage. However, due to the strong intrinsic transverse fields varying both radially and in time, the witness beam quality is still far from suitable for practical application in future colliders. Here we demonstrate the efficient acceleration of electrons in proton-driven wakefields in a hollow plasma channel. In this regime, the witness bunch is positioned in the region with a strong accelerating field, free from plasma electrons and ions. We show that the electron beam carrying the charge of about 10% of 1 TeV proton driver charge can be accelerated to 0.6 TeV with a preserved normalized emittance in a single channel of 700 m. This high-quality and high-charge beam may pave the way for the development of future plasma-based energy frontier colliders.

  7. KEK/JAERI Joint Project on high-intensity proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji

    2003-01-01

    From JFY01, which started on April 1, 2001, a new accelerator project to provide high-intensity proton beams proceeded into a construction phase. This project is conducted under a cooperation of two institutions, KEK and JAERI. The accelerator complex will provide 1 MW proton beams at 3 GeV and 0.75 MW beams at 50 GeV. The project will be completed within 6 years. In this article I will describe (a) the project itself, (b) sciences to be pursued at this new accelerator complex and (c) the present status and future plans of the project

  8. Shielding considerations for an electron linear accelerator complex for high energy physics and photonics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.A.; Huntzinger, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation shielding considerations for a major high-energy physics and photonics research complex which comprise a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator injector, a 1.0 GeV electron linear accelerator and a 1.3 GeV storage ring are discussed. The facilities will be unique because of the close proximity of personnel to the accelerator beam lines, the need to adapt existing facilities and shielding materials and the application of strict ALARA dose guidelines while providing maximum access and flexibility during a phased construction program

  9. High-quality laser-accelerated ion beams for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, Zoltan; Keitel, Christoph H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Salamin, Yousef I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); American University of Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-07-01

    Cancer radiation therapy requires accelerated ion beams of high energy sharpness and a narrow spatial profile. As shown recently, linearly and radially polarized, tightly focused and thus extremely strong laser beams should permit the direct acceleration of light atomic nuclei up to energies that may offer the potentiality for medical applications. Radially polarized beams have better emittance than their linearly polarized counterparts. We put forward the direct laser acceleration of ions, once the refocusing of ion beams by external fields is solved or radially polarized laser pulses of sufficient power can be generated.

  10. Energy Efficient Beam Transfer Channels for High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Gardlowski, Philipp; Ondreka, David

    2016-01-01

    conducting (NC) magnets or high current pulsed (HCP) magnets are an economic solution. For high repetition rates above 1.0 Hz, superconducting Cos(N) (SC) magnets or superferric (SF) magnets are more attractive; at least if they are operated in DC mode and if no dynamic losses occur in the cryogenic system. Unfortunately, a range between these values exist, in which no...

  11. Poisson simulation for high voltage terminal of test stand for 1MV electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub; Kim, Yu-Seok

    2014-01-01

    KOMAC provide ion beam to user which energy range need to expand to MeV range and develop 1 MV electrostatic accelerator. The specifications of the electrostatic accelerator are 1MV acceleration voltage, 10 mA peak current and variable gas ion. We are developing test stand before set up 1 MV electrostatic accelerator. The test stand voltage is 300 kV and operating time is 8 hours. The test stand is consist of 300 kV high voltage terminal, DC-AC-DC inverter, power supply device inside terminal, 200MHz RF power, 5 kV extraction power supply, 300 kV accelerating tube and vacuum system.. The beam measurement system and beam dump will be installed next to accelerating tube. Poisson code simulation results of the high voltage terminal are presented in this paper. Poisson code has been used to calculate the electric field for high voltage terminal. The results of simulation were verified with reasonable results. The poisson code structure could be apply to the high voltage terminal of the test stand

  12. Poisson simulation for high voltage terminal of test stand for 1MV electrostatic accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yu-Seok [Dongguk Univ.., Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    KOMAC provide ion beam to user which energy range need to expand to MeV range and develop 1 MV electrostatic accelerator. The specifications of the electrostatic accelerator are 1MV acceleration voltage, 10 mA peak current and variable gas ion. We are developing test stand before set up 1 MV electrostatic accelerator. The test stand voltage is 300 kV and operating time is 8 hours. The test stand is consist of 300 kV high voltage terminal, DC-AC-DC inverter, power supply device inside terminal, 200MHz RF power, 5 kV extraction power supply, 300 kV accelerating tube and vacuum system.. The beam measurement system and beam dump will be installed next to accelerating tube. Poisson code simulation results of the high voltage terminal are presented in this paper. Poisson code has been used to calculate the electric field for high voltage terminal. The results of simulation were verified with reasonable results. The poisson code structure could be apply to the high voltage terminal of the test stand.

  13. Choice of initial operating parameters for high average current linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, K.

    1976-01-01

    Recent emphasis on alternative energy sources together with the need for intense neutron sources for testing of materials for CTR has resulted in renewed interest in high current (approximately 100 mA) c.w. proton and deuteron linear accelerators. In desinging an accelerator for such high currents, it is evident that beam losses in the machine must be minimized, which implies well matched beams, and that adequate acceptance under severe space charge conditions must be met. An investigation is presented of the input parameters to an Alvarez type drift-tube accelerator resulting from such factors. The analysis indicates that an accelerator operating at a frequency of 50 MHz is capable of accepting deuteron currents of about 0.4 amperes and proton currents of about 1.2 amperes. These values depend critically on the assumed values of beam emittance and on the ability to properly ''match'' this to the linac acceptance

  14. Microwave superconductivity for particle accelerators - How the high TC superconductors measure up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padamsee, H.; Green, K.; Gruschus, J.

    1988-01-01

    Application of superconducting niobium cavities to accelerators for high energy physics, nuclear physics and free electron laser is growing rapidly. Cornell has a long standing effort in the development of superconducting RF accelerator technology. Nb cavities developed here from the basis for constructing the world's highest energy electron accelerator for nuclear physics. These cavities have set a standard against which the behavior of the new superconductors must be compared. From available results on dc critical fields, and the energy gap, it appears that the new materials could make a significant impact on the capabilities of future accelerators. Crucial to this assessment, however, are direct microwave loss measurements, together with measurements of the energy gap and RF frequency dependence as well as the behavior at high RF fields. Latest results on these properties for bulk sintered ceramics, thin films and single crystals at RF frequencies of 1.5 and 6 Ghz are presented

  15. High-current electron accelerator for gas-laser pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badaliants, G R; Mamikonian, V A; Nersisian, G Ts; Papanian, V O

    1978-11-26

    A high-current source of pulsed electron beams has been developed for the pumping of UV gas lasers. The parameters of the device are: energy of 0.3-0.7 MeV pulse duration of 30 ns and current density (in a high-pressure laser chamber) of 40-100 A/sq cm. The principal feature of the device is the use of a rectangular cold cathode with incomplete discharge along the surface of the high-permittivity dielectric. Cathodes made of stainless steel, copper, and graphite were investigated.

  16. Report of the Subpanel on Accelerator Research and Development of the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    Accelerator R and D in the US High Energy Physics (HEP) program is reviewed. As a result of this study, some shift in priority, particularly as regards long-range accelerator R and D, is suggested to best serve the future needs of the US HEP program. Some specific new directions for the US R and D effort are set forth. 18 figures, 5 tables

  17. Study of the power supply topology with high stability for accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wei; Wang Yunfang; Wang Jiewei

    2005-01-01

    The requirements of the power supply for accelerator are analyzed. A few of topologies of the highly stabilized power supply are discussed. The types are listed: Auto-transformers-diode rectifier-transistor regulating current. Thyristor rectifier regulating voltage -transistor regulating current, Diode rectifier -DC-chopping. Thyristor rectifier regulating voltage -two-quadrant-chopping. The advantages and disadvantages of the topologies for power supply are discussed. The notice questions of the power supply designed for accelerator are analyzed. (authors)

  18. Surfing and drift acceleration at high mach number quasi-perpendicular shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, T.

    2008-01-01

    Electron acceleration in high Mach number collisionless shocks relevant to supernova remnant is discussed. By performing one- and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of quasi-perpendicular shocks, we find that energetic electrons are quickly generated in the shock transition region through shock surfing and drift acceleration. The electron energization is strong enough to account for the observed injection at supernova remnant shocks. (author)

  19. A linear accelerator power amplification system for high gradient structure research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haimson, J.; Mecklenburg, B.

    1999-01-01

    The ongoing development of linear collider high power RF sources and pulse compression systems has resulted in substantial progress towards a goal of providing a peak RF power level of approximately 250 MW at the input of the accelerator structure. While the immediate development and the high power testing of specialized waveguide components required for power transmission at these high levels have proceeded expeditiously due to the availability of resonant ring systems, the testing of high gradient accelerator structures at very high power levels, and the investigation of coupler cavity RF breakdown problems have, typically, been curtailed due to the unavailability of suitable 200 to 300 MW RF test facilities. We describe herein a compact, high peak power amplification system based on a dual hybrid bridge configuration that avoids the need for power splitters at the accelerator dual feed couplers, and also provides a convenient interface for installing high gradient accelerator test structures. Design parameters are presented for a proposed power amplification system that makes use of a 75 MW, 1/2 μs flat-top RF source to produce 280 MW, 1/4 μs flat-top power for testing dual feed TW experimental accelerator sections

  20. An accelerating high-latitude jet in Earth's core

    OpenAIRE

    Livermore, PW; Hollerbach, R; Finlay, CC

    2017-01-01

    Observations of the change in Earth's magnetic field—the secular variation—provide information about the motion of liquid metal within the core that is responsible for the magnetic field's generation. High-resolution observations from the European Space Agency's Swarm satellite mission show intense field change at high latitude, localized in a distinctive circular daisy-chain configuration centred on the north geographic pole. Here we show that this feature can be explained by a localized, no...

  1. High-speed hydrogen pellet acceleration using an electromagnetic railgun system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Oda, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Using a low electric energy railgun system, solid hydrogen pellet acceleration test have been conducted to investigate the application of the electromagnetic railgun system for high-speed pellet injection into fusion plasmas. Pneumatically pre-accelerated hydrogen pellets measuring 3 mm in diameter and 4-9 mm in length were successfully accelerated by a railgun system that uses a laser-induced plasma armature formation. A 2 m long single railgun with ceramic insulators accelerated th hydrogen pellet to 2.6 kms -1 with a supplied energy of 1.7 kJ. The average acceleration rate and the energy conversion coefficient were improved to about 1.6 x 10 6 ms -2 and 0.37%, which is 1.6 times and three times as large as that using a railgun with plastic insulators, respectively. Furthermore, using the 1 m long augment railgun with ceramic insulators, the energy conversion coefficient was improved to about 0.55% while the acceleration rate was increased to 2.4 x 10 6 ms -2 . The highest hydrogen pellet velocity attained was about 2.3 kms -1 for the augment railgun under an energy supply of 1.1 kJ. Based on the findings, it is expected that the acceleration efficiency and the pellet velocity can be further improved by using a longer augment railgun with ceramic insulators and by applying an optimal power supply. (orig.)

  2. High-speed hydrogen pellet acceleration using an electromagnetic railgun system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M.; Oda, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Ind., Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Nucl. Fuel Cycle Eng. Dept.; Azuma, K.; Kasai, S.; Hasegawa, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Tokai (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    Using a low electric energy railgun system, solid hydrogen pellet acceleration test have been conducted to investigate the application of the electromagnetic railgun system for high-speed pellet injection into fusion plasmas. Pneumatically pre-accelerated hydrogen pellets measuring 3 mm in diameter and 4-9 mm in length were successfully accelerated by a railgun system that uses a laser-induced plasma armature formation. A 2 m long single railgun with ceramic insulators accelerated th hydrogen pellet to 2.6 kms{sup -1} with a supplied energy of 1.7 kJ. The average acceleration rate and the energy conversion coefficient were improved to about 1.6 x 10{sup 6} ms{sup -2} and 0.37%, which is 1.6 times and three times as large as that using a railgun with plastic insulators, respectively. Furthermore, using the 1 m long augment railgun with ceramic insulators, the energy conversion coefficient was improved to about 0.55% while the acceleration rate was increased to 2.4 x 10{sup 6} ms{sup -2}. The highest hydrogen pellet velocity attained was about 2.3 kms{sup -1} for the augment railgun under an energy supply of 1.1 kJ. Based on the findings, it is expected that the acceleration efficiency and the pellet velocity can be further improved by using a longer augment railgun with ceramic insulators and by applying an optimal power supply. (orig.)

  3. The JAERI-KEK joint project on high intensity proton accelerator and overview of nuclear transmutation experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yujiro

    2001-01-01

    A status of the JAERI/KEK joint project on High Intensity Proton Accelerator is overviewed. It is highlighted that Experimental facilities for development of the accelerator driven system (ADS) for nuclear transmutation technology is proposed under the project. (author)

  4. Accelerated high-resolution photoacoustic tomography via compressed sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arridge, Simon; Beard, Paul; Betcke, Marta; Cox, Ben; Huynh, Nam; Lucka, Felix; Ogunlade, Olumide; Zhang, Edward

    2016-12-01

    Current 3D photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems offer either high image quality or high frame rates but are not able to deliver high spatial and temporal resolution simultaneously, which limits their ability to image dynamic processes in living tissue (4D PAT). A particular example is the planar Fabry-Pérot (FP) photoacoustic scanner, which yields high-resolution 3D images but takes several minutes to sequentially map the incident photoacoustic field on the 2D sensor plane, point-by-point. However, as the spatio-temporal complexity of many absorbing tissue structures is rather low, the data recorded in such a conventional, regularly sampled fashion is often highly redundant. We demonstrate that combining model-based, variational image reconstruction methods using spatial sparsity constraints with the development of novel PAT acquisition systems capable of sub-sampling the acoustic wave field can dramatically increase the acquisition speed while maintaining a good spatial resolution: first, we describe and model two general spatial sub-sampling schemes. Then, we discuss how to implement them using the FP interferometer and demonstrate the potential of these novel compressed sensing PAT devices through simulated data from a realistic numerical phantom and through measured data from a dynamic experimental phantom as well as from in vivo experiments. Our results show that images with good spatial resolution and contrast can be obtained from highly sub-sampled PAT data if variational image reconstruction techniques that describe the tissues structures with suitable sparsity-constraints are used. In particular, we examine the use of total variation (TV) regularization enhanced by Bregman iterations. These novel reconstruction strategies offer new opportunities to dramatically increase the acquisition speed of photoacoustic scanners that employ point-by-point sequential scanning as well as reducing the channel count of parallelized schemes that use detector arrays.

  5. Commissioning experiences on high voltage generator of 750 KeV DC accelerator at RRCAT, Indore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banwari, R.; Kasliwal, A.; Pandit, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Design approach of high voltage generator for 750 keV DC accelerator, developed at RRCAT Indore, inculcates a unique feature of high frequency operation of symmetrical Cockcroft-Walton voltage generator. Apart from design simplicity and feasibility of modular construction, the high frequency use of symmetrical Cockcroft-Walton circuit gives added advantages of less ripple, better regulation, faster response and low stored energy in the system. Additionally the scheme allows us the use of low voltage, light weight components thus improving the overall economy of the system. The accelerator has been commissioned and made operational at its rated energy of 750 keV in the recent past. With brief introduction on design aspects of high voltage generator and filament power supply of this accelerator, the paper presented here describes the developmental steps of various components with focus on challenges encountered and solutions implemented. Development of high frequency inverter, high voltage ferrite core transformer, compensating inductors, interface bushings, voltage multiplier stack, and filament transformer along with floating power supply for electron emitter of the accelerator has been dealt in detail. The failures encountered during commissioning stages of the accelerator have been reported with measures taken for improvement of the specific components. Intricacies of the reflected capacitance of the multiplier stack and arc-current ground return are also described with their effects on system operation and reliability. (author)

  6. Sudden flux change studies in high field superconducting accelerator magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, S.; Bordini, B.; Carcagno, R.; Makulski, A.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.M.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the High Field Magnet Program at Fermilab many magnets have been tested which utilize multi strand Rutherford type cable made of state-of-the art Nb 3 Sn strands. During these magnet tests we observed sudden flux changes by monitoring coil voltages and the magnetic field close to the magnets. These flux changes might be linked to magnet instabilities. The voltage spike signals were correlated with quench antenna signals, a strong indication that these are magnet phenomena. With a new high resolution voltage spike detection system, we were able to observe the detailed structure of the spikes. Two fundamentally different signal shapes were distinguished, most likely generated by different mechanisms

  7. Quantum Accelerators for High-Performance Computing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Britt, Keith A.; Mohiyaddin, Fahd A.; Humble, Travis S.

    2017-01-01

    We define some of the programming and system-level challenges facing the application of quantum processing to high-performance computing. Alongside barriers to physical integration, prominent differences in the execution of quantum and conventional programs challenges the intersection of these computational models. Following a brief overview of the state of the art, we discuss recent advances in programming and execution models for hybrid quantum-classical computing. We discuss a novel quantu...

  8. Accelerator Production and Separations for High Specific Activity Rhenium-186

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurisson, Silvia S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Wilbur, D. Scott [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Tungsten and osmium targets were evaluated for the production of high specific activity rhenium-186. Rhenium-186 has potential applications in radiotherapy for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including targeting with monoclonal antibodies and peptides. Methods were evaluated using tungsten metal, tungsten dioxide, tungsten disulfide and osmium disulfide. Separation of the rhenium-186 produced and recycling of the enriched tungsten-186 and osmium-189 enriched targets were developed.

  9. The chirped-pulse inverse free-electron laser: A high-gradient vacuum laser accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartemann, F.V.; Landahl, E.C.; Troha, A.L.; Van Meter, J.R.; Baldis, H.A.; Freeman, R.R.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Song, L.; Kerman, A.K.; Yu, D.U.

    1999-01-01

    The inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) interaction is studied theoretically and computationally in the case where the drive laser intensity approaches the relativistic regime, and the pulse duration is only a few optical cycles long. The IFEL concept has been demonstrated as a viable vacuum laser acceleration process; it is shown here that by using an ultrashort, ultrahigh-intensity drive laser pulse, the IFEL interaction bandwidth and accelerating gradient are increased considerably, thus yielding large energy gains. Using a chirped pulse and negative dispersion focusing optics allows one to take further advantage of the laser optical bandwidth and produce a chromatic line focus maximizing the gradient. The combination of these novel ideas results in a compact vacuum laser accelerator capable of accelerating picosecond electron bunches with a high gradient (GeV/m) and very low energy spread. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  10. Cosmic ray acceleration by shock waves in a diffusion medium. Research of high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagage, P.O.

    1982-06-01

    The problem of galactic cosmic-ray acceleration is presented with the study of a new acceleration mechanism by supernova shock waves in a diffusive medium. The question is: do supernova shocks have enough time to accelerate cosmic rays beyond 10 4 -10 5 GeV. A firm upper limit to the energy that can be acquired by particles is established and it is considered that the mean free path of the particle has its lowest possible value and the most favorable model of supernova evolution. The diffusion coefficients which are relevant for the determination of the high energy cut off are investigated. The effect of the spatial dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the rate of acceleration of particles is examined. A more realistic cut off energy is calculated. We find E max = 2 10 4 GeV [fr

  11. Development of High Power Vacuum Tubes for Accelerators and Plasma Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Vishnu

    2012-11-01

    High pulsed power magnetrons and klystrons for medical and industrial accelerators, and high CW power klystrons and gyrotrons for plasma heating in tokamak, are being developed at CEERI. S-band 2.0MW pulsed tunable magnetrons of centre frequency 2856MHz and 2998 MHz were developed, and S-band 2.6MW pulsed tunable magnetron is being developed for medical LINAC, and 3MW pulsed tunable magnetron is being developed for industrial accelerator. S-band (2856MHz), 5MW pulsed klystron was developed for particle accelerator, and S-band 6MW pulsed klystron is under development for 10MeV industrial accelerator. 350MHz, 100kW (CW) klystron is being developed for proton accelerator, and C-band 250kW (CW) klystron is being developed for plasma heating. 42GHz, 200kW (CW/Long pulse) gyrotron is under development for plasma heating. Plasma filled tubes are also being developed for switching. 25kV/1kA and 40kV/3kA thyratrons were developed for high voltage high current switching in pulse modulators for magnetrons and klystrons. 25kV/3kA Pseudospark switch of current rise time of 1kA/|a-sec and pulse repetition rate of 500Hz is being developed. Plasma assisted high power microwave device is also being investigated.

  12. Development of High Power Vacuum Tubes for Accelerators and Plasma Heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Vishnu

    2012-01-01

    High pulsed power magnetrons and klystrons for medical and industrial accelerators, and high CW power klystrons and gyrotrons for plasma heating in tokamak, are being developed at CEERI. S-band 2.0MW pulsed tunable magnetrons of centre frequency 2856MHz and 2998 MHz were developed, and S-band 2.6MW pulsed tunable magnetron is being developed for medical LINAC, and 3MW pulsed tunable magnetron is being developed for industrial accelerator. S-band (2856MHz), 5MW pulsed klystron was developed for particle accelerator, and S-band 6MW pulsed klystron is under development for 10MeV industrial accelerator. 350MHz, 100kW (CW) klystron is being developed for proton accelerator, and C-band 250kW (CW) klystron is being developed for plasma heating. 42GHz, 200kW (CW/Long pulse) gyrotron is under development for plasma heating. Plasma filled tubes are also being developed for switching. 25kV/1kA and 40kV/3kA thyratrons were developed for high voltage high current switching in pulse modulators for magnetrons and klystrons. 25kV/3kA Pseudospark switch of current rise time of 1kA/|a-sec and pulse repetition rate of 500Hz is being developed. Plasma assisted high power microwave device is also being investigated.

  13. Ultrafast terawatt laser sources for high-field particle acceleration and short wavelength generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downer, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    The Laser Sources working group concerned itself with recent advances in and future requirements for the development of laser sources relevant to high-energy physics (HEP) colliders, small scale accelerators, and the generation of short wave-length radiation. We heavily emphasized pulsed terawatt peak power laser sources for several reasons. First, their development over the past five years has been rapid and multi-faceted, and has made relativistic light intensity available to the advanced accelerator community, as well as the wider physics community, for the first time. Secondly, they have strongly impacted plasma-based accelerator research over the past two years, producing the first experimental demonstrations of the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) in both its resonantly-driven and self-modulated forms. Thirdly, their average power and wall-plug efficiency currently fall well short of projected requirements for future accelerators and other high average power applications, but show considerable promise for improving substantially over the next few years. A review of this rapidly emerging laser technology in the context of advanced accelerator research is therefore timely

  14. Laser-plasma accelerators, acceleration of particles through laser-matter interaction at ultra-high intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, E.

    2010-01-01

    This series of slides overviews the development of powerful lasers for inertial confinement fusion (Icf) at NIF (National Ignition Facility, Usa) and LMJ (Laser Megajoule, France) facilities. Then the principle of laser wakefield acceleration is presented and the possibility of designing compact accelerators delivering 200 GeV/m while conventional RF accelerators reach only 50 MeV/m, is considered. This technical breakthrough will bring important gains in terms of size, cost and new uses for accelerators. While Icf will use nanosecond (10 -9 s) laser pulses, wakefield accelerators will use femtosecond (10 -15 s) laser pulses which means more power but less energy. The electrons accelerated by laser can produce a multi-MeV X radiation useful for industrial radiography or cancer treatment. (A.C.)

  15. Design and construction of tetrode tube modulator for high power electron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Poursaleh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a high power tetrode tube (TH781-200kW, cw modulator is designed and implemented. This modulator is used for a part of RF system of the first Iranian high power electron accelerator project with similar structure to Rhodotron accelerator. Regarding to the level of sensitive and importance of TH781 tube the modulator system designed with high accuracy. So beside of power supplies design the control circuits for protection of the tube have been considered. The results of test and operation of this system that have been constructed in Iran for fist time is very satisfactory

  16. High vacuum portable pumping station suitable for accelerator use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stattel, P.; Briggs, J.; DeBoer, W.; Skelton, R.

    1985-01-01

    The need for a Portable Pump Station for Ultra High Vacuum use became apparent when the ''Isabelle'' collider was first being designed. A Portable Pump Station had to be developed which contained the following features: maneuverability, compact size, rugged, self protected against various failures, capable of running unattended, and capable of reaching 10 -9 torr. The Pump Station that was developed and other variations are the subject of this paper. Emphasis will be on the Isabelle and HITL versions. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. Voltage spike detection in high field superconducting accelerator magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orris, D.F.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Makulski, A.; Pischalnikov, Y.M.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    A measurement system for the detection of small magnetic flux changes in superconducting magnets, which are due to either mechanical motion of the conductor or flux jump, has been developed at Fermilab. These flux changes are detected as small amplitude, short duration voltage spikes, which are {approx}15mV in magnitude and lasts for {approx}30 {micro}sec. The detection system combines an analog circuit for the signal conditioning of two coil segments and a fast data acquisition system for digitizing the results, performing threshold detection, and storing the resultant data. The design of the spike detection system along with the modeling results and noise analysis will be presented. Data from tests of high field Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets at currents up to {approx}20KA will also be shown.

  18. Voltage spike detection in high field superconducting accelerator magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orris, D.F.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Makulski, A.; Pischalnikov, Y.M.

    2004-01-01

    A measurement system for the detection of small magnetic flux changes in superconducting magnets, which are due to either mechanical motion of the conductor or flux jump, has been developed at Fermilab. These flux changes are detected as small amplitude, short duration voltage spikes, which are ∼15mV in magnitude and lasts for ∼30(micro)sec. The detection system combines an analog circuit for the signal conditioning of two coil segments and a fast data acquisition system for digitizing the results, performing threshold detection, and storing the resultant data. The design of the spike detection system along with the modeling results and noise analysis will be presented. Data from tests of high field Nb3Sn magnets at currents up to ∼20KA will also be shown

  19. An outline of research facilities of high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1995-01-01

    A plan called PROTON ENGINEERING CENTER has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities and a beam shape and storage ring based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA. The research facilities planned are OMEGA·Nuclear Energy Development Facility, Neutron Facility for Material Irradiation, Nuclear Data Experiment Facility, Neutron Factory, Meson Factory, spallation Radioisotope Beam Facility, and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutrons, π-mesons, muons, and unstable isotopes originated from the protons are available for promoting the innovative research of nuclear energy and basic science and technology. (author)

  20. High intensity proton accelerator and its application (Proton Engineering Center)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1995-01-01

    A plan called PROTON ENGINEERING CENTER has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities and a beam shape and storage ring based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA. The research facilities planned are OMEGA·Nuclear Energy Development Facility, Neutron Facility for Material Irradiation, Nuclear Data Experiment Facility, Neutron Factory, Meson Factory, Spallation Radioisotope Beam Facility, and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutrons, π-mesons, muons, and unstable isotopes originated from the protons are available for promoting the innovative research of nuclear energy and basic science and technology. (author)

  1. Lattice Design in High-energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    This lecture gives an introduction into the design of high-energy storage ring lattices. Applying the formalism that has been established in transverse be am optics, the basic principles of the development of a magnet lattice are explained and the characteristics of the resulting magnet structure are discussed. The periodic assembly of a storage ring cell with its boundary conditions concerning stability and scaling of the beam optics parameters is addressed as well as special lattice insertions such as drifts, mini beta sections, dispersion suppressors, etc. In addition to the exact calculations that are indispensable for a rigorous treatment of the matter, scaling rules are shown and simple rules of thumb are included that enable the lattice designer to do the first estimates and get the basic numbers ‘ on the back of an envelope.

  2. A High Performance QDWH-SVD Solver using Hardware Accelerators

    KAUST Repository

    Sukkari, Dalal E.

    2015-04-08

    This paper describes a new high performance implementation of the QR-based Dynamically Weighted Halley Singular Value Decomposition (QDWH-SVD) solver on multicore architecture enhanced with multiple GPUs. The standard QDWH-SVD algorithm was introduced by Nakatsukasa and Higham (SIAM SISC, 2013) and combines three successive computational stages: (1) the polar decomposition calculation of the original matrix using the QDWH algorithm, (2) the symmetric eigendecomposition of the resulting polar factor to obtain the singular values and the right singular vectors and (3) the matrix-matrix multiplication to get the associated left singular vectors. A comprehensive test suite highlights the numerical robustness of the QDWH-SVD solver. Although it performs up to two times more flops when computing all singular vectors compared to the standard SVD solver algorithm, our new high performance implementation on single GPU results in up to 3.8x improvements for asymptotic matrix sizes, compared to the equivalent routines from existing state-of-the-art open-source and commercial libraries. However, when only singular values are needed, QDWH-SVD is penalized by performing up to 14 times more flops. The singular value only implementation of QDWH-SVD on single GPU can still run up to 18% faster than the best existing equivalent routines. Integrating mixed precision techniques in the solver can additionally provide up to 40% improvement at the price of losing few digits of accuracy, compared to the full double precision floating point arithmetic. We further leverage the single GPU QDWH-SVD implementation by introducing the first multi-GPU SVD solver to study the scalability of the QDWH-SVD framework.

  3. Highly accelerated cardiovascular MR imaging using many channel technology: concepts and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niendorf, Thoralf; Sodickson, Daniel K.

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CVMRI) is of proven clinical value in the non-invasive imaging of cardiovascular diseases. CVMRI requires rapid image acquisition, but acquisition speed is fundamentally limited in conventional MRI. Parallel imaging provides a means for increasing acquisition speed and efficiency. However, signal-to-noise (SNR) limitations and the limited number of receiver channels available on most MR systems have in the past imposed practical constraints, which dictated the use of moderate accelerations in CVMRI. High levels of acceleration, which were unattainable previously, have become possible with many-receiver MR systems and many-element, cardiac-optimized RF-coil arrays. The resulting imaging speed improvements can be exploited in a number of ways, ranging from enhancement of spatial and temporal resolution to efficient whole heart coverage to streamlining of CVMRI work flow. In this review, examples of these strategies are provided, following an outline of the fundamentals of the highly accelerated imaging approaches employed in CVMRI. Topics discussed include basic principles of parallel imaging; key requirements for MR systems and RF-coil design; practical considerations of SNR management, supported by multi-dimensional accelerations, 3D noise averaging and high field imaging; highly accelerated clinical state-of-the art cardiovascular imaging applications spanning the range from SNR-rich to SNR-limited; and current trends and future directions. (orig.)

  4. Increasing break-down strength of the support colomn of high-voltage accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezvykh, K.A.; Romanov, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Calculation results of strength of electric field of the EG-2.5 electrostatic accelerator for the support colomn with electrodes of circular and elliptical transverse cross sections are presented. Conducted is the choice of constructing the column under the condition that the dimensions of the tank, high-voltage electrode, step between the sections and internal diameter of the colomn electrodes are not changed. The potential at the high-voltage electrode equals 2.5 MV while the average longitudinal gradient of the colomn field equals 1.25 MV/m. The support insulation colomn of the high-voltage accelerator screened by rings with transverse cross section in the form of orientation oval in some accelerators promotes obtaining higher operating voltage and at the same time increase of operation reliability at the rest unchanged dimensions of the plant because the probability of break-down between the support colomn and the tank wall decreases. The latter is especially significant for most high-energy accelerators as well as for accelerators used in national economy [ru

  5. Van-de-Graaf accelerator operation with laser source of highly-charged heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabash, L.S.; Golubev, A.A.; Koshkarev, S.G.; Krechet, K.I.; Sharkov, B.Y.; Shumshurov, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    Multicharged ions (Z = +1 divided-by +10) of practically any elements of the periodical table have been generated by the laser source based on a simple in operation and fabrication laser. One of the features of the laser source is that the energy needed for plasma heating is transported to the target from a great distance. In this case the target can be placed under high voltage or in a magnetic field. These advantages of the laser source are particularly important for its application in the Van-de-Graaf accelerator, where absence of resonance units allows to accelerate ions with any charge-to-mass ratio. The goal of this paper consists in designing a laser source of highly- charged heavy ions in the Van-de-Graaf accelerator and in measuring charge spectra of the accelerated ion beam. The peculiarities of this accelerator are taken into account in the discussion of the source scheme. Such peculiarities include potential up to 5 MV on the high-voltage conductor, where the ion source is placed, and high up to 15 atm gas environment pressure

  6. Radioactive airborne species formed in the air in high energy accelerator tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.

    2005-01-01

    Many radioactive airborne species have been observed in the air of high energy accelerator tunnels during machine operation. Radiation protection against these induced airborne radioactivities is one of the key issues for radiation safety, especially at high-energy and high-intense proton accelerators such as the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, Joint project of KEK and JAERI), which is now under construction at the TOKAI site of JAERI. Information on the chemical forms and particle sizes of airborne radioactivities is essential for the estimation of internal doses. For that purpose, the study on radioactive airborne species formed in the air of beam-line tunnels at high-energy accelerators have been extensively conducted by our group. For Be-7, Na-24, S-38, Cl-38,-39, C-11, and N-13, formed by various types of nuclear reactions including nuclear spallation reactions, their aerosol and gaseous fractions are determined by a filter technique. A parallel plate diffusion battery is used for the measurement of aerosol size distributions, and the formation of radioactive aerosols is explained by the attachment of radionuclides to ambient non-radioactive aerosols which are formed through radiation induced reactions. The chemical forms of gaseous species are also determined by using a selective collection method based on a filter technique. A review is given of the physico-chemical properties of these airborne radionuclides produced in the air of accelerator beam-line tunnels.

  7. Assessment of cockpit interface concepts for data link retrofit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccauley, Hugh W.; Miles, William L.; Dwyer, John P.; Erickson, Jeffery B.

    1992-01-01

    The problem is examined of retrofitting older generation aircraft with data link capability. The approach taken analyzes requirements for the cockpit interface, based on review of prior research and opinions obtained from subject matter experts. With this background, essential functions and constraints for a retrofit installation are defined. After an assessment of the technology available to meet the functions and constraints, candidate design concepts are developed. The most promising design concept is described in detail. Finally, needs for further research and development are identified.

  8. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  9. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin; Johnson, Edward J., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  10. Culture in the cockpit: do Hofstede's dimensions replicate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, A.; Helmreich, R. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Survey data collected from 9,400 male commercial airline pilots in 19 countries were used in a replication study of Hofstede's indexes of national culture. The analysis that removed the constraint of item equivalence proved superior, both conceptually and empirically, to the analysis using Hofstede's items and formulae as prescribed, and rendered significant replication correlations for all indexes (Individualism-Collectivism .96, Power Distance .87, Masculinity-Femininity .75, and Uncertainty Avoidance .68). The successful replication confirms that national culture exerts an influence on cockpit behavior over and above the professional culture of pilots, and that "one size fits all" training is inappropriate.

  11. The generation of high fields for particle acceleration to very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A Workshop organised by the CERN Accelerator School, the European Committee for Future Accelerators and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare was held at the Frascati laboratory of INFN during the last week of September 1984. Its purpose was to bring together an inter-disciplinary group of physicists to review ideas for the acceleration of particles to energies beyond those attainable in machines whose construction is underway, or is currently contemplated. These proceedings contain some of the material presented and discussed at the Workshop, comprising papers on topics such as: the free-electron-laser, the lasertron, wakefield accelerators, the laser excitation of droplet arrays, a switched-power linac, plasma beat-wave accelerators and the choice of basic parameters for linear colliders intended for the TeV energy region. (orig.)

  12. Halide salts accelerate degradation of high explosives by zerovalent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Shea, Patrick J.; Yang, Jae E.; Kim, Jang-Eok

    2007-01-01

    Zerovalent iron (Fe 0 , ZVI) has drawn great interest as an inexpensive and effective material to promote the degradation of environmental contaminants. A focus of ZVI research is to increase degradation kinetics and overcome passivation for long-term remediation. Halide ions promote corrosion, which can increase and sustain ZVI reactivity. Adding chloride or bromide salts with Fe 0 (1% w/v) greatly enhanced TNT, RDX, and HMX degradation rates in aqueous solution. Adding Cl or Br salts after 24 h also restored ZVI reactivity, resulting in complete degradation within 8 h. These observations may be attributed to removal of the passivating oxide layer and pitting corrosion of the iron. While the relative increase in degradation rate by Cl - and Br - was similar, TNT degraded faster than RDX and HMX. HMX was most difficult to remove using ZVI alone but ZVI remained effective after five HMX reseeding cycles when Br - was present in solution. - The addition of halide ions promotes the degradation of high explosives by zerovalent iron

  13. Radiation Fields in High Energy Accelerators and their impact on Single Event Effects

    CERN Document Server

    García Alía, Rubén; Wrobel, Frédéric; Brugger, Markus

    Including calculation models and measurements for a variety of electronic components and their concerned radiation environments, this thesis describes the complex radiation field present in the surrounding of a high-energy hadron accelerator and assesses the risks related to it in terms of Single Event Effects (SEE). It is shown that this poses not only a serious threat to the respective operation of modern accelerators but also highlights the impact on other high-energy radiation environments such as those for ground and avionics applications. Different LHC-like radiation environments are described in terms of their hadron composition and energy spectra. They are compared with other environments relevant for electronic component operation such as the ground-level, avionics or proton belt. The main characteristic of the high-energy accelerator radiation field is its mixed nature, both in terms of hadron types and energy interval. The threat to electronics ranges from neutrons of thermal energies to GeV hadron...

  14. The neutron dose equivalent around high energy medical electron linear accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poje Marina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of neutron dose equivalent was made in four dual energy linear accelerator rooms. Two of the rooms were reconstructed after decommissioning of 60Co units, so the main limitation was the space. The measurements were performed by a nuclear track etched detectors LR-115 associated with the converter (radiator that consist of 10B and with the active neutron detector Thermo BIOREM FHT 742. The detectors were set at several locations to evaluate the neutron ambient dose equivalent and/or neutron dose rate to which medical personnel could be exposed. Also, the neutron dose dependence on collimator aperture was analyzed. The obtained neutron dose rates outside the accelerator rooms were several times smaller than the neutron dose rates inside the accelerator rooms. Nevertheless, the measured neutron dose equivalent was not negligible from the aspect of the personal dosimetry with almost 2 mSv a year per person in the areas occupied by staff (conservative estimation. In rooms with 15 MV accelerators, the neutron exposure to the personnel was significantly lower than in the rooms having 18 MV accelerators installed. It was even more pronounced in the room reconstructed after the 60Co decommissioning. This study confirms that shielding from the neutron radiation should be considered when building vaults for high energy linear accelerators, especially when the space constraints exist.

  15. Recent developments in the application of rf superconductivity to high-brightness and high-gradient ion beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.; Bohn, C.L.; Kennedy, W.L.; Nichols, G.L.; Roche, C.T.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1991-01-01

    A development program is underway to apply rf superconductivity to the design of continuous-wave (cw) linear accelerators for high- brightness ion beams. Since the last workshop, considerable progress has been made both experimentally and theoretically toward this application. Recent tests of niobium resonators for ion acceleration have yielded average accelerating gradients as high as 18 MV/m. In an experiment with a radio-frequency quadrupole geometry, niobium was found to sustain cw peak surface electric fields as high as 128 MV/m over large (10 cm 2 ) surface areas. Theoretical studies of beam impingement and cumulative beam breakup have also yielded encouraging results. Consequently, a section of superconducting resonators and focusing elements has been designed for tests with high-current deuteron beams. In addition, considerable data pertaining to the rf properties of high-T c superconductors has been collected at rf-field amplitudes and frequencies of interest in connection with accelerator operation. This paper summarizes the recent progress and identifies current and future work in the areas of accelerator technology and superconducting materials which will build upon it

  16. Planned High-brightness Channeling Radiation Experiment at Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomberg, Ben [NICADD, DeKalb; Mihalcea, Daniel [NICADD, DeKalb; Panuganti, Harsha [NICADD, DeKalb; Piot, Philippe [Fermilab; Brau, Charles [Vanderbilt U.; Choi, Bo [Vanderbilt U.; Gabella, William [Vanderbilt U.; Ivanov, Borislav [Vanderbilt U.; Mendenhall, Marcus [Vanderbilt U.; Lynn, Christopher [Swarthmore Coll.; Sen, Tanaji [Fermilab; Wagner, Wolfgang [Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf

    2014-07-01

    In this contribution we describe the technical details and experimental setup of our study aimed at producing high-brightness channeling radiation (CR) at Fermilab’s new user facility the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA). In the ASTA photoinjector area electrons are accelerated up to 40-MeV and focused to a sub-micron spot on a ~40 micron thick carbon diamond, the electrons channel through the crystal and emit CR up to 80-KeV. Our study utilizes ASTA’s long pulse train capabilities and ability to preserve ultra-low emittance, to produce the desired high average brightness.

  17. Generation of annular, high-charge electron beams at the Argonne wakefield accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, E. E.; Li, C.; Gai, W.; Power, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present and discuss the results from the experimental generation of high-charge annular(ring-shaped)electron beams at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA). These beams were produced by using laser masks to project annular laser profiles of various inner and outer diameters onto the photocathode of an RF gun. The ring beam is accelerated to 15 MeV, then it is imaged by means of solenoid lenses. Transverse profiles are compared for different solenoid settings. Discussion includes a comparison with Parmela simulations, some applications of high-charge ring beams,and an outline of a planned extension of this study.

  18. Generation of annular, high-charge electron beams at the Argonne wakefield accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, E. E.; Li, C.; Gai, W.; Power, J.

    2012-12-01

    We present and discuss the results from the experimental generation of high-charge annular(ring-shaped)electron beams at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA). These beams were produced by using laser masks to project annular laser profiles of various inner and outer diameters onto the photocathode of an RF gun. The ring beam is accelerated to 15 MeV, then it is imaged by means of solenoid lenses. Transverse profiles are compared for different solenoid settings. Discussion includes a comparison with Parmela simulations, some applications of high-charge ring beams,and an outline of a planned extension of this study.

  19. Program for Plasma-Based Concepts for Future High Energy Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouleas, Thomas C.; Muggli, Patric

    2003-01-01

    OAK B204 Program for Plasma-Based Concepts for Future High Energy Accelerators. The progress made under this program in the period since November 15, 2002 is reflected in this report. The main activities for this period were to conduct the first run of the E-164 high-gradient wakefield experiment at SLAC, to prepare for run 2 and to continue our collaborative effort with CERN to model electron cloud interactions in circular accelerators. Each of these is described. Also attached to this report are papers that were prepared or appeared during this period

  20. Accelerator Technology and High Energy Physic Experiments, WILGA 2012; EuCARD Sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2012-01-01

    Wilga Sessions on HEP experiments, astroparticle physica and accelerator technology were organized under the umbrella of the EU FP7 Project EuCARD – European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development. The paper is the second part (out of five) of the research survey of WILGA Symposium work, May 2012 Edition, concerned with accelerator technology and high energy physics experiments. It presents a digest of chosen technical work results shown by young researchers from different technical universities from this country during the XXXth Jubilee SPIE-IEEE Wilga 2012, May Edition, symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering. Topical tracks of the symposium embraced, among others, nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET and pi-of-the ...

  1. High Power Test of an X-Band Slotted-IRIS Accelerator Structure at NLCTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doebert, S.; Fandos, R.; Grudiev, A.; Heikkinen, S.; Rodriquez, J.A.; Taborelli, M.; Wuensch, W.; Adolphsen, Chris E.; Laurent, L.

    2007-01-01

    The CLIC study group at CERN has built two X-band HDS (hybrid damped structure) accelerating structures for high-power testing in NLCTA at SLAC. These accelerating structures are novel with respect to their rf- design and their fabrication technique. The eleven-cell constant impedance structures, one made out of copper and one out of molybdenum, are assembled from clamped high-speed milled quadrants. They feature the same heavy higher-order-mode damping as nominal CLIC structures achieved by slotted irises and radial damping waveguides for each cell. The X-band accelerators are exactly scaled versions of structures tested at 30 GHz in the CLIC test facility, CTF3. The results of the X-band tests are presented and compared to those at 30 GHz to determine frequency scaling, and are compared to the extensive copper data from the NLC structure development program to determine material dependence and make a basic validation of the HDS design

  2. High power testing oa ANL X-band dielectric-loaded accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, J. G.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Konecny, R.; Gold, S. H.; Kinkead, A. K.

    2002-01-01

    In the second phase of a program to develop a compact accelerator based on a dielectric-loaded accelerating structure, we have conducted high power tests on a traveling-wave and a standing-wave prototype. Indications are that the traveling-wave structure achieved an accelerating gradient of 3-5 MV/m before the input coupling window failed, while the standing wave structure was poorly matched at high power due to contamination of copper residue on its coupling window. To solve both of these problems, a new method for coupling RF into the structures has been developed. The new couplers and the rest of the modular structure are currently under construction and will be tested at the Naval Research Laboratory shortly

  3. Numerical simulation on range of high-energy electron moving in accelerator target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Wencheng; Sun Punan; Dai Wenjiang

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the range of high-energy electron moving in accelerator target, the range of electron with the energy range of 1 to 100 MeV moving in common target material of accelerator was calculated by Monte-Carlo method. Comparison between the calculated result and the published data were performed. The results of Monte-Carlo calculation are in good agreement with the published data. Empirical formulas were obtained for the range of high-energy electron with the energy range of 1 to 100 MeV in common target material by curve fitting, offering a series of referenced data for the design of targets in electron accelerator. (authors)

  4. Design of high power feedthrough for High Power Industrial Accelerator (HPIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Abhay; Dwivedi, Jishnu; Kumar, Pankaj; Goswami, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the design, assembly and dismantling and maintenance of a feedthrough for High Power Industrial Accelerator (HPIA). It has been designed to serve three purposes. It provides electrical insulation between primary windings (at ∼ 2.5 kV) and cover flange (at ground potential) with the help of Nylon bushes. It also ensures leak tightness for SF 6 gas filled inside the vessel at 10 bar. It also provides sealing for water connectors between the primary winding and secondary winding. The key function of this feedthrough is to supply ∼ 800 A of current to the primary circuit. Technical requirement/constraint is leak tightness and electrical isolation of feedthrough. This feedthrough will be connected to the primary windings inside the vessel. Current will flow through a copper tube conductor which is at a potential of ∼ 800 V. Inside the tube water is flowing. Inlet water temperature is ∼ 30℃. Flow rate of water is 35 litres/minute at 6 kg/cm 2 pressure to remove the heat losses. (author)

  5. Cockpit Displays to Support Hazard Awareness in Free Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Carbonari, Ron; Merwin, Dave; Morphew, Ephimia; OBrien, Janelle V.

    1997-01-01

    Three experiments are described which each examine different aspects of the formatting and integration of cockpit displays of traffic information to support pilots in traffic avoidance planning. The first two experiments compared two-dimensional (coplanar) with three-dimensional (perspective) versions of a cockpit display of traffic information. In Experiment 1, 30 certified flight instructors flew a series of traffic conflict detection and avoidance maneuvers around an intruder aircraft, sometimes in the presence of a second intruder. The results revealed an advantage for the coplanar display, particularly when there was vertical intruder behavior. In Experiment 2, 17 instructors flew with the coplanar and perspective formats when weather information was either overlaid or displayed separately. Again performance was best with the coplanar display, particularly when the weather data were overlaid. The results of both experiments are also discussed in ten-ns of the traffic maneuver stereotypes exhibited by the pilots. Experiment 3 examined the benefits of the two different predictor elements used in the coplanar displays of Experiments 1 and 2. The study was carried out in a multitask context. These elements were both found to improve safety (reduce actual and predicted conflicts) and to reduce workload, although the different elements affected workload in different ways. Neither predictor element imposed a cost to concurrent task performance.

  6. Direct electron acceleration in plasma waveguides for compact high-repetition-rate x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M-W; Jovanovic, I

    2014-01-01

    Numerous applications in fundamental and applied research, security, and industry require robust, compact sources of x-rays, with a particular recent interest in monochromatic, spatially coherent, and ultrafast x-ray pulses in well-collimated beams. Such x-ray sources usually require production of high-quality electron beams from compact accelerators. Guiding a radially polarized laser pulse in a plasma waveguide has been proposed for realizing direct laser acceleration (DLA), where the electrons are accelerated by the axial electric field of a co-propagating laser pulse (Serafim et al 2000 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28 1190). A moderate laser peak power is required for DLA when compared to laser wakefield acceleration, thus offering the prospect for high repetition rate operation. By using a density-modulated plasma waveguide for DLA, the acceleration distance can be extended with pulse guiding, while the density-modulation with proper axial structure can realize the quasi-phase matching between the laser pulses and electrons for a net gain accumulation (York et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 195001; York et al 2008 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25 B137; Palastro et al 2008 Phys. Rev. E 77 036405). We describe the development and application of a test particle model and particle-in-cell model for DLA. Experimental setups designed for fabrication of optically tailored plasma waveguides via the ignitor-heater scheme, and for generation and characterization of radially polarized short pulses used to drive DLA, are presented. (paper)

  7. High and ultra-high vacuum pumping techniques: applications in accelerators and storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, G.

    1988-01-01

    A survey is given on gas transfer pumps, especially Turbomolecular pumps, and entrapment pumps (cryopumps and getter pumps) mainly with regard to their application in evacuating particle accelerators and storage rings. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  8. Survey on neutron production by electron beam from high power CW electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, S.

    1999-04-01

    In Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, the development of high current CW electron linear accelerator is in progress. It is possible for an accelerator to produce neutrons by means of a spallation and photo nuclear reactions. Application of neutron beam produced by bremsstrahlung is one of ways of the utilization for high current electron accelerator. It is actual that many electron linear accelerators which maximum energy is higher than a few hundreds MeV are used as neutron sources. In this report, an estimate of neutron production is evaluated for high current CW electron linear accelerator. The estimate is carried out by 10 MeV beam which is maximum energy limited from the regulation and rather low for neutron production. Therefore, the estimate is also done by 17 and 35 MeV beam which is possible to be accelerated. Beryllium is considered as a target for lower electron energy in addition to Lead target for higher energy, because Beryllium has low threshold energy for neutron production. The evaluation is carried out in account of the target thickness optimized by the radiation length and neutron cross section reducing the energy loss for both of electron and neutron, so as to get the maximum number of neutrons. The result of the calculations shows neutron numbers 1.9 x 10 10 , 6.1 x 10 13 and 4.8 x 10 13 (n/s), respectively, for 10, 17, and 35 MeV with low duty. The thermal removal from the target is one of critical points. The additional shielding and cooling system is necessary in order to endure radiation. A comparison with other facilities are also carried out. The estimate of neutron numbers suggests the possibility to be applied for neutron radiography and measurement of nuclear data by means of Lead spectrometer, for example. (author)

  9. The Effects of Math Acceleration in Middle School at the High School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossenbach, Chris Payton

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods capstone is to investigate the effectiveness of the math acceleration initiative that began in the studied school district in 2009 and the impact the initiative has had on mathematics enrollment at the high school level. This research project followed cohorts of students during the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 school…

  10. Restriction of cosmic-ray acceleration, mechanisms by high-energy Be7/Be data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, C.D.; Buffington, A.; Mast, T.S.

    1979-01-01

    New high-energy cosmic-ray Be data indicate that the ratio Be 7 /Be drops by approximately a factor of two between 200 and 1500 MeV/nucleon. This result may provide a severe constraint for theories of cosmic-ray acceleration

  11. Application of plasma erosion opening switches to high power accelerators for pulse compression and power multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.; Boller, J.R.; Commisso, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A new vacuum opening switch called a plasma erosion opening switch is described. A model of its operation is presented and the energy efficiency of such a switch is discussed. Recent high power experiments on the Gamble II accelerator are described and compared to previous experiments

  12. Accelerated high-frame-rate mouse heart cine-MRI using compressed sensing reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motaal, Abdallah G.; Coolen, Bram F.; Abdurrachim, Desiree; Castro, Rui M.; Prompers, Jeanine J.; Florack, Luc M. J.; Nicolay, Klaas; Strijkers, Gustav J.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new protocol to obtain very high-frame-rate cinematographic (Cine) MRI movies of the beating mouse heart within a reasonable measurement time. The method is based on a self-gated accelerated fast low-angle shot (FLASH) acquisition and compressed sensi ng reconstruction. Key to our

  13. Physics with a high-intensity proton accelerator below 30 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The types of physics that would be pursued at a high-intensity, moderate-energy proton accelerator are discussed. The discussion is drawn from the deliberations of the 30-GeV subgroup of the Fixed-Target Group at this workshop

  14. Compilation of radiation damage test data part III: materials used around high-energy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Beynel, P; Schönbacher, H; CERN. Geneva

    1982-01-01

    For pt.II see CERN report 79-08 (1979). This handbook gives the results of radiation damage tests on various engineering materials and components intended for installation in radiation areas of the CERN high-energy particle accelerators. It complements two previous volumes covering organic cable-insulating materials and thermoplastic and thermosetting resins.

  15. Measurements of picosecond pulses of a high-current electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheltov, K.A.; Petrenko, A.N.; Turundaevskaya, I.G.; Shalimanov, V.F.

    1997-01-01

    The duration of a picosecond high-current accelerator electron beam pulse duration is measured and its shape is determined using a measuring line, comprising a Faraday cup, a radiofrequency cable of minor length and a wide-band SRG-7 oscillograph. The procedure of data reconstruction according to regularization method is applied to determine the actual shape of the pulse measured

  16. High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group: Progress report, March 1, 1988--February 28, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    This report discusses work carried out by the High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group at the University of Maryland. Particular topics discussed are: OPAL experiment at LEP; deep inelastic muon interactions; B physics with the CLEO detector at CESR; further results from JADE; and search for ''small'' violation of the Pauli principle

  17. Production and supply of radioisotopes with high-energy particle accelerators current status and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Mausner, L.F.

    1994-01-01

    Although the production of radioisotopes in reactors or in low to medium energy cyclotrons appears to be relatively well established, especially for those isotopes that are routinely used and have a commercial market, certain isotopes can either be made only in high-energy particle accelerators or their production is more cost effective when made this way. These facilities are extremely expensive to build and operate, and isotope production is, in general, either not cost-effective or is in conflict with their primary mandate or missions which involve physics research. Isotope production using high-energy accelerators in the US, therefore, has been only an intermittent and parasitic activity. However, since a number of isotopes produced at higher energies are emerging as being potentially useful for medical and other applications, there is a renewed concern about their availability in a continuous and reliable fashion. In the US, in particular, the various aspects of the prediction and availability of radioisotopes from high-energy accelerators are presently undergoing a detailed scrutiny and review by various scientific and professional organizations as well as the Government. A number of new factors has complicated the supply/demand equation. These include considerations of cost versus needs, reliability factors, mission orientation, research and educational components, and commercial viability. This paper will focus on the present status and projected needs of radioisotope production with high-energy accelerators in the US, and will compare and examine the existing infrastructure in other countries for this purpose

  18. Accelerated life testing and reliability of high K multilayer ceramic capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minford, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    The reliability of one lot of high K multilayer ceramic capacitors was evaluated using accelerated life testing. The degradation in insulation resistance was characterized as a function of voltage and temperature. The times to failure at a voltage-temperature stress conformed to a lognormal distribution with a standard deviation approximately 0.5.

  19. To the problem of reliability of high-voltage accelerators for industrial purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al'bertinskij, B.I.; Svin'in, M.P.; Tsepakin, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    Statistical data characterizing the reliability of ELECTRON and AVRORA-2 type accelerators are presented. Used as a reliability index was the mean time to failure of the main accelerator units. The analysis of accelerator failures allowed a number of conclusions to be drawn. The high failure rate level is connected with inadequate training of the servicing personnel and a natural period of equipment adjustment. The mathematical analysis of the failure rate showed that the main responsibility for insufficient high reliability rests with selenium diodes which are employed in the high voltage power supply. Substitution of selenium diodes by silicon ones increases time between failures. It is shown that accumulation and processing of operational statistical data will permit more accurate prediction of the reliability of produced high-voltage accelerators, make it possible to cope with the problems of planning optimal, in time, preventive inspections and repair, and to select optimal safety factors and test procedures n time, preventive inspections and repair, and to select optimal safety factors and test procedures n time, prevent

  20. Dose determination of Neutron contamination in radiothrapy rooms equiped with high energy linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Anjak, O.

    2014-03-01

    Radiotherapy represents the most widely spread technique to control and treat cancer. To increase the treatment efficiency, high-energy linear accelerators are used. However, applying high energy photon beams leads to a non-negligible dose of neutrons contaminating therapeutic beams. A high-energy (23 MV) linear accelerator (Varian 21EX) was studied. The CR-39 nuclear track detectors (NTDs) were used to study the variation of fast neutron relative intensities around a linear accelerator high energy photon beam and to determined the its variation on the patient plane at 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 cm from the center of the photon beam was. By increasing the distance from the center of the X-ray beam towards the periphery, the photoneutron dose equivalent decreased rapidly for the fields. Photoneutron intensity and distributions at isocenter level with the field sizes of 40*40 cm'2 at SSD=100cm around 23 MV photon beam using Nuclear Track Detectors were determined. The advantages of CR-39 NTD s over active detectors: 1- there is no pulse pileup problem. 2- no photon interference with neutron measurement. 3- no electronics are required. 4 - less prone to noise and interference. The photoneutron intensities were rapidly decreased as we move away from the isocenter of linear accelerators. As the use of simulation software MCNP match in the results we have obtained through direct measurements and the modeling results using the code MCNP (author).

  1. Complex workplace radiation fields at European high-energy accelerators and thermonuclear fusion facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Bilski, P; D'Errico, F; Esposito, A; Fehrenbacher, G; Fernàndez, F; Fuchs, A; Golnik, N; Lacoste, V; Leuschner, A; Sandri, S; Silari, M; Spurny, F; Wiegel, B; Wright, P

    2006-01-01

    This report outlines the research needs and research activities within Europe to develop new and improved methods and techniques for the characterization of complex radiation fields at workplaces around high-energy accelerators and the next generation of thermonuclear fusion facilities under the auspices of the COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry (CONRAD) project funded by the European Commission.

  2. A nanosecond high voltage pulse device for accelerator time analytical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Binqiao; Ding Furong; Xue Zhihua; Wang Xuemei; Shen Dingyu

    2002-01-01

    A nanosecond high voltage pulse device has been designed. The pulse rise time is 10 ns. The pulse voltage reached 16000 V. This device has been used to accelerator time analytical system, its resolution time is less than 0.8%

  3. Operation Manual of the high voltage generator of the Pelletron electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez M, V.; Lopez V, H.; Alba P, U.

    1988-04-01

    The first version of a manual to operate the generator of high voltage generator of the Pelletron electron accelerator built in the ININ is presented. Since this generator has several components and/or elements, the one manual present has the purpose that the armed one or maintenance of anyone on its parts, is carried out in an orderly and efficient way. (Author)

  4. Application of MO-type gapless flange to beam duct for high-current accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suetsugu, Y.; Shirai, M.; Ohtsuka, M.

    2004-01-01

    The MO-type flange, which can provide a gapless connection between flanges, was studied experimentally aiming to apply it to the beam duct for high-current accelerators. The test flange showed a good vacuum sealing property, although the aperture had a complicated shape, that is, the combination of a circular beam duct and a rectangular antechamber. The structural analysis well reproduced the observed deformation of flange, and utilized to optimize the structure. The MO-type flange is a promising one for the connection flange of the beam duct for future accelerators. (author)

  5. Acceleration to high velocities and heating by impact using Nike KrF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasik, Max; Weaver, J. L.; Velikovich, A. L.; Zalesak, S. T.; Bates, J. W.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Watari, T.; Arikawa, Y.; Sakaiya, T.; Murakami, M.; Azechi, H.; Oh, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Nike krypton fluoride laser [S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098 (1996)] is used to accelerate planar plastic foils to velocities that for the first time reach 1000 km/s. Collision of the highly accelerated deuterated polystyrene foil with a stationary target produces ∼Gbar shock pressures and results in heating of the foil to thermonuclear temperatures. The impact conditions are diagnosed using DD fusion neutron yield, with ∼10 6 neutrons produced during the collision. Time-of-flight neutron detectors are used to measure the ion temperature upon impact, which reaches 2-3 keV.

  6. Acceleration to high velocities and heating by impact using Nike KrF lasera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Max; Weaver, J. L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Watari, T.; Arikawa, Y.; Sakaiya, T.; Oh, J.; Velikovich, A. L.; Zalesak, S. T.; Bates, J. W.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Murakami, M.; Azechi, H.

    2010-05-01

    The Nike krypton fluoride laser [S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098 (1996)] is used to accelerate planar plastic foils to velocities that for the first time reach 1000 km/s. Collision of the highly accelerated deuterated polystyrene foil with a stationary target produces ˜Gbar shock pressures and results in heating of the foil to thermonuclear temperatures. The impact conditions are diagnosed using DD fusion neutron yield, with ˜106 neutrons produced during the collision. Time-of-flight neutron detectors are used to measure the ion temperature upon impact, which reaches 2-3 keV.

  7. Towards the petascale in electromagnetic modeling of plasma-based accelerators for high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhwiler, D L; Antonsen, T; Cary, J R; Cooley, J; Decyk, V K; Esarey, E; Geddes, C G R; Huang, C; Hakim, A; Katsouleas, T; Messmer, P; Mori, W B; Tsung, F S; Vieira, J; Zhou, M

    2006-01-01

    Plasma-based lepton acceleration concepts are a key element of the long-term R and D portfolio for the U.S. Office of High Energy Physics. There are many such concepts, but we consider only the laser (LWFA) and plasma (PWFA) wakefield accelerators. We present a summary of electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for recent LWFA and PWFA experiments. These simulations, including both time explicit algorithms and reduced models, have effectively used terascale computing resources to support and guide experiments in this rapidly developing field. We briefly discuss the challenges and opportunities posed by the near-term availability of petascale computing hardware

  8. Radiation shielding and dose rate distribution for the building of the high dose rate accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Koji; Takagaki, Torao; Nakase, Yoshiaki; Nakai, Yohta.

    1984-03-01

    A high dose rate electron accelerator was established at Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Takasaki Establishment, JAERI in the fiscal year of 1975. This report shows the fundamental concept for the radiation shielding of the accelerator building and the results of their calculations which were evaluated through the model experiments. After the construction of the building, the leak radiation was measured in order to evaluate the calculating method of radiation shielding. Dose rate distribution of X-rays was also measured in the whole area of the irradiation room as a data base. (author)

  9. Synthetic acceleration methods for linear transport problems with highly anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.M.; Larsen, E.W.

    1992-01-01

    The diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) algorithm effectively accelerates the iterative solution of transport problems with isotropic or mildly anisotropic scattering. However, DSA loses its effectiveness for transport problems that have strongly anisotropic scattering. Two generalizations of DSA are proposed, which, for highly anisotropic scattering problems, converge at least an order of magnitude (clock time) faster than the DSA method. These two methods are developed, the results of Fourier analysis that theoretically predict their efficiency are described, and numerical results that verify the theoretical predictions are presented. (author). 10 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Synthetic acceleration methods for linear transport problems with highly anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.M.; Larsen, E.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) algorithm that effectively accelerates the iterative solution of transport problems with isotropic or mildly anisotropic scattering. However, DSA loses its effectiveness for transport problems that have strongly anisotropic scattering. Two generalizations of DSA are proposed, which, for highly anisotropic scattering problems, converge at least an order of magnitude (clock time) faster than the DSA method. These two methods are developed, the results of Fourier analyses that theoretically predict their efficiency are described, and numerical results that verify the theoretical predictions are presented

  11. High gradient experiment by accelerator test facility for Japan Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Seishi; Akemoto, Mitsuo; Hayano, Hitoshi; Naito, Takashi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    For the e + e - linear colliders in TeV energy region such as the Japan Linear Collider (JLC), the accelerating gradient will be one of the important parameters affecting the over all design of main linacs. The gradient determines the accelerating structures, RF frequencies, peak power, AC power, total length and cost. High gradient experiment by using a traveling wave structure in S-band frequencies is presented. Discussions are given about the dependence of dark current and structure length. As one of the parameters indicating the quality of the structure, the multiplication factor η has been proposed

  12. Brain-wave measures of workload in advanced cockpits: The transition of technology from laboratory to cockpit simulator, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Richard L.; Mahaffey, David L.; Munson, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    The present Phase 2 small business innovation research study was designed to address issues related to scalp-recorded event-related potential (ERP) indices of mental workload and to transition this technology from the laboratory to cockpit simulator environments for use as a systems engineering tool. The project involved five main tasks: (1) Two laboratory studies confirmed the generality of the ERP indices of workload obtained in the Phase 1 study and revealed two additional ERP components related to workload. (2) A task analysis' of flight scenarios and pilot tasks in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS) defined cockpit events (i.e., displays, messages, alarms) that would be expected to elicit ERPs related to workload. (3) Software was developed to support ERP data analysis. An existing ARD-proprietary package of ERP data analysis routines was upgraded, new graphics routines were developed to enhance interactive data analysis, and routines were developed to compare alternative single-trial analysis techniques using simulated ERP data. (4) Working in conjunction with NASA Langley research scientists and simulator engineers, preparations were made for an ACFS validation study of ERP measures of workload. (5) A design specification was developed for a general purpose, computerized, workload assessment system that can function in simulators such as the ACFS.

  13. Monte Carlo simulations of ultra high vacuum and synchrotron radiation for particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082330; Leonid, Rivkin

    With preparation of Hi-Lumi LHC fully underway, and the FCC machines under study, accelerators will reach unprecedented energies and along with it very large amount of synchrotron radiation (SR). This will desorb photoelectrons and molecules from accelerator walls, which contribute to electron cloud buildup and increase the residual pressure - both effects reducing the beam lifetime. In current accelerators these two effects are among the principal limiting factors, therefore precise calculation of synchrotron radiation and pressure properties are very important, desirably in the early design phase. This PhD project shows the modernization and a major upgrade of two codes, Molflow and Synrad, originally written by R. Kersevan in the 1990s, which are based on the test-particle Monte Carlo method and allow ultra-high vacuum and synchrotron radiation calculations. The new versions contain new physics, and are built as an all-in-one package - available to the public. Existing vacuum calculation methods are overvi...

  14. High-power, solid-state rf source for accelerator cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, D.R.; Mols, G.E.; Reid, D.W.; Potter, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    During the past few years the Defense and Electronics Center of Westinghouse Electric Corporation has developed a solid-state, 250-kW peak, rf amplifier for use with the SPS-40 radar system. This system has a pulse length of 60 μs and operates across the frequency band from 400 to 450 MHz. Because of the potential use of such a system as an rf source for accelerator applications, a collaborative experiment was initiated between Los Alamos National Laboratory and Westinghouse to simulate the resonant load conditions of an accelerator cavity. This paper describes the positive results of that experiment as well as the solid-state amplifier architecture. It also explores the future of high-power, solid-state amplifiers as rf sources for accelerator structures

  15. Establishing KEK in Japan and Fermilab in the US: internationalism, nationalism and high energy accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoddeson, L. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA); Illinois Univ., Urbana (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1983-02-01

    Comparison of the prehistories of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in the US, and Ko-bar Enerugii Butsurigaku Kenkyusho (KEK) in Japan, reveals the working of both internationalism and nationalism in high energy physics. International communication and competition helped to create a number of structural parallels from the 1930s to the 1960s; for example, in the postwar period both countries formed their first inter-university government-supported accelerator laboratories; at the turn of the 1960s nuclear physicists in both countries debated about the choice of design for their next higher energy accelerator; and both chose proton synchrotron designs traceable to a common conceptual root. Although Fermilab and KEK progressed through analogous stages in 1960-65, national circumstances caused these developments to diverge in the late 1960s, resulting in a sizeable cut in scale and costly delays in the establishment of KEK.

  16. Free-electron laser as a power source for a high-gradient accelerating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1982-02-01

    A two beam colliding linac accelerator is proposed in which one beam is intense (approx. = 1KA), of low energy (approx. = MeV), and long (approx. = 100 ns) and provides power at 1 cm wavelength through a free-electron-laser-mechanism to the second beam of a few electrons (approx. = 10 11 ), which gain energy at the rate of 250 MeV/m in a high-gradient accelerating structure and hence reach 375 GeV in 1.5 km. The intense beam is given energy by induction units and gains, and losses by radiation, 250 keV/m thus supplying 25 J/m to the accelerating structure. The luminosity, L, of two such linacs would be, at a repetition rate of 1 kHz, L = 4. x 10 32 cm -2 s -1

  17. Establishing KEK in Japan and Fermilab in the US: internationalism, nationalism and high energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoddeson, L.; Illinois Univ., Urbana

    1983-01-01

    Comparison of the prehistories of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in the US, and Ko-bar Enerugii Butsurigaku Kenkyusho (KEK) in Japan, reveals the working of both internationalism and nationalism in high energy physics. International communication and competition helped to create a number of structural parallels from the 1930s to the 1960s; for example, in the postwar period both countries formed their first inter-university government-supported accelerator laboratories; at the turn of the 1960s nuclear physicists in both countries debated about the choice of design for their next higher energy accelerator; and both chose proton synchrotron designs traceable to a common conceptual root. Although Fermilab and KEK progressed through analogous stages in 1960-65, national circumstances caused these developments to diverge in the late 1960s, resulting in a sizeable cut in scale and costly delays in the establishment of KEK. (author)

  18. Production and supply of radioisotopes with high-energy particle accelerators current status and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Mausner, L.F.

    1994-01-01

    Although the production of radioisotopes in reactors or in low to medium energy cyclotrons appears to be relatively well established, certain isotopes can either be made only in high-energy particle accelerators or their production is more cost effective when made this way. These facilities are extremely expensive to build and operate, and isotope production is, in general, either not cost-effective or is in conflict with their primary mandate or missions which involve physics research. Isotope production using high-energy accelerators in the U.S., therefore, has been only an intermittent and parasitic activity. However, since a number of isotopes produced at higher energies are emerging as being potentially useful for medical and other applications, there is a renewed concern about their availability in a continuous and reliable fashion. In the U.S., in particular, the various aspects of the production and availability of radioisotopes from high-energy accelerators are presently undergoing a detailed scrutiny and review by various scientific and professional organizations as well as the Government. A number of new factors has complicated the supply/demand equation. These include considerations of cost versus needs, reliability factors, mission orientation, research and educational components, and commercial viability. This paper will focus on the present status and projected needs of radioisotope production with high-energy accelerators in the U.S., and will compare and examine the existing infrastructure in other countries for this purpose. The nature of the U.S. decisions to address many of the above-mentioned issues and an eventual plan of attack to resolve them are bound to have a world-wide impact in the radioisotope user communities. These will be discussed with a view to evaluating the best possible solutions in order to eliminate the shortage in the future supply of radioisotopes produced in high energy accelerators. (author)

  19. High efficiency RF amplifier development over wide dynamic range for accelerator application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jitendra Kumar; Ramarao, B. V.; Pande, Manjiri M.; Joshi, Gopal; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Pitamber

    2017-10-01

    Superconducting (SC) cavities in an accelerating section are designed to have the same geometrical velocity factor (βg). For these cavities, Radio Frequency (RF) power needed to accelerate charged particles varies with the particle velocity factor (β). RF power requirement from one cavity to other can vary by 2-5 dB within the accelerating section depending on the energy gain in the cavity and beam current. In this paper, we have presented an idea to improve operating efficiency of the SC RF accelerators using envelope tracking technique. A study on envelope tracking technique without feedback is carried out on a 1 kW, 325 MHz, class B (conduction angle of 180 degrees) tuned load power amplifier (PA). We have derived expressions for the efficiency and power output for tuned load amplifier operating on the envelope tracking technique. From the derived expressions, it is observed that under constant load resistance to the device (MOSFET), optimum amplifier efficiency is invariant whereas output power varies with the square of drain bias voltage. Experimental results on 1 kW PA module show that its optimum efficiency is always greater than 62% with variation less than 5% from mean value over 7 dB dynamic range. Low power amplifier modules are the basic building block for the high power amplifiers. Therefore, results for 1 kW PA modules remain valid for the high power solid state amplifiers built using these PA modules. The SC RF accelerators using these constant efficiency power amplifiers can improve overall accelerator efficiency.

  20. Development of a RAMI model for LANSCE and high power APT accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallerico, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Assessment of the reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI) of all high power, high cost systems is important to justify and improve the cost effectiveness of these systems. For the very large (over 100 MW) accelerator systems associated with APT, a RAMI model is very valuable in guiding the design and allocation of resources. A RAMI model of an existing machine is also valuable, since machine improvement funds must be allocated to increase the availability by the largest amount. The authors have developed a RAMI model using the critical subsystems of the LANSCE accelerator and beam delivery complex as an example and to evaluate the effectiveness for estimating reliability and beam availability. LAMPF and LANSCE together provide most of the features required for the accelerator and beam delivery part of a high-power APT machine, but LANSCE is pulsed, rather than CW. This complex is capable of a 1-MW average power H - beam, and it is the most powerful proton accelerator in the US built to date

  1. A conceptual design of the DTL-SDTL for the JAERI high intensity proton accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ino, Hiroshi; Kabeya, Zenzaburo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Chishiro, Etsuji; Ouchi, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Mizumoto, Motoharu

    1998-08-01

    A high intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average beam power of 8 MW has been proposed for the Neutron Science Project (NSP) at JAERI. This linac starts with radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, which is followed by a drift-tube linac (DTL), separated-type DTL (SDTL), and a superconducting structure. In this report, we focus on the DTL and SDTL part of the accelerator. The DTL accelerates the beam from 2 to 51 MeV, and SDTL accelerates the beam from 51 to 10 MeV. Since the main features of the requirement for the DTL-SDTL are high peak current ({approx}30 mA) and a high-duty factor ({approx}CW), the conceptual design should be determined not only based on the result of a beam-dynamics calculation, but by careful study of the cooling problems. The design processes of the DTL-SDTL and the matching sections (RFQ to DTL, CW-Pulse merge section, and SDTL to SCC) and the result of a heat transfer analysis of DTL are described. (author)

  2. Effects of redundancy in the comparison of speech and pictorial displays in the cockpit environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byblow, W D

    1990-06-01

    Synthesised speech and pictorial displays were compared in a spatially compatible simulated cockpit environment. Messages of high or low levels of redundancy were presented to subjects in both modality conditions. Subjects responded to warnings presented in a warning-only condition and in a dual-task condition, in which a simulated flight task was performed with visual and manual input/output modalities. Because the amount of information presented in most real-world applications and experimental paradigms is quantifiably large with respect to present guidelines for the use of synthesised speech warnings, the low-redundancy condition was hypothesised to allow for better performance. Results showed that subjects respond quicker to messages of low redundancy in both modalities. It is suggested that speech messages with low-redundancy levels were effective in minimising message length and ensuring that messages did not overload the short-term memory required to process and maintain speech in memory. Manipulation of phrase structure was used to optimise message redundancy and enhance the conceptual compatibility of the message without increasing message length or imposing a perceptual cost or memory overload. The results also suggest that system response times were quicker when synthesised speech warnings were used. This result is consistent with predictions from multiple resource theory which states that the resources required for the perception of verbal warnings are different from those for the flight task. It is also suggested that the perception of a pictorial display requires the same resources used for the perception of the primary flight task. An alternative explanation is that pictorial displays impose a visual scanning cost which is responsible for decreased performance. Based on the findings reported here, it is suggested that speech displays be incorporated in a spatially compatible cockpit environment because they allow equal or better performance when

  3. Safety management of a high energy accelerator used in the production of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, R.M.; Brown, N.W.; Allen C.L.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in a high energy accelerator for producing tritium raises considerations regarding facility Safety Management. Accelerator facility hazards require safety analysis to consider factors such as: safe management of a large flux of very high energy neutrons, sustained operation in a very high energy proton and neutron field, neutron irradiation of a variety of materials, and handling and processing of significant quantities of tritium. Safety considerations of support systems and potential effects of magnetic fields must also be included. Existing Safety Management techniques, safety standards, and criteria for operation of high energy accelerators provide considerable guidance. These must, however, be reviewed to determine their appropriate use for safe operation of a very large, tritium-producing accelerator. New or revised safety standards may be required to establish and maintain the safe operating-envelope. The goal will be to develop a set of tailored standards and criteria that provide a reasonable operational envelope and assure adequate public, worker, and environmental safety. The generation of an appropriate set of safety standards and criteria will include several activities. One activity will involve evaluation of proposed facility designs to determine possible hazards. Another activity will involve a detailed review of existing accelerator safety management systems. A third activity will involve the review of operating histories of existing facilities. Facilities approximating the characteristics of the anticipated tritium production facility will be considered. Following completion of these activities a proposed Safety Management System and criteria for application to these facilities will be drafted. The need for new analytical methods and for additional safety standards will be identified. The draft document will then be reviewed and revised to establish the standards and criteria within the appropriate Department of Energy framework

  4. High power millimeter-wave free electron laser based on recirculating electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung-Cheol; Kim, Sun-Kook; Jeong, Young-Uk; Cho, Sung-Oh; Lee, Jongmin

    1995-01-01

    Progress in the development of a high power, millimeter-wave free electron laser driven by a recirculating electrostatic accelerator is reported. The energy and the current of electron beam are 430 keV and 2 A, respectively. The expected average output power is above 10 kW at the wavelength of 3-10 mm. Minimizing of the beam loss is a key issue for CW operation of the FEL with high efficiency. (author)

  5. Practical high-density shielding materials for medical linear accelerator rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barish, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    High-energy linear accelerators are replacing lower energy units in radiation therapy centers. Radiation protection requirements necessitate expensive reconstruction of existing treatment rooms to accommodate these new machines. We describe two shielding materials: one made by embedding small pieces of scrap steel in cement, and the other made with cast iron in cement. Both materials produce high-density barriers at low cost using standard construction methods

  6. Synthetic acceleration methods for linear transport problems with highly anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.M.

    1989-01-01

    One of the iterative methods which is used to solve the discretized transport equation is called the Source Iteration Method (SI). The SI method converges very slowly for problems with optically thick regions and scattering ratios (σ s /σ t ) near unity. The Diffusion-Synthetic Acceleration method (DSA) is one of the methods which has been devised to improve the convergence rate of the SI method. The DSA method is a good tool to accelerate the SI method, if the particle which is being dealt with is a neutron. This is because the scattering process for neutrons is not severely anisotropic. However, if the particle is a charged particle (electron), DSA becomes ineffective as an acceleration device because here the scattering process is severely anisotropic. To improve the DSA algorithm for electron transport, the author approaches the problem in two different ways in this thesis. He develops the first approach by accelerating more angular moments (φ 0 , φ 1 , φ 2 , φ 3 ,...) than is done in DSA; he calls this approach the Modified P N Synthetic Acceleration (MPSA) method. In the second approach he modifies the definition of the transport sweep, using the physics of the scattering; he calls this approach the Modified Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (MDSA) method. In general, he has developed, analyzed, and implemented the MPSA and MDSA methods in this thesis and has shown that for a high order quadrature set and mesh widths about 1.0 cm, they are each about 34 times faster (clock time) than the DSA method. Also, he has found that the MDSA spectral radius decreases as the mesh size increases. This makes the MDSA method a better choice for large spatial meshes

  7. Accelerated high-frame-rate mouse heart cine-MRI using compressed sensing reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaal, Abdallah G; Coolen, Bram F; Abdurrachim, Desiree; Castro, Rui M; Prompers, Jeanine J; Florack, Luc M J; Nicolay, Klaas; Strijkers, Gustav J

    2013-04-01

    We introduce a new protocol to obtain very high-frame-rate cinematographic (Cine) MRI movies of the beating mouse heart within a reasonable measurement time. The method is based on a self-gated accelerated fast low-angle shot (FLASH) acquisition and compressed sensing reconstruction. Key to our approach is that we exploit the stochastic nature of the retrospective triggering acquisition scheme to produce an undersampled and random k-t space filling that allows for compressed sensing reconstruction and acceleration. As a standard, a self-gated FLASH sequence with a total acquisition time of 10 min was used to produce single-slice Cine movies of seven mouse hearts with 90 frames per cardiac cycle. Two times (2×) and three times (3×) k-t space undersampled Cine movies were produced from 2.5- and 1.5-min data acquisitions, respectively. The accelerated 90-frame Cine movies of mouse hearts were successfully reconstructed with a compressed sensing algorithm. The movies had high image quality and the undersampling artifacts were effectively removed. Left ventricular functional parameters, i.e. end-systolic and end-diastolic lumen surface areas and early-to-late filling rate ratio as a parameter to evaluate diastolic function, derived from the standard and accelerated Cine movies, were nearly identical. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Design of high-speed data transmission system for Lanzhou heavy ion therapy accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Wenyu; Qiao Weimin; Jing Lan; Li Guihua

    2012-01-01

    In order to satisfy the transmission requirements of partial synchronization data and process data for the heavy ion therapy accelerator, a high-speed, error-correction, long-distance, and real-time data transmission system was proposed and achieved. It can improve the efficiency and reliability of the accelerator control and synchronization. The system optimizes the hardware configuration and layout of the traditional system. FPGA, gigabit fiber module, PXI and SDRAM are the main parts of the system. It replaces the low-speed, short-distance, and poor anti-interference of the traditional data path and the data processing chips. Through the programming in the two FPGA chips, the PXI and DMA transmission mode was used to exchange data with the server of the accelerator. The front-end of the system achieves a real-time, long-distance, and high-speed serial frame transmission with 800 MHz carrier and 100 MHz base band signal. The real-time -data like synchronous event signal, power waveform data of the heavy ion therapy accelerator can be transmitted efficiently between the server and the remote controller through the system. (authors)

  9. Design and Optimization of Large Accelerator Systems through High-Fidelity Electromagnetic Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Cho; Akcelik, Volkan; Candel, Arno; Chen, Sheng; Ge, Lixin; Kabel, Andreas; Lee, Lie-Quan; Li, Zenghai; Prudencio, Ernesto; Schussman, Greg; Uplenchwar1, Ravi; Xiao1, Liling; Ko1, Kwok; Austin, T.; Cary, J.R.; Ovtchinnikov, S.; Smith, D.N.; Werner, G.R.; Bellantoni, L.; TechX Corp.; Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    SciDAC1, with its support for the 'Advanced Computing for 21st Century Accelerator Science and Technology' (AST) project, witnessed dramatic advances in electromagnetic (EM) simulations for the design and optimization of important accelerators across the Office of Science. In SciDAC2, EM simulations continue to play an important role in the 'Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation' (ComPASS), through close collaborations with SciDAC CETs/Institutes in computational science. Existing codes will be improved and new multi-physics tools will be developed to model large accelerator systems with unprecedented realism and high accuracy using computing resources at petascale. These tools aim at targeting the most challenging problems facing the ComPASS project. Supported by advances in computational science research, they have been successfully applied to the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in High Energy Physics (HEP), the JLab 12-GeV Upgrade in Nuclear Physics (NP), as well as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) in Basic Energy Sciences (BES)

  10. MHz repetition rate solid-state driver for high current induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksby, C; Caporaso, G; Goerz, D; Hanks, R; Hickman, B; Kirbie, H; Lee, B; Saethre, R.

    1999-01-01

    A research team from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Bechtel Nevada Corporation is developing an all solid-state power source for high current induction accelerators. The original power system design, developed for heavy-ion fusion accelerators, is based on the simple idea of using an array of field effect transistors to switch energy from a pre-charged capacitor bank to an induction accelerator cell. Recently, that idea has been expanded to accommodate the greater power needs of a new class of high-current electron accelerators for advanced radiography. For this purpose, we developed a 3-stage induction adder that uses over 4,000 field effect transistors to switch peak voltages of 45 kV at currents up to 4.8 kA with pulse repetition rates of up to 2 MHz. This radically advanced power system can generate a burst of five or more pulses that vary from 200 ns to 2 ampersand micro;s at a duty cycle of up to 25%. Our new source is precise, robust, flexible, and exceeds all previous drivers for induction machines by a factor of 400 in repetition rate and a factor of 1000 in duty cycle

  11. Design and optimization of large accelerator systems through high-fidelity electromagnetic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C; Akcelik, V; Candel, A; Chen, S; Ge, L; Kabel, A; Lee, Lie-Quan; Li, Z; Prudencio, E; Schussman, G; Uplenchwar, R; Xiao, L; Ko, K; Austin, T; Cary, J R; Ovtchinnikov, S; Smith, D N; Werner, G R; Bellantoni, L

    2008-01-01

    SciDAC-1, with its support for the 'Advanced Computing for 21st Century Accelerator Science and Technology' project, witnessed dramatic advances in electromagnetic (EM) simulations for the design and optimization of important accelerators across the Office of Science. In SciDAC2, EM simulations continue to play an important role in the 'Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation' (ComPASS), through close collaborations with SciDAC Centers and Insitutes in computational science. Existing codes will be improved and new multi-physics tools will be developed to model large accelerator systems with unprecedented realism and high accuracy using computing resources at petascale. These tools aim at targeting the most challenging problems facing the ComPASS project. Supported by advances in computational science research, they have been successfully applied to the International Linear Collider and the Large Hadron Collider in high energy physics, the JLab 12-GeV Upgrade in nuclear physics, and the Spallation Neutron Source and the Linac Coherent Light Source in basic energy sciences

  12. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-01-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ)[1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  13. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  14. Neutron dose measurements with the GSI ball at high energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbacher, G.; Gutermuth, F.; Radon, T.; Kozlova, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: At high energy particle accelerators the production of neutron radiation dominates radiation protection. For the radiation survey at accelerators there is a need for reliable detection systems (passive radiation monitors), which can measure the dose for a wide range of neutron energies independently on the beam pulse structure of the produced radiation. In this work a passive neutron dosemeter for the measurement of the ambient dose equivalent is presented. The dosemeter is suitable for measurements of the emerging neutron radiation at accelerators for the whole energy range up to about 10 GeV. The dosemeter consists of a polyethylene sphere, TL elements (pairs of TLD600/700) and an additional lead layer (PE/Pb) in neutron fields at high energy accelerators is investigated in this work. Results of dose measurements which were performed in realistic neutron fields at the high energy accelerator SPS at CERN (CERF facility) and in Cave A at the heavy ion synchrotron SIS at GSI are presented. The results of these measurements are compared with the expected dose values from the neutron spectra determined for the measurement positions at CERF and in Cave A (FLUKA) and with the dosemeter response derived by the calculated response functions (FLUKA) folded with the neutron spectra. The comparisons show that the additional lead layer in the PE/Pb-sphere improves significantly the response of the dosemeter. The response of the PE/Pb-sphere is 40 to 50 % higher at CERF and Cave A in comparison to the bare PE-sphere. At CERF the dose values of the PE/Pb-sphere is about 25 % lower than the expected dose value, whilst for Cave A, a rather good agreement was found (2 % deviation). (author)

  15. FLARE VERSUS SHOCK ACCELERATION OF HIGH-ENERGY PROTONS IN SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliver, E. W.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have presented evidence for a significant to dominant role for a flare-resident acceleration process for high-energy protons in large (“gradual”) solar energetic particle (SEP) events, contrary to the more generally held view that such protons are primarily accelerated at shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The new support for this flare-centric view is provided by correlations between the sizes of X-ray and/or microwave bursts and associated SEP events. For one such study that considered >100 MeV proton events, we present evidence based on CME speeds and widths, shock associations, and electron-to-proton ratios that indicates that events omitted from that investigation’s analysis should have been included. Inclusion of these outlying events reverses the study’s qualitative result and supports shock acceleration of >100 MeV protons. Examination of the ratios of 0.5 MeV electron intensities to >100 MeV proton intensities for the Grechnev et al. event sample provides additional support for shock acceleration of high-energy protons. Simply scaling up a classic “impulsive” SEP event to produce a large >100 MeV proton event implies the existence of prompt 0.5 MeV electron events that are approximately two orders of magnitude larger than are observed. While classic “impulsive” SEP events attributed to flares have high electron-to-proton ratios (≳5 × 10 5 ) due to a near absence of >100 MeV protons, large poorly connected (≥W120) gradual SEP events, attributed to widespread shock acceleration, have electron-to-proton ratios of ∼2 × 10 3 , similar to those of comparably sized well-connected (W20–W90) SEP events.

  16. Research on tactical information display technology for interactive virtual cockpit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongyun; Tian, Tao; Su, Feng

    2018-04-01

    Based on a fact that traditional tactical information display technology suffers from disadvantages of a large number of data to be transferred and low plotting efficiency in an interactive virtual cockpit, a GID protocol-based simulation has been designed. This method dissolves complex tactical information screens into basic plotting units. The indication of plotting units is controlled via the plotting commands, which solves the incompatibility between the tactical information display in traditional simulation and the desktop-based virtual simulation training system. Having been used in desktop systems for helicopters, fighters, and transporters, this method proves to be scientific and reasonable in design and simple and efficient in usage, which exerts a significant value in establishing aviation equipment technology support training products.

  17. The Plasma Window: A Windowless High Pressure-Vacuum Interface for Various Accelerator Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershcovitch, A. I.; Johnson, E. D.; Lanza, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    The Plasma Window is a stabilized plasma arc used as an interface between accelerator vacuum and pressurized targets. There is no solid material introduced into the beam and thus it is also capable of transmitting particle beams and electromagnetic radiation with low loss and of sustaining high beam currents without damage. Measurements on a prototype system with a 3 mm diameter opening have shown that pressure differences of more than 2.5 atmospheres can be sustained with an input pressure of ∼ 10 -6 Torr. The system is capable of scaling to higher-pressure differences and larger apertures. Various plasma window applications for synchrotron light sources, high power lasers, internal targets, high current accelerators such as the HAWK, ATW, APT, DARHT, spallation sources, as well as for a number of commercial applications, is discussed

  18. The IBA rhodotron TT1000: a very high power E-beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abs, M.; Jongen, Y.; Poncelet, E.; Bol, J.-L.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the relatively low conversion efficiency of electrons into X-rays, the use of X-rays on an industrial basis requires high-power high-energy electron accelerators. Based on its experience acquired in the development of the Rhodotron (Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 40/41 (1989) 943; Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 79 (1993) 865), IBA has launched a few years ago a vigorous R and D program to develop such high-power electron accelerator devoted to X-ray industrial applications. This research program resulted in the TT1000 Rhodotron aimed at delivering 5 and 7 MeV electron beams with a current intensity of 100 mA. This project is now reaching its final phase with the qualification tests of the first prototype of this new machine

  19. Optimizing the pathology workstation "cockpit": Challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Krupinski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21 st century has brought numerous changes to the clinical reading (i.e., image or virtual pathology slide interpretation environment of pathologists and it will continue to change even more dramatically as information and communication technologies (ICTs become more widespread in the integrated healthcare enterprise. The extent to which these changes impact the practicing pathologist differ as a function of the technology under consideration, but digital "virtual slides" and the viewing of images on computer monitors instead of glass slides through a microscope clearly represents a significant change in the way that pathologists extract information from these images and render diagnostic decisions. One of the major challenges facing pathologists in this new era is how to best optimize the pathology workstation, the reading environment and the new and varied types of information available in order to ensure efficient and accurate processing of this information. Although workstations can be stand-alone units with images imported via external storage devices, this scenario is becoming less common as pathology departments connect to information highways within their hospitals and to external sites. Picture Archiving and Communications systems are no longer confined to radiology departments but are serving the entire integrated healthcare enterprise, including pathology. In radiology, the workstation is often referred to as the "cockpit" with a "digital dashboard" and the reading room as the "control room." Although pathology has yet to "go digital" to the extent that radiology has, lessons derived from radiology reading "cockpits" can be quite valuable in setting up the digital pathology reading room. In this article, we describe the concept of the digital dashboard and provide some recent examples of informatics-based applications that have been shown to improve the workflow and quality in digital reading environments.

  20. High-current heavy-ion accelerator system and its application to material modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Naoki; Takeda, Yoshihiko; Lee, C.G.; Umeda, Naoki; Okubo, Nariaki; Iwamoto, Eiji

    2001-01-01

    A high-current heavy-ion accelerator system has been developed to realize intense particle fluxes for material modification. The facility of a tandem accelerator attained 1 mA-class ion current both for negative low-energy ions and positive high-energy ions. The negative ion source of the key device is of the plasma-sputter type, equipped with mutli-cusp magnets and Cs supply. The intense negative ions are either directly used for material irradiation at 60 keV or further accelerated up to 6 MeV after charge transformation. Application of negative ions, which alleviates surface charging, enables us to conduct low-energy high-current irradiation on insulating substrates. Since positive ions above the MeV range are irrelevant for Coulomb repulsion, the facility as a whole meets the needs of high-current irradiation onto insulators over a wide energy range. Application of high flux ions provides technological merits not only for efficient implantation but also for essentially different material kinetics, which may become an important tool of material modification. Other advantages of the system are co-irradiation by intense laser and in-situ detection of kinetic processes. For examples of material modifications, we present nanoparticle fabrication in insulators, and synergistic phenomena by co-irradiation due to ions and photons. (author)

  1. Study of laser driven plasma based electron acceleration and Bremsstrahlung radiation emission using ultra-high intensity laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B.S.

    2013-01-01

    High energy particle accelerators are one of the most important inventions of the twentieth century which have led to enormous advances in basic scientific understanding of world around us. Despite their grand success, the present day high energy accelerators are hitting practical limits due to their large size and cost. This is because the accelerating gradients in conventional radio-frequency (RF) accelerators are typically limited to < 50 MV/m by the field breakdown of the accelerating structure. To address this major issue, many advanced accelerator techniques have been proposed and some of them are being actively pursued. Laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) in plasma medium is one of the techniques being most actively pursued world over due to extremely large acceleration gradients of the order of 100 GV/m possible in this scheme which promises significant reduction of the size and cost of the future high energy accelerators. The present thesis work mainly deals with laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) of self-injected electrons to 10s of MeV energy in plasma medium of length of the order of 500 μm using the table-top 10 TW laser at Laser Plasma Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology

  2. Radiation control at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), a new high power CW electron accelerator installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapleton, G.B.; Thomas, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    A description is given of the design goals and radiation control measures, for a new 4 GeV, 1 MW electron accelerator under construction in the USA. The paper illustrates the importance of cooperation between designers and regulators. 15 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  3. Ultra high vacuum activities and required modification at 14 UD BARC-TIFR pelletron accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.C.; Ninawe, N.G.; Ramjilal; Bhagwat, P.V.; Salvi, S.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The 14 UD pelletron accelerator is working round the clock since 1989. The accelerator is housed inside a tank which is 6 meter in diameter and 25 meter long. The accelerator tank is pressurized with SF 6 at 80 to 100 PSIG in order to achieve 14MV. In pelletron, ions are extracted from SNICS are pre-accelerated up to 300 keV before being injected into low energy accelerator tube. In the terminal which is at high potential (4MV to 14 MV), the ion beam pass through the stripper and positive ions with high charge states are produced. The high energy beams are focussed and analyzed by 90 deg magnet. The analyzed beam is then transported to the various experimental ports. In order to achieve uniform ultra high vacuum (to reduce the loss of intensity and spread in the energy of ions beams) in more than 100 metre and 100 mm diameter beam lines including magnet chambers and various beam diagnostic devices, combination of getter-ion pumps and turbo pumps are being used at Pelletron Accelerator Facility. The 14 UD pelletron is equipped with a combination of foil and gas stripper in high voltage terminal section. The foil and gas stripper in the terminal section are mainly used for stripping of light and heavy ions respectively. The gas stripper plays a great role for stripping of heavy ions and its efficiency depends on gas stripper parameters and supporting pumps. The gas stripper is originally installed with getter pumps. These pumps required periodic replacement of titanium cartridges and slowly the pumping speed used to diminish with time. A new recirculation turbo molecular pumps based system is being designed to improve good beam transmission. Details of design will be presented. Proton beam of tens of MeV energy and μA range current is in demand to carry out specific radiochemistry experiments in this facility. It is proposed to built and accommodate a proton experimental setup in the tower area of the existing facility. Details of required UHV system for

  4. Experimental results in superconducting niobium resonators for high-brightness ion beam acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.; Bohn, C.L.; Roche, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    Two niobium resonant cavities for high-brightness ion beam acceleration have been constructed and tested. The first was based on a coaxial quarter-wave geometry and was optimized for phase velocity β O = O.15. This cavity, which resonates at 400 MHz in the fundamental mode, operated at an average (wall-to-wall) accelerating gradient of 12.9 MV/m under continuous-wave (cw) fields. At this gradient, a cavity Q of 1.4x10 8 was measured. The second was based on a coaxial half-wave geometry and was optimized for β O = 0.12. This cavity, which resonates at 355 MHz in the fundamental mode, operated at an average accelerating gradient of 18.0 MV/m under cw fields. This is the highest average accelerating gradient achieved to date in low-velocity structures designed for cw operation. At this gradient, a cavity Q of 1.2 x 10 8 was measured

  5. The Ability of American Football Helmets to Manage Linear Acceleration With Repeated High-Energy Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournoyer, Janie; Post, Andrew; Rousseau, Philippe; Hoshizaki, Blaine

    2016-03-01

    Football players can receive up to 1400 head impacts per season, averaging 6.3 impacts per practice and 14.3 impacts per game. A decrease in the capacity of a helmet to manage linear acceleration with multiple impacts could increase the risk of traumatic brain injury. To investigate the ability of football helmets to manage linear acceleration with multiple high-energy impacts. Descriptive laboratory study. Laboratory. We collected linear-acceleration data for 100 impacts at 6 locations on 4 helmets of different models currently used in football. Impacts 11 to 20 were compared with impacts 91 to 100 for each of the 6 locations. Linear acceleration was greater after multiple impacts (91-100) than after the first few impacts (11-20) for the front, front-boss, rear, and top locations. However, these differences are not clinically relevant as they do not affect the risk for head injury. American football helmet performance deteriorated with multiple impacts, but this is unlikely to be a factor in head-injury causation during a game or over a season.

  6. DSP accelerator for the wavelet compression/decompression of high- resolution images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, M.A.; Gleason, S.S.; Jatko, W.B.

    1993-07-23

    A Texas Instruments (TI) TMS320C30-based S-Bus digital signal processing (DSP) module was used to accelerate a wavelet-based compression and decompression algorithm applied to high-resolution fingerprint images. The law enforcement community, together with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NISI), is adopting a standard based on the wavelet transform for the compression, transmission, and decompression of scanned fingerprint images. A two-dimensional wavelet transform of the input image is computed. Then spatial/frequency regions are automatically analyzed for information content and quantized for subsequent Huffman encoding. Compression ratios range from 10:1 to 30:1 while maintaining the level of image quality necessary for identification. Several prototype systems were developed using SUN SPARCstation 2 with a 1280 {times} 1024 8-bit display, 64-Mbyte random access memory (RAM), Tiber distributed data interface (FDDI), and Spirit-30 S-Bus DSP-accelerators from Sonitech. The final implementation of the DSP-accelerated algorithm performed the compression or decompression operation in 3.5 s per print. Further increases in system throughput were obtained by adding several DSP accelerators operating in parallel.

  7. High-power liquid-lithium target prototype for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Bisyakoev, M; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Hazenshprung, N; Kijel, D; Nagler, A; Silverman, I

    2011-12-01

    A prototype of a compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT), which will possibly constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals, was built. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The liquid-lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated using a high-intensity proton beam (>10 kW), necessary for sufficient neutron flux. In off-line circulation tests, the liquid-lithium loop generated a stable lithium jet at high velocity, on a concave supporting wall; the concept will first be tested using a high-power electron beam impinging on the lithium jet. High intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 2-4 mA) will take place at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) superconducting linear accelerator currently in construction at SNRC. Radiological risks due to the (7)Be produced in the reaction were studied and will be handled through a proper design, including a cold trap and appropriate shielding. A moderator/reflector assembly is planned according to a Monte Carlo simulation, to create a neutron spectrum and intensity maximally effective to the treatment and to reduce prompt gamma radiation dose risks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of energy response of neutron rem monitor applied to high-energy accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshihiro; Harada, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-03-01

    A neutron rem monitor was newly developed for applying to the high-intensity proton accelerator facility (J-PARC) that is under construction as a joint project between the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. To measure the dose rate accurately for wide energy range of neutrons from thermal to high-energy region, the neutron rem monitor was fabricated by adding a lead breeder layer to a conventional neutron rem monitor. The energy response of the monitor was evaluated by using neutron transport calculations for the energy range from thermal to 150 MeV. For verifying the results, the response was measured at neutron fields for the energy range from thermal to 65 MeV. The comparisons between the energy response and dose conversion coefficients show that the newly developed neutron rem monitor has a good performance in energy response up to 150 MeV, suggesting that the present study offered prospects of a practical fabrication of the rem monitor applicable to the high intensity proton accelerator facility. (author)

  9. Voice Activated Cockpit Management Systems: Voice-Flight NexGen, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Speaking to the cockpit as a method of system management in flight can become an effective interaction method, since voice communication is very efficient. Automated...

  10. ODICIS (One Display for a Cockpit Interactive Solution) - Final public progress report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bécouarn, Loïc; Dominici, Johanna; Bader, Joachim

    The ODICIS project aims at developing a single display cockpit associated with adequate means of interaction. This addresses three current major aeronautics needs: the system architecture flexibility, the useful surface optimisation and the information continuity. Therefore the project will improve...

  11. Man-machine-communication. Operation and supervision of complicated systems in a modern cockpit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, B.

    1985-01-01

    Redundance is vital in modern aircraft. For some systems a fourfold redundance is given. In the cockpit of the Airbus, colour screens are being used to display information needed by the pilots. Potentials of such a display are discussed

  12. A Comparison of AH-64 Pilot Attitudes Toward Traditional and Glass Cockpit Crewstation Designs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francis, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    .... This finding suggested that the differences of crewstation design needed to be examined. To identify significant differences, this study assessed pilots' attitudes toward traditional and glass cockpit designs in the AH-64 Apache helicopter...

  13. Human factors issues associated with the use of speech technology in the cockpit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersteen, Z. A.; Damos, D.

    1983-01-01

    The human factors issues associated with the use of voice technology in the cockpit are summarized. The formulation of the LHX avionics suite is described and the allocation of tasks to voice in the cockpit is discussed. State-of-the-art speech recognition technology is reviewed. Finally, a questionnaire designed to tap pilot opinions concerning the allocation of tasks to voice input and output in the cockpit is presented. This questionnaire was designed to be administered to operational AH-1G Cobra gunship pilots. Half of the questionnaire deals specifically with the AH-1G cockpit and the types of tasks pilots would like to have performed by voice in this existing rotorcraft. The remaining portion of the questionnaire deals with an undefined rotorcraft of the future and is aimed at determining what types of tasks these pilots would like to have performed by voice technology if anything was possible, i.e. if there were no technological constraints.

  14. Direct tactile manipulation of the flight plan in a modern aircraft cockpit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, Alexandre; Fogh, Rune; Zammit-Mangion, David

    2012-01-01

    An original experimental approach has been chosen, with an incremental progression from a traditional physical cockpit, to a tactile flight simulator reproducing traditional controls, to a prototype navigation display with direct tactile functionality, first located in the traditional low position...

  15. Three-Dimensional Cockpit Display System for Improved Situational Awareness, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a 3D cockpit display (3D-COD) system for improved pilot situational awareness and safety in 3D airspace by...

  16. Application of High-performance Visual Analysis Methods to Laser Wakefield Particle Acceleration Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubel, Oliver; Prabhat, Mr.; Wu, Kesheng; Childs, Hank; Meredith, Jeremy; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Ahern, Sean; Weber, Gunther H.; Messmer, Peter; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, E. Wes

    2008-01-01

    Our work combines and extends techniques from high-performance scientific data management and visualization to enable scientific researchers to gain insight from extremely large, complex, time-varying laser wakefield particle accelerator simulation data. We extend histogram-based parallel coordinates for use in visual information display as well as an interface for guiding and performing data mining operations, which are based upon multi-dimensional and temporal thresholding and data subsetting operations. To achieve very high performance on parallel computing platforms, we leverage FastBit, a state-of-the-art index/query technology, to accelerate data mining and multi-dimensional histogram computation. We show how these techniques are used in practice by scientific researchers to identify, visualize and analyze a particle beam in a large, time-varying dataset

  17. Load management strategy for Particle-In-Cell simulations in high energy particle acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, A., E-mail: beck@llr.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS-IN2P3, Palaiseau 91128 (France); Frederiksen, J.T. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 København Ø (Denmark); Dérouillat, J. [CEA, Maison de La Simulation, 91400 Saclay (France)

    2016-09-01

    In the wake of the intense effort made for the experimental CILEX project, numerical simulation campaigns have been carried out in order to finalize the design of the facility and to identify optimal laser and plasma parameters. These simulations bring, of course, important insight into the fundamental physics at play. As a by-product, they also characterize the quality of our theoretical and numerical models. In this paper, we compare the results given by different codes and point out algorithmic limitations both in terms of physical accuracy and computational performances. These limitations are illustrated in the context of electron laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). The main limitation we identify in state-of-the-art Particle-In-Cell (PIC) codes is computational load imbalance. We propose an innovative algorithm to deal with this specific issue as well as milestones towards a modern, accurate high-performance PIC code for high energy particle acceleration.

  18. High-energy monoenergetic proton beams from two stage acceleration with a slow laser pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a new regime to generate high-energy quasimonoenergetic proton beams in a “slow-pulse” regime, where the laser group velocity v_{g}accelerated by the light sail (LS mode can be further trapped and reflected by the snowplough potential generated by the laser in the near-critical density plasma. These two acceleration stages are connected by the onset of Rayleigh-Taylor-like (RT instability. The usual ion energy spectrum broadening by RT instability is controlled and high quality proton beams can be generated. It is shown by multidimensional particle-in-cell simulation that quasimonoenergetic proton beams with energy up to hundreds of MeV can be generated at laser intensities of 10^{21}  W/cm^{2}.

  19. Benchmark of Space Charge Simulations and Comparison with Experimental Results for High Intensity, Low Energy Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cousineau, Sarah M

    2005-01-01

    Space charge effects are a major contributor to beam halo and emittance growth leading to beam loss in high intensity, low energy accelerators. As future accelerators strive towards unprecedented levels of beam intensity and beam loss control, a more comprehensive understanding of space charge effects is required. A wealth of simulation tools have been developed for modeling beams in linacs and rings, and with the growing availability of high-speed computing systems, computationally expensive problems that were inconceivable a decade ago are now being handled with relative ease. This has opened the field for realistic simulations of space charge effects, including detailed benchmarks with experimental data. A great deal of effort is being focused in this direction, and several recent benchmark studies have produced remarkably successful results. This paper reviews the achievements in space charge benchmarking in the last few years, and discusses the challenges that remain.

  20. A computer study of radionuclide production in high power accelerators for medical and industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riper, K. A.; Mashnik, S. G.; Wilson, W. B.

    2001-05-01

    Methods for radionuclide production calculation in a high power proton accelerator have been developed and applied to study production of 22 isotopes by high-energy protons and neutrons. These methods are readily applicable to accelerator, and reactor, environments other than the particular model we considered and to the production of other radioactive and stable isotopes. We have also developed methods for evaluating cross sections from a wide variety of sources into a single cross section set and have produced an evaluated library covering about a third of all natural elements. These methods also are applicable to an expanded set of reactions. A 684 page detailed report on this study, with 37 tables and 264 color figures is available on the Web at http://t2.lanl.gov/publications/publications.html, or, if not accessible, in hard copy from the authors.

  1. The longitudinal space charge problem in the high current linear proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustfeld, H.

    1984-01-01

    In a linear proton accelerator peak currents of 200 mA lead to high space charge densities and the resultant space charge forces reduce the effective focussing considerably. In particular the longitudinal focussing is affected. A new concept based on linear theory is proposed that restricts the influence of the space charge forces on the longitudinal focussing by increasing a, the mean transverse bunch radius, as a proportional(βγ)sup(3/8). This concept is compared with other concepts for the Alvarez (1 MeV - 100 MeV) and for the high energy part (100 MeV - 1100 MeV) of the SNQ linear accelerator. (orig.)

  2. Coincidence set-up with a high duty-cycle, high energy electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leconte, P.

    1981-01-01

    Important studies are now undertaken to develop continuous wave electron accelerators with energy ranging from 1 to 4 Gev. So very important effort must be now put on the development of the experimental set-up matching the performances expected from the electron beam. Major steps in the understanding of the nuclear systems will come from more and more exclusive experiments where well defined mechanisms will be selected

  3. Solving radiative transfer problems in highly heterogeneous media via domain decomposition and convergence acceleration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previti, Alberto; Furfaro, Roberto; Picca, Paolo; Ganapol, Barry D.; Mostacci, Domiziano

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with finding accurate solutions for photon transport problems in highly heterogeneous media fastly, efficiently and with modest memory resources. We propose an extended version of the analytical discrete ordinates method, coupled with domain decomposition-derived algorithms and non-linear convergence acceleration techniques. Numerical performances are evaluated using a challenging case study available in the literature. A study of accuracy versus computational time and memory requirements is reported for transport calculations that are relevant for remote sensing applications.

  4. Real time data acquisition system for the High Current Test Facility proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlais, C.E.; Erickson, P.D.; Caissie, L.P.

    1975-01-01

    A real time data acquisition system was developed to monitor and control the High Current Test Facility Proton Accelerator. It is a PDP-8/E computer system with virtual memory capability that is fully interrupt driven and operates under a real-time, multi-tasking executive. The application package includes mode selection to automatically modify programs and optimize operation under varying conditions. (U.S.)

  5. The origin of mass and experiments on high-energy particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, B.L.

    2006-01-01

    The visible world is one consisting of nucleons and electrons. The mass of nucleon arises from chiral symmetry breaking in quantum chromodynamics, so high energy accelerator experiments cannot give a clue to the nature of mass of matter in the visible world. The origin of the mass of the matter will be clarified when the mechanism of chiral symmetry breaking in quantum chromodynamics is established [ru

  6. Introduction to the study of particle accelerators. Atomic, nuclear and high energy physics for engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    This book is destined for engineers taking part in the design building and running of nuclear physics and high-energy physics particle accelerators. It starts with some notions on the theory of relativity, analytical and statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics. An outline of the properties of atomic nuclei, the collision theory and the elements of gaseous plasma physics is followed by a discussion on elementary particles: characteristic parameters, properties, interactions, classification [fr

  7. High-intensity cyclotrons for radioisotope production and accelerator driven systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongen, Y.; Vandeplassche, D.; Kleeven, W.; Beeckman, W.; Zaremba, S.; Lannoye, G.; Stichelbaut, F

    2002-04-22

    IBA recently proposed a new method to extract high-intensity positive ion beams from a cyclotron based on the concept of auto-extraction. We review the design of a 14 MeV, multi-milliampere cyclotron using this new technology. IBA is also involved in the design of the accelerator system foreseen to drive the MYRRHA facility, a multipurpose neutron source developed jointly by SCK-CEN and IBA.

  8. Probing the structure of matter with Stanford's new $78 million high-energy accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, G.

    1981-01-01

    The US high-energy physics program recently gained a powerful new experimental tool with the completion of the Positron Electron Project (PEP). PEP is a colliding beam storage ring two kilometres in circumference. Collisions are obtained in the PEP ring by injecting electrons and positrons from SLAC's existing linear accelerator so that they circulate in opposite directions. At 6 points in the ring the beams will collide. PEP will enable collisions to be produced at up to 36 GeV

  9. Observations of accelerated high current low emittance beams in the SLC Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.T.; Ross, M.C.; Sheppard, J.C.; Stiening, R.F.

    1985-05-01

    The Linac of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) is required to accelerate several intense single electron and positron bunches to high energy while not enlarging their small transverse emittances. The improvements needed by the SLAC Linac to meet these goals have very stringent design criteria. As partial systems have become available, beam tests have been performed to confirm the designs. The results of those beam tests are discussed. Future plans of the improvement program are described. 13 refs., 9 figs

  10. Modelling of radiation losses for ion acceleration at ultra-high laser intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capdessus Remi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Radiation losses of charged particles can become important in ultra high intensity laser plasma interaction. This process is described by the radiation back reaction term in the electron equation of motion. This term is implemented in the relativistic particle-in-cell code by using a renormalized Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac model. In the hole boring regime case of laser ion acceleration it is shown that radiation losses results in a decrease of the piston velocity.

  11. On the way to high-power linear proton accelerator for the long half-life radionuclides transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batskikh, G.I.; Lupandin, O.S.; Murin, B.P.; Fedotov, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of continuous mode high-power linear proton accelerator with 1.5 GeV energy, 0.3 A current for the long half-life nuclides transmutation into the short ones (waste of atomic power plants (APP)) is proposed. The accelerator design main principles, scheme and parameters are presented. The accent is made on the accelerator efficiency, reliability and radiation purity. (author)

  12. Multi-GPU Accelerated Admittance Method for High-Resolution Human Exposure Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zubiao; Feng, Shi; Kautz, Richard; Chandra, Sandeep; Altunyurt, Nevin; Chen, Ji

    2015-12-01

    A multi-graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated admittance method solver is presented for solving the induced electric field in high-resolution anatomical models of human body when exposed to external low-frequency magnetic fields. In the solver, the anatomical model is discretized as a three-dimensional network of admittances. The conjugate orthogonal conjugate gradient (COCG) iterative algorithm is employed to take advantage of the symmetric property of the complex-valued linear system of equations. Compared against the widely used biconjugate gradient stabilized method, the COCG algorithm can reduce the solving time by 3.5 times and reduce the storage requirement by about 40%. The iterative algorithm is then accelerated further by using multiple NVIDIA GPUs. The computations and data transfers between GPUs are overlapped in time by using asynchronous concurrent execution design. The communication overhead is well hidden so that the acceleration is nearly linear with the number of GPU cards. Numerical examples show that our GPU implementation running on four NVIDIA Tesla K20c cards can reach 90 times faster than the CPU implementation running on eight CPU cores (two Intel Xeon E5-2603 processors). The implemented solver is able to solve large dimensional problems efficiently. A whole adult body discretized in 1-mm resolution can be solved in just several minutes. The high efficiency achieved makes it practical to investigate human exposure involving a large number of cases with a high resolution that meets the requirements of international dosimetry guidelines.

  13. Acceleration to High Velocities and Heating by Impact Using Nike KrF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Max

    2009-11-01

    Shock ignition, impact ignition, as well as higher intensity conventional hot spot ignition designs reduce driver energy requirement by pushing the envelope in laser intensity and target implosion velocities. This talk will describe experiments that for the first time reach target velocities in the range of 700 -- 1000 km/s. The highly accelerated planar foils of deuterated polystyrene, some with bromine doping, are made to collide with a witness foil to produce extreme shock pressures and result in heating of matter to thermonuclear temperatures. Target acceleration and collision are diagnosed using large field of view monochromatic x-ray imaging with backlighting as well as bremsstrahlung self-emission. The impact conditions are diagnosed using DD fusion neutron yield, with over 10^6 neutrons produced during the collision. Time-of-flight neutron detectors are used to measure the ion temperature upon impact, which reaches 2 -- 3 keV. The experiments are performed on the Nike facility, reconfigured specifically for high intensity operation. The short wavelength and high illumination uniformity of Nike KrF laser uniquely enable access to this new parameter regime. Intensities of (0.4 -- 1.2) x 10^15 W/cm^2 and pulse durations of 0.4 -- 2 ns were utilized. Modeling of the target acceleration, collision, and neutron production is performed using the FAST3D radiation hydrodynamics code with a non-LTE radiation model. Work is supported by US Department of Energy.

  14. Longitudinal wake field for an electron beam accelerated through a ultra-high field gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2006-12-15

    Electron accelerators with higher and higher longitudinal field gradients are desirable, as they allow for the production of high energy beams by means of compact and cheap setups. The new laser-plasma acceleration technique appears to constitute the more promising breakthrough in this direction, delivering unprecedent field gradients up to TV/m. In this article we give a quantitative description of the impact of longitudinal wake fields on the electron beam. Our paper is based on the solution of Maxwell's equations for the longitudinal field. Our conclusions are valid when the acceleration distance is much smaller than the the overtaking length, that is the length that electrons travel as a light signal from the tail of the bunch overtakes the head of the bunch. This condition is well verified for laser-plasma devices. We calculate a closed expression for the impedance and the wake function that may be evaluated numerically. It is shown that the rate of energy loss in the bunch due to radiative interaction is equal to the energy emitted through coherent radiation in the far-zone. Furthermore, an expression is found for the asymptotic limit of a large distance of the electron beam from the accelerator compared with the overtaking length. Such expression allows us to calculate analytical solutions for a Gaussian transverse and longitudinal bunch shape. Finally, we study the feasibility of Table-Top Free-Electron Lasers in the Vacuum Ultra-Violet (TT-VUV FEL) and X-ray range (TT-XFEL), respectively based on 100 MeV and 1 GeV laser-plasma accelerator drivers. Numerical estimations presented in this paper indicate that the effects of the time-dependent energy change induced by the longitudinal wake pose a serious threat to the operation of these devices. (orig.)

  15. Coherent radiation from high-current electron beams of linear accelerators and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, Shuichi; Takanaka, Makoto; Nakamura, Mitsumi; Kato, Ryukou; Takahashi, Toshiharu; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Taniguchi, Ryouichi; Kojima, Takao

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of the far-infrared light source using the coherent radiation emitted from a high-energy short electron bunch have been investigated. The coherent radiation has a continuous spectrum in a submillimeter to millimeter wavelength range and the brightness is relatively high. The spectrum of the radiation is determined by the longitudinal form factor of the electron bunch. The operational conditions of a high-current linear accelerator have been optimized using an electron bunch shape monitor. The coherent transition radiation light source has been applied to absorption spectroscopy for liquid water and to an imaging experiment for a leaf of rose

  16. High-efficiency FEL with Bragg resonator driven by linear induction accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, N S; Kaminskij, A A; Kaminskij, A K; Peskov, N Yu; Sedykh, S N; Sergeev, A P; Sergeev, A S [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics

    1997-12-31

    A narrow-band high-efficiency FEL-oscillator with a Bragg resonator was constructed based on a linear induction accelerator which formed a 1 MeV, 200 A, 200 ns electron beam. At the frequency of 31 GHz, radiation with a power of 31 MW and efficiency of 25% was measured. A high efficiency and a narrow width of the spectrum were achieved owing to the selective properties of the Bragg resonator in combination with the high quality of the helical electron beam formed in the reversed guide field regime. (author). 3 figs., 3 refs.

  17. Aerodynamics in arbitrarily accelerating frames: application to high-g turns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fifth-generation missiles accelerate up to 100 g in turns, and higher accelerations are expected as agility increases. The auhtors have developed the theory of aerodynamics for arbitrary accelerations, and have validated modelling in a Computational...

  18. Aerodynamics in arbitrarily accelerating frames: application to high-g turns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fifth-generation missilies accelerate up to 100 g in turns, and higher accelerations are expected as agility increases. The authors have developed the theory of aerodynamics for arbitrary accelerations, and have validated modelling in a...

  19. Thermal performance of a flat polymer heat pipe heat spreader under high acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshman, Christopher; Li, Qian; Liew, Li-Anne; Yang, Ronggui; Lee, Y C; Bright, Victor M; Sharar, Darin J; Jankowski, Nicholas R; Morgan, Brian C

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the fabrication and application of a micro-scale hybrid wicking structure in a flat polymer-based heat pipe heat spreader, which improves the heat transfer performance under high adverse acceleration. The hybrid wicking structure which enhances evaporation and condensation heat transfer under adverse acceleration consists of 100 µm high, 200 µm wide square electroplated copper micro-pillars with 31 µm wide grooves for liquid flow and a woven copper mesh with 51 µm diameter wires and 76 µm spacing. The interior vapor chamber of the heat pipe heat spreader was 30×30×1.0 mm 3 . The casing of the heat spreader is a 100 µm thick liquid crystal polymer which contains a two-dimensional array of copper-filled vias to reduce the overall thermal resistance. The device performance was assessed under 0–10 g acceleration with 20, 30 and 40 W power input on an evaporator area of 8×8 mm 2 . The effective thermal conductivity of the device was determined to range from 1653 W (m K) −1 at 0 g to 541 W (m K) −1 at 10 g using finite element analysis in conjunction with a copper reference sample. In all cases, the effective thermal conductivity remained higher than that of the copper reference sample. This work illustrates the possibility of fabricating flexible, polymer-based heat pipe heat spreaders compatible with standardized printed circuit board technologies that are capable of efficiently extracting heat at relatively high dynamic acceleration levels. (paper)

  20. Physics of high energy particle accelerators. AIP conference proceedings No. 127

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.; Dahl, P.F.; Dienes, M.

    1985-01-01

    Topics covered in this workshop include accelerator physics, particle physics, and new acceleration methods. Eighteen lectures were presented. Individual abstracts were prepared separately for the data base

  1. Highly-Accelerated Real-Time Cardiac Cine MRI Using k-t SPARSE-SENSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Srichai, Monvadi B.; Lim, Ruth P.; Harrison, Alexis; King, Wilson; Adluru, Ganesh; Dibella, Edward VR.; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Otazo, Ricardo; Kim, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    For patients with impaired breath-hold capacity and/or arrhythmias, real-time cine MRI may be more clinically useful than breath-hold cine MRI. However, commercially available real-time cine MRI methods using parallel imaging typically yield relatively poor spatio-temporal resolution due to their low image acquisition speed. We sought to achieve relatively high spatial resolution (~2.5mm × 2.5mm) and temporal resolution (~40ms), to produce high-quality real-time cine MR images that could be applied clinically for wall motion assessment and measurement of left ventricular (LV) function. In this work, we present an 8-fold accelerated real-time cardiac cine MRI pulse sequence using a combination of compressed sensing and parallel imaging (k-t SPARSE-SENSE). Compared with reference, breath-hold cine MRI, our 8-fold accelerated real-time cine MRI produced significantly worse qualitative grades (1–5 scale), but its image quality and temporal fidelity scores were above 3.0 (adequate) and artifacts and noise scores were below 3.0 (moderate), suggesting that acceptable diagnostic image quality can be achieved. Additionally, both 8-fold accelerated real-time cine and breath-hold cine MRI yielded comparable LV function measurements, with coefficient of variation cine MRI with k-t SPARSE-SENSE is a promising modality for rapid imaging of myocardial function. PMID:22887290

  2. Highly accelerated real-time cardiac cine MRI using k-t SPARSE-SENSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Srichai, Monvadi B; Lim, Ruth P; Harrison, Alexis; King, Wilson; Adluru, Ganesh; Dibella, Edward V R; Sodickson, Daniel K; Otazo, Ricardo; Kim, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    For patients with impaired breath-hold capacity and/or arrhythmias, real-time cine MRI may be more clinically useful than breath-hold cine MRI. However, commercially available real-time cine MRI methods using parallel imaging typically yield relatively poor spatio-temporal resolution due to their low image acquisition speed. We sought to achieve relatively high spatial resolution (∼2.5 × 2.5 mm(2)) and temporal resolution (∼40 ms), to produce high-quality real-time cine MR images that could be applied clinically for wall motion assessment and measurement of left ventricular function. In this work, we present an eightfold accelerated real-time cardiac cine MRI pulse sequence using a combination of compressed sensing and parallel imaging (k-t SPARSE-SENSE). Compared with reference, breath-hold cine MRI, our eightfold accelerated real-time cine MRI produced significantly worse qualitative grades (1-5 scale), but its image quality and temporal fidelity scores were above 3.0 (adequate) and artifacts and noise scores were below 3.0 (moderate), suggesting that acceptable diagnostic image quality can be achieved. Additionally, both eightfold accelerated real-time cine and breath-hold cine MRI yielded comparable left ventricular function measurements, with coefficient of variation cine MRI with k-t SPARSE-SENSE is a promising modality for rapid imaging of myocardial function. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. ADVANCED X-BAND TEST ACCELERATOR FOR HIGH BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON AND GAMMA RAY BEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, R A; Anderson, S G; Barty, C P; Chu, T S; Ebbers, C A; Gibson, D J; Hartemann, F V; Adolphsen, C; Jongewaard, E N; Raubenheimer, T; Tantawi, S G; Vlieks, A E; Wang, J W

    2010-05-12

    In support of Compton scattering gamma-ray source efforts at LLNL, a multi-bunch test stand is being developed to investigate accelerator optimization for future upgrades. This test stand will enable work to explore the science and technology paths required to boost the current 10 Hz monoenergetic gamma-ray (MEGa-Ray) technology to an effective repetition rate exceeding 1 kHz, potentially increasing the average gamma-ray brightness by two orders of magnitude. Multiple bunches must be of exceedingly high quality to produce narrow-bandwidth gamma-rays. Modeling efforts will be presented, along with plans for a multi-bunch test stand at LLNL. The test stand will consist of a 5.5 cell X-band rf photoinjector, single accelerator section, and beam diagnostics. The photoinjector will be a high gradient standing wave structure, featuring a dual feed racetrack coupler. The accelerator will increase the electron energy so that the emittance can be measured using quadrupole scanning techniques. Multi-bunch diagnostics will be developed so that the beam quality can be measured and compared with theory. Design will be presented with modeling simulations, and layout plans.

  4. The UCLA/SLAC Ultra-High Gradient Cerenkov Wakefield Accelerator Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Matthew C; Hogan, Mark; Ischebeck, Rasmus; Muggli, Patric; Rosenzweig, James E; Scott, A; Siemann, Robert; Travish, Gil; Walz, Dieter; Yoder, Rodney

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is planned to study the performance of dielectric Cerenkov wakefield accelerating structures at extremely high gradients in the GV/m range. This new UCLA/SLAC collaboration will take advantage of the unique SLAC FFTB electron beam and its demonstrated ultra-short pulse lengths and high currents (e.g., sz = 20 μm at Q = 3 nC). The electron beam will be focused down and sent through varying lengths of fused silica capillary tubing with two different sizes: ID = 200 μm / OD = 325 μm and ID = 100 μm / OD = 325 μm. The pulse length of the electron beam will be varied in order to alter the accelerating gradient and probe the breakdown threshold of the dielectric structures. In addition to breakdown studies, we plan to collect and measure coherent Cerenkov radiation emitted from the capillary tube to gain information about the strength of the accelerating fields. Status and progress on the experiment are reported.

  5. Initial results of the new high intensity electron gun at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, M. E.; Gai, W.; Konecny, R.; Power, J. G.; Schoessow, P.; Sun, X.

    2000-01-01

    The authors report on the status of the new short bunch, high intensity electron gun at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator. The 1-1/2 cell L-band photocathode RF gun is expected to produce 10--100 nC bunches with 2--5 ps rms pulse length and normalized emittance less than 100 mm mrad. The beam energy at the exit of the gun cavity will be in the range 7.5--10 MeV. A standing-wave linac structure operating at the same frequency (1.3 GHz) will increase the beam energy to about 15 MeV. This beam will be used in wakefield acceleration experiments with dielectric loaded structures. These travelling-wave dielectric loaded structures, operating at 7.8 and 15.6 GHz, will be excited by the propagation of single bunches or by trains of up to 32 electron bunches

  6. Development of L-band niobium superconducting RF cavities with high accelerating field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kenji; Noguchi, Shuichi; Ono, Masaaki; Kako, Eiji; Shishido, Toshio; Matsuoka, Masanori; Suzuki, Takafusa; Higuchi, Tamawo.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting RF cavity is a candidate for the TeV energy e + /e - linear collider of next generation if the accelerating field is improved to 25-30 MV/m and much cost down is achieved in cavity fabrication. Since 1990, KEK has continued R and D of L-band niobium superconducting cavities focusing on the high field issue. A serious problem like Q-degradation due to vacuum discharge came out on the way, however, it has been overcome and presently all of cavities which were annealed at 1400degC achieved the accelerating field of >25 MV/m with enough Qo value. Recent results on single cell cavities are described in this paper. (author)

  7. Energy dissipation on ion-accelerator grids during high-voltage breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Ponte, N.S.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of stored energy in the system capacitance across the accelerator grids during high voltage vacuum breakdown are examined. Measurements were made of the current flow and the energy deposition on the grids during breakdown. It is shown that only a portion (less than or equal to 40 J) of the total stored energy (congruent to 100 J) is actually dissipated on the grids. Most of the energy is released during the formation phase of the vacuum arc and is deposited primarily on the most positive grid. Certain abnormal situations led to energy depositions of about 200 J on the grid, but the ion accelerator endured them without exhibiting any deterioration in performance

  8. Characterization of a klystrode as a RF source for high-average-power accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, D.; Keffeler, D.; Roybal, W.; Tallerico, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The klystrode is a relatively new type of RF source that has demonstrated dc-to-RF conversion efficiencies in excess of 70% and a control characteristic uniquely different from those for klystron amplifiers. The different control characteristic allows the klystrode to achieve this high conversion efficiency while still providing a control margin for regulation of the accelerator cavity fields. The authors present test data from a 267-MHz, 250-kW, continuous-wave (CW) klystrode amplifier and contrast this data with conventional klystron performance, emphasizing the strengths and weaknesses of the klystrode technology for accelerator applications. They present test results describing that limitation for the 250-kW, CW klystrode and extrapolate the data to other frequencies. A summary of the operating regime explains the clear advantages of the klystrode technology over the klystron technology

  9. Computer study of isotope production for medical and industrial applications in high power accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashnik, S. G.; Wilson, W. B.; Van Riper, K. A.

    2001-07-01

    Methods for radionuclide production calculation in a high power proton accelerator have been developed and applied to study production of 22 isotopes. These methods are readily applicable both to accelerator and reactor environments and to the production of other radioactive and stable isotopes. We have also developed methods for evaluating cross sections from a wide variety of sources into a single cross section set and have produced an evaluated library covering about a third of all natural elements that may be expanded to other reactions. A 684 page detailed report on this study, with 37 tables and 264 color figures, is available on the Web at http://t2.lanl.gov/publications/.

  10. Assessing Risk in Costing High-energy Accelerators: from Existing Projects to the Future Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    High-energy accelerators are large projects funded by public money, developed over the years and constructed via major industrial contracts both in advanced technology and in more conventional domains such as civil engineering and infrastructure, for which they often constitute one-of markets. Assessing their cost, as well as the risk and uncertainty associated with this assessment is therefore an essential part of project preparation and a justified requirement by the funding agencies. Stemming from the experience with large circular colliders at CERN, LEP and LHC, as well as with the Main Injector, the Tevatron Collider Experiments and Accelerator Upgrades, and the NOvA Experiment at Fermilab, we discuss sources of cost variance and derive cost risk assessment methods applicable to the future linear collider, through its two technical approaches for ILC and CLIC. We also address disparities in cost risk assessment imposed by regional differences in regulations, procedures and practices.

  11. LIAR -- A new program for the modeling and simulation of linear accelerators with high gradients and small emittances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assmann, R.; Adolphsen, C.; Bane, K.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Siemann, R.; Thompson, K.

    1996-09-01

    Linear accelerators are the central components of the proposed next generation of linear colliders. They need to provide acceleration of up to 750 GeV per beam while maintaining very small normalized emittances. Standard simulation programs, mainly developed for storage rings, do not meet the specific requirements for high energy linear accelerators. The authors present a new program LIAR (LInear Accelerator Research code) that includes wakefield effects, a 4D coupled beam description, specific optimization algorithms and other advanced features. Its modular structure allows to use and to extend it easily for different purposes. They present examples of simulations for SLC and NLC

  12. Development of an IH-type linac for the acceleration of high current heavy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haehnel, Jan Hendrik

    2017-07-20

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI Darmstadt will provide unprecedented intensities of protons and heavy ions up to uranium at energies of up to 29 GeV for protons and 2.7 GeV/u for U{sup 28+}. To achieve high intensities in the synchrotron accelerators, high beam currents have to be provided by the injector linear accelerators. High current heavy ion beams are provided by the Universal Linear Accelerator (UNILAC), which in its current state will not be able to provide the required FAIR beam currents. This thesis deals with the development of upgrades for the UNILAC to ensure its high current capability. The first improvement is a matching section (MEBT) for the interface between the RFQ and the IH-DTL of the existing high current injector HSI at the UNILAC. With this new MEBT section, particle losses are eliminated and the overall beam quality is improved. As a second improvement, a complete replacement of the existing Alvarez-DTL is presented. A combination of efficient IH-type cavities and KONUS beam dynamics results in a reduction of the linac length from about 60 m (Alvarez) to just 23 m (new IH-DTL) while providing the same energy and fulfilling FAIR requirements of a high beam current and beam quality. This thesis contains a detailed beam dynamics design of the new linac including some fundamental investigations of the KONUS beam dynamics concept. A cross-check of the beam dynamics design was performed with two independent multi-particle simulation codes. Detailed error studies were conducted to investigate the influence of manufacturing, alignment and operating errors on the beam dynamics performance. Additionally, all five linac cavities were designed, optimized, and their RF parameters including power requirements calculated to provide a comprehensive linac design.

  13. Development of an IH-type linac for the acceleration of high current heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehnel, Jan Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI Darmstadt will provide unprecedented intensities of protons and heavy ions up to uranium at energies of up to 29 GeV for protons and 2.7 GeV/u for U 28+ . To achieve high intensities in the synchrotron accelerators, high beam currents have to be provided by the injector linear accelerators. High current heavy ion beams are provided by the Universal Linear Accelerator (UNILAC), which in its current state will not be able to provide the required FAIR beam currents. This thesis deals with the development of upgrades for the UNILAC to ensure its high current capability. The first improvement is a matching section (MEBT) for the interface between the RFQ and the IH-DTL of the existing high current injector HSI at the UNILAC. With this new MEBT section, particle losses are eliminated and the overall beam quality is improved. As a second improvement, a complete replacement of the existing Alvarez-DTL is presented. A combination of efficient IH-type cavities and KONUS beam dynamics results in a reduction of the linac length from about 60 m (Alvarez) to just 23 m (new IH-DTL) while providing the same energy and fulfilling FAIR requirements of a high beam current and beam quality. This thesis contains a detailed beam dynamics design of the new linac including some fundamental investigations of the KONUS beam dynamics concept. A cross-check of the beam dynamics design was performed with two independent multi-particle simulation codes. Detailed error studies were conducted to investigate the influence of manufacturing, alignment and operating errors on the beam dynamics performance. Additionally, all five linac cavities were designed, optimized, and their RF parameters including power requirements calculated to provide a comprehensive linac design.

  14. High-energy gamma-ray emission from solar flares: Constraining the accelerated proton spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David; Dunphy, Philip P.; Mackinnon, Alexander L.

    1994-01-01

    Using a multi-component model to describe the gamma-ray emission, we investigate the flares of December 16, 1988 and March 6, 1989 which exhibited unambiguous evidence of neutral pion decay. The observations are then combined with theoretical calculations of pion production to constrain the accelerated proton spectra. The detection of pi(sup 0) emission alone can indicate much about the energy distribution and spectral variation of the protons accelerated to pion producing energies. Here both the intensity and detailed spectral shape of the Doppler-broadened pi(sup 0) decay feature are used to determine the spectral form of the accelerated proton energy distribution. The Doppler width of this gamma-ray emission provides a unique diagnostic of the spectral shape at high energies, independent of any normalisation. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this diagnostic has been used to constrain the proton spectra. The form of the energetic proton distribution is found to be severely limited by the observed intensity and Doppler width of the pi(sup 0) decay emission, demonstrating effectively the diagnostic capabilities of the pi(sup 0) decay gamma-rays. The spectral index derived from the gamma-ray intensity is found to be much harder than that derived from the Doppler width. To reconcile this apparent discrepancy we investigate the effects of introducing a high-energy cut-off in the accelerated proton distribution. With cut-off energies of around 0.5-0.8 GeV and relatively hard spectra, the observed intensities and broadening can be reproduced with a single energetic proton distribution above the pion production threshold.

  15. Advanced high brightness ion rf accelerator applications in the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The capability of modern rf linear accelerators to provide intense high quality beams of protons, deuterons, or heavier ions is opening new possibilities for transmuting existing nuclear wastes, for generating electricity from readily available fuels with minimal residual wastes, for building intense neutron sources for materials research, for inertial confinement fusion using heavy ions, and for other new applications. These are briefly described, couched in a perspective of the advances in the understanding of the high brightness beams that has enabled these new programs. 32 refs., 2 figs

  16. Development of low emittance high brightness electron beams and rf accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, C.

    1991-01-01

    The main goals of this project were the construction of an S-band RF photoinjector for the production of a high brightness electron beam, and the development of a new type of RF accelerator structure; the Plane wave transformer. By the end of October 1991 the photoinjector had been built, its RF characteristics had been measured at low power, and an initial test of the gun at high RF power had been done. The Plane Wave Transformer had also been built and tested at lower power. In both cases the results obtained are mostly in agreement with the expected and calculated behavior

  17. Development of a large proton accelerator for innovative researches; development of high power RF source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. O.; Shin, H. M.; Chung, I. Y. [KAPRA, Seoul (Korea); Kim, D. I. [Inha University, Incheon (Korea); Noh, S. J. [Dankook University, Seoul (Korea); Ko, S. K. [Ulsan University, Ulsan (Korea); Lee, H. J. [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea); Choi, W. H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    This study was performed with objective to design and develop the KOMAC proton accelerator RF system. For the development of the high power RF source for CCDTL(coupled cavity drift tube linac), the medium power RF system using the UHF klystron for broadcasting was integrated and with this RF system we obtained the basic design data, operation experience and code-validity test data. Based on the medium power RF system experimental data, the high power RF system for CCDTL was designed and its performed was analyzed. 16 refs., 64 figs., 27 tabs. (Author)

  18. Accelerator physics and technology challenges of very high energy hadron colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir D.

    2015-08-01

    High energy hadron colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics for more than three decades. At present, international particle physics community considers several options for a 100 TeV proton-proton collider as a possible post-LHC energy frontier facility. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but has slowed down considerably in its progress. This paper briefly reviews the accelerator physics and technology challenges of the future very high energy colliders and outlines the areas of required research and development towards their technical and financial feasibility.

  19. Some aspects of the applications of wire chambers in high energy physics experiments at large accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turala, M.

    1982-01-01

    An application of proportional and drift chambers in four large spectrometers at the accelerators of IHEP Serpukhov and CERN Geneva is described. An operation of wire chambers at high intensities and high multiplicities of particles is discussed. The results of investigations of their efficiencies, spatial resolution (for one and two-dimensional readout) and long term stability are presented. Problems of preselection of a given class of events are discussed. The systems for preselection of defined multiplicities or a scattering angle of particles, in which proportional chambers have been used, are described and the results of their application in the real experiments are presented. (author)

  20. Correction of nonlinear distortion in high-transverse-emittance ratio-beam production with linear accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoheng Wang

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Derbenev proposed producing a high quality flat beam of high-transverse-emittance ratio (HTER with a linear accelerator. Kim also discussed the round-to-flat transformation of angular-momentum-dominated beam. Fermilab/NICADD Photoinjector Laboratory has performed many experiments on HTER beam production. Experiments and simulations, collectively, showed an S-shaped transverse distribution in the flat beam. In this paper, the source of this emittance deterioration in the transformation is identified as the nonlinear rf cavity focusing force; and a solution is proposed.